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1

Phosphorus cycling in rainfed lowland rice ecosystems on sandy soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus cycling in rainfed lowland rice ecosystems is poorly understood. Soil drying and grazing of rice straw during the\\u000a long dry season, the growth of volunteer pastures during the early wet season, and intermittent loss of soil-water saturation\\u000a while the rice crop is growing are important distinguishing characteristics of the rainfed lowlands in relation to P cycling.\\u000a We studied P

Sovuthy Pheav; R. W. Bell; G. J. D. Kirk; P. F. White

2005-01-01

2

Microbial diversity and multidimensional interactions in the rice ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of rice production systems globally is intricately related to the chemistry, physics and biology of rice soils – with basic properties differing considerably in wet\\/dry land soils, tropical\\/temperate areas or even with the soil surface or rhizosphere niche of the field. Rice fields represent unique aqua-terrestrial ecosystems in which the tremendous diversity of soil microbes, soil fauna and

Radha Prasanna; Lata Nain; Alok Kumar Pandey; Anil Kumar Saxena

2011-01-01

3

Microbial diversity and multidimensional interactions in the rice ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of rice production systems globally is intricately related to the chemistry, physics and biology of rice soils – with basic properties differing considerably in wet\\/dry land soils, tropical\\/temperate areas or even with the soil surface or rhizosphere niche of the field. Rice fields represent unique aqua-terrestrial ecosystems in which the tremendous diversity of soil microbes, soil fauna and

Radha Prasanna; Lata Nain; Alok Kumar Pandey; Anil Kumar Saxena

2012-01-01

4

Nitrogen losses from integrated rice–duck and rice–fish ecosystems in southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

s  Nitrogen (N) losses via nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, ammonia (NH3) volatilization and N leaching were investigated from N fertilizer applied to integrated rice–duck and rice–fish ecosystems\\u000a in southern China. N2O emissions was measured by a static chambers technique, NH3 volatilization by a closed acid trap method, and N leaching by a field lysimeter. The experimental field was equally divided\\u000a into

Li Cheng-fang; Cao Cou-gui; Wang Jin-ping; Zhan Ming; Yuan Wei-ling; Shahrear Ahmad

2008-01-01

5

Dissipation and residue of pymetrozine in rice field ecosystem.  

PubMed

The dissipation and residue of pymetrozine in rice field ecosystem were studied based on a novel and reliable analytical method for pymetrozine in paddy water, soil, rice straw, brown rice, and rice husk. The pymetrozine residues were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up by Carb-NH2 SPE cartridge and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). The dissipation of pymetrozine followed first-order kinetics and its half-lives ranged from 1.7 to 1.8 days in paddy water, 5.1 to 5.7 days in soil, and 2.3 to 2.6 days in rice straw, respectively. At harvest time, the highest final residues of pymetrozine varied in soil among three geographical fields and were below the limit of detection in rice tissues. The recommended dosage was considered to be safe for human beings and animals, and the results were helpful in setting maximum residue limit for pymetrozine in rice. PMID:25655126

Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Li; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

2015-03-01

6

Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Rice Is Safer to Aquatic Ecosystems than Its Non-Transgenic Counterpart  

PubMed Central

Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems. PMID:25105299

Li, Guangsheng; Wang, Yongmo; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan

2014-01-01

7

Community-based rice ecosystem management for suppressing vector anophelines in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Sri Lanka is one of the Asian countries most affected by mosquito-borne diseases, especially malaria. This 18-month study assessed the effectiveness of a new community-based ecosystem management programme to control mosquito vectors in the country's rice ecosystem. Farmers in a malaria-prone village were educated and motivated to engage in source reduction as well as measures to restore and maximise rice ecosystem functions. Over the course of the programme, the impact of farmers' ecosystem management on local mosquito ecology was also examined. Although little impact was detected on Culex and Aedes densities, adult Anopheles density was significantly suppressed in the southwest monsoon season. Rice farmers who manage their ecosystems can reduce the burden of Anopheles mosquitoes, interrupt malaria transmission and prevent the destruction of ecosystems. PMID:16730765

Yasuoka, Junko; Levins, Richard; Mangione, Thomas W; Spielman, Andrew

2006-11-01

8

Study of mosquito fauna in rice ecosystems around Hanoi, Northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Species of the Culex vishnui subgroup, Cx. fuscocephala and Cx. gelidus, which are known Japanese encephalitis (JE) vectors, are distributed in rice agroecosystems in Asian countries. Hence, although ecological studies of rice agroecosystems in northern Vietnam are necessary, very few integrated studies of breeding habitats of mosquitoes, including JE vectors, have been conducted. We carried out a field study and investigated the mosquito fauna in six rice production areas in northern Vietnam during the rainy and dry seasons of 2009. Mosquitoes and potential mosquito predators were collected from aquatic habitats by using larval dippers. We collected 1780 Culex individuals (including 254 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus; 113 Cx. vishnui, 58 Cx. vishnui complex, consisting of Cx. vishnui and Cx. pseudovishnui; 12 Cx. gelidus; 1 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus; and 1 Cx. fuscocephala), 148 Anopheles individuals (including 5 An. vagus), 1 Mansonia annulifera, and 1 Mimomyia chamberlaini during the rainy season. During the dry season, we collected 176 Culex individuals (including 33 Cx. vishnui, 24 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 8 Cx. vishnui complex, and 1 Cx. gelidus) and 186 Anopheles individuals (including 9 An. tessellatus, 2 An. kochi, and 2 An. barbumbrosus). We found mosquitoes in all aquatic habitats, namely, rice fields, ditches, ponds, wetlands, irrigation canals, and rice nurseries, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. vishnui complex were found in all the above six areas. Heteroptera such as Micronecta, Veliidae, and Pleidae were abundant and widely distributed in both the seasons. The abundance of mosquito larvae was higher in the rice fields, ditches, and ponds during the rainy season than during the dry season. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui complex, Cx. fuscocephala, and Cx. gelidus were abundant in rice agroecosystems (rice fields, ditches, ponds, and wetlands) in northern Vietnam, and their abundance was high during the rainy season. These findings deepen our understanding of mosquito ecology and strengthen mosquito control strategies to be applied in rice ecosystems Vietnam in the future. PMID:25445747

Ohba, Shin-Ya; Van Soai, Nguyen; Van Anh, Dinh Thi; Nguyen, Yen T; Takagi, Masahiro

2015-02-01

9

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF BIO-ETHANOL MADE FROM RICE STRAW CONSIDERING LAND OCCUPATION EFFECTS ON ECOSYSTEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of rice straw produced as a byproduct is not or low utilized in Japan. However, it may be available for the production of bio-ethanol without threatening food supply because of its characteristics as one of the lignocellulosic materials. Though it has already been revealed in previous studies that bio-ethanol made from rice straw can contribute to reducing energy consumption and repressing greenhouse gas emissions, effects on ecosystem due to land occupation for rice straw production and ethanol refinery plant have not been evaluated. Thus, environmental impacts of bio-ethanol made from rice straw including effects on ecosystem caused by land occupation were evaluated in this study. Some differences among three representative assessment methods could be found in results of the effect on ecosystem due to land occupation for rice straw production and ethanol refinery plant. However, it is common among all assessment methods that the effect on ecosystem caused by land occupation dominates large part of total environmental impact of ethanol made from rice straw (72-83% of total impact). Bio-ethanol made from rice straw showed larger environmental impact compared to that of gasoline due to land occupation. The improvement of the operating rate and the productivity of ethanol refinery plants is especially necessary for repressing the environm ental impacts related to bio-ethanol production made from rice straw.

Motoshita, Masaharu; Yang, Cuifen; Genchi, Yutaka; Tahara, Kiyotaka; Inaba, Atsushi

10

Degradation kinetics of the insecticide spinetoram in a rice field ecosystem.  

PubMed

The fate of spinetoram was studied in a rice field ecosystem, and an efficient method for the determination of spinetoram (XDE-175-J and XDE-175-L) in soil, rice straw, paddy water, husk and brown rice was developed. Spinetoram residues were extracted from samples with a salting out extraction procedure. The extracts were diluted with 0.10% formic acid in water and analysed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column. The calibration curve was linear in the range 0.125-100 ?g L(-1) and r>0.999. The average recovery was 82.9-89.0% from soil, 78.5-92.1% from rice straw, 93.6-100.3% from paddy water, 79.1-87.9% from brown rice and 72.7-82.9% from husk. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 10%. These results are all within the accepted range for pesticide residue determination. The field test results showed that spinetoram degradation in paddy water, soil and rice straw coincided with C=0.0132e(-1.9685t), C=0.0308e(-0.1018t) and C=0.8530e(-0.6223t), respectively. The half-lives of spinetoram in paddy water, soil and rice straw were 0.35, 6.8 and 1.1 d, respectively. The final residue level was lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.05 mg kg(-1) for spinetoram in rice with a harvest interval of 7d. A dosage of 450 mL ha(-1) was recommended, which can be considered safe for human beings and animals. The results of this study will contribute to establishing the scientific basis of the dosage of spinetoram for agricultural fields. PMID:25460760

Zhao, Li; Chen, Guo; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Yong; Yang, Ting; Wu, Yin-Liang

2015-01-01

11

Rice is the staple food source of nutrients for both humans and livestock throughout the world. The major proteins in rice seeds  

E-print Network

Rice is the staple food source of nutrients for both humans and livestock throughout the world. The major proteins in rice seeds are the storage proteins, glutelins and prolamins. Their m effector proteins in rice developing seed extracts. The eluted proteins from the positive and negative Rab5

Collins, Gary S.

12

Differential Effects of Bentazon and Molinate on Anabaena cylindrica , an Autochthonous Cyanobacterium of Portuguese Rice Field Agro-ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of bentazon and molinate, two selective herbicides recommended for integrated weed management in rice, were studied\\u000a in Anabaena cylindrica, an abundant cyanobacterium isolated from a Portuguese rice field agro-ecosystem. Comparative effects of both herbicides\\u000a on A. cylindrica were estimated under laboratory conditions by measuring its dry weight yield, photopigments, and carbohydrate and protein\\u000a contents in a time- and

V. Galhano; F. Peixoto; J. Gomes-Laranjo; E. Fernández-Valiente

2009-01-01

13

Major Ecosystems in China: Dynamics and Challenges for Sustainable Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems, though impacted by global environmental change, can also contribute to the adaptation and mitigation of such large\\u000a scale changes. Therefore, sustainable ecosystem management is crucial in reaching a sustainable future for the biosphere.\\u000a Based on the published literature and publicly accessible data, this paper discussed the status and trends of forest, grassland,\\u000a and wetland ecosystems in China that play

Yihe Lü; Bojie FuWei; Wei Wei; Xiubo Yu; Ranhao Sun

2011-01-01

14

Major Ecosystems in China: Dynamics and Challenges for Sustainable Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystems, though impacted by global environmental change, can also contribute to the adaptation and mitigation of such large scale changes. Therefore, sustainable ecosystem management is crucial in reaching a sustainable future for the biosphere. Based on the published literature and publicly accessible data, this paper discussed the status and trends of forest, grassland, and wetland ecosystems in China that play important roles in the ecological integrity and human welfare of the nation. Ecological degradation has been observed in these ecosystems at various levels and geographic locations. Biophysical (e.g., climate change) and socioeconomic factors (e.g., intensive human use) are the main reasons for ecosystem degradation with the latter factors serving as the dominant driving forces. The three broad categories of ecosystems in China have partially recovered from degradation thanks to large scale ecological restoration projects implemented in the last few decades. China, as the largest and most populated developing nation, still faces huge challenges regarding ecosystem management in a changing and globalizing world. To further improve ecosystem management in China, four recommendations were proposed, including: (1) advance ecosystem management towards an application-oriented, multidisciplinary science; (2) establish a well-functioning national ecological monitoring and data sharing mechanism; (3) develop impact and effectiveness assessment approaches for policies, plans, and ecological restoration projects; and (4) promote legal and institutional innovations to balance the intrinsic needs of ecological and socioeconomic systems. Any change in China's ecosystem management approach towards a more sustainable one will benefit the whole world. Therefore, international collaborations on ecological and environmental issues need to be expanded.

Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie; Wei, Wei; Yu, Xiubo; Sun, Ranhao

2011-07-01

15

Gross ecosystem photosynthesis causes a diurnal pattern in methane emission from rice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relative contribution of environmental and substrate controls on rice paddy methanogenesis is critical for developing mechanistic models of landscape-scale methane (CH4) flux. A diurnal pattern in observed rice paddy CH4 flux has been attributed to fluctuations in soil temperature physically driving diffusive CH4 transport from the soil to atmosphere. Here we make direct landscape-scale measurements of carbon dioxide and CH4 fluxes and show that gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) is the dominant cause of the diurnal pattern in CH4 flux, even after accounting for the effects of soil temperature. The time series of GEP and CH4 flux show strong spectral coherency throughout the rice growing season at the diurnal timescale, where the peak in GEP leads that of CH4 flux by 1.3 ± 0.08 hours. By applying the method of conditional Granger causality in the spectral domain, we demonstrated that the diurnal pattern in CH4 flux is primarily caused by GEP.

Hatala, Jaclyn A.; Detto, Matteo; Baldocchi, Dennis D.

2012-03-01

16

Major QTLs Control Resistance to Rice Hoja Blanca Virus and Its Vector Tagosodes orizicolus  

PubMed Central

Rice hoja blanca (white leaf) disease can cause severe yield losses in rice in the Americas. The disease is caused by the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV), which is transmitted by the planthopper vector Tagosodes orizicolus. Because classical breeding schemes for this disease rely on expensive, time-consuming screenings, there is a need for alternatives such as marker-aided selection. The varieties Fedearroz 2000 and Fedearroz 50, which are resistant to RHBV and to the feeding damage caused by T. orizicolus, were crossed with the susceptible line WC366 to produce segregating F2:3 populations. The F3 families were scored for their resistance level to RHBV and T. orizicolus. The F2:3 lines of both crosses were genotyped using microsatellite markers. One major QTL on the short arm of chromosome 4 was identified for resistance to RHBV in the two populations. Two major QTL on chromosomes 5 and 7 were identified for resistance to T. orizicolus in the Fd2000 × WC366 and Fd50 × WC366 crosses, respectively. This comparative study using two distinct rice populations allowed for a better understanding of how the resistance to RHBV and its vector are controlled genetically. Simple marker-aided breeding schemes based on QTL information can be designed to improve rice germplasm to reduce losses caused by this important disease. PMID:24240781

Romero, Luz E.; Lozano, Ivan; Garavito, Andrea; Carabali, Silvio J.; Triana, Monica; Villareal, Natalia; Reyes, Luis; Duque, Myriam C.; Martinez, César P.; Calvert, Lee; Lorieux, Mathias

2013-01-01

17

New insight for two major rice blast R genes: Pi-ta and Pi-km  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In rice breeding programs across the world, the introgression of major resistance (R) genes remains the most cost-effective method to control blast epidemics caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. During the last two years, we have examined two loci, on chromosome 12 and 11, which harbor ...

18

A major ecosystem shift in the northern Bering Sea.  

PubMed

Until recently, northern Bering Sea ecosystems were characterized by extensive seasonal sea ice cover, high water column and sediment carbon production, and tight pelagic-benthic coupling of organic production. Here, we show that these ecosystems are shifting away from these characteristics. Changes in biological communities are contemporaneous with shifts in regional atmospheric and hydrographic forcing. In the past decade, geographic displacement of marine mammal population distributions has coincided with a reduction of benthic prey populations, an increase in pelagic fish, a reduction in sea ice, and an increase in air and ocean temperatures. These changes now observed on the shallow shelf of the northern Bering Sea should be expected to affect a much broader portion of the Pacific-influenced sector of the Arctic Ocean. PMID:16527980

Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Overland, James E; Moore, Sue E; Farley, Ed V; Carmack, Eddy C; Cooper, Lee W; Frey, Karen E; Helle, John H; McLaughlin, Fiona A; McNutt, S Lyn

2006-03-10

19

Days to heading 7, a major quantitative locus determining photoperiod sensitivity and regional adaptation in rice.  

PubMed

Success of modern agriculture relies heavily on breeding of crops with maximal regional adaptability and yield potentials. A major limiting factor for crop cultivation is their flowering time, which is strongly regulated by day length (photoperiod) and temperature. Here we report identification and characterization of Days to heading 7 (DTH7), a major genetic locus underlying photoperiod sensitivity and grain yield in rice. Map-based cloning reveals that DTH7 encodes a pseudo-response regulator protein and its expression is regulated by photoperiod. We show that in long days DTH7 acts downstream of the photoreceptor phytochrome B to repress the expression of Ehd1, an up-regulator of the "florigen" genes (Hd3a and RFT1), leading to delayed flowering. Further, we find that haplotype combinations of DTH7 with Grain number, plant height, and heading date 7 (Ghd7) and DTH8 correlate well with the heading date and grain yield of rice under different photoperiod conditions. Our data provide not only a macroscopic view of the genetic control of photoperiod sensitivity in rice but also a foundation for breeding of rice cultivars better adapted to the target environments using rational design. PMID:25378698

Gao, He; Jin, Mingna; Zheng, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Jun; Yuan, Dingyang; Xin, Yeyun; Wang, Maoqing; Huang, Dongyi; Zhang, Zhe; Zhou, Kunneng; Sheng, Peike; Ma, Jin; Ma, Weiwei; Deng, Huafeng; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Shijia; Wang, Haiyang; Wu, Chuanyin; Yuan, Longping; Wan, Jianmin

2014-11-18

20

Differences among Major Taxa in the Extent of Ecological Knowledge across Four Major Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing knowledge shapes our understanding of ecosystems and is critical for ecosystem-based management of the world's natural resources. Typically this knowledge is biased among taxa, with some taxa far better studied than others, but the extent of this bias is poorly known. In conjunction with the publically available World Registry of Marine Species database (WoRMS) and one of the world's

Rebecca Fisher; Nancy Knowlton; Russell E. Brainard; M. Julian Caley

2011-01-01

21

Differences among Major Taxa in the Extent of Ecological Knowledge across Four Major Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Existing knowledge shapes our understanding of ecosystems and is critical for ecosystem-based management of the world's natural resources. Typically this knowledge is biased among taxa, with some taxa far better studied than others, but the extent of this bias is poorly known. In conjunction with the publically available World Registry of Marine Species database (WoRMS) and one of the world's premier electronic scientific literature databases (Web of Science®), a text mining approach is used to examine the distribution of existing ecological knowledge among taxa in coral reef, mangrove, seagrass and kelp bed ecosystems. We found that for each of these ecosystems, most research has been limited to a few groups of organisms. While this bias clearly reflects the perceived importance of some taxa as commercially or ecologically valuable, the relative lack of research of other taxonomic groups highlights the problem that some key taxa and associated ecosystem processes they affect may be poorly understood or completely ignored. The approach outlined here could be applied to any type of ecosystem for analyzing previous research effort and identifying knowledge gaps in order to improve ecosystem-based conservation and management. PMID:22073172

Fisher, Rebecca; Knowlton, Nancy; Brainard, Russell E.; Caley, M. Julian

2011-01-01

22

Arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and rice and health implications for major rice-growing regions of Cambodia.  

PubMed

Despite the global importance of As in rice, research has primarily focused on Bangladesh, India, China, and the United States with limited attention given to other countries. Owing to both indigenous As within the soil and the possible increases arising from the onset of irrigation with groundwater, an assessment of As in rice within Cambodia is needed, which offers a "base-case" comparison against sediments of similar origin that comprise rice paddy soils where As-contaminated water is used for irrigation (e.g., Bangladesh). Here, we evaluated the As content of rice from five provinces (Kandal, Prey Veng, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, and Kampong Thom) in the rice-growing regions of Cambodia and coupled that data to soil-chemical factors based on extractions of paddy soil collected and processed under anoxic conditions. At total soil As concentrations ranging 0.8 to 18 ?g g(-1), total grain As concentrations averaged 0.2 ?g g(-1) and ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 with Banteay Meanchey rice having significantly higher values than Prey Veng rice. Overall, soil-extractable concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si and total As were poor predictors of grain As concentrations. While biogeochemical factors leading to reduction of As(V)-bearing Fe(III) oxides are likely most important for predicting plant-available As, husk and straw As concentrations were the most significant predictors of grain-As levels among our measured parameters. PMID:24712677

Seyfferth, Angelia L; McCurdy, Sarah; Schaefer, Michael V; Fendorf, Scott

2014-05-01

23

Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests  

PubMed Central

Background Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic effects, imparted appreciable resistance against three major sap-sucking insects. Our results amply demonstrate that transgenic indica rice harbouring asal exhibit surpassing resistance against BPH, GLH and WBPH insects. The prototypic asal transgenic rice lines appear promising for direct commercial cultivation besides serving as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding. PMID:18854007

Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

2008-01-01

24

Determination and study on dissipation and residue determination of cyhalofop-butyl and its metabolite using HPLC-MS/MS in a rice ecosystem.  

PubMed

Cyhalofop-butyl is an aryloxyphenoxypropionate postemergence herbicide with good control of barnyard grass in rice paddies. In this study, method for the determination of cyhalofop-butyl and its metabolite was developed with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Dissipation and residue levels of cyhalofop-butyl and its metabolite in rice ecosystems were also investigated. Recoveries and relative standard deviations of cyhalofop-butyl and cyhalofop acid in six matrices at three spiking levels ranged from 76.1 to 107.5% and 1.1 to 8.2%, respectively. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of cyhalofop-butyl and cyhalofop acid was 0.01 mg/kg in paddy water, paddy soil, rice plant, rice straw, rice hulls, and husked rice. For field experiments, the results showed that cyhalofop-butyl degraded to cyhalofop acid quickly, and the half-lives of cyhalofop acid in paddy water, paddy soil, and rice plant were 1.01-1.53, 0.88-0.97, and 2.09-2.42 days, respectively. Ultimate residues of cyhalofop-butyl and its metabolite in the rice samples were not detectable or below 0.01 mg/kg at harvest. PMID:25007772

Wu, Junxue; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Hongyan

2014-10-01

25

Assessment of toxicity risk of insecticides used in rice ecosystem on Trichogramma japonicum, an egg parasitoid of rice lepidopterans.  

PubMed

Both chemical and biological methods are essential for control of insects, for example, lepidopterans, on rice. Thus, it is important to know the effect of chemicals on the biological control agents. In this study, we assessed the toxicity of commonly used insecticides on a biological control agent, Trichogramma japonicum Ahmead (an egg parasitoid of rice lepidopterans) by using a dry film residue method. Results showed that thirty insecticides from seven chemical classes exhibited various degree of toxicity to this parasitoid. Among the seven classes of chemicals tested, organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, phoxim, profenofos, and triazophos) and carbamates (carbaryl, carbsulfan, isoprocarb, metolcarb, and promecarb) exhibited the highest intrinsic toxicity to T. japponicum, with an LC50 of 0.035 (0.029-0.044) to 0.49 (0.34-0.87) mg active ingredient (a.i.) L(-1), followed by antibiotics (abamectin, emamectin benzoate, and ivermectin), phenylpyrazoles (butane-fipronil, ethiprole, and fipronil), pyrethroids (cyhalthrin, cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, and lambda-cyhaothrin), and neonicotinoids (acetamiprid, imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam). Moreover, the insect growth regulator insecticides (chlorfluazuron, fufenozide, hexaflumuron and tebufenozide) exhibited the lowest toxicity to the wasps with an LC50 of 3,383 (2406-5499) to 30206 (23107-41008) mg ai. L(-1). Risk quotient analysis showed that phenylpyrazoles, pyrethroids, insect growth regulators, neonicotinoids (with the exception of thiamethoxam), and antibiotics (with the exception of abamectin) are classified as safe agents to the parasitoid, while organophosphates and carbamates are classified as slightly, moderately, or highly toxic agents to the parasitoid. The data presented in this paper provided useful information on the selection of compatible insecticides with T. japonicum. PMID:22420260

Zhao, Xueping; Wu, Changxing; Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Chen, Liping; Yu, Ruixian; Wang, Qiang

2012-02-01

26

How to measure ecosystem stability? An evaluation of the reliability of stability metrics based on remote sensing time series across the major global ecosystems.  

PubMed

Increasing frequency of extreme climate events is likely to impose increased stress on ecosystems and to jeopardize the services that ecosystems provide. Therefore, it is of major importance to assess the effects of extreme climate events on the temporal stability (i.e., the resistance, the resilience, and the variance) of ecosystem properties. Most time series of ecosystem properties are, however, affected by varying data characteristics, uncertainties, and noise, which complicate the comparison of ecosystem stability metrics (ESMs) between locations. Therefore, there is a strong need for a more comprehensive understanding regarding the reliability of stability metrics and how they can be used to compare ecosystem stability globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of temporal ESMs based on time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 15 global land-cover types. We provide a framework (i) to assess the reliability of ESMs in function of data characteristics, uncertainties and noise and (ii) to integrate reliability estimates in future global ecosystem stability studies against climate disturbances. The performance of our framework was tested through (i) a global ecosystem comparison and (ii) an comparison of ecosystem stability in response to the 2003 drought. The results show the influence of data quality on the accuracy of ecosystem stability. White noise, biased noise, and trends have a stronger effect on the accuracy of stability metrics than the length of the time series, temporal resolution, or amount of missing values. Moreover, we demonstrate the importance of integrating reliability estimates to interpret stability metrics within confidence limits. Based on these confidence limits, other studies dealing with specific ecosystem types or locations can be put into context, and a more reliable assessment of ecosystem stability against environmental disturbances can be obtained. PMID:24777443

De Keersmaecker, Wanda; Lhermitte, Stef; Honnay, Olivier; Farifteh, Jamshid; Somers, Ben; Coppin, Pol

2014-07-01

27

Monitoring seasonal progress of rice stubble burning in major rice growing districts of Haryana, India, using multidate AWiFS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes the methodology and results of assessment of seasonal progress of rice stubble burning for 10 major rice growing districts of Haryana state in India. These 10 districts contribute about 84 per cent of total rice area of the state. As the rice fields are immediately required to be vacated for the sowing of next crop the farmers opt for mechanized harvesting and easy way out of burning the stubbles in the field. Such burning result in release of polluting gases and aerosols. Besides, the heating of the soil kills the useful micro-flora of the soil causing soil degradation. Multi-date AWiFS data from Resourcesat 1 and 2 satellites acquired between October 16, 2013 to November 26, 2013 were used for estimating paddy stubble burning areas at different intervals for the year 2013 crop growing season. In season collected ground truth data using hand held GPS along with field photographs were used to identify paddy stubble burning areas and other land features. Complete enumeration approach and Iterative Self-organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA) unsupervised classifier was used for digital analysis. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of each date was also used with other spectral bands of temporal images. To improve the classification accuracy the non-agricultural areas were masked out. The area was estimated by computing pixels under the classified image mask. Progress of paddy stubble burning was estimated at different intervals for the year 2013 using available cloud free multi-date IRS-P6 AWiFS data to identify the crucial period when stubbles burning takes place in major area so that preventive measures can be taken to curb the menace.

Yadav, M.; Prawasi, R.; Jangra, S.; Rana, P.; Kumari, K.; Lal, S.; Jakhar, K.; Sharma, S.; Hooda, R. S.

2014-11-01

28

Herbivory makes major contributions to ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling in tropical forests.  

PubMed

The functional role of herbivores in tropical rainforests remains poorly understood. We quantified the magnitude of, and underlying controls on, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycled by invertebrate herbivory along a 2800 m elevational gradient in the tropical Andes spanning 12°C mean annual temperature. We find, firstly, that leaf area loss is greater at warmer sites with lower foliar phosphorus, and secondly, that the estimated herbivore-mediated flux of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus from plants to soil via leaf area loss is similar to, or greater than, other major sources of these nutrients in tropical forests. Finally, we estimate that herbivores consume a significant portion of plant carbon, potentially causing major shifts in the pattern of plant and soil carbon cycling. We conclude that future shifts in herbivore abundance and activity as a result of environmental change could have major impacts on soil fertility and ecosystem carbon sequestration in tropical forests. PMID:24372865

Metcalfe, Daniel B; Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Silva Espejo, Javier E; Huasco, Walter Huaraca; Farfán Amézquita, Felix F; Carranza-Jimenez, Loreli; Galiano Cabrera, Darcy F; Baca, Liliana Durand; Sinca, Felipe; Huaraca Quispe, Lidia P; Taype, Ivonne Alzamora; Mora, Luzmila Eguiluz; Dávila, Angela Rozas; Solórzano, Marlene Mamani; Puma Vilca, Beisit L; Laupa Román, Judith M; Guerra Bustios, Patricia C; Revilla, Norma Salinas; Tupayachi, Raul; Girardin, Cécile A J; Doughty, Christopher E; Malhi, Yadvinder

2014-03-01

29

Agrobacterium-mediated engineering for sheath blight resistance of indica rice cultivars from different ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concise T-DNA element was engineered containing the rice class-I chitinase gene expressed under the control of CaMV35S and the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) as a selectable marker. The binary plasmid vector pNO1 with the T-DNA element containing these genes of interest was mobilized\\u000a to Agrobacterium\\u000a \\u000a tumefaciens strain LBA4404 to act as an efficient donor of T-DNA in the transformation

K. Datta; Z. Koukolíková-Nicola; N. Baisakh; N. Oliva; S. K. Datta

2000-01-01

30

Earthworms change the abundance and community structure of nematodes and protozoa in a maize residue amended rice–wheat rotation agro-ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of earthworms on nematodes and protozoan communities was determined during the wheat phase of a six year rice–wheat rotation agro-ecosystem. Experimental plots in the rotation had five treatments, i.e. incorporation or mulching of maize residues with or without added earthworms and a control. The addition of maize residues to soil strongly affected the abundance and community structure of

Jun Tao; Xiaoyun Chen; Manqiang Liu; Feng Hu; Bryan Griffiths; Huixin Li

2009-01-01

31

Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on ecosystems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

32

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field ecosystem warming facility  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Yangtze River Valley (YRV) suffered serious yield losses in 2003 when extreme heatwave (HW), hampered rice reproductive growth phase (RGP). Climate change induced extreme and asymmetrical fluctuations in temperature during heat sensitive stage of rice growth cycle, i.e., RG...

33

Mutation of a major CG methylase in rice causes genome-wide hypomethylation, dysregulated genome expression, and seedling lethality  

PubMed Central

Cytosine methylation at CG sites (mCG) plays critical roles in development, epigenetic inheritance, and genome stability in mammals and plants. In the dicot model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, methyltransferase 1 (MET1), a principal CG methylase, functions to maintain mCG during DNA replication, with its null mutation resulting in global hypomethylation and pleiotropic developmental defects. Null mutation of a critical CG methylase has not been characterized at a whole-genome level in other higher eukaryotes, leaving the generality of the Arabidopsis findings largely speculative. Rice is a model plant of monocots, to which many of our important crops belong. Here we have characterized a null mutant of OsMet1-2, the major CG methylase in rice. We found that seeds homozygous for OsMet1-2 gene mutation (OsMET1-2?/?), which directly segregated from normal heterozygote plants (OsMET1-2+/?), were seriously maldeveloped, and all germinated seedlings underwent swift necrotic death. Compared with wild type, genome-wide loss of mCG occurred in the mutant methylome, which was accompanied by a plethora of quantitative molecular phenotypes including dysregulated expression of diverse protein-coding genes, activation and repression of transposable elements, and altered small RNA profiles. Our results have revealed conservation but also distinct functional differences in CG methylases between rice and Arabidopsis. PMID:25002488

Hu, Lanjuan; Li, Ning; Xu, Chunming; Zhong, Silin; Lin, Xiuyun; Yang, Jingjing; Zhou, Tianqi; Yuliang, Anzhi; Wu, Ying; Chen, Yun-Ru; Cao, Xiaofeng; Zemach, Assaf; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

2014-01-01

34

Comparative impacts of two major hurricane seasons on the Neuse River and western Pamlico Sound ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem-level impacts of two hurricane seasons were compared several years after the storms in the largest lagoonal estuary in the U.S., the Albemarle–Pamlico Estuarine System. A segmented linear regression flow model was developed to compare mass-water transport and nutrient loadings to a major artery, the Neuse River Estuary (NRE), and to estimate mean annual versus storm-related volume delivery to the NRE and Pamlico Sound. Significantly less water volume was delivered by Hurricane Fran (1996), but massive fish kills occurred in association with severe dissolved oxygen deficits and high contaminant loadings (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, suspended solids, and fecal bacteria). The high water volume of the second hurricane season (Hurricanes Dennis, Floyd, and Irene in 1999) delivered generally comparable but more dilute contaminant loads, and no major fish kills were reported. There were no discernable long-term adverse impacts on water quality. Populations of undesirable organisms, such as toxic dinoflagellates, were displaced down-estuary to habitats less conducive for growth. The response of fisheries was species-dependent: there was no apparent impact of the hurricanes on commercial landings of bivalve molluscs or shrimp. In contrast, interacting effects of hurricane floodwaters in 1999 and intensive fishing pressure led to striking reductions in blue crabs. Overall, the data support the premise that, in shallow estuaries frequently disturbed by hurricanes, there can be relatively rapid recovery in water quality and biota, and benefit from the scouring activity of these storms. PMID:15199179

Burkholder, JoAnn; Eggleston, David; Glasgow, Howard; Brownie, Cavell; Reed, Robert; Janowitz, Gerald; Posey, Martin; Melia, Greg; Kinder, Carol; Corbett, Reide; Toms, David; Alphin, Troy; Deamer, Nora; Springer, Jeffrey

2004-01-01

35

A process-based model of N2O emission from a rice-winter wheat rotation agro-ecosystem: Structure, validation and sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to numerically simulate daily nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from a rice-winter wheat rotation cropping system, a process-based site model was developed (referred to as IAP-N-GAS) to track the movement and transformation of several forms of nitrogen in the agro-ecosystem, which is affected by climate, soil, crop growth and management practices. The simulation of daily N2O fluxes, along with key daily environmental variables, was validated with three-year observations conducted in East China. The validation demonstrated that the model simulated well daily solar radiation, soil temperature and moisture, and also captured the dynamics and magnitude of accumulated rice aboveground biomass and mineral nitrogen in the soil. The simulated daily N2O emissions over all three years investigated were generally in good agreement with field observations. Particularly well simulated were the peak N2O emissions induced by fertilizations, rainfall events or mid-season drainages. The model simulation also represented closely the inter-annual variation in N2O emission. These validations imply that the model has the capability to capture the general characteristics of N2O emission from a typical rice-wheat rotation agro-ecosystem. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the simulated N2O emission is most sensitive to the fertilizer application rate and the soil organic matter content, but it is much less sensitive to variations in soil pH and texture, temperature, precipitation and crop residue incorporation rate under local conditions.

Zhou, Zaixing; Zheng, Xunhua; Xie, Baohua; Han, Shenghui; Liu, Chunyan

2010-01-01

36

Malaria vector control practices in an irrigated rice agro-ecosystem in central Kenya and implications for malaria control  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria transmission in most agricultural ecosystems is complex and hence the need for developing a holistic malaria control strategy with adequate consideration of socio-economic factors driving transmission at community level. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in an irrigated ecosystem with the aim of investigating vector control practices applied and factors affecting their application both at household and community level. Methods Four villages representing the socio-economic, demographic and geographical diversity within the study area were purposefully selected. A total of 400 households were randomly sampled from the four study villages. Both semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. Results The results showed that malaria was perceived to be a major public health problem in the area and the role of the vector Anopheles mosquitoes in malaria transmission was generally recognized. More than 80% of respondents were aware of the major breeding sites of the vector. Reported personal protection methods applied to prevent mosquito bites included; use of treated bed nets (57%), untreated bed nets (35%), insecticide coils (21%), traditional methods such as burning of cow dung (8%), insecticide sprays (6%), and use of skin repellents (2%). However, 39% of respondents could not apply some of the known vector control methods due to unaffordability (50.5%), side effects (19.9%), perceived lack of effectiveness (16%), and lack of time to apply (2.6%). Lack of time was the main reason (56.3%) reported for non-application of environmental management practices, such as draining of stagnant water (77%) and clearing of vegetations along water canals (67%). Conclusion The study provides relevant information necessary for the management, prevention and control of malaria in irrigated agro-ecosystems, where vectors of malaria are abundant and disease transmission is stable. PMID:18667091

Ng'ang'a, Peter N; Shililu, Josephat; Jayasinghe, Gayathri; Kimani, Violet; Kabutha, Charity; Kabuage, Lucy; Kabiru, Ephantus; Githure, John; Mutero, Clifford

2008-01-01

37

Evolutionary responses by native species to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems: Pacific salmon in the Columbia River hydropower system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human footprint is now large in all the Earth's ecosystems, and construction of large dams in major river basins is among the anthropogenic changes that have had the most profound ecological consequences, particularly for migratory fishes. In the Columbia River basin of the western USA, considerable effort has been directed toward evaluating demo- graphic effects of dams, yet little

ROBIN S. WAPLES; RICHARD W. ZABEL; MARK D. SCHEUERELL; BETH L. SANDERSON

2007-01-01

38

Root-to-shoot Cd translocation via the xylem is the major process determining shoot and grain cadmium accumulation in rice  

PubMed Central

Physiological properties involved in divergent cadmium (Cd) accumulation among rice genotypes were characterized using the indica cultivar ‘Habataki’ (high Cd in grains) and the japonica cultivar ‘Sasanishiki’ (low Cd in grains). Time-dependence and concentration-dependence of symplastic Cd absorption in roots were revealed not to be responsible for the different Cd accumulation between the two cultivars because root Cd uptake was not greater in the Cd-accumulating cultivar ‘Habataki’ compared with ‘Sasanishiki’. On the other hand, rapid and greater root-to-shoot Cd translocation was observed in ‘Habataki’, which could be mediated by higher abilities in xylem loading of Cd and transpiration rate as a driving force. To verify whether different abilities in xylem-mediated shoot-to-root translocation generally account for the genotypic variation in shoot Cd accumulation in rice, the world rice core collection, consisting of 69 accessions which covers the genetic diversity of almost 32 000 accessions of cultivated rice, was used. The results showed strong correlation between Cd levels in xylem sap and shoots and grains among the 69 rice accessions. Overall, the results presented in this study revealed that the root-to-shoot Cd translocation via the xylem is the major and common physiological process determining the Cd accumulation level in shoots and grains of rice plants. PMID:19401409

Uraguchi, Shimpei; Mori, Shinsuke; Kuramata, Masato; Kawasaki, Akira; Arao, Tomohito; Ishikawa, Satoru

2009-01-01

39

In Inland China, Rice, Rather than Fish, Is the Major Pathway for Methylmercury Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Fish consumption is considered the primary pathway of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for most people in the world. However, in the inland regions of China, most of the residents eat little fish, but they live in areas where a significant amount of mercury (Hg) is present in the environment. Objectives We assessed concentrations of total Hg and MeHg in samples of water, air, agricultural products, and other exposure media to determine the main exposure pathway of Hg in populations in inland China. Methods We selected Guizhou Province for our study because it is highly contaminated with Hg and therefore is representative of other Hg-contaminated areas in China. We selected four study locations in Guizhou Province: three that represent typical environments with severe Hg pollution [due to Hg mining and smelting (Wanshan), traditional zinc smelting (recently closed; Weining), and heavy coal-based industry (Qingzhen)], and a village in a remote nature reserve (Leigong). Results The probable daily intake (PDI) of MeHg for an adult population based on 60 kg body weight (bw) was considerably higher in Wanshan than in the other three locations. With an average PDI of 0.096 ?g/kg bw/day (range, 0.015–0.45 ?g/kg bw/day), approximately 34% of the inhabitants in Wanshan exceeded the reference dose of 0.1 ?g/kg bw/day established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The PDI of MeHg for residents in the three other locations were all well below 0.1 ?g/kg bw/day (averages from 0.017 to 0.023 ?g/kg bw/day, with a maximum of 0.095 ?g/kg bw/day). In all four areas, rice consumption accounted for 94–96% of the PDI of MeHg. Conclusion We found that rice consumption is by far the most important MeHg exposure route; however, most of the residents (except those in Hg-mining areas) have low PDIs of MeHg. PMID:20378486

Zhang, Hua; Feng, Xinbin; Larssen, Thorjørn; Qiu, Guangle; Vogt, Rolf D.

2010-01-01

40

Effects of a rice major gene Ur1 (Undulate rachis -1) on panicle and grain traits.  

