Field study conducted on upland rice fields in North Cameroon showed that Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis (Sasaki) and Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas) are the most important aphid species feeding on rice crops compared with Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Schizaphis minuta (van der Goot) in term of numbers. The investigations also revealed the occurrence of 13 species of predatory coccinellids dominated by Xanthadalia effusa
N. Woin; C. Volkmar; T. Ghogomu
The fate of chlorantraniliprole was studied in rice field ecosystem, and a simple and reliable analytical method was developed for determination of chlorantraniliprole in soil, rice straw, paddy water and brown rice. Chlorantraniliprole residues were extracted from samples with acetonitrile. The extract was cleaned up with QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The average recoveries were 76.9-82.4% from soil, 83.6-89.3% from rice straw, 95.2-103.1% from paddy water and 84.9-87.7% from brown rice. The relative standard deviation was less than 15%. The limits of detection (LODs) of chlorantraniliprole calculated as a sample concentration (S/N ratio of 3) were 0.012 ?g L(-1) for paddy water, 0.15 ?g kg(-1) for soil, brown rice and rice straw. The results of the kinetics study of chlorantraniliprole residue showed that chlorantraniliprole degradation in soil, water and rice straw coincided with C=0.01939e(-0.0434t), C=0.01425e(-0.8111t), and C=1.171e(-0.198t), respectively; the half-lives were about 16.0 d, 0.85 d and 3.50 d, respectively. The degradation rate of chlorantraniliprole in water was the fastest, followed by rice straw. The final residues of chlorantraniliprole on brown rice were lower than maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02 mg kg(-1) after 14 d Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI). Therefore, a dosage of 150 mL a.i.hm(-2) was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals. PMID:22205044
Zhang, Jin-Ming; Chai, Wei-Gang; Wu, Yin-Liang
Irrigated rice is a major agricultural source of methane emissions that contributes about 15% of global atmospheric methane (CH4). Our work investigates the relationships between temperature and CH4 production, oxidation, and flux in the rice ecosystem. This is central to understanding the response of the global CH4 emissions from rice under a changing climate. Temperatures were regulated in sixteen rice
A. L. Rice; A. Sithole; M. J. Shearer; E. Hanson; A. Fisher; A. K. Khalil
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding. PMID:23208135
Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai
Phosphorus cycling in rainfed lowland rice ecosystems is poorly understood. Soil drying and grazing of rice straw during the\\u000a long dry season, the growth of volunteer pastures during the early wet season, and intermittent loss of soil-water saturation\\u000a while the rice crop is growing are important distinguishing characteristics of the rainfed lowlands in relation to P cycling.\\u000a We studied P
Sovuthy Pheav; R. W. Bell; G. J. D. Kirk; P. F. White
Floods, major formative drivers of channel and floodplain structure and associated riparian and in-stream communities, are increasing in intensity and magnitude with climate change in many regions of the world. However, predicting how floods will affect stream channels and their communities as climate changes is limited by a lack of long-term pre-flood baseline data sets across different organismal groups. Here we show salmon, macroinvertebrate and meiofauna communities, monitored for 30 years in a system evolving owing to glacier retreat, were modified significantly by a major rainfall event that caused substantial geomorphic change to the stream channel. Pink salmon, reduced to one-tenth of pre-flood spawner densities, recovered within two generations. Macroinvertebrate community structure was significantly different after the flood as some pioneer taxa, which had become locally extinct, recolonized whereas some later colonizers were eliminated. The trajectory of the macroinvertebrate succession was reset towards the community structure of 15 years earlier. Meiofaunal abundance recovered rapidly and richness increased post-flood with some previously unrecorded taxa colonizing. Biotic recovery was independent of geomorphological recovery. Markedly different responses according to the organismal group suggest caution is required when applying general aquatic ecosystem theories and concepts to predict flood events.
Milner, Alexander M.; Robertson, Anne L.; McDermott, Michael J.; Klaar, Megan J.; Brown, Lee E.
Based on the 2002 field experimental results in the Wusi Farm of Fengxian County in Shanghai and related studies, and by the methods of ecological economy and environmental economy, this article examined and estimated the nitrogen input and output, and the economic values of nitrogen transformation in rice field ecosystems. The results indicated that the plot without N fertilization showed a deficit of nitrogen budget, while those with urea application showed a surplus. The economic value of the plot without urea amendment was evaluated to be positive, while that of the plots with urea application was calculated to be negative. The negative value of the plots with urea amendment resulted from the nitrogen losses through ammonia volatilization, nitrogen leaching and runoff, which had serious harmful impacts on environment and human society. Therefore, only when some measures were taken to encourage and facilitate farmers to improve the efficiency of urea application and to mitigate the environment problems from N losses in the process of food production, the advantages of nitrogen transformation in rice fields could be promoted, and the sustainability of agriculture would become reality. PMID:16355794
Xiao, Yu; Xie, Gaodi; Lu, Chunxia
We assessed the temporal dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in a soil ecosystem supporting genetically modified\\u000a (GM) rice (Oryza sativa L., ABC-TPSP; fusion of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and phosphatase). Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism\\u000a analysis and real-time quantitative PCR, we compared bacterial and fungal communities in the soils underlying GM rice (ABC-TPSP),\\u000a and its host cultivar (Nakdong) during growing
Seung-Hoon Lee; Chang-Gi Kim; Hojeong Kang
In Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), aroma is one of the most valuable traits in grain quality and 2-ACP is the main volatile compound contributing to the characteristic\\u000a popcorn-like odour of aromatic rices. Although the major locus for grain fragrance (frg gene) has been described recently in Basmati rice, this gene has not been characterised in true japonica varieties
F. Bourgis; R. Guyot; H. Gherbi; E. Tailliez; I. Amabile; J. Salse; M. Lorieux; M. Delseny; A. Ghesquière
A paddy rice ecosystem is a farming system composed of paddy, animals, microbes and other environmental factors in specific time and space, with particular temporal and spatial dynamics. Since paddy rice is a main grain crop to feed above half of population in China, the performance of paddy rice ecosystem is highly concerned to yield level of paddy and food supply safety in China. Therefore, monitoring the performance of paddy rice ecosystem is very important to obtain the required information for evaluation of ecosystem health. In the study we intend to develop an approach to monitor the ecosystem performance spatially and dynamically in a regional scale using MODIS remote sensing data and GIS spatial mapping. On the basis of key factors governing the paddy rice ecosystem, we accordingly develop the following three indicators for the evaluation: Crop growing index (CGI), environmental Index (EI), and pests-diseases index (PDI). Then, we integrated the three indicators into a model with different weight coefficients to calculate Comprehensive ecosystem health index (CEHI) to evaluate the performance and functioning of paddy rice ecosystem in a regional scale. CGI indicates the health status of paddy rice calculated from the normalizing enhanced vegetation Index (EVI) retrieved from MODIS data. EI is estimated from temperature Index (TI) and precipitation Index (PI) indicating heat and water stress on the rice field. PDI reflects the damage brought by pests and diseases, which can be estimated using the information obtained from governmental websites. Applying the approach to Lower Yangtze River Plain, we monitor and evaluate the performance of paddy rice ecosystem in various stages of rice growing period in 2006. The results indicated that the performance of the ecosystem was generally very encouraging. During booting stage and heading and blooming stage, the health level was the highest in Anhui province, which is the main paddy rice producer in the region. During stage of yellow ripeness, Jiangsu province had the lowest level of performance. Yield level of paddy rice in 2006 confirms that the applicability of the proposed approach for a rapid evaluation and monitoring of agricultural ecosystem performance in Lower Yangtze River Plain. As a result, the new approach could supply scientific basis for relevant departments taking policies and measures to make sure stable development of paddy yield.
Li, Jingjing; Qin, Zhihao; Li, Wenjuan; Lin, Lu
In Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), aroma is one of the most valuable traits in grain quality and 2-ACP is the main volatile compound contributing to the characteristic popcorn-like odour of aromatic rices. Although the major locus for grain fragrance (frg gene) has been described recently in Basmati rice, this gene has not been characterised in true japonica varieties and molecular information available on the genetic diversity and evolutionary origin of this gene among the different varieties is still limited. Here we report on characterisation of the frg gene in the Azucena variety, one of the few aromatic japonica cultivars. We used a RIL population from a cross between Azucena and IR64, a non-aromatic indica, the reference genomic sequence of Nipponbare (japonica) and 93-11 (indica) as well as an Azucena BAC library, to identify the major fragance gene in Azucena. We thus identified a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, badh2, as the candidate locus responsible for aroma, which presented exactly the same mutation as that identified in Basmati and Jasmine-like rices. Comparative genomic analyses showed very high sequence conservation between Azucena and Nipponbare BADH2, and a MITE was identified in the promotor region of the BADH2 allele in 93-11. The badh2 mutation and MITE were surveyed in a representative rice collection, including traditional aromatic and non-aromatic rice varieties, and strongly suggested a monophylogenetic origin of this badh2 mutation in Asian cultivated rices. Altogether these new data are discussed here in the light of current hypotheses on the origin of rice genetic diversity. PMID:18491070
Bourgis, F; Guyot, R; Gherbi, H; Tailliez, E; Amabile, I; Salse, J; Lorieux, M; Delseny, M; Ghesquière, A
In Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), aroma is one of the most valuable traits in grain quality and 2-ACP is the main volatile compound contributing to the characteristic popcorn-like odour of aromatic rices. Although the major locus for grain fragrance (frg gene) has been described recently in Basmati rice, this gene has not been characterised in true japonica varieties and molecular information available on the genetic diversity and evolutionary origin of this gene among the different varieties is still limited. Here we report on characterisation of the frg gene in the Azucena variety, one of the few aromatic japonica cultivars. We used a RIL population from a cross between Azucena and IR64, a non-aromatic indica, the reference genomic sequence of Nipponbare (japonica) and 93–11 (indica) as well as an Azucena BAC library, to identify the major fragance gene in Azucena. We thus identified a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, badh2, as the candidate locus responsible for aroma, which presented exactly the same mutation as that identified in Basmati and Jasmine-like rices. Comparative genomic analyses showed very high sequence conservation between Azucena and Nipponbare BADH2, and a MITE was identified in the promotor region of the BADH2 allele in 93–11. The badh2 mutation and MITE were surveyed in a representative rice collection, including traditional aromatic and non-aromatic rice varieties, and strongly suggested a monophylogenetic origin of this badh2 mutation in Asian cultivated rices. Altogether these new data are discussed here in the light of current hypotheses on the origin of rice genetic diversity.
Bourgis, F.; Guyot, R.; Gherbi, H.; Tailliez, E.; Amabile, I.; Salse, J.; Lorieux, M.; Delseny, M.
Drought is the most serious abiotic stress that hinders rice production under rainfed conditions. Breeding for deep rooting is a promising strategy to improve the root system architecture in shallow-rooting rice cultivars to avoid drought stress. We analysed the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the ratio of deep rooting (RDR) in three F2 mapping populations derived from crosses between each of three shallow-rooting varieties (‘ARC5955', ‘Pinulupot1', and ‘Tupa729') and a deep-rooting variety, ‘Kinandang Patong'. In total, we detected five RDR QTLs on chromosomes 2, 4, and 6. In all three populations, QTLs on chromosome 4 were found to be located at similar positions; they explained from 32.0% to 56.6% of the total RDR phenotypic variance. This suggests that one or more key genetic factors controlling the root growth angle in rice is located in this region of chromosome 4.
Uga, Yusaku; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kanno, Noriko; Kawai, Sawako; Mizubayashi, Tatsumi; Fukuoka, Shuichi
Ecosystems, though impacted by global environmental change, can also contribute to the adaptation and mitigation of such large scale changes. Therefore, sustainable ecosystem management is crucial in reaching a sustainable future for the biosphere. Based on the published literature and publicly accessible data, this paper discussed the status and trends of forest, grassland, and wetland ecosystems in China that play important roles in the ecological integrity and human welfare of the nation. Ecological degradation has been observed in these ecosystems at various levels and geographic locations. Biophysical (e.g., climate change) and socioeconomic factors (e.g., intensive human use) are the main reasons for ecosystem degradation with the latter factors serving as the dominant driving forces. The three broad categories of ecosystems in China have partially recovered from degradation thanks to large scale ecological restoration projects implemented in the last few decades. China, as the largest and most populated developing nation, still faces huge challenges regarding ecosystem management in a changing and globalizing world. To further improve ecosystem management in China, four recommendations were proposed, including: (1) advance ecosystem management towards an application-oriented, multidisciplinary science; (2) establish a well-functioning national ecological monitoring and data sharing mechanism; (3) develop impact and effectiveness assessment approaches for policies, plans, and ecological restoration projects; and (4) promote legal and institutional innovations to balance the intrinsic needs of ecological and socioeconomic systems. Any change in China's ecosystem management approach towards a more sustainable one will benefit the whole world. Therefore, international collaborations on ecological and environmental issues need to be expanded.
Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie; Wei, Wei; Yu, Xiubo; Sun, Ranhao
Purpose Recently, an increase in the number of patients sensitized to rice allergen with or without clinical symptoms has been reported. This study was designed to determine the major allergens in rice and their clinical significance. Methods Twenty-four children (15 boys and 9 girls; mean age, 16.3 months) with allergic disease, who were sensitized to rice antigen (by UniCAP) in the Pediatric Allergy Respiratory Center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. The allergenicity of various types of rice (raw, cooked, and heat-treated, simulated gastric fluid [SGF], and simulated intestinal fluid [SIF]) was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) immunoblots. The patients' medical records, including laboratory data and allergy symptoms after ingestion of rice were reviewed. Results Patients were sensitized to an average of 13.5 food antigens and their mean total IgE was 6,888.7 kU/L. In SDS-PAGE, more than 16 protein bands were observed in the raw rice, whereas only 14-16 kDa and 31-35 kDa protein bands were observed in cooked rice. The common SDS-PAGE protein bands observed in SGF-, SIF-, and heat-treated rice were 9, 14, and 31 kDa. In a heated-rice IgE immunoblot, protein bands of 9, 14, and 31-33 kDa were found in 27.8%, 38.9%, and 38.9% of all sera, respectively, and in 50%, 50%, and 75%, of ser a from the 4 symptomatic patients, respectively. Conclusion The 9-, 14-, and 31-kDa protein bands appeared to be the major allergens responsible for rice allergy symptoms.
Jeon, You Hoon; Oh, Se Jo; Yang, Hyeon Jong; Lee, Soo Young
The effects of bentazon and molinate, two selective herbicides recommended for integrated weed management in rice, were studied\\u000a in Anabaena cylindrica, an abundant cyanobacterium isolated from a Portuguese rice field agro-ecosystem. Comparative effects of both herbicides\\u000a on A. cylindrica were estimated under laboratory conditions by measuring its dry weight yield, photopigments, and carbohydrate and protein\\u000a contents in a time- and
V. Galhano; F. Peixoto; J. Gomes-Laranjo; E. Fernández-Valiente
A full-length cDNA (pS 18) encoding the 16 kDa rice prolamin composed of 158 amino acids was sequenced. Analysis of N-terminal amino acid sequence of a major rice prolamin indicated that an 18 amino acid signal peptide was removed from 16 kDa precursor prolamin to form the 14 kDa prolamin during seed development. Synthesis of the 16 kDa precursor prolamin
Lie-Fen Shyur; Tuan-Nan Wen; Ching-San Chen
Purpose: Public concern about radiation protection of the environment and non-human species is increasing. The potential impact of chronic gamma radiation on the bacterial community in a rice paddy ecosystem was investigated. Materials and methods: Paddy field microcosm samples were continuously exposed at a dose rate of 1 Gy day(-1) for five days after which the bacterial community structures in them were compared with those of unirradiated control samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene. Dissolved ions in ponding waters of the microcosm samples were determined by ion chromatography. Results: The DGGE band profiles were clearly different between the control and exposure samples. Sequencing of selected DGGE bands revealed that a specific species of the genus Clostridium and of the genus Massilia were grown under radiation exposure. Additionally, the concentrations of sulphate ion in the ponding water of the microcosm samples increased under radiation exposure. Concentrations of Na(+), Ca(2+), and F(-) inversely decreased. Conclusions: The data presented suggest that chronic gamma radiation affects the bacterial community structure and material cycles in the rice paddy ecosystem. PMID:21284570
Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Fuma, Shoichi; Tagami, Keiko; Honma-Takeda, Shino; Shikano, Shuichi
Until recently, northern Bering Sea ecosystems were characterized by extensive seasonal sea ice cover, high water column and sediment carbon production, and tight pelagic-benthic coupling of organic production. Here, we show that these ecosystems are shifting away from these characteristics. Changes in biological communities are contemporaneous with shifts in regional atmospheric and hydrographic forcing. In the past decade, geographic displacement of marine mammal population distributions has coincided with a reduction of benthic prey populations, an increase in pelagic fish, a reduction in sea ice, and an increase in air and ocean temperatures. These changes now observed on the shallow shelf of the northern Bering Sea should be expected to affect a much broader portion of the Pacific-influenced sector of the Arctic Ocean. PMID:16527980
Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Overland, James E; Moore, Sue E; Farley, Ed V; Carmack, Eddy C; Cooper, Lee W; Frey, Karen E; Helle, John H; McLaughlin, Fiona A; McNutt, S Lyn
Process-based terrestrial ecosystem models have shown great potentials in predicting the response of managed ecosystems to environmental changes. However, the simulated water and carbon fluxes over rice ecosystems in tropical Asia are still subject to large uncertainties, partly due to poorly constrained parameters in the models. Here, a terrestrial ecosystem model incorporating a more realistic crop module (ORCHIDEE-STICS) was calibrated against in-situ flux data and observed and remotely sensed leaf area indexes over rice ecosystems in Asia. The key parameters adjusted include maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Vjmax), temperature sensitivity of heterotrophic respiration (Q10) and a series of critical thresholds for different crop development stages. Compared with the observations, the calibrated model more realistically simulated the seasonal and year-to-year variation of the observed water and carbon fluxes with reductions in the root mean square difference and better timing in the crop development stages. Sensitivity tests further reveal that management practices like the timing of transplanting and draining could affect the seasonal and inter-annual variation of the net carbon exchange, suggesting that the absence of explicit accounting the change of management practices in the terrestrial ecosystem models may induce large uncertainties in predicting cropland ecosystem response to future climate change.
Wang, X.; Piao, S.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.
Rice hoja blanca (white leaf) disease can cause severe yield losses in rice in the Americas. The disease is caused by the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV), which is transmitted by the planthopper vector Tagosodes orizicolus. Because classical breeding schemes for this disease rely on expensive, time-consuming screenings, there is a need for alternatives such as marker-aided selection. The varieties Fedearroz 2000 and Fedearroz 50, which are resistant to RHBV and to the feeding damage caused by T. orizicolus, were crossed with the susceptible line WC366 to produce segregating F2:3 populations. The F3 families were scored for their resistance level to RHBV and T. orizicolus. The F2:3 lines of both crosses were genotyped using microsatellite markers. One major QTL on the short arm of chromosome 4 was identified for resistance to RHBV in the two populations. Two major QTL on chromosomes 5 and 7 were identified for resistance to T. orizicolus in the Fd2000 × WC366 and Fd50 × WC366 crosses, respectively. This comparative study using two distinct rice populations allowed for a better understanding of how the resistance to RHBV and its vector are controlled genetically. Simple marker-aided breeding schemes based on QTL information can be designed to improve rice germplasm to reduce losses caused by this important disease.
Romero, Luz E.; Lozano, Ivan; Garavito, Andrea; Carabali, Silvio J.; Triana, Monica; Villareal, Natalia; Reyes, Luis; Duque, Myriam C.; Martinez, Cesar P.; Calvert, Lee; Lorieux, Mathias
Photoperiod-sensitive rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars are widely grown in rainfed lowland areas with unfavorable water regimes. A molecular marker for the trait would be useful in genetic and physiological studies and in developing improved photoperiod-sensitive cultivars. Previous genetic studies identified a major gene for photoperiod sensitivity on chromosome 6. We have tested an isozyme marker and several RFLP probes
D. J. Mackill; M. A. Salam; Z. Y. Wang; S. D. Tanksley
Marker-assisted breeding is a very useful tool for breeders but still lags behind its potential because information on the effect of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in different genetic backgrounds and ideal molecular markers are unavailable. Here, we report on some first steps toward the validation and application of the major rice QTL Phosphate uptake 1 (Pup1) that confers tolerance of phosphorus (P) deficiency in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Based on the Pup1 genomic sequence of the tolerant donor variety Kasalath that recently became available, markers were designed that target (1) putative genes that are partially conserved in the Nipponbare reference genome and (2) Kasalath-specific genes that are located in a large insertion-deletion (INDEL) region that is absent in Nipponbare. Testing these markers in 159 diverse rice accessions confirmed their diagnostic value across genotypes and showed that Pup1 is present in more than 50% of rice accessions adapted to stress-prone environments, whereas it was detected in only about 10% of the analyzed irrigated/lowland varieties. Furthermore, the Pup1 locus was detected in more than 80% of the analyzed drought-tolerant rice breeding lines, suggesting that breeders are unknowingly selecting for Pup1. A hydroponics experiment revealed genotypic differences in the response to P deficiency between upland and irrigated varieties but confirmed that root elongation is independent of Pup1. Contrasting Pup1 near-isogenic lines (NILs) were subsequently grown in two different P-deficient soils and environments. Under the applied aerobic growth conditions, NILs with the Pup1 locus maintained significantly higher grain weight plant(-1) under P deprivation in comparison with intolerant sister lines without Pup1. Overall, the data provide evidence that Pup1 has the potential to improve yield in P-deficient and/or drought-prone environments and in diverse genetic backgrounds. PMID:20035315
Chin, Joong Hyoun; Lu, Xiaochun; Haefele, Stephan M; Gamuyao, Rico; Ismail, Abdelbagi; Wissuwa, Matthias; Heuer, Sigrid
Sieve tubes play important roles in the transfer of nutrients as well as signals. Hundreds of proteins were found in pure phloem sap collected from rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Kantou) plants through the cut ends of insect stylets. These proteins may be involved in nutrient transfer and signal transduction. To characterize the nature of these proteins, the partial amino-acid sequence of a 13-kDa protein, named RPP13-1, that was abundant in the pure phleom sap was determined. A cDNA clone of 687 bp, containing an open reading frame of 122 amino acids, was isolated using corresponding oligonucleotides as a probe. The deduced amino-acid sequence was very similar to that of the ubiquitous thiol redox protein, thioredoxin. The consensus sequences of thioredoxins are highly conserved. No putative signal peptide was identified. Antiserum against wheat thioredoxin h cross-reacted with RPP13-1 in the phloem sap of rice plants. RPP13-1 produced in Escherichia coli was reactive to antiserum against wheat thioredoxin h. Both E. coli-produced RPP13-1 and the phloem sap proteins catalyzed the reduction of the disulfide bonds of insulin in the presence of dithiothreitol. These results indicate that an active thioredoxin is a major protein translocating in rice sieve tubes. PMID:7766047
Ishiwatari, Y; Honda, C; Kawashima, I; Nakamura, S; Hirano, H; Mori, S; Fujiwara, T; Hayashi, H; Chino, M
Paddy rice (Oryza sativa) is able to accumulate high concentrations of Mn without showing toxicity; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying Mn uptake are unknown. Here, we report that a member of the Nramp (for the Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein) family, Nramp5, is involved in Mn uptake and subsequently the accumulation of high concentrations of Mn in rice. Nramp5 was constitutively expressed in the roots and encodes a plasma membrane-localized protein. Nramp5 was polarly localized at the distal side of both exodermis and endodermis cells. Knockout of Nramp5 resulted in a significant reduction in growth and grain yield, especially when grown at low Mn concentrations. This growth reduction could be partially rescued by supplying high concentrations of Mn but not by the addition of Fe. Mineral analysis showed that the concentration of Mn and Cd in both the roots and shoots was lower in the knockout line than in wild-type rice. A short-term uptake experiment revealed that the knockout line lost the ability to take up Mn and Cd. Taken together, Nramp5 is a major transporter of Mn and Cd and is responsible for the transport of Mn and Cd from the external solution to root cells. PMID:22589467
Sasaki, Akimasa; Yamaji, Naoki; Yokosho, Kengo; Ma, Jian Feng
Rice is one of the world's most important cereal crops and rice ratooning is one of the potential technologies to increase rice production. Based on land and water management, rice ecosystem is mainly divided into lowland, upland and deep water or floating rice. Rice ratooning is mainly practiced on lowland rice ecosystem. Ratooning provides higher resource use efficiency per unit
A. B. Santos; N. K. Fageria; A. S. Prabhu
Despite the global importance of As in rice, research has primarily focused on Bangladesh, India, China, and the United States with limited attention given to other countries. Owing to both indigenous As within the soil and the possible increases arising from the onset of irrigation with groundwater, an assessment of As in rice within Cambodia is needed, which offers a "base-case" comparison against sediments of similar origin that comprise rice paddy soils where As-contaminated water is used for irrigation (e.g., Bangladesh). Here, we evaluated the As content of rice from five provinces (Kandal, Prey Veng, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, and Kampong Thom) in the rice-growing regions of Cambodia and coupled that data to soil-chemical factors based on extractions of paddy soil collected and processed under anoxic conditions. At total soil As concentrations ranging 0.8 to 18 ?g g(-1), total grain As concentrations averaged 0.2 ?g g(-1) and ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 with Banteay Meanchey rice having significantly higher values than Prey Veng rice. Overall, soil-extractable concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si and total As were poor predictors of grain As concentrations. While biogeochemical factors leading to reduction of As(V)-bearing Fe(III) oxides are likely most important for predicting plant-available As, husk and straw As concentrations were the most significant predictors of grain-As levels among our measured parameters. PMID:24712677
Seyfferth, Angelia L; McCurdy, Sarah; Schaefer, Michael V; Fendorf, Scott
The objective of this study was to determine performance and year-to-year consistency of land cover\\/land use classification in the state of Colorado, based on intra-annual variations of greenness, and to evaluate vegetation dynamics in major rangeland ecosystems in the state. Data used for the study included biweekly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
Background Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic effects, imparted appreciable resistance against three major sap-sucking insects. Our results amply demonstrate that transgenic indica rice harbouring asal exhibit surpassing resistance against BPH, GLH and WBPH insects. The prototypic asal transgenic rice lines appear promising for direct commercial cultivation besides serving as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding.
Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao
Increasing frequency of extreme climate events is likely to impose increased stress on ecosystems and to jeopardize the services that ecosystems provide. Therefore, it is of major importance to assess the effects of extreme climate events on the temporal stability (i.e., the resistance, the resilience, and the variance) of ecosystem properties. Most time series of ecosystem properties are, however, affected by varying data characteristics, uncertainties, and noise, which complicate the comparison of ecosystem stability metrics (ESMs) between locations. Therefore, there is a strong need for a more comprehensive understanding regarding the reliability of stability metrics and how they can be used to compare ecosystem stability globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of temporal ESMs based on time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 15 global land-cover types. We provide a framework (i) to assess the reliability of ESMs in function of data characteristics, uncertainties and noise and (ii) to integrate reliability estimates in future global ecosystem stability studies against climate disturbances. The performance of our framework was tested through (i) a global ecosystem comparison and (ii) an comparison of ecosystem stability in response to the 2003 drought. The results show the influence of data quality on the accuracy of ecosystem stability. White noise, biased noise, and trends have a stronger effect on the accuracy of stability metrics than the length of the time series, temporal resolution, or amount of missing values. Moreover, we demonstrate the importance of integrating reliability estimates to interpret stability metrics within confidence limits. Based on these confidence limits, other studies dealing with specific ecosystem types or locations can be put into context, and a more reliable assessment of ecosystem stability against environmental disturbances can be obtained. PMID:24777443
De Keersmaecker, Wanda; Lhermitte, Stef; Honnay, Olivier; Farifteh, Jamshid; Somers, Ben; Coppin, Pol
The functional role of herbivores in tropical rainforests remains poorly understood. We quantified the magnitude of, and underlying controls on, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycled by invertebrate herbivory along a 2800 m elevational gradient in the tropical Andes spanning 12°C mean annual temperature. We find, firstly, that leaf area loss is greater at warmer sites with lower foliar phosphorus, and secondly, that the estimated herbivore-mediated flux of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus from plants to soil via leaf area loss is similar to, or greater than, other major sources of these nutrients in tropical forests. Finally, we estimate that herbivores consume a significant portion of plant carbon, potentially causing major shifts in the pattern of plant and soil carbon cycling. We conclude that future shifts in herbivore abundance and activity as a result of environmental change could have major impacts on soil fertility and ecosystem carbon sequestration in tropical forests. PMID:24372865
Metcalfe, Daniel B; Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Silva Espejo, Javier E; Huasco, Walter Huaraca; Farfán Amézquita, Felix F; Carranza-Jimenez, Loreli; Galiano Cabrera, Darcy F; Baca, Liliana Durand; Sinca, Felipe; Huaraca Quispe, Lidia P; Taype, Ivonne Alzamora; Mora, Luzmila Eguiluz; Dávila, Angela Rozas; Solórzano, Marlene Mamani; Puma Vilca, Beisit L; Laupa Román, Judith M; Guerra Bustios, Patricia C; Revilla, Norma Salinas; Tupayachi, Raul; Girardin, Cécile A J; Doughty, Christopher E; Malhi, Yadvinder
Plants are teeming with microbial organisms including those that colonize internal tissues as well as those that adhere to external surfaces. In the rhizosphere, the plant-associated microbiome is intricately involved in plant health and serves as a reservoir of additional genes that plants can access when needed. Microbiome regulation of plant trait expression affects plant performance, which in turn influences various ecosystem functions, such as primary productivity and soil health. Understanding these plant- and microbe-driven interactions requires a study of the nature and effects of the plant microbiome. Conceptualizing the microbiome requires a synthesis of microbial ecology, physiology, and bioinformatics, integrated with insight into host biology and ecology. Microbiome structure and function analyses are recognized as essential components to understand the genetic and functional capacity of the host (previously assigned solely to the host) and include vital aspects of metabolism and physiology. Here, as a special section, we present a set of papers that address the complex interactions between plants and root microbiomes in the rhizosphere. This unseen majority spans scales; with its microorganisms numerically dominant in terrestrial ecosystems, the root microbiome is also involved in plant genetics through integral roles in plant trait expression that can effect community composition and ecosystem functions, such as soil health. PMID:24008514
Rout, Marnie E; Southworth, Darlene
In recent years, Turkey has experienced rapid economic and population growth coupled with both an equally rapid increase in energy consumption and a vast disparity in welfare between socioeconomic groups and regions. In turn, these pressures have accelerated the destruction of productive, assimilative, and regenerative capacities of the ecosystems, which are essential for the well-being of the people and the economy. This paper describes the structure and function of major ecosystem types in Turkey and discusses the underlying causes of environmental degradation in the framework of economy, energy, environment, and ethics. From a national perspective, this paper suggests three sustainability-based policies necessary for Turkey's long-term interests that balance economic, environmental, and energy goals: (1) decoupling economic growth from energy consumption growth through the development of energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies; (2) linking economic efficiency and distributive justice of wealth and power through distributive and participatory public policies; and (3) integrating the economic and ecological systems through the internalization of externalities and ecosystem rehabilitation.
Evrendilek, Fatih; Doygun, Hakan
The major photorespiratory pathway in higher plants is distributed over chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. In this pathway, glycolate oxidation takes place in peroxisomes. It was previously suggested that a mitochondrial glycolate dehydrogenase (GlcDH) that was conserved from green algae lacking leaf-type peroxisomes contributes to photorespiration in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, the identification of two Arabidopsis mitochondrial alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferases (ALAATs) that link glycolate oxidation to glycine formation are described. By this reaction, the mitochondrial side pathway produces glycine from glyoxylate that can be used in the glycine decarboxylase (GCD) reaction of the major pathway. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of mitochondrial ALAAT did not result in major changes in metabolite pools under standard conditions or enhanced photorespiratroy flux, respectively. However, RNAi lines showed reduced photorespiratory CO2 release and a lower CO2 compensation point. Mitochondria isolated from RNAi lines are incapable of converting glycolate to CO2, whereas simultaneous overexpression of GlcDH and ALAATs in transiently transformed tobacco leaves enhances glycolate conversion. Furthermore, analyses of rice mitochondria suggest that the side pathway for glycolate oxidation and glycine formation is conserved in monocotyledoneous plants. It is concluded that the photorespiratory pathway from green algae has been functionally conserved in higher plants.
Niessen, Markus; Krause, Katrin; Horst, Ina; Staebler, Norma; Klaus, Stephanie; Gaertner, Stefanie; Kebeish, Rashad; Araujo, Wagner L.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Peterhansel, Christoph
Rice stripe disease, caused by rice stripe virus (RSV), is one of the most serious diseases in temperate rice-growing areas.\\u000a In the present study, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for RSV resistance using 98 backcross inbred lines\\u000a derived from the cross between the highly resistant variety, Kasalath, and the highly susceptible variety, Nipponbare. Under\\u000a artificial inoculation in the
Ying-Xin ZhangQi; Qi Wang; Ling Jiang; Ling-Long Liu; Bao-Xiang Wang; Ying-Yue Shen; Xia-Nian Cheng; Jian-min Wan
This self-contained module on ecosystems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.
Science, Houghton M.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food for more than 50% of the world's population, including regions of high population density and rapid growth. Rice is produced under both upland and lowland ecosystems with about 76% of the global rice produced from irrigated lowland rice systems. The objective of this article is to discuss growth and formation of yield
N. K. Fageria
Chinese red yeast rice (RYR), a natural food obtained after fermenting rice with Monascus purpureus. RYR contains unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, B-complex vitamins and monacolins with antioxidant properties. Scientific\\u000a evidences showed that fermented RYR proved to be effective for the management of cholesterol, diabetes, cardiovascular disease\\u000a (CVD) and also for the prevention of cancer. This review article describe about the
M. Kalaivani; R. Sabitha; V. Kalaiselvan; A. Rajasekaran
The fate of benzofenap [2-[4-(2,4-dicholoro-m-toluoyl)-1,3-dimethylpyrazol-5-yloxy]-4'-methylacetophenone] applied to flooded rice was studied at two locations in New South Wales (Australia). Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was compared with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) for the determination of the commercial chemical in water samples. SPE performed well as compared to LLE (84 vs 80%) in irrigation waters. However, at the lower end of the concentration range (3 microg/L), LLE achieved higher recoveries than SPE (72 vs 59%). Rates of dissipation (DT50) from floodwaters and soils were measured. Dissipation of the herbicide from water and soil occurred fairly erratically in both mediums and can be best explained by a first-order decay process. The DT50 value for benzofenap was <1 day in irrigation water due to rapid deposition of the suspension concentrate formulation. The DT50 in surface soil was 44 days. The maximum measured concentration of benzofenap in a rice field floodwater was 39 microg/L, taking approximately 32 days to dissipate to <1 microg/L. PMID:17536827
Quayle, Wendy C; Oliver, Danielle P; Zrna, Sharyn; Fattore, Alison
This "Ecosystems" module has four units of instruction. The units include: natural selection, population balance, exchange cycles, and environmental protection. Each module has a "Hazards" link that leads to a menu of study units on various environmental hazards (such as oil spills, farm runoff, insecticides, and so on).
Klemm, W. R.
In order to numerically simulate daily nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from a rice-winter wheat rotation cropping system, a process-based site model was developed (referred to as IAP-N-GAS)\\u000a to track the movement and transformation of several forms of nitrogen in the agro-ecosystem, which is affected by climate,\\u000a soil, crop growth and management practices. The simulation of daily N2O fluxes, along with
Zaixing Zhou; Xunhua Zheng; Baohua Xie; Shenghui Han; Chunyan Liu
Transgenic rice containing insecticidal protein(s) from Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) effectively control lepidopteran pests under laboratory and field conditions. However, Bt rice has not been widely commercialized. A major concern regarding the deployment of Bt rice is its potential impact on non-target arthropods, including herbivorous insect pests and biological control agents (predators and parasitoids) in the rice ecosystem. A 2-year field
Mao Chen; Zhi-cheng Liu; Gong-yin Ye; Zhi-cheng Shen; Cui Hu; Yu-fa Peng; Illimar Altosaar; Anthony M. Shelton
Ecosystem-level impacts of two hurricane seasons were compared several years after the storms in the largest lagoonal estuary in the U.S., the Albemarle–Pamlico Estuarine System. A segmented linear regression flow model was developed to compare mass-water transport and nutrient loadings to a major artery, the Neuse River Estuary (NRE), and to estimate mean annual versus storm-related volume delivery to the NRE and Pamlico Sound. Significantly less water volume was delivered by Hurricane Fran (1996), but massive fish kills occurred in association with severe dissolved oxygen deficits and high contaminant loadings (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, suspended solids, and fecal bacteria). The high water volume of the second hurricane season (Hurricanes Dennis, Floyd, and Irene in 1999) delivered generally comparable but more dilute contaminant loads, and no major fish kills were reported. There were no discernable long-term adverse impacts on water quality. Populations of undesirable organisms, such as toxic dinoflagellates, were displaced down-estuary to habitats less conducive for growth. The response of fisheries was species-dependent: there was no apparent impact of the hurricanes on commercial landings of bivalve molluscs or shrimp. In contrast, interacting effects of hurricane floodwaters in 1999 and intensive fishing pressure led to striking reductions in blue crabs. Overall, the data support the premise that, in shallow estuaries frequently disturbed by hurricanes, there can be relatively rapid recovery in water quality and biota, and benefit from the scouring activity of these storms.
Burkholder, JoAnn; Eggleston, David; Glasgow, Howard; Brownie, Cavell; Reed, Robert; Janowitz, Gerald; Posey, Martin; Melia, Greg; Kinder, Carol; Corbett, Reide; Toms, David; Alphin, Troy; Deamer, Nora; Springer, Jeffrey
Stable carbon isotope ratios of various ecosystem components and ecosystem respiration (\\deltaR) were measured in a Japanese rice paddy. An automated air sampling system was used to collect nighttime air samples to estimate \\deltaR by means of Keeling plot. Throughout the growing season in 2003, significantly (3\\permil to 4\\permil) higher \\delta13C values were observed in \\deltaR than those observed in plant tissue samples, indicating a strong decoupling process for carbon assimilated and respired in the ecosystem. It is well known that production of methane from CO2 exhibits a larger isotope fractionation than that can be found in equilibration of CO2 with soil water. CO2 entrapped in soil showed 5.5\\permil to 7.5\\permil higher \\delta13C values than \\deltaR. Given these isotopic differences, we partitioned total ecosystem respiration into plant respiration and soil (including root) respiration components with an assumption that there is no isotope fractionation associated with respiratory processes of rice plant. The estimated proportion of soil respiration to total ecosystem respiration was about 30% under flooded conditions, but increased to about 40% by floodwater drainage. The partitioned respiratory fluxes from soil contributed to reducing the discrepancy between measured plant biomass increase and accumulated net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for the entire growing season. Partitioning NEE into photosynthetic assimilation and ecosystem respiration based on the isoflux approach revealed that floodwater drainage increased daytime respiratory fluxes greater than the estimated respiratory fluxes from an exponential relationship between nocturnal NEE and air temperature.