PubMed

A rice dominant gene, Ur1, increases spikelet number per panicle, thereby enlarging sink size. The effects of Ur1 on panicle and grain traits were examined using 'Nishihikari' (N), its Ur1 isogenic line (NU) and their F1, and the sd1-d isogenic line of Taichung 65 (d), the sd1-d-Ur1 isogenic line (u) and their F1. Ur1 increased number of primary branches per panicle (NB1), number of secondary branches per primary branch (NB2) and number of spikelets per single secondary branch (SB2). Increase in NB1 was higher in NU than in u but those in NB2 and SB2 were lower in NU than in u, all of which brought about a lower percentage of secondary-branch spikelets for NU. Regarding secondary-branch spikelets as well as whole spikelets, NU had a higher ripened-grain percentage caused by its higher fertilized-spikelet percentage than u. The above characteristics of NU contribute to its high yielding ability, suggesting that N is a favorable genetic background for Ur1. In addition, number of differentiated (developed+degenerated) secondary branches per primary branch and presence of twined spikelets in the uppermost primary branch of a panicle could be new indicators to discriminate Ur1/Ur1 plants from Ur1/+ and +/+ plants in a segregating population like an F2. PMID:25201296

Murai, Masayuki; Hata, Toru; Kosumi, Tomohiro; Seike, Hirotaka

2014-10-01

41

Gene expression analysis of rice seedling under potassium deprivation reveals major changes in metabolism and signaling components.  

PubMed

Plant nutrition is one of the important areas for improving the yield and quality in crops as well as non-crop plants. Potassium is an essential plant nutrient and is required in abundance for their proper growth and development. Potassium deficiency directly affects the plant growth and hence crop yield and production. Recently, potassium-dependent transcriptomic analysis has been performed in the model plant Arabidopsis, however in cereals and crop plants; such a transcriptome analysis has not been undertaken till date. In rice, the molecular mechanism for the regulation of potassium starvation responses has not been investigated in detail. Here, we present a combined physiological and whole genome transcriptomic study of rice seedlings exposed to a brief period of potassium deficiency then replenished with potassium. Our results reveal that the expressions of a diverse set of genes annotated with many distinct functions were altered under potassium deprivation. Our findings highlight altered expression patterns of potassium-responsive genes majorly involved in metabolic processes, stress responses, signaling pathways, transcriptional regulation, and transport of multiple molecules including K(+). Interestingly, several genes responsive to low-potassium conditions show a reversal in expression upon resupply of potassium. The results of this study indicate that potassium deprivation leads to activation of multiple genes and gene networks, which may be acting in concert to sense the external potassium and mediate uptake, distribution and ultimately adaptation to low potassium conditions. The interplay of both upregulated and downregulated genes globally in response to potassium deprivation determines how plants cope with the stress of nutrient deficiency at different physiological as well as developmental stages of plants. PMID:23922980

Shankar, Alka; Singh, Amarjeet; Kanwar, Poonam; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Pandey, Amita; Suprasanna, Penna; Kapoor, Sanjay; Pandey, Girdhar K

2013-01-01

42

Gene Expression Analysis of Rice Seedling under Potassium Deprivation Reveals Major Changes in Metabolism and Signaling Components  

PubMed Central

Plant nutrition is one of the important areas for improving the yield and quality in crops as well as non-crop plants. Potassium is an essential plant nutrient and is required in abundance for their proper growth and development. Potassium deficiency directly affects the plant growth and hence crop yield and production. Recently, potassium-dependent transcriptomic analysis has been performed in the model plant Arabidopsis, however in cereals and crop plants; such a transcriptome analysis has not been undertaken till date. In rice, the molecular mechanism for the regulation of potassium starvation responses has not been investigated in detail. Here, we present a combined physiological and whole genome transcriptomic study of rice seedlings exposed to a brief period of potassium deficiency then replenished with potassium. Our results reveal that the expressions of a diverse set of genes annotated with many distinct functions were altered under potassium deprivation. Our findings highlight altered expression patterns of potassium-responsive genes majorly involved in metabolic processes, stress responses, signaling pathways, transcriptional regulation, and transport of multiple molecules including K+. Interestingly, several genes responsive to low-potassium conditions show a reversal in expression upon resupply of potassium. The results of this study indicate that potassium deprivation leads to activation of multiple genes and gene networks, which may be acting in concert to sense the external potassium and mediate uptake, distribution and ultimately adaptation to low potassium conditions. The interplay of both upregulated and downregulated genes globally in response to potassium deprivation determines how plants cope with the stress of nutrient deficiency at different physiological as well as developmental stages of plants. PMID:23922980

Shankar, Alka; Singh, Amarjeet; Kanwar, Poonam; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Pandey, Amita; Suprasanna, Penna; Kapoor, Sanjay; Pandey, Girdhar K.

2013-01-01

43

RICE PI-TA GENE IS CLOSELY LINKED WITH RESISTANCE TO THE MAJOR PATHOTYPES OF THE RICE BLAST FUNGUS IN THE U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Pi-ta gene, allelic to Pi-ta2, in rice is effective in preventing the infection of Magnaporthe grisea isolates containing the corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita. Pi-ta encodes a putative cytoplasmic receptor that appears to bind to a predicted processed AVR-Pita to elicit a defense response...

44

Genome Sequence of the Verrucomicrobium Opitutus terrae PB90-1, an Abundant Inhabitant of Rice Paddy Soil Ecosystems?  

PubMed Central

Bacteria of the deeply branching phylum Verrucomicrobia are rarely cultured yet commonly detected in metagenomic libraries from aquatic, terrestrial, and intestinal environments. We have sequenced the genome of Opitutus terrae PB90-1, a fermentative anaerobe within this phylum, isolated from rice paddy soil and capable of propionate production from plant-derived polysaccharides. PMID:21398538

van Passel, Mark W. J.; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; Copeland, Alex; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Pitluck, Sam; Goltsman, Eugene; Clum, Alicia; Sun, Hui; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, Frank W.; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikolaos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Richardson, P. Paul; Janssen, Peter H.; de Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke

2011-01-01

45

Factors affecting the organochlorine pollutant load in biota of a rice field ecosystem (Ebro Delta, NE Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and OCS were determined in sediments and associated biota, both invertebrates (Physella acuta, Hirudo medicinalis, chironomid larvae, Hydrous pistaceus, Helochares lividus) and vertebrates (Rana perezi), in a temporary aquatic system, a rice field in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain). The qualitative and quantitative distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediments and aquatic biota has

D. Pastor; C. Sanpera; J. González-Sol??s; X. Ruiz; J. Albaigés

2004-01-01

46

Identification and functional characterization of silicon transporters in soybean using comparative genomics of major intrinsic proteins in Arabidopsis and rice.  

PubMed

Silicon (Si) confers several benefits to many plant species when absorbed as silicic acid through nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs). The NIPs belong to major intrinsic protein (MIP) family, members of which form channels with high selectivity to control transport of water and different solutes. Here, comparative genomic analysis of the MIPs was performed to investigate the presence of Si transporter MIPs in soybean. Thorough analysis of phylogeny, gene organization, transcriptome profiling and protein modeling was performed to characterize MIPs in rice, Arabidopsis and soybean. Based on several attributes, two putative Si transporter genes, GmNIP2-1 and GmNIP2-2, were identified, characterized and cloned from soybean. Expression of both genes was detected in shoot and root tissues, and decreased as Si increased. The protein encoded by GmNIP2-2 showed functionality for Si transport when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, thus confirming the genetic capability of soybean to absorb the element. Comparative analysis of MIPs in plants provides opportunities to decipher gene evolution, functionality and selectivity of nutrient uptake mechanisms. Exploitation of this strategy has helped to uncover unique features of MIPs in soybean. The identification and functional characterization of Si transporters can be exploited to optimize the benefits that plants can derive from Si absorption. PMID:23771580

Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Vivancos, Julien; Guérin, Valérie; Sonah, Humira; Labbé, Caroline; Belzile, François; Bélanger, Richard R

2013-11-01

47

Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins  

PubMed Central

Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

2014-01-01

48

Development of sustainable groundwater extraction practices for a major superficial aquifer supporting a groundwater dependent ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout Australia many groundwater dependent ecosystems have been adversely affected by unsympathetic water abstraction practices. In Western Australia, the largest single supply of drinking water for the city of Perth is a superficial aquifer known as the Gnangara Groundwater Mound, located over an area of approximately 2200 km2 within and to the north of the city on the coastal plain. The groundwater resource supplies 60% of Perth’s pubic drinking water supply and 85% of total water demand for all users. Much of the mound is overlain by phreatophytic Banksia woodland that is susceptible to drought stress and death if the root system is separated from the unconfined aquifer for prolonged periods over the hot, dry Mediterranean summer. Drought stress has been exacerbated by diminished rainfall due to a changing climate regime. The aim of this research is to develop guidelines for sustainable groundwater abstraction (timing and volume) that will maintain the long term integrity of the ecosystem and recover up to 5GL/yr from existing borefields. We seek to investigate whether a change in abstraction regime, from ‘peak demand’ summer pumping to winter pumping allows groundwater levels to recover sufficiently prior to summer, thereby maintaining a healthy vegetation system. Hydrological and plant water status parameters were monitored over two winters at research sites with an initial depth to groundwater of less than 5m. During winter and spring, groundwater abstraction at a reduced capacity resulted in a 0.75m drawdown. Operation of the bores did not adversely impact the water status of phreatophytic Banksia at the study sites relative to control sites. Analysis of plant water source partitioning indicated that plants exposed to the winter drawdown were sustained by unsaturated zone soil moisture storage replenished by winter rainfall. When pumping ceased, the water table rose rapidly and plants utilised more groundwater during late spring and summer as the soil water store became depleted. A simple water balance model combined with phreatophyte vulnerability assessment was employed to identify allowable magnitude and rate of drawdown, and duration of bore operation.

Smettem, K. R.; Froend, R.; Davies, M.; Stock, B.; Martin, M.; Robertson, C.; Eamus, D.

2010-12-01

49

Major Disturbance Events in Terrestrial Ecosystems Detected using Global Satellite Data Sets  

E-print Network

contribute to the current rise of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere (Potter, 1999; Schimel et al., 2001). Because major `pulses' of CO2 from terrestrial biomass loss can be emitted to the atmosphere biogenic sources of CO2 have global implications for climatic change, which can in turn affect a vast

Kumar, Vipin

50

Remote sensing based change analysis of rice environments in Odisha, India.  

PubMed

The rainfed rice-growing environment is perhaps one of the most vulnerable to water stress such as drought and floods. It is important to determine the spatial extent of the stress-prone areas to effectively and efficiently promote proper technologies (e.g., stress-tolerant varieties) to tackle the problem of sustainable food production. This study was conducted in Odisha state located in eastern India. Odisha is predominantly a rainfed rice ecosystem (71% rainfed and 29% canal irrigated during kharif-monsoon season), where rice is the major crop and staple food of the people. However, rice productivity in Odisha is one of the lowest in India and a significant decline (9%) in rice cultivated area was observed in 2002 (a drought year). The present study analyzed the temporal rice cropping pattern in various ecosystems and identified the stress-prone areas due to submergence (flooding) and water shortage. The spatial distribution of rice areas was mapped using MODIS (MOD09Q1) 250-m 8-day time-series data (2000-2010) and spectral matching techniques. The mapped rice areas were strongly correlated (R(2) = 90%) with district-level statistics. Also the class accuracy based on field-plot data was 84.8%. The area under the rainfed rice ecosystem continues to dominate, recording the largest share among rice classes across all the years. The use of remote-sensing techniques is rapid, cost-effective, and reliable to monitor changes in rice cultivated area over long periods of time and estimate the reduction in area cultivated due to abiotic stress such as water stress and submergence. Agricultural research institutes and line departments in the government can use these techniques for better planning, regular monitoring of land-use changes, and dissemination of appropriate technologies. PMID:24405761

Gumma, Murali Krishna; Mohanty, Samarendu; Nelson, Andrew; Arnel, Rala; Mohammed, Irshad A; Das, Satya Ranjan

2015-01-15

51

Factors affecting the organochlorine pollutant load in biota of a rice field ecosystem (Ebro Delta, NE Spain).  

PubMed

The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and OCS were determined in sediments and associated biota, both invertebrates (Physella acuta, Hirudo medicinalis, chironomid larvae, Hydrous pistaceus, Helochares lividus) and vertebrates (Rana perezi), in a temporary aquatic system, a rice field in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain). The qualitative and quantitative distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediments and aquatic biota has been explained by two mechanisms: equilibrium partitioning and/or biomagnification through the trophic web. Nevertheless, bioaccumulation processes are by far more complex, since several biotic and abiotic factors contribute to the observed pollutant loads in the organisms. In this respect, the biological characteristics of the organisms considered (e.g. species, age, lipid contents, feeding habits, etc.), as well as ecological factors (e.g. the habitat of the species and vertical distribution), have been shown to account for the organochlorine levels observed. PMID:15006509

Pastor, D; Sanpera, C; González-Solís, J; Ruiz, X; Albaigés, J

2004-04-01

52

The usage of rice straw as a major substrate for the production of surfactin by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XZ-173 in solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

Agro-industrial byproducts, especially rice straw, are potential resources. This work was aimed to utilize raw materials to produce value-added biosurfactant in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Rice straw and soybean flour were found efficient and selected as major substrates for surfactin production. The results of Plackett-Burman design indicated that glycerol, water content, inoculum size and temperature were the significant variables identified in the screen of nine total variables. The optimum values for the four significant variables were determined by the Box-Behnken design. The optimal surfactin production was obtained when the medium contained 5 g soybean flour, 4 g rice straw, 2% (w/w) maltose and 2.65% (w/w) glycerol, pH 7.0. The ideal growth conditions for surfactin production consisted of a moisture content of 62.8% (v/w) and growth supplemented with 15.96% inoculum size in 250 mL flasks at 26.9 °C for 48 h. Under optimal conditions, a surfactin yield of 15.03 mg/gds was attained in 1000-fold scale-up fermentation in a 50 L fermenter, thereby validating the accuracy of this approach. This study proposed an eco-friendly and economical way to convert agro-industrial byproducts into biosurfactant. PMID:23685270

Zhu, Zhen; Zhang, Fengge; Wei, Zhong; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

2013-09-30

53

Research in Rice Fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between 1987 and 1999, 2.4-3 million acres of rice were planted annually nationwide. Rice fields are a major component of the contemporary landscapes in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and Central Valley of California. In 1998, approximately 600,000 acres of rice were planted in Louisiana. In the Louisiana plant commodities report for 1998, total value for rice was over $350 million; sugarcane was the only plant commodity that exceeded this value. Louisiana has over 2,000 rice farmers supporting over 12,000 jobs in the state. Rice fields in the United States receive high use by wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Waterbirds use rice fields for food, shelter, and breeding habitat.

U.S. Geological Survey

2000-01-01

54

Transcriptome Profiling and Physiological Studies Reveal a Major Role for Aromatic Amino Acids in Mercury Stress Tolerance in Rice Seedlings  

PubMed Central

Mercury (Hg) is a serious environmental pollution threat to the planet. The accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. To gain more insight into the cellular response to Hg, we performed a large-scale analysis of the rice transcriptome during Hg stress. Genes induced with short-term exposure represented functional categories of cell-wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction and abiotic stress response. Moreover, Hg stress upregulated several genes involved in aromatic amino acids (Phe and Trp) and increased the level of free Phe and Trp content. Exogenous application of Phe and Trp to rice roots enhanced tolerance to Hg and effectively reduced Hg-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Hg induced calcium accumulation and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase. Further characterization of the Hg-responsive genes we identified may be helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of Hg in plants. PMID:24840062

Trinh, Ngoc Nam; Huang, Li-Yao; Chen, Ying-Chih; Cheng, Kai-Teng; Huang, Tsai-Lien; Lin, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hao-Jen

2014-01-01

55

Complex evolution of S5, a major reproductive barrier regulator, in the cultivated rice Oryza sativa and its wild relatives.  

PubMed

• The hybrid sterility gene S5 comprises three types of alleles in cultivated rice. Such tri-allelic system provided a unique opportunity to study the molecular bases of evolutionary changes underlying reproductive isolation in plants. • We analysed the sequence diversity and evolutionary history of S5 in 138 Oryza accessions. We also examined the effect of the two functional variations (C819A and C1412T) in determining hybrid sterility by transformation. • Nineteen haplotypes were identified, which were classified into the indica-like, the japonica-like and the wide-compatibility gene (WCG)-like group, according to the sequence features of the tri-allelic system. The origin and evolutionary course of the three allelic groups were investigated, thus confirming the independent origins of indica and japonica subspecies. There were perfect associations between C819A and C1412T in the rice germplasm assayed, and the combination of C819 and C1412 was required for hybrid sterility. Evidence of positive selection in the WCG-like alleles suggested that they might have been favored by selection for higher compatibility in hybrids. • The complex evolution of S5 revealed the counteractive function of the three allelic groups at the species level. S5 might perform an important primary function in an evolutionary scale, and hybrid sterility acts as a 'byproduct' of this speciation gene. PMID:21443693

Du, Hongyi; Ouyang, Yidan; Zhang, Chengjun; Zhang, Qifa

2011-07-01

56

Evolutionary responses by native species to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems: Pacific salmon in the Columbia River hydropower system.  

PubMed

The human footprint is now large in all the Earth's ecosystems, and construction of large dams in major river basins is among the anthropogenic changes that have had the most profound ecological consequences, particularly for migratory fishes. In the Columbia River basin of the western USA, considerable effort has been directed toward evaluating demographic effects of dams, yet little attention has been paid to evolutionary responses of migratory salmon to altered selective regimes. Here we make a first attempt to address this information gap. Transformation of the free-flowing Columbia River into a series of slack-water reservoirs has relaxed selection for adults capable of migrating long distances upstream against strong flows; conditions now favour fish capable of migrating through lakes and finding and navigating fish ladders. Juveniles must now be capable of surviving passage through multiple dams or collection and transportation around the dams. River flow patterns deliver some groups of juvenile salmon to the estuary later than is optimal for ocean survival, but countervailing selective pressures might constrain an evolutionary response toward earlier migration timing. Dams have increased the cost of migration, which reduces energy available for sexual selection and favours a nonmigratory life history. Reservoirs are a benign environment for many non-native species that are competitors with or predators on salmon, and evolutionary responses are likely (but undocumented). More research is needed to tease apart the relative importance of evolutionary vs. plastic responses of salmon to these environmental changes; this research is logistically challenging for species with life histories like Pacific salmon, but results should substantially improve our understanding of key processes. If the Columbia River is ever returned to a quasinatural, free-flowing state, remaining populations might face a Darwinian debt (and temporarily reduced fitness) as they struggle to re-evolve historical adaptations. PMID:18268786

Waples, Robin S; Zabel, Richard W; Scheuerell, Mark D; Sanderson, Beth L

2008-01-01

57

Mapping and characterization of the major quantitative trait locus qSS7 associated with increased length and decreased width of rice seeds.  

PubMed

Seed shape in rice (Oryza sativa) is an important factor that determines grain appearance, cooking quality and grain yield. Here, we report a major quantitative trait locus qSS7 on the long arm of chromosome 7 for seed length, seed width and the ratio of seed length to width, identified using a segregating population derived from a cross between an indica variety Zhenshan97 and a chromosomal segment substitution line of a japonica variety Cypress within the genetic background of Zhenshan97. The Cypress allele at qSS7 contributes to an increase in seed length and the ratio of length to width, but a decrease in seed width, without significantly changing seed weight, plant height, heading date or number of spikelets per panicle. Using a large F(2) population generated from a substitution line that carries only a heterozygous single segment surrounding qSS7, we delimited the QTL to a 23-kb region containing two annotated genes. Progeny testing of the informative recombinants suggested that this qSS7 region is a composite QTL in which at least two genes contribute to seed length and width. Sequence comparison and expression analysis of two probable candidate genes revealed differences between the parental lines. These results will facilitate cloning of the gene(s) underlying qSS7 as well as marker-assisted transfer of desirable genes for seed shape in rice improvement. PMID:22864386

Qiu, Xianjin; Gong, Rong; Tan, Youbin; Yu, Sibin

2012-12-01

58

RICE CRICKET CLUB Rice University  

E-print Network

RICE CRICKET CLUB Rice University 6100 Main St, Houston, TX-77005 www.ruf.rice.edu/~rcc Email: rcc@rice.edu MEMBERSHIP AGREEMENT I, ____________________________ desire to participate in activities conducted by RICE CRICKET CLUB which includes practice sessions, games and social gatherings conducted on and off the Rice

Mellor-Crummey, John

59

MOLECULAR CONTROL OF THE RICE BLAST DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea is a major constraint to rice production worldwide. The rice blast system is one of the best-characterized monocot model systems. The goal of this project is to understand molecular mechanisms of disease resistance using rice blast as a model system....

60

DNL1, encodes cellulose synthase-like D4, is a major QTL for plant height and leaf width in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

To better understand the genetic of rice agronomic traits, we selected two different rice germplasms in phenotypes, Xian80 and Suyunuo, to construct genetic population for QTL analysis. A total of 25 QTLs for six traits were found in a 175 F2 population. Major QTLs, qPH12,qLW12.2, qLL12 and qGW12.1, explaining 50.00%, 57.08%, 15.41% and 22.51% phenotypic variation for plant height, leaf width, leaf length and grain width, respectively, were located on the same interval of chromosome 12 flanking SSR markers RM519 and RM1103. In consideration of the great effects on plant height and leaf width, the locus was named DNL1 (Dwarf and Narrowed Leaf 1). Using a segregating population derived from F2 heterozygous individuals, a total of 1363 dwarfism and narrowed-leaf individuals was selected for screening recombinants. By high-resolution linkage analysis in 141 recombination events, DNL1 was narrowed to a 62.39kb region of InDel markers ID12M28 and HF43. The results of ORF analysis in target region and nucleotide sequence alignment indicated that DNL1 encodes cellulose synthase-like D4 protein, and a single nucleotide substitution (C2488T) in dnl1 result in decrease in plant height and leaf width. Bioinformatical analysis demonstrated that a conserved role for OsCSLD4 in the regulation of plant growth and development. Expression analysis for OsCSLDs showed OsCSLD4 highly expressed in roots, while other CSLD members had comparatively lower expression levels. However, no clear evidence about CSLD4/DNL1 expression was associated with its function. PMID:25522878

Ding, Zhengquan; Lin, Zefeng; Li, Qin; Wu, Hao; Xiang, Chunyan; Wang, Jianfei

2015-02-01

61

Insights into molecular mechanism of blast resistance in weedy rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weedy rice is a serious pest in direct-seeded rice fields in the U.S. and worldwide. Under suitable conditions, weedy rice can reduce crop yields up to 70%. However, weedy rice may carry novel disease resistance genes. Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major disease wo...

62

Regression analysis of major environmental parameters support an enhanced bioremediation of conglomerate heavy metals using an integrated ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an integrated ecosystem that supports the on-site speciation, detoxification, and mobilization of conglomerate toxic heavy metals of As(III), CR(VI), Pb, and Se from contaminated soil and water. The observed ecosystem dynamics of laboratory simulated ponds generated a pH profile (3-8.5) and a redox condition (0.25 V) that supported the oxidation of H{sub 3}AsO{sub 3} to H{sub 2}AsO{sub 4}. The infrared analysis of spent media identified an arsonic acid. The Cr(VI), Pb{sup 2} and Se (as in selenite) were reduced to Cr(III), PbS, and Se{sub 0}. In addition, molecular studies have identified unique protein molecules (< 10 KD) that are associated in the bioremediation processes. In these studies, the presence of a resistant bacterium (MRS-1), and cyanobacteria were highly significant in the bioremediation and sequestering of the metal ions to the pond surface. These results may have implications in the treatment of mixed wastes often encountered in mining areas.

Ibeanusi, V.M.; Henneman, T.; Cash, D. [Spelman College, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-12-31

63

Golden Rice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article offers basic knowledge about the origination of Golden Rice, including some basic concepts of rice physiology and genetic. This article is aimed at helping college students, rice growers or market managers who have some biology background to understand what Golden Rice is.

64

Rice Vinegars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice vinegar is a traditional seasoning condiment used in China, Japan and Korea. Rice vinegar is made from fermented rice\\u000a wine (sake in Japanese). Fermentation methods for rice vinegar include a traditional static method and recently developed continuous-culture\\u000a and batch-culture methods. Chinese and Japanese rice vinegars are slightly milder and sweeter than Western vinegars.

Yoshikatsu Murooka; Kumiko Nanda; Mitsuo Yamashita

65

EFFECTS OF CO2 ON COMPETITION BETWEEN RICE AND BARNYARDGRASS  

EPA Science Inventory

The atmospheric CO2 concentration is increasing. ffects of elevated CO2 on rice production could occur not only through direct impacts to rice, but also indirectly via ecosystem responses. hanged competitiveness with elevated CO2 could occur between rice hich has the C3 type of p...

66

Rice Distillers Dried Grain Is a Promising Ingredient as a Partial Replacement of Plant Origin Sources in the Diet for Juvenile Red Seabream (Pagrus major).  

PubMed

This study was designed to test the effects of dietary distillers dried grain (DDG) level on the growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and antioxidant activity of juvenile red seabream (Pagrus major). Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% DDG from rice (designated as DDG0, DDG5, DDG10, DDG15, DDG20, and DDG25), respectively. Juvenile red seabream averaging 10.1±0.05 g were randomly distributed into 400-L tanks in a flow through systems. Three replicate groups of fish were fed one of the experimental diets to visual satiation two times a day for 10 weeks. Survival, weight gain, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and hepatosomatic index of fish were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). Proximate and amino acid composition of whole body in juvenile red seabream were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). Plasma content of total protein, glucose, cholesterol, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, phospholipid and triglyceride were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and alkyl radical scavenging activities in plasma and liver of fish were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). The results of this experiment suggest that DDG has the potential to replace plant origin ingredients such as wheat flour and corn gluten meal and could be used up to 25% in diet without incurring negative effects on the growth performance of juvenile red seabream. PMID:25358367

Choi, Jin; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Lee, Sang-Min

2014-12-01

67

Nitrogen fertilizer optimization and cultivar selection for rice grown near mountainous slopes in Orissa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of the natural resource base has led to decline in crop yields or stagnation that caused food shortages at varying\\u000a degrees among mountain families. Rice, the major staple food in Asia, is suffering from lack of suitable cultivar and N fertilizer\\u000a management, when grown near mountainous slopes under rain-fed agro-ecosystem. An investigation through a field experiment\\u000a and simulation study

D. K. Swain; S. Herath; A. Pathirana; R. N. Dash

2005-01-01

68

Soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in rice paddies under long-term agro-ecosystem experiments in southern China - VI. Changes in microbial community structure and respiratory activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological stabilization within accumulated soil organic carbon (SOC) has not been well understood, while its role in physical and chemical protection as well as of chemical recalcitrance had been addressed in Chinese rice paddies. In this study, topsoil samples were collected and respiratory activity measured in situ following rice harvest under different fertilization treatments of three long-term experimental sites across southern China in 2009. The SOC contents, microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and nitrogen (SMBN) were analysed using chemical digestion and microbial community structure assessment via clony dilute plate counting methods. While SOC contents were consistently higher under compound chemical fertilization (Comp-Fert) or combined organic and inorganic fertilization (Comb-Fert) compared to N fertilization only (N-Fert), there was significantly higher fungal-bacterial ratio under Comb-Fert than under N-Fert and Comp-Fert. When subtracting the background effect under no fertilization treatment (Non-Fert), the increase both in SMBC and SMBN under fertilization treatment was found very significantly correlated to the increase in SOC over controls across the sites. Also, the ratio of culturable fungal to bacterial population numbers (F/B ratio) was well correlated with soil organic carbon contents in all samples across the sites studied. SOC accumulation favoured a build-up the microbial community with increasing fungal dominance in the rice paddies under fertilization treatments. While soil respiration rates were high under Comb-Fert as a result of enhanced microbial community build-up, the specific soil respiratory activity based on microbial biomass carbon was found in a significantly negatively correlation with the SOC contents for overall samples. Thus, a fungal-dominated microbial community seemed to slow SOC turnover, thereby favouring SOC accumulation under Comp-Fert or under Comb-Fert in the rice paddies. Therefore, the biological stabilization process is of importance in SOC sequestration in the rice paddies, operating with physical and chemical protection and chemical recalcitrance. However, sufficient understanding and prediction of SOM dynamics needs further quantitative characterization of the simultaneous operation of several mechanisms.

Liu, D.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Li, L.; Pan, G.; Crowley, D.; Tippkötter, R.

2011-02-01

69

The broad-leaf herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid turns rice into a living trap for a major insect pest and a parasitic wasp.  

PubMed

Synthetic chemical elicitors of plant defense have been touted as a powerful means for sustainable crop protection. Yet, they have never been successfully applied to control insect pests in the field. We developed a high-throughput chemical genetics screening system based on a herbivore-induced linalool synthase promoter fused to a ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter construct to test synthetic compounds for their potential to induce rice defenses. We identified 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), an auxin homolog and widely used herbicide in monocotyledonous crops, as a potent elicitor of rice defenses. Low doses of 2,4-D induced a strong defensive reaction upstream of the jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways, resulting in a marked increase in trypsin proteinase inhibitor activity and volatile production. Induced plants were more resistant to the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis, but became highly attractive to the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its main egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae. In a field experiment, 2,4-D application turned rice plants into living traps for N. lugens by attracting parasitoids. Our findings demonstrate the potential of auxin homologs as defensive signals and show the potential of the herbicide to turn rice into a selective catch crop for an economically important pest. PMID:22313362

Xin, Zhaojun; Yu, Zhaonan; Erb, Matthias; Turlings, Ted C J; Wang, Baohui; Qi, Jinfeng; Liu, Shengning; Lou, Yonggen

2012-04-01

70

Analysis of nucleotide diversity among alleles of the major bacterial blight resistance gene Xa27 in cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) and its wild relatives.  

PubMed

Xa27 is one of the important R-genes, effective against bacterial blight disease of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Using natural population of Oryza, we analyzed the sequence variation in the functionally important domains of Xa27 across the Oryza species. DNA sequences of Xa27 alleles from 27 rice accessions revealed higher nucleotide diversity among the reported R-genes of rice. Sequence polymorphism analysis revealed synonymous and non-synonymous mutations in addition to a number of InDels in non-coding regions of the gene. High sequence variation was observed in the promoter region including the 5'UTR with '?' value 0.00916 and '? w ' = 0.01785. Comparative analysis of the identified Xa27 alleles with that of IRBB27 and IR24 indicated the operation of both positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1) and neutral selection (Ka/Ks ? 0). The genetic distances of alleles of the gene from Oryza nivara were nearer to IRBB27 as compared to IR24. We also found the presence of conserved and null UPT (upregulated by transcriptional activator) box in the isolated alleles. Considerable amino acid polymorphism was localized in the trans-membrane domain for which the functional significance is yet to be elucidated. However, the absence of functional UPT box in all the alleles except IRBB27 suggests the maintenance of single resistant allele throughout the natural population. PMID:23652799

Bimolata, Waikhom; Kumar, Anirudh; Sundaram, Raman Meenakshi; Laha, Gouri Shankar; Qureshi, Insaf Ahmed; Reddy, Gajjala Ashok; Ghazi, Irfan Ahmad

2013-08-01

71

River discharges of water and nutrients to the Mediterranean and Black Sea: Major drivers for ecosystem changes during past and future decades?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rivers are important sources of freshwater and nutrients for the Mediterranean and Black Sea. We present a reconstruction of the spatial and temporal variability of these inputs since the early 1960s, based on a review of available data on water discharge, nutrient concentrations and climatic parameters. Our compilation indicates that Mediterranean rivers suffer from a significant reduction in freshwater discharge, contrary to rivers of the Black Sea, which do not have clear discharge trends. We estimate this reduction to be at least about 20% between 1960 and 2000. It mainly reflects recent climate change, and dam construction may have reduced discharge even further. A similar decrease can also be expected for the fluxes of dissolved silica (Si), strongly controlled by water discharge and potentially reduced by river damming as well. This contrasts with the fluxes of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in Mediterranean and Black Sea rivers, which were strongly enhanced by anthropogenic sources. Their total inputs to the Mediterranean Sea could have increased by a factor of >5. While N still remained at elevated levels in 2000, P only increased up to the 1980-1990s, and then rapidly dropped down to about the initial values of the 1960s. With respect to the marine primary production that can be supported by the riverine nutrient inputs, Mediterranean and the Black Sea rivers were mostly phosphorus limited during the study period. Their anthropogenic nutrient enrichment could only have had a fertilizing effect before the general decline of the P loads. When also considering Si as a limiting element, which is the case for siliceous primary producers such as diatoms, silica limitation may have become a widespread phenomenon in the Mediterranean rivers since the early 1980s. For the Black Sea rivers, this already started the late 1960s. Gross primary production sustained by rivers (PPR) represents only less than 2% of the gross production (PP) in the Mediterranean, and less than 5% in the Black Sea. Possible ecological impacts of the changing river inputs should therefore be visible only in productive coastal areas, such as the Gulf of Lions, where PPR can reach more than two thirds of PP. Reported ecosystem changes both in the Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are concomitant with major changes in the reconstructed river inputs. Further work combining modelling and data collection is needed to test whether this may also have been the case for coastal ecosystems at other places in the Mediterranean and Black Sea.

Ludwig, Wolfgang; Dumont, Egon; Meybeck, Michel; Heussner, Serge

2009-03-01

72

Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.  

PubMed

Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production. PMID:24003656

Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

2013-01-01

73

Gaseous emissions from flooded rice paddy agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modification of continental land for agricultural use has increased over the last century. Atmospheric impact of this land use change has only been addressed for a few ecosystems and compounds. This paper provides, to date, the most comprehensive examination of gaseous emissions from rice paddies. We report seasonal emission ranges and integrated emission totals for 55 chemical species. This paper is the first to report emissions of isoprene, ethyl chloride, bromoform, alkyl nitrates, bromodichloromethane, hexane, and benzene from rice paddies. Emissions of alkyl nitrates, bromoform, ethyl chloride, and bromodichloromethane by terrestrial ecosystems have never before been observed. For species where emissions were observed we tentatively ascribe possible mechanisms of production; photochemical or biological production in the water column or rice plant mediated. For some compounds, during periods of maximum emissions, ambient rice paddy air concentrations may be concentrated enough to affect regional atmospheric chemistry.

Redeker, K. R.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D.; Sass, R.

2003-07-01

74

MODELING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM RICE-BASED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: SENSITIVITY AND UPSCALING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A biogeochemical model, Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC), was modified to enhance its capacity of predicting greenhouse gas emissions from paddy rice ecosystems. The modifications focused on soil redox potential dynamics, paddy rice management, and rice development and growth. The new model was ...

75

Antarctica: A Cold Desert Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Antarctica lesson has students locate the continent on a globe and on a map, describe and illustrate major Antarctic ecosystems, and explain relationships between those ecosystems. They will also construct a rough map of Antarctic ecosystems and explore relationships among the creatures that populate them. This lesson can be adapted to focus on other regions, including the one in which students live.

76

Rice University | Rice Facts Index Undergraduates Graduates Faculty & Researchers Staff Alumni  

E-print Network

Rice University | Rice Facts Index Undergraduates Graduates Faculty & Researchers Staff Alumni Rice Facts Rice Facts Index Rice Culture Academics Campus Features Rice Administration Resources Historical Facts Archives About OIR Rice News Feed Font Size Rice Facts Rice Culture Mission History

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

77

Thermomechanical property of rice kernels studied by DMA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The thermomechanical property of the rice kernels was investigated using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). The length change of rice kernel with a loaded constant force along the major axis direction was detected during temperature scanning. The thermomechanical transition occurred in rice kernel...

78

Test of Some Hybrid Combinations to Rice Blast  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. Blast resistant cultivars are recognized as the most efficacious and economical way to control this disease. Genetic resistance to rice blast is generally governed by a few major genes, often in c...

79

MAPPING R-GENES IN RICE WILD RELATIVES (ORYZA SPP.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and leaf blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Herbert) Yaegashi & Udagawa are major fungal diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice wild relatives (Oryza spp.) are the source of several resistance (R-) genes including those for bla...

80

Texas Rice, Volume II, Number 1  

E-print Network

. The Channeled Applesnail Invasion: A Threat to Aquatic Ecosystems and the Price of Rice Crispies. American Conchologist. Vol. 29. No. 4 Article by Dr. Mo Way. Photos courtesy of Stijn Ghesquiere at www. applesnail.net * * * Freshly laid egg mass, found...

81

Gaseous emissions from flooded rice paddy agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of continental land for agricultural use has increased over the last century. Atmospheric impact of this land use change has only been addressed for a few ecosystems and compounds. This paper provides, to date, the most comprehensive examination of gaseous emissions from rice paddies. We report seasonal emission ranges and integrated emission totals for 55 chemical species. This paper

K. R. Redeker; S. Meinardi; D. Blake; R. Sass

2003-01-01

82

Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice.  

PubMed

There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. The cultivated species originated from a common ancestor with AA genome. Perennial and annual ancestors of O. sativa are O. rufipogon and O. nivara and those of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata, O. breviligulata and O. glaberrima probably domesticated in Niger river delta. Varieties of O. sativa are classified into six groups on the basis of genetic affinity. Widely known indica rices correspond to group I and japonicas to group VI. The so called javanica rices also belong to group VI and are designated as tropical japonicas in contrast to temperate japonicas grown in temperate climate. Indica and japonica rices had a polyphyletic origin. Indicas were probably domesticated in the foothills of Himalayas in Eastern India and japonicas somewhere in South China. The indica rices dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics from India. The japonica rices moved northward from South China and became the temperate ecotype. They also moved southward to Southeast Asia and from there to West Africa and Brazil and became tropical ecotype. Rice is now grown between 55 degrees N and 36 degrees S latitudes. It is grown under diverse growing conditions such as irrigated, rainfed lowland, rainfed upland and floodprone ecosystems. Human selection and adaptation to diverse environments has resulted in numerous cultivars. It is estimated that about 120,000 varieties of rice exist in the world. After the establishment of International Rice Research Institute in 1960, rice varietal improvement was intensified and high yielding varieties were developed. These varieties are now planted to 70% of world's riceland. Rice production doubled between 1966 and 1990 due to large scale adoption of these improved varieties. Rice production must increase by 60% by 2025 to feed the additional rice consumers. New tools of molecular and cellular biology such as anther culture, molecular marker aided selection and genetic engineering will play increasing role in rice improvement. PMID:9291957

Khush, G S

1997-09-01

83

Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (<30 cm) water, thereby attracting different guilds of birds. Grain not collected during harvest (i.e. waste rice) is typically the most abundant potential food of birds in rice fields, with estimates of seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.

Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

2010-01-01

84

Parallel Computing for Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial ecosystems are a primary component of research on global environmental change. Observational and modeling research on terrestrial ecosystems at the global scale, however, has lagged behind their counterparts for oceanic and atmospheric systems, largely because the unique challenges associated with the tremendous diversity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems. There are 8 major types of terrestrial ecosystem: tropical rain forest,

Dali Wang; Wilfred M Post; Daniel M Ricciuto; Michael Berry

2011-01-01

85

Australian Wild Rice Reveals Pre-Domestication Origin of Polymorphism Deserts in Rice Genome  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. Results We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the ‘polymorphism deserts’ in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Conclusions Analysis of genes in the ‘polymorphism deserts’ indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security. PMID:24905808

Krishnan S., Gopala; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Henry, Robert J.

2014-01-01

86

Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice  

E-print Network

Background: High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental ...

Lin, Haining

87

Inside Ecosystems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third in a series of articles featuring the urban ecosystem. Discusses the inner workings of an ecosystem and the links that connect its elements, including the link between people and the environment. Graphics illustrate "layers" of the landscape. (LZ)

Moll, Gary; And Others

1995-01-01

88

Florida Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by FICUS (the Florida Internet Center for Understanding Sustainability) and the University of South Florida, this gem of a site covers Florida's native upland, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Streamlined in organization but solid in content, Florida Ecosystems offers introductory information and photographic images of a dozen ecosystems, ranging from Pine Flatwoods and Dry Prairies to Mangrove Swamps and Coral Reefs. For students and educators interested in subtropical ecosystems, this is a nice place to start.

89

Natural ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural Ecosystems analyzes the association of observed changes in climate with changes in the geographic distributions and phenology (the timing of blossoms or migrations of birds) for Southwestern ecosystems and their species, portraying ecosystem disturbances—such as wildfires and outbreaks of forest pathogens—and carbon storage and release, in relation to climate change.

Fleishman, Erica; Belnap, Jayne; Cobb, Neil; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Ford, Karl; MacDonald, Glen; Pellant, Mike; Schoennagel, Tania; Schmit, Lara M.; Schwartz, Mark; van Drunick, Suzanne; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Keyser, Alisa; Lucas, Ryan

2013-01-01

90

Ecosystem Journalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the organisms in a prairie ecosystem created a newspaper, what would it look like? What important news topics of the ecosystem would the organisms want to discuss? Imaginative and enthusiastic third-grade students were busy pondering these questions as they tried their hands at "ecosystem journalism." The class had recently completed a study of…

Robertson, Amy; Mahlin, Kathryn

2005-01-01

91

Characterization of rice blast resistance gene Pi61(t) in rice germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identification of resistance (R) genes to races of Magnaporthe oryzae in rice germplasm is essential for the development of rice cultivars with long lasting blast resistance. In the present study, one major quantitative trait locus, qPi93-3, was fine mapped using a recombinant inbred line (RIL), F8 ...

92

Increasing herbicide selectivity between rice and red rice  

E-print Network

of red rice reduce grain yields through compe- tition with seeded rice for sunlight, nutrients, and moisture. Furthermore, red rice lowers the grade of milled rice. Because of its size and shape, it is dif- ficult to remove red rice from domestic... varieties during the milling process. Rice that contains red rice grains must 'be milled closely to remove the red bran coat. This frequently breaks the domestic rice grains. If the bran coat is not removed, the milled rice is unattractive end...

Koetz, Paul Howard

2012-06-07

93

The M(r) 43K major capsid protein of rice ragged stunt oryzavirus is a post-translationally processed product of a M(r) 67,348 polypeptide encoded by genome segment 8.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequence of DNA complementary to rice ragged stunt oryzavirus (RRSV) genome segment 8 (S8) of an isolate from Thailand was determined. RRSVS8 is 1914 bp in size and contains a single large open reading frame (ORF) spanning nucleotides 23 to 1810 which is capable of encoding a protein of M(r) 67,348. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of a approximately 43K virion polypeptide matched to that inferred for an internal region of the S8 coding sequence. These data suggest that the 43K protein is encoded by S8 and is derived by a proteolytic cleavage. Predicted polypeptide sizes from this possible cleavage of S8 protein are 26K and 42K. Polyclonal antibodies raised against a maltose binding protein (MBP)-S8 fusion polypeptide (expressed in Escherichia coli) recognised four RRSV particle associated polypeptides of M(r) 67K, 46K, 43K and 26K and all except the 26K polypeptide were also highly immunoreactive to polyclonal antibodies raised against purified RRSV particles. Cleavage of the MBP-S8 fusion polypeptide with protease Factor X produced the expected 40K MBP and two polypeptides of apparent M(r) 46K and 26K. Antibodies to purified RRSV particles reacted strongly with the intact fusion protein and the 46K cleavage product but weakly to the 26K product. Furthermore, in vitro transcription and translation of the S8 coding region revealed a post-translational self cleavage of the 67K polypeptide to 46K and 26K products. These data indicate that S8 encodes a structural polypeptide, the majority of which is auto-catalytically cleaved to 26K and 46K proteins. The data also suggest that the 26K protein is the self cleaving protease and that the 46K product is further processed or undergoes stable conformational changes to a approximately 43K major capsid protein. PMID:8893791

Upadhyaya, N M; Zinkowsky, E; Kositratana, W; Waterhouse, P M

1996-01-01

94

The complete sequence of the rice ( Oryza sativa ) chloroplast genome: Intermolecular recombination between distinct tRNA genes accounts for a major plastid DNA inversion during the evolution of the cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The entire chloroplast genome of the monocot rice (Oryza sativa) has been sequenced and comprises 134525 bp. Predicted genes have been identified along with open reading frames (ORFs) conserved\\u000a between rice and the previously sequenced chloroplast genomes, a dicot, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and a liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha). The same complement of 30 tRNA and 4 rRNA genes has been conserved

Junzou Hiratsuka; Hiroaki Shimada; Robert Whittier; Takashi Ishibashi; Masahiro Sakamoto; Masao Mori; Chihiro Kondo; Yasuko Honji; Chong-Rong Sun; Bing-Yuan Meng; Yu-Qing Li; Akira Kanno; Yoko Nishizawa; Atsushi Hirai; Kazuo Shinozaki; Masahiro Sugiura

1989-01-01

95

Rice Young Alumni Information  

E-print Network

Rice Young Alumni Detailed Information: Houston Young Alumni Committee Programs 2011-2012 #12; Rice Young Alumni Information Alumni.rice.edu The Houston Young Alumni Committee Helps Shape Your Young Alumni Programs The Houston Young Alumni Committee represents the over 2,300 Rice undergrad

Palem, Krishna V.

96

The impact of herbicide-resistant rice technology on phenotypic diversity and population structure of United States weedy rice.  

PubMed

The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. PMID:25122473

Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E; Gealy, David R; Caicedo, Ana L

2014-11-01

97

Morphology based field rice density detection from rice transplant stage to rice jointing stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice yield estimation is an important aspect in the agriculture research field. For the rice yield estimation, rice density is one of its useful factors. In this paper, we propose a new method to automatically detect the rice density from the rice transplanting stage to rice jointing stage. It devotes to detect rice planting density by image low-level features of the rice image sequences taken in the fields. Moreover, a rice jointing stage automatic detection method is proposed so as to terminate the rice density detection algorithm. The validities of the proposed rice density detection method and the rice jointing stage automatic detection method are proved in the experiment.

Bai, X. D.; Cao, Z. G.; Wang, Y.; Ye, M. N.; Yu, Z. H.; Li, Y. N.

2013-10-01

98

Hang.Yu@rice.edu lzhong@rice.edu  

E-print Network

Hang Yu Hang.Yu@rice.edu Lin Zhong lzhong@rice.edu Ashutosh Sabharwal ashu@rice.edu Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 All current mobile devices are omni

Zhong, Lin

99

Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a freshwater ecosystem in a large plastic bottle. Learners cut and prepare bottles, then fill with water, aquatic plants, snails and fish. Learners observe their mini-ecosystem over time to see what changes--such as the color of the water, the water temperature, plant growth, and behavior and/or population of the snails or fish. The activity serves as a model for larger freshwater ecosystems such as ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, reservoirs and groundwater.

New Jersey

2006-01-01

100

In vitro digestibility and physicochemical properties of milled rice.  

PubMed

Rice is a staple diet as well as a major ingredient in many processed foods. The physicochemical and supra-molecular structure of eight rice varieties with amylose content from 9% to 19% were studied to elucidate the factors responsible for variation in enzymatic digestibility of raw and cooked rice. Parboiled rice had a digestion rate coefficient almost 4.5 times higher than the least digestible Low GI rice. The rate coefficient was found to be independent of helical structure and long range molecular order, possibly attributed to the effect of rice flour architecture. Strong swelling and pasting behaviour and lower gelatinisation temperature were linked with apparently higher in vitro digestibility but the relationship was statistically insignificant. It is concluded that the enzymatic susceptibility of rice flours are independent of supra-molecular structure and are most likely controlled by external factors not limited to particle size, presence of intact cell wall and other non-starch polymers. PMID:25442617

Dhital, Sushil; Dabit, Laura; Zhang, Bin; Flanagan, Bernadine; Shrestha, Ashok K

2015-04-01

101

EFFECTS OF UV-B AND GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON RICE RESEARCH PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Little is currently known about the response of rice plants to UV-B radiation, enriched CO2, or elevated temperature. ven less is known about the responses of important rice ecosystem components (pests, pathogens, weeds, nitrogen fixation, methanogenesis) to these factors. o accu...

102

MANAGING TROPICAL RICE PESTS THROUGH CONSERVATION OF GENERALIST NATURAL ENEMIES AND ALTERNATIVE PREY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of tropical Asian rice, which may have originated 9000 yr ago, represents an agricultural ecosystem of unrivaled ecological complexity. We undertook a study of the community ecology of irrigated tropical rice fields on Java, Indonesia, as a supporting study for the Indonesian National Integrated Pest Management Programme, whose purpose is to train farmers to be better agronomists and

WILLIAM H. SETTLE; HARTIAHYO ARIAWAN; ARIEF LUKMAN HAKIM; DADAN HINDAYANA; SRI LESTARI

1996-01-01

103

Wetland rice soils as sources and sinks of methane: a review and prospects for research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice paddies are an important human-made ecosystem for the global CH4 budget. CH4, which is produced in the predominantly anaerobic bulk soil layers, is oxidized significantly before it reaches the atmosphere.\\u000a Roots of rice, in addition to supporting the consumption of CH4, contribute to the total CH4 production in the soil. The various controls of CH4 emission from this ecosystem

S. Kumaraswamy; Arun Kumar Rath; B. Ramakrishnan; N. Sethunathan

2000-01-01

104

Leadership Rice Leadership Rice exists to encourage and equip Rice students to obtain significant  

E-print Network

206 Leadership Rice Leadership Rice exists to encourage and equip Rice students to obtain significant leadership roles at Rice and beyond. We provide leadership development opportunities capacity and strongest ambition for significant leadership. We seek to accomplish our mission through

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

105

Application of Genomics for Molecular Breeding in Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is arguably the most important food crop of the world and due to its small genome size compared to other major cereals,\\u000a rice was selected as model crop species for decoding of its full genome. The international rice genome sequencing project\\u000a (IRGSP), a consortium of laboratories from ten different countries, has generated a very high quality map based sequence

Nagendra K. Singh; Trilochan Mohapatra

106

Direct and reverse pollen-mediated gene flow between GM rice and red rice weed  

PubMed Central

Potential risks of genetically modified (GM) crops must be identified before their commercialization, as happens with all new technologies. One of the major concerns is the proper risk assessment of adventitious presence of transgenic material in rice fields due to cross-pollination. Several studies have been conducted in order to quantify pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) to both conventional rice and red rice weed (O. sativa f. spontanea) under field conditions. Some of these studies reported GM pollen-donor rice transferring GM traits to red rice. However, gene flow also occurs in the opposite direction, in a phenomenon that we have called reverse gene flow, resulting in transgenic seeds that have incorporated the traits of wild red rice. We quantified reverse gene flow using material from two field trials. A molecular analysis based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms was carried out, being complemented with a phenotypic identification of red rice traits. In both field trials, the reverse gene flow detected was greater than the direct gene flow. The rate of direct gene flow varied according to the relative proportions of the donor (GM rice) and receptor (red rice) plants and was influenced by wind direction. The ecological impact of reverse gene flow is limited in comparison with that of direct gene flow because non-shattered and non-dormant seeds would be obtained in the first generation. Hybrid seed would remain in the spike and therefore most of it would be removed during harvesting. Nevertheless, this phenomenon must be considered in fields used for elite seed production and in developing countries where farmers often keep some seed for planting the following year. In these cases, there is a higher risk of GM red rice weed infestation increasing from year to year and therefore a proper monitoring plan needs to be established.

Serrat, X.; Esteban, R.; Peñas, G.; Català, M. M.; Melé, E.; Messeguer, J.

2013-01-01

107

Texas Rice Production Guidelines  

E-print Network

This publication gives Texas rice farmers the latest research-based information about producing rice in Texas. Recommendations are based on research conducted by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA....

Way, M. O.; Cockrell, Jay

2008-03-11

108

Plant phenomics and high-throughput phenotyping: accelerating rice functional genomics using multidisciplinary technologies.  

PubMed

The functional analysis of the rice genome has entered into a high-throughput stage, and a project named RICE2020 has been proposed to determine the function of every gene in the rice genome by the year 2020. However, as compared with the robustness of genetic techniques, the evaluation of rice phenotypic traits is still performed manually, and the process is subjective, inefficient, destructive and error-prone. To overcome these limitations and help rice phenomics more closely parallel rice genomics, reliable, automatic, multifunctional, and high-throughput phenotyping platforms should be developed. In this article, we discuss the key plant phenotyping technologies, particularly photonics-based technologies, and then introduce their current applications in rice (wheat or barley) phenomics. We also note the major challenges in rice phenomics and are confident that these reliable high-throughput phenotyping tools will give plant scientists new perspectives on the information encoded in the rice genome. PMID:23578473

Yang, Wanneng; Duan, Lingfeng; Chen, Guoxing; Xiong, Lizhong; Liu, Qian

2013-05-01

109

ECOSYSTEM HEALTH: ENERGY INDICATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

1. Ecosystem Health and Ecological Integrity 2. Historical Background on Ecosystem Health 3. Energy Systems Analysis, Health and Emergy 4. Energy and Ecosystems 5. Direct Measures of Ecosystem Health 6. Indirect Measures of Ecosystem Health...

110

Arctic Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite seemingly inhospitable conditions, the Arctic environment has a vibrant and diverse ecosystem. Explore the life that thrives in this region in this interactive activity adapted from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

2008-01-17

111

Antarctic Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In contrast with its largely lifeless interior, the Antarctic coastal marine environment supports a vibrant and diverse ecosystem. Explore the region's living bounty in this interactive activity adapted from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

2008-01-17

112

Ecosystem Valuation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as a collaborative project of the US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service, US Department of Commerce, NOAA-Sea Grant Office, and University of Maryland, Center for Environmental Science, this new Website examines how economists attempt to assign values to ecosystem services. The site is well organized and outlines general and specific topics under the following sections: The Big Picture, Essentials of Ecosystem Valuation, Dollar-based Ecosystem Valuation Methods, Ecosystem Benefit Indicators, and Links. Topics are explained in terms that laypersons will understand (a glossary is also provided) but without compromising the quality of information. Anyone interested in learning more about this controversial but increasingly important area will find this site an excellent starting point.

113

Ecosystem Journalism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Third-grade students display their understanding of life science concepts by creating an imaginative newspaper. This creative writing project engages students in researching, writing, and editing a newspaper based on a prairie ecosystem.

Robertson, Amy; Mahlin, Kathryn

2005-11-01

114

The Recursion . . . Extended Rice . . .  

E-print Network

The Recursion . . . Extended Rice . . . Creative and . . . Home Page Title Page Page 388 of 405 Go . . . Extended Rice . . . Creative and . . . Home Page Title Page Page 389 of 405 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Rice . . . Creative and . . . Home Page Title Page Page 390 of 405 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit

Gallier, Jean

115

RICE UNIVERSITY Houston, Texas  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY Houston, Texas Hierarchical Attribute Grammars: Dialects, Applications and Evaluation Algorithms by Alan Carle carle@cs.rice.edu A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy May, 1992 Rice University Department of Computer Science

Pentus, Mati

116

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine ecosystem introduction to shorelines, temperate oceans, and tropical oceans. Shoreline topics cover sandy and rocky shores, barrier islands, tide pools, estuaries, salt marshes, mud flats, mangrove forests, tides, waves, currents, and shoreline animals. Students can learn about temperate ocean zonation, light, forests, patterns, and animals. The tropical oceans chapter features coral reefs and tropical ocean animals. This site would provide a comprehensive introduction for a marine ecosystems or an ocean science unit.

117

Development of drought-resistant cultivars using physiomorphological traits in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought is a major problem for rice grown under rainfed lowland and upland conditions, but progress in breeding to improve drought resistance has been slow. This paper describes patterns of water-stress development in rice fields, reviews genetic variation in physio-morphological traits for drought resistance in rice, and suggests how knowledge of stress physiology can contribute to plant breeding programmes that

S. Fukai; M. Cooper

1995-01-01

118

Speciation And Distribution Of Arsenic And Localization Of Nutrients In Rice Grains  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic (As) contamination of rice grains and the generally low concentration of micronutrients in rice have been recognized as a major concern for human health. Here, we investigated the speciation and localization of As and the distribution of (micro)nutrients in rice grains b...

119

The effect of induced yellowing on the physicochemical properties of specialty rices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Postharvest yellowing of rice kernels, commonly referred to as stackburn or heat damage, can be a major problem in the rice industry. This is especially true with high-valued specialty rice because the discolored grains are removed prior to packaging resulting in a greater profit loss. Specialty r...

120

Early screening of recombinant inbred lines for fissure resistance in non-semidwarf rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) kernel fissuring poses a major problem for both rice farmers and millers. It results in the decreased value of milled rice because of the increase in the percentage of broken kernels associated with fissuring. This study employs the use of fine mapping to increase the genetic ...

121

Rice Trade Policies and Their Implications for Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a strong linkage between the behavior of the rice market and the state of food security in many regions around the world, particularly in Asia, as made evident in the 2007-08 commodity crisis. Rice is a staple for the majority of the population in Asia, where roughly 60% of the close to one billion undernourished people live (FAO,

Alvaro Durand-Morat; Eric J. Wailes

2011-01-01

122

RICE GERMPLASM CHARACTERIZED FOR R-GENES AND POPULATION STRUCTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the USA, newly introduced rice germplasm is one source of novel resistance genes to blast, Magnaporthe grisea, and sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani, major fungal diseases of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa). Resistance to U.S. blast races was observed in 91 of approximately 1,000 newly introduced ...

123

Solid Phase Extraction of Bismuth and Chromium by Rice Husk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major agricultural waste, rice husk and its ash were used for the preconcentration and separation of bismuth and chromium prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and their sorption properties with respect to bismuth and chromium from water samples were investigated. For this purpose, rice husk was thermally treated at 300°C for one hour and 600°C

Yasemin Bakircioglu; Dilek Bakircioglu; Suleyman Akman

2003-01-01

124

EVALUATING RICE WILDE RELATIVES (ORYZA SPP.) FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice wild relatives (Oryza spp.) are an important source of novel pest resistance genes, as well as tolerance to abiotic stresses and yield enhancing traits. Rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and leaf blast, Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Herbert) Yaegashi & Udagawa, are major fungal d...

125

Genetic markers reveal novel genes which control rice cooking quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice molecular markers have been developed in the gene (Waxy) that controls grain amylose content and the gene (Alk) that controls alkali spreading value. Both of these factors are considered the major determinants of rice cooking quality and texture. This set of markers is now being routinely used...

126

Microsatellite markers reveal multiple origins for Italian weedy rice  

PubMed Central

Weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major issues of rice cultivation worldwide. In Italy, it infests about 70% of the total rice area. Different Weedy Rice populations can be distinguished based on variable morphological and physiological traits; however, little is known about genetic differentiation and origin of Italian weedy rice populations. The objective of this study was to genetically and morphologically characterize and compare different Italian weedy rice populations selected on the basis of different phenotypes. The main Italian rice territory was divided into 10 geographical areas in which 40 weedy rice populations were collected and grouped according to the awn traits. All the individuals of the populations were morphologically characterized according to plant and seed traits. Genetic characterization was performed using 19 SSR markers on all the collected accessions, and several rice cultivars, including some very old (late 19th century), nowadays are no longer cultivated. ANOVA showed that morphological plant and seed traits were significantly affected by the collection area and awnedness group. The importance of the awn morphology was also reflected in the Bayesian clustering where, despite a relatively low genetic diversity, the clusters displayed different awn types. An UPGMA dendrogram confirmed the clusters detected in STRUCTURE analysis and also revealed a grouping of certain old cultivars with the weedy rice, suggesting a common origin. PMID:24363904

Grimm, Annabelle; Fogliatto, Silvia; Nick, Peter; Ferrero, Aldo; Vidotto, Francesco

2013-01-01

127

Rice consumption in China  

E-print Network

annually. China. 's grain trade can be characterized as the exchange of high-priced Chinese rice for lower-priced foreign wheat (The world Bank ). Table 6. RURAL PER CAPITA GRAIN CONSUMPTION BY PROVINCE, CHINA Province 1982 Grain Type Rice Wheat.... s about 90 kg. of rice, which was quite high when compared with 3 or 4 kg. in the U. S. There is a trend in Asian rice consuming countries that with increasing income, people consume more substitutes for rice. This pattern also appeared in China...

Lan, Jin

2012-06-07

128

Ethnobotanical investigation of 'wild' food plants used by rice farmers in Kalasin, Northeast Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background Wild food plants are a critical component in the subsistence system of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand. One of the important characteristics of wild plant foods among farming households is that the main collection locations are increasingly from anthropogenic ecosystems such as agricultural areas rather than pristine ecosystems. This paper provides selected results from a study of wild food conducted in several villages in Northeast Thailand. A complete botanical inventory of wild food plants from these communities and surrounding areas is provided including their diversity of growth forms, the different anthropogenic locations were these species grow and the multiplicity of uses they have. Methods Data was collected using focus groups and key informant interviews with women locally recognized as knowledgeable about contemporarily gathered plants. Plant species were identified by local taxonomists. Results A total of 87 wild food plants, belonging to 47 families were reported, mainly trees, herbs (terrestrial and aquatic) and climbers. Rice fields constitute the most important growth location where 70% of the plants are found, followed by secondary woody areas and home gardens. The majority of species (80%) can be found in multiple growth locations, which is partly explained by villagers moving selected species from one place to another and engaging in different degrees of management. Wild food plants have multiple edible parts varying from reproductive structures to vegetative organs. More than two thirds of species are reported as having diverse additional uses and more than half of them are also regarded as medicine. Conclusions This study shows the remarkable importance of anthropogenic areas in providing wild food plants. This is reflected in the great diversity of species found, contributing to the food and nutritional security of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand. PMID:22067578

2011-01-01

129

Perceptions about varieties of brown rice: a qualitative study from Southern India.  

PubMed

Consumption of whole grains, such as brown rice, compared to white rice can decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This qualitative study conducted in 2009 sought to identify factors that can act as barriers to or promote acceptance of brown rice as a staple food among South Indian adults (n=65). Using purposeful sampling, eight focus groups were conducted among adults with normal body mass index and adults who were overweight, aged 24 to 47 years, living in slum and non-slum sites in Chennai, a city in Southern India. These focus groups, conducted in Tamil, the local language of Chennai, were homogenous by sex. The focus groups were audiotaped after obtaining consent. Results were transcribed and coded according to four major themes that emerged during the focus group discussions, including culture and dietary practices, factors influencing rice preferences, awareness and perceptions of brown rice, and barriers to and factors influencing acceptance of brown rice. Overall, the majority of participants favored eating rice and rice-based foods. Tradition largely dictated the specific form of rice that people consumed. Awareness about the nutritive properties of brown rice was poor and was cited as a major barrier to its acceptance. In addition, participants tended to consider cooked rice that was neither white nor long-grained to be inferior. However, they believed that although convincing people to switch to brown rice would be a slow process, promoting its healthful benefits could serve to popularize it. PMID:21963018

Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Sudha, Vasudevan; Wedick, Nicole M; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B; Spiegelman, Donna; Mohan, Viswanathan

2011-10-01

130

Coastal Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) report by the Western Ecological Research Center (WERC) highlights Pacific Ocean coastal ecosystems. The website outlines WERC studies that are providing insight into how coastal ecosystems function. The role of sea otters in coastal environments, white abalone (snail) reintroduction, the effects of invasive plants and animals, urban activity, industrial and agricultural pollutants, San Francisco Bay reclamation, population growth, and migratory birds are all investigated in these studies. Fact sheets about certain areas of research are provided for further information.

131

Desert Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Desert Ecosystems site describes the geology and climate, plants and animals, and cultural history of the main U.S. desert regions including: the Mojave Desert, the Great Basin, and the Colorado/Sonoran desert. There are also descriptions and photos of water in the desert, coyotes, the desert tortoise, and the creosote bush.

132

Digital Ecosystems: Ecosystem-Oriented Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We view Digital Ecosystems to be the digital counterparts of biological ecosystems. Here, we are concerned with the creation\\u000a of these Digital Ecosystems, exploiting the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems to evolve high-level software\\u000a applications. Therefore, we created the Digital Ecosystem, a novel optimisation technique inspired by biological ecosystems,\\u000a where the optimisation works at two levels: a first optimisation, migration

Gerard Briscoe; Suzanne Sadedin; Philippe De Wilde

2011-01-01

133

The Impact of Herbicide-Resistant Rice Technology on Phenotypic Diversity and Population Structure of United States Weedy Rice1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. PMID:25122473

Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D.; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E.; Gealy, David R.; Caicedo, Ana L.

2014-01-01

134

Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, ?-oryzanol, and phytic acid  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, ?-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of ?-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice. PMID:24804068

Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

2014-01-01

135

Fat-soluble bioactive components in colored rice varieties.  

PubMed

Bioactive components in rice vary depending on the variety and growing condition. Fat-soluble components such as ?-oryzanol, tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, and fatty acids were analyzed in brown, sugary brown, red, and black rice varieties using established high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC methodologies. In addition, these colored rice varieties were further analyzed using a high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (LTQ-Orbitrap XL) to identify the [M-H](-) ions of ?-oryzanol, ranging from m/z 573.3949 to 617.4211. The highest content of tocopherols (?-, 1.5; ?-, 0.5?mg/100?g) and carotenoids (lutein 244; trans-? carotene 25 ?g/100?g) were observed in black rice; tocotrienols (?-, 0.07; ?-, 0.14?mg/100?g) in red rice, and ?-oryzanol (115?mg/100?g) in sugary brown rice. In all colored rice varieties, the major fatty acids were palmitic (16:0), oleic (18:1n-9), and linoleic (18:2n-6) acids. When the ?-oryzanol components were further analyzed by LC-MS/MS, 3, 10, 8, and 8 triterpene alcohols or sterol ferulates were identified in brown, sugary brown, red, and black rice varieties, respectively. Such structural identification can lead to the elucidation of biological function of each component at the molecular level. Consumption of colored rice rich in beneficial bioactive compounds may be a useful dietary strategy for achieving optimal health. PMID:25162990

Minatel, Igor Otavio; Han, Sang-Ik; Aldini, Giancarlo; Colzani, Mara; Matthan, Nirupa R; Correa, Camila Renata; Fecchio, Denise; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

2014-10-01

136

Biology and epidemiology of rice viruses.  

PubMed

The 15 known viruses that occur in rice are rice black-streaked dwarf, rice bunchy stunt, rice dwarf, rice gall dwarf, rice giallume, rice grassy stunt, rice hoja blanca, rice necrosis mosaic, rice ragged stunt, rice stripe necrosis, rice stripe, rice transitory yellowing, rice tungro bacilliform, rice tungro spherical, and rice yellow mottle viruses. This paper describes their geographical distribution, relation to vectors, infection cycles, field dispersal, and development, and lists recorded outbreaks of the viruses. Many rice viruses have become serious problems since rice cultivation has been intensified. Double-cropping of rice using improved, photo-insensitive cultivars of short growth duration has significantly influenced the incidence of these viruses. PMID:15012543

Hibino, H

1996-01-01

137

Long-Term Ecosystem Response to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill  

E-print Network

Long-Term Ecosystem Response to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Charles H. Peterson,1 * Stanley D. Rice The ecosystem response to the 1989 spill of oil from the Exxon Valdez into Prince William Sound, Alaska, shows long-term risks and impacts. B efore the Exxon Valdez oil spill, infor- mation available

138

EFFECTS OF OIL ON MARINE ECOSYSTEMS: A REVIEW FOR ADMINISTRATORS AND POLICY MAKERS  

E-print Network

of operation of the pipeline marine terminal facilities at Port Valdez, Alaska, and the transshipment of crudeEFFECTS OF OIL ON MARINE ECOSYSTEMS: A REVIEW FOR ADMINISTRATORS AND POLICY MAKERS DALE R. EVANS1 AND STANLEY D. RICE2 ABSTRACT A broad selection of recent literature on the effects ofoil on marine ecosystems

139

The Vehicle Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

Kuschel, Jonas

140

Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.  

PubMed

Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. PMID:24433791

Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

2014-02-01

141

Phospholipids in rice: significance in grain quality and health benefits: a review.  

PubMed

Phospholipids (PLs) are a major class of lipid in rice grain. Although PLs are only a minor nutrient compared to starch and protein, they may have both nutritional and functional significance. We have systemically reviewed the literature on the class, distribution and variation of PLs in rice, their relation to rice end-use quality and human health, as well as available methods for analytical profiling. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and their lyso forms are the major PLs in rice. The deterioration of PC in rice bran during storage was considered as a trigger for the degradation of rice lipids with associated rancid flavour in paddy and brown rice. The lyso forms in rice endosperm represent the major starch lipid, and may form inclusion complexes with amylose, affecting the physicochemical properties and digestibility of starch, and hence its cooking and eating quality. Dietary PLs have a positive impact on several human diseases and reduce the side-effects of some drugs. As rice has long been consumed as a staple food in many Asian countries, rice PLs may have significant health benefits for those populations. Rice PLs may be influenced both by genetic (G) and environmental (E) factors, and resolving G×E interactions may allow future exploitation of PL composition and content, thus boosting rice eating quality and health benefits for consumers. We have identified and summarised the different methods used for rice PL analysis, and discussed the consequences of variation in reported PL values due to inconsistencies between methods. This review enhances the understanding of the nature and importance of PLs in rice and outlines potential approaches for manipulating PLs to improve the quality of rice grain and other cereals. PMID:23561219

Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Bao, Jinsong; King, Graham J

2013-08-15

142

Global efforts in managing rice blast disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major destructive disease threatening global food security. Resistance (R) genes to M. oryzae are effective in preventing infections by strains of M. oryzae carry the corresponding avirulence (AVR) genes. Effectiveness of genetic resist...

143

Isozymes and classification of Asian rice varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzyme variation detected by starch gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the genetic structure of Oryza sativa L. species. Fifteen polymorphic loci coding for 8 enzymes were surveyed among 1688 traditional rices from Asia. Multivariate analysis of the data resulted in identification of six varietal groups, with two major ones, groups I and VI, two minor ones, groups II and

J. C. Glaszmann

1987-01-01

144

Use of Amphibians as Indicators of Ecosystem Restoration Success1  

E-print Network

CIR 1484 Use of Amphibians as Indicators of Ecosystem Restoration Success1 Ken G. Rice, Frank J. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension. Introduction There are 18 native amphibians in southern Florida (Figures 2 and 5). Amphibians are found in virtually all habitats from pine forests to sawgrass

Mazzotti, Frank

145

Rice Cluster I, an Important Group of Archaea Producing Methane in Rice Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice fields are an important source for the greenhouse gas methane. Methane is a major degradation product of organic matter in the anoxic soil, is partially oxidized in the rhizosphere and is emitted into the atmosphere through the aerenchyma system of the plants. Anaerobic degradation of organic matter by fermenting bacteria eventually results in the production of acetate and hydrogen, the two major substrates for microbial methanogenesis. The community of methanogenic archaea consists of several major orders or families including hydrogen-utilizing Rice Cluster-I (RC-I). Environmental conditions affect the methanogenic degradation process and the community structure of the methanogenic archaea in soil and rhizosphere. For example, populations of acetoclastic Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae are enhanced by low and high acetate concentrations, respectively. Stable isotope probing of 16S rRNA showed that RC-I methanogens are mainly active on rice roots and at low H2 concentrations. Growth and population size is largely consistent with energetic conditions. RC-I methanogens on roots seem to be responsible for methane production from plant photosynthates that account for a major part of the emitted methane. Populations of RC-I methanogens in rice field soil are also enhanced at elevated temperatures (40-50°C). Moderately thermophilic members of RC-I methanogens or other methanogenic families were found to be ubiquitously present in soils from rice fields and river marshes. The genome of a RC-I methanogen was completely sequenced out of an enrichment culture using a metagenome approach. Genes found are consistent with life in the rhizosphere and in temporarily drained, oxic soil. We found that the methanogenic community structure on the rice roots is mainly determined by the respective community structure of the soil, but is in addition affected by the rice cultivar. Rice microcosms in which soil and rice roots are mainly colonized by RC-I methanogens produce and emit more methane than when inhabited by Methanomicrobiales, indicating that the methanogenic archaeal community is an important factor for methane emission from rice fields.

Conrad, R.

2006-12-01

146

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine ecosystem that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

147

EXIT INTERVIEW SUMMARY FORM Life after Rice...  

E-print Network

1 EXIT INTERVIEW SUMMARY FORM Life after Rice... Rice ID: _____________________ * Medical benefits - Your Rice medical benefits will end on: __________________________ * Vesting in the 401(a) Rice. * Rice retiree - If you qualify as a Rice retiree, in accordance with the Rice University Human Resources

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

148

The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade.  

SciTech Connect

The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S. (Stuart); Bjorklund, E. A. (Eric A.); Burns, M. J. (Mary J.); Carr, G. (Gary); Carr, G. (Gary); Faucett, John Allen,; Hayden, D. J. (David J.); Lusk, M. D. (Matthew D.); Merl, R. B. (Robert B.); Potter, J. M. (Jerry M.); Reynolds, J. A. (Jerome A.); Romero, D. B. (Dolores B.); Shelley, F. E. (Fred E.)

2003-01-01

149

The LANSCE RICE Control System Upgrade.  

SciTech Connect

The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960’s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proofof- principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

Oothoudt, Michael; Bjorklund, Eric; Burns, Mary; Carr, Gary; Faucett, John; Hayden, David; Lusk, Matthew; Merl, Robert; Potter, Jerry; Reynolds, Jerome; Romero, Dolores

2003-04-24

150

Identification of rice blast resistant gene Pi-z(t) in NSGC using DNA markers and pathogenicity assays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast disease, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (formerly Magnaporthe grisea) is a major fungal disease threatening rice production worldwide. Genetic resistance in rice to M. oryzae typically belongs to a classic gene-for-gene system where a resistance (R) gene is effective in preventin...

151

Rice bran: a novel functional ingredient.  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East and South Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It provides more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human. It is the second leading cereal crop and staple food of half of the world's population. It is grown in at least 114 countries with global production of 645 million tons; share of Asian farmers is about 90% of the total produce. Rice bran, brown outer layer of rice kernel, is mainly composed of pericarp, aleurone, subaleurone layer, and germ. It contains appreciable quantities of nutrients like protein, fat, and dietary fiber. Furthermore, it contains substantial amount of minerals like K, Ca, Mg, and Fe. Presence of antioxidants like tocopherols, tocotrienols, and ?-oryzanol also brighten prospects of rice bran utilization for humans as functional ingredient to mitigate the life-threatening disorders. Moreover, in the developing countries, budding dilemma of food crisis, arising due to lower crop yields and escalating population, needs to utilize each pent of available resources. To provide enough food to all people, there is the holistic approach of using the by-products generated during food processing and preparations. Rice is being processed in well-established industry, but the major apprehension is the utilization of its by-products; rice bran (5-8%) and polishing (2-3%) that are going as waste. Rice processing or milling produces several streams of materials including milled rice, bran, and husk. In developing countries, rice bran is considered as a by-product of the milling process and commonly used in animal feed or discarded as a waste. The potential of producing rice bran at the global level is 29.3 million tons annually, whereas the share of Pakistan is worked out to be 0.5 million tons. In present paper, attempt has been made to highlight the significance of these valuable but neglected ingredients under various headings. PMID:24345050

Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Saima Hafiz

2014-01-01

152

Spanish Rice Ingredients  

E-print Network

Spanish Rice Ingredients: 2 cups brown rice, cooked Vegetable oil spray 1 onion 1 cup salsa skillet to medium. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across

Liskiewicz, Maciej

153

Genetic control of inflorescence architecture during rice domestication  

PubMed Central

Inflorescence architecture is a key agronomical factor determining grain yield, and thus has been a major target of cereal crop domestication. Transition from a spread panicle typical of ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to the compact panicle of present cultivars (O. sativa L.) was a crucial event in rice domestication. Here we show that the spread panicle architecture of wild rice is controlled by a dominant gene, OsLG1, a previously reported SBP-domain transcription factor that controls rice ligule development. Association analysis indicates that a single-nucleotide polymorphism-6 in the OsLG1 regulatory region led to a compact panicle architecture in cultivars during rice domestication. We speculate that the cis-regulatory mutation can fine-tune the spatial expression of the target gene, and that selection of cis-regulatory mutations might be an efficient strategy for crop domestication. PMID:23884108

Zhu, Zuofeng; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Liu, Fengxia; Cai, Hongwei; Xie, Daoxin; Wu, Feng; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sun, Chuanqing

2013-01-01

154

Kernel elongation in rice.  

PubMed

Kernel elongation after cooking is an important character of fine rice and most rice consumers prefer length-wise elongation. Although improvement of aromatic rice began early in the 1970s, until now the mechanisms and genetics of kernel elongation has remained unrevealed. Kernel elongation is considered as a physical phenomenon and is influenced by several physicochemical and genetic factors, including genotypes, aging temperature, aging time, water uptake, amylose content and gelatinization temperature. Recently the complete genetic map of fine rice has been created and the gene responsible for kernel length identified; moreover, this gene is tightly linked with the cooked kernel elongation trait. Several molecular markers linked with cooked kernel elongation have been developed. These tools will be helpful for the improvement of this important trait. For the proper study of cooked kernel elongation of rice, this review paper will provide the basis and directional materials for further studies. PMID:23238771

Golam, Faruq; Prodhan, Zakaria H

2013-02-01

155

Bioengineering nitrogen acquisition in rice  

E-print Network

Bioengineering nitrogen acquisition in rice: can novel initiatives in rice genomics and physiology contribute to global food security? Dev T. Britto and Herbert J. Kronzucker* Summary Rice is the most and expansion of arable land have massively increased global rice production, enabling crop scientists

Britto, Dev T.

156

Soil respiration, labile carbon pools, and enzyme activities as affected by tillage practices in a tropical rice-maize-cowpea cropping system.  

PubMed

In order to identify the viable option of tillage practices in rice-maize-cowpea cropping system that could cut down soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, sustain grain yield, and maintain better soil quality in tropical low land rice ecology soil respiration in terms of CO2 emission, labile carbon (C) pools, water-stable aggregate C fractions, and enzymatic activities were investigated in a sandy clay loam soil. Soil respiration is the major pathway of gaseous C efflux from terrestrial systems and acts as an important index of ecosystem functioning. The CO2-C emissions were quantified in between plants and rows throughout the year in rice-maize-cowpea cropping sequence both under conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) practices along with soil moisture and temperature. The CO2-C emissions, as a whole, were 24 % higher in between plants than in rows, and were in the range of 23.4-78.1, 37.1-128.1, and 28.6-101.2 mg m(-2) h(-1) under CT and 10.7-60.3, 17.3-99.1, and 17.2-79.1 mg m(-2) h(-1) under MT in rice, maize, and cowpea, respectively. The CO2-C emission was found highest under maize (44 %) followed by rice (33 %) and cowpea (23 %) irrespective of CT and MT practices. In CT system, the CO2-C emission increased significantly by 37.1 % with respect to MT on cumulative annual basis including fallow. The CO2-C emission per unit yield was at par in rice and cowpea signifying the beneficial effect of MT in maintaining soil quality and reduction of CO2 emission. The microbial biomass C (MBC), readily mineralizable C (RMC), water-soluble C (WSC), and permanganate-oxidizable C (PMOC) were 19.4, 20.4, 39.5, and 15.1 % higher under MT than CT. The C contents in soil aggregate fraction were significantly higher in MT than CT. Soil enzymatic activities like, dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate, and ?-glucosidase were significantly higher by 13.8, 15.4, and 27.4 % under MT compared to CT. The soil labile C pools, enzymatic activities, and heterotrophic microbial populations were in the order of maize?>?cowpea?>?rice, irrespective of the tillage treatments. Environmental sustainability point of view, minimum tillage practices in rice-maize-cowpea cropping system in tropical low land soil could be adopted to minimize CO2-C emission, sustain yield, and maintain soil health. PMID:24609455

Neogi, S; Bhattacharyya, P; Roy, K S; Panda, B B; Nayak, A K; Rao, K S; Manna, M C

2014-07-01

157

RNAi suppression of rice endogenous storage proteins enhances the production of rice-based Botulinum neutrotoxin type A vaccine.  

PubMed

Mucosal vaccines based on rice (MucoRice) offer a highly practical and cost-effective strategy for vaccinating large populations against mucosal infections. However, the limitation of low expression and yield of vaccine antigens with high molecular weight remains to be overcome. Here, we introduced RNAi technology to advance the MucoRice system by co-introducing antisense sequences specific for genes encoding endogenous rice storage proteins to minimize storage protein production and allow more space for the accumulation of vaccine antigen in rice seed. When we used RNAi suppression of a combination of major rice endogenous storage proteins, 13 kDa prolamin and glutelin A in a T-DNA vector, we could highly express a vaccine comprising the 45 kDa C-terminal half of the heavy chain of botulinum type A neurotoxin (BoHc), at an average of 100 ?g per seed (MucoRice-BoHc). The MucoRice-Hc was water soluble, and was expressed in the cytoplasm but not in protein body I or II of rice seeds. Thus, our adaptation of the RNAi system improved the yield of a vaccine antigen with a high molecular weight. When the mucosal immunogenicity of the purified MucoRice-BoHc was examined, the vaccine induced protective immunity against a challenge with botulinum type A neurotoxin in mice. These findings demonstrate the efficiency and utility of the advanced MucoRice system as an innovative vaccine production system for generating highly immunogenic mucosal vaccines of high-molecular-weight antigens. PMID:22554467

Yuki, Yoshikazu; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Hiroiwa, Tomoko; Kong, Il Gyu; Kuroda, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoko; Nochi, Tomonori; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kohda, Tomoko; Kozaki, Shunji; Kiyono, Hiroshi

2012-06-13

158

Biofortification of rice with lysine using endogenous histones.  