Han, G. H.; Yoshikoshi, H.; Nagai, H.; Yamada, T.; Ono, K.; Miyata, A.; Harazono, Y.
This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on biodiversity within ecosystems and within species. Students visit a local area and collect leaves to demonstrate how diverse life can exist within a small area. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.
This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on biodiversity within ecosystems and within species. Students visit a local area and collect leaves to demonstrate how diverse life can exist within a small area. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.
Genetic diversity in representative sets of high yielding varieties of rice released in India between 1970 and 2010 was studied at molecular level employing hypervariable microsatellite markers. Of 64 rice SSR primer pairs studied, 52 showed polymorphism, when screened in 100 rice genotypes. A total of 184 alleles was identified averaging 3.63 alleles per locus. Cluster analysis clearly grouped the 100 genotypes into their respective decadal periods i.e., 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. The trend of diversity over the decadal periods estimated based on the number of alleles (Na), allelic richness (Rs), Nei’s genetic diversity index (He), observed heterozygosity (Ho) and polymorphism information content (PIC) revealed increase of diversity over the periods in year of releasewise and longevitywise classification of rice varieties. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested more variation in within the decadal periods than among the decades. Pairwise comparison of population differentiation (Fst) among decadal periods showed significant difference between all the pairs except a few. Analysis of trends of appearing and disappearing alleles over decadal periods showed an increase in the appearance of alleles and decrease in disappearance in both the categories of varieties. It was obvious from the present findings, that genetic diversity was progressively on the rise in the varieties released during the decadal periods, between 1970s and 2000s.
Deborah, Dondapati Annekitty; Vipparla, Abhilash; Anuradha, Ghanta; Siddiq, Ebrahimali Abubacker; Vemireddy, Lakshminarayana Reddy
Sieve tubes play important roles in the transfer of nutrients as well as signals. Hundreds of proteins were found in pure phloem sap collected from rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Kantou) plants through the cut ends of insect stylets. These proteins may be involved in nutrient transfer and signal transduction. To characterize the nature of these proteins, the partial amino-acid
Yutaka Ishiwatari; Chikako Honda; Ichiro Kawashima; Shin-ichi Nakamura; Hisashi Hirano; Satoshi Mori; Toru Fujiwara; Hiroaki Hayashi; Mitsuo Chino
A post-zygotic hybridization barrier is often observed in the endosperm of seeds produced by interspecific or interploidy crosses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, for example, hybrid endosperm from both types of cross shows altered timing of cellularization and an altered rate of nuclear divisions. Therefore, it has been proposed that interspecific and interploidy crosses share common molecular mechanisms for establishment of an effective species barrier. However, these two types of hybridization barrier may be initiated by different intrinsic cues: the interspecific cross barrier arises after hybridization of genomes with differences in DNA sequences, while the interploidy cross barrier arises after hybridization of genomes with the same DNA sequences but differences in ploidy levels. In this study, we performed interploidy crosses to identify components of the post-hybridization barrier in the endosperm of rice. We performed an intra-cultivar cross of autotetraploid (4n) × diploid (2n) rice, and found precocious cellularization and a decreased rate of nuclear division in the syncytial endosperm. By contrast, seeds from the reciprocal cross showed delayed cellularization and an increased rate of nuclear division. This differential effect on nuclear division rates contrasts with the outcome of rice interspecific crosses, which were previously shown to have altered timing of cellularization without any change in nuclear division rates. Thus, we propose that the post-zygotic hybridization barrier in rice endosperm has two separable components, namely control of the timing of cellularization and control of the nuclear division rates in the syncytial stage of endosperm development. PMID:24286595
Sekine, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Takayuki; Furuumi, Hiroyasu; Ono, Akemi; Yamada, Toshihiro; Kurata, Nori; Kinoshita, Tetsu
The gene encoding a cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI), which confers insect resistance in trangenic tobacco, was introduced into rice. Expression of the CpTi gene driven by the constitutively active promoter of the rice actin 1 gene (Act1) leads to high-level accumulation of the CpTI protein in transgenic rice plants. Protein extracts from transgenic rice plants exhibit a strong inhibitory activity
Deping Xu; Qingzhong Xue; David McElroy; Yogesh Mawal; Vaughan A. Hilder; Ray Wu
Paddy rice (Oryza sativa) is able to accumulate high concentrations of Mn without showing toxicity; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying Mn uptake are unknown. Here, we report that a member of the Nramp (for the Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein) family, Nramp5, is involved in Mn uptake and subsequently the accumulation of high concentrations of Mn in rice. Nramp5 was constitutively expressed in the roots and encodes a plasma membrane–localized protein. Nramp5 was polarly localized at the distal side of both exodermis and endodermis cells. Knockout of Nramp5 resulted in a significant reduction in growth and grain yield, especially when grown at low Mn concentrations. This growth reduction could be partially rescued by supplying high concentrations of Mn but not by the addition of Fe. Mineral analysis showed that the concentration of Mn and Cd in both the roots and shoots was lower in the knockout line than in wild-type rice. A short-term uptake experiment revealed that the knockout line lost the ability to take up Mn and Cd. Taken together, Nramp5 is a major transporter of Mn and Cd and is responsible for the transport of Mn and Cd from the external solution to root cells.
Sasaki, Akimasa; Yamaji, Naoki; Yokosho, Kengo; Ma, Jian Feng
Rice stripe disease, caused by rice stripe virus (RSV), is one of the most serious diseases in temperate rice-growing areas. In the present study, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for RSV resistance using 98 backcross inbred lines derived from the cross between the highly resistant variety, Kasalath, and the highly susceptible variety, Nipponbare. Under artificial inoculation in the greenhouse, two QTLs for RSV resistance, designated qSTV7 and qSTV11(KAS), were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11 respectively, whereas only one QTL was detected in the same location of chromosome 11 under natural inoculation in the field. The stability of qSTV11(KAS) was validated using 39 established chromosome segment substitution lines. Fine mapping of qSTV11(KAS) was carried out using 372 BC(3)F(2:3) recombinants and 399 BC(3)F(3:4) lines selected from 7,018 BC(3)F(2) plants of the cross SL-234/Koshihikari. The qSTV11(KAS) was localized to a 39.2 kb region containing seven annotated genes. The most likely candidate gene, LOC_Os11g30910, is predicted to encode a sulfotransferase domain-containing protein. The predicted protein encoded by the Kasalath allele differs from Nipponbare by a single amino acid substitution and the deletion of two amino acids within the sulfotransferase domain. Marker-resistance association analysis revealed that the markers L104-155 bp and R48-194 bp were highly correlated with RSV resistance in the 148 landrace varieties. These results provide a basis for the cloning of qSTV11(KAS), and the markers may be used for molecular breeding of RSV resistant rice varieties. PMID:21384112
Zhang, Ying-Xin; Wang, Qi; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Ling-Long; Wang, Bao-Xiang; Shen, Ying-Yue; Cheng, Xia-Nian; Wan, Jian-Min
Tillage practices result in major changes to soil environmental conditions and to the distribution of crop residues and nutrients in the soil profile, which may consequently affect the biogenic production and emission of N trace gases. To investigate the effects of tillage during the nonwaterlogged period on nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in rice-wheat rotation systems, we
Zhisheng Yao; Zaixing Zhou; Xunhua Zheng; Baohua Xie; Chunyan Liu; Klaus Butterbach-Bahl; Jianguo Zhu
A set of 194 F(7) lines derived from a subspecific rice cross showing strong F(1) heterosis was backcrossed to the two parents. The materials (388 BC(1)F(7) lines, 194 F(8) lines, two parents, F(1)) were phenotyped for 12 quantitative traits. A total of 37 significant QTLs (LOD >/= 2.0) was detected through 141 RFLP markers in the BC(1)F(7) populations. Twenty-seven (73%) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in only one of the BC(1)F(7) populations. In 82% of these cases, the heterozygotes were superior to the respective homozygotes. The remaining 10 (27%) QTLs were detected in both BC(1)F(7) populations, and the heterozygote had a phenotype falling between those of the two homozygotes and in no instances were the heterozygotes found to be superior to both homozygotes. These results suggest that dominance complementation is the major genetic basis of heterosis in rice. This conclusion was strengthened by the finding that there was no correlation between most traits and overall genome heterozygosity and that there were some recombinant inbred lines in the F(8) population having phenotypic values superior to the F(1) for all of the traits evaluated--a result not expected if overdominance was a major contributor to heterosis. Digenic epistasis was not evident.
Xiao, J.; Li, J.; Yuan, L.; Tanksley, S. D.
To develop a cold chain- and needle/syringe-free rice-based cholera vaccine (MucoRice-CTB) for human use, we previously advanced the MucoRice system by introducing antisense genes specific for endogenous rice storage proteins and produced a molecularly uniform, human-applicable, high-yield MucoRice-CTB devoid of plant-associated sugar. To maintain the cold chain-free property of this vaccine for clinical application, we wanted to use a polished rice powder preparation of MucoRice-CTB without further purification but wondered whether this might cause an unexpected increase in rice allergen protein expression levels in MucoRice-CTB and prompt safety concerns. Therefore, we used two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and shotgun MS/MS proteomics to compare rice allergen protein expression levels in MucoRice-CTB and wild-type (WT) rice. Both proteomics analyses showed that the only notable change in the expression levels of rice allergen protein in MucoRice-CTB, compared with those in WT rice, was a decrease in the expression levels of ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitor-like protein family such as the seed allergen protein RAG2. Real-time PCR analysis showed mRNA of RAG2 reduced in MucoRice-CTB seed. These results demonstrate that no known rice allergens appear to be up-reregulated by genetic modification of MucoRice-CTB, suggesting that MucoRice-CTB has potential as a safe oral cholera vaccine for clinical application. PMID:23763241
Kurokawa, Shiho; Nakamura, Rika; Mejima, Mio; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Kuroda, Masaharu; Takeyama, Natsumi; Oyama, Masaaki; Satoh, Shigeru; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Masumura, Takehiro; Teshima, Reiko; Yuki, Yoshikazu
Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1) has been introduced into commercial indica rice varieties by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Transgenic rice plants were regenerated from the phosphinothricin-resistant calli obtained after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harbouring Ti plasmid pSB111-bar-BjNPR1. Molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration and expression of BjNPR1 in various transgenic rice lines. Transgenes NPR1 and bar were stably inherited and disclosed co-segregation in subsequent generations in a Mendelian fashion. Homozygous transgenic rice lines expressing BjNPR1 protein displayed enhanced resistance to rice blast, sheath blight and bacterial leaf blight diseases. Rice transformants with higher levels of NPR1 revealed notable increases in plant height, panicle length, flag-leaf length, number of seeds/panicle and seed yield/plant as compared to the untransformed plants. The overall results amply demonstrate the profound impact of BjNPR1 in imparting resistance against major pathogens of rice. The multipotent BjNPR1, as such, seems promising as a prime candidate gene to fortify crop plants with durable resistance against various pathogens. PMID:23664883
Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Kalambur, Muralidharan; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao
Bioindication of air pollution effects has received considerable attention in recent years. It has been almost entirely focused on individual species and relatively little notice has been given to ecosystem level process and function monitors. Longterm research projects in the Niepolomice Forest in southern Poland and the Colstrip area in southeast Montana, U.S.A., were analyzed for both organismic and system
W. Grodzi?ski; T. P. Yorks
Genetic improvement of adaptation to drought is addressed through the conventional approach by se- Drought stress is the major constraint to rice (Oryza sativa L.) lecting for yield and its stability over locations and years. production and yield stability in rainfed ecosystems. Identifying geno- mic regions contributing to drought resistance will help develop rice Such selection programs are slow in
R. Chandra Babu; Bay D. Nguyen; Varapong Chamarerk; P. Shanmugasundaram; P. Chezhian; P. Jeyaprakash; S. K. Ganesh; A. Palchamy; S. Sadasivam; S. Sarkarung; L. J. Wade; Henry T. Nguyen
Background Fish consumption is considered the primary pathway of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for most people in the world. However, in the inland regions of China, most of the residents eat little fish, but they live in areas where a significant amount of mercury (Hg) is present in the environment. Objectives We assessed concentrations of total Hg and MeHg in samples of water, air, agricultural products, and other exposure media to determine the main exposure pathway of Hg in populations in inland China. Methods We selected Guizhou Province for our study because it is highly contaminated with Hg and therefore is representative of other Hg-contaminated areas in China. We selected four study locations in Guizhou Province: three that represent typical environments with severe Hg pollution [due to Hg mining and smelting (Wanshan), traditional zinc smelting (recently closed; Weining), and heavy coal-based industry (Qingzhen)], and a village in a remote nature reserve (Leigong). Results The probable daily intake (PDI) of MeHg for an adult population based on 60 kg body weight (bw) was considerably higher in Wanshan than in the other three locations. With an average PDI of 0.096 ?g/kg bw/day (range, 0.015–0.45 ?g/kg bw/day), approximately 34% of the inhabitants in Wanshan exceeded the reference dose of 0.1 ?g/kg bw/day established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The PDI of MeHg for residents in the three other locations were all well below 0.1 ?g/kg bw/day (averages from 0.017 to 0.023 ?g/kg bw/day, with a maximum of 0.095 ?g/kg bw/day). In all four areas, rice consumption accounted for 94–96% of the PDI of MeHg. Conclusion We found that rice consumption is by far the most important MeHg exposure route; however, most of the residents (except those in Hg-mining areas) have low PDIs of MeHg.
Zhang, Hua; Feng, Xinbin; Larssen, Thorj?rn; Qiu, Guangle; Vogt, Rolf D.
CEBiP, a plasma membrane-localized glycoprotein of rice, directly binds with chitin elicitors (CE), and has been identified as a receptor for CE by using CEBiP-RNAi rice cells. To further clarify the function of CEBiP, we produced CEBiP-disrupted rice plants by applying an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated gene-targeting system based on homologous recombination, which has recently been developed for rice. Homologous recombination occurred at the CEBiP locus in ~0.5 % of the positive/negative selected calli. In the self-pollinated next generation, it was confirmed that the first exon of CEBiP was replaced with the hygromycin selection cassette as designed, and that the expression of CEBiP was completely deficient in homozygous cebip lines. Affinity-labeling analysis using biotinylated N-acetylchitooctaose demonstrated that CEBiP is the major CE-binding protein in rice cultured cells and leaves, which was consistent with the result that the response to CE in cebip cells was greatly diminished. Nevertheless, we observed a significant decrease in disease resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease, only when the cebip leaf sheaths were inoculated with a weakly virulent strain, suggesting that CE perception during the infection process of M. oryzae is limited. The response to peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharides in cebip cells was not affected, strongly suggesting that CEBiP is a CE-specific receptor. PMID:24173912
Kouzai, Yusuke; Nakajima, Keisuke; Hayafune, Masahiro; Ozawa, Kenjirou; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto; Minami, Eiichi; Nishizawa, Yoko
Physiological properties involved in divergent cadmium (Cd) accumulation among rice genotypes were characterized using the indica cultivar ‘Habataki’ (high Cd in grains) and the japonica cultivar ‘Sasanishiki’ (low Cd in grains). Time-dependence and concentration-dependence of symplastic Cd absorption in roots were revealed not to be responsible for the different Cd accumulation between the two cultivars because root Cd uptake was not greater in the Cd-accumulating cultivar ‘Habataki’ compared with ‘Sasanishiki’. On the other hand, rapid and greater root-to-shoot Cd translocation was observed in ‘Habataki’, which could be mediated by higher abilities in xylem loading of Cd and transpiration rate as a driving force. To verify whether different abilities in xylem-mediated shoot-to-root translocation generally account for the genotypic variation in shoot Cd accumulation in rice, the world rice core collection, consisting of 69 accessions which covers the genetic diversity of almost 32 000 accessions of cultivated rice, was used. The results showed strong correlation between Cd levels in xylem sap and shoots and grains among the 69 rice accessions. Overall, the results presented in this study revealed that the root-to-shoot Cd translocation via the xylem is the major and common physiological process determining the Cd accumulation level in shoots and grains of rice plants.
Uraguchi, Shimpei; Mori, Shinsuke; Kuramata, Masato; Kawasaki, Akira; Arao, Tomohito; Ishikawa, Satoru
Plant nutrition is one of the important areas for improving the yield and quality in crops as well as non-crop plants. Potassium is an essential plant nutrient and is required in abundance for their proper growth and development. Potassium deficiency directly affects the plant growth and hence crop yield and production. Recently, potassium-dependent transcriptomic analysis has been performed in the model plant Arabidopsis, however in cereals and crop plants; such a transcriptome analysis has not been undertaken till date. In rice, the molecular mechanism for the regulation of potassium starvation responses has not been investigated in detail. Here, we present a combined physiological and whole genome transcriptomic study of rice seedlings exposed to a brief period of potassium deficiency then replenished with potassium. Our results reveal that the expressions of a diverse set of genes annotated with many distinct functions were altered under potassium deprivation. Our findings highlight altered expression patterns of potassium-responsive genes majorly involved in metabolic processes, stress responses, signaling pathways, transcriptional regulation, and transport of multiple molecules including K(+). Interestingly, several genes responsive to low-potassium conditions show a reversal in expression upon resupply of potassium. The results of this study indicate that potassium deprivation leads to activation of multiple genes and gene networks, which may be acting in concert to sense the external potassium and mediate uptake, distribution and ultimately adaptation to low potassium conditions. The interplay of both upregulated and downregulated genes globally in response to potassium deprivation determines how plants cope with the stress of nutrient deficiency at different physiological as well as developmental stages of plants. PMID:23922980
Shankar, Alka; Singh, Amarjeet; Kanwar, Poonam; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Pandey, Amita; Suprasanna, Penna; Kapoor, Sanjay; Pandey, Girdhar K
Plant nutrition is one of the important areas for improving the yield and quality in crops as well as non-crop plants. Potassium is an essential plant nutrient and is required in abundance for their proper growth and development. Potassium deficiency directly affects the plant growth and hence crop yield and production. Recently, potassium-dependent transcriptomic analysis has been performed in the model plant Arabidopsis, however in cereals and crop plants; such a transcriptome analysis has not been undertaken till date. In rice, the molecular mechanism for the regulation of potassium starvation responses has not been investigated in detail. Here, we present a combined physiological and whole genome transcriptomic study of rice seedlings exposed to a brief period of potassium deficiency then replenished with potassium. Our results reveal that the expressions of a diverse set of genes annotated with many distinct functions were altered under potassium deprivation. Our findings highlight altered expression patterns of potassium-responsive genes majorly involved in metabolic processes, stress responses, signaling pathways, transcriptional regulation, and transport of multiple molecules including K+. Interestingly, several genes responsive to low-potassium conditions show a reversal in expression upon resupply of potassium. The results of this study indicate that potassium deprivation leads to activation of multiple genes and gene networks, which may be acting in concert to sense the external potassium and mediate uptake, distribution and ultimately adaptation to low potassium conditions. The interplay of both upregulated and downregulated genes globally in response to potassium deprivation determines how plants cope with the stress of nutrient deficiency at different physiological as well as developmental stages of plants.
Shankar, Alka; Singh, Amarjeet; Kanwar, Poonam; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Pandey, Amita; Suprasanna, Penna; Kapoor, Sanjay; Pandey, Girdhar K.
Six raw agricultural crops (carrots, field corn, onions, rice, spinach, and tomatoes) were collected from major U.S. growing areas uncontaminated by human activities other than normal agricultural practices. Handling, preparation, and analysis of the 1215 samples were performed under carefully controlled conditions. Cadmium and lead were determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry and Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn,
K. A. Wolnik; F. L. Fricke; S. G. Capar; M. W. Meyer; R. D. Satzger; E. Bonnin; C. M. Gaston
BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin
Bharathi Yarasi; Vijayakumar Sadumpati; China Pasalu Immanni; Dasavantha Reddy Vudem; Venkateswara Rao Khareedu
Background Malaria transmission in most agricultural ecosystems is complex and hence the need for developing a holistic malaria control\\u000a strategy with adequate consideration of socio-economic factors driving transmission at community level. A cross-sectional\\u000a household survey was conducted in an irrigated ecosystem with the aim of investigating vector control practices applied and\\u000a factors affecting their application both at household and community level.
Peter N Ng'ang'a; Josephat Shililu; Gayathri Jayasinghe; Violet Kimani; Charity Kabutha; Lucy Kabuage; Ephantus Kabiru; John Githure; Clifford Mutero
In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling rice heading date were detected in a F2:3 population derived from a cross between an indica rice variety, Tarom Mahalli, with early heading date, and an indica variety, Khazar, with late heading date. SSR linkage map was constructed using 74 polymorphic markers and 192 F2 individuals and covered a total of 1231.50
H. Sabouri; M. Nahvi
The integration of rice and fish culture promises ecologically sound and economically successful management of floodwater ecosystems. Amongst other benefits, the stocking of fish in rice fields may contribute to the soil fertility of the rice field. We investigated the impact of the rice biomass and the stocking of fish (a polyculture of Nile tilapia and common carp) on ammonium,
Nico Vromant; Nguyen Thi Hoai Chau
A new and unusual family of LTR elements, Dasheng, has been discovered in the genome of Oryza sativa following database searches of approximately 100 Mb of rice genomic sequence and 78 Mb of BAC-end sequence information. With all of the cis-elements but none of the coding domains normally associated with retrotransposons (e.g., gag, pol), Dasheng is a novel nonautonomous LTR element with high copy number. Over half of the approximately 1000 Dasheng elements in the rice genome are full length (5.6-8.6 kb), and 60% are estimated to have amplified in the past 500,000 years. Using a modified AFLP technique called transposon display, 215 elements were mapped to all 12 rice chromosomes. Interestingly, more than half of the mapped elements are clustered in the heterochromatic regions around centromeres. The distribution pattern was further confirmed by FISH analysis. Despite clustering in heterochromatin, Dasheng elements are not nested, suggesting their potential value as molecular markers for these marker-poor regions. Taken together, Dasheng is one of the highest-copy-number LTR elements and one of the most recent elements to amplify in the rice genome.
Jiang, Ning; Bao, Zhirong; Temnykh, Svetlana; Cheng, Zhukuan; Jiang, Jiming; Wing, Rod A; McCouch, Susan R; Wessler, Susan R
A simple protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Australian rice using mature embryos is described. Transgenic plants of two commercial genotypes of Australian rice, Amaroo and Millin, were produced. Transgenic plants were obtained by applying selection pressure to callus and to the regenerated shoots. Exclusion of the selective agent (hygromycin) during plant regeneration was found to be critical for recovery of transgenic plants from these commercial varieties. Transgenic plants were produced after 3 months. The developed system was also used to study spatial and temporal expression of a rice pollen-specific gene, Ory s 1. Expression of pOry s 1::uidA in transgenic rice demonstrated GUS expression in mature pollen, hence indicating potential use of this promoter to direct pollen-specific gene expression. Further Ory s 1 5' deletion study indicated that the pollen-specificity element may reside within -405 bp to the start of the transcription, while the region upstream of -405 contained a cis-acting regulatory element(s) responsible for quantitative expression of this gene. PMID:21544623
Azria, Diah; Bhalla, Prem L
Methane flux from rice varieties grown under two identical soils of Assam were monitored. In the first experiment, variety Jaya and GRT was grown in sandy loam soil of Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam and the second experiment was conducted with variety Jyotiprasad and Bishnuprasad in sandy to sandy loam soils of Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zones of Assam. Methane flux recorded from variety Jyotiprasad and GRT was higher compared to variety Bishnuprasad and Jaya. The seasonal integrated flux recorded was 10.76 gm(-2), 9.98 gm(-2), 9.74 gm(-2) and 11.31 gm(-2) for variety GRT, Jaya, Bishnuprasad and Jyotiprasad, respectively. All the varieties exhibited two methane peaks one at maximum tillering stage and other at panicle initiation stage of the crop. Crop growth parameters such as leaf number, number of tillers and leaf area index (LAI) showed strong positive relationship with total methane flux. In both the experiments it was calculated that CH4 emission was substantially influenced by crop phenology and growth. This study emphasise the relationship of different growth parameters with methane emission. PMID:15894053
Gogoi, Nirmali; Baruah, K K; Gogoi, Boby; Gupta, Prabhat K
Agro-industrial byproducts, especially rice straw, are potential resources. This work was aimed to utilize raw materials to produce value-added biosurfactant in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Rice straw and soybean flour were found efficient and selected as major substrates for surfactin production. The results of Plackett-Burman design indicated that glycerol, water content, inoculum size and temperature were the significant variables identified in the screen of nine total variables. The optimum values for the four significant variables were determined by the Box-Behnken design. The optimal surfactin production was obtained when the medium contained 5 g soybean flour, 4 g rice straw, 2% (w/w) maltose and 2.65% (w/w) glycerol, pH 7.0. The ideal growth conditions for surfactin production consisted of a moisture content of 62.8% (v/w) and growth supplemented with 15.96% inoculum size in 250 mL flasks at 26.9 °C for 48 h. Under optimal conditions, a surfactin yield of 15.03 mg/gds was attained in 1000-fold scale-up fermentation in a 50 L fermenter, thereby validating the accuracy of this approach. This study proposed an eco-friendly and economical way to convert agro-industrial byproducts into biosurfactant. PMID:23685270
Zhu, Zhen; Zhang, Fengge; Wei, Zhong; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong
Next to yield, grain quality is the major objective of rice breeding programs. This report describes the quality characteristics of milled rice as assessed by IRRI's Chemistry Department since 1962. Rice samples were obtained from government rice breeding...
B. O. Juliano C. G. Pascual
In rice (Oryza sativa), the presence of a dominant Badh2 allele encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH2) inhibits the synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor component in rice fragrance. By contrast, its two recessive alleles, badh2-E2 and badh2-E7, induce 2AP formation. Badh2 was found to be transcribed in all tissues tested except for roots, and the transcript was detected at higher abundance in young, healthy leaves than in other tissues. Multiple Badh2 transcript lengths were detected, and the complete, full-length Badh2 transcript was much less abundant than partial Badh2 transcripts. 2AP levels were significantly reduced in cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-driven transgenic lines expressing the complete, but not the partial, Badh2 coding sequences. In accordance, the intact, full-length BADH2 protein (503 residues) appeared exclusively in nonfragrant transgenic lines and rice varieties. These results indicate that the full-length BADH2 protein encoded by Badh2 renders rice nonfragrant by inhibiting 2AP biosynthesis. The BADH2 enzyme was predicted to contain three domains: NAD binding, substrate binding, and oligomerization domains. BADH2 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, where it is predicted to catalyze the oxidization of betaine aldehyde, 4-aminobutyraldehyde (AB-ald), and 3-aminopropionaldehyde. The presence of null badh2 alleles resulted in AB-ald accumulation and enhanced 2AP biosynthesis. In summary, these data support the hypothesis that BADH2 inhibits 2AP biosynthesis by exhausting AB-ald, a presumed 2AP precursor. PMID:18599581
Chen, Saihua; Yang, Yi; Shi, Weiwei; Ji, Qing; He, Fei; Zhang, Ziding; Cheng, Zhukuan; Liu, Xiangnong; Xu, Mingliang
Flooding is one of the major hazards of rice production for the rainfed lowland rice ecosystem, and tolerant cultivars are\\u000a urgently needed to help protect farmers from submergence damage. A quick and efficient strategy was implemented to introgress\\u000a SUB1, a major QTL for submergence tolerance, into a rainfed lowland mega variety BR11 of Bangladesh by only two backcrosses and\\u000a one
K. M. Iftekharuddaula; M. A. Newaz; M. A. Salam; H. U. Ahmed; M. A. A. Mahbub; E. M. Septiningsih; B. C. Y. Collard; D. L. Sanchez; A. M. Pamplona; D. J. Mackill
Root system development is an important target for improving yield in rice. Active roots that can take up nutrients more efficiently are essential for improving grain yield. In this study, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 215 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Xieqingzao B (XB), a maintainer line with short roots and R9308, a restorer line with long roots. Only a QTLs associated with root length were mapped on chromosomes 7. The QTL, named qRL7, was located between markers RM3859 and RM214 on chromosome 7 and explained 18.14–18.36% of the total phenotypic variance evaluated across two years. Fine mapping of qRL7 using eight BC3F3 recombinant lines mapped the QTL to between markers InDel11 and InDel17, which delimit a 657.35 kb interval in the reference cultivar Nipponbare. To determine the genotype classes for the target QTL in these BC3F3 recombinants, the root lengths of their BC3F4 progeny were investigated, and the result showed that qRL7 plays a crucial role in root length. The results of this study will increase our understanding of the genetic factors controlling root architecture, which will help rice breeders to breed varieties with deep, strong and vigorous root systems.
Wang, Huimin; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhan, Xiaodeng; Zhai, Rongrong; Wu, Weiming; Shen, Xihong; Dai, Gaoxing; Cao, Liyong; Cheng, Shihua
Mercury (Hg) is a serious environmental pollution threat to the planet. The accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. To gain more insight into the cellular response to Hg, we performed a large-scale analysis of the rice transcriptome during Hg stress. Genes induced with short-term exposure represented functional categories of cell-wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction and abiotic stress response. Moreover, Hg stress upregulated several genes involved in aromatic amino acids (Phe and Trp) and increased the level of free Phe and Trp content. Exogenous application of Phe and Trp to rice roots enhanced tolerance to Hg and effectively reduced Hg-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Hg induced calcium accumulation and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase. Further characterization of the Hg-responsive genes we identified may be helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of Hg in plants. PMID:24840062
Chen, Yun-An; Chi, Wen-Chang; Trinh, Ngoc Nam; Huang, Li-Yao; Chen, Ying-Chih; Cheng, Kai-Teng; Huang, Tsai-Lien; Lin, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hao-Jen
Mercury (Hg) is a serious environmental pollution threat to the planet. The accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. To gain more insight into the cellular response to Hg, we performed a large-scale analysis of the rice transcriptome during Hg stress. Genes induced with short-term exposure represented functional categories of cell-wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction and abiotic stress response. Moreover, Hg stress upregulated several genes involved in aromatic amino acids (Phe and Trp) and increased the level of free Phe and Trp content. Exogenous application of Phe and Trp to rice roots enhanced tolerance to Hg and effectively reduced Hg-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Hg induced calcium accumulation and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase. Further characterization of the Hg-responsive genes we identified may be helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of Hg in plants.
Trinh, Ngoc Nam; Huang, Li-Yao; Chen, Ying-Chih; Cheng, Kai-Teng; Huang, Tsai-Lien; Lin, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hao-Jen
Screening for resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in rice-FOX Arabidopsis lines identified a putative receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase gene that confers resistance to major bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis and rice.
Approximately 20,000 of the rice-FOX Arabidopsis transgenic lines, which overexpress 13,000 rice full-length cDNAs at random in Arabidopsis, were screened for bacterial disease resistance by dip inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). The identities of the overexpressed genes were determined in 72 lines that showed consistent resistance after three independent screens. Pst DC3000 resistance was verified for 19 genes by characterizing other independent Arabidopsis lines for the same genes in the original rice-FOX hunting population or obtained by reintroducing the genes into ecotype Columbia by floral dip transformation. Thirteen lines of these 72 selections were also resistant to the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. Eight genes that conferred resistance to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis have been introduced into rice for overexpression, and transformants were evaluated for resistance to the rice bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. One of the transgenic rice lines was highly resistant to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Interestingly, this line also showed remarkably high resistance to Magnaporthe grisea, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, which is the most devastating rice disease in many countries. The causal rice gene, encoding a putative receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, was therefore designated as BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1. Our results demonstrate the utility of the rice-FOX Arabidopsis lines as a tool for the identification of genes involved in plant defence and suggest the presence of a defence mechanism common between monocots and dicots. PMID:20955180
Dubouzet, Joseph G; Maeda, Satoru; Sugano, Shoji; Ohtake, Miki; Hayashi, Nagao; Ichikawa, Takanari; Kondou, Youichi; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Horii, Yoko; Matsui, Minami; Oda, Kenji; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Mori, Masaki
The atmospheric CO2 concentration is increasing. Effects of elevated CO2 on rice production could occur not only through direct impacts to rice, but also indirectly via ecosystem responses. Changed competitiveness with elevated CO2 could occur between ric...
D. M. Olszyk L. L. Ranasinghe
Currently there is no formal modeling standard for software ecosystems that models both the ecosystem and the environment in which software products and services operate. Major implications are (1) software vendors have trouble distinguishing the specific software ecosystems in which they are active and (2) they have trouble using these ecosystems to their strategic advantage. In this paper we present
Vasilis Boucharas; Slinger Jansen; Sjaak Brinkkemper
Procedures were developed for the simultaneous determination of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] and glufosinate [dl-homoalanin-4-yl-(methyl)phosphinic acid] and their major metabolites, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and 3-(methylphosphinico)propionic acid (3-MPPA), in rice and soybean sprouts by gas chromatography (GC) equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD). Herbicides and their major metabolites were previously derivatized with TMOA (trimethyl orthoacetate (TMOA) in the presence of acetic acid, and their GC responses versus heating temperature (70-90 degrees C) and heating time (30-120 min) were optimized. It was found that increases in heating temperature and heating time were unfavorable for the derivatization of glyphosate or glufosinate, whereas high temperature and extended reaction time remarkably facilitated that of AMPA and 3-MPPA except at 90 degrees C for an extended reaction time (120 min). Combination of AG1-X8 anion-exchange chromatography with a Florisil cartridge cleanup process was favorable for the GC-PFPD analysis. Four types of derivatives spiked in rice and soybean sprout matrices were eluted, reaching a baseline separation, in a sequence of 3-MPPA, AMPA, glyphosate, and glufosinate within 14 min using a DB-608 capillary column. Recoveries of glyphosate, AMPA, glufosinate, and 3-MPPA (0.5 ppm) spiked in both sample matrices were determined to be 72-81, 71-86, 101-119, and 83-90%, respectively, whereas the coefficient of variation was determined to be <10% in three repeated determinations. The instrumental limits of detection for glyphosate, AMPA, glufosinate, and 3-MPPA in sample matrices were 0.02, 0.03, 0.02, and 0.01 ppm, respectively. The limits of quantification for glyphosate, AMPA, glufosinate, and 3-MPPA in sample matrices were 0.06, 0.10, 0.06, and 0.04 ppm, respectively. PMID:15212448
Tseng, Su-Hsiang; Lo, Yi-Wen; Chang, Pi-Chiou; Chou, Shin-Shou; Chang, Hung-Min
In terrestrial ecosystems, methane (CH4) uptake or emission represents the net balance between activities of different microbial organisms including anaerobic Methanogens that produce CH4 and Methanotrophs which oxidize CH4 in the aerobic environments. In this way, anaerobic soil environments such as rice fields are major source of terrestrial CH4 emissions. However, large uncertainties in the CH4 emission estimates have been reported from rice fields. The bottom-up and top-down methods showed a wide range of CH4 emissions estimations ranging from 25 to 300 Tg yr-1 from rice fields. The major reason for uncertainties in the CH4 emissions includes the water management that alters the balance of Methanogens and Methanotrophs in the rice fields. Two kinds of water management practices are followed including continuous flooding (CF) which refers to the continuous submergence as well as alternate wetting and drying (AWD) in which the rice fields are drained for several days during the growing season. The AWD provides aeration stress on Methanogens resulting in lower CH4 emissions than CF water management followed in the rice fields. A single aeration during growing season may significantly reduce the CH4 emission from the rice fields. Currently, most of the models structures assume that Methanogens become active once the soil moisture content is raised to saturation. However, several laboratory scale studies have indicated that following aeration the Methanogens don't become fully functional immediately even if the soil moisture content is raised to saturation. In this study, we integrated the aeration stress mechanisms on the Methanogens in the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). The improved version of DLEM was used to conduct uncertainty analysis on global CH4 emission estimation following CF and AWD water management in the rice fields. Results of this study have shown that inclusion of the aeration stress mechanism on Methanogens in the modeling framework has reduced the uncertainties in the CH4 emissions estimates from the rice fields.
Kamaljit, K.; Tian, H.; Ren, W.; Yang, J.
Root traits are key components of plant adaptation to drought environment. By using a 120 recombined inbred lines (RILs) rice\\u000a population derived from a cross between IRAT109, a japonica upland rice cultivar and Yuefu, a japonica lowland rice cultivar, a complete genetic linkage map with 201 molecular markers covering 1,833.8 cM was constructed and\\u000a quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with basal
Lifeng Liu; Ping Mu; Xueqin Li; Yanying Qu; Yi Wang; Zichao Li
A conference on weed control in rice held at Los Banos, the Philippines, underscored the importance of the advance of weed science as a major factor in improving rice production. Proceedings of the conference, herein presented, consist of 33 studies in su...