PubMed

Rice is the most consumed cereal grain in the world, but deficient in the essential amino acid lysine. Therefore, people in developing countries with limited food diversity who rely on rice as their major food source may suffer from malnutrition. Biofortification of stable crops by genetic engineering provides a fast and sustainable method to solve this problem. In this study, two endogenous rice lysine-rich histone proteins, RLRH1 and RLRH2, were over-expressed in rice seeds to achieve lysine biofortification. Their protein sequences passed an allergic sequence-based homology test. Their accumulations in rice seeds were raised to a moderate level by the use of a modified rice glutelin 1 promoter with lowered expression strength to avoid the occurrence of physiological abnormalities like unfolded protein response. The expressed proteins were further targeted to protein storage vacuoles for stable storage using a glutelin 1 signal peptide. The lysine content in the transgenic rice seeds was enhanced by up to 35 %, while other essential amino acids remained balanced, meeting the nutritional standards of the World Health Organization. No obvious unfolded protein response was detected. Different degrees of chalkiness, however, were detected in the transgenic seeds, and were positively correlated with both the levels of accumulated protein and lysine enhancement. This study offered a solution to the lysine deficiency in rice, while at the same time addressing concerns about food safety and physiological abnormalities in biofortified crops. PMID:25512028

Wong, H W; Liu, Q; Sun, S S M

2015-02-01

159

Progress studies of drought-responsive genes in rice.  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa L.), one of the most agronomically important crops, supplies staple food for more than half of the world's population, especially those living in developing countries. The intensively increasing world population has put a great burden on rice production. Drought as one of the major limiting factors for rice productivity has challenged researchers to improve both the water management system and rice characteristics. Biotechnology has assisted researchers to identify genes that are responsive toward drought. This review consolidates the recent studies that expose a number of drought-responsive genes in rice, which are potential candidates for development of improved drought-tolerant transgenic rice cultivars. In addition, examples are provided of how various drought-responsive genes, such as transcription factor and protein kinase encoding genes, were explored to engineer rice plants for enhanced drought tolerance using transgenic approach. Furthermore, the involvement of various phytohormones in regulation of drought response as well as the complexity of drought-responsive networks, which is indicated by the crosstalks with other stress-responsive networks such as cold and salt stresses, will be discussed. It is hoped that by understanding how rice responds to drought, crop performance can be stabilized and protected under water deficit conditions. PMID:21132431

Hadiarto, Toto; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

2011-03-01

160

Leadership Rice Leadership Rice exists to encourage and equip Rice students to obtain  

E-print Network

Leadership Rice Leadership Rice exists to encourage and equip Rice students to obtain leadership roles at Rice and beyond. We provide leadership development opportunities to undergraduates from every ambition for leadership. We seek to accomplish our mission through a blend of curricular and co

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

161

Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership Rice is to help Rice University undergraduates from  

E-print Network

189 Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership Rice is to help Rice University undergraduates from all disciplines build their leadership capacities to create and manage change ef- fectively. Leadership Rice explores how heart and mind, theory and practice, and ideas and actions come together

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

162

Introducing non-flooded crops in rice-dominated landscapes: Impact on carbon, nitrogen and water budgets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice production consumes about 30% of all freshwater used worldwide and 45% in Asia. Turning away from permanently flooded rice cropping systems for mitigating future water scarcity and reducing methane emissions, however, will alter a variety of ecosystem services with potential adverse effects to both the environment and agricultural production. Moreover, implementing systems that alternate between flooded and non-flooded crops increases the risk of disruptive effects. The multi-disciplinary DFG research unit ICON aims at exploring and quantifying the ecological consequences of altered water regimes (flooded vs. non-flooded), crop diversification (irrigated rice vs. aerobic rice vs. maize), and different fertilization strategies (conventional, site-specific, and zero N fertilization). ICON particularly focuses on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen, green-house gas (GHG) emissions, water balance, soil biotic processes and other important ecosystem services. The overarching goal is to provide the basic process understanding that is necessary for balancing the revenues and environmental impacts of high-yield rice cropping systems while maintaining their vital ecosystem services. To this aim, a large-scale field experiment has been established at the experimental farm of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, Philippines). Ultimately, the experimental results are analyzed in the context of management scenarios by an integrated modeling of crop development (ORYZA), carbon and nitrogen cycling (MoBiLE-DNDC), and water fluxes (CMF), providing the basis for developing pathways to a conversion of rice-based systems towards higher yield potentials under minimized environmental impacts. In our presentation, we demonstrate the set-up of the controlled large-scale field experiment for simultaneous assessment of carbon and nitrogen fluxes and water budgets. We show and discuss first results for: - Quantification and assessment of the net-fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 from rice-rice and rice-maize rotations. The conversion of flooded to non-flooded cropping systems resulted in pollution swapping of greenhouse gas emissions, shifting from CH4 under wet conditions to N2O under dry conditions. - Quantification and assessment of water budgets and nutrient loss in rice-rice and rice-maize rotations. Switching from rice-rice dominated growing systems to upland rice or maize-rice cropping systems resulted in reduced water use efficiency and increased nitrogen loss. - Quantification and assessment of soil functions affected by soil fauna community structure in flooded and non-flooded cropping rotations. In contrast to temperate soils, earthworms reduced the peaks of microbial C and N decomposition depending on soil water content.

Jauker, Frank; Wassmann, Reiner; Amelung, Wulf; Breuer, Lutz; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Conrad, Ralf; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Goldbach, Heiner; He, Yao; John, Katharina; Kiese, Ralf; Kraus, David; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Siemens, Jan; Weller, Sebastian; Wolters, Volkmar

2013-04-01

163

Monitoring rice cropping systems using China environment satellite data in Poyang Lake region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Threshold method was utilized to discriminate rice cropping systems based on the noticeable variation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during key growth stages in Poyang Lake Region, China. This area is dominated by double- and single rice cropping systems which tend to change due to the frequent ecosystem management policies. We used a new satellite data from the CCD camera sensor with 30 m spatial resolution onboard the China Environmental Satellite HJ-1A and B. The HJ -1A/B with a better temporal resolution of four days provides more data options for effective and timely agriculture monitoring. The result showed that there is evident difference of NDVI between single and late rice during mid October when they are in different growth stages. The areas of single and late rice in 2011 were 2988.6 km2 and 3105.9 km2, respectively. Paddy field distribution map and local paddy rice calendar are requisite to move the threshold method into other multiple rice cropping regions. The study suggests that the China Environmental Satellite HJ-1A/B have the potential to rice cropping system in the double to triple rice cropping systems area. With many advantages of HJ-1A/B, like, finer spatial and temporal resolution, bigger imaging swath, it may make rice cropping system monitoring more feasible and operational.

Li, Peng; Jiang, Luguang; Feng, Zhiming

164

PRESERVING BIODIVERSITY: SPECIES, ECOSYSTEMS, OR LANDSCAPES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to preserve biological diversity must focus increasingly at the ecosystem level because of the immense number of species, the majority of which are currently unknown. An ecosystem approach is also the only way to conserve processes and habitats (such as forest canopies, belowground habitats, and hyporheic zones) that, with their constituent species, are poorly known. Continued concern with species

JERRY F. FRANKLIN

1993-01-01

165

Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

166

The Belgian sandy beach ecosystem: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the available knowledge on sedimentology, hydrodynamics and five major ecosystem components (microphytobenthos, vascular plants, terrestrial arthropods, zoobenthos, and avifauna) of Belgian sandy beaches. It covers the area from the foredunes to the lower foreshore, takes an ecosystem approach to beaches of this specific geographic area. Morphodynamically, Bel- gian beaches are (ultra-)dissipative, macrotidal, and wide. Characteristic grain sizes

Jeroen Speybroeck; Dries Bonte; Wouter Courtens; Tom Gheskiere; Patrick Grootaert; Jean-Pierre Maelfait; Sam Provoost; Koen Sabbe; Eric W. M. Stienen; Vera Van Lancker; Wouter Van Landuyt; Magda Vincx; Steven Degraer

2008-01-01

167

ESRP approach to using final ecosystem services  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed the ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) as one of its major research efforts. The goal of this program is to create ?A comprehensive theory and practice for quantifying ecosystem services so that their value and their...

168

Modeling the rice phenology and production in China with SIMRIW: sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop models are robust tools for simulating the impact of climate change on rice development and production, but are usually designed for specific stations and varieties. This study focuses on a more adaptable model called Simulation Model for Rice-Weather Relations (SIMRIW). The model was calibrated and validated in major rice production regions over China, and the parameters that most affect the model's output were determined in sensitivity analyses. These sensitive parameters were estimated in different ecological zones. The simulated results of single and double rice cropping systems in different ecological zones were then compared. The accuracy of SIMRIW was found to depend on a few crucial parameters. Using optimized parameters, SIMRIW properly simulated the rice phenology and yield in single and double cropping systems in different ecological zones. Some of the parameters were largely dependent on ecological zone and rice type, and may reflect the different climate conditions and rice varieties among ecological zones.

Zhang, Shuai; Tao, Fulu; Shi, Runhe

2014-12-01

169

The Potential of Polarimetric and Compact SAR Data in Rice Identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice is a major food staple in the world, and provides food for more than one-third of the global population. The monitoring and mapping of paddy rice in a timely and efficient manner is very important for governments and decision makers. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been proved to be a significant data source in rice monitoring. In this study, RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data were used to simulate compact polarimetry data. The simulated compact data and polarimetric data were then used to evaluate the information content for rice identification. The results indicate that polarimetric SAR can be used for rice identification based on the scattering mechanisms. The compact polarization RH and the RH/RL ratio are very promising for the discrimination of transplanted rice and direct-sown rice. These results require verification in further research.

Shao, Y.; Li, K.; Brisco, B.; Liu, L.; Yang, Z.

2014-03-01

170

Modeling the rice phenology and production in China with SIMRIW: sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop models are robust tools for simulating the impact of climate change on rice development and production, but are usually designed for specific stations and varieties. This study focuses on a more adaptable model called Simulation Model for Rice-Weather Relations (SIMRIW). The model was calibrated and validated in major rice production regions over China, and the parameters that most affect the model's output were determined in sensitivity analyses. These sensitive parameters were estimated in different ecological zones. The simulated results of single and double rice cropping systems in different ecological zones were then compared. The accuracy of SIMRIW was found to depend on a few crucial parameters. Using optimized parameters, SIMRIW properly simulated the rice phenology and yield in single and double cropping systems in different ecological zones. Some of the parameters were largely dependent on ecological zone and rice type, and may reflect the different climate conditions and rice varieties among ecological zones.

Zhang, Shuai; Tao, Fulu; Shi, Runhe

2014-11-01

171

Rice-based oral antibody fragment prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infection.  

PubMed

Rotavirus-induced diarrhea is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals and in children in developing countries. We have developed a system for prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus disease using transgenic rice expressing the neutralizing variable domain of a rotavirus-specific llama heavy-chain antibody fragment (MucoRice-ARP1). MucoRice-ARP1 was produced at high levels in rice seeds using an overexpression system and RNAi technology to suppress the production of major rice endogenous storage proteins. Orally administered MucoRice-ARP1 markedly decreased the viral load in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. The antibody retained in vitro neutralizing activity after long-term storage (>1 yr) and boiling and conferred protection in mice even after heat treatment at 94°C for 30 minutes. High-yield, water-soluble, and purification-free MucoRice-ARP1 thus forms the basis for orally administered prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infections. PMID:23925294

Tokuhara, Daisuke; Álvarez, Beatriz; Mejima, Mio; Hiroiwa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yuko; Kurokawa, Shiho; Kuroda, Masaharu; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Nochi, Tomonori; Sagara, Hiroshi; Aladin, Farah; Marcotte, Harold; Frenken, Leon G J; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Hammarström, Lennart; Yuki, Yoshikazu

2013-09-01

172

[Responses of CO2 fluxes to light intensity and temperature in rice paddy field].  

PubMed

CO2 fluxes in rice paddy ecosystem in subtropical hilly region were measured continuously using eddy covariance technique. The objectives were to investigate the responses of CO2 fluxes to light intensity and temperature in the paddy ecosystem. Results showed a rectangular hyperbolic light-response function could be used to describe the relationship of CO2 flux and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The absolute values of CO2 fluxes increased with the increment of PPFD. When PPFD was higher than 1000 micromol/(m2 x s), the maximum was observed. CO2 fluxes responded differently to light between early and late rice. Values of quantum yield of late rice (0.0465-0.0999 micromol/micromol) were general higher than that of early rice (0.0176-0.0541 micromol/micromol). Moreover, the quantum yield and the maximum rate of photosynthesis assimilation in the blooming stage were higher than that in tillering and ripening stages. In nighttime, respiration from soil and plants (ecosystem respiration, Reco) changed exponentially with the increase of soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm (T5), 10 cm (T10), and 20 cm (T20), respectively. Whereas, T5 was more feasible than others to be considered as the temperature parameter for Reco calculation. During early rice growing season, Reco was more sensitive to temperature change than that during late rice growing season. PMID:18637359

Zhu, Yong-li; Wu, Jin-shui; Tong, Cheng-li; Wang, Ke-lin; Wang, Qin-xue

2008-04-01

173

Simulation of global warming potential (GWP) from rice fields in the Tai-Lake region, China by coupling 1:50,000 soil database with DNDC model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wetland ecosystems is a relatively new issue in global climate change studies. China has approximately 22% of the world's rice paddies and 38% of the world's rice production, which are crucial to accurately estimate the global warming potential (GWP) at regional scale. This paper reports an application of a biogeochemical model (DeNitrification and DeComposition

Liming Zhang; Dongsheng Yu; Xuezheng Shi; David C. Weindorf; Limin Zhao; Weixin Ding; Hongjie Wang; Jianjun Pan; Changsheng Li

2009-01-01

174

Innate immunity in rice  

PubMed Central

Advances in studies of rice innate immunity have led to the identification and characterization of host sensors encoding receptor kinases that perceive conserved microbial signatures. The non-RD domain, a newly recognized hallmark of these receptor kinases is highly expanded in rice (Oryza sativa) compared with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Researchers have also identified a diverse array of microbial effectors from bacterial and fungal pathogens that triggers immune responses upon perception. These include both, effectors that indirectly target host Nucleotide binding site/Leucine rice repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins and transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors that directly bind promoters of host genes. Here we review the recognition and signaling events that govern rice innate immunity. PMID:21602092

Chen, Xuewei; Ronald, Pamela C.

2011-01-01

175

QTL analysis of internode elongation in response to gibberellin in deepwater rice  

PubMed Central

Gibberellin (GA) is a plant hormone that has important roles in numerous plant developmental phases. Rice plants known as deepwater rice respond to flooding by elongating their internodes to avoid anoxia. Previous studies reported that GA is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses identified QTLs regulating internode elongation in response to deepwater conditions. However, the interaction between internode elongation and regulators of GA sensitivity in deepwater rice is unknown. In this study, we applied GA to recombinant inbred lines of T65 (non-deepwater rice) and Bhadua (deepwater rice), and performed a QTL analysis of internode elongation in response to GA. GA-induced internode elongation was detected only in deepwater rice. Our QTL analysis revealed two major QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 9 regulating total internode length, lowest elongated internode and number of elongated internodes. Furthermore, the QTL on chromosome 3 acted as an enhancer of other QTLs (e.g. the QTL on chromosome 12). Nearly isogenic lines of deepwater rice carrying the QTL regions from chromosomes 3 and 12 of the deepwater rice C9285 showed internode elongation in response to GA. Thus, these QTLs may regulate GA responsiveness in deepwater rice. This study furthers our understanding of the mechanism of internode elongation in rice. PMID:24946943

Nagai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yuma; Kitaoka, Takuya; Noda, Tomonori; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B.; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Ashikari, Motoyuki

2014-01-01

176

Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership RiceistohelpRiceUniversityundergraduates  

E-print Network

189 Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership RiceistohelpRiceUniversityundergraduates fromalldisciplinesbuildtheirleadershipcapacitiestocreateandmanage changeeffectively.LeadershipRiceexploreshowheartandmind,theoryand practice,andideasandactionscometogethertofacilitatechange. Theintroductorycourse,LEAD309Leadership: Theory to Practice (formerly UNIV309),isrequiredtoapplyforparticipationinthe

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

177

Selenium Characterization in the Global Rice Supply Chain  

SciTech Connect

For up to 1 billion people worldwide, insufficient dietary intake of selenium (Se) is a serious health constraint. Cereals are the dominant Se source for those on low protein diets, as typified by the global malnourished population. With crop Se content constrained largely by underlying geology, regional soil Se variations are often mirrored by their locally grown staples. Despite this, the Se concentrations of much of the world's rice, the mainstay of so many, is poorly characterized, for both total Se content and Se speciation. In this study, 1092 samples of market sourced polished rice were obtained. The sampled rice encompassed dominant rice producing and exporting countries. Rice from the U.S. and India were found to be the most enriched, while mean average levels were lowest in Egyptian rice: {approx}32-fold less than their North American equivalents. By weighting country averages by contribution to either global production or export, modeled baseline values for both were produced. Based on a daily rice consumption of 300 g day{sup -1}, around 75% of the grains from the production and export pools would fail to provide 70% of daily recommended Se intakes. Furthermore, Se localization and speciation characterization using X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) and X-ray absorption near edge structure ({mu}-XANES) techniques were investigated in a Se-rich sample. The results revealed that the large majority of Se in the endosperm was present in organic forms.

Williams, Paul N.; Lombi, Enzo; Sun, Guo-Xin; Scheckel, Kirk; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feng, Xinbin; Zhu, Jianming; Carey, Anne-Marie; Adomako, Eureka; Lawgali, Youseff; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A.; (UCopenhagen); (Aberdeen); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (US EPA)

2009-08-13

178

Internet Geography: Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site about ecosystems and biomes contains a map of different ecosystems, and provides rainfall statistics for each biome. There are sections on tropical rainforest, taiga (or boreal forest), savanna, desert, and tundra ecosystems. Each section describes the biome and its origins, where it is found, and how humans impact it. In some cases, sustainable development of the ecosystem is explained.

179

Ecosystem element cycling Introduction  

E-print Network

Ecosystem element cycling Introduction An ecosystem consists of all the biological organisms and the physical environments they occupy together within a defined area [1]. The actual boundaries of an ecosystem are generally defined by researchers studying the ecosystem, who are usually interested in understanding

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

180

Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.  

PubMed

Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter. PMID:23751544

Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

2014-06-01

181

Modeling moisture movement in rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice is one of the leading food crops in the world. At harvest, rice normally has higher moisture content than the moisture content considered safe for its storage, which creates the necessity for a drying process before its storage. In addition to drying, moisture movement within the rice kernels a...

182

Red Rice Research and Control.  

E-print Network

Physiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Baldwin, Ford L., University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, Little Rock. Bourgeois, W. J., Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Physiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Cox... ...................................... 10 E. A. Sonnier RED RICE CONTROL IN ALTERNATE CROPS ................................ 16 F. L. Baldwin ..# RED RICE CONTROL ..................................................lg B. A. Huey and F. L. Baldwin RED RICE HERBICIDE SCREENING TESTS...

Baker, John B.; Baldwin, Ford L.; Bourgeois, W.J.; Cox, Clodis H.; Craigmiles, Julian P.; Dishman, William D.; Eastin, E. Ford; Helpert, Charles W.; Hill, Lewis C.; Huey, Bobby A.; Klosterboer, Arlen D.; Sonnier, Earl A.

1980-01-01

183

Huajian Gao James R. Rice  

E-print Network

Huajian Gao James R. Rice Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 is based on the perturbation technique developed by Rice (1985) for solving the elastic field of a crack is suppressed and configurationally unstable if there is no such restraint. Introduction Rice (1985) developed

184

Rice Boulevard Track/Soccer  

E-print Network

Rice Boulevard Track/Soccer Stadium Reckling Park Founder's Court Sunset Boulevard Main Street University Boulevard Entrance 1 Entrance 2 Entrance 8 Entrance 20Entrance 18 Rice Stadium Vistor Parking Vistor Parking Vistor Parking L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L Rice University Centennial

Mellor-Crummey, John

185

Huajian Gao James R. Rice  

E-print Network

Huajian Gao James R. Rice Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 02138 Shear Stress Intensity Factors for a Planar Crack With Slightly Curved Front Recent work (Rice, 1985a be found. Rice (1985a) showed how the knowledge of such solutions enables one to calculate the changes

186

The State of Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recent Millennium Ecosystem Assessment has illustrated that human actions have significantly transformed many of Earths ecosystems. The main findings describe how: humans changed ecosystems dramatically over the past 50 years, changes to ecosystem services may get worse in the next 50 years, global action at all levels can reverse the degradation, and how ecosystem degradation increases risks of sudden changes and reduces benefits for future generations.

ChristiÃÂán Samper (National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution;)

2005-08-01

187

Yield and Soil Nutrient Changes in a Long-Term Rice-Wheat Rotation in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ganic nutrient sources on yield trends of rice and wheat, nutrient balances, and soil nutrient pools, and (ii) iden- Major improvements in the productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) tify reasons for the yield trends observed. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have occurred in South Asia since 1965-1966 when the Green Revolution began. However, after the 1980s, yield stagnated or

A. L. Bhandari; J. K. Ladha; H. Pathak; A. T. Padre; D. Dawe; R. K. Gupta

2002-01-01

188

Characterizing the Saltol Quantitative Trait Locus for Salinity Tolerance in Rice  

E-print Network

Characterizing the Saltol Quantitative Trait Locus for Salinity Tolerance in Rice Michael J) for seedling stage salinity tolerance in preparation for use in marker-assisted breeding. An analysis of 100 of the high sensitivity of modern rice varieties. Salinity is particularly a major problem in coastal regions

Blumwald, Eduardo

189

Characterizing the Saltol Quantitative Trait Locus for Salinity Tolerance in Rice  

E-print Network

Characterizing the Saltol Quantitative Trait Locus for Salinity Tolerance in Rice Michael J-derived quanti- tative trait loci (QTLs) for seedling stage salinity tolerance in preparation for use in marker because of the high sensitivity of modern rice varieties. Salinity is particularly a major problem

Blumwald, Eduardo

190

Factors affecting the adoption of fertilizers by rice farmers in Côte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzed the factors that affect the adoption of chemical fertilizers by rice farmers in Côte d'Ivoire using a Tobit model. The results show that the major factors that positively influence farmers' use of fertilizers in rice fields are cultivation of lowlands, use of mechanization, farm size, land pressure and availability of non-farm income. Factors found to negatively affect

Akinwumi A. Adesina

1996-01-01

191

Inheritance of flour paste viscosity is associated with a rice Waxy gene exon 10 SNP marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent amylose content is a key element for characterizing a rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar for cooking quality. However, cultivars with similar apparent amylose content can have widely varying quality attributes, including major parameters of flour paste viscosity. It has been postulated that the presence of a rice Waxy gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker is associated with elevated Rapid

Karim Traore; Anna M. McClung; Ming-Hsuan Chen; Robert Fjellstrom

2011-01-01

192

Seasonal assessment of greenhouse gas emission from irrigated lowland rice field under infrared warming  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice fields are considered as one of the major sources of methane (CH4), and they also emit nitrous oxide (N2O). A field experiment was conducted at the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines, in 2010 – 2011 using a temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) system. Our object...

193

Comparative Proteomic Analysis Provides New Insights into Chilling Stress Responses in Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low temperature is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting the productivity and the geographical distribution of many important crops. To gain a better understanding of chilling stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare), we carried out a comparative proteomic analysis. Three-week-old rice seedlings were treated at 6 °C for 6 or 24 h and then recovered for

Shun-Ping Yan; Qun-Ye Zhang; Zhang-Cheng Tang; Wei-Ai Su; Wei-Ning Sun

2005-01-01

194

Genetic diversity and classification of Oryza sativa with emphasis on Chinese rice germplasm.  

PubMed

Despite extensive studies on cultivated rice, the genetic structure and subdivision of this crop remain unclear at both global and local scales. Using 84 nuclear simple sequence repeat markers, we genotyped a panel of 153 global rice cultivars covering all previously recognized groups and 826 cultivars representing the diversity of Chinese rice germplasm. On the basis of model-based grouping, neighbour-joining tree and principal coordinate analysis, we confirmed the widely accepted five major groups of rice cultivars (indica, aus, aromatic, temperate japonica and tropical japonica), and demonstrated that rayada rice was unique in genealogy and should be treated as a new (the sixth) major group of rice germplasm. With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, we identified three major groups (indica, temperate japonica and tropical japonica) in Chinese rice germplasm and showed that Chinese temperate japonica contained higher diversity than that of global samples, whereas Chinese indica and tropical japonica maintained slightly lower diversity than that present in the global samples. Particularly, we observed that all seasonal, drought-tolerant and endosperm types occurred within each of three major groups of Chinese cultivars, which does not support previous claims that seasonal differentiation exists in Indica and drought-tolerant differentiation is present in Japonica. It is most likely that differentiation of cultivar types arose multiple times stemming from artificial selection for adaptation to local environments. PMID:24326293

Wang, C-H; Zheng, X-M; Xu, Q; Yuan, X-P; Huang, L; Zhou, H-F; Wei, X-H; Ge, S

2014-05-01

195

Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership Rice is to help Rice University undergraduates  

E-print Network

194 Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership Rice is to help Rice University undergraduates from all disciplines build their leadership capacities to create and manage change effectively. Leadership to facilitate change. The introductory course, LEAD 309 Leadership: Theory to Practice (formerly UNIV 309

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

196

A Double Built-In Containment Strategy for Production of Recombinant Proteins in Transgenic Rice  

PubMed Central

Using transgenic rice as a bioreactor for mass production of pharmaceutical proteins could potentially reduce the cost of production significantly. However, a major concern over the bioreactor transgenic rice is the risk of its unintended spreading into environment and into food or feed supplies. Here we report a mitigating method to prevent unwanted transgenic rice spreading by a double built-in containment strategy, which sets a selectively termination method and a visual tag technology in the T-DNA for transformation. We created transgenic rice with an inserted T-DNA that harbors a human proinsulin gene fused with the far-red fluorescent protein gene mKate_S158A, an RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the rice bentazon detoxification enzyme CYP81A6, and an EPSPS gene as the selection marker for transformation. Herbicide spray tests indicated that such transgenic rice plants can be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon at regular field application dosage for rice weed control. Moreover, the transgenic rice seeds were bright red in color due to the fused far-red fluorescent protein, and could be easily visualized under daylight by naked eyes. Thus, the transgenic rice plants reported in this study could be selectively killed by a commonly used herbicide during their growth stage, and their seeds may be detected visually during processing and consumption after harvest. This double built-in containment strategy may greatly enhance the confinement of the transgenic rice. PMID:25531447

Zhao, Sinan; Shen, Zhicheng

2014-01-01

197

[Effects of phosphorus-containing substances on arsenic uptake by rice].  

PubMed

The disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) were added into arsenic contaminated soil, then rice pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of phosphorus (P)-containing substances on arsenic (As) uptake by rice. The results showed that: DSP and HAP significantly increased soil pH and the contents of available P in soil (P < 0.05), activating soil arsenic. And DSP was stronger than HAP in improving the migration ability of As in soil. DSP and HAP treatments both significantly reduced the contents of total As in root, as well as total As and inorganic As in brown rice. But HAP significantly increased total As contents in stem. DSP and HAP treatments had better reducing effects on inorganic As than on total As in brown rice. And DSP had the same reducing effects as HAP on total As and inorganic As in brown rice. Analysis results showed that the contents of As in rice were affected by the antagonism between P and As and the increase of As bio-availability in soil. The antagonism played the major role in this study and it was clearly exhibited in both root and rice. Lower dosage (< or = 0.12 g x kg(-1)) of DSP and HAP increased total biomass of rice and brown rice yield, but with the increase of P addition, the two kinds of P-containing substances obviously inhibited the growth of rice, and inhibition by HAP was relatively light. PMID:25338392

Lei, Ming; Zeng, Min; Liao, Bo-Han; Hu, Li-Qiong; Zhou, Hang; Long, Shui-Bo

2014-08-01

198

A double built-in containment strategy for production of recombinant proteins in transgenic rice.  

PubMed

Using transgenic rice as a bioreactor for mass production of pharmaceutical proteins could potentially reduce the cost of production significantly. However, a major concern over the bioreactor transgenic rice is the risk of its unintended spreading into environment and into food or feed supplies. Here we report a mitigating method to prevent unwanted transgenic rice spreading by a double built-in containment strategy, which sets a selectively termination method and a visual tag technology in the T-DNA for transformation. We created transgenic rice with an inserted T-DNA that harbors a human proinsulin gene fused with the far-red fluorescent protein gene mKate_S158A, an RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the rice bentazon detoxification enzyme CYP81A6, and an EPSPS gene as the selection marker for transformation. Herbicide spray tests indicated that such transgenic rice plants can be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon at regular field application dosage for rice weed control. Moreover, the transgenic rice seeds were bright red in color due to the fused far-red fluorescent protein, and could be easily visualized under daylight by naked eyes. Thus, the transgenic rice plants reported in this study could be selectively killed by a commonly used herbicide during their growth stage, and their seeds may be detected visually during processing and consumption after harvest. This double built-in containment strategy may greatly enhance the confinement of the transgenic rice. PMID:25531447

Zhang, Xianwen; Wang, Dongfang; Zhao, Sinan; Shen, Zhicheng

2014-01-01

199

A Built-In Strategy for Containment of Transgenic Plants: Creation of Selectively Terminable Transgenic Rice  

PubMed Central

Plant transgenic technology has been widely utilized for engineering crops for trait improvements and for production of high value proteins such as pharmaceuticals. However, the unintended spreading of commercial transgenic crops by pollination and seed dispersal is a major concern for environmental and food safety. Simple and reliable containment strategies for transgenes are highly desirable. Here we report a novel method for creating selectively terminable transgenic rice. In this method, the gene(s) of interest is tagged with a RNA interference cassette, which specifically suppresses the expression of the bentazon detoxification enzyme CYP81A6 and thus renders transgenic rice to be sensitive to bentazon, a herbicide used for rice weed control. We generated transgenic rice plants by this method using a new glyphosate resistant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene from Pesudomonas putida as the gene of interest, and demonstrated that these transgenic rice plants were highly sensitive to bentazon but tolerant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional rice. Field trial of these transgenic rice plants further confirmed that they can be selectively killed at 100% by one spray of bentazon at a regular dose used for conventional rice weed control. Furthermore, we found that the terminable transgenic rice created in this study shows no difference in growth, development and yield compared to its non-transgenic control. Therefore, this method of creating transgenic rice constitutes a novel strategy of transgene containment, which appears simple, reliable and inexpensive for implementation. PMID:18350155

Zhao, Te; Cheng, Jiaan; Tu, Juming; Ye, Gongyin; Shen, Zhicheng

2008-01-01

200

Transgenic Cry1Ab Rice Does Not Impact Ecological Fitness and Predation of a Generalist Spider  

PubMed Central

Background The commercial release of rice genetically engineered to express a Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for control of Lepidoptera in China is a subject of debate. One major point of the debate has focused on the ecological safety of Bt rice on nontarget organisms, especially predators and parasitoids that help control populations of insect pests. Methodology/Principal Findings A tritrophic bioassay was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ab-expressing rice on fitness parameters of a predaceous ground spider (Pardosa pseudoannulata (Bösenberg et Strand)) that had fed on Bt rice-fed brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)) nymphs. Survival, development time and fecundity of this spider were not different when they were fed with Bt rice-fed or non-Bt rice-fed prey. Furthermore, ELISA and PCR gut assays, as well as a functional response trial, indicated that predation by P. pseudoannulata was not significantly different in Bt rice or non-Bt rice fields. Conclusions/Significance The transgenic Cry1Ab rice lines tested in this study had no adverse effects on the survival, developmental time and fecundity of P. pseudoannulata in the laboratory or on predation under field conditions. This suggests that this important predator would not be harmed if transgenic Cry1Ab rice were commercialized. PMID:22511982

Tian, Jun-Ce; Chen, Yang; Li, Zhao-Liang; Li, Kai; Chen, Mao; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Shelton, Anthony M.; Ye, Gong-Yin

2012-01-01

201

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia  

PubMed Central

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector’s preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China. PMID:24058362

Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

2013-01-01

202

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia.  

PubMed

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice-virus-insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China. PMID:24058362

Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

2013-01-01

203

Baltimore Ecosystem Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many ecologists work to understand how various parts of a given ecological system work or function with other systems in their vicinity, but relatively few attempt to bring together all of this work with major urban areas. One such impressive project is the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, which aims to understand metropolitan Baltimore as an ecological system; and in doing so, bring together researchers from the biological, physical and social sciences to work on this formidable task that is truly interdisciplinary. At the site, visitors can learn about the staff of the project and read about its various thematic areas of inquiry, including biodiversity, education, soil, stream and watershed studies, and vegetation. A good place to start before diving into the numerous research projects would be the research area, which explains the basic goals of the project, the theories that the research team is drawing on, and the central questions of its work. The Baltimore Ecosystem Study has also been approved for use in classrooms by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and educators will find materials that they can draw on to teach various concepts and ideas here as well.

204

Ecosystem health: I. Measuring ecosystem health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem analysis has been advanced by an improved understanding of how ecosystems are structured and how they function. Ecology has advanced from an emphasis on natural history to consideration of energetics, the relationships and connections between species, hierarchies, and systems theory. Still, we consider ecosystems as entities with a distinctive character and individual characteristics. Ecosystem maintenance and preservation form the objective of impact analysis, hazard evaluation, and other management or regulation activities. In this article we explore an approach to ecosystem analysis which identifies and quantifies factors which define the condition or state of an ecosystem in terms of health criteria. We relate ecosystem health to human/nonhuman animal health and explore the difficulties of defining ecosystem health and suggest criteria which provide a functional definition of state and condition. We suggest that, as has been found in human/nonhuman animal health studies, disease states can be recognized before disease is of clinical magnitude. Example disease states for ecosystems are functionally defined and discussed, together with test systems for their early detection.

Schaeffer, David J.; Herricks, Edwin E.; Kerster, Harold W.

1988-07-01

205

Quantitative trait loci analysis for rice seed vigor during the germination stage*  

PubMed Central

Seed vigor is an important characteristic of seed quality, and rice cultivars with strong seed vigor are desirable in direct-sowing rice production for optimum stand establishment. In the present study, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of three traits for rice seed vigor during the germination stage, including germination rate, final germination percentage, and germination index, were investigated using one recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between japonica Daguandao and indica IR28, and using the multiple interval mapping (MIM) approach. The results show that indica rice presented stronger seed vigor during the germination stage than japonica rice. A total of ten QTLs, and at least five novel alleles, were detected to control rice seed vigor, and the amount of variation (R 2) explained by an individual QTL ranged from 7.5% to 68.5%, with three major QTLs with R 2>20%. Most of the QTLs detected here are likely to coincide with QTLs for seed weight, seed size, or seed dormancy, suggesting that the rice seed vigor might be correlated with seed weight, seed size, and seed dormancy. At least five QTLs are novel alleles with no previous reports of seed vigor genes in rice, and those major or minor QTLs could be used to significantly improve the seed vigor by marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice. PMID:21121075

Wang, Zhou-fei; Wang, Jian-fei; Bao, Yong-mei; Wang, Fu-hua; Zhang, Hong-sheng

2010-01-01

206

A rice phenomics study—phenotype scoring and seed propagation of a T-DNA insertion-induced rice mutant population  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the completion of the rice genome sequencing project, the next major challenge is the large-scale determination of gene\\u000a function. As an important crop and a model organism, rice provides major insights into gene functions important for crop growth\\u000a or production. Phenomics with detailed information about tagged populations provides a good tool for functional genomics analysis.\\u000a By a T-DNA insertional

Chyr-Guan Chern; Ming-Jen Fan; Su-May Yu; Po-Chang Lu; Yao-Cheng Lin; Fu-Jin Wei; Sheng-Chung Huang; Shu Chen; Ming-Hsing Lai; Ching-Shan Tseng; Hsing-Mu Yen; Woei-Shyuan Jwo; Chen-Chia Wu; Tung-Lung Yang; Lung-Sheng Li; Yih-Cheng Kuo; Su-Mien Li; Charng-Pei Li; Chiu-Kai Wey; Arunee Trisiriroj; Hsing-Fang Lee; Yue-Ie C. Hsing

2007-01-01

207

Multiscale Experimental Ecosystem Research Center (MEERC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Science, the mission of MEERC (Multiscale Experimental Ecosystem Research Center) is "to contribute to the fundamental understanding of the scale-dependent behavior of experimental and natural estuarine ecosystems, so that research information can be extrapolated systematically among experimental ecosystems and nature, and among natural ecosystems of different dimensions." Five major research projects are described at the homepage for the period 1998-2000, including Scaling Trophic Interactions in Pelagic Estuarine Ecosystems and Ecotoxicology and Issues of Scale, among others. The site also includes recent research highlights, a hyperlinked list of participating research labs, an impressive list of recent scientific publications and reports, and a selection of related links.

208

Retrogradation properties of high amylose rice flour and rice starch by physical modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new physical modification applied to prevent the retrogradation of rice flour and rice starch was investigated. This study examined the retrogradation properties of treated rice flour or rice starch paste by three stirring or heating–stirring, or without. The results proved that the retrogradations of rice flour and rice starch were both not substantially affected by three stirring modifications. However,

Yue Wu; Zhengxing Chen; Xiaoxuan Li; Zhenjiong Wang

2010-01-01

209

Effect of amylose content and rice type on dynamic viscoelasticity of a composite rice starch gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylose content is an important indicator to determine the utility of raw milled rice. Indica type rice with high amylose content is usually used for manufacturing rice noodles, while Japonica rice may be mixed partially to adjust the noodle texture. The effect of amylose and rice type on dynamic viscoelasticity of rice starch gel was investigated using a model starch

Zhan-Hui Lu; Tomoko Sasaki; Yong-Yu Li; Tadashi Yoshihashi; Li-Te Li; Kaoru Kohyama

2009-01-01

210

Arsenic speciation in rice cereals for infants.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of arsenic (As) content in rice cereals for infants. The analysis was based on the FDA Elemental Analysis Manual (EAM 4.11). An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) was used to determine total As. Due to the different toxicities of the chemical forms of arsenic, the ICP-MS coupled to a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) was used to perform As speciation. The total and speciated arsenic was determined in 31 different infant rice cereals sold in U.S. supermarkets. The mass fraction of total inorganic As (iAs; sum of arsenite As(III) and arsenate As(V)) concentrations ranged between 55.5 ± 1.3 and 158.0 ± 6.0 ?g/kg. The average total arsenic and iAs concentrations in infant rice cereal were 174.4 and 101.4 ?g/kg, respectively. There was no substantial difference in iAs levels between organic and conventional rice cereals. The mixed-grain rice cereal contained the least total (105 ?g/kg) and inorganic arsenic (63 ?g/kg). The major detected organoarsenical species was dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) was not detected, or only trace levels were found. Spiked sample percent recoveries for iAs, DMA, and MMA ranged from a low of 97.3% for iAs to a high of 115.0% for DMA. Results for speciated and total As in the National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference material rice flour (NIST SRM 1568) were in good agreement with certified values. In the NIST SRM 1568 sample (n = 5) repeatability (%RSD) was 2.8% for iAs, 1.7% for DMA and species sum, and 5.3% for the total arsenic by As total method. The average percent mass balance was 99.9 ± 6.3% for the NIST SRM 1568 sample. This study provides new and much needed information on arsenic levels in rice-based infant cereals. PMID:24079539

Juskelis, Rima; Li, Wanxing; Nelson, Jenny; Cappozzo, Jack C

2013-11-13

211

[Relationships between climate change and rice development and its yield formation: a simulation study].  

PubMed

With the application of mechanistic model (RICAM 1.3, RIce growth Calendar Model), this paper simulated the rice development and its yield formation under different climatic conditions at multi-locations of Asia. A three-stage Beta model (3s-Beta) was developed to predict the flowering stage of rice and to describe its three successive phases of photo-thermal response, i.e., basic vegetative phase, photoperiod-sensitive phase, and post photoperiod-sensitive phase. The 1980-1989 multi-location data of Morioka (Japan, 39 degrees 43'N), Nanchang (China, 28 degrees 36'N) and Los Banos (Philippines, 14 degrees 11'N) were used to verify the suitability of the model in studying ecosystem change. Comparisons of simulated results with observed data showed that this model could generally predict the eco-physiological processes of rice, and performed very well over a wide range of environments. PMID:15943362

Liu, Taoju; Yin, Xinyou; Qi, Changhan; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Meiqiu

2005-03-01

212

Exploring Japan through Rice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)

Wojtan, Linda S.

1998-01-01

213

Rice University Description  

E-print Network

", and that the US would reach the moon by the end of the decade. Rice's student body is engaged in the campus the SWAP office will provide you with. Return the application form, together with all supporting documents, to the UoB SWAP office by 15th February 2013. Please refer to the International Programs website for further

Bristol, University of

214

Direct Seeding of Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple food for more than half of the world population, is commonly grown by transplanting seedlings into puddled soil (wet tillage) in Asia. This production system is labor-, water-, and energy-intensive and is becoming less profitable as these resources are becoming increasingly scarce. It also deteriorates the physical properties of soil, adversely affects the performance

Virender Kumar; Jagdish K. Ladha

2011-01-01

215

Rice: chemistry and technology.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice has taken center stage this last decade, not only as an important provider of nourishment for the world’s population, but as a grain now recognized as having many unique nutritional and functional attributes with potential to be captured in a multitude of value-added food and non-food applicati...

216

RICE MICROSTRUCTURE - COMPARING CULTIVARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The microstructures of short, medium, long and waxy grain rices were compared for microstructural characteristics using scanning electron and light microscopies. The cultivars in this study included three short grain (Akitakamachi, Koshihikari and S102); three medium grain (Bengal, M202 and M401); f...

217

Consideration of Ecosystem for ICME  

SciTech Connect

As the Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) emerges as a hot topic, computation, experimentation, and digital database are identified as its three major components. Efforts are being actively made from various aspects to bring ICME to reality. However, many factors that would affect ICEM development still remain vague. This paper is an attempt to discuss the needs for establishing a database centered ecosystem to facilitate ICEM development.

Ren, Weiju [ORNL

2013-01-01

218

Biogeochemical Processes in Microbial Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hierarchical organization of microbial ecosystems determines process rates that shape Earth's environment, create the biomarker sedimentary and atmospheric signatures of life, and define the stage upon which major evolutionary events occurred. In order to understand how microorganisms have shaped the global environment of Earth and, potentially, other worlds, we must develop an experimental paradigm that links biogeochemical processes with ever-changing temporal and spatial distributions of microbial populations and their metabolic properties. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

DesMarais, David J.

2001-01-01

219

Overview on current status of biotechnological interventions on yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance in rice.  

PubMed

Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellow stem borer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellow stem borer resistance in rice. PMID:19811767

Deka, Sikha; Barthakur, Sharmistha

2010-01-01

220

Soil nitric oxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems in China: a synthesis of modeling and measurements.  

PubMed

Soils are among the major sources of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO), which play a crucial role in atmospheric chemistry. Here we systematically synthesized the modeling studies and field measurements and presented a novel soil NO emission inventory of terrestrial ecosystems in China. The previously modeled inventories ranged from 480 to 1375 and from 242.8 to 550?Gg N yr(-1) for all lands and croplands, respectively. Nevertheless, all the previous modeling studies were conducted based on very few measurements from China. According to the current synthesis of field measurements, most soil NO emission measurements were conducted at croplands, while the measurements were only conducted at two sites for forest and grassland. The median NO flux was 3.2?ng N m(-2) s(-1) with a fertilizer induced emission factor (FIE) of 0.04% for rice fields, and was 7.1?ng N m(-2) s(-1) with an FIE of 0.67% for uplands. A novel NO emission inventory of 1226.33 (ranging from 588.24 to 2132.05) Gg N yr(-1) was estimated for China's terrestrial ecosystems, which was about 18% of anthropogenic emissions. More field measurements should be conducted to cover more biomes and obtain more representative data in order to well constrain soil NO emission inventory of China. PMID:25490942

Huang, Yong; Li, Dejun

2014-01-01

221

Soil nitric oxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems in China: a synthesis of modeling and measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils are among the major sources of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO), which play a crucial role in atmospheric chemistry. Here we systematically synthesized the modeling studies and field measurements and presented a novel soil NO emission inventory of terrestrial ecosystems in China. The previously modeled inventories ranged from 480 to 1375 and from 242.8 to 550 Gg N yr-1 for all lands and croplands, respectively. Nevertheless, all the previous modeling studies were conducted based on very few measurements from China. According to the current synthesis of field measurements, most soil NO emission measurements were conducted at croplands, while the measurements were only conducted at two sites for forest and grassland. The median NO flux was 3.2 ng N m-2 s-1 with a fertilizer induced emission factor (FIE) of 0.04% for rice fields, and was 7.1 ng N m-2 s-1 with an FIE of 0.67% for uplands. A novel NO emission inventory of 1226.33 (ranging from 588.24 to 2132.05) Gg N yr-1 was estimated for China's terrestrial ecosystems, which was about 18% of anthropogenic emissions. More field measurements should be conducted to cover more biomes and obtain more representative data in order to well constrain soil NO emission inventory of China.

Huang, Yong; Li, Dejun

2014-12-01

222

Soil nitric oxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems in China: a synthesis of modeling and measurements  

PubMed Central

Soils are among the major sources of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO), which play a crucial role in atmospheric chemistry. Here we systematically synthesized the modeling studies and field measurements and presented a novel soil NO emission inventory of terrestrial ecosystems in China. The previously modeled inventories ranged from 480 to 1375 and from 242.8 to 550?Gg N yr?1 for all lands and croplands, respectively. Nevertheless, all the previous modeling studies were conducted based on very few measurements from China. According to the current synthesis of field measurements, most soil NO emission measurements were conducted at croplands, while the measurements were only conducted at two sites for forest and grassland. The median NO flux was 3.2?ng N m?2 s?1 with a fertilizer induced emission factor (FIE) of 0.04% for rice fields, and was 7.1?ng N m?2 s?1 with an FIE of 0.67% for uplands. A novel NO emission inventory of 1226.33 (ranging from 588.24 to 2132.05) Gg N yr?1 was estimated for China's terrestrial ecosystems, which was about 18% of anthropogenic emissions. More field measurements should be conducted to cover more biomes and obtain more representative data in order to well constrain soil NO emission inventory of China. PMID:25490942

Huang, Yong; Li, Dejun

2014-01-01

223

Enzyme dynamics in paddy soils of the rice district (NE Italy) under different cropping patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent widespread interest on soil enzymes is due to the need to develop sensitive indicators of soil quality that reflect the effects of land management on soil and assist land managers in promoting long-term sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems. The activities of six important enzymes involved in C, N, P, and S cycling were investigated in a paddy soil from the Veneto region, Italy, in four different rotation systems (rice-rice-rice: R-R-R; soya-rice-rice: S-R-R; fallow-rice: F-R; pea-soya-rice: P-S-R) with three replications in April (after field preparation, field moist condition), June (after seedling, waterlogged soil condition), August (after tillering stage of rice, waterlogged soil condition) and October (after rice harvesting, drained soil condition) over the 2012 growing season. Our results demonstrated that enzyme activities varied with rotation systems and growth stages in paddy soil. Compared with field moist soil, drained soil condition resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) of ?-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, alkaline and acid phosphatases, leucine aminopeptidase (except of fallow-rice), and chitinase activities in all rotations, while compared with drained soil, early waterlogging (in month of June) significantly decreased (P moist soil> late waterlogged>early waterlogged. There was an inhibitory effect of waterlogging (except P-S-R rotation) for both alkaline and acid phosphatases due to high pH and redox conditions. However, the response of enzymes to waterlogging differed with the chemical species and the cropping pattern. The best rotation system for chitinase, leucine aminopeptidase and ?-glucosidase activity (C and N cycles) proved R-R-R, while for arylsulfatase, alkaline and acid phosphatases (P and S cycles) it was the S-R-R. Key Words: enzyme activity, paddy soil, Crop Rotation System, Italy __ Corresponding Author: Mandana Nadimi-Goki, Tel.: +39 3891356251 E-mail address: mandy.nadimi@gmail.com

Bini, Claudio; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Kato, Yoichi; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

2014-05-01

224

Applying stable isotope probing of phospholipid fatty acids and rRNA in a Chinese rice field to study activity and composition of the methanotrophic bacterial communities in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanotrophs in the rhizosphere play an important role in global climate change since they attenuate methane emission from rice field ecosystems into the atmosphere. Most of the CH4 is emitted via transport through the plant gas vascular system. We used this transport for stable isotope probing (SIP) of the methanotrophs in the rhizosphere under field conditions and pulse-labelled rice plants

Qiongfen Qiu; Matthias Noll; Wolf-Rainer Abraham; Yahai Lu; Ralf Conrad

2008-01-01

225

Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database  

DOE Data Explorer

The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

Ronald, Pamela

226

Ecosystem Services Ecosystem Function and the Ecosystem Approach   

E-print Network

This project focused on mapping the delivery of three ecosystems services each in one case study area in Scotland and then identify how the Scottish policies such as woodland expansion biodiversity, conservation and food production affect the land...

Vallianou, Koralia

2013-11-28

227

Dynamic fragility of oceanic coral reef ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the most diverse and productive ecosystems known, and one of the first ecosystems to exhibit major climate-warming impacts (coral bleaching), coral reefs have drawn much scientific attention to what may prove to be their Achilles heel, the thermal sensitivity of reef-building corals. Here we show that climate change-driven loss of live coral, and ultimately structural complexity, in

Nicholas A. J. Graham; Shaun K. Wilson; Simon Jennings; Nicholas V. C. Polunin; Jude P. Bijoux; Jan Robinson

2006-01-01

228

Conservation and Management of Tropical Coastal Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

All major coastal ecosystems in the tropics are being degraded. The problems include losses of biodiversity, reduced ecosystem\\u000a functions, and costs to coastal human societies. Declines in species’ abundances, and habitat loss and modification are the\\u000a result of the demands for aquaculture, port construction, trawling, excessive nutrient loads, overfishing and collecting,\\u000a sedimentation from catchment activities, invasive species, and climate change.

William Gladstone

229

Populations and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. In this particular publications, students will explores topics such as different types of ecosystems, biological indicators, streams and life within them, micro ecosystems, terrestrial ecosystems, issues in ecology, and ecological footprints.

Lefever, Mary

2007-09-01

230

Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration  

E-print Network

Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (G.E.E.R.) Science Conference 'HILQLQJ6XFFHVV Naples Beach a Committee of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force and Working Group #12;Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (G.E.E.R.) Science Conference Page ii #12;December 11-15, 2000 z Naples, Florida Page

Watson, Craig A.

231

I Spy an Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We hear the word ecosystems in the news and at school but just what are ecosystems? It turns out there are lots of ecosystems. You might even learn you have some inside you! Also in: Français | Español

Biology

2009-09-22

232

Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-6 . Here we describe a previously unrecognized effect of biodiversity on ecosystem predictability, where predictability is inversely related to temporal and spatial variation in ecosystem properties. By manipulating biodiversity in aquatic microbial communities, we show that one process, ecosystem respiration, becomes more predictable as biodiversity increases. Analysis of similar patterns extracted from other studies 2,3,6 indicates that biodiversity also

Patricia M. Harris; Peter J. Morin

1997-01-01

233

Ecosystem Health: Energy Indicators.  

EPA Science Inventory

Just as for human beings health is a concept that applies to the condition of the whole organism, the health of an ecosystem refers to the condition of the ecosystem as a whole. For this reason, the study and characterization of ecosystems is fundamental to establishing accurate ...

234

Genetic differentiation revealed by selective loci of drought-responding EST-SSRs between upland and lowland rice in China.  

PubMed

Upland and lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) represent two of the most important rice ecotypes adapted to ago-ecosystems with contrasting soil-water conditions. Upland rice, domesticated in the water-limited environment, contains valuable drought-resistant characters that can be used in water-saving breeding. Knowledge about the divergence between upland and lowland rice will provide valuable cues for the evolution of drought-resistance in rice. Genetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice was explored by 47 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) located in drought responding expressed sequence tags (ESTs) among 377 rice landraces. The morphological traits of drought-resistance were evaluated in the field experiments. Different outlier loci were detected in the japonica and indica subspecies, respectively. Considerable genetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice on these outlier loci was estimated in japonica (Fst = 0.258) and indica (Fst = 0.127). Furthermore, populations of the upland and lowland ecotypes were clustered separately on these outlier loci. A significant correlation between genetic distance matrices and the dissimilarity matrices of drought-resistant traits was determined, indicating a certain relationship between the upland-lowland rice differentiation and the drought-resistance. Divergent selections occur between upland and lowland rice on the drought-resistance as the Qsts of some drought-resistant traits are significantly higher than the neutral Fst. In addition, the upland- and lowland-preferable alleles responded differently among ecotypes or allelic types under osmotic stress. This shows the evolutionary signature of drought resistance at the gene expression level. The findings of this study can strengthen our understanding of the evolution of drought-resistance in rice with significant implications in the improvement of rice drought-resistance. PMID:25286109

Xia, Hui; Zheng, Xiaoguo; Chen, Liang; Gao, Huan; Yang, Hua; Long, Ping; Rong, Jun; Lu, Baorong; Li, Jiajia; Luo, Lijun

2014-01-01

235

Seed-Mediated Gene Flow Promotes Genetic Diversity of Weedy Rice within Populations: Implications for Weed Management.  

PubMed

Increased infestation of weedy rice-a noxious agricultural pest has caused significant reduction of grain yield of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) worldwide. Knowledge on genetic diversity and structure of weedy rice populations will facilitate the design of effective methods to control this weed by tracing its origins and dispersal patterns in a given region. To generate such knowledge, we studied genetic diversity and structure of 21 weedy rice populations from Sri Lanka based on 23 selected microsatellite (SSR) loci. Results indicated an exceptionally high level of within-population genetic diversity (He?=?0.62) and limited among-population differentiation (Fst?=?0.17) for this predominantly self-pollinating weed. UPGMA analysis showed a loose genetic affinity of the weedy rice populations in relation to their geographical locations, and no obvious genetic structure among populations across the country. This phenomenon was associated with the considerable amount of gene flow between populations. Limited admixture from STRUCTURE analyses suggested a very low level of hybridization (pollen-mediated gene flow) between populations. The abundant within-population genetic diversity coupled with limited population genetic structure and differentiation is likely caused by the considerable seed-mediated gene flow of weedy rice along with the long-distance exchange of farmer-saved rice seeds between weedy-rice contaminated regions in Sri Lanka. In addition to other effective weed management strategies, promoting the application of certified rice seeds with no weedy rice contamination should be the immediate action to significantly reduce the proliferation and infestation of this weed in rice ecosystems in countries with similar rice farming styles as in Sri Lanka. PMID:25436611

He, Zhuoxian; Jiang, Xiaoqi; Ratnasekera, Disna; Grassi, Fabrizio; Perera, Udugahapattuwage; Lu, Bao-Rong

2014-01-01

236

Methylmercury Bioaccumulation in Rice and Wetland Biota: employing integrated indices of processes that drive methylmercury risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands often are associated with elevated methylmercury (MeHg) production and food web bioaccumulation, making them potentially important sources of Hg to surrounding waters and to wetland-dependent fish and wildlife. However, the cycling of MeHg through wetlands can vary markedly with wetland type. Agricultural wetlands such as rice fields can exhibit particularly pronounced MeHg concentrations and bioaccumulation because their biogeochemical, hydrological, and ecological characteristics facilitate the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg) to MeHg. Rice fields are characterized by a series of seasonal extreme wetting and drying cycles, sulfate-containing fertilizers, and high levels of labile organic carbon, all of which are key processes in the Hg cycle. Rice fields comprise approximately 20% of freshwater habitats and 11% of cultivated land area globally, providing critical wildlife habitat while offering substantial economic, human health, and ecosystem benefits. Thus, there is strong impetus to better understand the drivers of Hg cycling in rice fields and to develop useful management approaches for minimizing Hg risk associated with rice agriculture without compromising rice production. We examined the role of rice wetlands on MeHg bioaccumulation through foodwebs by employing biosentinel caged fish as integrators of MeHg cycling processes. With experimental field studies in California's Central Valley, we placed biosentinel fishes into nine rice wetlands that were subjected to three different harvest strategies, and into nine managed wetlands that encompassed three different hydrological regimes. We simultaneously measured a suite of biogeochemical processes in surface water, sediment, and pore water in order to link the response in fish Hg bioaccumulation with within-field processes that regulate MeHg cycling. Our preliminary results indicate that fish Hg concentrations were 1.6 times higher in rice wetlands than in managed wetlands. Additionally, fish Hg concentrations increased across rice fields from inlets to outlets indicating that in situ processes enhanced MeHg production rice fields, whereas concentrations decreased from inlets to outlets in managed wetlands. Finally, our preliminary results suggest organic carbon associated with rice plants was an important contributor to fish Hg concentrations, whereas plants in managed wetlands were not strongly linked to fish Hg concentrations. Our preliminary findings suggest that there are strong linkages between biogeochemical processes inherent in rice wetlands and MeHg cycling and bioaccumulation, which are further described in a companion presentation by Windham-Myers (this session). These results have important implications for managing MeHg risk in areas with extensive rice agriculture.

Eagles-Smith, C.; Ackerman, J.; Windham-Myers, L.; Fleck, J.

2013-12-01

237

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Watershed Science & Management Issues in Forest Resources and Conservation 1 credit Management and social dimensions elective ­ choose one GLY3882C Hydrology & Human Affairs, FNR4624C Field Operations for Management of Ecosystems, SWS

Hill, Jeffrey E.

238

Improved yield and Zn accumulation for rice grain by Zn fertilization and optimized water management*  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) deficiency and water scarcity are major challenges in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under an intensive rice production system. This study aims to investigate the impact of water-saving management and different Zn fertilization source (ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA) regimes on grain yield and Zn accumulation in rice grain. Different water managements, continuous flooding (CF), and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) were applied during the rice growing season. Compared with CF, the AWD regime significantly increased grain yield and Zn concentrations in both brown rice and polished rice. Grain yield of genotypes (Nipponbare and Jiaxing27), on the average, was increased by 11.4%, and grain Zn concentration by 3.9% when compared with those under a CF regime. Zn fertilization significantly increased Zn density in polished rice, with a more pronounced effect of ZnSO4 being observed as compared with Zn-EDTA, especially under an AWD regime. Decreased phytic acid content and molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn were also noted in rice grains with Zn fertilization. The above results demonstrated that water management of AWD combined with ZnSO4 fertilization was an effective agricultural practice to elevate grain yield and increase Zn accumulation and bioavailability in rice grains. PMID:24711357

Wang, Yu-yan; Wei, Yan-yan; Dong, Lan-xue; Lu, Ling-li; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Feng-shan; Yang, Xiao-e

2014-01-01

239

Study of chemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification for producing fermentable sugars from rice straw.  

PubMed

This study evaluated a cost-effective approach for the conversion of rice straw into fermentable sugars. The composition of rice straw pretreated with 1 % sulfuric acid or 1 % sodium hydroxide solution was compared to rice straw with no chemical pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification experiments on non-pretreated rice straw (NPRS), pretreated rice straw (PRS), and pretreated rice straw with acid hydrolysate (PRSAH) were conducted in a series of batch reactors. The results indicated that pretreating the rice straw with dilute acid and base increased the cellulose content from 38 % to over 50 %. During enzymatic saccharification, straight aliphatic cellulose was hydrolyzed before branched hemicellulose, and glucose was the major hydrolysis product. The glucose yield was 0.52 g glucose/g for NPRS and was comparable to the yields of 0.50 g glucose/g for PRS and 0.58 g glucose/g for PRSAH. The hydrolysis of rice straw to produce glucose can be described by a first-order reaction with a rate constant of 0.0550 d(-1) for NPRS, 0.0653 d(-1) for PRSAH, and 0.0654 d(-1) for PRS. Overall, the production of fermentable sugars from ground rice straw will be more cost effective if the straw is not pretreated with chemicals. PMID:24346765

Chen, Wen-Hsing; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Jih-Gaw

2014-07-01

240

Rice proteomics: a model system for crop improvement and food security.  

PubMed

Rice proteomics has progressed at a tremendous pace since the year 2000, and that has resulted in establishing and understanding the proteomes of tissues, organs, and organelles under both normal and abnormal (adverse) environmental conditions. Established proteomes have also helped in re-annotating the rice genome and revealing the new role of previously known proteins. The progress of rice proteomics had recognized it as the corner/stepping stone for at least cereal crops. Rice proteomics remains a model system for crops as per its exemplary proteomics research. Proteomics-based discoveries in rice are likely to be translated in improving crop plants and vice versa against ever-changing environmental factors. This review comprehensively covers rice proteomics studies from August 2010 to July 2013, with major focus on rice responses to diverse abiotic (drought, salt, oxidative, temperature, nutrient, hormone, metal ions, UV radiation, and ozone) as well as various biotic stresses, especially rice-pathogen interactions. The differentially regulated proteins in response to various abiotic stresses in different tissues have also been summarized, indicating key metabolic and regulatory pathways. We envision a significant role of rice proteomics in addressing the global ground level problem of food security, to meet the demands of the human population which is expected to reach six to nine billion by 2040. PMID:24323464

Kim, Sun Tae; Kim, Sang Gon; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

2014-03-01

241

Environments and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the biosphere and its associated environments and ecosystems in the context of creating a model ecosystem, learning along the way about the animals and resources. Students investigate different types of ecosystems, learn new vocabulary, and consider why a solid understanding of one's environment and the interdependence of an ecosystem can inform the choices we make and the way we engineer our communities. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

242

RICE UNIVERSITY The Barbara and David Gibbs  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY The Barbara and David Gibbs RECREATION CENTER MEMBERSHIP CANCELLATION FORM Date for Cancellation:____________________________________________________ I authorize Rice University to terminate my

Alvarez, Pedro J.

243

Neglecting Rice Milling Yield and Quality Underestimates Economic Losses from High-Temperature Stress  

PubMed Central

Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable) rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1°C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers. PMID:23991056

Lyman, Nathaniel B.; Jagadish, Krishna S. V.; Nalley, L. Lanier; Dixon, Bruce L.; Siebenmorgen, Terry

2013-01-01

244

Water management affects arsenic and cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars.  

PubMed

Paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food and one of the major sources of dietary arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Asia. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of four water management regimes (aerobic, intermittent irrigation, conventional irrigation and flooding) on As and Cd accumulation in seven major rice cultivars grown in Zhejiang province, east China. With increasing irrigation from aerobic to flooded conditions, the soil HCl-extractable As concentrations increased significantly and the HCl-extractable Cd concentrations decreased significantly. These trends were consistent with the As and Cd concentrations in the straw, husk and brown rice. Water management both before and after the full tillering stage affected As and Cd accumulation in the grains. The intermittent and conventional treatments produced higher grain yields than the aerobic and flooded treatments. Cd concentrations in brown rice varied 13.1-40.8 times and As varied 1.75-8.80 times among the four water management regimes. Cd and As accumulation in brown rice varied among the rice cultivars, with Guodao 6 (GD6) was a low Cd but high-As-accumulating cultivar while Indonesia (IR) and Yongyou 9 (YY9) were low As but high-Cd-accumulating cultivars. Brown rice Cd and As concentrations in the 7 cultivars were significantly negatively correlated. The results indicate that As and Cd accumulated in rice grains with opposite trends that were influenced by both water management and rice cultivar. Production of 'safe' rice with respect to As and Cd might be possible by balancing water management and rice cultivar according to the severity of soil pollution. PMID:23719663

Hu, Pengjie; Huang, Jiexue; Ouyang, Younan; Wu, Longhua; Song, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Zhou, Liqiang; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

2013-12-01

245

Rice Bran for Fattening Hogs.  

E-print Network

, 9 hard; U. S., 6 hard. Lots 2 and 8. Rice bran 90 per cent., tankage 10 per cent.: Swift, 9 soft; U. S., 4 hard, 2 slightly soft. Lots 3 and 9. Corn chops 45 per cent., rice bran 45 per cent., tank- ' age 10 per cent. : Swift, 8 hard, 1 soft; U.... s., 6 hard. Lots 4 and 10. Self-fed, corn chops, rice bran, and tankage: Swift, 9 hard; U. S., 6 hard. Lots 5 and 11. Corn chops 30 per cent., rice bran 60 per cent., and tankage 10 per cent.: Swift, 4 hard, 2 soft; U. S., 6 hard. Lots 6 and 12...

McConnell, O. E.; Williams, D. W. (David Willard)

1922-01-01

246

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16

247

Inheritance of amylose content in rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of low and very low amylose contents in six rice crosses and their reciprocals was studied by single grain analysis of parents F1, F2, B1 and B2 seeds. To minimize the environmental effects, the seeds of all generations of all crosses were produced in a single season. The results indicated different dosage effects in different crosses. One major

Ish Kumar; G. S. Khush

1988-01-01

248

Evolutionary transients in the rice transcriptome.  

SciTech Connect

The number of protein-coding genes predicted from the rice genome remains much larger than the number of genes for Arabidopsis. Most of the excess rice genes show low similarity to Arabidopsis, and eudicots in general. It is difficult to repudiate these genes because even for the 19,079 non-redundant rice cDNAs that have been sequenced, 34.3% are low similarity. Here, we describe a major contributor to this excess of low similarity genes: the frequent and continued occurrence of gene duplications in plants, and the post- duplicative degradation (i.e. relaxed selection) that is typically expected to occur in one of the two gene copies. The salient feature of this degradation is an increase in Ka/Ks for Ks per available site, respectively. We show that low similarity genes are expressed at lower mRNA and protein levels than other genes, and that regions of the encoded proteins are structurally disordered. Indeed, many are evolutionary “transients” that may be destined to die, even if they remain transcriptionally active for millions of years.

Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Li, Ruiqiang; Zheng, Hongkun; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Li, Heng; Ni, Peixiang; Li, Songgang; Li, Shengting; Wang, Jingquiang; Liu, Dongyuan; McDermott, Jason E.; Samudrala, Ram; Liu, Siqi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yu, Jun; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu

2010-12-01

249

Chicano Studies Major Major Advisor  

E-print Network

Chicano Studies Major Major Advisor Laura Jimenez-Olvera 532 Barrows Hall 510-642-0243 lauraj@berkeley.edu http://ethnicstudies.berkeley.edu/ Undergraduate Program The Chicano studies major offers an interdisciplinary curriculum of academic study that critically examines the historical and contemporary experiences

Walker, Matthew P.

250

Multiple states in river and lake ecosystems.  

PubMed Central

Nonlinear models of ecosystem dynamics that incorporate positive feedbacks and multiple, internally reinforced states have considerable explanatory power. However, linear models may be adequate, particularly if ecosystem behaviour is primarily controlled by external processes. In lake ecosystems, internal (mainly biotic) processes are thought to have major impacts on system behaviour, whereas in rivers, external (mainly physical) factors have traditionally been emphasized. We consider the hypothesis that models that exhibit multiple states are useful for understanding the behaviour of lake ecosystems, but not as useful for understanding stream ecosystems. Some of the best-known examples of multiple states come from lake ecosystems. We review some of these examples, and we also describe examples of multiple states in rivers. We conclude that the hypothesis is an oversimplification; the importance of physical forcing in rivers does not eliminate the possibility of internal feedbacks that create multiple states, although in rivers these feedbacks are likely to include physical as well as biotic processes. Nonlinear behaviour in aquatic ecosystems may be more common than current theory indicates. PMID:12079525

Dent, C Lisa; Cumming, Graeme S; Carpenter, Stephen R

2002-01-01

251

Global Conservation of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from the November 2007 issue of BioScience examines conservation strategies to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services.Habitat destruction has driven much of the current biodiversity extinction crisis, and it compromises the essential benefits, or ecosystem services, that humans derive from functioning ecosystems. Securing both species and ecosystem services might be accomplished with common solutions. Yet it is unknown whether these two major conservation objectives coincide broadly enough worldwide to enable global strategies for both goals to gain synergy. In this article, we assess the concordance between these two objectives, explore how the concordance varies across different regions, and examine the global potential for safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services simultaneously. We find that published global priority maps for biodiversity conservation harbor a disproportionate share of estimated terrestrial ecosystem service value (ESV). Overlap of biodiversity priorities and ESV varies among regions, and in areas that have high biodiversity priority but low ESV, specialized conservation approaches are necessary. Overall, however, our findings suggest opportunities for safeguarding both biodiversity and ecosystem services. Sensitivity analyses indicate that results are robust to known limitations of available ESV data. Capitalizing on these opportunities will require the identification of synergies at fine scales, and the development of economic and policy tools to exploit them.

Will Turner (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Katrina Brandon (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Thomas Brooks (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Robert Constanza (University of Vermont;Gund Institute for Ecological Economics); Gustavo da Fonseca (Federal University of Minas Gerais;); Rosimeiry Portela (;)

2007-11-01

252

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Learn more at cmc.rice.edu  

E-print Network

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Wireless Learn more at cmc.rice.edu or ece.rice in either orthogonal time-slots (TDD) or frequency bands (FDD). In 2010, Rice re-purposed off-the-shelf MIMO Wireless project directed by Prof. Edward Knightly at Rice University aims to develop fundamental

253

Resource use conflicts: the future of the Kalahari ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kalahari ecosystem is characterized by natural resource conflicts and land-use pressure resulting from intensification of human activities. This paper addresses three issues of concern associated with the Kalahari ecosystem resource management: (i) the major land-use\\/land cover shifts in the Kalahari ecosystem since 1970 and the resulting pattern in vegetation species composition, cover and density; (ii) the possible explanations for

N. M. Moleele; J. Mainah

2003-01-01

254

Texas Rice, Volume V, Number 9, Winter Issue  

E-print Network

into the atmosphere. However, the amount released is only 0.015% of the total U.S. methane emissions. 2 From the Editor... Inside This Issue High Nighttime Temperatures Affect Rice Productivity....3 Melting Peat Bogs and Global Warming ............................8... of the grain, a major determinant of cooking qual- ity, is increased under elevated CO 2 . Cooked rice grain from plants grown in high-CO 2 environments would be firmer than that from today’s plants. However, concen- trations of iron and zinc, which...

2005-01-01

255

Advances in Transgenic Rice Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is the most amenable crop plant for genetic manipulation amongst monocots due to its small genome size, enriched genetic map, availability of entire genome sequence, and relative ease of transformation. Improvement in agronomic traits of rice is bound to affect a sizeable population since it is a primary source of sustenance. Recent advances like use of ‘clean gene’ technology

Hitesh Kathuria; Jitender Giri; Himani Tyagi; Akhilesh K. Tyagi

2007-01-01

256

Amy Katherine Rice Doctoral Student  

E-print Network

. ProQuest/UMI. March 2010. Rice, Amy. Optimal Sensor Location: Comparison of Soil Textural sensors and/or networks. PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS In preparation: Oostrom, M., Rice, A.K., Wietsma Response: Comparison of Textural and Response Clustering Approaches to Soil Classification. Master's Thesis

257

Update on organic rice research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic products command a premium in the marketplace and bring greater farmgate value to growers and processors. Although total rice acreage has decreased in Texas over the last ten years, there has been an increase in rice acreage produced under organic management. USDA ARS has conducted research ...

258

SOLID MECHANICS James R. Rice  

E-print Network

1 SOLID MECHANICS James R. Rice School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Department of Earth: February 2010 Downloadable at: http://esag.harvard.edu/rice/e0_Solid_Mechanics_94_10.pdf TABLE OF CONTENTS well below those of the application or phenomenon of interest. Solid mechanics is concerned

259

RICE: Rapid interconnect circuit evaluator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes RICE, an RLC interconnect evaluation tool based upon the moment-matching teehnique of Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE). The RLC circuit moments are calculated by a path-tracing algorithm which enables the analysis of large interconnect models several thousand times faster than a circuit simulation while requiring 5 to 10 times less memory. RICE also includes anew approach for determining

Curtis L. Ratzlaff; Nanda Gopal; Lawrence T. Pillage

1991-01-01

260

Ecosystem Services - Water Purification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, provided by Science NetLinks, teaches students the importance of healthy ecosystems by investigating the example of natural water purification. Students will learn how ecosystems remove pollution from the water and how much it costs humans to do this artificially once ecosystems are no longer healthy. The class will then create a "River Newspaper" reporting on the condition of the local environment.

Science Netlinks;

2002-06-30

261

Texas Rice, Volume 1, Number 7  

E-print Network

surrounding Bakers- field. After high school, Mo went to Bakersfield Junior College for two years before transferring to the Uni- versity of California at Davis where he captained the football team. It was at Davis that Mo received his BS, MS and PhD, all... in school, and served as Mo’s major professor for his PhD work. In 1982, as Mo was finishing his dissertation, he saw a notice on the bulle- tin board for an opening at the Beaumont Center for a rice/soybean entomologist. It was a perfect fit, and Mo came...

262

Texas Rice, Volume III, Number 4  

E-print Network

Jack is the only sur- vivor. The couple met in 1917 when Bill moved to Markham to work for B.J. Jones, Jackie’s dad, who was a rice farmer. Jack’s father was one of the first producers on the Richmond canal system when it be- gan in 1928. When... decided to transfer to the University of New York at New Paltz and major in Botany. During this time the ‘Green Revolution’ was in full thrust and Dr. Norman Borlaug was conducting work in Mexico that would win him the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1970. Dr...

263

Isolation and identification of an allelopathic phenylethylamine in rice.  

PubMed

Allelopathy is the process whereby an organic chemical (allelochemical) released from one plant influences the growth and development of other plants. Allelochemicals produced by specific rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars have potential to manage barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.), a major yield-limiting weed species in rice production systems in Asia and North America. In this study, isolation and identification of an allelopathic compound, N-trans-cinnamoyltyramine (NTCT), in a Vietnamese rice cultivar 'OM 5930' was accomplished through bioassay-guided purification using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with spectroscopic techniques, including tandem mass spectrometry, high resolution mass spectrometry, as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The identified compound, NTCT is considered a ?-phenylethylamine. NTCT inhibited root and hypocotyl growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.), barnyard grass and red sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis L. Nees) at concentrations as low as 0.24?M. The ED50 (concentration required for 50% inhibition) of NTCT on barnyard grass root and hypocotyl elongation were 1.35 and 1.85?M, respectively. Results further demonstrated that mortality of barnyard grass and red sprangletop seedlings was >80% at a concentration of 2.4?M of NTCT. By 20days after transplanting, 0.425nmol of NTCT per OM 5930 rice seedling was released into the culture solution. With concentrations of 42?gg(-1) fresh weight, production of NTCT in intact rice plants can be considered high. These findings suggest that developing plants of Vietnamese rice cultivar OM 5930 release NTCT and may be utilized to suppress barnyard grass in rice fields. The potency of NTCT may encourage development of this compound as a bio-herbicide. PMID:25212867

Le Thi, Ho; Lin, Chung-Ho; Smeda, Reid J; Leigh, Nathan D; Wycoff, Wei G; Fritschi, Felix B

2014-12-01

264

Revised 7/10 1 RICE UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

ID: Contact #: Your employment end date with Rice is Timesheet and/or Time & Attendance Reports in your time and attendance report to your supervisor. Outstanding amounts due - In order to receive your-348-4791. * Rice benefits - Contact the Rice Benefits Hotline at benefits@rice.edu or 713-348-2363 for more

265

of Flours Prepared from Cooked Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of amylose on cooked rice texture has been studied more than any other parameter that affects the rheoiogical properties of rice. Amylose content of rice influences cooked grain texture and the resistance of the starch to overcooking, The relationship between amylose and texture is well known: the higher the amylose content of rice the higher the resistance to

A. B. Blakeney; L. A. Welsh; M. Martin; R. I. Booth; N. E. Turner

266

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Neuroengineering  

E-print Network

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Neuroengineering Learn more at ece.rice function. At Rice, we develop technologies to understand, repair, replace, enhance, or treat the diseases, the university has established the Rice Center for Neuroengineering (RCNE). The center's goal is to integrate

267

RICE SEQUENCES OF RELATIONS ANTONIO MONTALBAN  

E-print Network

RICE SEQUENCES OF RELATIONS ANTONIO MONTALB´AN Abstract. We propose a framework to study computational ways of measuring the complexity of relations. The key notion of this paper is the one of rice sequence of relations, where rice stands for relatively intrinsically computably enumerable. A rice

Montalbán, Antonio

268

Living Things: Habitats & Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Text and photographs regarding habitats, populations and communities, biomes, niches and ecosystems in general with numerous links to lessons, activities, and organizations on specific subtopics in ecology.

2009-01-01

269

Differential response of cultivated and weedy (red) rice to recent and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a principle resource for plant growth; as such, the ongoing increase in its concentration may differentially affect the growth of cultivated and wild types of the same species. Red rice in the U.S. is a weedy relative of cultivated rice that represents a major production con...

270

Comparative cytological and transcriptomic analysis of pollen development in autotetraploid and diploid rice.  

PubMed

Autotetraploid rice has greater genetic variation and higher vigor than diploid rice, but low pollen fertility is one of the major reasons for low yield of autotetraploid rice. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms of low pollen fertility of autotetraploid rice. In this study, cytological observations and microarray analysis were used to assess the genetic variation during pollen development in autotetraploid and diploid rice. Many abnormal chromosome behaviors, such as mutivalents, lagged chromosomes, asynchronous cell division, and so on, were found during meiosis in autotetraploid. Microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis in autotetraploid rice was similar to diploid rice, but many different kinds of abnormalities, including microspores degeneration, multi-aperture, and abnormal cell walls, were found in autotetraploid rice. Compared with diploid rice, a total of 1,251 genes were differentially expressed in autotetraploid rice in pollen transcriptome, among them 1,011 and 240 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. 124 and 6 genes were co-up-regulated and co-down-regulated during three pollen development stages, respectively. These results suggest that polyploidy induced up-regulation for most of the genes during pollen development. Quantitative RT-PCR was done to validate 12 differentially expressed genes selected from functional categories based on the gene ontology analysis. These stably expressed genes not only related to the pollen development genes, but also involved in cell metabolism, cell physiology, binding, catalytic activity, molecular transducer activity, and transcription regulator activity. The present study suggests that differential expression of some key genes may lead to complex gene regulation and abnormal pollen development in autotetraploid rice. PMID:25262386

Wu, Jinwen; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Guo, Haibin; Yin, Wei; Chen, Zhixiong; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

2014-12-01

271

Identification of climate-resilient integrated nutrient management practices for rice-rice cropping system—an empirical approach to uphold food security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yield datasets of long-term experiments on integrated nutrient management in rice-rice cropping systems were used to investigate the relationship of variability in rainfall, temperature, and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices in rice-rice cropping system in three different agroecological regions of India. Twelve treatments with different combinations of inorganic (chemical fertilizer) and organic (farmyard manure, green manure, and paddy straw) were compared with farmer's conventional practice. The intraseasonal variations in rice yields are largely driven by rainfall during kharif rice and by temperature during rabi rice. Half of the standard deviation from the average monthly as well as seasonal rainfall during kharif rice and 1 °C increase or decrease from the average maximum and minimum temperature during rabi rice has been taken as the classification of yield groups. The trends in the date of effective onset of monsoon indicate a 36-day delay during the 30-year period at Rajendranagar, which is statistically significant at 95 % confidence level. The mean annual maximum temperature shows an increasing trend in all the study sites. The length of monsoon also showed a shrinking trend in the rate of 40 days during the 30-year study period at Rajendranagar representing a semiarid region. At Bhubaneshwar, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through green manure resulted in an overall average higher increase of 5.1 % in system productivity under both excess and deficit rainfall years and also during the years having seasonal mean maximum temperature ?35 °C. However, at Jorhat, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through straw resulted in an overall average higher increase of 7.4 % in system productivity, while at Rajendranagar, the application of 75 % NPK through chemical fertilizers and 25 % N through green manusre resulted in an overall average higher increase of 8.8 % in system productivity. This study highlights the adaptive capacity of different integrated nutrient management practices to rainfall and temperature variability under a rice-rice cropping system in humid, subhumid, and semiarid ecosystems.

Subash, N.; Gangwar, B.; Singh, Rajbir; Sikka, A. K.

2015-01-01

272

Identification of climate-resilient integrated nutrient management practices for rice-rice cropping system-an empirical approach to uphold food security.  