Three major genes (Pi1, Piz-5 and Pita) for blast resistance on chromosomes 11, 6 and 12, respectively, were fine-mapped and closely linked RFLP markers identified.\\u000a New markers for Pi1 and Pita were found that were flanking the genes. The three genes were pyramided using RFLP markers. A PCR-based SAP (sequence amplified\\u000a polymorphism) marker was used to identify Piz-5 in the
S. Hittalmani; A. Parco; T. V. Mew; R. S. Zeigler; N. Huang
Described herein is the case of an 8-month-old girl with atypical food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome due to rice. She presented with vomiting and poor general activity 2?h after ingestion of boiled rice. Oral food challenge test using high-pressure retort-processed rice was negative, but re-exposure to boiled rice elicited gastrointestinal symptoms. On western blot analysis the patient's serum was found to contain IgE bound to crude protein extracts from rice seed or boiled rice, but not from retort-processed rice. The major protein bands were not detected in the electrophoresed gel of retort-processed rice extracts, suggesting decomposition by high-temperature and high-pressure processing. Oral food challenge for diagnosing rice allergy should be performed with boiled rice to avoid a false negative. Additionally, some patients with rice allergy might be able to ingest retort-processed rice as a substitute for boiled rice. PMID:24548197
Yasutomi, Motoko; Kosaka, Takuya; Kawakita, Akiko; Hayashi, Hisako; Okazaki, Shintaro; Murai, Hiroki; Miyagawa, Kazuhiko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Ohshima, Yusei
Rainfed uplands in India are predominantly mono-cropped with rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the wet season (June/July to September/October) and grown under aerobic soil conditions. The remaining fallow period (winter followed by summer) of about 8-9 months leads to natural crash in the population of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the soil. Attempts have been made to minimize this population crash by reducing soil disturbance-induced deleterious effects on native AMF activity of improperly scheduled off-season tillage, an agronomic recommendation for weed and disease (soil-borne) management, practiced by the upland farmers. On-farm (farmers' field) evaluation of effects of all suitable off-season tillage schedule combinations on rice during wet seasons of 2004, 2005, and 2006 revealed that a maximum of two off-season tillage schedules with a minimum gap of 13 weeks between them minimized the population crash of native AMF with a concomitant increase in phosphorus (P) uptake and grain yield of upland rice (variety "Vandana"). PMID:20544229
Maiti, D; Variar, M; Singh, R K
Rice is one of the most important food crop drastically affected by drought in lowland rice ecosystem. Dissecting out the traits of importance and genomic regions influencing the response of drought tolerance and yield traits on grain yield will aid the breeders to know the genetic mechanism of drought tolerance of rice leads to the development of drought tolerant varieties.
A. Manickavelu; N. Nadarajan; S. K. Ganesh; R. P. Gnanamalar; R. Chandra Babu
Physiological properties involved in divergent cadmium (Cd) accumulation among rice genotypes were character- ized using the indica cultivar 'Habataki' (high Cd in grains) and the japonica cultivar 'Sasanishiki' (low Cd in grains). Time-dependence and concentration-dependence of symplastic Cd absorption in roots were revealed not to be responsible for the different Cd accumulation between the two cultivars because root Cd uptake
Shimpei Uraguchi; Shinsuke Mori; Masato Kuramata; Akira Kawasaki; Tomohito Arao; Satoru Ishikawa
Pesticide contamination of rice prairie waterfowl habitat and acute pesticide poisoning of wintering and migrating waterfowl on the rice prairies has been reduced in recent years. Some problems still exist.
Hobaugh, W.C.; Stutzenbaker, C.D.; Flickinger, E.L.
Rice ranks ninth among major field crops in value of production. All U.S. rice production is irrigated, providing more stable yields than many other crops. Three classes of U.S. rice are produced--long, medium, and short grain--with long grain predominant...
Water deficit is a serious environmental stress and the major constraint to rice productivity. Losses in rice yield due to water shortage probably exceed losses from all other causes combined and the extent of the yield loss depends on both the severity and duration of the water stress. Drought affects rice at morphological, physiological, and molecular levels such as delayed
Muhammad Farooq; Abdul Wahid; Dong-Jin Lee; Osamu Ito; Kadambot H. M. Siddique
Degradation pathways for the herbicide clomazone in a California rice field soil were characterized via pulse-labeling of anaerobic (flooded) and aerobic (moist) soil microcosms. Clomazone-derived (13)C in the major C pools of a rice ecosystem and soil phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles were analyzed over time to determine if (1) the compound accumulates in the microbial biomass, (2) it affects temporal microbial population dynamics, and (3) it is either preferentially metabolized or cometabolized. In anaerobic microcosms, the compound was rapidly biotransformed to ring-open clomazone, upon which it persisted in the aqueous phase, whereas aerobic microcosms degraded it slower but a greater percentage was mineralized. Anaerobic biomass decreased after clomazone was added, and aerobic actinomycete abundance differed between treatments and controls. Additionally, PLFA and (13)C PLFA were statistically similar between treatment and controls. Thus, microbial cometabolism is likely to be the dominant degrading mechanism governing clomazone fate in California rice fields. PMID:23432155
Tomco, Patrick L; Holmes, William E; Tjeerdema, Ronald S
Rice qUVR-10, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for ultraviolet-B (UVB) resistance on chromosome 10, was cloned by map-based strategy. It was detected in backcross inbred lines (BILs) derived from a cross between the japonica variety Nipponbare (UV resistant) and the indica variety Kasalath (UV sensitive). Plants homozygous for the Nipponbare allele at the qUVR-10 locus were more resistant to UVB
Tadamasa Ueda; Tadashi Sato; Jun Hidema; Tokuhisa Hirouchi; Kazuo Yamamoto; Tadashi Kumagai; Masahiro Yano
Rice is the world's most important staple crop, feeding more than half of the world's population. Insects and other arthropods present an important constraint in rice production. This paper begins with an introduction to major insect pests of rice and their impact, followed by a description of some of the approaches currently used in insect management programs of rice. Then
Hao Chen; Michael J. Stout; Qian Qian; Feng Chen
Southeast China is one of the few regions on earth that have both extremely high population density and intensive urbanization rate due to unprecedented economic development since 1980. Understanding how the climate, natural disturbances and human activities have affected the terrestrial ecosystem is both important for maintaining ecosystem sustainability in this rapidly changed region and for improving our understanding of the interactions among climate, human and terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we reconstructed annual land- use change dataset, annual tropospheric ozone dataset, annual nitrogen deposition dataset, and daily climate dataset from 1961 to 2000 in Southeast China. We then used these datasets as inputs to the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), a process-based highly integrated ecosystem model that couples major biogeochemical cycles and hydrological cycle to make daily and spatially-explicit estimates of carbon and nitrogen fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) and pool sizes (C and N) in terrestrial ecosystems. DLEM is able to address responses of terrestrial ecosystems to multiple stresses including changes in climate, atmospheric composition, land use and natural disturbances. The DLEM has been calibrated against several intensively studied ecological research sites in China. Our analysis showed that, land-use change has dominated the ecosystem dynamics of Southeast China from 1980 to 2000. Urbanization was the major land-use change force in Southeast China during the study period. From 1980 to 2000, build-up area in Southeast China increased by 379.6 kilo hectares, while the cropland area declined by 432.2 kilo hectares. The urbanization, together with its byproducts ¡§C air pollution such as increased tropospheric ozone concentration, reduced the ecosystem productivity and carbon storage. Although cropland area continuously declined during the study period, the rice paddy in Southeast China was still an important trace gas source, which released large amount of CH4 into the atmosphere each year. Among the climate factors, the precipitation is the most important controls over the terrestrial ecosystem productivity.
Zhang, C.; Tian, H.; Liu, M.; Chen, H.; Ren, W.; Chen, G.; Pan, S.
A protocol and methods for monitoring the major physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems are presented. The monitoring protocol is organized into four stages. At stage 1 information is obtained on a basic set of parameters that d...
J. C. Davis G. W. Minshall C. T. Robinson P. Landres
This Antarctica lesson has students locate the continent on a globe and on a map, describe and illustrate major Antarctic ecosystems, and explain relationships between those ecosystems. They will also construct a rough map of Antarctic ecosystems and explore relationships among the creatures that populate them. This lesson can be adapted to focus on other regions, including the one in which students live.
To support skill upgrading in analysis of inorganic constituents of environmental and food samples, the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the National Food Research Institute (NFRI) have organized a proficiency test (PT) of determination of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd in brown-rice flour based on the international standard (ISO/IEC 17043:2010). One hundred and thirty-three sets of reports were assessed by use of the E(n)-number and z-score approaches in accordance with ISO/IEC 17043 and the international harmonized protocol for PT. The PT results and analytical procedures, reported in detail, were reviewed, and possible technical reasons for questionable or unsatisfactory results are discussed. PMID:23907683
Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Naito, Shigehiro; Shindoh, Kumiko; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Zhu, Yanbei; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Hioki, Akiharu; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Chiba, Koichi
Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production. PMID:24003656
Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H
The energy flow through the ecosystem of a typical Apatani village in Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India was studied. The energy and economic efficiency of the rice agro-ecosystem of this region is exceptionally high, and rice is exported after meeting local needs. The cropping pattern varies depending upon the amount of organic residues recycled into the system. Where recycling is
Anil Kumar I; P. S. Ramakrishnan
\\u000a Although genetically modified (GM) plants can offer many benefits, the planting of transgenic crops has raised a number of\\u000a concerns, including the ecological impact of these plant residues on soil ecosystems. In this study, the effects of rice expressing\\u000a the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein (Bt rice) on the residue decomposition processes were assessed in comparison with parental rice variety (non-Bt
Haohao Lu; Weixiang Wu; Yingxu Chen
The third in a series of articles featuring the urban ecosystem. Discusses the inner workings of an ecosystem and the links that connect its elements, including the link between people and the environment. Graphics illustrate "layers" of the landscape. (LZ)
Moll, Gary; And Others
Rice qUVR-10, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for ultraviolet-B (UVB) resistance on chromosome 10, was cloned by map-based strategy. It was detected in backcross inbred lines (BILs) derived from a cross between the japonica variety Nipponbare (UV resistant) and the indica variety Kasalath (UV sensitive). Plants homozygous for the Nipponbare allele at the qUVR-10 locus were more resistant to UVB compared with the Kasalath allele. High-resolution mapping using 1850 F(2) plants enabled us to delimit qUVR-10 to a <27-kb genomic region. We identified a gene encoding the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase in this region. Activity of CPD photorepair in Nipponbare was higher than that of Kasalath and nearly isogenic with qUVR-10 [NIL(qUVR-10)], suggesting that the CPD photolyase of Kasalath was defective. We introduced a genomic fragment containing the CPD photolyase gene of Nipponbare to NIL(qUVR-10). Transgenic plants showed the same level of resistance as Nipponbare did, indicating that the qUVR-10 encoded the CPD photolyase. Comparison of the qUVR-10 sequence in the Nipponbare and Kasalath alleles revealed one probable candidate for the functional nucleotide polymorphism. It was indicated that single-base substitution in the CPD photolyase gene caused the alteration of activity of CPD photorepair and UVB resistance. Furthermore, we were able to develop a UV-hyperresistant plant by overexpression of the photolyase gene. PMID:15965242
Ueda, Tadamasa; Sato, Tadashi; Hidema, Jun; Hirouchi, Tokuhisa; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Kumagai, Tadashi; Yano, Masahiro
Provided by FICUS (the Florida Internet Center for Understanding Sustainability) and the University of South Florida, this gem of a site covers Florida's native upland, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Streamlined in organization but solid in content, Florida Ecosystems offers introductory information and photographic images of a dozen ecosystems, ranging from Pine Flatwoods and Dry Prairies to Mangrove Swamps and Coral Reefs. For students and educators interested in subtropical ecosystems, this is a nice place to start.
Natural Ecosystems analyzes the association of observed changes in climate with changes in the geographic distributions and phenology (the timing of blossoms or migrations of birds) for Southwestern ecosystems and their species, portraying ecosystem disturbances—such as wildfires and outbreaks of forest pathogens—and carbon storage and release, in relation to climate change.
Fleishman, Erica; Belnap, Jayne; Cobb, Neil; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Ford, Karl; MacDonald, Glen; Pellant, Mike; Schoennagel, Tania; Schmit, Lara M.; Schwartz, Mark; van Drunick, Suzanne; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Keyser, Alisa; Lucas, Ryan
If the organisms in a prairie ecosystem created a newspaper, what would it look like? What important news topics of the ecosystem would the organisms want to discuss? Imaginative and enthusiastic third-grade students were busy pondering these questions as they tried their hands at "ecosystem journalism." The class had recently completed a study of…
Robertson, Amy; Mahlin, Kathryn
To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…
Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.
The cultivar Ajaya (IET 8585) exhibits durable broad-spectrum resistance to bacterial blight (BB) disease of rice and is widely used as a resistance donor. The present study was carried out to decipher the genetics of BB resistance in Ajaya and map the gene(s) conferring resistance. Genetic analysis in the F2 indicated a quantitative/additive nature of resistance governed by two loci with equal effects. Linked marker analysis and allelic tests revealed that one of the resistance genes is xa5. Sequence analysis of a 244 bp region of the second exon of the gene-encoding Transcription factor IIA? (the candidate gene for xa5) confirmed the presence of xa5. Bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) revealed the putative location of the two quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes associated with resistance on chromosomes 5 and 8. Composite interval mapping located the first locus on Chr. 5S exactly in the genomic region spanned by xa5 and the second locus (qtl BBR 8.1) on Chr. 8L. Owing to its differential disease reaction with a set of seven hyper-virulent isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae, a map location on Chr. 8L, which was distinct from xa13 and data from allelism tests, the second resistance locus in Ajaya was determined to be novel and was designated as xaAj. A contig map spanning xaAj was constructed in silico and the genomic region was delimited to a 13.5 kb physical interval. In silico analysis of the genomic region spanning xaAj identified four putatively expressed candidate genes, one of which could be involved in imparting BB resistance in Ajaya along with xa5. PMID:22189605
Sujatha, K; Natarajkumar, P; Laha, G S; Mishra, B; Rao, K Srinivasa; Viraktamath, B C; Kirti, P B; Hari, Y; Balachandran, S M; Rajendrakumar, P; Ram, T; Hajira, S K; Madhav, M Sheshu; Neeraja, C N; Sundaram, R M
Rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV) is a major virus disease of economic importance affecting rice in northern South America, Central America and the Caribbean. This is the first report of transgenic resistance to RHBV and the transformation of an indica rice variety from Latin America. Rice transformed with the RHBV nucleocapsid protein (N) gene had a significant reduction in disease
Z. Lentini; I. Lozano; E. Tabares; L. Fory; J. Domínguez; M. Cuervo; L. Calvert
Rice blast disease is a major threat to rice production worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying rice resistance to the causal agent Magnaporthe oryzae remain elusive. Therefore, we carried out a transcriptome study on rice early defense response to M. oryzae. We found that the transcriptional profiles of rice compatible and incompatible interactions with M. oryzae were mostly similar, with genes regulated more prominently in the incompatible interactions. The functional analysis showed that the genes involved in signaling and secondary metabolism were extensively up-regulated. In particular, WRKY transcription factor genes were significantly enriched among the up-regulated genes. Overexpressing one of these WRKY genes, OsWRKY47, in transgenic rice plants conferred enhanced resistance against rice blast fungus. Our results revealed the sophisticated transcriptional reprogramming of signaling and metabolic pathways during rice early response to M. oryzae and demonstrated the critical roles of WRKY transcription factors in rice blast resistance.
Li, Jinbin; Zhao, Yang; Guo, Dongshu; Zhu, Youyong; Chen, Zhangliang; Gu, Hongya; Li, Chengyun; Qin, Genji; Qu, Li-Jia
The study of rice agriculture is necessary for both the importance of rice as a vital food source and because of the fact that cultivating it has an unfortunate byproduct, namely methane gas. As a food source, rice is a staple for a large majority of the ...
E. J. Paliouras W. Emery
In order to utilize the available useful variation in breeding rice to improve yield and quality of grain, the performance of a wide range of rice germ plasm comprising 30 varieties was evaluated in northern India, a major rice growing belt. Plant performance revealed high genetic divergence and phenotypic variability in the crop, with the maximum range of variation being
M. L. H. Kaul; A. K. Bhan
Integration of fish stocking with rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation promises an ecologically sound and environmentally viable management of flooded ecosystem. Rice agriculture contributes to the emission of greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O, but little is known on the effect of fish rearing in fields planted to rice on the emission of these two greenhouse gases. In a field study,
A. Datta; D. R. Nayak; D. P. Sinhababu; T. K. Adhya
Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (<30 cm) water, thereby attracting different guilds of birds. Grain not collected during harvest (i.e. waste rice) is typically the most abundant potential food of birds in rice fields, with estimates of seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.
Stafford, J. D.; Kaminski, R. M.; Reinecke, K. J.
In this activity, learners create a freshwater ecosystem in a large plastic bottle. Learners cut and prepare bottles, then fill with water, aquatic plants, snails and fish. Learners observe their mini-ecosystem over time to see what changes--such as the color of the water, the water temperature, plant growth, and behavior and/or population of the snails or fish. The activity serves as a model for larger freshwater ecosystems such as ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, reservoirs and groundwater.
Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.
There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. The cultivated species originated from a common ancestor with AA genome. Perennial and annual ancestors of O. sativa are O. rufipogon and O. nivara and those of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata, O. breviligulata and O. glaberrima probably domesticated in Niger river delta. Varieties of O. sativa are classified into six groups on the basis of genetic affinity. Widely known indica rices correspond to group I and japonicas to group VI. The so called javanica rices also belong to group VI and are designated as tropical japonicas in contrast to temperate japonicas grown in temperate climate. Indica and japonica rices had a polyphyletic origin. Indicas were probably domesticated in the foothills of Himalayas in Eastern India and japonicas somewhere in South China. The indica rices dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics from India. The japonica rices moved northward from South China and became the temperate ecotype. They also moved southward to Southeast Asia and from there to West Africa and Brazil and became tropical ecotype. Rice is now grown between 55 degrees N and 36 degrees S latitudes. It is grown under diverse growing conditions such as irrigated, rainfed lowland, rainfed upland and floodprone ecosystems. Human selection and adaptation to diverse environments has resulted in numerous cultivars. It is estimated that about 120,000 varieties of rice exist in the world. After the establishment of International Rice Research Institute in 1960, rice varietal improvement was intensified and high yielding varieties were developed. These varieties are now planted to 70% of world's riceland. Rice production doubled between 1966 and 1990 due to large scale adoption of these improved varieties. Rice production must increase by 60% by 2025 to feed the additional rice consumers. New tools of molecular and cellular biology such as anther culture, molecular marker aided selection and genetic engineering will play increasing role in rice improvement. PMID:9291957
Khush, G S
Why study coral ecosystems? Having survived millions of years, coral reefs are among the oldest and most diverse ecosystems on earth. Learning about coral ecosystems encompasses many of the 9-12 grade science curriculum standards. Life cycles of organisms, biological structure and function of organisms, and the behaviors and adaptations of organisms to their environment are all topics easily studied through a focus on coral reefs. All populations in this ecosystem are interdependent and part of a global food web. Healthy coral ecosystems are important to the humans, plants, fish, and other organisms that depend on them. However, the increasing impact of climate changes and human activities is endangering the very survival of these ecosystems. Pollution, habitat loss, invasive species, and diseases are all threats to the survival of coral ecosystems around the globe. Learning about them- "their fragility and value"- will help students understand what is needed to protect them. This SciGuide highlights outstanding NOAA resources, such as online tutorials and complete, hands-on, inquiry based lesson plans from the National Ocean Services. These resources address three areas. First, students can study the biology of the coral organism, learning about types of coral and where they are found. Next, resources focus on the populations, habitat, and dynamics of coral ecosystems. Finally, teachers and students, through online data sources and activities, learn about conservation of our coral ecosystems. Natural threats, human disturbances, and the benefits of coral protection focus students on the real world importance of science learning.
National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)
SUMMARY In a series of experiments designed to simulate deep water rice growing conditions, Meloidogyne gralninicola Golden & Birchfield was found to survive in flooded soils and cause serious damage to cultivars of deep water rice from Bangladesh. M. graminicola significantly reduced growth of deep water rice before flooding and to a greater extent after flooding. On submergence, the majority
Sam L. J. PAGE
Large field screening programs and laboratory experiments in many countries have indicated that rice is allelopathic and releases allelochemical(s) into its environment. A number of compounds, such as phenolic acids, fatty acids, phenylalkanoic acids, hydroxamic acids, terpenes, and indoles, have been identified as potential rice allelochemicals. However, the studies reviewed here demonstrate that the labdane-related diterpenoid momilactones are the most important, with momilactone B playing a particularly critical role. Rice plants secrete momilactone B from their roots into the neighboring environments over their entire life cycle at phytotoxic levels, and momilactone B seems to account for the majority of the observed rice allelopathy. In addition, genetic studies have shown that selective removal of the momilactones only from the complex mixture found in rice root exudates significantly reduces allelopathy, demonstrating that these serve as allelochemicals, the importance of which is reflected in the presence of a dedicated momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in the rice genome. PMID:23385366
Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Peters, Reuben J
Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...
Background Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. Results We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the ‘polymorphism deserts’ in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Conclusions Analysis of genes in the ‘polymorphism deserts’ indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.
Krishnan S., Gopala; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Henry, Robert J.
Regarding the effects of UV-B radiation on aquatic ecosystems, recent scientific and public interest has focused on marine primary producers and on the aquatic web, which has resulted in a multitude of studies indicating mostly detrimental effects of UV-B radiation on aquatic organisms. The interest has expanded to include ecologically significant groups and major biomass producers using mesocosm studies, emphasizing
D.-P. Häder; H. D. Kumar; R. C. Smith; R. C. Worrest
Background and Aims The Asian genus Vigna, to which four cultivated species (rice bean, azuki bean, mung bean and black gram) belong, is suitable for comparative genomics. The aims were to construct a genetic linkage map of rice bean, to identify the genomic regions associated with domestication in rice bean, and to compare these regions with those in azuki bean. Methods A genetic linkage map was constructed by using simple sequence repeat and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers in the BC1F1 population derived from a cross between cultivated and wild rice bean. Using this map, 31 domestication-related traits were dissected into quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The genetic linkage map and QTLs of rice bean were compared with those of azuki bean. Key Results A total of 326 markers converged into 11 linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid number of rice bean chromosomes. The domestication-related traits in rice bean associated with a few major QTLs distributed as clusters on LGs 2, 4 and 7. A high level of co-linearity in marker order between the rice bean and azuki bean linkage maps was observed. Major QTLs in rice bean were found on LG4, whereas major QTLs in azuki bean were found on LG9. Conclusions This is the first report of a genetic linkage map and QTLs for domestication-related traits in rice bean. The inheritance of domestication-related traits was so simple that a few major QTLs explained the phenotypic variation between cultivated and wild rice bean. The high level of genomic synteny between rice bean and azuki bean facilitates QTL comparison between species. These results provide a genetic foundation for improvement of rice bean; interchange of major QTLs between rice bean and azuki bean might be useful for broadening the genetic variation of both species.
Isemura, Takehisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Shimizu, Takehiko; Vaughan, Duncan Alexander
In contrast with its largely lifeless interior, the Antarctic coastal marine environment supports a vibrant and diverse ecosystem. Explore the region's living bounty in this interactive activity adapted from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Foundation, Wgbh E.
The agricultural ecosystem concept promotes a distinctive set of ecological principles that give diversity and stability to the food production process. This system allows people to work more closely with nature and to feel a spiritual connection with the...
Developed as a collaborative project of the US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service, US Department of Commerce, NOAA-Sea Grant Office, and University of Maryland, Center for Environmental Science, this new Website examines how economists attempt to assign values to ecosystem services. The site is well organized and outlines general and specific topics under the following sections: The Big Picture, Essentials of Ecosystem Valuation, Dollar-based Ecosystem Valuation Methods, Ecosystem Benefit Indicators, and Links. Topics are explained in terms that laypersons will understand (a glossary is also provided) but without compromising the quality of information. Anyone interested in learning more about this controversial but increasingly important area will find this site an excellent starting point.
Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the major diseases of rice. The pathogen infects rice plants directly through stomata or using lobate appressoria\\u000a and hyphal masses called infection cushions. The infection structures were normally found at 36 h post-inoculation. During\\u000a infection, the pathogenesis-related genes, PR1b and PBZ1 were induced in rice plants. To identify rice genes induced
Chang-Jiang Zhao; Ai-Rong Wang; Yu-Jun Shi; Liu-Qing Wang; Wen-De Liu; Zong-Hua Wang; Guo-Dong Lu
Over the past 10 years, genomes of cultivated rice cultivars and their wild counterparts have been sequenced although most efforts are focused on genome assembly and annotation of two major cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies, 93-11 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica). To integrate information from genome assemblies and annotations for better analysis and application, we now introduce a comparative rice genome database, the Rice Genome Knowledgebase (RGKbase, http://rgkbase.big.ac.cn/RGKbase/). RGKbase is built to have three major components: (i) integrated data curation for rice genomics and molecular biology, which includes genome sequence assemblies, transcriptomic and epigenomic data, genetic variations, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the relevant literature; (ii) User-friendly viewers, such as Gbrowse, GeneBrowse and Circos, for genome annotations and evolutionary dynamics and (iii) Bioinformatic tools for compositional and synteny analyses, gene family classifications, gene ontology terms and pathways and gene co-expression networks. RGKbase current includes data from five rice cultivars and species: Nipponbare (japonica), 93-11 (indica), PA64s (indica), the African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and a wild rice species (Oryza brachyantha). We are also constantly introducing new datasets from variety of public efforts, such as two recent releases—sequence data from ?1000 rice varieties, which are mapped into the reference genome, yielding ample high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions–deletions.
Wang, Dapeng; Xia, Yan; Li, Xinna; Hou, Lixia; Yu, Jun
Over the past 10 years, genomes of cultivated rice cultivars and their wild counterparts have been sequenced although most efforts are focused on genome assembly and annotation of two major cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies, 93-11 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica). To integrate information from genome assemblies and annotations for better analysis and application, we now introduce a comparative rice genome database, the Rice Genome Knowledgebase (RGKbase, http://rgkbase.big.ac.cn/RGKbase/). RGKbase is built to have three major components: (i) integrated data curation for rice genomics and molecular biology, which includes genome sequence assemblies, transcriptomic and epigenomic data, genetic variations, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the relevant literature; (ii) User-friendly viewers, such as Gbrowse, GeneBrowse and Circos, for genome annotations and evolutionary dynamics and (iii) Bioinformatic tools for compositional and synteny analyses, gene family classifications, gene ontology terms and pathways and gene co-expression networks. RGKbase current includes data from five rice cultivars and species: Nipponbare (japonica), 93-11 (indica), PA64s (indica), the African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and a wild rice species (Oryza brachyantha). We are also constantly introducing new datasets from variety of public efforts, such as two recent releases-sequence data from ?1000 rice varieties, which are mapped into the reference genome, yielding ample high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions-deletions. PMID:23193278
Wang, Dapeng; Xia, Yan; Li, Xinna; Hou, Lixia; Yu, Jun
Total mercury (THg) levels in 440 pairs of milled rice samples and brown rice samples from 15 major rice grain-producing provinces of China were measured and the associated health risk via rice consumption for different age categories of Chinese population was also assessed. THg contents were measured by a direct mercury analyser and the limit of detection (LOD) was 1.5 ?g kg(-1). The THg levels for milled rice samples and brown rice samples varied from non-detected to 17.8 ?g kg(-1) and 1.5 to 25.4 ?g kg(-1), respectively, with a mean level of 3.4 ?g kg(-1) and 4.9 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The THg levels in all milled and brown rice samples were generally low, except three brown rice samples having concentrations above the legally set value for cereals (20 ?g kg(-1) Hg). THg intakes for different age categories were estimated according to THg content and corresponding rice consumption and the associated health risk was evaluated by the corresponding provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for THg (5.0 ?g kg(-1) bw week(-1)), which was established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The 50th percentile of the THg intakes via milled rice and brown rice consumption for different age categories was in the range 0.09-0.19 ?g kg(-1) bw week(-1) and 0.14-0.27 ?g kg(-1) bw week(-1), respectively, well below the PTWI, suggesting that the associated health risk is relatively low. However, the 99.9th percentile of the THg intakes for 2-4-year-old children amounted up to 20.6% of the PTWI (milled rice) and 29.5% of the PTWI (brown rice), which deserves attention. PMID:24914600
Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Dongmei; Zhang, Jialing; Shang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning
This study investigated the antioxidant content and activity of phenolic acids, anthocyanins, ?-tocopherol and ?-oryzanol in pigmented rice (black and red rice) brans. After methanolic extraction, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity were measured. The pigmented rice bran extract had a greater reducing power than a normal rice bran extract from a long grain white rice. All bran extracts were highly effective in inhibiting linoleic acid peroxidation (60-85%). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of antioxidants in rice bran found that ?-oryzanol (39-63%) and phenolic acids (33-43%) were the major antioxidants in all bran samples, and black rice bran also contained anthocyanins 18-26%. HPLC analysis of anthocyanins showed that pigmented bran was rich in cyanidin-3-glucoside (58-95%). Ferulic acid was the dominant phenolic acid in the rice bran samples. Black rice bran contained gallic, hydroxybenzoic, and protocatechuic acids in higher contents than red rice bran and normal rice bran. Furthermore, the addition of 5% black rice bran to wheat flour used for making bread produced a marked increase in the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity compared to a control bread. PMID:21141962
Laokuldilok, Thunnop; Shoemaker, Charles F; Jongkaewwattana, Sakda; Tulyathan, Vanna
Little is currently known about the response of rice plants to UV-B radiation, enriched CO2, or elevated temperature. ven less is known about the responses of important rice ecosystem components (pests, pathogens, weeds, nitrogen fixation, methanogenesis) to these factors. o accu...
The rice brown spot disease caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Ito et Kurib.) Drechsl. ex Dast. = (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda da Haan) is a key disease in mangrove swamp rice ecosystem in Sierra Leone. On average, grain yield losses of 8.2–23.0% were caused by the pathogen in mangrove swamps of northwestern Sierra Leone in the 1983, 1984 and 1985 cropping seasons.
S. N. Fomba; N. Singh
Domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the world's most important food crops, culturally, nutritionally and economically (Khush 1997). Thus, it is no surprise that there is intense curiosity about its genetic and geographical origins, its response to selection under domestication, and the genetic structure of its wild relative, Oryza rufipogon. Studies of Oryza attempting to answer these questions have accompanied each stage of the development of molecular markers, starting with allozymes and continuing to genome sequencing. While many of these studies have been restricted to small sample sizes, in terms of either the number of markers used or the number and distribution of the accessions, costs are now low enough that researchers are including large numbers of molecular markers and accessions. How will these studies relate to previous findings and long-held assumptions about rice domestication and evolution? If the paper in this issue of Molecular Ecology (Huang et al. 2012) is any indication, there will be some considerable surprises in store. In this study, a geographically and genomically thorough sampling of O. rufipogon and O. sativa revealed two genetically distinct groups of wild rice and also indicated that only one of these groups appears to be related to domesticated rice. While this fits well with previous studies indicating that there are genetic subdivisions within O. rufipogon, it stands in contrast to previous findings that the two major varieties of O. sativa (indica and japonica) were domesticated from two (or more) subpopulations of wild rice. PMID:22967059
Gross, Briana L
Proteomics is progressing at an unprecedented pace, as can be exemplified by the progress in model organisms such as yeast, bacteria, and mammals. Proteomics research in plants, however, has not progressed at the same pace. Unscrambling of the genome sequences of the dicotyledoneous Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) and monocotyledoneous rice (Oryza sativa L.) plant species, respectively, has made them accessible reference organisms to study plant proteomics. Study of these two reference plants is expected to unravel the mystery of plant biology. Rice, a critically important food crop on the earth, has been termed a "cornerstone" and the "Rosetta stone" for functional genomics of cereal crops. Here, we look at the progress in unraveling rice proteomes and present the facts, challenges, and vision. The text is divided into two major parts: the first part presents the facts and the second part discusses the challenges and vision. The facts include the technology and its use in developing proteomes, which have been critically and constructively reviewed. The challenges and vision deal with the establishment of technologies to exhaustively investigate the protein components of a proteome, to generate high-resolution gel-based reference maps, and to give rice proteomics a functional dimension by studying PTMs and isolation of multiprotein complexes. Finally, we direct a vision on rice proteomics. This is our third review in series on rice proteomics, which aims to stimulate an objective discussion among rice researchers and to understand the necessity and impact of unraveling rice proteomes to their full potential. PMID:16991195
Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Jwa, Nam-Soo; Iwahashi, Yumiko; Yonekura, Masami; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Rakwal, Randeep
Vitamin-A deficiency (VAD) is a major malnutrition problem in South Asia, where indica rice is the staple food. Indica-type rice varieties feed more than 2 billion people. Hence, we introduced a combination of transgenes using the biolistic system of transformation enabling biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm of several indica rice cultivars adapted to diverse ecosystems of different countries. The rice seed-specific glutelin promoter (Gt-1 P) was used to drive the expression of phytoene synthase (psy), while lycopene beta-cyclase (lcy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI), fused to the transit peptide sequence of the pea-Rubisco small subunit, were driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S P). Transgenic plants were recovered through selection with either CaMV35S P driven hph (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene or cestrum yellow leaf curling virus promoter (CMP) driven pmi (phophomannose isomerase) gene. Molecular and biochemical analyses demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes. The yellow colour of the polished rice grain evidenced the carotenoid accumulation in the endosperm. The colour intensity correlated with the estimated carotenoid content by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Carotenoid level in cooked polished seeds was comparable (with minor loss of xanthophylls) to that in non-cooked seeds of the same transgenic line. The variable segregation pattern in T1 selfing generation indicated single to multiple loci insertion of the transgenes in the genome. This is the first report of using nonantibiotic pmi driven by a novel promoter in generating transgenic indica rice for possible future use in human nutrition. PMID:17147745
Datta, Karabi; Baisakh, Niranjan; Oliva, Norman; Torrizo, Lina; Abrigo, Editha; Tan, Jing; Rai, Mayank; Rehana, Sayda; Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter; Potrykus, Ingo; Datta, Swapan K
A quick and accurate method was devised to determine Se, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn in Se-rich rice samples by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Spectral interferences on Se were eliminated using methane as a reaction gas in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC). Rhodium was used as an internal standard to compensate for sample matrix effects. A rice-certified reference material (CRM) (GBW 10010) was used to verify the accuracy of the method. The method detection limits were 0.001-0.03 mg/kg, analyte recoveries were 85-108% and precisions (RSDs) ranged from 2.1% to 5.8%. Correlation analysis showed that the Se concentrations in the Se-rich rice samples correlated well with the Cu concentrations (r=0.53, p<0.05). PMID:24767089
Wei, Yi Hua; Zhang, Jin Yan; Zhang, Da Wen; Luo, Lin Guang; Tu, Tian Hua
This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page highlights the coastal ecosystems of southern Florida. Research displayed from poster presentations covers the coastal area habitats, sustaining and enhancing coastal waters, major coastal challenges, restoring and enhancing estuaries, and using science for effective resource management. The six estuaries discussed are the Caloosahatchee, Southwest Florida, Biscayne Bay, Florida Bay, Florida Keys, and St. Lucie estuaries. Specific issues concerning each estuary are covered, and links are provided for additional information.
Rice is semi-aquatic, adapted to a wide range of hydrologies, from aerobic soils in uplands to anaerobic and flooded fields in waterlogged lowlands, to even deeply submerged soils in flood-prone areas. Considerable diversity is present in native rice landraces selected by farmers over centuries. Our understanding of the adaptive features of these landraces to native ecosystems has improved considerably over the recent past. In some cases, major genes associated with tolerance have been cloned, such as SUB1A that confers tolerance of complete submergence and SNORKEL genes that control plant elongation to escape deepwater. Modern rice varieties are sensitive to flooding during germination and early growth, a problem commonly encountered in rainfed areas, but few landraces capable of germination under these conditions have recently been identified, enabling research into tolerance mechanisms. Major QTLs were also identified, and are being targeted for molecular breeding and for cloning. Nevertheless, limited progress has been made in identifying regulatory processes for traits that are unique to tolerant genotypes, including faster germination and coleoptile elongation, formation of roots and leaves under hypoxia, ability to catabolize starch into simple sugars for subsequent use in glycolysis and fermentative pathways to generate energy. Here we discuss the state of knowledge on the role of the PDC-ALDH-ACS bypass and the ALDH enzyme as the likely candidates effective in tolerant rice genotypes. Potential involvement of factors such as cytoplasmic pH regulation, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species scavenging and other metabolites is also discussed. Further characterization of contrasting genotypes would help in elucidating the genetic and biochemical regulatory and signaling mechanisms associated with tolerance. This could facilitate breeding rice varieties suitable for direct seeding systems and guide efforts for improving waterlogging tolerance in other crops.
Miro, Berta; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.
Methane flux was measured from four tropical, Indian ecosystems: dryland, irrigated rice, seasonally dry forest and savanna. Flux from the irrigated rice paddies was in the range 2.14–8.23mgCH4m?2h?1 during the crop period. In contrast, the dryland rice soil consumed 0.12–0.90mgCH4m?2h?1. Application of wheat straw+fertilizer stimulated CH4 production in irrigated rice soil while it reduced CH4 consumption in dryland rice plots.
J. S. Singh; A. S. Raghubanshi; V. S. Reddy; S. Singh; A. K. Kashyap
In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine ecosystem that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.
Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.
Major deficiency disorders, including vitamin A deficiency, are especially common in countries in which rice is the staple food. In response to the devastating effects of vitamin A deficiency, which may include blindness and, even death, "Golden Rice" has been developed to deliver this nutrient to those populations who need it most. The case of Golden Rice is used to demonstrate the challenges of radical GMO opposition, consumer acceptance, and regulation of biotechnology-derived foods. PMID:12908739
Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.
Rice is ordinarily harvested at moisture contents above safe storage levels, so additional drying is usually necessary. The purpose of the research discussed in this report was to determine the factors which affect rice drying rates. The basic approach us...
J. F. Robayo H. B. Pfost
The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively used to control rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae worldwide. Despite a number of studies that reported the Pi-ta gene in domesticated rice and wild species, little is known about how the Pi-ta gene has evolved in US weedy rice, a major weed of rice. To investigate the genome organization of the Pi-ta gene in weedy rice and its relationship to gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US, we analyzed nucleotide sequence variation at the Pi-ta gene and its surrounding 2 Mb region in 156 weedy, domesticated and wild rice relatives. We found that the region at and around the Pi-ta gene shows very low genetic diversity in US weedy rice. The patterns of molecular diversity in weeds are more similar to cultivated rice (indica and aus), which have never been cultivated in the US, rather than the wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. In addition, the resistant Pi-ta allele (Pi-ta) found in the majority of US weedy rice belongs to the weedy group strawhull awnless (SH), suggesting a single source of origin for Pi-ta. Weeds with Pi-ta were resistant to two M. oryzae races, IC17 and IB49, except for three accessions, suggesting that component(s) required for the Pi-ta mediated resistance may be missing in these accessions. Signatures of flanking sequences of the Pi-ta gene and SSR markers on chromosome 12 suggest that the susceptible pi-ta allele (pi-ta), not Pi-ta, has been introgressed from cultivated to weedy rice by out-crossing.