PubMed

Yield datasets of long-term experiments on integrated nutrient management in rice-rice cropping systems were used to investigate the relationship of variability in rainfall, temperature, and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices in rice-rice cropping system in three different agroecological regions of India. Twelve treatments with different combinations of inorganic (chemical fertilizer) and organic (farmyard manure, green manure, and paddy straw) were compared with farmer's conventional practice. The intraseasonal variations in rice yields are largely driven by rainfall during kharif rice and by temperature during rabi rice. Half of the standard deviation from the average monthly as well as seasonal rainfall during kharif rice and 1 °C increase or decrease from the average maximum and minimum temperature during rabi rice has been taken as the classification of yield groups. The trends in the date of effective onset of monsoon indicate a 36-day delay during the 30-year period at Rajendranagar, which is statistically significant at 95 % confidence level. The mean annual maximum temperature shows an increasing trend in all the study sites. The length of monsoon also showed a shrinking trend in the rate of 40 days during the 30-year study period at Rajendranagar representing a semiarid region. At Bhubaneshwar, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through green manure resulted in an overall average higher increase of 5.1 % in system productivity under both excess and deficit rainfall years and also during the years having seasonal mean maximum temperature ?35 °C. However, at Jorhat, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through straw resulted in an overall average higher increase of 7.4 % in system productivity, while at Rajendranagar, the application of 75 % NPK through chemical fertilizers and 25 % N through green manusre resulted in an overall average higher increase of 8.8 % in system productivity. This study highlights the adaptive capacity of different integrated nutrient management practices to rainfall and temperature variability under a rice-rice cropping system in humid, subhumid, and semiarid ecosystems. PMID:24817490

Subash, N; Gangwar, B; Singh, Rajbir; Sikka, A K

2015-01-01

273

Ecosystem Approaches for Fisheries Management 609 Alaska Sea Grant College Program AK-SG-99-01, 1999  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Approaches for Fisheries Management 609 Alaska Sea Grant College Program · AK-SG-99-01, 1999 Ecosystem Considerations and the Limitations of Ecosystem Models in Fisheries Management: Insights for the implementation of ecosystem approaches. The major criticism of single- species models is that they cannot predict

274

Partitioning of CH4 and CO2 Production Originating from Rice Straw, Soil and Root Organic Carbon in Rice Microcosms  

PubMed Central

Flooded rice fields are an important source of the greenhouse gas CH4. Possible carbon sources for CH4 and CO2 production in rice fields are soil organic matter (SOM), root organic carbon (ROC) and rice straw (RS), but partitioning of the flux between the different carbon sources is difficult. We conducted greenhouse experiments using soil microcosms planted with rice. The soil was amended with and without 13C-labeled RS, using two 13C-labeled RS treatments with equal RS (5 g kg?1 soil) but different ?13C of RS. This procedure allowed to determine the carbon flux from each of the three sources (SOM, ROC, RS) by determining the ?13C of CH4 and CO2 in the different incubations and from the ?13C of RS. Partitioning of carbon flux indicated that the contribution of ROC to CH4 production was 41% at tillering stage, increased with rice growth and was about 60% from the booting stage onwards. The contribution of ROC to CO2 was 43% at tillering stage, increased to around 70% at booting stage and stayed relatively constant afterwards. The contribution of RS was determined to be in a range of 12–24% for CH4 production and 11–31% for CO2 production; while the contribution of SOM was calculated to be 23–35% for CH4 production and 13–26% for CO2 production. The results indicate that ROC was the major source of CH4 though RS application greatly enhanced production and emission of CH4 in rice field soil. Our results also suggest that data of CH4 dissolved in rice field could be used as a proxy for the produced CH4 after tillering stage. PMID:23162678

Yuan, Quan; Pump, Judith; Conrad, Ralf

2012-01-01

275

Seeing Red: The Origin of Grain Pigmentation in US Weedy Rice  

PubMed Central

Weedy forms of crop species infest agricultural fields worldwide and are a leading cause of crop losses, yet little is known about how these weeds evolve. Red rice (Oryza sativa), a major weed of cultivated rice fields in the US, is recognized by the dark-pigmented grain that gives it its common name. Studies using neutral molecular markers have indicated a close relationship between US red rice and domesticated rice, suggesting that the weed may have originated through reversion of domesticated rice to a feral form. We have tested this reversion hypothesis by examining molecular variation at Rc, the regulatory gene responsible for grain pigmentation differences between domesticated and wild rice. Loss-of-function mutations at Rc account for the absence of proanthocyanidin pigments in cultivated rice grains, and the major rc domestication allele has been shown to be capable of spontaneous reversion to a functional form through additional mutations at the Rc locus. Using a diverse sample of 156 weedy, domesticated, and wild Oryzas, we analyzed DNA sequence variation at Rc and its surrounding 4 Mb genomic region. We find that reversion of domestication alleles does not account for the pigmented grains of weed accessions; moreover, we find that haplotypes characterizing the weed are either absent or very rare in cultivated rice. Sequences from genomic regions flanking Rc are consistent with a genomic footprint of the rc selective sweep in cultivated rice, and are compatible with a close relationship of red rice to Asian Oryzas that have never been cultivated in the US. PMID:20584133

Gross, Briana L.; Reagon, Michael; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Caicedo, Ana L.; Jia, Yulin; Olsen, Kenneth M.

2010-01-01

276

International Consortium of Rice Mutagenesis: resources and beyond  

PubMed Central

Rice is one of the most important crops in the world. The rice community needs to cooperate and share efforts and resources so that we can understand the functions of rice genes, especially those with a role in important agronomical traits, for application in agricultural production. Mutation is a major source of genetic variation that can be used for studying gene function. We will present here the status of mutant collections affected in a random manner by physical/chemical and insertion mutageneses. As of early September 2013, a total of 447, 919 flanking sequence tags from rice mutant libraries with T-DNA, Ac/Ds, En/Spm, Tos17, nDART/aDART insertions have been collected and publicly available. From these, 336,262 sequences are precisely positioned on the japonica rice chromosomes, and 67.5% are in gene interval. We discuss the genome coverage and preference of the insertion, issues limiting the exchange and use of the current collections, as well as new and improved resources. We propose a call to renew all mutant populations as soon as possible. We also suggest that a common web portal should be established for ordering seeds. PMID:24341871

2013-01-01

277

Resistance to stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) among Texas rice cultivars.  

PubMed

A 4-yr field study was conducted to assess the resistance of rice, Oryza sativa L., cultivars to injury from the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (both Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Several cultivars showed reduced levels of injury ('CLXL8', 'XL8', 'Wells', 'Cheniere', and 'XP710' in 2003; CLXL8, XP723, Cheniere, and 'CL161' in 2004) and lower stem borer yield loss (CLXL8 in 2004) than the more susceptible 'Priscilla'. The resistant CLXL8 also had less injury and yield loss in 2004 and higher yield in 2003 than 'Cocodrie', currently the most popular rice cultivar in Texas and Louisiana. Linear regression analyses between whiteheads and main crop rice yield showed steeper negative slopes for the more resistant cultivars than the more susceptible cultivars, indicating a greater yield loss per whitehead on the resistant cultivars. Compensation from insect injury likely explains the positive associations established in our study between main crop yield and whiteheads for some cultivars. Cultivar resistance is anticipated to become a major control tactic in reducing infestations of E. loftini and D. saccharalis in the Texas and Louisiana rice industries. PMID:17066824

Way, M O; Reay-Jones, F P F; Reagan, T E

2006-10-01

278

Coral Reef Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are geological structures of significant dimensions, constructed over millions of years by calcifying organisms. The present day reef-builders are hard corals belonging to the order Scleractinia, phylum Cnidaria. The greatest concentrations of coral reefs are in the tropics, with highest levels of biodiversity situated in reefs of the Indo-West Pacific region. These ecosystems have provided coastal protection and livelihood to human populations over the millennia. Human activities have caused destruction of these habitats, the intensity of which has increased alarmingly since the latter decades of the twentieth century. The severity of this impact is directly related to exponential growth rates of human populations especially in the coastal areas of the developing world. However, a more recently recognized phenomenon concerns disturbances brought about by the changing climate, manifested mainly as rising sea surface temperatures, and increasing acidification of ocean waters due to greater drawdown of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Management efforts have so far not kept pace with the rates of degradation, so that the spatial extent of damaged reefs and the incidences of localized extinction of reef species are increasing year after year. The major management efforts to date consist of establishing marine protected areas and promoting the active restoration of coral habitats.

Yap, Helen T.

279

One Grain of Rice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning with the famous story of the village girl trying to feed her people, the lesson involves students in the mathematics of exponential growth. Students work collaboratively to come up with a bargaining plan to trick a raja into feeding the village using algebra and estimation. The complete activity includes the development of an exponential equation, but just following the growth of the number of rice grains throughout the story gives a good introduction to exponential growth. Questions for students and ideas for assessment are provided.

Simon, Christy

2000-01-01

280

Habitat scale mapping of fisheries ecosystem services values in estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

Little is known about the variability of ecosystem service values at spatial scales most relevant to local decision makers. Competing definitions of ecosystem services, the paucity of ecological and economic information and the lack of standardization in methodology are major ob...

281

Ecosystem nitrogen retention and flushing across a soil texture gradient  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most ecosystems retain a majority of reactive N inputs, transforming reactive mineral N into relatively nonreactive stable organic N. Mechanistic explanations for these observations focus on C-dependent processes, and in particular wide C:N ratios. However, in some ecosystems C-dependent mechanism...

282

Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance  

E-print Network

Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance Erika S. Zavaleta* , Brian D. Thomas the relatively brief time when plants are exposed. For the snow-free majority of ecosystems in which vegetation in mediating water balance. In particular, warming effects on plant production or phenology could influence

Zavaleta, Erika

283

Fronts in the World Ocean's Large Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanic fronts shape marine ecosystems; therefore front mapping and characterization is one of the most important aspects of physical oceanography. Here we report on the first effort to map and describe all major fronts in the World Ocean's Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). Apart from a geographical review, these fronts are classified according to their origin and physical mechanisms that maintain

Igor M. Belkin; Peter C. Cornillon

284

Chinese rice production area adaptations to climate changes, 1949-2010.  

PubMed

Climate change has great impact on cropping system. Understanding how the rice production system has historically responded to external forces, both natural and anthropogenic, will provide critical insights into how the system is likely to respond in the future. The observed historic rice movement provides insights into the capability of the rice production system to adapt to climate changes. Using province-level rice production data and historic climate records, here we show that the centroid of Chinese rice production shifted northeastward over 370km (2.98°N in latitude and 1.88°E in longitude) from 1949 to 2010. Using a linear regression model, we examined the driving factors, in particular climate, behind such rice production movement. While the major driving forces of the rice relocation are such social economic factors as urbanization, irrigation investment, and agricultural or land use policy changes, climate plays a significant role as well. We found that temperature has been a significant and coherent influence on moving the rice center in China and precipitation has had a significant but less spatially coherent influence. PMID:25625767

Li, Zhengguo; Liu, Zhenhuan; Anderson, Weston; Yang, Peng; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; You, Liangzhi

2015-02-17

285

Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice.  

PubMed

Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1?+?3?+?12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. PMID:24891164

Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

2014-10-01

286

Major Programs  

Cancer.gov

The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than100 sites across the United States; investigator-initiated grants; postdoctoral training; and specialized resources for researchers.

287

Major Links.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

Henderson, Tona

1995-01-01

288

SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE) was held in Indonesia on 2012, as part of Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE), which is a component for the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The study was expected to give a breakthrough result, by using radar technology and paradigm shift of the standard production estimation system from list frame to area frame approach. This initial product estimation system is expected to be refined (fine tuning) in 2013, by participating as part of Technical Demonstration Site (Phase -1A) of Asia-RICE. The implementation period of this initial study was from the date of March 12 to December 10, 2012. The implementation of the study was done by following the approach of the BIMAS-21 framework, which has been developed since 2008. The results of this study can be briefly divided into two major components, namely: Rice-field Baseline Mapping (PESBAK - Peta Sawah Baku) and Crop Growth Monitoring. Rice-fields were derived from the mapping results of the Ministry of Agriculture (Kemtan), and validated through Student Extension Campaign of the Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). While for the crop growth, it was derived from the results of image analysis process. The analysis was done, either on radar/Radarsat-2 (medium resolution) or optical/ MODIS (low resolution), based on the Planting Calendar (KATAM) of Kemtan. In this case, the planting season II/2012-2013 of rice production centers in West Java Province (Karawang, Subang and Indramayu counties). The selection of crop season and county were entirely dependent on the quality of the available PESBAK and procurement process of radar imagery. The PESBAK is still in the form of block instead of fields, so it can not be directly utilized in this study. Efforts to improve the PESBAK can not be optimal because the provided satellite image (ECW format) is not the original one. While the procurement process of SAR imageries, determine the target planting season to be linked. In this case the radar image only acquired two time series: the date of 26/10/2012 (stripmap) and 10/31/2012 (scanSAR) for series-1, and the date of 19/11/2012 (stripmap) and 11/24/2012 ( scanSAR) for series-2. The end result of this study is a model of crop growth status at the village, district and county level compared to KATAM. The County of Subang was used as a pilot exercise, and then was replicated into the two other counties (Karawang and Indramayu). Status of plant growth is divided into five phases: fallow wet, young vegetation, old vegetation, generative (pre-harvest), and dry fallow. The process of plant growth status was started with the determination of the majority in each rice field as a benchmark. This was followed by the creation of status recapitulation at the village, district, and ultimately at the county level. The county results were then compared with KATAM. Further replication to the rest of the other counties in the West Java Province, can only be done after the related PESBAK was improved in accordance to the area base standard requirement.

Raimadoya, M.

2013-12-01

289

Majors Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Put on your safari hat, open your mind and get ready to enter the world of majors explorations. If you ever wondered about a field of study and whether it is right for you, you are about to find out. You will also learn where majors and fields lead for careers that may interest you. All you need for the journey is the mind of the explorer and a commitment to thoroughly investigating the options which await you.

Prentice Hall (Prentice Hall)

2012-01-05

290

Red rice control in rice using herbicides plus safeners  

E-print Network

. Chapter II LITERATURE REVIEW According to Sonnier, as reported by Smith (13), and Constantin (3) there are two recognized varieties of red rice, a strawhull type and a blackhull type, but many variations of these types may be found. Red rice differs...:292-295. 2. Chang, F. Yfs G. R. Stephenson, and J. D. Bandeen. 1974. Control of wild oats in oats with barban plus antidote. Weed Science 22:546-548. 3. Constantin, Milton. 1960. Characteristics of red rice in Louisiana. Ph. D. Dissertation. Louisiana...

Price, James Bain

1977-01-01

291

Unravelling trophic subsidies of agroecosystems for biodiversity conservation: Food consumption and nutrient recycling by waterbirds in Mediterranean rice fields.  

PubMed

Waterbirds can reallocate a considerable amount of nutrients within agricultural fields and between agriculture sites and wetlands. However their effects on biogeochemical cycles have rarely been quantified. We estimated bird numbers, diet (from stable isotope analysis), food supply, and the food consumption on rice fields by overwintering waterbirds in one of the most important areas for rice production in southwestern Europe and a key area for various migrating and resident waterbird species. Herein, we modelled the nutrient (N and P) recycling in rice fields, and their transport to reservoirs. The energy consumption by waterbirds (96,605±18,311 individuals) on rice fields during winter averaged at 89.9±39.0kJ·m(-2), with its majority (89.9%) belonging to foraging on rice seeds. Thus, the birds removed about 26% of rice seeds leftover after harvest (estimated in 932.5±504.7 seeds·m(-2) in early winter) wherein common cranes and dabbling ducks (four species) were the most important consumers. Waterbirds foraging and roosting in the rice fields recycled more than 24.1 (1.0kg·ha(-1)) of N and an additional 5.0tons (0.2kg·ha(-1)) of P in the Extremadura's rice fields during winter. Additionally, we estimated that 2.3tons of N and 550kg of P were removed from rice fields and transported to reservoirs. The seasonal foraging of wildlife should result in a direct benefit for rice farmers by improving nutrient recycling through defecation by waterbirds with respect to artificial fertilisation. Additionally, rice fields located in the cranes' core wintering areas can provide sufficient food supply to induce habitat shift from their traditional wintering habitat in 'dehesas' to rice fields, which causes indirect socioeconomic benefit through reduced acorn consumption by cranes. Our modelling approach may thus be especially helpful for management decisions regarding rice agroecosystems in areas which are also important for the conservation of migratory waterbirds. PMID:25553543

Navedo, Juan G; Hahn, Steffen; Parejo, Manuel; Abad-Gómez, José M; Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M; Masero, José A

2015-04-01

292

The Library as Ecosystem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment, and the academic library could be considered to be an ecosystem, i.e., a "biological organization" in which multiple species must interact, both with one another and with their environment. The metaphor of the library as ecosystem is flexible enough to be applied not…

Walter, Scott

2008-01-01

293

Ecosystems, Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has developed this teacher's guide to "Ecosystems," the sixth part of a six unit life science curriculum sequence. The six basic units, emphasizing organism-environment interactions, are organisms, life cycles, populations, environments, communities, and ecosystems. They make use of scientific and…

California Univ., Berkeley. Science Curriculum Improvement Study.

294

What Is Ecosystem Management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolving concept of ecosystem management is the focus of much current debate. To clarify discussion and provide a frammork for implementatiotq I trace the histor- ical development of ecosystem management, provide a working definitioq and summarize dominant themes taken from an extensive literature reuiew. The general goal of maintaining ecological integ?Yty is discussed along with five specific goals: maintaining

R. Edward Grumbine

1994-01-01

295

Graduate studies Ecosystem Science  

E-print Network

Graduate studies in Ecosystem Science and Management Ph.D. M.S. M.Agr. or Natural Resources Development MNRD Department of Ecosystem Science and Management College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. The thesisbased Master of Science and Ph.D. degrees are designed for research or academic careers

296

International Year of Rice 2004  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The importance of rice as a basic foodstuff to over half of the world's populations can not be underestimated, and it was with this fact in mind that the International Rice Research Institute first developed the idea for the International Year of Rice in 1999. Working in tandem with the United Nations General Assembly, the Institute set up a number of partnerships, conferences, lectures, and research agendas to take place throughout the year 2004 and beyond. The site contains links to numerous important papers, such as the collection available here from the recent conference titled Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems, which was held in Rome. Beyond various scholarly and policy-oriented resources, visitors can learn about the rice photography contest, submit recipes to a forthcoming rice-themed cookbook, and explore a kids section that offers some basic facts about rice, along with a short quiz. The site is available in a number of different languages, including Italian, Spanish, French, Arabic, and Japanese.

297

Ecosystem Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange David M. Blersch dblersch Shade of Blue and You 21 September 2010 #12;National Science Foundation Ecosystem Restoration through;National Science Foundation Ecosystem Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange UB's ERIE Program www

Sachs, Frederick

298

El Niño effects on the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems.  

PubMed

New studies are showing that the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has major implications for the functioning of different ecosystems, ranging from deserts to tropical rain forests. ENSO-induced pulses of enhanced plant productivity can cascade upward through the food web invoking unforeseen feedbacks, and can cause open dryland ecosystems to shift to permanent woodlands. These insights suggest that the predicted change in extreme climatic events resulting from global warming could profoundly alter biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in many regions of the world. Our increasing ability to predict El Niño effects can be used to enhance management strategies for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. PMID:11165707

Holmgren, M; Scheffer, M; Ezcurra, E; Gutiérrez, J R.; Mohren, G M.J.

2001-02-01

299

Role of fungi in marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine fungi are an ecological rather than a taxonomic group and comprise an estimated 1500 species, excluding those that form lichens. They occur in most marine habitats and generally have a pantropical or pantemperate distribution. Marine fungi are major decomposers of woody and herbaceous substrates in marine ecosystems. Their importance lies in their ability to aggressively degrade lignocellulose. They may

Kevin D. Hyde; E. B. Gareth Jones; Eduardo Leaño; Stephen B. Pointing; Asha D. Poonyth; Lilian L. P. Vrijmoed

1998-01-01

300

NUTRIENT CYCLING BY ANIMALS IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Animals are important in nutrient cycling in freshwater ecosystems. Via excretory processes, animals can supply nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) at rates comparable to major nutrient sources, and nutrient cycling by animals can sup- port a substantial proportion of the nutrient demands of primary producers. In addition, animals may exert strong impacts on the species composition of primary producers

Michael J. Vanni

301

Rice crop monitoring with multitemporal MODIS-Landsat data fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and is the major crop in Taiwan. However, it is a challenge because rice fields are generally small and fragmental, while crop mapping requires information of crop phenology associating with the high spatiotemporal resolution of remote-sensing data. This problem can be partially overcome by a spatiotemporal fusion to create a new dataset that has a better spatiotemporal resolution. In this study, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat imageries were used because MODIS data, which a spatial resolution of land bands of 500 m and temporal resolution of 1-2 days, were able to achieve the phenological information of rice crops at a large region; while Landsat data demonstrate the effectiveness to collectively map small patches of crop fields at the subnational level due to its spatial resolution of 30 m. However, the temporal resolution of Landsat data is lower (16 days), making it difficult to investigate temporal responses of crop phenology from rice fields. The main objective of this study was to take into account of advantages of MODIS and Landsat imageries to generate a synthetic dataset at Landsat spatial resolution and MODIS temporal resolution for rice crop mapping in Taiwan. The methodology comprised five steps: (1) satellite data for 2011 were pre-processed to account for geometric and radiometric correction of MODIS and Landsat data, (2) MODIS-Landsat data fusion using the Spatial Temporal Adaptive Fusion Model (STARFM), (3) construct the smooth time-series Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data using wavelet transform, (4) rice crop classification using phenological information of crop phenology, and (5) accuracy assessment. The data fusion results for day of year (DOY) 153 were compared with the reference Landsat data (DOY 153) indicated a close correlation (R2 = 0.81). The phenology-based classification results compared with the ground reference data revealed close agreement between these two datasets. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 82% and 0.75, respectively. The relationship between the MODIS-derived rice areas and those from the government's rice area statistics at the district level was examined, reaffirming a strong correlation between the two datasets with R2 > 0.9. This study demonstrates advantages of MODIS-Landsat data fusion for rice crop mapping in Taiwan. Such an approach used in this study could be applied for other regions to map small patches of crops at a subnational scale.

Chen, Cheng-Ru; Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh

2014-05-01

302

7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice...

2011-01-01

303

7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

2010-01-01

304

7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

2011-01-01

305

7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice...

2012-01-01

306

7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.  

...2014-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice...

2014-01-01

307

7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

2013-01-01

308

7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice...

2013-01-01

309

7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

2012-01-01

310

7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.  

...2014-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

2014-01-01

311

Rice University | Faculty/Researchers Office of Institutional  

E-print Network

Rice University | Faculty/Researchers Office of Institutional Research Quick Facts Rice Facts Historical Facts Archives About OIR The Office of Institutional Research (OIR) serves Rice University of information to Rice about itself. This organizational intelligence function reflects the demand

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

312

Major depression.  

PubMed

Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered. PMID:25134869

Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

2014-09-01

313

Broader perspective on ecosystem sustainability: Consequences for decision making  

PubMed Central

Although the concept of ecosystem sustainability has a long-term focus, it is often viewed from a static system perspective. Because most ecosystems are dynamic, we explore sustainability assessments from three additional perspectives: resilient systems; systems where tipping points occur; and systems subject to episodic resetting. Whereas foundations of ecosystem resilience originated in ecology, recent discussions have focused on geophysical attributes, and it is recognized that dynamic system components may not return to their former state following perturbations. Tipping points emerge when chronic changes (typically anthropogenic, but sometimes natural) push ecosystems to thresholds that cause collapse of process and function and may become permanent. Ecosystem resetting occurs when episodic natural disasters breach thresholds with little or no warning, resulting in long-term changes to environmental attributes or ecosystem function. An example of sustainability assessment of ecosystem goods and services along the Gulf Coast (USA) demonstrates the need to include both the resilient and dynamic nature of biogeomorphic components. Mountain road development in northwest Yunnan, China, makes rivers and related habitat vulnerable to tipping points. Ecosystems reset by natural disasters are also presented, emphasizing the need to understand the magnitude frequency and interrelationships among major disturbances, as shown by (i) the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting tsunami, including how unsustainable urban development exacerbates geodisaster propagation, and (ii) repeated major earthquakes and associated geomorphic and vegetation disturbances in Papua New Guinea. Although all of these ecosystem perturbations and shifts are individually recognized, they are not embraced in contemporary sustainable decision making. PMID:23686583

Sidle, Roy C.; Benson, William H.; Carriger, John F.; Kamai, Toshitaka

2013-01-01

314

Broader perspective on ecosystem sustainability: consequences for decision making.  

PubMed

Although the concept of ecosystem sustainability has a long-term focus, it is often viewed from a static system perspective. Because most ecosystems are dynamic, we explore sustainability assessments from three additional perspectives: resilient systems; systems where tipping points occur; and systems subject to episodic resetting. Whereas foundations of ecosystem resilience originated in ecology, recent discussions have focused on geophysical attributes, and it is recognized that dynamic system components may not return to their former state following perturbations. Tipping points emerge when chronic changes (typically anthropogenic, but sometimes natural) push ecosystems to thresholds that cause collapse of process and function and may become permanent. Ecosystem resetting occurs when episodic natural disasters breach thresholds with little or no warning, resulting in long-term changes to environmental attributes or ecosystem function. An example of sustainability assessment of ecosystem goods and services along the Gulf Coast (USA) demonstrates the need to include both the resilient and dynamic nature of biogeomorphic components. Mountain road development in northwest Yunnan, China, makes rivers and related habitat vulnerable to tipping points. Ecosystems reset by natural disasters are also presented, emphasizing the need to understand the magnitude frequency and interrelationships among major disturbances, as shown by (i) the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting tsunami, including how unsustainable urban development exacerbates geodisaster propagation, and (ii) repeated major earthquakes and associated geomorphic and vegetation disturbances in Papua New Guinea. Although all of these ecosystem perturbations and shifts are individually recognized, they are not embraced in contemporary sustainable decision making. PMID:23686583

Sidle, Roy C; Benson, William H; Carriger, John F; Kamai, Toshitaka

2013-06-01

315

OsKAT2 is the prevailing functional inward rectifier potassium channels in rice guard cell.  

PubMed

AtKAT1 plays roles as a major channel to uptake K(+) in guard cell when stomata open in dicot model plant Arabidopsis. In a recent publication, we isolated 3 KAT-like potassium channels in rice. We expressed them in CHO cell to identify electrophysiological characteristics of the channels. OsKAT2 showed much bigger inwardly rectifying potassium channel activities among them. The histochemical X-glu staining of transgenic rice leaf blades expressing ?-glucuronidase fused with OsKAT2 promoter showed that the OsKAT2 is dominantly expressed in rice guard cell. These findings indicate that OsKAT2 may be a functional ortholog of AtKAT1 in rice. Thus this gene will be the prime target for engineering the guard cell movement to improve drought tolerance in monocot plants, including most major crops. PMID:24103920

Hwang, Hyunsik; Yoon, Jin-Young; Cho, Hana; Kim, Beom-Gi

2013-01-01

316

Rice-Map: a new-generation rice genome browser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The concurrent release of rice genome sequences for two subspecies (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) facilitates rice studies at the whole genome level. Since the advent of high-throughput analysis, huge amounts of functional\\u000a genomics data have been delivered rapidly, making an integrated online genome browser indispensable for scientists to visualize\\u000a and analyze these data.

Jun Wang; Lei Kong; Shuqi Zhao; He Zhang; Liang Tang; Zhe Li; Xiaocheng Gu; Jingchu Luo; Ge Gao

2011-01-01

317

Isolation and identification of phenolic antioxidants in black rice bran.  

PubMed

Black rice bran contains phenolic compounds of a high antioxidant activity. In this study, the 40% acetone extract of black rice bran was sequentially fractionated to obtain 5 fractions. Out of the 5 fractions, ethyl acetate fraction was subfractionated using the Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in the extracts was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation assay, reducing power. The subfraction 2 from ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenolic contents (TPC) (816.0 ?g/mg) and the lowest EC50 values (47.8 ?g/mL for DPPH radical assay, 112.8 ?g/mL for ABTS radical cation assay, and 49.2 ?g/mL for reducing power). These results were 3.1, 1.3, and 2.6 times lower than those of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), respectively. At a concentration of 100 ?g/mL, the antioxidant activity and TPC of various extracts was closely correlated, with correlation coefficients (R(2) ) higher than 0.86. The major phenolic acid in subfraction 2 was identified as ferulic acid (178.3 ?g/mg) by HPLC and LC-ESI/MS/MS analyses. Our finding identified ferulic acid as a major phenolic compound in black rice bran, and supports the potential use of black rice bran as a natural source of antioxidant. PMID:25597516

Jun, Hyun-Il; Shin, Jae-Wook; Song, Geun-Seoup; Kim, Young-Soo

2015-02-01

318

7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...Chalky kernels 1,2 In long grain rice (percent) In medium or short grain rice (percent) Broken kernels...percent) Other types 4 Whole kernels (percent)...

2010-01-01

319

Using burned area data to explore fire spread in coupled fire and ecosystem models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is a major driver of change in many ecosystems, and ecosystem models should try to understand and model the feedbacks between vegetation and fire. To achieve this, work has started on coupling fire and ecosystem models. The fire model receives modelled vegetation as input for its fuel loads, and simulates ignitions and fire spread from a number of assumptions

J. L. Gomez-Dans; P. Lewis; M. Wooster; A. Spessa

2009-01-01

320

Ecosystem management and environmental policy in the United States: open window or closed door?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem management is a recent policy alternative proposed to address a new generation of environmental issues. At least 18 federal agencies are currently exploring the concept of ecosystem management and its implications for their activities. Each of the major regulatory, land and natural resource management agencies has drafted policy guidance regarding ecosystem management. And federal sector efforts are just one

Richard Haeuber

1998-01-01

321

Growing season net ecosystem CO2 exchange of two desert ecosystems with alkaline soils in Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

Central Asia is covered by vast desert ecosystems, and the majority of these ecosystems have alkaline soils. Their contribution to global net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) is of significance simply because of their immense spatial extent. Some of the latest research reported considerable abiotic CO2 absorption by alkaline soil, but the rate of CO2 absorption has been questioned by peer communities. To investigate the issue of carbon cycle in Central Asian desert ecosystems with alkaline soils, we have measured the NEE using eddy covariance (EC) method at two alkaline sites during growing season in Kazakhstan. The diurnal course of mean monthly NEE followed a clear sinusoidal pattern during growing season at both sites. Both sites showed significant net carbon uptake during daytime on sunny days with high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) but net carbon loss at nighttime and on cloudy and rainy days. NEE has strong dependency on PAR and the response of NEE to precipitation resulted in an initial and significant carbon release to the atmosphere, similar to other ecosystems. These findings indicate that biotic processes dominated the carbon processes, and the contribution of abiotic carbon process to net ecosystem CO2 exchange may be trivial in alkaline soil desert ecosystems over Central Asia. PMID:24455157

Li, Longhui; Chen, Xi; van der Tol, Christiaan; Luo, Geping; Su, Zhongbo

2014-01-01

322

Growing season net ecosystem CO2 exchange of two desert ecosystems with alkaline soils in Kazakhstan  

PubMed Central

Central Asia is covered by vast desert ecosystems, and the majority of these ecosystems have alkaline soils. Their contribution to global net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) is of significance simply because of their immense spatial extent. Some of the latest research reported considerable abiotic CO2 absorption by alkaline soil, but the rate of CO2 absorption has been questioned by peer communities. To investigate the issue of carbon cycle in Central Asian desert ecosystems with alkaline soils, we have measured the NEE using eddy covariance (EC) method at two alkaline sites during growing season in Kazakhstan. The diurnal course of mean monthly NEE followed a clear sinusoidal pattern during growing season at both sites. Both sites showed significant net carbon uptake during daytime on sunny days with high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) but net carbon loss at nighttime and on cloudy and rainy days. NEE has strong dependency on PAR and the response of NEE to precipitation resulted in an initial and significant carbon release to the atmosphere, similar to other ecosystems. These findings indicate that biotic processes dominated the carbon processes, and the contribution of abiotic carbon process to net ecosystem CO2 exchange may be trivial in alkaline soil desert ecosystems over Central Asia. PMID:24455157

Li, Longhui; Chen, Xi; van der Tol, Christiaan; Luo, Geping; Su, Zhongbo

2014-01-01

323

Trade-off between productivity enhancement and global warming potential of rice and wheat in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased use of irrigation and nitrogen (N) in rice and wheat would increase productivity. It would also enhance the emission\\u000a of greenhouse gases from soil causing global warming and climate change. This study quantified the trade-offs between increased\\u000a production with N fertilizer and irrigation application and the global warming potential (GWP) in the major rice and wheat\\u000a growing regions of

A. Bhatia; H. Pathak; P. K. Aggarwal; N. Jain

2010-01-01

324

The isolation and characterization of plastid DNA from rice (Oryza sativa)  

E-print Network

THE ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PLASTID DNA FROM RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) A Thesis by CHANTEL FOUGERON SCHEURING Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Genetics THE ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PLASTID DNA FROM RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) by ~L FOUGERON SCHEURING Approved as to style and content by: a' (Chairman) C J. C ghton Miller, Jr. David O. Peterson (Member...

Scheuring, Chantel Fougeron

2012-06-07

325

Genetic engineering approaches to improve the bioavailability and the level of iron in rice grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is the most widespread micronutrient deficiency world-wide. A major cause is the poor absorption of iron from\\u000a cereal and legume-based diets high in phytic acid. We have explored three approaches for increasing the amount of iron absorbed\\u000a from rice-based meals. We first introduced a ferritin gene from Phaseolus vulgaris into rice grains, increasing their iron content up to

P. Lucca; R. Hurrell; I. Potrykus

2001-01-01

326

RICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION Directional Transmission for Energy-Efficient Wireless Communication on Mobile Sys- tems Hasan Huseyin Dumanli Directional communication has the potential to improve both the energy efficiency of wireless communication

Zhong, Lin

327

Rice scene radiation research plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data requirements, tasks to be accomplished, and the technical approaches to be used in identifying the characteristics of rice for crop inventories are listed as well as methods for estimating crop development and assessing its conditions.

Heilman, J.

1982-01-01

328

Differentiation of weedy traits in ALS-resistant red rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red rice is a weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with rice in the southern U.S., reduces yields and contaminates rice grains. The introduction of ClearfieldTM rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant rice cultivar a decade ago has led to increased use of imazet...

329

Rice Young Alumni 6100 Main Street MS 520  

E-print Network

Rice Young Alumni 6100 Main Street MS 520 Houston, Texas 77005 Phone: 713-348-4057 alumni.rice.edu Rice Houston Young Alumni on Facebook Rice Young Alumni Handbook How to Access Your Rice Young Alumni Resources and Programs Step 1 Create an alumni profile on alumni.rice.edu Step 2 Join your favorite ARA

Palem, Krishna V.

330

Incorrectly predicted genes in rice?  

PubMed

Between one third and one half of the proposed rice genes appear to have no homologs in other species, including Arabidopsis. Compositional considerations, and a comparison of curated rice sequences with ex novo predictions, suggest that many or most of the putative genes without homologs may be false positive predictions, i.e., sequences that are never translated into functional proteins in vivo. PMID:15177695

Cruveiller, Stéphane; Jabbari, Kamel; Clay, Oliver; Bernardi, Giorgio

2004-05-26

331

Fertilizers for Rice in Texas.  

E-print Network

in the rice-growing area, however, dif- ferent soils responded differently to fertilizers applied to rice. In the experiments on Lake Charles clay soil near Devers, in Liberty County, and on the light-colored soils in Orange County, applications of super... ........................................ Tests in Liberty County 14 ........................................ Tests in Orange County 15 ................ Work with Manganese, Copper. Zinc. Iron. and Boron 16 Acknowledgments .......................................... 16 Summary...

Wyche, R. H. (Robert Henry)

1941-01-01

332

Molecular mapping of rice chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the construction of an RFLP genetic map of rice (Oryza sativa) chromosomes. The map is comprised of 135 loci corresponding to clones selected from a PstI genomic library. This molecular map covers 1,389 cM of the rice genome and exceeds the current classical maps by more than 20%. The map was generated from F2 segregation data (50 individuals)

S. R. McCouch; G. Kochert; Z. H. Yu; Z. Y. Wang; G. S. Khush; W. R. Coffman; S. D. Tanksley

1988-01-01

333

Status of the RICE Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RICE experiment (Radio Ice Cherenkov Experiment) at South Pole consists of an array of dipole antennas designed to detect the coherent radio frequency radiation produced by neutrino-induced showers in the Antarctic ice. We report updated limits on the ultra-high energy neutrino flux, based on RICE data taken between 2000 an 2005. These limits also reflect improvements in Monte Carlo simulations and detector modeling.

Besson, Dave Z.

2007-09-01

334

Is Net Ecosystem Production Equal to Ecosystem Carbon Accumulation?  

E-print Network

COMMENTARY Is Net Ecosystem Production Equal to Ecosystem Carbon Accumulation? Gary M. Lovett,* Jonathan J. Cole, and Michael L. Pace Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York 12545, USA ABSTRACT Net ecosystem production (NEP), defined as the difference between gross primary production

Pace, Michael L.

335

Molecular progress on the mapping and cloning of functional genes for blast disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.): current status and future considerations.  

PubMed

Abstract Rice blast disease, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is a recurring problem in all rice-growing regions of the world. The use of resistance (R) genes in rice improvement breeding programmes has been considered to be one of the best options for crop protection and blast management. Alternatively, quantitative resistance conferred by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is also a valuable resource for the improvement of rice disease resistance. In the past, intensive efforts have been made to identify major R-genes as well as QTLs for blast disease using molecular techniques. A review of bibliographic references shows over 100 blast resistance genes and a larger number of QTLs (?500) that were mapped to the rice genome. Of the blast resistance genes, identified in different genotypes of rice, ?22 have been cloned and characterized at the molecular level. In this review, we have summarized the reported rice blast resistance genes and QTLs for utilization in future molecular breeding programmes to introgress high-degree resistance or to pyramid R-genes in commercial cultivars that are susceptible to M. oryzae. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the significant studies in order to update our understanding of the molecular progress on rice and M. oryzae. This information will assist rice breeders to improve the resistance to rice blast using marker-assisted selection which continues to be a priority for rice-breeding programmes. PMID:25394538

Ashkani, S; Rafii, M Y; Shabanimofrad, M; Ghasemzadeh, A; Ravanfar, S A; Latif, M A

2014-11-14

336

Texas Rice, Volume 1, Number 5  

E-print Network

Center in New Orleans will give an update on value-added uses of rice. Dr. Shih is a Research Chemist and has worked ex- tensively to develop new prod- ucts from the by-products of milled rice, such as bran and broken kernels, including high protein rice... of 10,000 tons, and can mill over 150,000 pounds of rice per day. They are also equipped to process and bag high quality brown rice, for those consumers who prefer the taste, texture and health benefits of whole grain rice. Currently, Mike has 550 acres...

337

Detection algorithm for multiple rice seeds images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to develop a digital image analysis algorithm for detection of multiple rice seeds images. The rice seeds used for this study involved a hybrid rice seed variety. Images of multiple rice seeds were acquired with a machine vision system for quality inspection of bulk rice seeds, which is designed to inspect rice seeds on a rotating disk with a CCD camera. Combining morphological operations and parallel processing gave improvements in accuracy, and a reduction in computation time. Using image features selected based on classification ability; a highly acceptable defects classification was achieved when the algorithm was implemented for all the samples to test the adaptability.

Cheng, F.; Ying, Y. B.

2006-10-01

338

Rice Bowl Journals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, a number of online journal communities have been created on the web to facilitate group dialogue around a variety of issues. As one might surmise from its title, the Rice Bowl Journals website is aimed at primarily serving the Asian online journal community. The diarists featured on the site can be examined by ethnicity and location, and visitors may also wish to browse the journals by category. Perhaps of equal interest are the online discussion forums, which allow visitors to offer commentary on current events, campus life, and the art of online journaling. The site is rounded out by a FAQ area and a place for visitors to leave feedback.

2005-01-01

339

Rice University: Colvin Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colvin Group at Rice University deals with the control and understanding of material properties on nanometer length scales. Some members of the group work to "develop new chemical approaches to forming uniform nanocrystals, and highly ordered porous solids" while "others focus on using these materials as tools for answering fundamental questions about nature, such as the characteristic length scales in glasses and liquids." Researchers can learn about the numerous projects undertaken by the group including understanding the superprism phenomena, the preparation of perfect nanocrystals of metal oxides, and the synthesis of quartz particles in the sub-micron to nanoscale size regime. Students and educators can find helpful tutorials describing the nanoscience field of study. The website also provides many of the group's published papers.

340

A Historical Analysis of the Relationship Between Rice Production and PDSI Values in Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As world population grows, there are ever increasing demands being placed on the food production systems throughout the world. Climate change is complicating these stressors even further through more frequent severe weather events. In the developing world, where there are fewer resources to mitigate the effects of climate change, the combination of these two factors can have drastic consequences. In Sri Lanka, farmers in major rice production areas of the country are already struggling to produce enough rice, a staple food of the local diet, and a severe wet or dry spell could be ruinous. Faced with a changing climate and a growing demand for rice, it is important to be able to anticipate how climatic changes will affect rice production. By examining how extreme wet and dry spells have historically affected rice production, decision makers may be better able to predict and prepare for potential food shortages. We conducted an analysis of historic temperature, precipitation, and rice production statistics in order to determine the effects of extreme wet and dry spells on rice production. We also created a timeline of major developments in Sri Lankan agriculture in order to compare effects on rice production due to changes in agricultural practices with meteorological changes. Historical temperature and precipitation data were used to calculate the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a number of stations distributed throughout the Mahaweli river basin. The basin, the largest in the country, contains three different climatic regions - dry, intermediate, and wet - that all receive different amounts of annual precipitation. The PDSI values were used to quantify drought and wetness during the Yala (April-September) and Maha (October-March) growing seasons. Analysis of historical PDSI values, agricultural advances, and rice production statistics shows great promise for anticipating and mitigating future food shortages.

Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.

2011-12-01

341

Impact of UV Radiation on Rice-Field Cyanobacteria: Role of Photoprotective Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the cyanobacteria are cosmopolitan in distribution, forming a prominent component of microbial populations in aquatic\\u000a as well as terrestrial ecosystems. They play a central role in successional processes, global photosynthetic biomass production\\u000a and nutrient cycling. In addition, N2-fixing cyanobacteria are often the dominant microflora in wetland soils, especially in rice paddy fields, where they significantly\\u000a contribute to fertility

Rajeshwar P. Sinha; Donat-P. Häder

342

Pullulanase from rice endosperm.  

PubMed

Pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) in non-germinating seeds was compared with that in germinating seeds. Moreover, pullulanase from the endosperm of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Hinohikari) seeds was isolated and its properties investigated. The pI value of pullulanase from seeds after 8 days of germination was almost equal to that from non-germinating seeds, which shows that these two enzymes are the same protein. Therefore, the same pullulanase may play roles in both starch synthesis during ripening and starch degradation during germination in rice seeds. The enzyme was isolated by a procedure that included ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulofine column chromatography, preparative isoelectric focusing, and preparative disc gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was homogeneous by SDS/PAGE. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 100 000 based on its mobility on SDS/PAGE and 105 000 based on gel filtration with TSKgel super SW 3000, which showed that it was composed of a single unit. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 4.7. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by beta-cyclodextrin. The enzyme was not activated by thiol reagents such as dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol or glutathione. The enzyme most preferably hydrolyzed pullulan and liberated only maltotriose. The pullulan hydrolysis was strongly inhibited by the substrate at a concentration higher than 0.1%. The degree of inhibition increased with an increase in the concentration of pullulan. However, the enzyme hydrolyzed amylopectin, soluble starch and beta-limit dextrin more rapidly as their concentrations increased. The enzyme exhibited alpha-glucosyltransfer activity and produced an alpha-1,6-linked compound of two maltotriose molecules from pullulan. PMID:18787715

Yamasaki, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Susumu; Konno, Haruyoshi

2008-01-01

343

Kennedy at Rice University  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to begained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his wirt around this globe of ours. There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountain? Why 35 years ago why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we attend to win, and the others , too.'

1962-01-01

344

Kennedy at Rice University  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. ...Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his writ around this globe of ours. ...There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountian? Why - 35 years ago - why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we intend to win, and the others too.'

1962-01-01

345

Development of a novel transgenic rice with hypocholesterolemic activity via high-level accumulation of the ?' subunit of soybean ?-conglycinin.  

PubMed

Soybean 7S globulin, known as ?-conglycinin, has been shown to regulate human plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Furthermore, the ?' subunit of ?-conglycinin has specifically been shown to possess low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol-lowering activity. Therefore, accumulation of the ?' subunit of ?-conglycinin in rice seeds could lead to the production of new functional rice that could promote human health. Herein, we used the low-glutelin rice mutant 'Koshihikari' (var. a123) and suppressed its glutelins and prolamins, the major seed storage proteins of rice, by RNA interference. The accumulation levels of the ?' subunit in the lines with suppressed glutelin and prolamin levels were >20 mg in 1 g of rice seeds, which is considerably higher than those in previous studies. Oral administration of the transgenic rice containing the ?' subunit exhibited a hypocholesterolemic activity in rats; the serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly reduced when compared to those of the control rice (var. a123). The cholesterol-lowering action by transgenic rice accumulating the ?' subunit induces a significant increase in fecal bile acid excretion and a tendency to increase in fecal cholesterol excretion. This is the first report that transgenic rice exhibits a hypocholesterolemic activity in rats in vivo by using the ?-conglycinin ?' subunit. PMID:24676962

Cabanos, Cerrone; Kato, Naoki; Amari, Yoshiki; Fujiwara, Keigo; Ohno, Tomoki; Shimizu, Kousuke; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Masaya; Kuroda, Masaharu; Masuda, Taro; Takaiwa, Fumio; Utsumi, Shigeru; Nagaoka, Satoshi; Maruyama, Nobuyuki

2014-08-01

346

"Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction  

E-print Network

"Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction: Is conservation the answer?" Paul van Centre The University of Edinburgh #12;Our Millennium Challenges? #12;"An ecosystem is a dynamic complex unit." "Ecosystem services are the benefits people receive from ecosystems" (Millennium Ecosystem

347

Lakes Ecosystem Services Online  

EPA Science Inventory

Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...

348

Analyzing an Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the University of Alberta, identify the living and nonliving things in an ecosystem. Then look further at the living things to identify the producers, the consumers, and examples of mimicry.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

349

Light Pollution and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Artificial light at night acts as a pollutant, with significant and adverse impacts to ecosystems. It can, for example, cause disorientation or act as an unnatural stimulus to wildlife, and disrupt reproduction for many species.

Travis Longcore (University of Southern California; )

2010-05-20

350

List identifies threatened ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-09-01

351

Monetising cultural ecosystem services?   

E-print Network

ABSTRACT In the context of increasing degradation of the environment, the economic valuation of ecosystem services represents an attempt to quantify the contribution of nature to human wellbeing. This approach has been ...

Vinci, Igor

2012-11-29

352

Exploring an Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this ecology activity, learners make a model water-based ecosystem called a terraqua column. The column (in a large soda bottle) includes pond water, duckweed, sand or gravel, and small snails. Learners observe what happens in their living model and consider such questions as what happens to animals and plants when humans harm an ecosystem. This activity is aligned to National Science Standards (NS.5-8.3 Life Science).

National 4-H Council

2009-01-01

353

Urban Ecosystem Design Bedrich Benes  

E-print Network

Urban Ecosystem Design Bedrich Benes Michel Abdul Massih Philip Jarvis Purdue University Daniel G. Aliaga Carlos A. Vanegas a) b) c) Figure 1: This example demonstrates the need for urban ecosystems. The image in a) shows a terrain occupied by a wild ecosystem and b) displays the same ecosystem grown over

Aliaga, Daniel G.

354

Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

355

Molecular dynamics of interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In an effort to develop the molecular strategies to control rice (Oryzae sativa) diseases, molecular interactions of rice with rice blast [Magnaporthe oryzae, formerly (Magnaporthe grisea] and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were analyzed. The interaction of rice with M. oryzae follows a b...

356

Rice University Policy No. 806 RICE UNIVERSITY TRAVEL, BUSINESS MEETING and ENTERTAINMENT POLICY  

E-print Network

Rice University Policy No. 806 RICE UNIVERSITY TRAVEL, BUSINESS MEETING and ENTERTAINMENT POLICY I. General Policy Rice University pays for appropriate and reasonable expenses for travel, business meetings of the university. Properly Documented: The Rice business purpose is described, the list of attendees (names

Alvarez, Pedro J.

357

Energy flow in an arctic aquatic ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This project has been using natural isotope abundances to trace major pathways of energy flow to consumers in Imnavait Creek and the tundra ecosystem of the R4D watershed with comparative work in the coastal tundra. We are processing samples collected at the R4D intensive site over the past three years and are comparing these data with similar samples collected from the coastal plain. Our approach is to determine if carbon is accumulating in upland and coastal tundra; to determine the role of eroded peat carbon in the aquatic ecosystem; and to determine the distribution of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the tundra-pond ecosystem to establish the feasibility of using natural differences as tracers.

Schell, D.M.

1993-05-01

358

Energy flow in an arctic aquatic ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This project has been using natural isotope abundances to trace major pathways of energy flow to consumers in Imnavait Creek and the tundra ecosystem of the R4D watershed with comparative work in the coastal tundra. We are processing samples collected at the R4D intensive site over the past three years and are comparing these data with similar samples collected from the coastal plain. Our approach is to determine if carbon is accumulating in upland and coastal tundra; to determine the role of eroded peat carbon in the aquatic ecosystem; and to determine the distribution of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the tundra-pond ecosystem to establish the feasibility of using natural differences as tracers.

Schell, D.M.

1993-01-01

359

Distribution and genetic diversity of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in China  

PubMed Central

Background Rice and maize dwarf diseases caused by the newly introduced Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) have led to severe economic losses in South China in recent years. The distribution and diversity of SRBSDV have not been investigated in the main rice and maize growing areas in China. In this study, the distribution of SRBSDV in China was determined by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Between 2009 and 2010, 2404 plant samples (2294 rice, 110 maize samples, and more than 300 cultivars) with dwarf symptoms were collected from fields in 194 counties of 17 provinces in China and SRBSDV was detected. The results indicated that 1545 (64.27%) of samples (both rice and maize) were infected with SRBSDV. SRBSDV was detected widely in Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces, which suggests SRBSDV is an important pathogen causing rice dwarfing diseases in South China. Phylogenetic analysis of 15 representative virus isolates revealed that SRBSDV isolates in China had high levels of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities (>97.8%). Conclusions SRBSDV spreads naturally in Yangtze River basin and south region, the location of the major rice production areas. In comparison, the virus rarely spreads north of Yangtze River in North China. Distribution of SRBSDV is consistent with the migrating and existing ranges of its vector WBPH, suggesting that SRBSDV might be introduced into South China along with the migration of viruliferous WBPH. PMID:24131521

2013-01-01

360

Bioaccessibility of arsenic in various types of rice in an in vitro gastrointestinal fluid system.  

PubMed

Rice can be a major contributor to dietary arsenic exposure because of the relatively high total arsenic concentration compared to other grains, especially for people whose main staple is rice. This study employed in vitro gastrointestinal fluid digestion to determine bioaccessible or gastrointestinal fluid extractable arsenic concentration in rice. Thirty-one rice samples, of which 60 % were grown in the United States, were purchased from food stores in New York City. Total arsenic concentrations in these samples ranged from 0.090 ± 0.004 to 0.85 ± 0.03 mg/kg with a mean value of 0.275 ± 0.161 mg/kg (n = 31). Rice samples with relatively high total arsenic (>0.20 mg/kg, n = 18) were treated by in vitro artificial gastrointestinal fluid digestion, and the extractable arsenic ranged from 53 % to 102 %. The bioaccessibility of arsenic in rice decreases in the general order of extra long grain, long grain, long grain parboiled, to brown rices. PMID:22251206

He, Yi; Pedigo, Christopher E; Lam, Billion; Cheng, Zhongqi; Zheng, Yan

2012-01-01

361

Ohmic heating as a pre-treatment in solvent extraction of rice bran.  

PubMed

Rice bran, which is one of the major by products of paddy contain high quality proteins and edible oil apart from fibre, ash and NFE (nitrogen free extract). The existing solvent extraction method employs n-hexane as the most viable solvent for the extraction of oil from rice bran. But the high cost and scarce availability of n-hexane resulted in uneconomical extraction of rice bran oil. In this study, rice bran was ohmically heated for different time periods(1, 2 and 3 min) with different current values (5, 15 and 20 A) and with different concentration of sodium chloride (1 M, 0.1 M and 0.01 M) as conducting medium. The ohmically heated rice bran was subjected to extraction studies. Ohmic heating of rice bran of paddy varieties Red Triveni and Basmati reduced the extraction time by nearly 75 % and 70 % respectively and gave a maximum quantity of oil extracted when compared to bran, which was not ohmically heated. From the experiments with varying concentrations, residence time of ohmic heating and currents, it was found that ohmically heating the rice bran with 1 M sodium chloride solution and with a current value of 20 A for 3 min gave maximum oil extraction with minimum extraction time. PMID:25328213

Nair, Gopu Raveendran; Divya, V R; Prasannan, Liji; Habeeba, V; Prince, M V; Raghavan, G S V

2014-10-01

362

Global value of GM rice: a review of expected agronomic and consumer benefits.  

PubMed

Unlike the other major crops, no genetically modified (GM) varieties of rice have been commercialized at a large scale. Within the next 2-3 years new transgenic rice varieties could be ready for regulatory approval and subsequent commercialization, though. Given the importance of rice as staple crop for many of the world's poorest people, this will have implications for the alleviation of poverty, hunger and malnutrition. Thus, policy-makers need to be aware of the potential benefits of GM rice. We provide an overview of the literature and discuss the evidence on expected agronomic and consumer benefits of genetically engineered rice. We find that while GM rice with improved agronomic traits could deliver benefits similar to already commercialized biotechnology crops, expected benefits of consumer traits could be higher by an order of magnitude. By aggregating the expected annual benefits, we estimate the global value of GM rice to be US$64 billion per year. This is only an indicative value, as more GM varieties will become available in future. Nevertheless, such a figure can help guide policy-makers when deciding on the approval or funding of biotechnology crops and it may also raise awareness among consumers about what is at stake for their societies. PMID:23628812

Demont, Matty; Stein, Alexander J

2013-06-25

363

South Florida Ecosystem History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ecosystem History Project is designed to integrate studies of terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems in South Florida. Projects cover Biscayne Bay, Florida Bay, and terrestrial ecosystems. Each project gives an introduction, investigation methods, evidence of past ecosystem changes, and modern distribution of flora and fauna. Recent ecosystem history is based on paleontology, palynology, geochemistry, hydrology, and sedimentology as seen in core samples. There are links to open-file reports, salinity maps, a database, poster presentations, and a Kid's Corner.

364

Soil community composition and ecosystem processes Comparing agricultural ecosystems with natural ecosystems  

E-print Network

Soil community composition and ecosystem processes Comparing agricultural ecosystems with natural ecosystems D. A. NEHER Department of Biology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA; E-mail: dneher, nitrogen, pesticides Abstract. Soil organisms play principal roles in several ecosystem functions, i

Neher, Deborah A.

365

Grain-filling problem in 'super' rice.  

PubMed

Modern rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, especially the newly bred 'super' rice, have numerous spikelets on a panicle with a large yield capacity. However, these cultivars often fail to achieve their high yield potential due to poor grain-filling of later-flowering inferior spikelets (in contrast to the earlier-flowering superior spikelets). Conventional thinking to explain the poor grain-filling is the consequence of carbon limitation. Recent studies, however, have shown that carbohydrate supply should not be the major problem because they have adequate sucrose at their initial grain-filling stage. The low activities of key enzymes in carbon metabolism may contribute to the poor grain-filling. Proper field practices, such as moderate soil drying during mid- and late grain-filling stages, could solve some problems in poor grain-filling. Further studies are needed by molecular approaches to investigate the signal transport, the hormonal action, the gene expressions, and the biochemical processes in inferior spikelets. PMID:19959608

Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua

2010-01-01

366

Tecnologa para todos Sistema Inalmbrico de Rice  

E-print Network

Tecnología para todos Sistema Inalámbrico de Rice Andrea Trevino Rice University http://www.techforall.org/tfa_wireless.html http://tfa.rice.edu #12;Por qué en Pecan Park? La Misión de TFA: Proporcionar conocimientos a la comunidad. El propósito de Rice: Usar este programa para explorar la siguiente generación del sistema

367

Rice Facts -Students : Rice University http://professor.rice.edu/professor/Students4.asp[9/13/2011 11:10:41 AM  

E-print Network

Rice Facts - Students : Rice University http://professor.rice.edu/professor/Students4.asp[9/13/2011 11:10:41 AM] Parents Undergraduates Grad Students Faculty & Researchers Staff Alumni Rice Facts - Students Faculty and Researchers > Office of Institutional Research > Rice Facts - Students Home

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

368

Effect of hydrothermal treatment of rice flour on various rice noodles quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice noodle industry in Thailand is facing problems regarding rice flour quality. This research aims to study the effects of hydrothermally modified rice flour on improving rice noodle quality. High-amylose rice flour (Chai Nat 1 variety) was modified using heat–moisture treatment (HMT) and annealing (ANN). Response surface methodology (RSM) with face-centered central composite design (FCCD) was applied to optimize

Supawadee Cham; Prisana Suwannaporn

2010-01-01

369

Measuring the Human Footprint on Ecosystem Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major questions for the biogeosciences concern the consequences of human transformation of landscapes for biogeochemical cycling and other ecosystem functions. While it is clear that the footprint of humans extends to almost all corners of the world, there is no single measure of the anthropogenic effect on ecosystems. Unlike the "Keeling curve" representing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in a single atmospheric measurement, the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ecosystems and the patchy nature of human activities on the landscape make such a measurement impossible. Here we present two approaches for assessing the consequences of human modification of the landscape on ecosystem processes: the effects of past and future land use change on net primary production at the global scale and analysis of satellite observations over the past 18 years to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions from tropical land use change. Key issues for quantifying human influences on ecosystem function include accounting for natural variability on a variety of time scales and incorporating spatial heterogeneity in landscape-level analysis.

DeFries, R. S.; DeFries, R. S.

2001-12-01

370

Syrtis Major  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history, scientists were fascinated with Syrtis Major because this dark region varied so much through the seasons and years. Some people thought it might be a changing sea, and others thought it might be vegetation. Early spacecraft like Mariner and Viking revealed for the first time that the changes were caused by the wind blowing dust and sand across the surface. What we can see in this image is exactly that: evidence of a lot of wind action. Bright dust patches streak across this image, formed through wind interference from craters and other landforms. These wispy, bright streaks are spread on the surface by a vigorous, east-west wind that kicked up huge dust storms, scattering the fine particles of sand and dust in an almost etherial pattern. The bright streaks in the top part of the image might have formed in a slightly different way, because there is no landform standing in the wind's way. Beneath the bright surface dust are raised ridges that mark the edges of earlier lava flows from Nili Patera, a Martian 'caldera.' A caldera is a collapsed, bowl-shaped depression at the top of a volcano cone. Can you imagine how Christian Huygens would feel if he lived today and could see all of this knowledge unfold? Or how it would feel to be the first person to stand in this dark volcanic and cratered region, knowing how many discovers had paved the way to that moment? Yes, exploration lives!

2002-01-01

371

Rice consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from a pooled analysis of 3 U.S. cohorts1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Health concerns have been raised about rice consumption, which may significantly contribute to arsenic exposure. However, little is known regarding whether habitual rice consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Objective: We examined prospectively the association of white rice and brown rice consumption with CVD risk. Design: We followed a total of 207,556 women and men [73,228 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984–2010), 92,158 women from the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991–2011), and 42,170 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986–2010)] who were free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess consumption of white rice, brown rice, and other food items. Fatal and nonfatal CVD (coronary artery disease and stroke) was confirmed by medical records or self-reports. Results: During 4,393,130 person-years of follow-up, 12,391 cases of CVD were identified. After adjustment for major CVD risk factors, including demographics, lifestyle, and other dietary intakes, rice consumption was not associated with CVD risk. The multivariable-adjuted HR of developing CVD comparing ?5 servings/wk with <1 serving/wk was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.14) for white rice, 1.01 (0.79, 1.28) for brown rice, and 0.99 (0.90, 1.08) for total rice. To minimize the potential impact of racial difference in rice consumption, we restricted the analyses to whites only and obtained similar results: the HRs of CVD for ?5 servings/wk compared with <1 serving/wk were 1.04 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.22) for white rice and 1.01 (0.78, 1.31) for brown rice. Conclusions: Greater habitual consumption of white rice or brown rice is not associated with CVD risk. These findings suggest that rice consumption may not pose a significant CVD risk among the U.S. population when consumed at current amounts. More prospective studies are needed to explore these associations in other populations. PMID:25527760

Muraki, Isao; Wu, Hongyu; Imamura, Fumiaki; Laden, Francine; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Sun, Qi

2015-01-01

372

Formation and structure of silicon carbide whiskers from rice hulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the distribution of Si in rice hulls was carried out to aid in understanding the observed formation of SiC whiskers by the thermal decomposition and reaction of these natural materials. Scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirm the presence of a major amount of Si in the inner and outer epidermal regions of

N. K. Sharma; WENDELL S. WILLIAMS; A. Zangvil

1984-01-01

373

Detection and diagnosis of rice-infecting viruses  

PubMed Central

Rice-infecting viruses have caused serious damage to rice production in Asian, American, and African countries, where about 30 rice viruses and diseases have been reported. To control these diseases, developing accurate, quick methods to detect and diagnose the viruses in the host plants and any insect vectors of the viruses is very important. Based on an antigen–antibody reaction, serological methods such as latex agglutination reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have advanced to detect viral particles or major proteins derived from viruses. They aid in forecasting disease and surveying disease spread and are widely used for virus detection at plant protection stations and research laboratories. From the early 2000s, based on sequence information for the target virus, several other methods such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification have been developed that are sensitive, rapid, and able to differentiate closely related viruses. Recent techniques such as real-time RT-PCR can be used to quantify the pathogen in target samples and monitor population dynamics of a virus, and metagenomic analyses using next-generation sequencing and microarrays show potential for use in the diagnosis of rice diseases. PMID:24130554

Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Shiba, Takuya; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Ueno, Takanori; Hirae, Masahiro; Sasaya, Takahide

2013-01-01

374

Effect of rice cultivars on root-associated methanotrophic communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice agriculture represents a major source of the greenhouse gas methane. However, a large amount of methane is oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria before being released to the atmosphere. Methanotrophs are characterized by their unique ability to use methane as sole source for carbon and energy. They are located at oxic-anoxic interfaces where methane and oxygen are present, such as the rhizosphere. Although they have been studied extensively in the past, only little is known about natural or anthropogenic factors influencing their large diversity. In this study, we investigated the effect of 20 different rice cultivars on methanotrophic communities associated with the roots of rice plants. The pmoA gene encoding a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase (catalyzing the first step of methane oxidation) was used as a functional and phylogenetic marker and analyzed using two different fingerprinting methods. The well established terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was compared to results obtained using a diagnostic pmoA microarray. Both methods indicated that type Ib (Methylococcus/Methylocaldum) and type II (Methylosinus/Methylocystis) were the predominat methanotrophs located on rice roots. Interestingly, analysis of pmoA transcripts suggested Methylobacter/Methylomonas (type Ia) to present the actively methane oxidizing population in this environment.

Lüke, C.; Frenzel, P.

2009-04-01

375

Molecular evidence on the origin and evolution of glutinous rice.  

PubMed Central

Glutinous rice is a major type of cultivated rice with long-standing cultural importance in Asia. A mutation in an intron 1 splice donor site of the Waxy gene is responsible for the change in endosperm starch leading to the glutinous phenotype. Here we examine an allele genealogy of the Waxy locus to trace the evolutionary and geographical origins of this phenotype. On the basis of 105 glutinous and nonglutinous landraces from across Asia, we find evidence that the splice donor mutation has a single evolutionary origin and that it probably arose in Southeast Asia. Nucleotide diversity measures indicate that the origin of glutinous rice is associated with reduced genetic variation characteristic of selection at the Waxy locus; comparison with an unlinked locus, RGRC2, confirms that this pattern is specific to Waxy. In addition, we find that many nonglutinous varieties in Northeast Asia also carry the splice donor site mutation, suggesting that partial suppression of this mutation may have played an important role in the development of Northeast Asian nonglutinous rice. This study demonstrates the utility of phylogeographic approaches for understanding trait diversification in crops, and it contributes to growing evidence on the importance of modifier loci in the evolution of domestication traits. PMID:12399401

Olsen, Kenneth M; Purugganan, Michael D

2002-01-01

376

TOND1 confers tolerance to nitrogen deficiency in rice.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N), the most important mineral nutrient for plants, is critical to agricultural production systems. N deficiency severely affects rice growth and decreases rice yields. However, excessive use of N fertilizer has caused severe pollution to agricultural and ecological environments. The necessity of breeding of crops that require lower input of N fertilizer has been recognized. Here we identified a major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12, Tolerance Of Nitrogen Deficiency 1 (TOND1), that confers tolerance to N deficiency in the indica cultivar Teqing. Sequence verification of 75 indica and 75 japonica cultivars from 18 countries and regions demonstrated that only 27.3% of cultivars (41 indica cultivars) contain TOND1, whereas 72.7% of cultivars, including the remaining 34 indica cultivars and all 75 japonica cultivars, do not harbor the TOND1 allele. Over-expression of TOND1 increased the tolerance to N deficiency in the TOND1-deficient rice cultivars. The identification of TOND1 provides a molecular basis for breeding rice varieties with improved grain yield despite decreased input of N fertilizers. PMID:25439309

Zhang, Yangjun; Tan, Lubin; Zhu, Zuofeng; Yuan, Lixing; Xie, Daoxin; Sun, Chuanqing

2015-02-01

377

Rice MBA Admissions Online Chat Transcript  

E-print Network

25061a: hi lmurrah(MBA Admissions Lolita): Hello Welcome to the Rice MBA Chat Session. We will begin in about 10 more minutes. lmurrah(MBA Admissions Lolita): Hello Welcome to the Rice MBA Chat Session. We Lolita): Hello Welcome to the Rice MBA Chat Session. We will begin in about 10 more minutes. lmurrah

378

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL 2012 RICE UNIVERSITY 1  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL 2012 RICE UNIVERSITY 1 Rice University Radiation Safety Manual Environmental Health and Safety MS 123 P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX 77251-1892 February 2013 #12;RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL 2012 RICE UNIVERSITY 2 INTRODUCTION The goal of the Radiation Safety Manual is to assist lab

Natelson, Douglas

379

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL 2014 RICE UNIVERSITY 1  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL 2014 RICE UNIVERSITY 1 Rice University Radiation Safety Manual Environmental Health and Safety MS 123 P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX 77251-1892 January 2014 #12;RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL 2014 RICE UNIVERSITY 2 INTRODUCTION The goal of the Radiation Safety Manual is to assist lab

Natelson, Douglas

380

William Marsh Rice University Consolidated Financial Statements  

E-print Network

William Marsh Rice University Consolidated Financial Statements June 30, 2013 and 2012 #12;William Marsh Rice University Index June 30, 2013 and 2012 Page(s) Independent Auditor's Report of William Marsh Rice University We have audited the accompanying consolidated financial statements

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

381

William Marsh Rice University Consolidated Financial Statements  

E-print Network

William Marsh Rice University Consolidated Financial Statements June 30, 2012 and 2011 #12;William Marsh Rice University Index June 30, 2012 and 2011 Page(s) Report of Independent Auditors of William Marsh Rice University In our opinion, the accompanying consolidated statement of financial

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

382

William Marsh Rice University Consolidated Financial Statements  

E-print Network

pwc William Marsh Rice University Consolidated Financial Statements June 30, 2011 and 2010 #12;William Marsh Rice University Index June 30, 2011 and 2010 Page(s) Report of Independent Auditors ................................................................................................................5-24 #12;pwc To the Board of Trustees of William Marsh Rice University Report of Independent

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

383

William Marsh Rice University Consolidated Financial Statements  

E-print Network

William Marsh Rice University Consolidated Financial Statements June 30, 2014 and 2013 #12;William Marsh Rice University Index June 30, 2014 and 2013 Page(s) Independent Auditor's Report of William Marsh Rice University We have audited the accompanying consolidated financial statements

Alvarez, Pedro J.

384

Global climate changes and rice food security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing hunger and poverty are the key United Nations Millenium Development Goals. This was the main reason for the UN declaration of the International Year of Rice 2004. In 2002, rice was the source of more than 500 calories per person per day for over 3 billion people (FAOSTAT). Furthermore, rice cultivation is the principal activity and source of income

N. V. Nguyen

385

Rice functionality, starch structure and the genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Through collaborative efforts among USDA scientists at Beaumont, Texas, we have gained in-depth knowledge of how rice functionality, i.e. the texture of the cooked rice, rice processing properties, and starch gelatinization temperature, are associated with starch-synthesis genes and starch structure...

386

SHEATH BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN SOUTHERN RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheath blight is a serious fungal disease problem in southern US rice production, making it necessary for rice farmers to diligently use fungicides for its control. There are no long grain rice varieties adapted to commercial production in the southern US that have adequate resistance to sheath bli...

387

Sequence and analysis of rice chromosome 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is the principal food for over half of the population of the world. With its genome size of 430 megabase pairs (Mb), the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa is a model plant for genome research. Here we report the sequence analysis of chromosome 4 of O. sativa, one of the first two rice chromosomes to be sequenced completely. The

Qi Feng; Yujun Zhang; Pei Hao; Shengyue Wang; Gang Fu; Yucheng Huang; Ying Li; Jingjie Zhu; Yilei Liu; Xin Hu; Peixin Jia; Yu Zhang; Qiang Zhao; Kai Ying; Shuliang Yu; Yesheng Tang; Qijun Weng; Lei Zhang; Ying Lu; Jie Mu; Yiqi Lu; Lei S. Zhang; Zhen Yu; Danlin Fan; Xiaohui Liu; Tingting Lu; Yongrui Wu; Tongguo Sun; Haiyan Lei; Tao Li; Hao Hu; Jianping Guan; Mei Wu; Runquan Zhang; Bo Zhou; Zehua Chen; Ling Chen; Zhaoqing Jin; Rong Wang; Haifeng Yin; Zhen Cai; Shuangxi Ren; Gang Lv; Wenyi Gu; Genfeng Zhu; Yuefeng Tu; Jia Jia; Yi Zhang; Jie Chen; Hui Kang; Xiaoyun Chen; Chunyan Shao; Yun Sun; Qiuping Hu; Xianglin Zhang; Wei Zhang; Lijun Wang; Chunwei Ding; Haihui Sheng; Jingli Gu; Shuting Chen; Lin Ni; Fenghua Zhu; Wei Chen; Lefu Lan; Ying Lai; Zhukuan Cheng; Minghong Gu; Jiming Jiang; Jiayang Li; Guofan Hong; Yongbiao Xue; Bin Han

2002-01-01

388

The Plant Architecture of Rice ( Oryza sativa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant architecture, a collection of the important agronomic traits that determine grain production in rice, is mainly affected by factors including tillering, plant height and panicle morphology. Recently, significant progress has been made in isolating and collecting of mutants that are defective in rice plant architecture. Although our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control rice tillering, panicle development and

Yonghong Wang; Jiayang Li

2005-01-01

389

Rice bran stabilization using alternative techniques (abstract)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Utilization of rice bran, a by-product of rice milling characterized with a high economic value, is severely restricted by the activity of endogenous enzymes which typically deteriorate the bran quality. There is a great need to develop alternative techniques for stabilizing rice bran and at the sam...

390

RICE UNIVERSITY The Barbara and David Gibbs  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY The Barbara and David Gibbs RECREATION CENTER MEMBERSHIP CANCELLATION FORM Date:____________________________________________________ I authorize Rice University to terminate my request for payroll deduction to pay my membership fees 77005-1827 | Fax: 713.348.5329 | als5@rice.edu RECREATION CENTER STAFF USE ONLY Approval Signature

391

Rice University Public Assembly/Special Event  

E-print Network

Rice University Public Assembly/Special Event Fire and Life Safety Self-Check Form City of Houston shall provide Rice with a Certificate of Insurance that includes: Commercial General Liability ­ minimum $1,000,000 per occurrence Aggregate $2,000,000 Rice named as additional insured All rights

Natelson, Douglas

392

RICE UNIVERSITY Context for System Resource Management  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY Context for System Resource Management: An Application in Wireless Data Management my advisor, Dr. Lin Zhong, for his guidance and support throughout my academic life at Rice of my teachers from friends. Special thanks to my professors at Rice and Sharif, my teachers at Allameh

Zhong, Lin

393

RICE UNIVERSITY The Barbara and David Gibbs  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY The Barbara and David Gibbs RECREATION CENTER MEMBERSHIP CANCELLATION FORM Date:____________________________________________________ I authorize Rice University to terminate my request for payroll deduction to pay my membership fees 77005 | Office: ext.4058 | Fax: 713.348.5329 | als5@rice.edu RECREATION CENTER STAFF USE ONLY Approval

Alvarez, Pedro J.

394

RICE UNIVERSITY Task and Motion Planning for  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY Task and Motion Planning for Mobile Manipulators by Ioan Alexandru S¸ucan A THESIS Committee: Dr. Lydia E. Kavraki, Professor, Chair Computer Science, Rice University Dr. James McLurkin, Assistant Professor Computer Science, Rice University Dr. Marcia K. O'Malley, Associate Professor Mechanical

Kavraki, Lydia E.

395

RICE UNIVERSITY Kinodynamic Motion Planning for  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY Kinodynamic Motion Planning for High-dimensional Physical Systems by Ioan Alexandru of Science Approved, Thesis Committee: Dr. Lydia E. Kavraki (Chair) Professor, Computer Science, Rice University Dr. Joe Warren Professor, Computer Science, Rice University Dr. Marcia K. O'Malley Assistant

Kavraki, Lydia E.

396

Ecosystem approach to mitigate impacts of sedimentation on the hydrological cycle and aquatic ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study illustrates the importance of sedimentation control on a global scale by introducing general concepts developed locally through field observations in eutrophic bay in Lake Biwa in Japan, and in Dongting Lake in China. The phosphorus concentration of suspended solids in water columns and in the bottom sediment during soil puddling before the transplanting of rice seedlings have been measured analytically. We have estimated the gross phosphorus loads and the economical loss of losing fertilizer from rice paddy fields in the whole Lake Biwa basin during the same period. Additionally, the discussions and conclusions made in the session Ecosystem approach to water monitoring and management organized during the Third World Water Forum held in Kyoto, are introduced. The importance of sediment control in carrying out overall water quality programmes has been emphasized not only for watersheds with severe land degradation, but also for basins where the sedimentation impacts are considered rather small, and there is a need to reverse the long-term water quality trend in shallow reservoirs in international river basins, such as La Plata River basin in South America. Establishing international standards and regulations for controlling fine sediments, making an effective economic evaluation of the impacts induced by sedimentation applicable to local farmers, as well as developing an effective project focusing on treating sedimentation to improve nutrient control should be initiated on a global scale, as with the Global Environmental Facility project.

Yamashiki, Yosuke; Nakamura, Takehiro; Kurosawa, Miyuki; Matsui, Saburo

2006-04-01

397

Suppression of rice methane emission by sulfate deposition in simulated acid rain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate in acid rain is known to suppress methane (CH4) emissions from natural freshwater wetlands. Here we examine the possibility that CH4 emissions from rice agriculture may be similarly affected by acid rain, a major and increasing pollution problem in Asia. Our findings suggest that acid rain rates of SO42- deposition may help to reduce CH4 emissions from rice agriculture. Emissions from rice plants treated with simulated acid rain at levels of SO42- consistent with the range of deposition in Asia were reduced by 24% during the grain filling and ripening stage of the rice season which accounts for 50% of the overall CH4 that is normally emitted in a rice season. A single application of SO42- at a comparable level reduced CH4 emission by 43%. We hypothesize that the reduction in CH4 emission may be due to a combination of effects. The first mechanism is that the low rates of SO42- may be sufficient to boost yields of rice and, in so doing, may cause a reduction in root exudates to the rhizosphere, a key substrate source for methanogenesis. Decreasing a major substrate source for methanogens is also likely to intensify competition with sulfate-reducing microorganisms for whom prior SO42- limitation had been lifted by the simulated acid rain S deposition.

Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy B.; Howell, Graham; Jenkins, Meaghan E.

2008-09-01

398

Energy flow in an arctic aquatic ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

Natural isotope abundances to trace major pathways of energy flow to consumers in Imnavait Creek and the tundra ecosystem of the R4D watershed with comparative work in the coastal tundra. Our overall goals are to a determine if carbon is accumulating in upland and coastal tundra; determine the role of eroded peat carbon in the aquatic ecosystem; and to determine the distribution of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the tundra-pond ecosystem to establish the feasibility of using natural differences as tracers. Past work on fishes, birds, and the prey species of insects and aquatic crustaceans has shown that peat carbon is very important in the energy supply supporting the food webs over the course of the year. Obligate freshwater fishes from the coastal lakes and Colville River have been shown to contain up to 60 percent peat carbon at the end of the winter season. In contrast, migratory shorebirds and passerines contained much smaller radiocarbon abundances in summer, indicating a major shift to recent in situ primary production in pond and stream ecosystems in summer months. For the past two years, we have narrowed our focus to the processes supplying carbon to the beaded stream system at MS-117 and have concentrated on determining the transfer and accumulation rates of carbon in the watershed.

Schell, D.M.

1988-12-31

399

Energy flow in an arctic aquatic ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

Natural isotope abundances to trace major pathways of energy flow to consumers in Imnavait Creek and the tundra ecosystem of the R4D watershed with comparative work in the coastal tundra. Our overall goals are to a determine if carbon is accumulating in upland and coastal tundra; determine the role of eroded peat carbon in the aquatic ecosystem; and to determine the distribution of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the tundra-pond ecosystem to establish the feasibility of using natural differences as tracers. Past work on fishes, birds, and the prey species of insects and aquatic crustaceans has shown that peat carbon is very important in the energy supply supporting the food webs over the course of the year. Obligate freshwater fishes from the coastal lakes and Colville River have been shown to contain up to 60 percent peat carbon at the end of the winter season. In contrast, migratory shorebirds and passerines contained much smaller radiocarbon abundances in summer, indicating a major shift to recent in situ primary production in pond and stream ecosystems in summer months. For the past two years, we have narrowed our focus to the processes supplying carbon to the beaded stream system at MS-117 and have concentrated on determining the transfer and accumulation rates of carbon in the watershed.

Schell, D.M.

1988-01-01

400

Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice  

PubMed Central

Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1?+?3?+?12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. Deepwater rice obtained the ability for rapid internode elongation to avoid drowning and adapt to flooded condition. How does it regulate internode elongation? Using both physiological and genetic approach, this paper shows that the plant hormone, gibberellin (GA) regulates internode elongation. PMID:24891164

Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

2014-01-01

401

Stability and retention of micronutrients in fortified rice prepared using different cooking methods.  

PubMed

Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. However, it is unknown whether differences in cooking methods or in production of rice premix affect the final amount of micronutrient consumed. This paper presents a study that quantified the losses of five different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin B12) in fortified rice that was produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, cold extrusion, and coating) during cooking and five different cooking methods (absorption method with or without soaking, washing before cooking, cooking in excess water, and frying rice before cooking). Fortified rice premix from six different producers (two for each technique) was mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio. Each sample was prepared in triplicate, using the five different cooking methods, and retention of iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folic acid was determined. It was found that the overall retention of iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and folic acid was between 75% and 100% and was unaffected by cooking method, while the retention of vitamin A was significantly affected by cooking method, with retention ranging from 0% (excess water) to 80% (soaking), depending on the cooking method and producer of the rice premix. No systematic differences between the different production methods were observed. We conclude that different cooking methods of rice as used in different regions of the world do not lead to a major loss of most micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin A. The factors involved in protecting vitamin A against losses during cooking need to be identified. All production techniques of rice premix yielded similar results, showing that coating is not inferior to extrusion techniques. Standard overages (50%) for vitamin B12 and folic acid are too high. PMID:25134849

Wieringa, Frank T; Laillou, Arnaud; Guyondet, Christophe; Jallier, Vincent; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Berger, Jacques

2014-09-01

402

Biogeochemical Processes in Microbial Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hierarchical organization of microbial ecosystems determines process rates that shape Earth's environment, create the biomarker sedimentary and atmospheric signatures of life and define the stage upon which major evolutionary events occurred. In order to understand how microorganisms have shaped the global environment of Earth and potentially, other worlds, we must develop an experimental paradigm that links biogeochemical processes with ever-changing temporal and spatial distributions of microbial population, and their metabolic properties. Photosynthetic microbial mats offer an opportunity to define holistic functionality at the millimeter scale. At the same time, their Biogeochemistry contributes to environmental processes on a planetary scale. These mats are possibly direct descendents of the most ancient biological communities; communities in which oxygenic photosynthesis might have been invented. Mats provide one of the best natural systems to study how microbial populations associate to control dynamic biogeochemical gradients. These are self-sustaining, complete ecosystems in which light energy absorbed over a diel (24 hour) cycle drives the synthesis of spatially-organized, diverse biomass. Tightly-coupled microorganisms in the mat have specialized metabolisms that catalyze transformations of carbon, nitrogen. sulfur, and a host of other elements.

DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

403

A Classroom Exercise for Testing Urban Myth: Does Wedding Rice Cause Birds to Explode or Were Ann Landers, Martha Stewart & Bart Simpson Wrong?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author first provides the history of the wedding rice myth. He then details an interactive class activity that involved students in his large, non-majors biology classes. These students developed a series of experiments that scientifically determined if rice could be harmful to birds. Finally, he provides suggestions on how…

Krupa, James J.