Lee, Seonghee; Jia, Yulin; Jia, Melissa; Gealy, David R.; Olsen, Kenneth M.; Caicedo, Ana L.
Summary The nucleotide sequence of DNA complementary to rice ragged stunt oryzavirus (RRSV) genome segment 8 (S8) of an isolate from Thailand was determined. RRSV S8 is 1914 bp in size and contains a single large open reading frame (ORF) spanning nucleotides 23 to 1810 which is capable of encoding a protein ofMr 67 348. The N-terminal amino acid sequence
N. M. Upadhyaya; E. Zinkowsky; Z. Li; W. Kositratana; P. M. Waterhouse
Indonesia is a country very much dependent on rice. It has consistently been a rice net importer for a long time, except for a brief intermittent of self- sufficiency in late 1980s. Yet, resistance to importation is always strongly pronounced. As a result, government policy tends to bias against the majority net consumers of rice, a group dominated by the
M. Chatib Basri; Arianto A. Patunru
Three types of rice cultivars (indica, japonica and hybrid rice) with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physicochemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, that was determined by a rapid visco
Dianxing Wu; Qingyao Shu; Zhonghua Wang; Yingwu Xia
Arsenic (As) contamination of rice grains and the generally low concentration of micronutrients in rice have been recognized as a major concern for human health. Here, we investigated the speciation and localization of As and the distribution of (micro)nutrients in rice grains b...
Arsenic (As) contamination of rice grains and the generally low concentration of micronutrients in rice have been recognized as a major concern for human health. Here, we investigated the speciation and localization of As and the distribution of (micro)nutrients in rice grains because these are key factors controlling bioavailability of nutrients and contaminants. Bulk total and speciation analyses using high-pressure
E. Lombi; K. G. Scheckel; J. Pallon; A. M. Carey; Y. G. Zhu; A. A. Meharg
Identification of a New Rice Blast Resistance Gene, Pid3, by Genomewide Comparison of Paired Nucleotide-Binding Site-Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes and Their Pseudogene Alleles Between the Two Sequenced Rice Genomes
Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases. The two major subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), indica and japonica, have shown obvious differences in rice blast resistance, but the genomic basis that underlies the difference is not clear. We performed a genomewide comparison of the major class of resistant gene family, the
Junjun Shang; Yong Tao; Xuewei Chen; Yan Zou; Cailin Lei; Jing Wang; Xiaobing Li; Xianfeng Zhao; Meijun Zhang; Zhike Lu; Jichen Xu; Zhukuan Cheng; Jianmin Wan; Lihuang Zhu
Filter aids continue to play an important role in the beer brewing process. The majority of commercial products are either diatomite- or perlite based. However, rice hull ash, a by-product from the incineration of rice hulls, has been shown to be an effective filter aid in the filtration of raw sugar liquors. A research team from the Cuban Research Institute
JC Villar; RE Cañete; EA Manganelly
BACKGROUND: Rice is both a food source for a majority of the world's population and an important model system. Available functional genomics resources include targeted insertion mutagenesis and transgenic tools. While these can be powerful, a non-transgenic, unbiased targeted mutagenesis method that can generate a range of allele types would add considerably to the analysis of the rice genome. TILLING
Bradley J Till; Jennifer Cooper; Thomas H Tai; Peter Colowit; Elizabeth A Greene; Steven Henikoff; Luca Comai
Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On
Sikha Deka; Sharmistha Barthakur
Low silicon rice gene 1 (Lsi1) belongs to a member of Nod26-like major intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily and is thought to control silicon (Si) accumulation in rice. In order to further elucidate its regulatory mechanisms\\u000a in the defense of rice plants to enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation stress, Lsi1 was subjected to suppressed and overexpressed treatments in a UV-B tolerance rice
Chang-Xun Fang; Qing-Shui Wang; Yan Yu; Qing-Mao Li; Hai-Li Zhang; Xing-Chun Wu; Ting Chen; Wen-Xiong Lin
This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from
John C. de Leon
A series of rice pest injuries (due to pathogens, insects, and weeds) were surveyed in 286 farmers' fields for major rice varieties of three rice cropping zones of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The composition and dynamics of main pest species were analyzed, and the trend of rice pest succession in Yunnan was discussed based upon landmark publications. The results showed that the three rice cropping zones had different pest characteristics as regard to main species, dynamics and combined injuries. Sheath rot, bacterial leaf blight, rice stripe, leaf hoppers, armyworms and stem borers were serious in the japonica rice zone. Sheath blight and rice stripe were serious in the japonica-indica interlacing zone. Leaf blast, sheath blight, leaf folders and weeds above rice crop canopy were serious in the indica rice zone. False smut, plant hoppers and weeds below rice crop canopy were ubiquitous and serious in the three kinds of rice cropping zones. Many kinds of weed infestation emerged in the whole rice cropping seasons. Echinochloa crusgalli, Sagittaria pygmaea, Potamogeton distinctus and Spirodela polyrhiza were the main species of weeds in the rice cropping zones of Yunnan. Overall, levels of combined injuries due to pests in the japonica rice zone and the indica rice zone were higher than that in the japonica-indica interlacing zone. In terms of the trend of rice pest succession in Yunnan, injuries due to false smut, sheath blight and plant hoppers seemed to be in a worse tendency in all rice cropping zones of Yunnan, while dominants species of weeds in the paddy fields are shifting from the annual weeds to the perennial malignant weeds. PMID:24765862
Dong, Kun; Dong, Yan; Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Li-Min; Zan, Qing-An; Chen, Bin; Li, Zheng-Yue
Louisiana's coast and its degradation and restoration are major environmental issues being studied at the National Wetlands Research Center. Coastal ecosystems are vulnerable because of the tremendous amount of human activity that takes place along the coast. Information on ecological processes is essential to guide the development along the coast as well as to protect and restore wildlife habitat. Louisiana has about 40% of coastal wetlands in the lower 48 states; they support fish, waterfowl, and fur-bearing animals as well as unique cultures like that of the Acadians. The fish and wildlife resources of Louisiana's coast produce over $1 billion each year in revenues. But Louisiana has the highest coastal loss rate because of natural and human causes. Over the past three decades, Louisiana has lost as much as 35-40 mi2 (90-104 km2) of coastal wetlands a year. The National Wetlands Research Center is qualified to assess and monitor this ecosystem because of its proximity to the study area, a staff chosen for their expertise in the system, and a number of established partnerships with others who study the areas. The Center is often the lead group in partnerships with universities, other federal agencies, and private entities who study this ecosystem. Most of the Center's research and technology development performed for coastal wetlands are done at the Lafayette headquarters; some work is performed at the National Wetlands Research Center's project office in Baton Rouge, LA.
U.S. Geological Survey
Natural isotope abundances to trace major pathways of energy flow to consumers in Imnavait Creek and the tundra ecosystem of the R4D watershed with comparative work in the coastal tundra. Our overall goals are to a determine if carbon is accumulating in upland and coastal tundra; determine the role of eroded peat carbon in the aquatic ecosystem; and to determine
Of the four major eastern boundary currents, the Humboldt Current (HC) stands out because it is extremely productive, dominated by anchovy dynamics and subject to frequent direct environmental perturbations of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The long-term dynamics of the HC ecosystem are controlled by shifts between alternating anchovy and sardine regimes that restructure the entire ecosystem from phytoplankton
Jürgen Alheit; Miguel Niquen
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed the ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) as one of its major research efforts. The goal of this program is to create ?A comprehensive theory and practice for quantifying ecosystem services so that their value and their...
Efforts to preserve biological diversity must focus increasingly at the ecosystem level because of the immense number of species, the majority of which are currently unknown. An ecosystem approach is also the only way to conserve processes and habitats (such as forest canopies, belowground habitats, and hyporheic zones) that, with their constituent species, are poorly known. Continued concern with species
JERRY F. FRANKLIN
Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, ?-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of ?-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice. PMID:24804068
Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique
Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, ?-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of ?-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.
Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique
Human lactoferrin (hLF) is a multifunctional milk protein which could be utilized for promoting human health. Transgenic rice has been used as a bioreactor for mass production of recombinant hLF. However, one major concern over such transgenic rice is the risk of its unintended spreading into environment and into our food supplies. Here we report the development of selectively terminable transgenic rice expressing human lactoferrin in seeds. These transgenic rice plants could be selectively terminated by bentazon, a common herbicide used for rice weed control. The hLF expression cassette was constructed into a T-DNA containing the RNA interference cassette suppressing the expression of the rice gene CYP81A6 which detoxifies herbicide bentazon, and the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) cassette which confers to glyphosate tolerance. A transgenic line, named as G281, was identified for its high sensitivity to bentazon, high tolerance to glyphosate, and high expression of hLF. Southern analysis suggested G281 is a single copy insertion event. Field tests demonstrated that G281 plants can be completely killed by a single spray of bentazon at 1000 mg/L, which is safe to regular rice and represents only half of the dose recommended by manufacturer for rice field weed control. Therefore, any G281 contaminations in regular rice could be selectively terminated to make sure it will not enter food or feed supplies. PMID:20433928
Lin, Chaoyang; Nie, Peng; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Li, Jing; Shen, Zhicheng
The current rate of biodiversity loss threatens to disrupt greatly the functioning of ecosystems, with potentially significant consequences for humanity. The magnitude of the loss is generally measured with the use of species extinction rates, an approach that understates the severity of the problem and masks some of its most important consequences. Here, we propose a major expansion of this
Gary W. Luck; Gretchen C. Daily; Paul R. Ehrlich
Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.
Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.
Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. PMID:24433791
Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi
Phospholipids (PLs) are a major class of lipid in rice grain. Although PLs are only a minor nutrient compared to starch and protein, they may have both nutritional and functional significance. We have systemically reviewed the literature on the class, distribution and variation of PLs in rice, their relation to rice end-use quality and human health, as well as available methods for analytical profiling. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and their lyso forms are the major PLs in rice. The deterioration of PC in rice bran during storage was considered as a trigger for the degradation of rice lipids with associated rancid flavour in paddy and brown rice. The lyso forms in rice endosperm represent the major starch lipid, and may form inclusion complexes with amylose, affecting the physicochemical properties and digestibility of starch, and hence its cooking and eating quality. Dietary PLs have a positive impact on several human diseases and reduce the side-effects of some drugs. As rice has long been consumed as a staple food in many Asian countries, rice PLs may have significant health benefits for those populations. Rice PLs may be influenced both by genetic (G) and environmental (E) factors, and resolving G×E interactions may allow future exploitation of PL composition and content, thus boosting rice eating quality and health benefits for consumers. We have identified and summarised the different methods used for rice PL analysis, and discussed the consequences of variation in reported PL values due to inconsistencies between methods. This review enhances the understanding of the nature and importance of PLs in rice and outlines potential approaches for manipulating PLs to improve the quality of rice grain and other cereals. PMID:23561219
Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Bao, Jinsong; King, Graham J
This site about ecosystems and biomes contains a map of different ecosystems, and provides rainfall statistics for each biome. There are sections on tropical rainforest, taiga (or boreal forest), savanna, desert, and tundra ecosystems. Each section describes the biome and its origins, where it is found, and how humans impact it. In some cases, sustainable development of the ecosystem is explained.
With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a ‘one size fits all’ crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market.
Calingacion, Mariafe; Laborte, Alice; Nelson, Andrew; Resurreccion, Adoracion; Concepcion, Jeanaflor Crystal; Daygon, Venea Dara; Mumm, Roland; Reinke, Russell; Dipti, Sharifa; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk; Manful, John; Sophany, Sakhan; Lara, Karla Cordero; Bao, Jinsong; Xie, Lihong; Loaiza, Katerine; El-hissewy, Ahmad; Gayin, Joseph; Sharma, Neerja; Rajeswari, Sivakami; Manonmani, Swaminathan; Rani, N. Shobha; Kota, Suneetha; Indrasari, Siti Dewi; Habibi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Maryam; Tavasoli, Fatemeh; Suzuki, Keitaro; Umemoto, Takayuki; Boualaphanh, Chanthkone; Lee, Huei Hong; Hung, Yiu Pang; Ramli, Asfaliza; Aung, Pa Pa; Ahmad, Rauf; Wattoo, Javed Iqbal; Bandonill, Evelyn; Romero, Marissa; Brites, Carla Moita; Hafeel, Roshni; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Cheaupun, Kunya; Jongdee, Supanee; Blanco, Pedro; Bryant, Rolfe; Thi Lang, Nguyen; Hall, Robert D.; Fitzgerald, Melissa
Root system development is an important target for improving yield in cereal crops. Active root systems that can take up nutrients more efficiently are essential for enhancing grain yield. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in root system development by measuring root length of rice seedlings grown in hydroponic culture. Reliable growth conditions for estimating the root length were first established to renew nutrient solutions daily and supply NH4(+) as a single nitrogen source. Thirty-eight chromosome segment substitution lines derived from a cross between 'Koshihikari', a japonica variety, and 'Kasalath', an indica variety, were used to detect QTL for seminal root length of seedlings grown in 5 or 500 microM NH4(+). Eight chromosomal regions were found to be involved in root elongation. Among them, the most effective QTL was detected on a 'Kasalath' segment of SL-218, which was localized to the long-arm of chromosome 6. The 'Kasalath' allele at this QTL, qRL6.1, greatly promoted root elongation under all NH4(+) concentrations tested. The genetic effect of this QTL was confirmed by analysis of the near-isogenic line (NIL) qRL6.1. The seminal root length of the NIL was 13.5-21.1% longer than that of 'Koshihikari' under different NH4(+) concentrations. Toward our goal of applying qRL6.1 in a molecular breeding program to enhance rice yield, a candidate genomic region of qRL6.1 was delimited within a 337 kb region in the 'Nipponbare' genome by means of progeny testing of F2 plants/F3 lines derived from a cross between SL-218 and 'Koshihikari'. PMID:20390245
Obara, Mitsuhiro; Tamura, Wataru; Ebitani, Takeshi; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Tadashi; Yamaya, Tomoyuki
Rice fields are an important source for the greenhouse gas methane. Methane is a major degradation product of organic matter in the anoxic soil, is partially oxidized in the rhizosphere and is emitted into the atmosphere through the aerenchyma system of the plants. Anaerobic degradation of organic matter by fermenting bacteria eventually results in the production of acetate and hydrogen, the two major substrates for microbial methanogenesis. The community of methanogenic archaea consists of several major orders or families including hydrogen-utilizing Rice Cluster-I (RC-I). Environmental conditions affect the methanogenic degradation process and the community structure of the methanogenic archaea in soil and rhizosphere. For example, populations of acetoclastic Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae are enhanced by low and high acetate concentrations, respectively. Stable isotope probing of 16S rRNA showed that RC-I methanogens are mainly active on rice roots and at low H2 concentrations. Growth and population size is largely consistent with energetic conditions. RC-I methanogens on roots seem to be responsible for methane production from plant photosynthates that account for a major part of the emitted methane. Populations of RC-I methanogens in rice field soil are also enhanced at elevated temperatures (40-50°C). Moderately thermophilic members of RC-I methanogens or other methanogenic families were found to be ubiquitously present in soils from rice fields and river marshes. The genome of a RC-I methanogen was completely sequenced out of an enrichment culture using a metagenome approach. Genes found are consistent with life in the rhizosphere and in temporarily drained, oxic soil. We found that the methanogenic community structure on the rice roots is mainly determined by the respective community structure of the soil, but is in addition affected by the rice cultivar. Rice microcosms in which soil and rice roots are mainly colonized by RC-I methanogens produce and emit more methane than when inhabited by Methanomicrobiales, indicating that the methanogenic archaeal community is an important factor for methane emission from rice fields.
BACKGROUND: High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and
Haining Lin; Shu Ouyang; Amy Egan; Kan Nobuta; Brian J Haas; Wei Zhu; Xun Gu; Joana C Silva; Blake C Meyers; C Robin Buell
In this chapter, a summary of the evolution of major practices in rice production over the last 100 years in the country is presented. These practices essentially evolved out of the changes in the varieties introduced and planted by Filipino farmers, which have to change the manner by which production and postharvest operations have to be done in order to
Eulito U. Bautista; Evelyn F. Javier
In the past decade significant scientific progress has been made with the Golden Rice project. Significant increases in carotenoid have been achieved. Micronutrient malnutrition has been recognised as a major factor in total world malnutrition. What could be responsible for the continuing slow progress of the project? The answer may be related to the confluence of three influences on world
Adrian C Dubock
The recent Millennium Ecosystem Assessment has illustrated that human actions have significantly transformed many of Earths ecosystems. The main findings describe how: humans changed ecosystems dramatically over the past 50 years, changes to ecosystem services may get worse in the next 50 years, global action at all levels can reverse the degradation, and how ecosystem degradation increases risks of sudden changes and reduces benefits for future generations.
ChristiÃÂÃÂ¡n Samper (National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution;)
In order to identify the viable option of tillage practices in rice-maize-cowpea cropping system that could cut down soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, sustain grain yield, and maintain better soil quality in tropical low land rice ecology soil respiration in terms of CO2 emission, labile carbon (C) pools, water-stable aggregate C fractions, and enzymatic activities were investigated in a sandy clay loam soil. Soil respiration is the major pathway of gaseous C efflux from terrestrial systems and acts as an important index of ecosystem functioning. The CO2-C emissions were quantified in between plants and rows throughout the year in rice-maize-cowpea cropping sequence both under conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) practices along with soil moisture and temperature. The CO2-C emissions, as a whole, were 24 % higher in between plants than in rows, and were in the range of 23.4-78.1, 37.1-128.1, and 28.6-101.2 mg m(-2) h(-1) under CT and 10.7-60.3, 17.3-99.1, and 17.2-79.1 mg m(-2) h(-1) under MT in rice, maize, and cowpea, respectively. The CO2-C emission was found highest under maize (44 %) followed by rice (33 %) and cowpea (23 %) irrespective of CT and MT practices. In CT system, the CO2-C emission increased significantly by 37.1 % with respect to MT on cumulative annual basis including fallow. The CO2-C emission per unit yield was at par in rice and cowpea signifying the beneficial effect of MT in maintaining soil quality and reduction of CO2 emission. The microbial biomass C (MBC), readily mineralizable C (RMC), water-soluble C (WSC), and permanganate-oxidizable C (PMOC) were 19.4, 20.4, 39.5, and 15.1 % higher under MT than CT. The C contents in soil aggregate fraction were significantly higher in MT than CT. Soil enzymatic activities like, dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate, and ?-glucosidase were significantly higher by 13.8, 15.4, and 27.4 % under MT compared to CT. The soil labile C pools, enzymatic activities, and heterotrophic microbial populations were in the order of maize?>?cowpea?>?rice, irrespective of the tillage treatments. Environmental sustainability point of view, minimum tillage practices in rice-maize-cowpea cropping system in tropical low land soil could be adopted to minimize CO2-C emission, sustain yield, and maintain soil health. PMID:24609455
Neogi, S; Bhattacharyya, P; Roy, K S; Panda, B B; Nayak, A K; Rao, K S; Manna, M C
The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.
Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S. (Stuart); Bjorklund, E. A. (Eric A.); Burns, M. J. (Mary J.); Carr, G. (Gary); Carr, G. (Gary); Faucett, John Allen,; Hayden, D. J. (David J.); Lusk, M. D. (Matthew D.); Merl, R. B. (Robert B.); Potter, J. M. (Jerry M.); Reynolds, J. A. (Jerome A.); Romero, D. B. (Dolores B.); Shelley, F. E. (Fred E.)
Global warming affects not only rice yield but also grain quality. A better understanding of the effects of climate factors on rice quality provides information for new breeding strategies to develop varieties of rice adapted to a changing world. Chalkiness is a key trait of physical quality, and along with head rice yield, is used to determine the price of rice in all markets. In the present study, we show that for every ?1% decrease in chalkiness, an increase of ?1% in head rice yield follows, illustrating the dual impact of chalk on amount of marketable rice and its value. Previous studies in controlled growing conditions report that chalkiness is associated with high temperature. From 1980-2009 at IRRI, Los Baños, the Philippines, annual minimum and mean temperatures, and diurnal variation changed significantly. The objective of this study was to determine how climate impacts chalkiness in field conditions over four wet and dry seasons. We show that low relative humidity and a high vapour pressure deficit in the dry season associate with low chalk and high head rice yield in spite of higher maximum temperature, but in the opposite conditions of the wet season, chalk is high and head rice yield is low. The data therefore suggest that transpirational cooling is a key factor affecting chalkiness and head rice yield, and global warming per se might not be the major factor that decreases the amount and quality of rice, but other climate factors in combination, that enable the crop to maintain a cool canopy. PMID:23776635
Zhao, Xiangqian; Fitzgerald, Melissa
This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the natural and human causes of ecosystem stress. Human beings live near coral ecosystems and use them in a variety of ways. Increasing amounts of stress is brought on these ecosystems as humans continue to modify the surrounding environment as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. Human destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, and other factors is threatening the stability and overall health of many coral reefs. Human activities may also exacerbate the impact of natural disturbances on coral reefs or compromise the ability of the reef to recover from events such as hurricanes, tsunamis, or disease. Learning Outcomes:ï¿½ Describe ways in which human activities directly impact coral reef ecosystems (resource and recreational uses).ï¿½ Describe ways in which human activities indirectly impact coral reef ecosystems (by changing the physical conditions, pollution, changes in the water chemistry, etc.).ï¿½ Explain how human activity may decrease the reefs ability to recover from natural occurrences. ï¿½ Explain the effects of increased predation or disease on a reef ecosystem.ï¿½ Describe the effect of habitat loss on the reef ecosystem.ï¿½ Describe the effects of weather and climate change on a healthy and weakened reef ecosystem.
National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)
Threshold method was utilized to discriminate rice cropping systems based on the noticeable variation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during key growth stages in Poyang Lake Region, China. This area is dominated by double- and single rice cropping systems which tend to change due to the frequent ecosystem management policies. We used a new satellite data from the CCD camera sensor with 30 m spatial resolution onboard the China Environmental Satellite HJ-1A and B. The HJ -1A/B with a better temporal resolution of four days provides more data options for effective and timely agriculture monitoring. The result showed that there is evident difference of NDVI between single and late rice during mid October when they are in different growth stages. The areas of single and late rice in 2011 were 2988.6 km2 and 3105.9 km2, respectively. Paddy field distribution map and local paddy rice calendar are requisite to move the threshold method into other multiple rice cropping regions. The study suggests that the China Environmental Satellite HJ-1A/B have the potential to rice cropping system in the double to triple rice cropping systems area. With many advantages of HJ-1A/B, like, finer spatial and temporal resolution, bigger imaging swath, it may make rice cropping system monitoring more feasible and operational.
Li, Peng; Jiang, Luguang; Feng, Zhiming
For centuries, traditional agricultural systems have contributed to food and livelihood security throughout the world. Recognizing the ecological legacy in the traditional agricultural systems may help us develop novel sustainable agriculture. We examine how rice-fish coculture (RF), which has been designated a "globally important agricultural heritage system," has been maintained for over 1,200 y in south China. A field survey demonstrated that although rice yield and rice-yield stability are similar in RF and rice monoculture (RM), RF requires 68% less pesticide and 24% less chemical fertilizer than RM. A field experiment confirmed this result. We documented that a mutually beneficial relationship between rice and fish develops in RF: Fish reduce rice pests and rice favors fish by moderating the water environment. This positive relationship between rice and fish reduces the need for pesticides in RF. Our results also indicate a complementary use of nitrogen (N) between rice and fish in RF, resulting in low N fertilizer application and low N release into the environment. These findings provide unique insights into how positive interactions and complementary use of resource between species generate emergent ecosystem properties and how modern agricultural systems might be improved by exploiting synergies between species. PMID:22084110
Xie, Jian; Hu, Liangliang; Tang, Jianjun; Wu, Xue; Li, Nana; Yuan, Yongge; Yang, Haishui; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Chen, Xin
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in an agricultural ecosystem are necessary for proper management of beneficial symbiosis. Here we explored how the patterns of the AMF community in rice roots were affected by rice cultivation systems (the system of rice intensification [SRI] and the conventional rice cultivation system [CS]), and by compost application during growth stages. Rice plants harvested from SRI-managed plots exhibited considerably higher total biomass, root dry weight, and seed fill than those obtained from conventionally managed plots. Our findings revealed that all AMF sequences observed from CS plots belonged (only) to the genus Glomus, colonizing in rice roots grown under this type of cultivation, while rice roots sown in SRI showed sequences belonging to both Glomus and Acaulospora. The AMF community was compared between the different cultivation types (CS and SRI) and compost applications by principle component analysis. In all rice growth stages, AMF assemblages of CS management were not separated from those of SRI management. The distribution of AMF community composition based on T-RFLP data showed that the AMF community structure was different among four cultivation systems, and there was a gradual increase of Shannon-Weaver indices of diversity (H?) of the AMF community under SRI during growth stages. The results of this research indicated that rice grown in SRI-managed plots had more diverse AMF communities than those grown in CS plots.
Watanarojanaporn, Nantida; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Longtonglang, Aphakorn; Young, J. Peter W.; Teaumroong, Neung
Terrestrial ecosystems are one of the important components of the climate system that are bound to change and cause feedbacks with global warming. One major mechanism of this feedback is the response of biological processes, mostly bacteria, that produce or consume greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Here we are concerned with the emissions of CH4 which is considered the most important non-CO2 greenhouse gas because it has more than doubled during the last century and is about 20 times more potent per kilogram once emitted to the atmosphere. Methane is produced by anaerobic methanogens in wetland soils and rice paddies, and is consumed by methanotrophic bacteria in aerobic and upland soils. Together these sources account for about 40-60% of global methane emissions. Properly accounting for the feedback of CH4 emissions with temperature in Earth Systems Models (ESMs) remains an open challenge in part due to the lack of experimental data. Reported Q10 values (factor by which reaction rate increases for a 10°C rise in temperature) of CH4 flux from wetlands and rice agriculture vary over an order of magnitude for reasons that are not well known contributing to this uncertainty. We report here a suite of experimental measurements to determine the Q10 of CH4 flux from rice agriculture and to understand how it depends on the temperature responses of its underlying processes. Since processes may have different Q10 values it is essential that these are properly represented in ESMs. We grew rice plants in temperature-controlled mesocosms at 20, 24, 28 and 32°C over two seasons (years 2009 - 2010) and measured flux, production and oxidation rates, at regular intervals using static chambers, soil core incubations, and carbon isotopes (?13C-CH4), respectively. In addition we used qPCR techniques to measure methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) and particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) genes from mesocosm soil cores to establish the temperature response of methanogen and methanotroph populations. We used a simple box model to relate the flux Q10 with the Q10 values for production, oxidation, and plant-mediated transport. Among other results, we found that flux Q10 values varied between 1 and 20 on a day-to-day basis throughout the growing season, with the largest values occurring at the beginning of the season when fluxes were low. This variation could in part be explained by differences in rates of plant-mediated transport brought about by the different plant growth rates at different temperatures. The seasonally-averaged flux Q10 was ~2, which was lower than the average production Q10 of ~3, indicating that the temperature response of CH4 oxidation in part offsets the increased emissions expected from enhanced production at higher temperatures. This has important implications for how CH4 emissions from terrestrial ecosystems will respond to global warming.
Butenhoff, C. L.; Sithole, A.; Khalil, A. K.; Rice, A. L.; Shearer, M. J.
Many ecologists work to understand how various parts of a given ecological system work or function with other systems in their vicinity, but relatively few attempt to bring together all of this work with major urban areas. One such impressive project is the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, which aims to understand metropolitan Baltimore as an ecological system; and in doing so, bring together researchers from the biological, physical and social sciences to work on this formidable task that is truly interdisciplinary. At the site, visitors can learn about the staff of the project and read about its various thematic areas of inquiry, including biodiversity, education, soil, stream and watershed studies, and vegetation. A good place to start before diving into the numerous research projects would be the research area, which explains the basic goals of the project, the theories that the research team is drawing on, and the central questions of its work. The Baltimore Ecosystem Study has also been approved for use in classrooms by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and educators will find materials that they can draw on to teach various concepts and ideas here as well.
The Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae Wood Mason (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a major pest of rice in several South and South East Asian countries. The maggots\\u000a feed internally on the growing tips of the tillers and transform them into tubular galls, onion leaf-like structures called\\u000a ‘silver shoots’ resulting into severe yield loss to the rice crop. We studied the
M. N. Shrivastava; Arvind Kumar; Sandeep Bhandarkar; B. C. Shukla; K. C. Agrawal
Quantification of rice biophysical properties is important not only for rice growth monitoring and cropping management, but for understanding carbon cycle in agricultural ecosystems. In this study, a rice canopy scattering model (RCSM) was firstly utilized to simulate rice backscatter with a root mean square error (RMSE) <1 dB in comparison with the C-band, HH-polarization Radarsat-2 images. And then, by integrating the model with a generic algorithm optimization tools (GOAT), canopy height and density were separately retrieved from Radarsat-2 images acquired in three rice growth stages (elongation stage, heading stage and yellow ripening stage). Accuracy analysis showed that the two parameters could be retrieved with the RMSE of 5.4 cm in height, and 26 (#/m2) in density. The study demonstrated the potential of Radarsat-2 SAR data for quantitative mapping of biophysical parameters of paddy rice.
Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Xiaohui; Su, Shiliang; Wang, Cuizhen
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal which harms human health. In Japan, a major source of human Cd-intake is rice grains and contamination of paddy soils by Cd and accumulation of Cd in rice grains are the serious agricultural issues. There also exist Cd contamination of rice and its toxicity in several populations in countries including China and Thailand. Understanding the Cd transport mechanisms in rice can be a basis for regulating rice Cd transport and accumulation by molecular engineering and marker-assisted breeding. Recently, a number of studies have revealed the behavior of Cd in rice, genetic diversity of Cd accumulation, quantitative trait loci controlling Cd accumulation and transporter molecules regulating Cd accumulation and distribution in rice. In this article, we summarize recent advances in the field and discuss perspectives to reduce grain Cd contents.
Rotavirus-induced diarrhea is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals and in children in developing countries. We have developed a system for prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus disease using transgenic rice expressing the neutralizing variable domain of a rotavirus-specific llama heavy-chain antibody fragment (MucoRice-ARP1). MucoRice-ARP1 was produced at high levels in rice seeds using an overexpression system and RNAi technology to suppress the production of major rice endogenous storage proteins. Orally administered MucoRice-ARP1 markedly decreased the viral load in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. The antibody retained in vitro neutralizing activity after long-term storage (>1 yr) and boiling and conferred protection in mice even after heat treatment at 94°C for 30 minutes. High-yield, water-soluble, and purification-free MucoRice-ARP1 thus forms the basis for orally administered prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infections. PMID:23925294
Tokuhara, Daisuke; Álvarez, Beatriz; Mejima, Mio; Hiroiwa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yuko; Kurokawa, Shiho; Kuroda, Masaharu; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Nochi, Tomonori; Sagara, Hiroshi; Aladin, Farah; Marcotte, Harold; Frenken, Leon G J; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Hammarström, Lennart; Yuki, Yoshikazu
The reports of the U.S. Oceans Commission, the Pew Oceans Commission, the Ocean Priorities Plan, and other nationwide reviews highlight the importance of incorporating ecosystem principles in ocean and coastal resource management. An ecosystem approach to...
G. C. Matlock M. Ernst M. J. Fogarty P. S. Levin
Thermodynamically, ecosystem growth and development is the process by which energy throughflow and stored biomass increase. Several proposed hypotheses describe the natural tendencies that occur as an ecosystem matures, and here, we consider five: minimum entropy production, maxi...
Rice-duck farming was a traditional farming system in China and reintroduced to China's agricultural practice in recent years. We conducted an experiment to investigate whether rice-duck farming without pesticides can reduce pest damages on rice by comparing “without pesticide” and “with pesticide” in mono rice farming. The results showed that the leaves of rice damaged by pests or rice plants
Jiaen Zhang; Benliang Zhao; Xin Chen; Shiming Luo
Supra-optimal expression of the cold-regulated OsMyb4 transcription factor in transgenic rice changes the complexity of transcriptional network with major effects on stress tolerance and panicle development.
The R2R3-type OsMyb4 transcription factor of rice has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic adjustment in heterologous overexpression studies. However, the exact composition and organization of its underlying transcriptional network has not been established to be a robust tool for stress tolerance enhancement by regulon engineering. OsMyb4 network was dissected based on commonalities between the global chilling stress transcriptome and the transcriptome configured by OsMyb4 overexpression. OsMyb4 controls a hierarchical network comprised of several regulatory sub-clusters associated with cellular defense and rescue, metabolism and development. It regulates target genes either directly or indirectly through intermediary MYB, ERF, bZIP, NAC, ARF and CCAAT-HAP transcription factors. Regulatory sub-clusters have different combinations of MYB-like, GCC-box-like, ERD1-box-like, ABRE-like, G-box-like, as1/ocs/TGA-like, AuxRE-like, gibberellic acid response element (GARE)-like and JAre-like cis-elements. Cold-dependent network activity enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity through radical scavenging mechanisms and increased activities of phenylpropanoid and isoprenoid metabolic processes involving various abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive genes. OsMyb4 network is independent of drought response element binding protein/C-repeat binding factor (DREB/CBF) and its sub-regulons operate with possible co-regulators including nuclear factor-Y. Because of its upstream position in the network hierarchy, OsMyb4 functions quantitatively and pleiotrophically. Supra-optimal expression causes misexpression of alternative targets with costly trade-offs to panicle development. PMID:20807373
Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Yun, Kil-Young; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Herath, Venura; Xu, Fuyu; Wijaya, Edward; Bajic, Vladimir B; Yun, Song-Joong; De Los Reyes, Benildo G
Viroplasm Protein P9-1 of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus Preferentially Binds to Single-Stranded RNA in Its Octamer Form, and the Central Interior Structure Formed by This Octamer Constitutes the Major RNA Binding Site
The P9-1 protein of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) is an essential part of the viroplasm. However, little is known about its nature or biological function in the viroplasm. In this study, the structure and function of P9-1 were analyzed for in vitro binding to nucleic acids. We found that the P9-1 protein preferentially bound to single-stranded versus double-stranded nucleic acids; however, the protein displayed no preference for RBSDV versus non-RBSDV single-stranded ssRNA (ssRNA). A gel mobility shift assay revealed that the RNA gradually shifted as increasing amounts of P9-1 were added, suggesting that multiple subunits of P9-1 bind to ssRNA. By using discontinuous blue native gel and chromatography analysis, we found that the P9-1 protein was capable of forming dimers, tetramers, and octamers. Strikingly, we demonstrated that P9-1 preferentially bound to ssRNA in the octamer, rather than the dimer, form. Deletion of the C-terminal arm resulted in P9-1 no longer forming octamers; consequently, the deletion mutant protein bound to ssRNA with significantly lower affinity and with fewer copies bound per ssRNA. Alanine substitution analysis revealed that electropositive amino acids among residues 25 to 44 are important for RNA binding and map to the central interior structure that was formed only by P9-1 octamers. Collectively, our findings provide novel insights into the structure and function of RBSDV viroplasm protein P9-1 binding to RNA.
Wu, Jianyan; Li, Jia; Mao, Xiang; Wang, Weiwu; Cheng, Zhaobang; Zhou, Yijun
1-6 . Here we describe a previously unrecognized effect of biodiversity on ecosystem predictability, where predictability is inversely related to temporal and spatial variation in ecosystem properties. By manipulating biodiversity in aquatic microbial communities, we show that one process, ecosystem respiration, becomes more predictable as biodiversity increases. Analysis of similar patterns extracted from other studies 2,3,6 indicates that biodiversity also
Patricia M. Harris; Peter J. Morin
The eddy-covariance technique is applied worldwide to acquire information about carbon exchange between a variety of ecosystems and atmosphere, but the data acquisition only covers, on average, two-thirds of the whole year due to system failures and data rejection. Therefore, data must be corrected and data gaps must be filled to provide seasonal or annual budgets. The gap-filing strategies, however, are still under discussion within the research community. Presently the major gap-filling methods work quite well for long-time running sites over slow-developing biosphere surfaces such as long-living evergreen forests, but difficulties appear for short-living and fast-growing croplands. In this study we developed a new Multi-Step Error Filter procedure to gain good-quality data as input for different parameterizations of the light response function of plants for two cropland sites (rice and potatoes), and we could prove that the conventional temperature binning approach is inadequate. The presented time-window scheme showed best results with a four-day time window for the potato field and an eight-day time window for the rice field. The influence of vapor pressure deficit was tested as well, but in our case it plays a minor role at both the potato and the rice fields with the exception of the early growing stage of the potatoes. Completing our research, we suggest an innovative method by introducing a Leaf Area Index factor to capture the seasonal vegetation development. With this method we are now able to fill the large gaps between observation periods when conventional methods are invalid.
Zhao, P.; Lüers, J.
This comment presents current and emerging areas of research which the U.S. National Science Foundation believes have special promise for advancing ecosystem science. These areas are: (1) major element cycle interactions; (2) trace element and organic compound controls on ecosystem dynamics; (3) the role of consumers on ecosystem dynamics; (4) ecosystem dynamics in contrasting environments; (5) landscape ecology; and (6)
James R. Gosz
The hierarchical organization of microbial ecosystems determines process rates that shape Earth's environment, create the biomarker sedimentary and atmospheric signatures of life, and define the stage upon which major evolutionary events occurred. In order to understand how microorganisms have shaped the global environment of Earth and, potentially, other worlds, we must develop an experimental paradigm that links biogeochemical processes with ever-changing temporal and spatial distributions of microbial populations and their metabolic properties. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
DesMarais, David J.