2005-01-01

404

Sea Ice Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

Arrigo, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

405

Rice, indica (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

Indica varieties, which are generally recalcitrant to tissue culture and transformation, occupy 80 % of rice cultivation area in the world. Therefore, transformation method for indica rice must be improved greatly so that global rice production would take full advantage of cutting-edge biotechnology. An efficient protocol for indica transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is hereby described. Immature embryos collected from plants in a greenhouse are cocultivated with A. tumefaciens after pretreatment with heat and centrifuging. The protocol was successfully tested in many elite indica cultivars such as IR8, IR24, IR58025B, IR64, IR72, Suweon 258, and Nanjing 11, yielding between 5 and 15 of independent transgenic plants per immature embryo. The use of immature embryos is recommended because gene transfer to them could be much more efficient and much less genotype dependent than gene transfer to callus. PMID:25300838

Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

2015-01-01

406

A rice-based soluble form of a murine TNF-specific llama variable domain of heavy-chain antibody suppresses collagen-induced arthritis in mice.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) plays a pivotal role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. Although anti-TNF antibody therapy is now commonly used to treat patients suffering from these inflammatory conditions, the cost of treatment continues to be a concern. Here, we developed a rice transgenic system for the production of a llama variable domain of a heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) specific for mouse TNF in rice seeds (MucoRice-mTNF-VHH). MucoRice-mTNF-VHH was produced at high levels in the rice seeds when we used our most recent transgene-overexpression system with RNA interference technology that suppresses the production of major rice endogenous storage proteins while enhancing the expression of the transgene-derived protein. Production levels of mTNF-VHH in rice seeds reached an average of 1.45% (w/w). Further, approximately 91% of mTNF-VHH was released easily when the powder form of MucoRice-mTNF-VHH was mixed with PBS. mTNF-VHH purified by means of single-step gel filtration from rice PBS extract showed high neutralizing activity in an in vitro mTNF cytotoxicity assay using WEHI164 cells. In addition, purified mTNF-VHH suppressed progression of collagen-induced arthritis in mice. These results show that this rice-expression system is useful for the production of neutralizing VHH antibody specific for mTNF. PMID:24548461

Abe, Michiyo; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kurokawa, Shiho; Mejima, Mio; Kuroda, Masaharu; Park, Eun Jeong; Scheller, Jürgen; Nakanishi, Ushio; Kiyono, Hiroshi

2014-04-10

407

Differentially Expressed Genes Distributed Over Chromosomes and Implicated in Certain Biological Processes for Site Insertion Genetically Modified Rice Kemingdao  

PubMed Central

Release of genetically modified (GM) plants has sparked off intensive debates worldwide partly because of concerns about potential adverse unintended effects of GM plants to the agro system and the safety of foods. In this study, with the aim of revealing the molecular basis for unintended effects of a single site insertion GM Kemingdao (KMD) rice transformed with a synthetic cry1Ab gene, and bridging unintended effects of KMD rice through clues of differentially expressed genes, comparative transcriptome analyses were performed for GM KMD rice and its parent rice of Xiushui11 (XS11). The results showed that 680 differentially expressed transcripts were identified from 30-day old seedlings of GM KMD rice. The absolute majority of these changed expression transcripts dispersed and located over all rice chromosomes, and existed physical distance on chromosome from the insertion site, while only two transcripts were found to be differentially expressed within the 21 genes located within 100 kb up and down-stream of the insertion site. Pathway and biology function analyses further revealed that differentially expressed transcripts of KMD rice were involved in certain biological processes, and mainly implicated in two types of pathways. One type was pathways implicated in plant stress/defense responses, which were considerably in coordination with the reported unintended effects of KMD rice, which were more susceptible to rice diseases compared to its parent rice XS11; the other type was pathways associated with amino acids metabolism. With this clue, new unintended effects for changes in amino acids synthesis of KMD rice leaves were successfully revealed. Such that an actual case was firstly provided for identification of unintended effects in GM plants by comparative transciptome analysis. PMID:22811617

Liu, Zhi; Li, Yunhe; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Xiuping; Jian, Guiliang; Peng, Yufa; Qi, Fangjun

2012-01-01

408

Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Ecosystem Complex  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub-catena". The extent of detailed mapping is the interpreted Holocene geologic floodplain of the tidal Columbia River and its tributaries to the estimated head of tide. The extent of this dataset also includes tributary valleys that are not mapped in detail. The upstream extents of tributary valleys are an estimation of the limit of Columbia River influence and are for use as containers in future analyses. The geologic floodplain is the geomorphic surface that is actively accumulating sediment through occasional overbank deposition. Most features within the geologic floodplain are considered to be formed during the recent (Holocene-epoch) climatic regime. There are bedrock and pre-Holocene sedimentary deposits included where they are surrounded by Holocene sediment accumulations or have been shaped by Holocene floods. In some places, Holocene landforms such as landslides, tributary fans, and coastal dunes are mapped that extend outside of the modern floodplain. This map is not a floodplain hazard map or delineation of actual flood boundaries. Although wetlands are included in the Classification, they are based on different criteria than jurisdictional wetlands. The extent of mapping may differ from the actual limit of tidal influence.

Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe

2012-01-01

409

Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. PMID:24345551

Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

2014-03-01

410

Texas Rice, Volume III, Number 1  

E-print Network

in each of the rice producing states. Since 1960, the quality lab has participated in the development of all public varieties produced commercially in the U.S. Be- cause of their superior grain quality and high yield, these varieties have contributed.... In the modern rice milling industry, rice hulls are used as a fuel source for grain drying and parboiling. In Thailand, rice is dried in high-temperature fluid- ized bed dryers, and drying heat is provided by cy- clonic rice hull furnaces. In Arkansas, about 30...

411

Hydraulic conductivity of rice roots.  

PubMed

A pressure chamber and a root pressure probe technique have been used to measure hydraulic conductivities of rice roots (root Lp(r) per m(2) of root surface area). Young plants of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties (an upland variety, cv. Azucena and a lowland variety, cv. IR64) were grown for 31-40 d in 12 h days with 500 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PAR and day/night temperatures of 27 degrees C and 22 degrees C. Root Lp(r) was measured under conditions of steady-state and transient water flow. Different growth conditions (hydroponic and aeroponic culture) did not cause visible differences in root anatomy in either variety. Values of root Lp(r) obtained from hydraulic (hydrostatic) and osmotic water flow were of the order of 10(-8) m s(-1) MPa(-1) and were similar when using the different techniques. In comparison with other herbaceous species, rice roots tended to have a higher hydraulic resistance of the roots per unit root surface area. The data suggest that the low overall hydraulic conductivity of rice roots is caused by the existence of apoplastic barriers in the outer root parts (exodermis and sclerenchymatous (fibre) tissue) and by a strongly developed endodermis rather than by the existence of aerenchyma. According to the composite transport model of the root, the ability to adapt to higher transpirational demands from the shoot should be limited for rice because there were minimal changes in root Lp(r) depending on whether hydrostatic or osmotic forces were acting. It is concluded that this may be one of the reasons why rice suffers from water shortage in the shoot even in flooded fields. PMID:11520872

Miyamoto, N; Steudle, E; Hirasawa, T; Lafitte, R

2001-09-01

412

Iron Biofortification of Myanmar Rice  

PubMed Central

Iron (Fe) deficiency elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75 and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high-yields or high-qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high-Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II)-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs. PMID:23750162

Aung, May Sann; Masuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

2013-01-01

413

Comparison of generalist predators in winter-flooded and conventionally managed rice paddies and identification of their limiting factors.  

PubMed

Winter-flooding of rice paddies without the application of agricultural chemicals is attracting attention as a new agricultural method for enhancing the habitat conditions of wintering waterfowl in rice paddy ecosystems throughout Japan and east Asia. Conditions in these paddies are expected to result in restoration of not only the winter habitats of waterfowl but also those of other taxonomic groups during the rice growing season. In this study, we tested whether the diversity of summer spiders--ubiquitous predators in rice paddies--was higher in the winter-flooded paddies than in the conventional ones by conducting field measurements in 31 winter-flooded and 7 conventional paddies. Limiting factors of spiders in the winter-flooded paddies were then examined. Results revealed that both the density and species richness of spiders were significantly higher in the winter-flooded paddies than in the conventional ones both before and after the insecticide application against pecky rice bug Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura)(Hemiptera: Miridae) to conventional paddies. In addition, spider density and species richness in the winter-flooded paddies correlated with the availability of two prey groups--chironomids and other nematocera. These findings suggest that in the winter-flooded paddies the diversity of generalist predators is higher than in the conventional ones during the rice-growing season and that the combination of management at both the landscape and field level is likely more effective for increasing spider abundance in winter-flooded paddies. PMID:25140294

Takada, Mayura B; Takagi, Shun; Iwabuchi, Shigeki; Mineta, Takuya; Washitani, Izumi

2014-01-01

414

Pyrite: its rapid formation in a salt marsh and its importance in ecosystem metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrite formation in salt-marsh peat occurs more rapidly than is generally thought for any natural system. Pyrite is the major end product of sulfate reduction, and sulfate reduction is the major form of respiration in the salt-marsh ecosystem. When the rapid formation of pyrite is ignored, the rates of sulfate reduction and ecosystem respiration may be grossly underestimated.

R. W. HOWARTH

1979-01-01

415

Grays Lake Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study looks at the marsh ecosystem of Grays Lake in southeast Idaho, and is hosted by the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC). Grays Lake has been the focus of numerous research studies to understand factors affecting breeding water birds, habitat management practices, populations, and geological factors. This report gives general information about the Grays Lake ecosystem, including climate, habitats, plant communities, wildlife, water, and geology. More specific details are given through flora and fauna lists, historical and cultural overviews, details about the Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and research information on management of wetlands.

416

Bioenergetics in ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bioenergetics model for a fish can be defined as a quantitative description of the fish’s energy budget. Bioenergetics modeling can be applied to a fish population in a lake, river, or ocean to estimate the annual consumption of food by the fish population; such applications have proved to be useful in managing fisheries. In addition, bioenergetics models have been used to better understand fish growth and consumption in ecosystems, to determine the importance of the role of fish in cycling nutrients within ecosystems, and to identify the important factors regulating contaminant accumulation in fish from lakes, rivers, and oceans.

Madenjian, Charles P.

2011-01-01

417

Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The Maritime and Continental Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are considered in the context of environmental impacts - habitat destruction, alien introductions, and pollution. Four types of pollution are considered: nutrients, radionuclides, inert materials, and noxious chemicals. Their ability to recover from perturbation is discussed in the light of present scientific knowledge, and the methods used to control impacts are reviewed. It is concluded that techniques of waste disposal are still inadequate, adequate training in environmental and conservation principles for Antarctic personnel in many countries is lacking, and scientific investigations may be a much more serious threat than tourism to the integrity of these ecosystems. Some priorities crucial to future management are suggested.

Walton, D.W.H.

1987-01-01

418

Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.  

PubMed

The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality. PMID:24757389

Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

2014-03-01

419

Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer  

PubMed Central

The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, ‘Tsuyahime’, ‘Koshihikari’ and ‘Koshinokaori’ showed high whiteness, while ‘Satonoyuki’ had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from ‘Koyukimochi’ and ‘Dewanomochi’ was higher than the whiteness of those made from ‘Himenomochi’ and ‘Koganemochi’. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality. PMID:24757389

Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

2014-01-01

420

Texas Rice, Highlights in Research  

E-print Network

, and (2) figure out the details of how the rice plant stores, and then later uses, temporary reserves of carbo- hydrates (sugars and starch) and nitrogen-containing compounds (such as protein). The plant naturally uses these reserves to help fill the grain... the Texas Rice Belt. TNC levels less than 350 lbs/A, when ratoon tillers are not visible, are strong indicators that ratoon yield potential is less than 1200 lbs/A even under very high input levels. TNC levels of 1000 or more lbs/A typically produce ratoon...

2001-01-01

421

Cooking with Rice (not instant)  

E-print Network

(6 servings). To make rice, mix the following ingredients in a medium saucepan: 1 cup uncooked rice 1 tablespoon margarine (if you like) 2 cups water ? teaspoon salt (if you like) Bring the contents to a boil and stir once or twice. Reduce..., pickles, mustard and pepper in a large bowl. 3. Toss the ingredients to mix them completely. 4. Chill the salad. Prepared by Jenna Anding, Associate Professor and Extension Nutrition Specialist, The Texas A&M System. Produced by AgriLife Communications...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09

422

Status of the RICE Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RICE experiment, located at the South Pole, seeks detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos based on measurement of the coherent radiofrequency Cherenkov pulse created by an englacial neutrino-ice collision. Based on the eight-year dataset now accumulated by RICE, we report on updated results on the neutrino flux in the >100 PeV energy range, limits on neutrino production from gamma-ray bursts, and searches for ultra-relativistic monopoles. The successor experiment (AURA) will also be briefly discussed.

Kravchenko, Ilya; Adams, J.; Bean, A.; et al.

423

Calorimetry of the Rice Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Ice Cherenkov Experiment (RICE) is an ultrahigh-energy (UHE) cosmic ray neutrino detector for neutrino energies greater than a PeV. This pilot project explores the radio detection technique for UHE particles. Deployed at the Antarctic polar ice cap, RICE antennas have been operational since 1996. Basic calibrations of the antenna array have been done using data taken mostly in situ. The calibration results and an upper limit on electron neutrino flux based on one month of analyzed data are reported here.

Razzaque, Soebur

2002-01-01

424

Patterns of irrigated rice growth and malaria vector breeding in Mali using multi-temporal ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar  

PubMed Central

We explored the use of the European Remote Sensing Satellite 2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (ERS-2 SAR) to trace the development of rice plants in an irrigated area near Niono, Mali and relate that to the density of anopheline mosquitoes, especially An. gambiae. This is important because such mosquitoes are the major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, and their development is often coupled to the cycle of rice development. We collected larval samples, mapped rice fields using GPS and recorded rice growth stages simultaneously with eight ERS-2 SAR acquisitions. We were able to discriminate among rice growth stages using ERS-2 SAR backscatter data, especially among the early stages of rice growth, which produce the largest numbers of larvae. We could also distinguish between basins that produced high and low numbers of anophelines within the stage of peak production. After the peak, larval numbers dropped as rice plants grew taller and thicker, reducing the amount of light reaching the water surface. ERS-2 SAR backscatter increased concomitantly. Our data support the belief that ERS-2 SAR data may be helpful for mapping the spatial patterns of rice growth, distinguishing different agricultural practices, and monitoring the abundance of vectors in nearby villages. PMID:17710188

Diuk-Wasser, M. A.; Dolo, G.; Bagayoko, M.; Sogoba, N.; Toure, M. B.; Moghaddam, M.; Manoukis, N.; Rian, S.; Traore, S. F.; Taylor, C. E.

2007-01-01

425

Weedy (red) rice: An emerging constraint to global rice production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ongoing increases in the human population necessitate that rice will continue to be an essential aspect of food security for the 21st century. While production must increase in the coming decades to meet demand, such increases will be accompanied by diminished natural resources and rising productio...

426

Small brown planthopper resistance loci in wild rice (Oryza officinalis).  

PubMed

Host-plant resistance is the most practical and economical approach to control the rice planthoppers. However, up to date, few rice germplasm accessions that are resistant to the all three kinds of planthoppers (1) brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål), (2) the small brown planthopper (SBPH; Laodelphax striatellus Fallen), and (3) the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) have been identified; consequently, the genetic basis for host-plant broad spectrum resistance to rice planthoppers in a single variety has been seldom studied. Here, one wild species, Oryza officinalis (Acc. HY018, 2n = 24, CC), was detected showing resistance to the all three kinds of planthoppers. Because resistance to WBPH and BPH in O. officinalis has previously been reported, the study mainly focused on its SBPH resistance. The SBPH resistance gene(s) was (were) introduced into cultivated rice via asymmetric somatic hybridization. Three QTLs for SBPH resistance detected by the SSST method were mapped and confirmed on chromosomes 3, 7, and 12, respectively. The allelic/non-allelic relationship and relative map positions of the three kinds of planthopper resistance genes in O. officinalis show that the SBPH, WBPH, and BPH resistance genes in O. officinalis were governed by multiple genes, but not by any major gene. The data on the genetics of host-plant broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers in a single accession suggested that the most ideally practical and economical approach for rice breeders is to screen the sources of broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers, but not to employ broad spectrum resistance gene for the management of planthoppers. Pyramiding these genes in a variety can be an effective way for the management of planthoppers. PMID:24504629

Zhang, Weilin; Dong, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ma, Bojun; Ma, Rongrong; Huang, Fudeng; Wang, Changchun; Hu, Haitao; Li, Chunshou; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

2014-06-01

427

NUTRIENT CYCLING BY ANIMALS IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Animals are important,in nutrient cycling in freshwater ecosystems. Via excretory processes, animals can supply nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) at rates comparable to major nutrient sources, and nutrient cycling by animals can sup- port a substantial proportion of the nutrient demands of primary producers. In addition, animals may,exert strong impacts on the species composition,of primary producers via effects on

Michael J. Vanni

2002-01-01

428

A Built-In Mechanism to Mitigate the Spread of Insect-Resistance and Herbicide-Tolerance Transgenes into Weedy Rice Populations  

PubMed Central

Background The major challenge of cultivating genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa) at the commercial scale is to prevent the spread of transgenes from GM cultivated rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea). The strategic development of GM rice with a built-in control mechanism can mitigate transgene spread in weedy rice populations. Methodology/Principal Findings An RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the bentazon detoxifying enzyme CYP81A6 was constructed into the T-DNA which contained two tightly linked transgenes expressing the Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab and the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), respectively. GM rice plants developed from this T-DNA were resistant to lepidopteran pests and tolerant to glyphosate, but sensitive to bentazon. The application of bentazon of 2000 mg/L at the rate of 40 mL/m2, which is approximately the recommended dose for the field application to control common rice weeds, killed all F2 plants containing the transgenes generated from the Crop-weed hybrids between a GM rice line (CGH-13) and two weedy rice strains (PI-63 and PI-1401). Conclusions/Significance Weedy rice plants containing transgenes from GM rice through gene flow can be selectively killed by the spray of bentazon when a non-GM rice variety is cultivated alternately in a few-year interval. The built-in control mechanism in combination of cropping management is likely to mitigate the spread of transgenes into weedy rice populations. PMID:22359609

Liu, Chengyi; Li, Jingjing; Gao, Jianhua; Shen, Zhicheng; Lu, Bao-Rong; Lin, Chaoyang

2012-01-01

429

Placing ecosystem sustainability within the context of dynamic earth systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the concept of ecosystem sustainability and the practice of sustainable land management both have long-term foci, it is necessary to view these from the perspective of dynamic rather than static systems. In addition to the typical static system approach for assessing ecosystem sustainability, three additional perspectives are presented. These are resilient systems, systems where tipping points occur, and systems subject to episodic geophysical resetting. Ecosystem resilience accommodates both natural and anthropogenic stressors and should be considered to properly frame many ecosystem assessments. A more complex problem emerges when stressors push systems to tipping points, causing a regime shift. Both chronic anthropogenic activities (e.g., over-grazing, forest conversion, poor irrigation practices) and natural changes (e.g., climate anomalies, geochemical weathering, tectonic uplift, vegetative succession) can exhaust ecosystem resilience leading to a rapid change in state. Anthropogenic perturbations can also lower the initiation threshold and increase the magnitude and frequency of certain natural disasters, increasing the likelihood of ecosystem change. Furthermore, when major episodic geophysical events (e.g., large earthquakes, tsunami, and floods; widespread volcanic activity and landslides) exceed thresholds of ecosystem resilience they may reset the attributes of entire systems or landscapes. Large disasters can initiate a cascade of linked events, as in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, where tsunami, fires, landslides, artificial fillslope collapses, radioactive releases, and associated health effects occurred. Understanding the potential for natural change (both chronic and episodic) in ecosystems is essential not only to the environmental aspect of sustainability but also to economic and social aspects. Examples are presented for: (1) ecosystems vulnerable to tipping points (Yunnan, China) and (2) ecosystems reset by earthquakes and tsunami (Papua New Guinea and eastern Japan). While these geophysical perturbations and shifts in ecosystems are individually recognized, they are not fully embraced by contemporary sustainability thinking or decision management.

Sidle, R. C.

2013-12-01

430

Analysis of alternative marketing organizations for improving rice producer income  

E-print Network

and chemicals. American Grain Association markets soybeans. American Growers Transport Company transports fertilizer. American Rice, Inc, markets rice. Mermentau Grain Corporation owns barge loading facilities. Recently, ARI has acquired the assets... Purposes and tunctions of the American Group of Rice Cooperatives at the Time of Organization, . . . . . . American Rice Growers Cooperative Association. . . . . . . . American Rice Growers Exchange. American Grain Association. American Growers...

Guillot, Patrick Dale

2012-06-07

431

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Computer Engineering  

E-print Network

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Computer Engineering Learn more at ece.rice.edu The Computer Engineering group at Rice University has a long track record of innovative research in physical current methods in silicon. Rice ECE Graduate Studies The faculty in ECE at Rice perform experimental

432

Energetics of an Aquatic Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is meant to give students an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and the processes and concepts that they are composed of and to give students a feel for how ecosystems affect the larger community.

William H. Leonard (University of Nebraska;)

1982-06-21

433

Ecosystem Restoration Research at GWERD  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division, Ada, OK Mission: Conduct research and technical assistance to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted b...

434

Monitoring forg Ecosystem Restoration  

E-print Network

,...assessing project performance, determining whether ecological success has been achieved, or whether adaptive authorized projects, andpp , p y p j , other programmatic authorities Development of a monitoring plan management. BUILDING STRONG® #12;Section 2039-Monitoring Ecosystem R t tiRestoration The plan must specify

US Army Corps of Engineers

435

The Global Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 11 questions on the topic of ecosystems, which covers food chains and organism characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit an answer and are provided immediate verification.

Timothy Heaton

436

Experiment with Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to give students the opportunity to Âthink like a scientist, making hypotheses, doing experiments, making observations, and analyzing data. Students are encouraged to construct and conduct their own experiments with ecosystems comprising grass, rabbits, and up to two predator species: hawks and foxes. (Evolution Readiness Activity 10 of 10.)

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

437

MOBILE PROXIMITY PAYMENT: ECOSYSTEM  

E-print Network

MOBILE PROXIMITY PAYMENT: ECOSYSTEM AND OVERVIEW OF NFC TECHNOLOGY 1. Introduction Handsets confirm topic in the mobile payment field and promises a revolution in the world of payments. This article traces the state-of-the-art in mobile proximity payment field and traces the most probable evolution

Shamos, Michael I.

438

Living Landscape Australian Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides access to the 10 episodes of "The Living Landscape â an Australian Ecosystems Series" produced by Gulliver Media and Education Queensland. This series previously aired on ABC TV in the "For Schools" slot. The episodes run between 15 minutes and 22 minutes each. Still images from the series are also available for download.

439

Boston Harbor Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) site is designed to summarize and make available results of scientific research conducted in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts since 1985. A computer image of the harbor indicates ecosystem zones with descriptions (watershed, estuary, inner shelf, and basin), sewage outfall sites, and rock types. Links are provided for more information on this region.

440

Biocomplexity in mangrove ecosystems.  

PubMed

Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise, and nutrient overenrichment. Variations in the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems have generally been described solely on the basis of a hierarchical classification of the physical characteristics of the intertidal environment, including climate, geomorphology, topography, and hydrology. Here, we use the concept of emergent properties at multiple levels within a hierarchical framework to review how the interplay between specialized adaptations and extreme trait plasticity that characterizes mangroves and intertidal environments gives rise to the biocomplexity that distinguishes mangrove ecosystems. The traits that allow mangroves to tolerate variable salinity, flooding, and nutrient availability influence ecosystem processes and ultimately the services they provide. We conclude that an integrated research strategy using emergent properties in empirical and theoretical studies provides a holistic approach for understanding and managing mangrove ecosystems. PMID:21141670

Feller, I C; Lovelock, C E; Berger, U; McKee, K L; Joye, S B; Ball, M C

2010-01-01

441

Ecosystem Services: A Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused reprint explains how natural ecosystems produce services upon which we are dependent. For example, they: provide us with clean water and air, pollinate our crops and disperse seeds, protect us from extreme weather and ultraviolet light, and control pests and disease-carrying organisms.

Ecological Society of America (;)

2000-06-01

442

Coupling global models of vegetation structure and ecosystem processes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many currently available biogeochemical ecosystem process models capture the essential processes of trace gas fluxes between atmosphere and ecosystems, as well as the associated changes in net primary productivity. When used in climate change impact scenarios, one of the most serious limitations of these models is due to the fact that the structure of the ecosystem itself is prescribed from a global data base. Significant shifts of the major biomes of the globe are likely to occur under changed climatic conditions, and, hence, the assumption of stable ecosystem structure could fail. To overcome this problem, we have coupled an ecosystem structure model (BIOME) with a biogeochemical ecosystem process model (the Frankfurt Biosphere Model, FBM). Here we present results for high-latitude ecosystems. The coupled model has an average npp of 343.4gCm-2 a-1. The application of the coupled model under a GCM based scenario of changing temperature and precipitation results in major changes of the biome boundaries at these high latitudes. The resulting average npp decreases by 8.8%. If the model is run with changed climate but unchanged biome distribution the average npp decreases by 5.4% only.

Plöchl, Matthias; Cramer, Wolfgang

1995-02-01

443

Ecosystem theory and the unexpected: implications for environmental toxicology  

SciTech Connect

The necessity of considering in research, the components of ecosystems as parts of the dynamic whole is emphasized. Certainly a major focus of toxic substance programs should be understanding effects on the state of the whole ecosystem. In the first section the notion of the system as it emerges from hierarchy theory is developed. The next section emphasizes the ecosystem as a biogeochemical system. Next the focus is placed explicitly on the system-component problem, and ecological examples of problems involved in extrapolating from component measurements to system behaviors are given. Recommendations for toxic substances research are included.

O'Neill, R.V.; Waide, J.B.

1980-01-01

444

Emergence of anoxia in the California current large marine ecosystem.  

PubMed

Eastern boundary current systems are among the world's most productive large marine ecosystems. Because upwelling currents transport nutrient-rich but oxygen-depleted water onto shallow seas, large expanses of productive continental shelves can be vulnerable to the risk of extreme low-oxygen events. Here, we report the novel rise of water-column shelf anoxia in the northern California Current system, a large marine ecosystem with no previous record of such extreme oxygen deficits. The expansion of anoxia highlights the potential for rapid and discontinuous ecosystem change in productive coastal systems that sustain a major portion of the world's fisheries. PMID:18276882

Chan, F; Barth, J A; Lubchenco, J; Kirincich, A; Weeks, H; Peterson, W T; Menge, B A

2008-02-15

445

Emergence of Anoxia in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern boundary current systems are among the world’s most productive large marine ecosystems. Because upwelling currents transport nutrient-rich but oxygen-depleted water onto shallow seas, large expanses of productive continental shelves can be vulnerable to the risk of extreme low-oxygen events. Here, we report the novel rise of water-column shelf anoxia in the northern California Current system, a large marine ecosystem with no previous record of such extreme oxygen deficits. The expansion of anoxia highlights the potential for rapid and discontinuous ecosystem change in productive coastal systems that sustain a major portion of the world’s fisheries.

Chan, F.; Barth, J. A.; Lubchenco, J.; Kirincich, A.; Weeks, H.; Peterson, W. T.; Menge, B. A.

2008-02-01

446

Sample careers for majors The Career Center  

E-print Network

Sample careers for majors The Career Center career.colostate.edu Career Center Liaison-5707 to schedule an appointment with your Career Counselor, Wendy Rose. Sample Job Titles of Graduates Ecosystem into real-world decision making and public policy, with the goal of managing our natural resources

447

A Method for Assessing Hydrologic Alteration within Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Hydrologic regimes play a major role in determining the biotic composition, structure, and function of aquatic, wetland, and riparian ecosystems. However, human land and water uses are substantially altering hydrologic regimes around the world. Improved quantitative evaluations of human-inducedhydrologic changes,are needed,to advance research on the biotic implications of hydrologic alteration, and to support ecosystem,management,and restoration plans. To facilitate such

Brian D. Richter; Jeffrey V. Baumgartner; Jennifer Powell; David P. Braun

1996-01-01

448

DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR MARKER FROM THE RICE BLAST AVIRULENCE GEN AVR-PITA FOR SURVEILLANCE OF DURABLE RICE BLAST RESISTANCE CONFERRED BY PI-TA IN ARKANSAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Arkansas, a major resistance gene Pi-ta in rice has been deployed effectively to prevent blast disease. Currently, the US cultivars, Katy, Madison, Kaybonnet, Drew, Cybonnet and Ahrent were confirmed to contain the resistance gene Pi-ta. Pi-ta is effective only when blast pathogen Magnaporthe o...

449

Evaluation of estimated daily intake (EDI) of cadmium and lead for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in calcareous soils  

PubMed Central

The excessive amounts of cadmium and lead in food chain can cause health problems for humans and ecosystem. Rice is an important food in human diet. Therefore this study was conducted in order to investigate cadmium and Lead concentrations in seed rice (Oryza saliva) of paddy fields in southwest of Iran. A total of 70 rice seed samples were collected from paddy fields in five regions of Khuzestan province, Southwest Iran, during harvesting time. In the samples cadmium and Lead concentrations were measured. To assess the daily intake of Cadmium and Lead by rice, daily consumption of rice was calculated. The results showed that average concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in rice seeds were 273.6 and 121.8??g/kg, respectively. Less than 72% of rice seed samples had Cadmium concentrations above 200??g/kg (i.e. Guide value for cadmium); and less than 3% had Lead concentrations above 150??g/kg (i.e. Guide value for Lead). The estimated daily intakes of cadmium by the local population was calculated to 0.59??g/day?kg bw, which corresponds to 59% of the tolerable daily intakes (i.e. 1??g/day?kg bw). Eleven out of 70 samples (15.71%) exceed the tolerable daily intakes. The dietary intakes for Lead in the local population ranged from 0.22 to 0.47??g/day?kg bw. Tolerable daily intakes for Lead is 3.6??g/day?kg bw. As a whole, long term consumption of the local rice may bear high risk of heavy metal exposure to the consumer in the study region. PMID:23566692

2013-01-01

450

COUNTERACTING ECOSYSTEM LOSSES DUE TO DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Interventions into ecosystems to develop the built/socio-physical environment involve normative decisions regarding human well-being that inevitably compromise ecosystem capacities, but ecosystem sustainability is conditioned by properties established by ecosystems and unrelated ...

451

[Assessment of shallow groundwater nitrate concentrations in typical terrestrial ecosystems of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) during 2004-2009].  

PubMed

The nitrate-N (NO3(-) -N) concentrations of 38 shallow groundwater wells from 31 of the typical terrestrial ecosystems on Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) were assessed using the monitoring data from 2004 to 2009. The results showed that the average values of NO3(-) -N concentrations were significantly higher in the agricultural (4.85 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.42 mg x L(-1)), desert (oasis) (3.72 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.42 mg x L(-1)) and urban ecosystems (3.77 mg x L(-1) 0.51 mg x L(-1)) than in the grass (1.59 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.35 mg L(-1)) and forest ecosystems (0.39 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.03 mg x L(-1)). Nitrate was the major form of nitrogen, with between 56% to 88% of nitrogen in the nitrate-N form in the shallow groundwater of desert (oasis), urban and agricultural ecosystems. Nitrate-N concentrations for some agricultural ecosystems (Ansai, Yanting, Yucheng) and desert (oasis) ecosystems (Cele, Linze, Akesu) analysis exceeded the 10 mg x L(-1) World Health Organization drinking water standards between 14.3% and 84.6%. Significant seasonality was found in Ansai, Fengqiu, Yanting agricultural ecosystems and the Beijing urban ecosystem using the relatively high frequency monitoring data, with the higher nitrate concentrations usually found during summer and winter months. The monitoring results indicated that the shallow groundwater of agricultural ecosystems was contaminated by agricultural management practices, i.e. fertilization, while the shallow groundwater of forest ecosystems was under natural condition with no contamination from human activities. PMID:22279888

Xu, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Min; Yuan, Guo-Fu; Wang, Sheng-Zhong; Liu, Wen-Hua

2011-10-01

452

Black Beans and Rice Ingredients  

E-print Network

Black Beans and Rice Ingredients: 1 teaspoon vegetable oil 1 medium onion, chopped 2 bay leaves 4 cloves garlic, minced 2 (15 oz.) cans black beans, drained and rinsed 1 tbsp. cilantro 15 ounces low, and bay leaves in oil in large non stick skillet. Cook until onions are translucent. 3. Add black beans

Liskiewicz, Maciej

453

Texas Rice, Highlights in Research  

E-print Network

of insects attacking rice. This year is no different. At Beaumont, we are evaluating Cruiser 5FS (neo-nicotinoid) as a seed treatment, F0570 (resolved isomer of Fury) as a foliar pre or post-flood application, and GF-317 (resolved isomer of Karate) as a...

2002-01-01

454

WEB FREE RICE Yuhei YAMAUCHI  

E-print Network

;12 4 Monogatari 10 Monogatari Conomi WEB Monogatari IC 2 TV TV #12;13 200 WEB FREE RICE 1 10 ? ? 2009 Philosophy Editor:Joshua Knobe,Shaun Nichols Published by Oxford University Press, USA,July 15,2008 WEB

Miyashita, Yasushi

455

Methane emission from rice paddies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane release rates from rice paddies have been measured in Andalusia, Spain, during almost a complete vegetation period in 1982 using the static box system. The release rates ranged between 2 and 14 mg\\/m2\\/h and exhibited a strong seasonal variation with low values during the tillering stage and shortly before harvest, while maximum values were observed at the end of

W. Seiler; A. Holzapfel-Pschorn; R. Conrad; D. Scharffe

1983-01-01

456

Modelling Marine Ecosystems Mick Follows  

E-print Network

Modelling Marine Ecosystems Mick Follows Dept of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology http://ocean.mit.edu/~mick/Downloads.html #12;What is the marine ecosystem?What is the marine ecosystem? · Food webFood web · Focus onFocus on phytoplanktonphytoplankton Bacteria, archaea #12

Follows, Mick

457

The Galactic Ecosystem Michael Burton  

E-print Network

The Galactic Ecosystem Michael Burton School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Australia. THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES DEPARTMENT OF ASTROPHYSICS SCHOOL OF PHYSICS Abstract Ecosystems are systems. Ecosystems operate autonomously, by a process of self-regulation. Their flows of energy mean they cannot

Burton, Michael

458

Ecosystem Services and Environmental Benefits  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Services and Environmental Benefits of the UC San Diego Campus Forest 10 February 2009 #12;2 #12;3 Ecosystem Services and Environmental Benefits of the UC San Diego Campus Forest 10 of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), is a rich and varied ecosystem stretching from the Pacific Ocean

Tsien, Roger Y.

459

Prediction of grain weight, brown rice weight and amylose content in single rice grains using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for simultaneous analysis of grain weight (mg), brown rice weight (mg) and milled rice amylose content (AC, %) in single rice grains was studied. Calibration equations were developed using 474 single grain samples, scanned as both rice grain and brown rice. An independent set containing 90 F2 generation grains was used to validate

J. G Wu; C. H Shi

2004-01-01

460

Rice University | Faculty | Researchers Undergraduates Grad Students Faculty & Researchers Staff Alumni  

E-print Network

Rice University | Faculty | Researchers Undergraduates Grad Students Faculty & Researchers Staff At a Glance About Rice Rice Facts 2009 Students and Postdoctoral Appointees Entering Class Enrollment Resources Administration Historical Facts Archives About OIR Rice News Feed Font Size Rice Facts Students

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

461

Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning  

PubMed Central

Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an ecosystem functioning context, but it also highlights that much remains to be understood, especially regarding the relation between forest functioning on the one side and genetic diversity and above-ground-below-ground species associations on the other. The strong emphasis of the BEF-approach on functional rather than taxonomic diversity may also be the beginning of a paradigm shift in restoration ecology, increasing the tolerance towards allochthonous species. PMID:22115365

2011-01-01

462

Structure and activity of bacterial community inhabiting rice roots and the rhizosphere.  

PubMed

Root-derived carbon provides a major source for microbial production and emission of CH4 from rice field soils. Therefore, we characterized the structure and activity of the bacterial community inhabiting rice roots and the rhizosphere. In the first experiment, DNA retrieved from rice roots was analysed for bacterial 16S rRNA genes using cloning, sequencing and in situ hybridization. In the second experiment, rice plants were pulse-labelled with 13CO2 (99% of atom 13C) for 7 days, and the bacterial RNA was isolated from rhizosphere soil and subjected to density gradient centrifugation. RNA samples from density fractions were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, cloning and sequencing. The experiments showed that the dominant bacteria inhabiting rice roots and the rhizosphere particularly belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. The RNA stable isotope probing revealed that the bacteria actively assimilating C derived from the pulse-labelled rice plants were Azospirillum spp. (Alphaproteobacteria) and members of Burkholderiaceae (Betaproteobacteria). Both anaerobic (e.g. Clostridia) and aerobic (e.g. Comamonas) degraders were present at high abundance, indicating that root environments and degradation processes were highly heterogeneous. The relative importance of iron and sulfate reducers suggested that cycling of iron and sulfur is active in the rhizosphere. PMID:16872399

Lu, Yahai; Rosencrantz, Dirk; Liesack, Werner; Conrad, Ralf

2006-08-01

463

Effect of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity and physicochemical properties of different rice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of rice cultivars (indica, japonica and hybrid rice) with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physicochemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, that was determined by a rapid visco analyser (RVA, Model-3D), peak viscosity, hot pasting viscosity, cool pasting viscosity, and setback viscosity, were considerably decreased with increasing dose levels. Gamma irradiation reduced the amylose contents in the cultivars with low AAC, intermediate AAC, and glutinous rice, but had no effects on the high AAC cultivar. No visible changes in gelatinization temperature were detected after irradiation, but the peak time was reduced with the dose levels. Gel consistency was significantly increased in the tested cultivars, especially in the high AAC indica rice. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. These results suggested that it is promising to use gamma irradiation to improve rice eating or cooking quality.

Wu, Dianxing; Shu, Qingyao; Wang, Zhonghua; Xia, Yingwu

2002-08-01

464

The effects of climate change on United States rice yields and California wheat yields  

SciTech Connect

The USA produces 7.9 million tons of rice (Oryza sativa L.), 28% of which is exported to developing countries. Rice is one of the most important grain crops both in the USA and the world. Therefore it is important to understand the impact of weather and climate change on rice yields and production. In the USA rice is produced in California and the Gulf Coast states. It is anticipated that global climate change will have a major influence on agricultural practices and crop selection in these states. This study uses simulation techniques to quantify the potential magnitude of this influence. In addition, the impact of climate change on fall planted dryland spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in California is evaluated. Results indicate that rice yields decrease by between 14 and 24% in the Gulf Coast states and between 11 and 21% in California. In both regions the decrease in rice yields were due primarily to the large increase in summer temperatures. On the other hand, dryland fall planted spring wheat yields in California increase by 62 and 125%. This is because of the increased rainfall and temperatures during the winter months in California.

Barry, T.A.; Geng, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

465

Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated paddy soils with Pteris vittata markedly reduces arsenic uptake by rice.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) accumulation in food crops such as rice is of major concern. To investigate whether phytoremediation can reduce As uptake by rice, the As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata was grown in five contaminated paddy soils in a pot experiment. Over a 9-month period P. vittata removed 3.5-11.4% of the total soil As, and decreased phosphate-extractable As and soil pore water As by 11-38% and 18-77%, respectively. Rice grown following P. vittata had significantly lower As concentrations in straw and grain, being 17-82% and 22-58% of those in the control, respectively. Phytoremediation also resulted in significant changes in As speciation in rice grain by greatly decreasing the concentration of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). In two soils the concentration of inorganic As in rice grain was decreased by 50-58%. The results demonstrate an effective stripping of bioavailable As from contaminated paddy soils thus reducing As uptake by rice. PMID:21840633

Ye, Wen-Ling; Khan, M Asaduzzaman; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

2011-12-01

466

Water consumption of agriculture and natural ecosystems at the Amu Darya in Lebap Province, Turkmenistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amu Darya is the main water source for whole Turkmenistan, but also for the regions Khorezm and Karakalpakistan in Uzbekistan. Due to the arid climate in the Amu Darya river basin, agriculture depends on irrigation with river water being the major source of water. Also the natural ecosystems depend on river water. Until end of the 1970s, the Amu Darya flew into the Aral Sea and, together with the Syr Darya, sustained its water level. From the 1960s until today the area under irrigation has been strongly enlarged. During Soviet Union times, mainly cotton was planted on the newly reclaimed land. After independence, new land was reclaimed, in order to grow wheat. In the course of this land reclamation, the downstream section of the Amu Darya, i.e. in Karakalpakistan faces severe water shortage. Today, the Amu Darya only occasionally reaches the previous shore line of the Aral Sea. Against this