Gibberellin (GA) is a plant hormone that has important roles in numerous plant developmental phases. Rice plants known as deepwater rice respond to flooding by elongating their internodes to avoid anoxia. Previous studies reported that GA is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses identified QTLs regulating internode elongation in response to deepwater conditions. However, the interaction between internode elongation and regulators of GA sensitivity in deepwater rice is unknown. In this study, we applied GA to recombinant inbred lines of T65 (non-deepwater rice) and Bhadua (deepwater rice), and performed a QTL analysis of internode elongation in response to GA. GA-induced internode elongation was detected only in deepwater rice. Our QTL analysis revealed two major QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 9 regulating total internode length, lowest elongated internode and number of elongated internodes. Furthermore, the QTL on chromosome 3 acted as an enhancer of other QTLs (e.g. the QTL on chromosome 12). Nearly isogenic lines of deepwater rice carrying the QTL regions from chromosomes 3 and 12 of the deepwater rice C9285 showed internode elongation in response to GA. Thus, these QTLs may regulate GA responsiveness in deepwater rice. This study furthers our understanding of the mechanism of internode elongation in rice. PMID:24946943
Nagai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yuma; Kitaoka, Takuya; Noda, Tomonori; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Ashikari, Motoyuki
Gibberellin (GA) is a plant hormone that has important roles in numerous plant developmental phases. Rice plants known as deepwater rice respond to flooding by elongating their internodes to avoid anoxia. Previous studies reported that GA is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses identified QTLs regulating internode elongation in response to deepwater conditions. However, the interaction between internode elongation and regulators of GA sensitivity in deepwater rice is unknown. In this study, we applied GA to recombinant inbred lines of T65 (non-deepwater rice) and Bhadua (deepwater rice), and performed a QTL analysis of internode elongation in response to GA. GA-induced internode elongation was detected only in deepwater rice. Our QTL analysis revealed two major QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 9 regulating total internode length, lowest elongated internode and number of elongated internodes. Furthermore, the QTL on chromosome 3 acted as an enhancer of other QTLs (e.g. the QTL on chromosome 12). Nearly isogenic lines of deepwater rice carrying the QTL regions from chromosomes 3 and 12 of the deepwater rice C9285 showed internode elongation in response to GA. Thus, these QTLs may regulate GA responsiveness in deepwater rice. This study furthers our understanding of the mechanism of internode elongation in rice.
Nagai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yuma; Kitaoka, Takuya; Noda, Tomonori; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B.; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Ashikari, Motoyuki
Having a well-known history of genome duplication, rice is a good model for studying structural and functional evolution of paleo duplications. Improved sequence alignment criteria were used to characterize 10 major chromosome-to-chromo- some duplication relationships associated with 1440 paralogous pairs, covering 47.8% of the rice genome, with 12.6% of genes that are conserved within sister blocks. Using a micro-array experi-
Mickael Throude; Stephanie Bolot; Mickael Bosio; Caroline Pont; Xavier Sarda; Umar Masood Quraishi; Fabienne Bourgis; Philippe Lessard; Peter Rogowsky; Alain Ghesquiere; Alain Murigneux; Gilles Charmet; Pascual Perez; Jerome Salse
Humanity is increasingly urban, but continues to depend on Nature for its survival. Cities are dependent on the ecosystems beyond the city limits, but also benefit from internal urban ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to analyze the ecosystem services generated by ecosystems within the urban area. ‘Ecosystem services’ refers to the benefits human populations derive from ecosystems. Seven
Per Bolund; Sven Hunhammar
A biogeochemical model, Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC), was modified to enhance its capacity of predicting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice ecosystems. The major modifications focused on simulations of anaerobic biogeochemistry and rice growth as well as parameterization of paddy rice management. The new model was tested for its sensitivities to management alternatives and variations in natural conditions including weather and soil properties. The test results indicated that (1) varying management practices could substantially affect carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), or nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from rice paddies; (2) soil properties affected the impacts of management alternatives on GHG emissions; and (3) the most sensitive management practices or soil factors varied for different GHGs. For estimating GHG emissions under certain management conditions at regional scale, the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties (e.g., texture, SOC content, pH) are the major source of uncertainty. An approach, the most sensitive factor (MSF) method, was developed for DNDC to bring the uncertainty under control. According to the approach, DNDC was run twice for each grid cell with the maximum and minimum values of the most sensitive soil factors commonly observed in the grid cell. The simulated two fluxes formed a range, which was wide enough to include the "real" flux from the grid cell with a high probability. This approach was verified against a traditional statistical approach, the Monte Carlo analysis, for three selected counties or provinces in China, Thailand, and United States. Comparison between the results from the two methods indicated that 61-99% of the Monte Carlo-produced GHG fluxes were located within the MSA-produced flux ranges. The result implies that the MSF method is feasible and reliable to quantify the uncertainties produced in the upscaling processes. Equipped with the MSF method, DNDC modeled emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O from all of the rice paddies in China with two different water management practices, i.e., continuous flooding and midseason drainage, which were the dominant practices before 1980 and in 2000, respectively. The modeled results indicated that total CH4 flux from the simulated 30 million ha of Chinese rice fields ranged from 6.4 to 12.0 Tg CH4-C per year under the continuous flooding conditions. With the midseason drainage scenario, the national CH4 flux from rice agriculture reduced to 1.7-7.9 Tg CH4-C. It implied that the water management change in China reduced CH4 fluxes by 4.2-4.7 Tg CH4-C per year. Shifting the water management from continuous flooding to midseason drainage increased N2O fluxes by 0.13-0.20 Tg N2O-N/yr, although CO2 fluxes were only slightly altered. Since N2O possesses a radiative forcing more than 10 times higher than CH4, the increase in N2O offset about 65% of the benefit gained by the decrease in CH4 emissions.
Li, Changsheng; Mosier, Arvin; Wassmann, Reiner; Cai, Zucong; Zheng, Xunhua; Huang, Yao; Tsuruta, Haruo; Boonjawat, Jariya; Lantin, Rhoda
Rice is a model system for crop genomics studies. Much of the early work on rice genomics focused on analyzing genome-wide genetic variation to further understand rice gene functions in agronomic traits and to generate data and resources for rice research. The advent of next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies and the completion of high-quality reference genome sequences have enabled the development of sequencing-based genotyping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have significantly advanced rice genetics research. This has led to the emergence of a new era of rice genomics aimed at bridging the knowledge gap between genotype and phenotype in rice. These technologies have also led to pyramid breeding through genomics-assisted selection, which will be useful in breeding elite varieties suitable for sustainable agriculture. Here, we review the recent advances in rice genomics and discuss the future of this line of research. PMID:23295340
Huang, Xuehui; Lu, Tingting; Han, Bin
Future world food security requires continued and sustainable increase in rice production. Much of this increase has to come from new high yielding cultivars with resistances to multiple stresses. While future rice breeding in the post-genomics era has to build upon the progress in rice functional genomics research, great challenges remain in understanding the genetic/molecular systems underlying complex traits and linking the tremendous genome sequence diversity in the rice germplasm collections to the phenotypic variation of important traits. To meet the challenges in future rice improvement, a molecular breeding (MB) strategy has been practiced in China with significant progress in establishing the MB material and information platforms in the process of breeding, and in developing new varieties through two novel MB schemes. However, full implementation of this strategy requires tremendous investment to build capacities in high-throughput genotyping, reliable/precision phenotyping and in developing and adopting new genomics/genetic information-based analytic/application breeding tools, which are not in place in most of the public rice breeding institutions. Nevertheless, future advances and developments in these areas are expected to generate enormous knowledge of rice traits and application tools that enable breeders to deploy more efficient and effective breeding strategies to maximize rice productivity and resource use efficiencies in various ecosystems. PMID:23571011
Li, Zhi-Kang; Zhang, Fan
The rice (Oryza sativa) genome contains 1,429 protein kinases, the vast majority of which have unknown functions. We created a phylogenomic database (http://rkd.ucdavis.edu) to facilitate functional analysis of this large gene family. Sequence and genomic data, including gene expression data and protein-protein interaction maps, can be displayed for each selected kinase in the context of a phylogenetic tree allowing for comparative analysis both within and between large kinase subfamilies. Interaction maps are easily accessed through links and displayed using Cytoscape, an open source software platform. Chromosomal distribution of all rice kinases can also be explored via an interactive interface. PMID:17172291
Dardick, Christopher; Chen, Johann; Richter, Todd; Ouyang, Shu; Ronald, Pamela
To understand the male sterility mechanism of photoperiod\\/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile [P(T)GMS] lines in rice, the research progress on genetics of photoperiod and\\/or temperature sensitive genic male sterility in rice was reviewed. A new idea was proposed to explain the sterility mechanism of P(T)GMS rice. The fertility transition from sterile to fertile is the result of cooperative regulation of major-effect
Li-yun CHEN; Ying-hui XIAO; Dong-yang LEI
The sequence of the rice genome holds fundamental information for its biology, including physiology, genetics, development,\\u000a and evolution, as well as information on many beneficial phenotypes of economic significance. Using a “whole genome shotgun”\\u000a approach, we have produced a draft rice genome sequence ofOryza sativa ssp.indica, the major crop rice subspecies in China and many other regions of Asia. The
Jun Yu; Songnian Hu; Jun Wang; Songgang Li; Ka-Shu Gane Wong; Bin Liu; Yajun Deng; Li Dai; Yan Zhou; Xiuqing Zhang; Mengliang Cao; Jing Liu; Jiandong Sun; Jiabin Tang; Yanjiong Chen; Xiaobing Huang; Wei Lin; Chen Ye; Wei Tong; Lijuan Cong; Jianing Geng; Yujun Han; Lin Li; Wei Li; Guangqiang Hu; Xiangang Huang; Wenjie Li; Jian Li; Zhanwei Liu; Long Li; Jianping Liu; Qiuhui Qi; Jinsong Liu; Li Li; Xuegang Wang; Hong Lu; Tingting Wu; Miao Zhu; Peixiang Ni; Hua Han; Wei Dong; Xiaoyu Ren; Xiaoli Feng; Peng Cui; Xianran Li; Hao Wang; Xin Xu; Wenxue Zhai; Zhao Xu; Jinsong Zhang; Sijie He; Jianguo Zhang; Jichen Xu; Kunlin Zhang; Xianwu Zheng; Jianhai Dong; Wanyong Zeng; Lin Tao; Xuewei Chen; Jun He; Daofeng Liu; Wei Tian; Chaoguang Tian; Hongai Xia; Gang Li; Hui Gao; Ping Li; Wei Chen; Xudong Wang; Yong Zhang; Jianfei Hu; Jing Wang; Song Liu; Jian Yang; Guangyu Zhang; Yuqing Xiong; Zhijie Li; Long Mao; Chengshu Zhou; Zhen Zhu; Runsheng Chen; Bailin Hao; Weimou Zheng; Shouyi Chen; Wei Guo; Guojie Li; Siqi Liu; Guyang Huang; Ming Tao; Jian Wang; Lihuang Zhu; Longping Yuan; Huanming Yang
Rice farming is important for income generation in large parts of China and Asia. This paper uses detailed household, crop- and plot-level data to investigate the levels and determinants of rice producers’ technical efficiency for three villages with different characteristics in a major rice-growing area of South-East China, focusing in particular on the impact of land fragmentation. Empirical results obtained
S. Tan; N. Heerink; A. Kuyvenhoven; Qu Futian
Limited data have been collected on the presence of contaminants in the Arctic terrestrial ecosystem, with the exception of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. Although southern and temperate biological systems have largely cleansed themselves of radioactive fallout deposited during the 1950s and 1960s, Arctic environments have not. Lichens accumulate radioactivity more than many other plants because of their large surface area and long life span; the presence and persistence of radioisotopes in the Arctic is of concern because of the lichen----reindeer----human ecosystem. Effective biological half-life of cesium 137 is reckoned to be substantially less than its physical half-life. The database on organochlorines in Canadian Arctic terrestrial mammals and birds is very limited, but indications are that the air/plant/animal contaminant pathway is the major route of these compounds into the terrestrial food chain. For terrestrial herbivores, the most abundant organochlorine is usually hexachlorobenzene followed by hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. PCB accumulation favours the hexachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorobiphenyl and heptachlorobiphenyl homologous series. The concentrations of the various classes of organochlorine compounds are substantially lower in terrestrial herbivore tissues than in marine mammal tissues. PCBs and DDT are the most abundant residues in peregrine falcons (a terrestrial carnivore) reaching average levels of 9.2 and 10.4 micrograms.g-1, respectively, more than 10 times higher than other organochlorines and higher than in marine mammals, including the polar bear. Contaminants from local sources include metals from mining activities, hydrocarbons and waste drilling fluids from oil and gas exploration and production, wastes from DEW line sites, naturally occurring radionuclides associated with uranium mineralization, and smoke containing SO2 and H2SO4 aerosol from the Smoking Hills at Cape Bathurst, N.W.T. PMID:1355310
Thomas, D J; Tracey, B; Marshall, H; Norstrom, R J
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with support from NatureServe, has modeled the potential distribution of 419 terrestrial ecosystems for the conterminous United States using a comprehensive biophysical stratification approach that identifies distinct biophysical environments and associates them with known vegetation distributions (Sayre and others, 2009). This standardized ecosystem mapping effort used an ecosystems classification developed by NatureServe (Comer and others, 2003). The ecosystem mapping methodology was developed for South America (Sayre and others, 2008) and is now being implemented globally (Sayre and others, 2007). The biophysical stratification approach is based on mapping the major structural components of ecosystems (land surface forms, topographic moisture potential, surficial lithology, isobioclimates and biogeographic regions) and then spatially combining them to produce a set of unique biophysical environments. These physically distinct areas are considered as the fundamental structural units ('building blocks') of ecosystems, and are subsequently aggregated and labeled using the NatureServe classification. The structural footprints were developed from the geospatial union of several base layers including biogeographic regions, isobioclimates (Cress and others, 2009a), land surface forms (Cress and others, 2009b), topographic moisture potential (Cress and others, 2009c), and surficial lithology (Cress and others, in press). Among the 49,168 unique structural footprint classes that resulted from the union, 13,482 classes met a minimum pixel count threshold (20,000 pixels) and were aggregated into 419 NatureServe ecosystems using a semiautomated labeling process based on rule-set formulations for attribution of each ecosystem. The resulting ecosystems are those that are expected to occur based on the combination of the bioclimate, biogeography, and geomorphology. Where land use by humans has not altered land cover, natural vegetation assemblages are expected to occur, and these are described in the ecosystems classification. The map does not show the distribution of urban and agricultural areas - these will be masked out in subsequent analyses to depict the current land cover in addition to the potential distribution of natural ecosystems. This map depicts the smoothed and generalized image of the terrestrial ecosystems dataset. Additional information about this map and any data developed for the ecosystems modeling of the conterminous United States is available online at: http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/ecosystems/.
Sayre, Roger; Comer, Patrick; Cress, Jill; Warner, Harumi
The Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack explores the unique and diverse ecosystem of the coral reef. The focus is on Standards and Benchmarks related to populations and ecosystems using coral reefs and their immediate environment as an example. Because the Standards and Benchmarks present the concepts of populations and ecosystems generically, without reference to a specific ecosystem or the organisms in the system, coral reefs are used to provide the context through which concepts in a marine ecosystem are explored.In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:ï¿½ Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. ï¿½ Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".ï¿½ Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Living Reefï¿½ Identify coral polyp structures and describe their functions.ï¿½ Describe photosynthesis in the coral environment.ï¿½ Describe the evolution of a typical reef system.ï¿½ Use the shape of an individual coral to identify its common name, and classify entire coral reef ecosystems based on shape and location. ï¿½ Describe the process of coral polyp reproduction and growth.ï¿½ Identify how the features and/or behavioral strategies of coral reef inhabitants enable them to survive in coral reef environments.Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Abiotic Settingï¿½ Identify the characteristics of an ecosystem, and describe the interdependence between biotic and abiotic features in an ecosystem.ï¿½ Describe how the following abiotic factors provide coral with the energy needed to survive and grow within their ecosystem: sunlight, water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.ï¿½ Describe the optimal environmental conditions for coral reef growth, and explain the process of coral reef development (including the role of available sunlight and calcium).ï¿½ Explain how the following environmental factors might affect coral ecosystems: increase in dissolved CO2, changes in global temperatures, increase in ocean water turbidity through water pollution.Coral Reef Ecosystems: Interdependenceï¿½ Identify and label key components of food chains and food webs in a coral reef ecosystem.ï¿½ Describe key relationships among plants and animals in the coral reef ecosystem: predator and prey relationships, producer and consumer relationships, and symbiotic relationships (mutualism, commensalisms, parasitism).ï¿½ Recognize the direction that energy travels through food chains and food webs.ï¿½ Explain that materials (chemical elements) and natural resources are recycled in coral reef ecosystems and reappear in different forms.ï¿½ Describe the primary ecological succession events within a typical coral reef ecosystem.Coral Reef Ecosystems: Ecosystems in Crisisï¿½ Describe ways in which human activities directly impact coral reef ecosystems (resource and recreational uses).ï¿½ Describe ways in which human activities indirectly impact coral reef ecosystems (by changing the physical conditions, pollution, changes in the water chemistry, etc.).ï¿½ Explain how human activity may decrease the reefs ability to recover from natural occurrences. ï¿½ Explain the effects of increased predation or disease on a reef ecosystem.ï¿½ Describe the effect of habitat loss on the reef ecosystem.ï¿½ Describe the effects of weather and climate change on a healthy and weakened reef ecosystem.
National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)
Diarrheal disorders and complications related to diarrhea especially dehydration continue to be a major problem in developing\\u000a countries like India. Though oral rehydration with salt, sugar and water is a well accepted mode of treatment in uncomplicated\\u000a cases, still ORS packets (WHO formula) or sugar (sucrose ORS formula) are not readily available in every house or hospital\\u000a rice water with
B. R. Sathanakrishnan; V. S. Sankaranarayanan
Rice bran oil with a high free fatty acid content (FFA) after degumming and dewaxing can be converted into edible quality\\u000a oil of satisfactory refining characteristics by first adopting the biorefining process to reduce the major portion of the\\u000a FFA by converting them into neutral glycerides with the aid of 1,3-specific lipase under optimum conditions and later deacidifying\\u000a the residual
S. Bhattacharyya; D. K. Bhattacharyya
Background Rice is one of the major crop species in the world helping to sustain approximately half of the global population’s diet especially in Asia. However, due to the impact of extreme climate change and global warming, rice crop production and yields may be adversely affected resulting in a world food crisis. Researchers have been keen to understand the effects of drought, temperature and other environmental stress factors on rice plant growth and development. Gene expression microarray technology represents a key strategy for the identification of genes and their associated expression patterns in response to stress. Here, we report on the development of the rice OneArray® microarray platform which is suitable for two major rice subspecies, japonica and indica. Results The rice OneArray® 60-mer, oligonucleotide microarray consists of a total of 21,179 probes covering 20,806 genes of japonica and 13,683 genes of indica. Through a validation study, total RNA isolated from rice shoots and roots were used for comparison of gene expression profiles via microarray examination. The results were submitted to NCBI’s Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Data can be found under the GEO accession number GSE50844 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE50844). A list of significantly differentially expressed genes was generated; 438 shoot-specific genes were identified among 3,138 up-regulated genes, and 463 root-specific genes were found among 3,845 down-regulated genes. GO enrichment analysis demonstrates these results are in agreement with the known physiological processes of the different organs/tissues. Furthermore, qRT-PCR validation was performed on 66 genes, and found to significantly correlate with the microarray results (R?=?0.95, p?0.001***). Conclusion The rice OneArray® 22 K microarray, the first rice microarray, covering both japonica and indica subspecies was designed and validated in a comprehensive study of gene expression in rice tissues. The rice OneArray® microarray platform revealed high specificity and sensitivity. Additional information for the rice OneArray® microarray can be found at http://www.phalanx.com.tw/index.php.
This plan addresses recovery actions for the fountain darter, San Marcos salamander, San Marcos gambusia, Texas blind salamander, and Texas wild-rice. The recovery goal is to secure the survival of all five species and the ecosystem upon which they depend...
This lesson, provided by Science NetLinks, teaches students the importance of healthy ecosystems by investigating the example of natural water purification. Students will learn how ecosystems remove pollution from the water and how much it costs humans to do this artificially once ecosystems are no longer healthy. The class will then create a "River Newspaper" reporting on the condition of the local environment.
Nonlinear models of ecosystem dynamics that incorporate positive feedbacks and multiple, internally reinforced states have considerable explanatory power. However, linear models may be adequate, particularly if ecosystem behaviour is primarily controlled by external processes. In lake ecosystems, internal (mainly biotic) processes are thought to have major impacts on system behaviour, whereas in rivers, external (mainly physical) factors have traditionally been emphasized. We consider the hypothesis that models that exhibit multiple states are useful for understanding the behaviour of lake ecosystems, but not as useful for understanding stream ecosystems. Some of the best-known examples of multiple states come from lake ecosystems. We review some of these examples, and we also describe examples of multiple states in rivers. We conclude that the hypothesis is an oversimplification; the importance of physical forcing in rivers does not eliminate the possibility of internal feedbacks that create multiple states, although in rivers these feedbacks are likely to include physical as well as biotic processes. Nonlinear behaviour in aquatic ecosystems may be more common than current theory indicates.
Dent, C Lisa; Cumming, Graeme S; Carpenter, Stephen R
This peer-reviewed article from the November 2007 issue of BioScience examines conservation strategies to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services.Habitat destruction has driven much of the current biodiversity extinction crisis, and it compromises the essential benefits, or ecosystem services, that humans derive from functioning ecosystems. Securing both species and ecosystem services might be accomplished with common solutions. Yet it is unknown whether these two major conservation objectives coincide broadly enough worldwide to enable global strategies for both goals to gain synergy. In this article, we assess the concordance between these two objectives, explore how the concordance varies across different regions, and examine the global potential for safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services simultaneously. We find that published global priority maps for biodiversity conservation harbor a disproportionate share of estimated terrestrial ecosystem service value (ESV). Overlap of biodiversity priorities and ESV varies among regions, and in areas that have high biodiversity priority but low ESV, specialized conservation approaches are necessary. Overall, however, our findings suggest opportunities for safeguarding both biodiversity and ecosystem services. Sensitivity analyses indicate that results are robust to known limitations of available ESV data. Capitalizing on these opportunities will require the identification of synergies at fine scales, and the development of economic and policy tools to exploit them.
Will Turner (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Katrina Brandon (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Thomas Brooks (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Robert Constanza (University of Vermont;Gund Institute for Ecological Economics); Gustavo da Fonseca (Federal University of Minas Gerais;); Rosimeiry Portela (;)
Agricultural solid residues are a potential renewable energy source. Rice harvesting and production in Sancti Spíritus province, Cuba, currently generates residues without an environmentally sustainable disposal route. Rice residues (rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process) are potentially an important carbon source for anaerobic digestion. For this paper, rice residues were placed for 36 days retention time in anaerobic batch reactor environments at both mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Biogas and methane yield were determined as well as biogas composition. The results showed that rice straw as well as rice residues from the drying process had the highest biogas and methane yield. Temperature played an important role in determining both biogas yield and kinetics. In all cases, rice straw produced the highest yields; under mesophilic conditions the biogas yield was 0.43 m(3) kg(VS)(-1), under thermophilic conditions biogas yield reached 0.52 m(3) kg(VS)(-1). In the case of the rice husk, the biodegradability was very low. Methane content in all batches was kept above 55% vol. All digested material had a high carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio, even though significant biodegradation was recorded with the exception of rice husk. A first-order model can be used to describe the rice crop residues fermentation effectively. PMID:22378015
Contreras, L M; Schelle, H; Sebrango, C R; Pereda, I
Artificial selection has been practiced for centuries to shape the properties of individual organisms, providing Darwin with a powerful argument for his theory of natural selection. We show that the properties of whole ecosystems can also be shaped by artificial selection procedures. Ecosystems initiated in the laboratory vary phenotypically and a proportion of the variation is heritable, despite the fact that the ecosystems initially are composed of thousands of species and millions of individuals. Artificial ecosystem selection can be used for practical purposes, illustrates an important role for complex interactions in evolution, and challenges a widespread belief that selection is most effective at lower levels of the biological hierarchy.
Swenson, William; Wilson, David Sloan; Elias, Roberta
Plant transgenic technology has been widely utilized for engineering crops for trait improvements and for production of high value proteins such as pharmaceuticals. However, the unintended spreading of commercial transgenic crops by pollination and seed dispersal is a major concern for environmental and food safety. Simple and reliable containment strategies for transgenes are highly desirable. Here we report a novel method for creating selectively terminable transgenic rice. In this method, the gene(s) of interest is tagged with a RNA interference cassette, which specifically suppresses the expression of the bentazon detoxification enzyme CYP81A6 and thus renders transgenic rice to be sensitive to bentazon, a herbicide used for rice weed control. We generated transgenic rice plants by this method using a new glyphosate resistant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene from Pesudomonas putida as the gene of interest, and demonstrated that these transgenic rice plants were highly sensitive to bentazon but tolerant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional rice. Field trial of these transgenic rice plants further confirmed that they can be selectively killed at 100% by one spray of bentazon at a regular dose used for conventional rice weed control. Furthermore, we found that the terminable transgenic rice created in this study shows no difference in growth, development and yield compared to its non-transgenic control. Therefore, this method of creating transgenic rice constitutes a novel strategy of transgene containment, which appears simple, reliable and inexpensive for implementation. PMID:18350155
Lin, Chaoyang; Fang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Te; Cheng, Jiaan; Tu, Juming; Ye, Gongyin; Shen, Zhicheng
Plant transgenic technology has been widely utilized for engineering crops for trait improvements and for production of high value proteins such as pharmaceuticals. However, the unintended spreading of commercial transgenic crops by pollination and seed dispersal is a major concern for environmental and food safety. Simple and reliable containment strategies for transgenes are highly desirable. Here we report a novel method for creating selectively terminable transgenic rice. In this method, the gene(s) of interest is tagged with a RNA interference cassette, which specifically suppresses the expression of the bentazon detoxification enzyme CYP81A6 and thus renders transgenic rice to be sensitive to bentazon, a herbicide used for rice weed control. We generated transgenic rice plants by this method using a new glyphosate resistant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene from Pesudomonas putida as the gene of interest, and demonstrated that these transgenic rice plants were highly sensitive to bentazon but tolerant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional rice. Field trial of these transgenic rice plants further confirmed that they can be selectively killed at 100% by one spray of bentazon at a regular dose used for conventional rice weed control. Furthermore, we found that the terminable transgenic rice created in this study shows no difference in growth, development and yield compared to its non-transgenic control. Therefore, this method of creating transgenic rice constitutes a novel strategy of transgene containment, which appears simple, reliable and inexpensive for implementation.
Zhao, Te; Cheng, Jiaan; Tu, Juming; Ye, Gongyin; Shen, Zhicheng
Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice-virus-insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China. PMID:24058362
Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin
Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector’s preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.
Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin
Pollen-mediated gene flow is the major pathway for transgene escape from GM rice to its wild relatives. Transgene escape to wild Oryza species having AA-genome will occur if GM rice is released to environments with these wild Oryza species. Transgenes may persist to and spread in wild populations after gene flow, resulting unwanted ecological consequences. For assessing the potential consequences
Bao-Rong Lu; Chao Yang
Although no country to date has released a major genetically modified (GM) food grain crop, China is on the threshold of commercializing GM rice. This paper studies two of the four GM varieties that are now in farm-level preproduction trials, the last step before commercialization. Farm surveys of randomly selected farm households that are cultivating the insect-resistant GM rice varieties,
Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Scott Rozelle; Carl Pray
Sulfate in acid rain is known to suppress methane (CH4) emissions from natural freshwater wetlands. Here we examine the possibility that CH4 emissions from rice agriculture may be similarly affected by acid rain, a major and increasing pollution problem in Asia. Our findings suggest that acid rain rates of SO42? deposition may help to reduce CH4 emissions from rice agriculture.
Vincent Gauci; Nancy B. Dise; Graham Howell; Meaghan E. Jenkins
Despite extensive studies on cultivated rice, the genetic structure and subdivision of this crop remain unclear at both global and local scales. Using 84 nuclear simple sequence repeat markers, we genotyped a panel of 153 global rice cultivars covering all previously recognized groups and 826 cultivars representing the diversity of Chinese rice germplasm. On the basis of model-based grouping, neighbour-joining tree and principal coordinate analysis, we confirmed the widely accepted five major groups of rice cultivars (indica, aus, aromatic, temperate japonica and tropical japonica), and demonstrated that rayada rice was unique in genealogy and should be treated as a new (the sixth) major group of rice germplasm. With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, we identified three major groups (indica, temperate japonica and tropical japonica) in Chinese rice germplasm and showed that Chinese temperate japonica contained higher diversity than that of global samples, whereas Chinese indica and tropical japonica maintained slightly lower diversity than that present in the global samples. Particularly, we observed that all seasonal, drought-tolerant and endosperm types occurred within each of three major groups of Chinese cultivars, which does not support previous claims that seasonal differentiation exists in Indica and drought-tolerant differentiation is present in Japonica. It is most likely that differentiation of cultivar types arose multiple times stemming from artificial selection for adaptation to local environments. PMID:24326293
Wang, C-H; Zheng, X-M; Xu, Q; Yuan, X-P; Huang, L; Zhou, H-F; Wei, X-H; Ge, S
ganic nutrient sources on yield trends of rice and wheat, nutrient balances, and soil nutrient pools, and (ii) iden- Major improvements in the productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) tify reasons for the yield trends observed. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have occurred in South Asia since 1965-1966 when the Green Revolution began. However, after the 1980s, yield stagnated or
A. L. Bhandari; J. K. Ladha; H. Pathak; A. T. Padre; D. Dawe; R. K. Gupta
Rice production in Asia needs to increase to feed a growing population whereas water for irrigation is getting scarcer. Major challenges are to (i) save water; (ii) increase water productivity and (iii) produce more rice with less water. This study analyzes the ways in which water-saving irrigation can help to meet these challenges at the field level. The analyses are
B. A. M. Bouman; T. P. Tuong
It is not known how representative the Arabidopsis thaliana complement of transcription factors (TFs) is of other plants. The availability of rice (Oryza sativa) genome sequences makes possible a comparative analysis of TFs between monocots and eudicots, the two major monophyletic\\u000a groups of angiosperms. Here, we identified 1611 TF genes that belong to 37 gene families in rice, comparable to
Yuqing Xiong; Tieyan Liu; Chaoguang Tian; Shouhong Sun; Jiayang Li; Mingsheng Chen
Sulfate in acid rain is known to suppress methane (CH4) emissions from natural freshwater wetlands. Here we examine the possibility that CH4 emissions from rice agriculture may be similarly affected by acid rain, a major and increasing pollution problem in Asia. Our findings suggest that acid rain rates of SO4 2- deposition may help to reduce CH4 emissions from rice
Vincent Gauci; Nancy B. Dise; Graham Howell; Meaghan E. Jenkins
Ferrous iron (Fe) toxicity is one of the major constraints to lowland rice production. It disrupts the rice plant physiology in several respects. The critical iron toxicity concentration in plant tissue depends partly on the overall nutritional status of the plant. African cultivars are generally less sensitive to this stress than Asian ones, but their yield potential is significantly lower.
Sophie De Dorlodot; Stanley Lutts; Pierre Bertin
This report defines ecosystem services as a strategy for the conservation of biodiversity. The production of ecosystem goods as it relates to the generation and maintenance of biodiversity is described. Ecosystem services such as flood and drought mitigation, services supplied by soil, pollination, pest control, and seed dispersal are described. Threats to ecosystem services are discussed, as well as their aesthetic, intellectual, and spiritual values. Issues in Ecology is an ongoing series of reports designed to present major ecological issues in an easy-to-read manner. This Issue summarizes the consensus of a panel of scientific experts based on the information that was current and available at the time of its publication in 1997.
Rice is a major food supply in southeast China. With increased population and urbanization, reliable rice mapping is critical in this region. Because of frequent cloud cover and precipitation during the rice-growing season, it is difficult to conduct large-area rice monitoring with optical remote sensing techniques. L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), with its all-weather day and night imaging and canopy
Cuizhen Wang; Jiaping Wu; Yuan Zhang; Guangdong Pan; Jiaguo Qi; William A. Salas
Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellow stem borer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellow stem borer resistance in rice. PMID:19811767
Deka, Sikha; Barthakur, Sharmistha
The recent widespread interest on soil enzymes is due to the need to develop sensitive indicators of soil quality that reflect the effects of land management on soil and assist land managers in promoting long-term sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems. The activities of six important enzymes involved in C, N, P, and S cycling were investigated in a paddy soil from the Veneto region, Italy, in four different rotation systems (rice-rice-rice: R-R-R; soya-rice-rice: S-R-R; fallow-rice: F-R; pea-soya-rice: P-S-R) with three replications in April (after field preparation, field moist condition), June (after seedling, waterlogged soil condition), August (after tillering stage of rice, waterlogged soil condition) and October (after rice harvesting, drained soil condition) over the 2012 growing season. Our results demonstrated that enzyme activities varied with rotation systems and growth stages in paddy soil. Compared with field moist soil, drained soil condition resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) of ?-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, alkaline and acid phosphatases, leucine aminopeptidase (except of fallow-rice), and chitinase activities in all rotations, while compared with drained soil, early waterlogging (in month of June) significantly decreased (P moist soil> late waterlogged>early waterlogged. There was an inhibitory effect of waterlogging (except P-S-R rotation) for both alkaline and acid phosphatases due to high pH and redox conditions. However, the response of enzymes to waterlogging differed with the chemical species and the cropping pattern. The best rotation system for chitinase, leucine aminopeptidase and ?-glucosidase activity (C and N cycles) proved R-R-R, while for arylsulfatase, alkaline and acid phosphatases (P and S cycles) it was the S-R-R. Key Words: enzyme activity, paddy soil, Crop Rotation System, Italy __ Corresponding Author: Mandana Nadimi-Goki, Tel.: +39 3891356251 E-mail address: email@example.com
Bini, Claudio; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Kato, Yoichi; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo
Background: Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high-fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces As into these products. Objective: We determined the concentration and speciation of As in commercially available brown rice syrups and in products containing OBRS, including toddler formula, cereal/energy bars, and high-energy foods used by endurance athletes. Methods: We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS to determine total As (Astotal) concentrations and As speciation in products purchased via the Internet or in stores in the Hanover, New Hampshire, area. Discussion: We found that OBRS can contain high concentrations of Asi and dimethyl-arsenate (DMA). An “organic” toddler milk formula containing OBRS as the primary ingredient had Astotal concentrations up to six times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency safe drinking water limit. Cereal bars and high-energy foods containing OBRS also had higher As concentrations than equivalent products that did not contain OBRS. Asi was the main As species in most food products tested in this study. Conclusions: There are currently no U.S. regulations applicable to As in food, but our findings suggest that the OBRS products we evaluated may introduce significant concentrations of Asi into an individual’s diet. Thus, we conclude that there is an urgent need for regulatory limits on As in food.
Taylor, Vivien F.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L.
Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment, and the academic library could be considered to be an ecosystem, i.e., a "biological organization" in which multiple species must interact, both with one another and with their environment. The metaphor of the library as ecosystem is flexible enough to be applied not…
The evolving concept of ecosystem management is the focus of much current debate. To clarify discussion and provide a frammork for implementatiotq I trace the histor- ical development of ecosystem management, provide a working definitioq and summarize dominant themes taken from an extensive literature reuiew. The general goal of maintaining ecological integ?Yty is discussed along with five specific goals: maintaining
R. Edward Grumbine
This site provides information about the six ecosystems on which life on Earth most heavily depends: agricultural, forest, freshwater, grassland, coastal, and urban. It is part of a Public Broadcasting System (PBS) project, which includes a discussion guide. Ecosystems are described as communities of interacting organisms and the physical environment in which they live. The goods and services that ecosystems provide are said to form the foundation of human economies. Ecosystems purify air and water, help to control climate, and produce valuable soil-services. Site users may access a discussion guide to accompany the broadcast of the video/television program, which can be used in colleges, secondary schools, and in community groups. Case studies are taken from the companion book, World Resources 2000-2001: Ecosystems and People: The Fraying Web of Life, and from Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems: Agroecosystems (World Resources Institute). This online text includes profiles, case studies, and ecosystem assessments with references to ecosystems around the world. A list of additional resources includes links to environmental organizations, books, and periodicals.
Mock, Gregory; Vanasselt, Wendy
Climate-induced changes in ecosystems have been both modeled and documented extensively over the past 15-20 years. Those changes occur in the context of many other stresses and interacting factors, but it is clear that many, if not most, ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate.
Janetos, Anthony C.
This resource explains how energy and pollutants move through an ecosystem, how ecosystems are balanced and how they may be affected by human activities. Concepts described include the roles of organisms, food chains and food webs, pyramids of biomass, biological magnification, and biogeochemical cycles such as water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous cycles.
The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has developed this teacher's guide to "Ecosystems," the sixth part of a six unit life science curriculum sequence. The six basic units, emphasizing organism-environment interactions, are organisms, life cycles, populations, environments, communities, and ecosystems. They make use of scientific and…
California Univ., Berkeley. Science Curriculum Improvement Study.
This article outlines an approach, based on ecosystem services, for assessing the trade-offs inherent in managing humans embedded in ecological systems. Evaluating these trade-offs requires an understanding of the biophysical magnitudes of the changes in ecosystem services that result from human actions, and of the impact of these changes on human welfare. We summarize the state of the art of
STEPHEN FARBER; ROBERT COSTANZA; DANIEL L. CHILDERS; JON ERICKSON; KATHERINE GROSS; MORGAN GROVE; CHARLES S. HOPKINSON; JAMES KAHN; STEPHANIE PINCETL; AUSTIN TROY; PAIGE WARREN; MATTHEW WILSON
Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)
Wojtan, Linda S.
Forecasts for both 2007/08 total supply and total use were raised this month. On the supply side, the rough rice production forecast was raised 7.0 million cwt to 190.0 million cwt. Forecasts for both long- and medium-short-grain production were increased...
There were no supply-side revisions this month to the 2008/09 U.S. rough-rice balance sheet. On the use side, the U.S. export forecast was lowered 4.0 million cwt to 94.0 million, partly based on a slower-than-expected shipment pace through late February....
Ecosystem management is widely proposed in the popular and professional literature as the modern and preferred way of managing natural resources and ecosystems. Advocates glowingly describe ecosystem management as an approach that will protect the environment, maintain healthy ec...
Cultivation of paddy rice for human consumption is a dominant agricultural activity throughout Asia. High levels of mercury (Hg) in rice grain pose a potential threat to human health, although the extent of risk is dependent on the chemical speciation of Hg inside the grain. We have investigated the speciation and localization of Hg in three fractions of rice grain (hull, bran, and white rice) collected from a Hg-contaminated region in China. On a mass basis, the majority of inorganic mercury (IHg) in a rice grain is found in hull and bran. However, the majority of the more toxic species methyl mercury (MeHg) is found in edible white rice. Our data show that during grain processing, most of the IHg (?78%) is eliminated, but the majority of the MeHg remains in the food product (?80%). Synchrotron radiation microscopic X-ray fluorescence (SR-?XRF) mapping shows strong localization of Hg at the surface of brown rice grains, corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. We infer that this Hg is predominantly IHg absorbed from the atmosphere. Based on X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) data we propose that IHg in bran is primarily bound to cysteine, and is associated with phytochelatins. Consequently, IHg is largely immobile and restricted to the outer layers of rice grain. MeHg in bran is primarily bound to cysteine and is associated with proteins. However, this MeHg-cysteine association behaves like a mobile nutrient and is actively transported to the endosperm during seed ripening. Concentration of MeHg-cysteine in white rice has implications for public health. There is growing evidence for Hg contamination of rice throughout Asia due to point and diffuse sources of Hg pollution. The magnitude of the associated risk must be quantified through better understanding of the localization and speciation of mercury in rice. Our work makes an effort to contribute to this understanding. PMID:24925231
Meng, Bo; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Anderson, Christopher W N; Wang, Jianxu; Zhao, Lei
The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.
The population dynamics of Archaea after flooding of an Italian rice field soil were studied over 17 days. Anoxically incubated rice field soil slurries exhibited a typical sequence of reduction processes characterized by reduction of nitrate, Fe3+, and sulfate prior to the initiation of methane production. Archaeal population dynamics were followed using a dual approach involving molecular sequence retrieval and fingerprinting of small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes. We retrieved archaeal sequences from four clone libraries (30 each) constructed for different time points (days 0, 1, 8, and 17) after flooding of the soil. The clones could be assigned to known methanogens (i.e., Methanosarcinaceae, Methanosaetaceae, Methanomicrobiaceae, and Methanobacteriaceae) and to novel euryarchaeotal (rice clusters I, II, and III) and crenarchaeotal (rice clusters IV and VI) lineages previously detected in anoxic rice field soil and on rice roots (R. Grosskopf, S. Stubner, and W. Liesack, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:4983–4989, 1998). During the initiation of methanogenesis (days 0 to 17), we detected significant changes in the frequency of individual clones, especially of those affiliated with the Methanosaetaceae and Methanobacteriaceae. However, these findings could not be confirmed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of SSU rDNA amplicons. Most likely, the fluctuations in sequence composition of clone libraries resulted from cloning bias. Clonal SSU rRNA gene sequences were used to define operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for T-RFLP analysis, which were distinguished by group-specific TaqI restriction sites. Sequence analysis showed a high degree of conservation of TaqI restriction sites within the different archaeal lineages present in Italian rice field soil. Direct T-RFLP analysis of archaeal populations in rice field soil slurries revealed the presence of all archaeal lineages detected by cloning with a predominance of terminal restriction fragments characteristic of rice cluster I (389 bp), Methanosaetaceae (280 bp), and Methanosarcinaceae/rice cluster VI (182 bp). In general, the relative gene frequency of most detected OTUs remained rather constant over time during the first 17 days after flooding of the soil. Most minor OTUs (e.g., Methanomicrobiaceae and rice cluster III) and Methanosaetaceae did not change in relative frequency. Rice cluster I (37 to 30%) and to a lesser extent rice cluster IV as well as Methanobacteriaceae decreased over time. Only the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae (182 bp) increased, roughly doubling from 15 to 29% of total archaeal gene frequency within the first 11 days, which was positively correlated to the dynamics of acetate and formate concentrations. Our results indicate that a functionally dynamic ecosystem, a rice field soil after flooding, was linked to a relatively stable archaeal community structure.
Lueders, Tillmann; Friedrich, Michael
The accumulation of arsenic (As) by rice (Oryza sativa L.) is of great interest considering the dietary intake of rice is potentially a major As exposure pathway in countries where rice is irrigated with As contaminated groundwater. A small scale rice paddy experiment was conducted to evaluate the uptake of As by rice. Arsenic concentrations in rice tissue increased in the order grain
Smith, E; Juhasz, A L; Weber, J; Naidu, R
The diversity of cultivable methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in the rice paddy field ecosystem was investigated by combined culture-dependent and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. Seven microsites of a Japanese rice paddy field were the focus of the study: floodwater, surface soil, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, root, basal stem of rice plant, and rice stumps of previous harvest. Based on pmoA gene analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), four type I, and nine type II MOB isolates were obtained from the highest dilution series of enrichment cultures. The type I MOB isolates included a novel species in the genus Methylomonas from floodwater and this is the first type I MOB strain isolated from floodwater of a rice paddy field. In the type I MOB, two isolates from stumps were closely related to Methylomonas spp.; one isolate obtained from rhizosphere soil was most related to Methyloccocus-Methylocaldum-Methylogaea clade. Almost all the type II MOB isolates were related to Methylocystis methanotrophs. FISH confirmed the presence of both types I and II MOB in all the microsites and in the related enrichment cultures. The study reported, for the first time, the diversity of cultivable methanotrophs including a novel species of type I MOB in rice paddy field compartments. Refining growth media and culture conditions, in combination with molecular approaches, will allow us to broaden our knowledge on the MOB community in the rice paddy field ecosystem and consequently to implement strategies for mitigating CH? emission from this ecosystem. PMID:22446309
Dianou, Dayéri; Ueno, Chihoko; Ogiso, Takuya; Kimura, Makoto; Asakawa, Susumu
The diversity of cultivable methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in the rice paddy field ecosystem was investigated by combined culture-dependent and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. Seven microsites of a Japanese rice paddy field were the focus of the study: floodwater, surface soil, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, root, basal stem of rice plant, and rice stumps of previous harvest. Based on pmoA gene analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), four type I, and nine type II MOB isolates were obtained from the highest dilution series of enrichment cultures. The type I MOB isolates included a novel species in the genus Methylomonas from floodwater and this is the first type I MOB strain isolated from floodwater of a rice paddy field. In the type I MOB, two isolates from stumps were closely related to Methylomonas spp.; one isolate obtained from rhizosphere soil was most related to Methyloccocus-Methylocaldum-Methylogaea clade. Almost all the type II MOB isolates were related to Methylocystis methanotrophs. FISH confirmed the presence of both types I and II MOB in all the microsites and in the related enrichment cultures. The study reported, for the first time, the diversity of cultivable methanotrophs including a novel species of type I MOB in rice paddy field compartments. Refining growth media and culture conditions, in combination with molecular approaches, will allow us to broaden our knowledge on the MOB community in the rice paddy field ecosystem and consequently to implement strategies for mitigating CH4 emission from this ecosystem.
Dianou, Dayeri; Ueno, Chihoko; Ogiso, Takuya; Kimura, Makoto; Asakawa, Susumu
The invention is drawn to a highly advantageous and unobvious process for stabilizing unmilled brown rice comprising, contacting unmilled brown rice with ethanol under conditions providing extraction of 15% or less of brown rice oil from the unmilled brow...
E. T. Champagne R. J. Hron G. Abraham
Little is known about the variability of ecosystem service values at spatial scales most relevant to local decision makers. Competing definitions of ecosystem services, the paucity of ecological and economic information and the lack of standardization in methodology are major ob...
Oceanic fronts shape marine ecosystems; therefore front mapping and characterization is one of the most important aspects of physical oceanography. Here we report on the first effort to map and describe all major fronts in the World Ocean's Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). Apart from a geographical review, these fronts are classified according to their origin and physical mechanisms that maintain
Igor M. Belkin; Peter C. Cornillon
The National Geographic Education website has a number of sections dedicated to different areas within the natural sciences. This particular section brings together all manner of educational resources related to ecosystems. On the site, visitors can dive in via the Latest Updates for Ecosystems. Here they can learn how to explore the profiled ecosystems via a range of GIS tools. Visitors can use the filters on the site to look over the resources by Type, Grades & Ages, Intended Audience, and Subjects. Visitors shouldn't miss looking over features like the Amazon Gold Mine, Back to the Bottom, and African Savanna.
New studies are showing that the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has major implications for the functioning of different ecosystems, ranging from deserts to tropical rain forests. ENSO-induced pulses of enhanced plant productivity can cascade upward through the food web invoking unforeseen feedbacks, and can cause open dryland ecosystems to shift to permanent woodlands. These insights suggest that the predicted change in extreme climatic events resulting from global warming could profoundly alter biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in many regions of the world. Our increasing ability to predict El Niño effects can be used to enhance management strategies for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. PMID:11165707
Holmgren, M; Scheffer, M; Ezcurra, E; Gutiérrez, J R.; Mohren, G M.J.
Fragrance or aroma in rice is considered as a special trait with huge economic importance that determines the premium price in global trade. With the availability of molecular maps and genome sequences, a major gene for fragrance (badh2) was identified on chromosome 8. An 8-bp deletion in the exon 7 of this gene was reported to result in truncation of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme whose loss-of-function lead to the accumulation of a major aromatic compound, 2-acetyl 1-pyrroline (2AP) in fragrant rice. However, several studies have reported exceptions to this mutation and indicated the involvement of other genetic loci in controlling fragrance trait. These studies emphasize the need to characterize the fragrance and its underlying factors in a wide range of genetic resources available for this trait. This review summarizes the new insights gained on the genetic and molecular understanding of fragrance in rice. PMID:19371779
Sakthivel, K; Sundaram, R M; Shobha Rani, N; Balachandran, S M; Neeraja, C N
A method for Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) was developed using rice-derived selection markers. Two T-DNAs were efficiently introduced into separate loci using selectable marker gene cassettes consisting of the mutated acetolactate synthase gene (mALS) under the control of the callus-specific promoter (CSP) (CSP:mALS) and the ferredoxin nitrite reductase gene (NiR) under the control of its own promoter (NiR P:NiR). The CSP:mALS gene cassette confers sulfonylurea herbicide resistance to transgenic rice callus. The NiR P:NiR construct complements NiR-deficient mutant cultivars such as 'Koshihikari', which are defective in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism. In the present study, the CaMV35S:GUS and CaMV35S:GFP gene cassettes were co-introduced into the 'Koshihikari' genome using our system. Approximately 5-10 independent transgenic lines expressing both the GUS and GFP reporters were obtained from 100 Agrobacterium co-inoculated calli. Furthermore, transgenic 'Koshihikari' rice lines with reduced content of two major seed allergen proteins, the 33 and 14-16 kDa allergens, were generated by this co-transformation system. The present results indicate that the generation of selectable antibiotic resistance marker gene-free transgenic rice is possible using our rice-derived selection marker co-transformation system. Key message An improved rice transformation method was developed based on Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation using two rice genome-derived selectable marker gene cassettes. PMID:22843026
Wakasa, Yuhya; Ozawa, Kenjirou; Takaiwa, Fumio
Zinc (Zn) deficiency and water scarcity are major challenges in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under an intensive rice production system. This study aims to investigate the impact of water-saving management and different Zn fertilization source (ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA) regimes on grain yield and Zn accumulation in rice grain. Different water managements, continuous flooding (CF), and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) were applied during the rice growing season. Compared with CF, the AWD regime significantly increased grain yield and Zn concentrations in both brown rice and polished rice. Grain yield of genotypes (Nipponbare and Jiaxing27), on the average, was increased by 11.4%, and grain Zn concentration by 3.9% when compared with those under a CF regime. Zn fertilization significantly increased Zn density in polished rice, with a more pronounced effect of ZnSO4 being observed as compared with Zn-EDTA, especially under an AWD regime. Decreased phytic acid content and molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn were also noted in rice grains with Zn fertilization. The above results demonstrated that water management of AWD combined with ZnSO4 fertilization was an effective agricultural practice to elevate grain yield and increase Zn accumulation and bioavailability in rice grains. PMID:24711357
Wang, Yu-yan; Wei, Yan-yan; Dong, Lan-xue; Lu, Ling-li; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Feng-shan; Yang, Xiao-e
Anthocyanin pigments in coloured rice cultivars were isolated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. Two black rice cultivars (Asamurasaki, Okunomurasaki) contained three major anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and malvidin. Chinakuromai (black) rice additionally contained a fourth anthocyanin, petunidin-3-glucoside. Four red rice cultivars contained only malvidin. The total anthocyanin content varied greatly among black rice cultivars (79.5-473.7 mg/100g), but was lower in red rice (7.9-34.4 mg/100g). Total phenolic content was similar between red (460.32-725.69 mg/100g) and black (417.11-687.24 mg/100g) rice. The oxygen radical absorbing capacity was ranked as follows: red (69.91-130.32 ?mol Trolox/g)>black (55.49-64.85 ?mol Trolox/g)>green (35.32 ?mol Trolox/g)>white (21.81 ?mol Trolox/g) rice. The antioxidant capacity resulted mainly from the seed capsule, not the endosperm. The anthocyanin pigments contributed little to the total antioxidant capacity of red (0.03-0.1%) and black (0.5-2.5%) rice cultivars. Hence, the antioxidant capacity is derived mainly from other phenolic compounds. PMID:22980872
Chen, Xiao Qiong; Nagao, Norio; Itani, Tomio; Irifune, Kohei
This study evaluated a cost-effective approach for the conversion of rice straw into fermentable sugars. The composition of rice straw pretreated with 1 % sulfuric acid or 1 % sodium hydroxide solution was compared to rice straw with no chemical pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification experiments on non-pretreated rice straw (NPRS), pretreated rice straw (PRS), and pretreated rice straw with acid hydrolysate (PRSAH) were conducted in a series of batch reactors. The results indicated that pretreating the rice straw with dilute acid and base increased the cellulose content from 38 % to over 50 %. During enzymatic saccharification, straight aliphatic cellulose was hydrolyzed before branched hemicellulose, and glucose was the major hydrolysis product. The glucose yield was 0.52 g glucose/g for NPRS and was comparable to the yields of 0.50 g glucose/g for PRS and 0.58 g glucose/g for PRSAH. The hydrolysis of rice straw to produce glucose can be described by a first-order reaction with a rate constant of 0.0550 d(-1) for NPRS, 0.0653 d(-1) for PRSAH, and 0.0654 d(-1) for PRS. Overall, the production of fermentable sugars from ground rice straw will be more cost effective if the straw is not pretreated with chemicals. PMID:24346765
Chen, Wen-Hsing; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Jih-Gaw
Zinc (Zn) deficiency and water scarcity are major challenges in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under an intensive rice production system. This study aims to investigate the impact of water-saving management and different Zn fertilization source (ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA) regimes on grain yield and Zn accumulation in rice grain. Different water managements, continuous flooding (CF), and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) were applied during the rice growing season. Compared with CF, the AWD regime significantly increased grain yield and Zn concentrations in both brown rice and polished rice. Grain yield of genotypes (Nipponbare and Jiaxing27), on the average, was increased by 11.4%, and grain Zn concentration by 3.9% when compared with those under a CF regime. Zn fertilization significantly increased Zn density in polished rice, with a more pronounced effect of ZnSO4 being observed as compared with Zn-EDTA, especially under an AWD regime. Decreased phytic acid content and molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn were also noted in rice grains with Zn fertilization. The above results demonstrated that water management of AWD combined with ZnSO4 fertilization was an effective agricultural practice to elevate grain yield and increase Zn accumulation and bioavailability in rice grains.
Wang, Yu-yan; Wei, Yan-yan; Dong, Lan-xue; Lu, Ling-li; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Feng-shan; Yang, Xiao-e
This project has been using natural isotope abundances to trace major pathways of energy flow to consumers in Imnavait Creek and the tundra ecosystem of the R4D watershed with comparative work in the coastal tundra. We are processing samples collected at ...
D. M. Schell
This study is aimed at determining the major pathways of energy flow in freshwater ecosystems of the Alaskan arctic coastal plain. Selected sites for study of the processes supplying energy to streams and lakes to verify the generality of past findings will be surveyed for collection of organisms including the Colville River drainage and the lake region around Teshekpuk Lake.
Natural isotope abundances to trace major pathways of energy flow to consumers in Imnavait Creek and the tundra ecosystem of the R4D watershed with comparative work in the coastal tundra. Our overall goals are to a determine if carbon is accumulating in u...
D. M. Schell
This study is aimed at determining the major pathways of energy flow in freshwater ecosystems of the Alaskan arctic coastal plain. Selected sites for study of the processes supplying energy to streams and lakes to verify the generality of past findings wi...
D. M. Schell
This project has been using natural isotope abundances to trace major pathways of energy flow to consumers in Imnavait Creek and the tundra ecosystem of the R4D watershed with comparative work in the coastal tundra. We are processing samples collected at the R4D intensive site over the past three years and are comparing these data with similar samples collected from
Although the concept of ecosystem sustainability has a long-term focus, it is often viewed from a static system perspective. Because most ecosystems are dynamic, we explore sustainability assessments from three additional perspectives: resilient systems; systems where tipping points occur; and systems subject to episodic resetting. Whereas foundations of ecosystem resilience originated in ecology, recent discussions have focused on geophysical attributes, and it is recognized that dynamic system components may not return to their former state following perturbations. Tipping points emerge when chronic changes (typically anthropogenic, but sometimes natural) push ecosystems to thresholds that cause collapse of process and function and may become permanent. Ecosystem resetting occurs when episodic natural disasters breach thresholds with little or no warning, resulting in long-term changes to environmental attributes or ecosystem function. An example of sustainability assessment of ecosystem goods and services along the Gulf Coast (USA) demonstrates the need to include both the resilient and dynamic nature of biogeomorphic components. Mountain road development in northwest Yunnan, China, makes rivers and related habitat vulnerable to tipping points. Ecosystems reset by natural disasters are also presented, emphasizing the need to understand the magnitude frequency and interrelationships among major disturbances, as shown by (i) the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting tsunami, including how unsustainable urban development exacerbates geodisaster propagation, and (ii) repeated major earthquakes and associated geomorphic and vegetation disturbances in Papua New Guinea. Although all of these ecosystem perturbations and shifts are individually recognized, they are not embraced in contemporary sustainable decision making.
Sidle, Roy C.; Benson, William H.; Carriger, John F.; Kamai, Toshitaka
A generalized discussion of mathematical simulation used on the Great Lakes is presented for the layman. Illustrations of model utilization are presented and the complexities of ecosystem simulation are noted.
W. R. Swain
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”
Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire ecosystem. (GS)
In this interactive activity adapted from the University of Alberta, identify the living and nonliving things in an ecosystem. Then look further at the living things to identify the producers, the consumers, and examples of mimicry.
Foundation, Wgbh E.
Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...
The endolithic environment, the pore space in rocks, is a ubiquitous microbial habitat and an interface between biology and geology. Photosynthesis-based endolithic communities inhabit the outer centimeters of rocks exposed to the surface, and offer model systems for microbial ecology, geobiology, and astrobiology. Endolithic ecosystems are among the simplest microbial ecosystems known and as such provide tractable models for testing ecological hypotheses. Such hypotheses have been difficult to test because microbial ecosystems are extraordinarily diverse. We review here recent culture-independent, ribosomal RNA-based studies that evaluate hypotheses about endolithic ecosystems, and provide insight for understanding general principles in microbial ecology. Comparison of endolithic communities supports the principle that patterns of microbial diversity are governed by similar principles observed in macroecological systems. Recent results also explore geobiological processes that shape the current biosphere and potentially provide clues to life's history on Earth and where to seek life elsewhere in the Solar System. PMID:17506683
Walker, Jeffrey J; Pace, Norman R
Central Asia is covered by vast desert ecosystems, and the majority of these ecosystems have alkaline soils. Their contribution to global net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) is of significance simply because of their immense spatial extent. Some of the latest research reported considerable abiotic CO2 absorption by alkaline soil, but the rate of CO2 absorption has been questioned by peer communities. To investigate the issue of carbon cycle in Central Asian desert ecosystems with alkaline soils, we have measured the NEE using eddy covariance (EC) method at two alkaline sites during growing season in Kazakhstan. The diurnal course of mean monthly NEE followed a clear sinusoidal pattern during growing season at both sites. Both sites showed significant net carbon uptake during daytime on sunny days with high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) but net carbon loss at nighttime and on cloudy and rainy days. NEE has strong dependency on PAR and the response of NEE to precipitation resulted in an initial and significant carbon release to the atmosphere, similar to other ecosystems. These findings indicate that biotic processes dominated the carbon processes, and the contribution of abiotic carbon process to net ecosystem CO2 exchange may be trivial in alkaline soil desert ecosystems over Central Asia. PMID:24455157
Li, Longhui; Chen, Xi; van der Tol, Christiaan; Luo, Geping; Su, Zhongbo
Central Asia is covered by vast desert ecosystems, and the majority of these ecosystems have alkaline soils. Their contribution to global net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) is of significance simply because of their immense spatial extent. Some of the latest research reported considerable abiotic CO2 absorption by alkaline soil, but the rate of CO2 absorption has been questioned by peer communities. To investigate the issue of carbon cycle in Central Asian desert ecosystems with alkaline soils, we have measured the NEE using eddy covariance (EC) method at two alkaline sites during growing season in Kazakhstan. The diurnal course of mean monthly NEE followed a clear sinusoidal pattern during growing season at both sites. Both sites showed significant net carbon uptake during daytime on sunny days with high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) but net carbon loss at nighttime and on cloudy and rainy days. NEE has strong dependency on PAR and the response of NEE to precipitation resulted in an initial and significant carbon release to the atmosphere, similar to other ecosystems. These findings indicate that biotic processes dominated the carbon processes, and the contribution of abiotic carbon process to net ecosystem CO2 exchange may be trivial in alkaline soil desert ecosystems over Central Asia.
Li, Longhui; Chen, Xi; van der Tol, Christiaan; Luo, Geping; Su, Zhongbo
Arkansas is the top domestic rice producer, representing nearly half of total U.S. rice production. Sediment is one of the major pollutants in rice producing areas of Arkansas. In order to mitigate this problem no-tillage management is often recommended. No-tillage is not well understood by farmers who believe that no-till is less profitable due to lower yields offsetting cost savings.
Tatjana Hristovska; K. Bradley Watkins; Merle M. Anders
Dry seeding of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the furrow-irrigated raised-bed planting system (FIRBS) represents a major shift in the production practices for attaining optimal water productivity in the rice–wheat system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia. Information on weed management in dry-seeded rice in the FIRBS is lacking. Two experiments were conducted for 2 years, with an objective
Samar Singh; Lav Bhushan; J. K. Ladha; R. K. Gupta; A. N. Rao; B. Sivaprasad
TheOryza sativa (rice) genome is small (600 to 900 megabase pairs) when compared to that of other monocotyledonous plants. Rice was the first\\u000a of the major cereals to be successfully transformed and regenerated. An RFLP map with approximately 300 markers is readily\\u000a available, and the DNA content per map unit is only two to three times that ofArabidopsis thaliana. Rice
Bruno W. S. Sobral; Rhonda J. Honeycutt; Alan G. Atherly; Michael McClelland
This unit, designed to span two class periods, helps students understand that physical factors, particularly temperature and precipitation, limit the growth of plant ecosystems. The activity begins with a discussion in which students develop their own ideas about the role of temperature, precipitation, and environment on plant growth. They will then examine X-Y graphs of vegetation growth, temperature, and precipitation versus month for four diverse ecosystems to determine which climatic factor is limiting growth. A worksheet and scoring rubric are provided.
In this ecology activity, learners make a model water-based ecosystem called a terraqua column. The column (in a large soda bottle) includes pond water, duckweed, sand or gravel, and small snails. Learners observe what happens in their living model and consider such questions as what happens to animals and plants when humans harm an ecosystem. This activity is aligned to National Science Standards (NS.5-8.3 Life Science).
National 4-H Council
As a means of developing reliable estimates of ecosystem productivity, ecosystem classification needs to be placed within a geographical framework of regions or zones. This paper explains the basis for the regions delineated on the 1976 mapEcoregions of the United States. Four ecological levels are discussed—domain, division, province, and section—based on climatic and vegetational criteria. Statistical tests are needed to
Robert G. Bailey; Fort Collins
\\u000a Hypoxia is one of the common effects of eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems and is becoming an increasingly prevalent\\u000a problem worldwide. The causes of hypoxia are associated with excess nutrient inputs from both point and non-point sources,\\u000a although the response of coastal marine ecosystems is strongly modulated by physical processes such as stratification and\\u000a mixing. Changes in climate, particularly temperature,
Daniel J. Conley; Jacob Carstensen; Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer; Carlos M. Duarte
Hypoxia is one of the common effects of eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems and is becoming an increasingly prevalent\\u000a problem worldwide. The causes of hypoxia are associated with excess nutrient inputs from both point and non-point sources,\\u000a although the response of coastal marine ecosystems is strongly modulated by physical processes such as stratification and\\u000a mixing. Changes in climate, particularly temperature,
Daniel J. Conley; Jacob Carstensen; Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer; Carlos M. Duarte
This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.
M. Aslam K. Khalil
Put on your safari hat, open your mind and get ready to enter the world of majors explorations. If you ever wondered about a field of study and whether it is right for you, you are about to find out. You will also learn where majors and fields lead for careers that may interest you. All you need for the journey is the mind of the explorer and a commitment to thoroughly investigating the options which await you.
Prentice Hall (Prentice Hall)
The vast majority of vascular plants in all nonhydric terrestrial ecosystems are mycorrhizal. While the effect of mycorrhizae on nutrition, survival and growth of plants (especially commercially important crops and trees) has been extensively investigated...
L. J. Biever
Salinity is a major yield-reducing factor in coastal and arid, irrigated rice production systems. Salt tolerance is a major\\u000a breeding objective. Three rice cultivars with different levels of salt tolerance were studied in the field for growth, sodium\\u000a uptake, leaf chlorophyll content, specific leaf area (SLA), sodium concentration and leaf CO2 exchange rates (CER) at photosynthetic active radiation (PAR)-saturation. Plants
Folkard Asch; Michael Dingkuhn; Karl Dorffling
The number of protein-coding genes predicted from the rice genome remains much larger than the number of genes for Arabidopsis. Most of the excess rice genes show low similarity to Arabidopsis, and eudicots in general. It is difficult to repudiate these genes because even for the 19,079 non-redundant rice cDNAs that have been sequenced, 34.3% are low similarity. Here, we describe a major contributor to this excess of low similarity genes: the frequent and continued occurrence of gene duplications in plants, and the post- duplicative degradation (i.e. relaxed selection) that is typically expected to occur in one of the two gene copies. The salient feature of this degradation is an increase in Ka/Ks for Ks per available site, respectively. We show that low similarity genes are expressed at lower mRNA and protein levels than other genes, and that regions of the encoded proteins are structurally disordered. Indeed, many are evolutionary “transients” that may be destined to die, even if they remain transcriptionally active for millions of years.
Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Li, Ruiqiang; Zheng, Hongkun; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Li, Heng; Ni, Peixiang; Li, Songgang; Li, Shengting; Wang, Jingquiang; Liu, Dongyuan; McDermott, Jason E.; Samudrala, Ram; Liu, Siqi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yu, Jun; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu
'Manually Curated Database of Rice Proteins' (MCDRP) available at http://www.genomeindia.org/biocuration is a unique curated database based on published experimental data. Semantic integration of scientific data is essential to gain a higher level of understanding of biological systems. Since the majority of scientific data is available as published literature, text mining is an essential step before the data can be integrated and made available for computer-based search in various databases. However, text mining is a tedious exercise and thus, there is a large gap in the data available in curated databases and published literature. Moreover, data in an experiment can be perceived from several perspectives, which may not reflect in the text-based curation. In order to address such issues, we have demonstrated the feasibility of digitizing the experimental data itself by creating a database on rice proteins based on in-house developed data curation models. Using these models data of individual experiments have been digitized with the help of universal ontologies. Currently, the database has data for over 1800 rice proteins curated from >4000 different experiments of over 400 research articles. Since every aspect of the experiment such as gene name, plant type, tissue and developmental stage has been digitized, experimental data can be rapidly accessed and integrated. PMID:24214963
Gour, Pratibha; Garg, Priyanka; Jain, Rashmi; Joseph, Shaji V; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh
The Ecosystem History Project is designed to integrate studies of terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems in South Florida. Projects cover Biscayne Bay, Florida Bay, and terrestrial ecosystems. Each project gives an introduction, investigation methods, evidence of past ecosystem changes, and modern distribution of flora and fauna. Recent ecosystem history is based on paleontology, palynology, geochemistry, hydrology, and sedimentology as seen in core samples. There are links to open-file reports, salinity maps, a database, poster presentations, and a Kid's Corner.
Then RICEMOD-300 dynamic plant process model has been simulated in order to represent the growth of major US rice varieties: to define its sensitivity to weather variables and to evaluate some of the economic implications of climatic impacts. Three observed and two modeled weather input data sets were adopted; however, for the soil and plant physiological inputs an IRRI field
Sung Nam Oh
Rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for more than half the world and a model for studies of monocotyledonous species, which include cereal crops and candidate bioenergy grasses. A major limitation of crop production is imposed by a suite of abiotic and biotic stresses resulting in 30%–60% yield losses globally each year. To elucidate stress response signaling networks, we
Young-Su Seo; Mawsheng Chern; Laura E. Bartley; Muho Han; Ki-Hong Jung; Insuk Lee; Harkamal Walia; Todd Richter; Xia Xu; Peijian Cao; Wei Bai; Rajeshwari Ramanan; Fawn Amonpant; Loganathan Arul; Patrick E. Canlas; Randy Ruan; Chang-Jin Park; Xuewei Chen; Sohyun Hwang; Jong-Seong Jeon; Pamela C. Ronald
One of the most important features of biosystems is how they are able to maintain local order (low entropy) within their system boundaries. At the ecosystem scale, this organization can be observed in the thermodynamic parameters that describe it, such that these parameters can be used to track ecosystem growth and development during succession. Thermodynamically, ecosystem growth is the increase of energy throughflow and stored biomass, and ecosystem development is the internal reorganization of these energy mass stores, which affect transfers, transformations, and time lags within the system. Several proposed hypotheses describe thermodynamically the orientation or natural tendency that ecosystems follow during succession, and here, we consider five: minimize specific entropy production, maximize dissipation, maximize exergy storage (includes biomass and information), maximize energy throughflow, and maximize retention time. These thermodynamic orientors were previously all shown to occur to some degree during succession, and here we present a refinement by observing them during different stages of succession. We view ecosystem succession as a series of four growth and development stages: boundary, structural, network, and informational. We demonstrate how each of these ecological thermodynamic orientors behaves during the different growth and development stages, and show that while all apply during some stages only maximizing energy throughflow and maximizing exergy storage are applicable during all four stages. Therefore, we conclude that the movement away from thermodynamic equilibrium, and the subsequent increase in organization during ecosystem growth and development, is a result of system components and configurations that maximize the flux of useful energy and the amount of stored exergy. Empirical data and theoretical models support these conclusions. PMID:15527958
Fath, Brian D; Jørgensen, Sven E; Patten, Bernard C; Straskraba, Milan
ABSTRACT This study,was,conducted,to determine the relative cholesterol-lowering,effects of several levels of full-fat rice bran in hamsters. In addition, the separate effects of defatted,rice bran,and\\/or crude,rice bran,oil were,investigated,at levels equivalent,to those present,in 43.7% full-fat rice bran. Diets containing 10.9, 21.8, 32.8 or 43.7% full-fat rice bran, 35% defatted rice bran and\\/or 9% rice bran oil were,fed to 4-wk-old male,ham sters. All
Nutrient Metabolism; Talwinder S. Kahlon; Faye I. Chow; Robert Y. Sayre; Antoinette A. Betschart
Rice is the most amenable crop plant for genetic manipulation amongst monocots due to its small genome size, enriched genetic map, availability of entire genome sequence, and relative ease of transformation. Improvement in agronomic traits of rice is bound to affect a sizeable population since it is a primary source of sustenance. Recent advances like use of ‘clean gene’ technology
Hitesh Kathuria; Jitender Giri; Himani Tyagi; Akhilesh K. Tyagi
These studies were conducted at Oilseeds Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad during 2004-05. Rice bran was taken from the Pattoki Rice Mills, Jaranwala and was stabilized to inactivate lipase activity. The oil was extracted through solvent extraction. The extracted oil was subjected to refining process. Different physico-chemical parameters were characterized. The refractive index, peroxide value, iodine value, and free fatty acid
Tahira R; Muhammad Anwar Butt
A Double Haploid (DH) population, 116 plants, derived from the cross between Japonica upland rice IRAT109 and paddy rice Yuefu,\\u000a planted in PVC pipe under upland ecosystem in 2001 and 2002, was used in this study. Seven root traits, including basal root\\u000a thickness (BRT), total root number (RN), maximum root length (MRL), root fresh weight (RFW), root dry weight (RDW),
Ping Mu; Zichao Li; Chunping Li; Hongliang Zhang; Changming Wu; Chen Li; Xiangkun Wang
Yield datasets of long-term experiments on integrated nutrient management in rice-rice cropping systems were used to investigate the relationship of variability in rainfall, temperature, and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices in rice-rice cropping system in three different agroecological regions of India. Twelve treatments with different combinations of inorganic (chemical fertilizer) and organic (farmyard manure, green manure, and paddy straw) were compared with farmer's conventional practice. The intraseasonal variations in rice yields are largely driven by rainfall during kharif rice and by temperature during rabi rice. Half of the standard deviation from the average monthly as well as seasonal rainfall during kharif rice and 1 °C increase or decrease from the average maximum and minimum temperature during rabi rice has been taken as the classification of yield groups. The trends in the date of effective onset of monsoon indicate a 36-day delay during the 30-year period at Rajendranagar, which is statistically significant at 95 % confidence level. The mean annual maximum temperature shows an increasing trend in all the study sites. The length of monsoon also showed a shrinking trend in the rate of 40 days during the 30-year study period at Rajendranagar representing a semiarid region. At Bhubaneshwar, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through green manure resulted in an overall average higher increase of 5.1 % in system productivity under both excess and deficit rainfall years and also during the years having seasonal mean maximum temperature ?35 °C. However, at Jorhat, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through straw resulted in an overall average higher increase of 7.4 % in system productivity, while at Rajendranagar, the application of 75 % NPK through chemical fertilizers and 25 % N through green manusre resulted in an overall average higher increase of 8.8 % in system productivity. This study highlights the adaptive capacity of different integrated nutrient management practices to rainfall and temperature variability under a rice-rice cropping system in humid, subhumid, and semiarid ecosystems.
Subash, N.; Gangwar, B.; Singh, Rajbir; Sikka, A. K.
Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments. Beneficios de Invertir en la Restauración de Ecosistemas. PMID:24112105
DE Groot, Rudolf S; Blignaut, James; VAN DER Ploeg, Sander; Aronson, James; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farley, Joshua
If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…
Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.
In this research, thermal behavior and gelling interactions of Mesona Blumes gum (MBG)/rice starch mixture were extensively investigated. MBG/rice starch gel displayed significant endothermal and exothermal properties at different MBG concentrations, indicating essential interactions between MBG and rice starch. In addition, the gelling interaction between MBG and rice starch was studied by using hydrogen-bond forming agents (1,4-butanediol, ethane-1,2-diol, glycerol) and hydrogen-bond breaking agents (urea, tetramethyl urea, ethanol, methanol) on rheological spectra. The results indicated that the hydrogen bond between MBG, rice starch and water might be the major force of maintaining the complete structure of the mixed gel. Their hypothetic interactions have been schemed in computer using hyperchem 8.0. PMID:24751091
Feng, Tao; Ye, Ran; Zhuang, Haining; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Hanqing
Rice, the primary source of dietary calories for half of humanity, is the first crop plant for which a high-quality reference genome sequence from a single variety was produced. We used resequencing microarrays to interrogate 100 Mb of the unique fraction of the reference genome for 20 diverse varieties and landraces that capture the impressive genotypic and phenotypic diversity of domesticated rice. Here, we report the distribution of 160,000 nonredundant SNPs. Introgression patterns of shared SNPs revealed the breeding history and relationships among the 20 varieties; some introgressed regions are associated with agronomic traits that mark major milestones in rice improvement. These comprehensive SNP data provide a foundation for deep exploration of rice diversity and gene-trait relationships and their use for future rice improvement. PMID:19597147
McNally, Kenneth L; Childs, Kevin L; Bohnert, Regina; Davidson, Rebecca M; Zhao, Keyan; Ulat, Victor J; Zeller, Georg; Clark, Richard M; Hoen, Douglas R; Bureau, Thomas E; Stokowski, Renee; Ballinger, Dennis G; Frazer, Kelly A; Cox, David R; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Bustamante, Carlos D; Weigel, Detlef; Mackill, David J; Bruskiewich, Richard M; Rätsch, Gunnar; Buell, C Robin; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E
Rice paddy soils have been identified as a major source of methane emissions contributing to the observed atmospheric increase in methane. This points to the need for a method of quantifying and predicting methane emissions for the widely varying conditions used in rice agriculture throughout the world. In the present work, a mathematical model for estimating the emission of methane from rice paddy soils is developed and refined. Kinetic parameters for methanogenesis in a Louisiana rice soil are determined from laboratory data on methane production from acetic acid substrate. Use of a stirred reactor allows simultaneous measurement of acetate consumption and methane production while minimizing mass transfer limitations. An existing model for rice plant growth is utilized to provide data on the availability of root exudates as a carbon source for the methanogens. The final methane model includes the kinetic parameters, plant data, and estimated transport parameters. With adjustments in these parameters, it provides an acceptable match to field data.
Law, V.J.; Bhattacharya, S.K.
Grain-yield prediction using remotely sensed data have been intensively studied in wheat and maize, but such information is limited in rice, barley, oats and soybeans. The present study proposes a new framework for rice-yield prediction, which eliminates the influence of the technology development, fertilizer application, and management improvement and can be used for the development and implementation of provincial rice-yield predictions. The technique requires the collection of remotely sensed data over an adequate time frame and a corresponding record of the region's crop yields. Longer normalized-difference-vegetation-index (NDVI) time series are preferable to shorter ones for the purposes of rice-yield prediction because the well-contrasted seasons in a longer time series provide the opportunity to build regression models with a wide application range. A regression analysis of the yield versus the year indicated an annual gain in the rice yield of 50 to 128 kg ha?1. Stepwise regression models for the remotely sensed rice-yield predictions have been developed for five typical rice-growing provinces in China. The prediction models for the remotely sensed rice yield indicated that the influences of the NDVIs on the rice yield were always positive. The association between the predicted and observed rice yields was highly significant without obvious outliers from 1982 to 2004. Independent validation found that the overall relative error is approximately 5.82%, and a majority of the relative errors were less than 5% in 2005 and 2006, depending on the study area. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to predict rice yields at the provincial level in China. The methodologies described in the present paper can be applied to any crop for which a sufficient time series of NDVI data and the corresponding historical yield information are available, as long as the historical yield increases significantly.
Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Xinxing; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Zhuokun
Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.
Arrigo, Kevin R.
Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters. PMID:24015900
Arrigo, Kevin R
Flooded rice fields are an important source of the greenhouse gas CH4. Possible carbon sources for CH4 and CO2 production in rice fields are soil organic matter (SOM), root organic carbon (ROC) and rice straw (RS), but partitioning of the flux between the different carbon sources is difficult. We conducted greenhouse experiments using soil microcosms planted with rice. The soil was amended with and without 13C-labeled RS, using two 13C-labeled RS treatments with equal RS (5 g kg?1 soil) but different ?13C of RS. This procedure allowed to determine the carbon flux from each of the three sources (SOM, ROC, RS) by determining the ?13C of CH4 and CO2 in the different incubations and from the ?13C of RS. Partitioning of carbon flux indicated that the contribution of ROC to CH4 production was 41% at tillering stage, increased with rice growth and was about 60% from the booting stage onwards. The contribution of ROC to CO2 was 43% at tillering stage, increased to around 70% at booting stage and stayed relatively constant afterwards. The contribution of RS was determined to be in a range of 12–24% for CH4 production and 11–31% for CO2 production; while the contribution of SOM was calculated to be 23–35% for CH4 production and 13–26% for CO2 production. The results indicate that ROC was the major source of CH4 though RS application greatly enhanced production and emission of CH4 in rice field soil. Our results also suggest that data of CH4 dissolved in rice field could be used as a proxy for the produced CH4 after tillering stage.
Yuan, Quan; Pump, Judith; Conrad, Ralf
Flooded rice fields are an important source of the greenhouse gas CH(4). Possible carbon sources for CH(4) and CO(2) production in rice fields are soil organic matter (SOM), root organic carbon (ROC) and rice straw (RS), but partitioning of the flux between the different carbon sources is difficult. We conducted greenhouse experiments using soil microcosms planted with rice. The soil was amended with and without (13)C-labeled RS, using two (13)C-labeled RS treatments with equal RS (5 g kg(-1) soil) but different ?(13)C of RS. This procedure allowed to determine the carbon flux from each of the three sources (SOM, ROC, RS) by determining the ?(13)C of CH(4) and CO(2) in the different incubations and from the ?(13)C of RS. Partitioning of carbon flux indicated that the contribution of ROC to CH(4) production was 41% at tillering stage, increased with rice growth and was about 60% from the booting stage onwards. The contribution of ROC to CO(2) was 43% at tillering stage, increased to around 70% at booting stage and stayed relatively constant afterwards. The contribution of RS was determined to be in a range of 12-24% for CH(4) production and 11-31% for CO(2) production; while the contribution of SOM was calculated to be 23-35% for CH(4) production and 13-26% for CO(2) production. The results indicate that ROC was the major source of CH(4) though RS application greatly enhanced production and emission of CH(4) in rice field soil. Our results also suggest that data of CH(4) dissolved in rice field could be used as a proxy for the produced CH(4) after tillering stage. PMID:23162678
Yuan, Quan; Pump, Judith; Conrad, Ralf
Rice starch is composed of amylose and amylopectin. Amylose content, an important determinant of rice starch quality, is primarily controlled by the waxy gene, encoding granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS). The starch branching enzyme (SBE) and soluble starch synthase (SSS) play major roles in the synthesis of amylopectin. Microsatellite polymorphisms in the three genes, the wx gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase
J. S. Bao; H. Corke; M. Sun
In arid, irrigated, rice environments, crop duration is highly variable, resulting in uncertain crop calendars for double cropping. The main causes of this variability are varying temperature and daylength. Breeding for stable crop duration in such environments might make a major contribution to rice production. A previous study established genetic differences in phenological responses to temperature and photoperiod, based on
M Sié; M Dingkuhn; M. C. S Wopereis; K. M Miezan
Bacterial Blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a major disease of rice in tropical Asia. Since all the Basmati varieties are highly susceptible and the disease is prevalent in the entire Basmati growing region of India, BB is a severe constraint in Basmati rice production. The present study was undertaken with the objective of combining the important
M. Joseph; S. Gopalakrishnan; R. K. Sharma; V. P. Singh; A. K. Singh; N. K. Singh; T. Mohapatra
Clinical cases of type-1 hypersensitive reaction to rice (Oryza sativa) have been reported in western countries as well as in Japan. Among rice proteins, 14-16 kD globulin proteins encoded by multiple gene family have been identified as major rice allergens. In this study, a rice cDNA library was constructed using lambda UniZap vector and screened with a rat anti-16 kD globulin protein polyclonal antibody in order to isolate Korean rice allergenic cDNA clones. Five independent cDNA clones, termed RAK1-5, were obtained after second rounds of plaque assay and immunoblot analysis. These clones encoded 13-19 kD recombinant proteins upon IPTG induction, which were identified by the polyclonal antibody in immunoblot analysis. DNA sequencing analysis showed that RAK1-4 have 99% sequence homology with RA5b, and RAK5 is closely related with RA14c. This result indicated that RA5b gene is widely distributed in our cDNA library among other possible rice allergenic genes, and more study is needed to isolate heterogeneous or novel rice allergen genes. PMID:10630372
Kim, N; Kim, W; Lee, S; Lee, H; Rhee, H; Choi, Y; Jung, Y; Cha, S
Considerable progress has been made on the genetic engineering of rice for improved nutritional content involving micronutrients\\u000a and carotenoid content. Golden Rice, developed by genetic engineering (Agrobacterium and biolistic transformation) was used in rice breeding for the transfer of high-nutritional value to the local rice cultivars.\\u000a Simultaneously, commercial Asian indica rice cultivars were also developed with expression of high-carotenoid levels.
Swapan K. Datta; Karabi Datta; Vilas Parkhi; Mayank Rai; Niranjan Baisakh; Gayatri Sahoo; Sayeda Rehana; Anindya Bandyopadhyay; Editha Abrigo; Norman Oliva; Lina Torrizo
Rice is one of the most important crops in the world. The rice community needs to cooperate and share efforts and resources so that we can understand the functions of rice genes, especially those with a role in important agronomical traits, for application in agricultural production. Mutation is a major source of genetic variation that can be used for studying gene function. We will present here the status of mutant collections affected in a random manner by physical/chemical and insertion mutageneses.As of early September 2013, a total of 447, 919 flanking sequence tags from rice mutant libraries with T-DNA, Ac/Ds, En/Spm, Tos17, nDART/aDART insertions have been collected and publicly available. From these, 336,262 sequences are precisely positioned on the japonica rice chromosomes, and 67.5% are in gene interval. We discuss the genome coverage and preference of the insertion, issues limiting the exchange and use of the current collections, as well as new and improved resources. We propose a call to renew all mutant populations as soon as possible. We also suggest that a common web portal should be established for ordering seeds. PMID:24341871
Wei, Fu-Jin; Droc, Gaëtan; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Hsing, Yue-Ie C
Rice is one of the most important crops in the world. The rice community needs to cooperate and share efforts and resources so that we can understand the functions of rice genes, especially those with a role in important agronomical traits, for application in agricultural production. Mutation is a major source of genetic variation that can be used for studying gene function. We will present here the status of mutant collections affected in a random manner by physical/chemical and insertion mutageneses. As of early September 2013, a total of 447, 919 flanking sequence tags from rice mutant libraries with T-DNA, Ac/Ds, En/Spm, Tos17, nDART/aDART insertions have been collected and publicly available. From these, 336,262 sequences are precisely positioned on the japonica rice chromosomes, and 67.5% are in gene interval. We discuss the genome coverage and preference of the insertion, issues limiting the exchange and use of the current collections, as well as new and improved resources. We propose a call to renew all mutant populations as soon as possible. We also suggest that a common web portal should be established for ordering seeds.
Beginning with the famous story of the village girl trying to feed her people, the lesson involves students in the mathematics of exponential growth. Students work collaboratively to come up with a bargaining plan to trick a raja into feeding the village using algebra and estimation. The complete activity includes the development of an exponential equation, but just following the growth of the number of rice grains throughout the story gives a good introduction to exponential growth. Questions for students and ideas for assessment are provided.
Amended final report on the safety assessment of Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Oil, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Oil, Rice Bran Acid,Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Wax, Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax, Oryza Sativa (rice)Bran Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Powder, Oryza Sativa (rice) Starch, Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein, Hydrolyzed Rice Extract, and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein.
This report addresses the safety of cosmetic ingredients derived from rice, Oryza sativa. Oils, Fatty Acids, and Waxes: Rice Bran Oil functions in cosmetics as a conditioning agent--occlusive in 39 formulations across a wide range of product types. Rice Germ Oil is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in six formulations in only four product categories. Rice Bran Acid is described as a surfactant-cleansing agent, but was not in current use. Rice Bran Wax is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in eight formulations in five product categories. Industry did not directly report any use of Rice Bran Wax. Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax is a binder, skin-conditioning agent--occlusive, and viscosity-increasing agent--nonaqueous in 11 formulations in six product categories. Rice Bran Oil had an oral LD50 of > 5 g/kg in white rats and Rice Wax had an oral LD50 of > 24 g/kg in male mice. A three-generation oral dosing study reported no toxic or teratologic effects in albino rats fed 10% Rice Bran Oil compared to a control group fed Peanut Oil. Undiluted Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were not irritants in animal skin tests. Rice Bran Oil was not a sensitizer. Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, Rice Wax, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were negative in ocular toxicity assays. A mixture of Rice Bran Oil and Rice Germ Oil had a ultraviolet (UV) absorption maximum at 315 nm, but was not phototoxic in a dermal exposure assay. Rice Bran Oil was negative in an Ames assay, and a component, gamma-oryzanol, was negative in bacterial and mammalian mutagenicity assays. Rice oils, fatty acids, and waxes were, at most, mildly irritating in clinical studies. Extracts: Rice Bran Extract is used in six formulations in four product categories. Rice Extract is a hair-conditioning agent, but was not in current use. Hydrolyzed Rice Extract is used in four formulations and current concentration of use data were provided for other uses. Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, described as a skin-conditioning agent--miscellaneous, is used in two product categories. Use concentrations are in the 1% to 2% range. Rice Bran Extract is comprised of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, mineral ash, and water. The content includes palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. Other components include antioxidants such as tocopherols. Rice Extract reduced the cytotoxicity of sodium chloride in male rats. Bran, Starch and Powder: Rice Bran (identified as rice hulls) is an abrasive and bulking agent in one formulation. Rice Starch is an absorbent and bulking agent in 51 formulations across a wide range of product categories. Rice Germ Powder is an abrasive and one manufacturer described an exfoliant use, but it was not reported to be used in 2002. Oral carcinogenicity studies done on components of Rice Bran (phytic acid and gamma-oryzanol) were negative. Rice Bran did not have an anticarcinogenic effect on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced large bowel tumors. In cocarcinogenicity studies done using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and other agents, with Rice Bran Oil and Rice Bran-derived hemicellulose and saccharide, tumor inhibition was observed; gamma-oryzanol did not inhibit the development of neoplasms. A decrease in cutaneous lesions in atopic dermatitis patients was reported following bathing with a Rice Bran preparation. Proteins: Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein function as conditioning agents (hair or skin), but only the latter was reported to be used in a few products. An in vitro phototoxicity assay using UVA light found no photochemical toxicity. Rice bran protein hydrolysates are not acutely toxic, are not skin or ocular irritants in animals, are not skin sensitizers in guinea pig maximization tests, and are not irritating or sensitizing in clinical tests. Isolated cases of allergy to raw rice have been reported, but rice, in general, is considered non allergenic. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel considered that safety test data available on certain of these ingredients could be extrapolated to the entire group.
The Maritime and Continental Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are considered in the context of environmental impacts - habitat destruction, alien introductions, and pollution. Four types of pollution are considered: nutrients, radionuclides, inert materials, and noxious chemicals. Their ability to recover from perturbation is discussed in the light of present scientific knowledge, and the methods used to control impacts are reviewed. It is concluded that techniques of waste disposal are still inadequate, adequate training in environmental and conservation principles for Antarctic personnel in many countries is lacking, and scientific investigations may be a much more serious threat than tourism to the integrity of these ecosystems. Some priorities crucial to future management are suggested.
This case study looks at the marsh ecosystem of Grays Lake in southeast Idaho, and is hosted by the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC). Grays Lake has been the focus of numerous research studies to understand factors affecting breeding water birds, habitat management practices, populations, and geological factors. This report gives general information about the Grays Lake ecosystem, including climate, habitats, plant communities, wildlife, water, and geology. More specific details are given through flora and fauna lists, historical and cultural overviews, details about the Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and research information on management of wetlands.
Flooded rice fields are one of the major biogenic methane sources. In this study, the effects of straw residual treatments on methane emission from paddy fields were discussed. The experimental field was located at Tainan District Agricultural Improvement Station in Chia-Yi county (23 degrees 25'08''N, 120degrees16'26''E) of southern Taiwan throughout the first and the second crop seasons in 2000. The seasonal methane fluxes in the first crop season with rice stubble removed, rice straw burned and rice straw incorporated were 4.41, 3.78 and 5.27 g CH4 m(-2), and the values were 32.8, 38.9 and 75.1 g CH4 m(-2) in the second crop season, respectively. In comparison of three management methods of rice straw residue, the incorporation of rice straw residue should show a significant tendency for enhancing methane emission in the second crop season. Moreover, stubble removed and straw burned treatments significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 28 approximately 56% emissions compared to straw incorporated plot. Concerning for air quality had led to legislation restricting rice straw burning, removing of rice stubble might be an appropriate methane mitigation strategy in Taiwan paddy soils. PMID:12856932
Liou, Rey-May; Huang, Shan-Ney; Lin, Chin-Wei; Chen, Shin-Hsiung
Finger millet is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) grass that belongs to the Chloridoideae subfamily. A comparative analysis has been carried out to determine the relationship of the finger millet genome with that of rice. Six of the nine finger millet homoeologous groups corresponded to a single rice chromosome each. Each of the remaining three finger millet groups were orthologous to two rice chromosomes, and in all the three cases one rice chromosome was inserted into the centromeric region of a second rice chromosome to give the finger millet chromosomal configuration. All observed rearrangements were, among the grasses, unique to finger millet and, possibly, the Chloridoideae subfamily. Gene orders between rice and finger millet were highly conserved, with rearrangements being limited largely to single marker transpositions and small putative inversions encompassing at most three markers. Only some 10% of markers mapped to non-syntenic positions in rice and finger millet and the majority of these were located in the distal 14% of chromosome arms, supporting a possible correlation between recombination and sequence evolution as has previously been observed in wheat. A comparison of the organization of finger millet, Panicoideae and Pooideae genomes relative to rice allowed us to infer putative ancestral chromosome configurations in the grasses. PMID:17619853
Srinivasachary; Dida, Mathews M; Gale, Mike D; Devos, Katrien M
Rice (Oryza sativa L.), the major staple food crop of the world, faces a severe threat from widespread drought. The development of drought-tolerant rice varieties is considered a feasible option to counteract drought stress. The screening of rice germplasm under drought and its characterization at the morphological, genetic, and molecular levels revealed the existence of genetic variation for drought tolerance within the rice gene pool. The improvements made in managed drought screening and selection for grain yield under drought have significantly contributed to progress in drought breeding programs. The availability of rice genome sequence information, genome-wide molecular markers, and low-cost genotyping platforms now makes it possible to routinely apply marker-assisted breeding approaches to improve grain yield under drought. Grain yield QTLs with a large and consistent effect under drought have been indentified and successfully pyramided in popular rice mega-varieties. Various rice functional genomics resources, databases, tools, and recent advances in "-omics" are facilitating the characterization of genes and pathways involved in drought tolerance, providing the basis for candidate gene identification and allele mining. The transgenic approach is successful in generating drought tolerance in rice under controlled conditions, but field-level testing is necessary. Genomics-assisted drought breeding approaches hold great promise, but a well-planned integration with standardized phenotyping is highly essential to exploit their full potential. PMID:23702083
Swamy, B P Mallikarjuna; Kumar, Arvind
The hierarchical organization of microbial ecosystems determines process rates that shape Earth's environment, create the biomarker sedimentary and atmospheric signatures of life and define the stage upon which major evolutionary events occurred. In order to understand how microorganisms have shaped the global environment of Earth and potentially, other worlds, we must develop an experimental paradigm that links biogeochemical processes with ever-changing temporal and spatial distributions of microbial population, and their metabolic properties. Photosynthetic microbial mats offer an opportunity to define holistic functionality at the millimeter scale. At the same time, their Biogeochemistry contributes to environmental processes on a planetary scale. These mats are possibly direct descendents of the most ancient biological communities; communities in which oxygenic photosynthesis might have been invented. Mats provide one of the best natural systems to study how microbial populations associate to control dynamic biogeochemical gradients. These are self-sustaining, complete ecosystems in which light energy absorbed over a diel (24 hour) cycle drives the synthesis of spatially-organized, diverse biomass. Tightly-coupled microorganisms in the mat have specialized metabolisms that catalyze transformations of carbon, nitrogen. sulfur, and a host of other elements.
DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)
More than half of the world's population uses rice as a source of carbon intake every day. Improving grain quality is thus essential to rice consumers. The three main properties that determine rice eating and cooking quality—amylose content, gel consistency, and gelatinization temperature—correlate with one another, but the underlying mechanism of these properties remains unclear. Through an association analysis approach, we found that genes related to starch synthesis cooperate with each other to form a fine regulating network that controls the eating and cooking quality and defines the correlation among these three properties. Genetic transformation results verified the association findings and also suggested the possibility of developing elite cultivars through modification with selected major and/or minor starch synthesis-related genes.
Tian, Zhixi; Qian, Qian; Liu, Qiaoquan; Yan, Meixian; Liu, Xinfang; Yan, Changjie; Liu, Guifu; Gao, Zhenyu; Tang, Shuzhu; Zeng, Dali; Wang, Yonghong; Yu, Jianming; Gu, Minghong; Li, Jiayang
This study illustrates the importance of sedimentation control on a global scale by introducing general concepts developed locally through field observations in eutrophic bay in Lake Biwa in Japan, and in Dongting Lake in China. The phosphorus concentration of suspended solids in water columns and in the bottom sediment during soil puddling before the transplanting of rice seedlings have been measured analytically. We have estimated the gross phosphorus loads and the economical loss of losing fertilizer from rice paddy fields in the whole Lake Biwa basin during the same period. Additionally, the discussions and conclusions made in the session Ecosystem approach to water monitoring and management organized during the Third World Water Forum held in Kyoto, are introduced. The importance of sediment control in carrying out overall water quality programmes has been emphasized not only for watersheds with severe land degradation, but also for basins where the sedimentation impacts are considered rather small, and there is a need to reverse the long-term water quality trend in shallow reservoirs in international river basins, such as La Plata River basin in South America. Establishing international standards and regulations for controlling fine sediments, making an effective economic evaluation of the impacts induced by sedimentation applicable to local farmers, as well as developing an effective project focusing on treating sedimentation to improve nutrient control should be initiated on a global scale, as with the Global Environmental Facility project.
Yamashiki, Yosuke; Nakamura, Takehiro; Kurosawa, Miyuki; Matsui, Saburo
The importance of rice as a basic foodstuff to over half of the world's populations can not be underestimated, and it was with this fact in mind that the International Rice Research Institute first developed the idea for the International Year of Rice in 1999. Working in tandem with the United Nations General Assembly, the Institute set up a number of partnerships, conferences, lectures, and research agendas to take place throughout the year 2004 and beyond. The site contains links to numerous important papers, such as the collection available here from the recent conference titled Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems, which was held in Rome. Beyond various scholarly and policy-oriented resources, visitors can learn about the rice photography contest, submit recipes to a forthcoming rice-themed cookbook, and explore a kids section that offers some basic facts about rice, along with a short quiz. The site is available in a number of different languages, including Italian, Spanish, French, Arabic, and Japanese.
Risk assessments of ecological effects of transgenic rice expressing lepidoptera-Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on non-target arthropods have primarily focused on rice plants during cropping season, whereas few studies have investigated the effects in postharvest periods. Harvested rice fallow fields provide a critical over-wintering habitat for arthropods in the Chinese rice ecosystems, particularly in the southern region of the country. During 2006-08, two independent field trials were conducted in Chongqing, China to investigate the effects of transgenic Cry1Ab rice residues on non-target arthropod communities. In each trial, pitfall traps were used to sample arthropods in field plots planted with one non-Bt variety and two Bt rice lines expressing the Cry1Ab protein. Aboveground arthropods in the trial plots during the postharvest season were abundant, while community densities varied significantly between the two trials. A total of 52,386 individual insects and spiders, representing 93 families, was captured in the two trials. Predominant arthropods sampled were detritivores, which accounted for 91.9% of the total captures. Other arthropods sampled included predators (4.2%), herbivores (3.2%), and parasitoids (0.7%). In general, there were no significant differences among non-Bt and Bt rice plots in all arthropod community-specific parameters for both trials, suggesting no adverse impact of the Bt rice plant residues on the aboveground non-target arthropod communities during the postharvest season. The results of this study provide additional evidence that Bt rice is safe to non-target arthropod communities in the Chinese rice ecosystems. PMID:22252123
Bai, Yao-Yu; Yan, Rui-Hong; Ye, Gong-Yin; Huang, Fangneng; Wangila, David S; Wang, Jin-Jun; Cheng, Jia-An
The fermentation products of Monascus, especially those produced by solid-state fermentation of rice, have been used as food and health remedies for over 1000 years in China. Monascus rice products (MRPs) are currently being used as health foods in the United States and many Asian countries such as Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Many studies have shown that Monascus spp. produce commercially viable metabolites, including food colorants, cholesterol-lowering agents, and antibiotics. The most important bioactive compound isolated from Monascus is monacolin K, which is identical to the potent cholesterol-lowering, antiatherosclerotic drug lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor. Several species of the genus Monascus also produce citrinin, a mycotoxin harmful to the hepatic and renal systems. Monacolin K and citrinin are polyketide fungal metabolites. The biosynthetic pathways leading to the formation of polyketides, including monacolin K and citrinin, have been elucidated in Aspergillus and Monascus. The concern for safety is, therefore, high for the development of MRPs as health foods. Other attractive applications for MRPs are likely, as supported by recent studies that indicate that MRPs contain other substances (flavonoids, polyunsaturated fats, phytosterols, pyrrolinic compounds, and others) with a wide variety of biological activities and pharmacological potentials. Their effects in lowering blood sugar and triacylglycerol while raising HDL-C are more pronounced than those of monacolin K alone. Beyond cholesterol lowering, MRP may also be an ideal candidate for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. PMID:17900498
Wang, Tseng-Hsing; Lin, Tzann-Feng
The dominant business model of today's Internet is built upon advertisements; users can access Internet services while the providers show ads to them. Although significant efforts have been made to model and analyze the economic aspects of this ecosystem, the heart of the current status quo, namely privacy, has not received the attention of the research community yet. Accordingly, we
Tuan Anh Trinh; Laszlo Gyarmati
The Terrestrial Habitats Project at the Western Ecology Division (Corvallis, OR) is developing tools and databases to meet the needs of Program Office clients for assessing risks to wildlife and terrestrial ecosystems. Because habitat is a dynamic condition in real-world environm...
The purpose of this resource is to understand that physical factors - temperature and precipitation - limit the growth of vegetative ecosystems. Students observe and record seasonal changes in their local study site. They establish that these phenomena follow annual cycles and conclude the activity by creating displays that illustrate the repeating pattern associated with the appearance and disappearance of seasonal markers.
The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)
Students examine a coral reef ecosystem to learn about its living and non-living parts and how they interact. They apply what they have learned to explore the world's biomes, including how the animals in each are adapted to their environment.
Foundation, Wgbh E.
The issue-focused reprint explains how natural ecosystems produce services upon which we are dependent. For example, they: provide us with clean water and air, pollinate our crops and disperse seeds, protect us from extreme weather and ultraviolet light, and control pests and disease-carrying organisms.
Ecological Society of America (;)
This United States Geological Survey (USGS) site is designed to summarize and make available results of scientific research conducted in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts since 1985. A computer image of the harbor indicates ecosystem zones with descriptions (watershed, estuary, inner shelf, and basin), sewage outfall sites, and rock types. Links are provided for more information on this region.
The Pesticide Orchard Ecosystem Model (POEM) is a mathematical model of organophosphate pesticide movement in an apple orchard ecosystem. In addition submodels on invertebrate population dynamics are included. The fate model allows the user to select the pesticide, its applicatio...
In this media-rich lesson, students use a systems thinking approach to explore the components and processes of ecosystems. They analyze both a hypothetical and a local ecosystem by identifying abiotic and biotic components and their relationships.
Foundation, Wgbh E.
Guiding principles based on conservation biology are applied in assessing ecosystem needs. Ecosystem, economic, and social needs are integrated in a decision model in which the guiding principles are used as a primary filter for evaluating proposed action...
C. B. Edminster D. A. Boyce L. Perry M. R. Kaufmann P. Mehlhop P. S. Corn R. L. Bassett R. T. Graham R. T. Reynolds W. H. Moir W. M. Block
Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division, Ada, OK Mission: Conduct research and technical assistance to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted b...
This activity is meant to give students an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and the processes and concepts that they are composed of and to give students a feel for how ecosystems affect the larger community.
William H. Leonard (University of Nebraska;)
Rice is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and is the major crop in Taiwan. However, it is a challenge because rice fields are generally small and fragmental, while crop mapping requires information of crop phenology associating with the high spatiotemporal resolution of remote-sensing data. This problem can be partially overcome by a spatiotemporal fusion to create a new dataset that has a better spatiotemporal resolution. In this study, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat imageries were used because MODIS data, which a spatial resolution of land bands of 500 m and temporal resolution of 1?2 days, were able to achieve the phenological information of rice crops at a large region; while Landsat data demonstrate the effectiveness to collectively map small patches of crop fields at the subnational level due to its spatial resolution of 30 m. However, the temporal resolution of Landsat data is lower (16 days), making it difficult to investigate temporal responses of crop phenology from rice fields. The main objective of this study was to take into account of advantages of MODIS and Landsat imageries to generate a synthetic dataset at Landsat spatial resolution and MODIS temporal resolution for rice crop mapping in Taiwan. The methodology comprised five steps: (1) satellite data for 2011 were pre-processed to account for geometric and radiometric correction of MODIS and Landsat data, (2) MODIS-Landsat data fusion using the Spatial Temporal Adaptive Fusion Model (STARFM), (3) construct the smooth time-series Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data using wavelet transform, (4) rice crop classification using phenological information of crop phenology, and (5) accuracy assessment. The data fusion results for day of year (DOY) 153 were compared with the reference Landsat data (DOY 153) indicated a close correlation (R2 = 0.81). The phenology-based classification results compared with the ground reference data revealed close agreement between these two datasets. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 82% and 0.75, respectively. The relationship between the MODIS-derived rice areas and those from the government's rice area statistics at the district level was examined, reaffirming a strong correlation between the two datasets with R2 > 0.9. This study demonstrates advantages of MODIS-Landsat data fusion for rice crop mapping in Taiwan. Such an approach used in this study could be applied for other regions to map small patches of crops at a subnational scale.
Chen, Cheng-Ru; Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh
Submergence tolerance and jasmine-like cooking quality are desirable for rice varieties grown in rainfed and irrigated lowland ecosystems in the Mekong region of Southeast Asia. Hybridization between varieties IR57514 and Kao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML105) was initiated with the goal of producing an ideotype that combines submergence tolerance and jasmine-like cooking quality. Through the single seed descent (SSD) method, a
J. Jantaboon; M. Siangliw; S. Im-mark; W. Jamboonsri; A. Vanavichit; T. Toojinda
A primary motivation for our research in Digital Ecosystems is the desire to\\u000aexploit the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems. Ecosystems are\\u000athought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve\\u000acomplex, dynamic problems. However, the biological processes that contribute to\\u000athese properties have not been made explicit in Digital Ecosystems research.\\u000aHere, we discuss how biological properties contribute
Gerard Briscoe; Suzanne Sadedin; Gregory Paperin
Landscape evaluation is important in the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable development. The objective of this paper is to review and explore methods for evaluation of landscapes for ecosystem planning. Ecosystem planning is the process of land use decision-making that considers organisms and processes that characterize the ecosystem as a whole. Risk assessments, precautionary principles, adaptive management and scenario approaches
Most fisheries literature avoids speaking about ecosystem impacts of fishing, either because impacts are not demonstrated or because a causal relationship between impacts and fishing cannot be formally established with the available information. However, there is mounting evidence that fishing has undesired effects in the marine ecosystems. This overview examines the wide ecosystem effects of fishing, describing and illustrating the
Biobottles are miniature ecosystems made from 2-liter plastic soda bottles. They allow students to explore how organisms in an ecosystem are connected to each other, examine how biotic and abiotic factors influence plant and animal growth and development, and discover how important biodiversity is to an ecosystem. This activity was inspired by an…
Breene, Arnica; Gilewski, Donna
Interventions into ecosystems to develop the built/socio-physical environment involve normative decisions regarding human well-being that inevitably compromise ecosystem capacities, but ecosystem sustainability is conditioned by properties established by ecosystems and unrelated ...
Increased consumption of whole grains has been associated with reduced risk of developing major chronic diseases. These health benefits have been attributed in part to their unique phytochemicals. Previous studies on black rice mainly focused on anthocyanins. Little is known about the phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activities of different black rice varieties. The objective of this study was to determine the phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of rice bran samples from 12 diverse varieties of black rice. The free, bound, and total phenolic contents of black rice bran samples ranged from 2086 to 7043, from 221.2 to 382.7, and from 2365 to 7367 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of dry weight (DW), respectively. The percentage contribution of free phenolics to the total ranged from 88.2 to 95.6%. The average values of free, bound, and total phenolic contents of black rice bran were 8, 1.5, and 6 times higher than those of white rice bran, respectively (p < 0.05). The free, bound, and total flavonoid contents of black rice bran samples ranged from 3462 to 12061, from 126.7 to 386.9, and from 3596 to 12448 mg of catechin equiv/100 g of DW, respectively. The percentage contribution of free flavonoids to the total ranged from 96.3 to 97.6%. The average values of free, bound, and total flavonoid contents of black rice bran were 7.4, 1.9, and 6.7 times higher than those of white rice bran, respectively (p < 0.05). The free, bound, and total anthocyanin contents of black rice bran samples ranged from 1227 to 5096, from 4.89 to 8.23, and from 1231 to 5101 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside equiv/100 g of DW, respectively. The percentage contribution of free anthocyanins to the total ranged from 99.5 to 99.9%. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside were detected in black rice bran samples and ranged from 736.6 to 2557, from 22.70 to 96.62, and from 100.7 to 534.2 mg/100 g of DW, respectively. The free, bound, and total antioxidant activities of black rice bran samples ranged from 476.9 to 180, from 47.91 to 79.48, and from 537.5 to 1876 mumol of Trolox equiv/g of DW, respectively. The percentage contribution of free antioxidant activity to the total ranged from 88.7 to 96.0%. The average values of free, bound, and total antioxidant activity of black rice bran were more than 8, 1.5, and 6 times higher than those of white rice bran, respectively (p < 0.05). The total antioxidant activity of black rice bran was correlated to the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total anthocyanins and also was significantly correlated to the contents of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside. These results indicate that there are significant differences in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity among the different black rice varieties. Black rice bran has higher content of phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins and has higher antioxidant activity when compared to white rice bran. Interestingly, the phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins of black rice bran are mainly present in free form. Knowing the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of black rice bran gives insights to its potential application to promote health. PMID:20521821
Zhang, Ming Wei; Zhang, Rui Feng; Zhang, Fang Xuan; Liu, Rui Hai
(Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt has been traced back to an ancient Ethiopian word 'basal,' which means 'a rock from which you can obtain iron.' That must have made it a very desired material with ancient Earth civilizations long ago. Basalt is actually one of the most abundant types of rock found on Earth. Most of the volcanic islands in the ocean are made of basalt, including the large shield volcano of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which is often compared to Martian shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes don't have high, steep, mountain-like sides, but are instead low and broad humps upon the surface. They're created when highly fluid, molten-basalt flows spread out over wide areas. Over several millennia of basaltic layering upon layering, these volcanoes can reach massive sizes like the ones seen on Mars. You can see the wrinkly texture of dark lava flows (now hard and cool) in the above image beneath the brighter dust.
Data requirements, tasks to be accomplished, and the technical approaches to be used in identifying the characteristics of rice for crop inventories are listed as well as methods for estimating crop development and assessing its conditions.
The origin recognition complex (ORC) is composed of six subunits and plays an important role in DNA replication in all eukaryotes. The ORC subunits OsORC6 as well as the other five ORC subunits in rice were experimentally isolated and sequenced. It indicated that there also exist six ORC subunits in rice. Results of RT-PCR indicated that expression of all the rice ORC genes are no significant difference under 26°C and 34°C. Yeast two hybridization indicated that OsORC2, -3, -5 interact with each other. OsORC5 can then bind OsORC4 to form the OsORC2, -3,-4,-5 core complex. It suggested that the basic interactions have been conserved through evolution. No binding of OsORC1 and OsORC6 with the other subunits were observed. A model of ORC complex in rice is proposed. PMID:23733064
Tan, Deyong; Lv, Qundan; Chen, Xinai; Shi, Jianghua; Ren, Meiyan; Wu, Ping; Mao, Chuanzao
The origin recognition complex (ORC) is composed of six subunits and plays an important role in DNA replication in all eukaryotes. The ORC subunits OsORC6 as well as the other five ORC subunits in rice were experimentally isolated and sequenced. It indicated that there also exist six ORC subunits in rice. Results of RT-PCR indicated that expression of all the rice ORC genes are no significant difference under 26°C and 34°C. Yeast two hybridization indicated that OsORC2, -3, -5 interact with each other. OsORC5 can then bind OsORC4 to form the OsORC2, -3,-4,-5 core complex. It suggested that the basic interactions have been conserved through evolution. No binding of OsORC1 and OsORC6 with the other subunits were observed. A model of ORC complex in rice is proposed.
Tan, Deyong; Lv, Qundan; Chen, Xinai; shi, Jianghua; Ren, Meiyan; Wu, Ping; Mao, Chuanzao
Farm mechanization can directly relieve labor shortages during tilling, transplanting, harvesting, and threshing; indirect benefits accruing to mechanization may also be substantial. This paper makes a case for the increased mechanization of rice farming ...
R. C. Fischer
Gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to the same species or wild relatives is a major concern in risk assessment. Transgenic rice with insect and/or disease resistance, herbicide, salt and/or drought tolerance and improved quality has been successfully developed. However, data on rice gene flow from environmental risk assessment studies are currently insufficient for the large-scale commercialization of GM rice. We have provided data on the gene flow frequency at 17 distances between a GM japonica line containing the bar gene as a pollen donor and two indica hybrid rice varieties and four male-sterile (ms) lines. The GM line was planted in a 640 m2 in an isolated experimental plot (2.4 ha), which simulates actual conditions of rice production with pollen competition. Results showed that: (1) under parallel plantation at the 0-m zone, the transgene flow frequency to the ms lines ranged from 3.145 to 36.116% and was significantly higher than that to hybrid rice cultivars (0.037-0.045%). (2) Gene flow frequency decreased as the distance increased, with a sharp cutoff point at about 1-2 m; (3) The maximum distance of transgene flow was 30-40 m to rice cultivars and 40-150 m to ms lines. We believe that these data will be useful for the risk assessment and management of transgenic rice lines, especially in Asia where 90% of world's rice is produced and hybrid rice varieties are extensively used. PMID:17443417
Jia, Shirong; Wang, Feng; Shi, Lei; Yuan, Qianhua; Liu, Wuge; Liao, Yilong; Li, Shuguang; Jin, Wujun; Peng, Huipu
Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere.
Like other coastal zones around the world, the inland sea ecosystem of Washington (USA) and British Columbia (Canada), an area known as the Salish Sea, is changing under pressure from a growing human population, conversion of native forest and shoreline habitat to urban development, toxic contamination of sediments and species, and overharvest of resources. While billions of dollars have been spent trying to restore other coastal ecosystems around the world, there still is no successful model for restoring estuarine or marine ecosystems like the Salish Sea. Despite the lack of a guiding model, major ecological principles do exist that should be applied as people work to design the Salish Sea and other large marine ecosystems for the future. We suggest that the following 10 ecological principles serve as a foundation for educating the public and for designing a healthy Salish Sea and other coastal ecosystems for future generations: (1) Think ecosystem: political boundaries are arbitrary; (2) Account for ecosystem connectivity; (3) Understand the food web; (4) Avoid fragmentation; (5) Respect ecosystem integrity; (6) Support nature's resilience; (7) Value nature: it's money in your pocket; (8) Watch wildlife health; (9) Plan for extremes; and (10) Share the knowledge.
Gaydos, Joseph K., Dierauf, Leslie; Kirby, Grant; Brosnan, Deborah; Gilardi, Kirsten; Davis, Gary E.
We report the construction of an RFLP genetic map of rice (Oryza sativa) chromosomes. The map is comprised of 135 loci corresponding to clones selected from a PstI genomic library. This molecular map covers 1,389 cM of the rice genome and exceeds the current classical maps by more than 20%. The map was generated from F2 segregation data (50 individuals)
S. R. McCouch; G. Kochert; Z. H. Yu; Z. Y. Wang; G. S. Khush; W. R. Coffman; S. D. Tanksley
The RICE experiment (Radio Ice Cherenkov Experiment) at South Pole consists of an array of dipole antennas designed to detect the coherent radio frequency radiation produced by neutrino-induced showers in the Antarctic ice. We report updated limits on the ultra-high energy neutrino flux, based on RICE data taken between 2000 an 2005. These limits also reflect improvements in Monte Carlo simulations and detector modeling.
Besson, Dave Z.
By using the solid-state reaction of rice husk silica particles with magnesium powder, P\\/M magnesium based composites dispersed with the magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) and magnesium oxide (MgO) were fabricated. High-purity silica particles were originated from rice husks, one of the major agricultural wastes, via the citric acid leaching treatment and combustion in air. The effects of the silica particle characteristics
Junko Umeda; Katsuyoshi Kondoh; Masashi Kawakami; Hisashi Imai
Gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to the same species or wild relatives is a major concern in risk assessment.\\u000a Transgenic rice with insect and\\/or disease resistance, herbicide, salt and\\/or drought tolerance and improved quality has been\\u000a successfully developed. However, data on rice gene flow from environmental risk assessment studies are currently insufficient\\u000a for the large-scale commercialization of GM
Shirong Jia; Feng Wang; Lei Shi; Qianhua Yuan; Wuge Liu; Yilong Liao; Shuguang Li; Wujun Jin; Huipu Peng
Drought is a major cause of yield loss in rain-fed rice (Oryza sativa L.), grown on over 40 million ha in Asia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of direct selection for yield under drought stress in upland rice in populations derived from crosses betweenirrigated high-yielding cultivars and upland-adapted cultivars. Random F2:4 lines from five populations
R. Venuprasad; H. R. Lafitte; G. N. Atlin
YIELD, a water-balance and crop-yield model that calculates production and water consumption variables for a variety of major crops, was applied specifically for wetland rice to China and Korea in order to estimate the region's potential and actual yields for irrigated and rainfed rice production. A network of 241 stations provided the climatic data averaged over approximately a 25-year period.
W. H. Terjung; J. T. Hayes; H. Y. Ji; P. E. Todhunter; P. A. ORourke
Submergence stress regularly affects 15 million hectares or more of rainfed lowland rice areas in South and Southeast Asia.\\u000a A major QTL on chromosome 9, Sub1, has provided the opportunity to apply marker assisted backcrossing (MAB) to develop submergence tolerant versions of rice\\u000a cultivars that are widely grown in the region. In the present study, molecular markers that were tightly
C. N. Neeraja; R. Maghirang-Rodriguez; A. Pamplona; S. Heuer; B. C. Y. Collard; E. M. Septiningsih; G. Vergara; D. Sanchez; K. Xu; A. M. Ismail; D. J. Mackill
identification of DNA markers linked to desirable genes or QTL affecting target traits is a prerequisite for MAS. IR65598-112 and the two sister lines IR65600-42 and IR65600-96 Conventional breeding brought major increases in are promising new plant type (NPT) rice lines with high yield potential. rice production through the modern high-yielding varie- However, these lines are susceptible to bacterial blight
A. C. Sanchez; D. S. Brar; N. Huang; Z. Li; G. S. Khush
The Colvin Group at Rice University deals with the control and understanding of material properties on nanometer length scales. Some members of the group work to "develop new chemical approaches to forming uniform nanocrystals, and highly ordered porous solids" while "others focus on using these materials as tools for answering fundamental questions about nature, such as the characteristic length scales in glasses and liquids." Researchers can learn about the numerous projects undertaken by the group including understanding the superprism phenomena, the preparation of perfect nanocrystals of metal oxides, and the synthesis of quartz particles in the sub-micron to nanoscale size regime. Students and educators can find helpful tutorials describing the nanoscience field of study. The website also provides many of the group's published papers.
Over the past few years, a number of online journal communities have been created on the web to facilitate group dialogue around a variety of issues. As one might surmise from its title, the Rice Bowl Journals website is aimed at primarily serving the Asian online journal community. The diarists featured on the site can be examined by ethnicity and location, and visitors may also wish to browse the journals by category. Perhaps of equal interest are the online discussion forums, which allow visitors to offer commentary on current events, campus life, and the art of online journaling. The site is rounded out by a FAQ area and a place for visitors to leave feedback.
Cell walls of deepwater rice internodes undergo long-term extension (creep) when placed under tension in acidic buffers. This is indicative of the action of the cell wall-loosening protein expansion. Wall extension had a pH optimum of around 4.0 and was abolished by boiling. Acid-induced extension of boiled cell walls could be reconstituted by addition of salt-extracted rice or cucumber cell wall proteins. Cucumber expansion antibody recognized a single protein band of 24.5-kD apparent molecular mass on immunoblots of rice cell wall proteins. Expansions were partially purified by concanavalin A affinity chromatography and sulfopropyl (SP) cation-exchange chromatography. The latter yielded two peaks with extension activity (SP20 and SP29), and immunoblot analysis showed that both of these active fractions contained expansion of 24.5-kD molecular mass. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of SP20 expansion is identical to that deduced from the rice expansion cDNA Os-EXP1. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of SP29 expansion matches that deduced from the rice expansion cDNA Os-EXP2 in six of eight amino acids. Our results show that two expansions occur in the cell walls of rice internodes and that they may mediate acid-induced wall extension.
Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Kende, H. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
The degradation characteristics of toluene coupled to nitrate reduction were investigated in enrichment culture and the microbial communities of toluene-degrading denitrifying consortia were characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. Anaerobic nitrate-reducing bacteria were enriched from oil-contaminated soil samples collected from terrestrial (rice field) and marine (tidal flat) ecosystems. Enriched consortia degraded toluene in the presence of nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor. The degradation rate of toluene was affected by the initial substrate concentration and co-existence of other hydrocarbons. The types of toluene-degrading denitrifying consortia depended on the type of ecosystem. The clone RS-7 obtained from the enriched consortium of the rice field was most closely related to a toluene-degrading and denitrifying bacterium, Azoarcus denitrificians (A. tolulyticus sp. nov.). The clone TS-11 detected in the tidal flat enriched consortium was affiliated to Thauera sp. strain S2 (T. aminoaromatica sp. nov.) that was able to degrade toluene under denitrifying conditions. This indicates that environmental factors greatly influence microbial communities obtained from terrestrial (rice field) and marine (tidal flat) ecosystems. PMID:15278317
An, Y-J; Joo, Y-H; Hong, I-Y; Ryu, H-W; Cho, K-S
Lysine (Lys) is the first limiting essential amino acid in rice, a stable food for half of the world population. Efforts, including genetic engineering, have not achieved a desirable level of Lys in rice. Here, we genetically engineered rice to increase Lys levels by expressing bacterial lysine feedback-insensitive aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS) to enhance Lys biosynthesis; through RNA interference of rice lysine ketoglutaric acid reductase/saccharopine dehydropine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH) to down-regulate its catabolism; and by combined expression of AK and DHPS and interference of LKR/SDH to achieve both metabolic effects. In these transgenic plants, free Lys levels increased up to ~12-fold in leaves and ~60-fold in seeds, substantially greater than the 2.5-fold increase in transgenic rice seeds reported by the only previous related study. To better understand the metabolic regulation of Lys accumulation in rice, metabolomic methods were employed to analyse the changes in metabolites of the Lys biosynthesis and catabolism pathways in leaves and seeds at different stages. Free Lys accumulation was mainly regulated by its biosynthesis in leaves and to a greater extent by catabolism in seeds. The transgenic plants did not show observable changes in plant growth and seed germination nor large changes in levels of asparagine (Asn) and glutamine (Gln) in leaves, which are the major amino acids transported into seeds. Although Lys was highly accumulated in leaves of certain transgenic lines, a corresponding higher Lys accumulation was not observed in seeds, suggesting that free Lys transport from leaves into seeds did not occur. PMID:23279104
Long, Xiaohang; Liu, Qiaoquan; Chan, Manling; Wang, Qing; Sun, Samuel S M
President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. ...Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his writ around this globe of ours. ...There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountian? Why - 35 years ago - why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we intend to win, and the others too.'
President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to begained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his wirt around this globe of ours. There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountain? Why 35 years ago why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we attend to win, and the others , too.'
We investigated 151 non-redundant NAC genes in rice and 117 in Arabidopsis. A complete overview of this gene family in rice is presented, including gene structures, phylogenies, genome localizations, and expression profiles. We also performed a comparative analysis of these genes in rice and Arabidopsis. Conserved amino acid residues and phylogeny construction using the NAC conserved domain sequence suggest that OsNAC gene family was classified broadly into two major groups (A and B) and sixteen subgroups in rice. We presented more specific phylogenetic analysis of OsNAC proteins based on the DNA-binding domain and known gene function, respectively. Loss of introns was observed in the segmental duplication. Homologous, paralogous, and orthologous searches of rice and Arabidopsis revealed that the major functional diversification within the NAC gene family predated the divergence of monocots and dicots. The chromosomal localizations of OsNAC genes indicated nine segmental duplication events involving 18 genes; 32 non-redundant OsNAC genes were involved in tandem duplications. Expression levels of this gene family were checked under various abiotic stresses (cold, drought, submergence, laid-down submergence, osmotic, salinity and hormone) and biotic stresses [infection with rice viruses such as RSV (rice stripe virus) and RTSV (rice tungro spherical virus)]. Biotic stresses are novel work and increase the possibilities for finding the best candidate genes. A preliminary search based on our microarray (22K and 44K) data suggested that more than 45 and 26 non-redundant genes in this family were upregulated in response to abiotic and biotic stresses, respectively. All of the genes were further investigated for their stress responsiveness by RT-PCR analysis. Six genes showed preferential expression under both biotic RSV and RTSV stress. Eleven genes were upregulated by at least three abiotic treatments. Our study provides a very useful reference for cloning and functional analysis of members of this gene family in rice. PMID:20600702
Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Manimekalai, Ramaswamy; Sharoni, Akhter Most; Satoh, Kouji; Kondoh, Hiroaki; Ooka, Hisako; Kikuchi, Shoshi
Soybean 7S globulin, known as ?-conglycinin, has been shown to regulate human plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Furthermore, the ?' subunit of ?-conglycinin has specifically been shown to possess low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol-lowering activity. Therefore, accumulation of the ?' subunit of ?-conglycinin in rice seeds could lead to the production of new functional rice that could promote human health. Herein, we used the low-glutelin rice mutant 'Koshihikari' (var. a123) and suppressed its glutelins and prolamins, the major seed storage proteins of rice, by RNA interference. The accumulation levels of the ?' subunit in the lines with suppressed glutelin and prolamin levels were >20 mg in 1 g of rice seeds, which is considerably higher than those in previous studies. Oral administration of the transgenic rice containing the ?' subunit exhibited a hypocholesterolemic activity in rats; the serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly reduced when compared to those of the control rice (var. a123). The cholesterol-lowering action by transgenic rice accumulating the ?' subunit induces a significant increase in fecal bile acid excretion and a tendency to increase in fecal cholesterol excretion. This is the first report that transgenic rice exhibits a hypocholesterolemic activity in rats in vivo by using the ?-conglycinin ?' subunit. PMID:24676962
Cabanos, Cerrone; Kato, Naoki; Amari, Yoshiki; Fujiwara, Keigo; Ohno, Tomoki; Shimizu, Kousuke; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Masaya; Kuroda, Masaharu; Masuda, Taro; Takaiwa, Fumio; Utsumi, Shigeru; Nagaoka, Satoshi; Maruyama, Nobuyuki
A Department of Defense (DOD) program, the Mojave Ecosystem Database Program (MEDP) represents the DOD's "first attempt to meld together a shared scientific database that can be used to affect dynamic sustainable land management decisions." Although the mission statement of MEDP reflects a somewhat oxymoronic goal, e.g., maintaining "critical DOD installations within the Mojave Desert Ecosystem ... while protecting the environment," the site nevertheless represents an opportunity for researchers to access environmental models and potentially influence land management within the Mojave Ecoregion. The searchable site offers information about and/or access to Geospatial Data, Metadata, Geomorphic Landform Data, and a Spatial Bibliography, among other regional resources. An excellent selection of links points users to a wealth of additional and variously detailed (governmental) information.
Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an ecosystem functioning context, but it also highlights that much remains to be understood, especially regarding the relation between forest functioning on the one side and genetic diversity and above-ground-below-ground species associations on the other. The strong emphasis of the BEF-approach on functional rather than taxonomic diversity may also be the beginning of a paradigm shift in restoration ecology, increasing the tolerance towards allochthonous species.
We report measurements of rates of sap flow in dominant trees, changes in soil moisture, and evaporation from coarse woody debris in an old- growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock ecosystem at Wind River, Washington, USA, during dry periods in summer. The measurements are compared with eddy-covariance measurements of water-vapor fluxes above the forest (Ee) and at the forest floor (Eu) to examine
Michael H. Unsworth; Kyaw Tha
In this lesson, students will explore the Everglades ecosystem using the Internet. They will develop an understanding about conservation of resources in the context of the Everglades, explore relationships between species and habitats, and develop an understanding of how human beings have altered the equilibrium in the Everglades. This lesson uses the resources on the Everglades National Park website, providing students with experiences that they may not be able to acquire firsthand.
Students will construct a model ecosystem to help explain the interactions between organisms and their environments in this guided inquiry lesson. This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2004 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.
Ms. Kaci May (North Charleston Elementary @ McNair)
Abstract: Hydrologic regimes play a major role in determining the biotic composition, structure, and function of aquatic, wetland, and riparian ecosystems. However, human land and water uses are substantially altering hydrologic regimes around the world. Improved quantitative evaluations of human-inducedhydrologic changes,are needed,to advance research on the biotic implications of hydrologic alteration, and to support ecosystem,management,and restoration plans. To facilitate such
Brian D. Richter; Jeffrey V. Baumgartner; Jennifer Powell; David P. Braun
Background The natural interactions between plant roots and their rhizospheric microbiome are vital to plant fitness, modulating both growth promotion and disease suppression. In rice (Oryza sativa), a globally important food crop, as much as 30% of yields are lost due to blast disease caused by fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Capitalizing on the abilities of naturally occurring rice soil bacteria to reduce M. oryzae infections could provide a sustainable solution to reduce the amount of crops lost to blast disease. Results Naturally occurring root-associated rhizospheric bacteria were isolated from California field grown rice plants (M-104), eleven of which were taxonomically identified by16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. Bacterial isolates were tested for biocontrol activity against the devastating foliar rice fungal pathogen, M. oryzae pathovar 70–15. In vitro, a Pseudomonas isolate, EA105, displayed antibiosis through reducing appressoria formation by nearly 90% as well as directly inhibiting fungal growth by 76%. Although hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a volatile commonly produced by biocontrol pseudomonads, the activity of EA105 seems to be independent of its HCN production. During in planta experiments, EA105 reduced the number of blast lesions formed by 33% and Pantoea agglomerans isolate, EA106 by 46%. Our data also show both EA105 and EA106 trigger jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) response in rice. Conclusions Out of 11 bacteria isolated from rice soil, pseudomonad EA105 most effectively inhibited the growth and appressoria formation of M. oryzae through a mechanism that is independent of cyanide production. In addition to direct antagonism, EA105 also appears to trigger ISR in rice plants through a mechanism that is dependent on JA and ET signaling, ultimately resulting in fewer blast lesions. The application of native bacteria as biocontrol agents in combination with current disease protection strategies could aid in global food security.
Background and aims Direct seeding of rice is being adopted in rainfed and irrigated lowland ecosystems because it reduces labour costs in addition to other benefits. However, early flooding due to uneven fields or rainfall slows down seed germination and hinders crop establishment. Conversely, early flooding helps suppress weeds and reduces the costs of manual weeding and/or dependence on herbicides; however, numerous weed species are adapted to lowlands and present challenges for the use of flooding to control weeds. Advancing knowledge on the mechanisms of tolerance of flooding during germination and early growth in rice and weeds could facilitate the development of improved rice varieties and effective weed management practices for direct-seeded rice. Principal results Rice genotypes with a greater ability to germinate and establish in flooded soils were identified, providing opportunities to develop varieties suitable for direct seeding in flooded soils. Tolerance of flooding in these genotypes was mostly attributed to traits associated with better ability to mobilize stored carbohydrates and anaerobic metabolism. Limited studies were undertaken in weeds associated with lowland rice systems. Remaining studies compared rice and weeds and related weed species such as Echinochloa crus-galli and E. colona or compared ecotypes of the same species of Cyperus rotundus adapted to either aerobic or flooded soils. Conclusions Tolerant weeds and rice genotypes mostly developed similar adaptive traits that allow them to establish in flooded fields, including the ability to germinate and elongate faster under hypoxia, mobilize stored starch reserves and generate energy through fermentation pathways. Remarkably, some weeds developed additional traits such as larger storage tubers that enlarge further in deeper flooded soils (C. rotundus). Unravelling the mechanisms involved in adaptation to flooding will help design management options that will allow tolerant rice genotypes to adequately establish in flooded soils while simultaneously suppressing weeds.
Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Johnson, David E.; Ella, Evangelina S.; Vergara, Georgina V.; Baltazar, Aurora M.
Conservationists commonly have framed ecological concerns in economic terms to garner political support for conservation and to increase public interest in preserving global biodiversity. Beginning in the early 1980s, conservation biologists adapted neoliberal economics to reframe ecosystem functions and related biodiversity as ecosystem services to humanity. Despite the economic success of programs such as the Catskill/Delaware watershed management plan in the United States and the creation of global carbon exchanges, today's marketplace often fails to adequately protect biodiversity. We used a Marxist critique to explain one reason for this failure and to suggest a possible, if partial, response. Reframing ecosystem functions as economic services does not address the political problem of commodification. Just as it obscures the labor of human workers, commodification obscures the importance of the biota (ecosystem workers) and related abiotic factors that contribute to ecosystem functions. This erasure of work done by ecosystems impedes public understanding of biodiversity. Odum and Odum's radical suggestion to use the language of ecosystems (i.e., emergy or energy memory) to describe economies, rather than using the language of economics (i.e., services) to describe ecosystems, reverses this erasure of the ecosystem worker. Considering the current dominance of economic forces, however, implementing such solutions would require social changes similar in magnitude to those that occurred during the 1960s. Niklas Luhmann argues that such substantive, yet rapid, social change requires synergy among multiple societal function systems (i.e., economy, education, law, politics, religion, science), rather than reliance on a single social sphere, such as the economy. Explicitly presenting ecosystem services as discreet and incomplete aspects of ecosystem functions not only allows potential economic and environmental benefits associated with ecosystem services, but also enables the social and political changes required to ensure valuation of ecosystem functions and related biodiversity in ways beyond their measurement on an economic scale. PMID:19659684
Peterson, Markus J; Hall, Damon M; Feldpausch-Parker, Andrea M; Peterson, Tarla Rai
The degradation behavior of metaflumizone was studied in a rice field ecosystem, and a simple and reliable analytical method was developed for determination of metaflumizone in soil, rice straw, paddy water and brown rice. Metaflumizone residues were extracted from samples with acetonitrile. The extract was cleaned up with QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, and determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The average recoveries of metaflumizone were 75.2-105.1 percent from soil, rice straw, paddy water and brown rice. The relative standard deviations were less than 15 percent. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) of metaflumizone were 3.0?g/L for paddy water and 3.0?g/kg for other samples. The results of the kinetic study of metaflumizone residue showed that metaflumizone degradation in soil, water and rice straw coincided with C=0.08564e(-0.0505t), C=0.04984e(-0.1982t), C=2.2572e(-0.1533t), respectively; the half-lives were about 13.7d, 3.5d, and 4.5d, respectively. The final residues of metaflumizone on brown rice were lower than maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.05mg/kg after 28d Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI) at the recommended dosage. Therefore, a dosage of 450mLa.i.ha(-1) with 28 days before harvest was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals. PMID:23079740
Li, Cun; Yang, Ting; Wu, Yin-Liang
The genetic differentiation of nuclear, mitochondrial (mt) and chloroplast (cp) genomes was investigated by Southern and PCR analysis using 75 varieties of cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa L.) and 118 strains of common wild rice (CWR, Oryza rufipogon Griff.) from ten countries of Asia. The distinguishing differences between the Indica and Japonica cultivars were detected both in the nuclear genome and the cytoplasmic genome, confirming that the Indica-Japonica differentiation is of major importance for the three different classes of genome in cultivated rice. This differentiation was also detected in common wild rice with some differences among the genome compartments and the various regions. For nuclear DNA variation, both Indica-like and Japonica-like types were observed in the Chinese CWR, with the latter more-frequent than the former. No Japonica-like type was found in South Asia, and only two strains of the Japonica-like type were detected in Southeast Asia, thus the Indica-like type is the major type among South and Southeast Asian CWR. For mtDNA, only a few strains of the Japonica-like type were detected in CWR. For cpDNA, the Japonica type was predominant among the CWR strains from China, Bangladesh and Burma, while the Indica type was predominant among the CWR strains from Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia and Sri Lanka, and both types were found in similar frequencies among the Indian CWR. Altogether, however, the degree of Indica-Japonica differentiation in common wild rice was much-less important than that in cultivated rice. Cluster analyses for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation revealed that some CWR strains showed large genetic distances from cultivated rice and formed clusters distinct from cultivated rice. Coincidence in the genetic differentiation between the three different classes of genome was much higher in cultivated rice than in CWR. Among the 75 cultivars, about 3/4 entries were "homoeotype" showing congruent results for nuclear, mt and cpDNA regarding the Indica-Japonica differentiation. In CWR, the proportions of homoeotypes were 5.7%, 15% and 48.8% in China, South Asia and Southeast Asia, respectively. Based on the average genetic distance among all the strains of CWR and cultivated rice for nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, the variability of the nuclear genome was found to be higher than that of the mitochondrial genome. The global pattern based on all genomes shows much-more diversification in CWR than that in cultivated rice. PMID:12582589
Sun, Q.; Wang, K.; Yoshimura, A.; Doi, K.
Acidification of white rice was shown to be ineffective in preventing growth of sporeforming bacillus species. Moreover, there was nonuniform distribution of the acidulant, which resulted in portions of the acidified rice that were less acidic. It was con...
E. M. Powers C. Hernandez
A monitoring test for arsenic species in white rice flour was developed and applied to flours made from 20 samples of polished rice collected from locations all over Japan. The arsenic species in white rice flour made from five samples each of four types of rice were analyzed by HPLC-ICP-MS after a heat-assisted aqueous extraction. The total arsenic and major and minor element concentrations in the white rice flours were measured by ICP-MS and ICP-OES after microwave-assisted digestion. 91 ± 1% of the arsenic in the flours was extractable. Concentrations of arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) were closely positively correlated with the total arsenic concentrations. The total arsenic concentration in flours made from rice collected around Japan was 0.15 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) (highest, 0.32 mg kg(-1)), which is very low. It was thus confirmed that the white rice flour samples collected in this experiment were not suffered from noticeable As contamination. PMID:22224477
Narukawa, Tomohiro; Hioki, Akiharu; Chiba, Koichi
Rice can be a major contributor to dietary arsenic exposure because of the relatively high total arsenic concentration compared to other grains, especially for people whose main staple is rice. This study employed in vitro gastrointestinal fluid digestion to determine bioaccessible or gastrointestinal fluid extractable arsenic concentration in rice. Thirty-one rice samples, of which 60 % were grown in the United States, were purchased from food stores in New York City. Total arsenic concentrations in these samples ranged from 0.090 ± 0.004 to 0.85 ± 0.03 mg/kg with a mean value of 0.275 ± 0.161 mg/kg (n = 31). Rice samples with relatively high total arsenic (>0.20 mg/kg, n = 18) were treated by in vitro artificial gastrointestinal fluid digestion, and the extractable arsenic ranged from 53 % to 102 %. The bioaccessibility of arsenic in rice decreases in the general order of extra long grain, long grain, long grain parboiled, to brown rices. PMID:22251206
He, Yi; Pedigo, Christopher E; Lam, Billion; Cheng, Zhongqi; Zheng, Yan
Unlike the other major crops, no genetically modified (GM) varieties of rice have been commercialized at a large scale. Within the next 2-3 years new transgenic rice varieties could be ready for regulatory approval and subsequent commercialization, though. Given the importance of rice as staple crop for many of the world's poorest people, this will have implications for the alleviation of poverty, hunger and malnutrition. Thus, policy-makers need to be aware of the potential benefits of GM rice. We provide an overview of the literature and discuss the evidence on expected agronomic and consumer benefits of genetically engineered rice. We find that while GM rice with improved agronomic traits could deliver benefits similar to already commercialized biotechnology crops, expected benefits of consumer traits could be higher by an order of magnitude. By aggregating the expected annual benefits, we estimate the global value of GM rice to be US$64 billion per year. This is only an indicative value, as more GM varieties will become available in future. Nevertheless, such a figure can help guide policy-makers when deciding on the approval or funding of biotechnology crops and it may also raise awareness among consumers about what is at stake for their societies. PMID:23628812
Demont, Matty; Stein, Alexander J
Background Rice and maize dwarf diseases caused by the newly introduced Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) have led to severe economic losses in South China in recent years. The distribution and diversity of SRBSDV have not been investigated in the main rice and maize growing areas in China. In this study, the distribution of SRBSDV in China was determined by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Between 2009 and 2010, 2404 plant samples (2294 rice, 110 maize samples, and more than 300 cultivars) with dwarf symptoms were collected from fields in 194 counties of 17 provinces in China and SRBSDV was detected. The results indicated that 1545 (64.27%) of samples (both rice and maize) were infected with SRBSDV. SRBSDV was detected widely in Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces, which suggests SRBSDV is an important pathogen causing rice dwarfing diseases in South China. Phylogenetic analysis of 15 representative virus isolates revealed that SRBSDV isolates in China had high levels of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities (>97.8%). Conclusions SRBSDV spreads naturally in Yangtze River basin and south region, the location of the major rice production areas. In comparison, the virus rarely spreads north of Yangtze River in North China. Distribution of SRBSDV is consistent with the migrating and existing ranges of its vector WBPH, suggesting that SRBSDV might be introduced into South China along with the migration of viruliferous WBPH.
Cooked rice is a staple food for Koreans which provides more than 60% of daily required energy. In 1960's, Koreans ate 600 g-800 g of cooked rice per meal and the energy obtained from cooked rice was almost more than 80% of the daily intake of energy. However, as the economy of Korea improved, the major industry has been shifted from agriculture to various manufacturing industries and the export of those products has been increased thus increasing the national income but decreasing the farming population and thus rice consumption have been decreased. It has been said that the decreased rice consumption is caused solely by decreased farming population but it can also be said that the decreased farming population is caused by decreased rice consumption. As the national income increases, the type of foods people consume have become diversified. Various processed foods such as convenience food or ready-to-eat food have been widespread, which are mostly made of wheat flour rather than rice.
Human-dominated ecosystems such as in South Florida's Everglades region are greatly affected by societal actions and choices, and efforts to restore degraded ecosystems must take into account the societal drivers of ecosystem change. A conceptual model of societal-ecological interactions within the region illustrates connections between major societal drivers, such as water management and land use, and ecological stressors, such as
Christine C. Harwell; Christopher W. Deren; George H. Snyder; William D. Solecki; James Wilson; Mark A. Harwell
The goal of this research was to develop a new, efficient adsorbent of gold-thiourea complex, [Au(CS(NH2)2]+. In this experiment, rice husk was heated at three different temperature: 300°C, 400°C and 500°C. Rice husk ash heated at 300°C adsorbed gold thiourea complex, whereas rice husk ash heated at 400°C and 500°C did not. The structure of rice husk ash heated at
W. Nakbanpote; P. Thiravetyan; C. Kalambaheti
Whole-ecosystem manipulation is a useful tool for investigating the effects of air pollution, air pollution reduction strategies and management practices on the health and productivity of forests, and has become widely used in forest ecosystem research. This review of the whole-ecosystem manipulation research gives an overview of the recent and ongoing research within this field and synthesizes the results obtained so far. PMID:21236826
Beier, C; Rasmussen, L
The Amu Darya is the main water source for whole Turkmenistan, but also for the regions Khorezm and Karakalpakistan in Uzbekistan. Due to the arid climate in the Amu Darya river basin, agriculture depends on irrigation with river water being the major source of water. Also the natural ecosystems depend on river water. Until end of the 1970s, the Amu Darya flew into the Aral Sea and, together with the Syr Darya, sustained its water level. From the 1960s until today the area under irrigation has been strongly enlarged. During Soviet Union times, mainly cotton was planted on the newly reclaimed land. After independence, new land was reclaimed, in order to grow wheat. In the course of this land reclamation, the downstream section of the Amu Darya, i.e. in Karakalpakistan faces severe water shortage. Today, the Amu Darya only occasionally reaches the previous shore line of the Aral Sea. Against this background, it is necessary that water consumption along the Amu Darya is limited and water is used efficiently, in order to ensure water supply for downstream water users. The province Lebap in Turkmenistan is located at the middle reaches of the Amu Darya. Thus, it is an example of an administrative unit, which consumes water from the Amu Darya and which should release a sufficient amount of water downstream. Furthermore, Lebap harbours one of the last near-natural riparian forests of Central Asia, i.e. the Amu Darya State Reserve, which also is a water consumer. Therefore, we estimate the water consumption of agriculture (cotton, wheat, rice, and house gardens) and the natural ecosystems within Lebap Province. Water consumption refers to the actual evapo-transpiration. We use Landsat ETM and TM satellite images, in order to produce maps of the actual evapo-transpiration. Afterwards, a land cover map is laid over the ETa maps, in order to retrieve the ETa of the different crops and natural ecosystems. These results are compared with the water norms and quotas given for Lebap Province.
Thevs, Niels; Ovezmuradov, Kurban
; Rice is becoming a model plant in monocotyledons and a model cereal crop. For better understanding of the rice plant, it is essential to elucidate the developmental pro- grams of the life cycle. To date, several attempts have been made in rice to categorize the developmental processes of some organs into substages. These studies are based exclu- sively on
Jun-Ichi Itoh; Ken-Ichi Nonomura; Kyoko Ikeda; Shinichiro Yamaki; Yoshiaki Inukai
Rice is the principal food for over half of the population of the world. With its genome size of 430 megabase pairs (Mb), the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa is a model plant for genome research. Here we report the sequence analysis of chromosome 4 of O. sativa, one of the first two rice chromosomes to be sequenced completely. The
Qi Feng; Yujun Zhang; Pei Hao; Shengyue Wang; Gang Fu; Yucheng Huang; Ying Li; Jingjie Zhu; Yilei Liu; Xin Hu; Peixin Jia; Yu Zhang; Qiang Zhao; Kai Ying; Shuliang Yu; Yesheng Tang; Qijun Weng; Lei Zhang; Ying Lu; Jie Mu; Yiqi Lu; Lei S. Zhang; Zhen Yu; Danlin Fan; Xiaohui Liu; Tingting Lu; Yongrui Wu; Tongguo Sun; Haiyan Lei; Tao Li; Hao Hu; Jianping Guan; Mei Wu; Runquan Zhang; Bo Zhou; Zehua Chen; Ling Chen; Zhaoqing Jin; Rong Wang; Haifeng Yin; Zhen Cai; Shuangxi Ren; Gang Lv; Wenyi Gu; Genfeng Zhu; Yuefeng Tu; Jia Jia; Yi Zhang; Jie Chen; Hui Kang; Xiaoyun Chen; Chunyan Shao; Yun Sun; Qiuping Hu; Xianglin Zhang; Wei Zhang; Lijun Wang; Chunwei Ding; Haihui Sheng; Jingli Gu; Shuting Chen; Lin Ni; Fenghua Zhu; Wei Chen; Lefu Lan; Ying Lai; Zhukuan Cheng; Minghong Gu; Jiming Jiang; Jiayang Li; Guofan Hong; Yongbiao Xue; Bin Han
The grain morphology of 17 wild rice relatives were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy and compared to two cultivated rice varieties (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare and O. sativa cv. Teqing). Observations were made of the grain colour, size and shape. Grains from wild rice species exhibited a variety of colours that have potential aesthetic and nutritional value. The
Shabana Kasem; Daniel LE Waters; Nicole F Rice; Frances M Shapter; Robert J Henry
China's rice economy is among the world's most diverse with respect to both the number of varieties grown and the different climatic conditions under which rice is produced. China has six agro-climatic zones for producing rice, ranging from the warm and humid tropics in the south, to the cooler subtropics of central China, and to northern China with its much
James Hansen; Frank Fuller; Frederick Gale; Frederick Crook; Eric Wailes; Michelle Moore
Anthocyanin pigments from varieties of black, red and wild rice were identified and quantified to evaluate their potential as nutritional function, natural colorants or functional food ingredients. Anthocyanin extraction was conducted with acidified methanol with 0.1M HCl (85:15, v/v) and identification of anthocyanin, aglycone and sugar moieties was conducted by comparison with purified standards by HPLC, Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectrophotometer and paper chromatography. Black and wild rice showed three different types of pigments by HPLC whereas red rice variety did not show any anthocyanins. Out of three pigments detected, one (peak 2) was characterized as cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) by comparison of spectroscopic and chromatographic properties with an authentic standard, and another (peak 3) was tentatively identified as cyanidin-fructoside on the basis of spectroscopic properties with ?max of aglycone in 1% HCl methanol at 537 nm, electrospray ionization mass spectra with major ions at 449 and 287 m/z and chromatographic properties. But another pigment (peak 1) has not been characterized. The most abundant anthocyanin in black and wild rice was C3G.
Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Han-ah; Koh, Kwangoh; Lee, Young Sang; Kim, Yong Ho
Rice-infecting viruses have caused serious damage to rice production in Asian, American, and African countries, where about 30 rice viruses and diseases have been reported. To control these diseases, developing accurate, quick methods to detect and diagnose the viruses in the host plants and any insect vectors of the viruses is very important. Based on an antigen-antibody reaction, serological methods such as latex agglutination reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have advanced to detect viral particles or major proteins derived from viruses. They aid in forecasting disease and surveying disease spread and are widely used for virus detection at plant protection stations and research laboratories. From the early 2000s, based on sequence information for the target virus, several other methods such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification have been developed that are sensitive, rapid, and able to differentiate closely related viruses. Recent techniques such as real-time RT-PCR can be used to quantify the pathogen in target samples and monitor population dynamics of a virus, and metagenomic analyses using next-generation sequencing and microarrays show potential for use in the diagnosis of rice diseases. PMID:24130554
Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Shiba, Takuya; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Ueno, Takanori; Hirae, Masahiro; Sasaya, Takahide
Feeding by herbivores can change plants in ways that make them more resistant to subsequent herbivory. Such induced responses are better-studied in a number of model dicots than in rice and other cereals. In a series of greenhouse and field experiments, we assessed the effects of prior herbivory by the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and of exogenous applications of jasmonic acid (JA) on the resistance of rice plants to the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Kuschel), the major pest of rice in the United States. Prior feeding by S. frugiperda and treatment of plants with exogenous JA resulted in increases in the resistance of plants to the weevil. Increases in resistance were manifested as reduced numbers of eggs and first-instars associated with armyworm-injured or JA-treated plants relative to control plants. In field experiments, there was a transient but significant reduction in the number of immature L. oryzophilus on JA-treated plants relative to untreated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first example of direct induced resistance in rice demonstrated in small-plot field experiments. We discuss the potential for the use of elicitor induced resistance in rice. PMID:20151182
Hamm, Jason C; Stout, Michael J; Riggio, Rita M
We describe an integrated systems model of the coastal prairie ecosystem in Texas, USA to simulate the effect of alternative federal resource policy scenarios (crop subsidies) for rice (Oryza sativa) on land-use decisions of farmers and the subsequent impact on lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) habitat. We evaluate the ability of the model to predict shifts in land use,
Laura R. Musacchio; William E. Grant
Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed on the basis of nucleotide-binding-site (NBS) motifs conserved between resistance\\u000a genes of Arabidopsis, flax and tobacco and subsequently used as PCR primers to amplify resistance gene analogues (RGA) in rice. Primers amplified\\u000a a major band of approximately 500?bp. Restriction analysis of the amplified product revealed that the band was made up of\\u000a several different fragments.
R. Mago; S. Nair; M. Mohan
Transposable elements are major components of plant genomes. Their activity seems to be epigenetically regulated by gene silencing systems. Here we report epigenetic variation in the retrotransposon Tos17 activity in rice varieties. Of the two copies of Tos17 present in chromosome 7 (Tos17\\u000a chr.7) and chromosome 10 (Tos17\\u000a chr.10), Tos17\\u000a chr.7 is strongly activated by tissue culture in most varieties
Chaoyang Cheng; Masaaki Daigen; Hirohiko Hirochika
A study of the distribution of Si in rice hulls was carried out to aid in understanding the observed formation of SiC whiskers by the thermal decomposition and reaction of these natural materials. Scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirm the presence of a major amount of Si in the inner and outer epidermal regions of
N. K. Sharma; WENDELL S. WILLIAMS; A. Zangvil
This lesson plan will introduce the key concepts of what an ecosystem is, how different components interact in an ecosystem, and how various inputs can impact a system. Students will build a TerrAqua investigation column in a plastic bottle and observe and record the changes that take place in the mini ecosystem over time. Step by step directions are included, with illustrations, for completing the experiment. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.
Abstract: A utility-theoretic model indicates that mitigation prices for wetland ecosystems depend on preferences and technical knowledge. Empirical analysis found gaps in respondents= knowledge about such ecosystems.,Valuing wetland,types requires dealing with respondents= possible misinformation, by developing tools for informing respondents or by combining service-based valuations with valid technical data. Wetlands ecosystems are valued for a range of ecological services. These
John P. Hoehn; Frank Lupi; Michael Kaplowitz
This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the grassland ecosystem with respect to declining bird species. This report is the effort of a number of agencies to develop a strategy for addressing grassland bird information needs. Grasslands are the most imperiled ecosystem worldwide, and birds associated with this ecosystem are on a decline. This report addresses monitoring issues, species in concern, and the effects of habitat and landscape on grassland birds.
As one of the most diverse and productive ecosystems known, and one of the first ecosystems to exhibit major climate-warming impacts (coral bleaching), coral reefs have drawn much scientific attention to what may prove to be their Achilles heel, the thermal sensitivity of reef-building corals. Here we show that climate change-driven loss of live coral, and ultimately structural complexity, in the Seychelles results in local extinctions, substantial reductions in species richness, reduced taxonomic distinctness, and a loss of species within key functional groups of reef fish. The importance of deteriorating physical structure to these patterns demonstrates the longer-term impacts of bleaching on reefs and raises questions over the potential for recovery. We suggest that isolated reef systems may be more susceptible to climate change, despite escaping many of the stressors impacting continental reefs.
Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Wilson, Shaun K.; Jennings, Simon; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; Bijoux, Jude P.; Robinson, Jan