Science.gov

Sample records for making energy transition

  1. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  2. Making the transition to automation

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, D.J. )

    1992-10-01

    By 1995, the Bureau of Reclamation's hydropower plant near Hungry Horse, Montana, will be remotely operated from Grand Coulee dam (about 300 miles away) in Washington State. Automation at Hungry Horse will eliminate the need for four full-time power plant operators. Between now and then, a transition plan that offers employees choices for retraining, transferring, or taking early retirement will smooth the transition in reducing from five operators to one. The transition plan also includes the use of temporary employees to offset risks of reducing staff too soon. When completed in 1953, the Hungry Horse structure was the world's fourth largest and fourth highest concrete dam. The arch-gravity structure has a crest length of 2,115 feet; it is 3,565 feet above sea level. The four turbine-generator units in the powerhouse total 284 MW, and supply approximately 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually to the federal power grid managed by the Bonneville Power Administration. In 1988, Reclamation began to automate operations at many of its hydro plants, and to establish centralized control points. The control center concept will increase efficiency. It also will coordinate water movements and power supply throughout the West. In the Pacific Northwest, the Grand Coulee and Black Canyon plants are automated control centers. Several Reclamation-owned facilities in the Columbia River Basin, including Hungry Horse, will be connected to these centers via microwave and telephone lines. When automation is complete, constant monitoring by computer will replace hourly manual readings and equipment checks. Computers also are expected to increase water use efficiency by 1 to 2 percent by ensuring operation for maximum turbine efficiency. Unit efficiency curves for various heads will be programmed into the system.

  3. Making Sense of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boohan, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an approach to teaching about the energy concept that aims to be accessible to students starting in early secondary school, while being scientifically rigorous and forming the foundation for later work. It discusses how exploring thermal processes is a good starting point for a more general consideration of the ways that…

  4. School to Work: Making the Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC. National Inst. for Work and Learning.

    This publication describes the Academy for Educational Development's (AED's) vision and work in school-to-work transition and related areas. School-to-work transition is defined, and components of a successful school-to-work transition system are listed. The National Institute for Work and Learning (NIWL) is currently conducting an extensive study…

  5. Process for making transition metal nitride whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making metal nitrides, particularly titanium nitride whiskers, using a cyanide salt as a reducing agent for a metal compound in the presence of an alkali metal oxide. Sodium cyanide, various titanates and titanium oxide mixed with sodium oxide react to provide titanium nitride whiskers that can be used as reinforcement to ceramic composites.

  6. Process for making transition metal nitride whiskers

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1988-04-12

    A process for making metal nitrides, particularly titanium nitride whiskers, using a cyanide salt as a reducing agent for a metal compound in the presence of an alkali metal oxide. Sodium cyanide, various titanates and titanium oxide mixed with sodium oxide react to provide titanium nitride whiskers that can be used as reinforcement to ceramic composites. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Making the transition from health professional to manager.

    PubMed

    Prideaux, G

    1993-01-01

    Health professionals who make a career change into a managerial role frequently find that the adjustment is a difficult one. Often they are not well prepared for the new role. They find that the world of the manager is different in a number of ways from the professional world they have known, and the skills required for effective performance are also different. This preliminary study, which involved interviews with a number of professionals who have made the transition, highlighted the adjustments they had to make and the transition difficulties they experienced. Attention is drawn to a number of ways in which health professionals can be assisted to develop into effective managers. PMID:10127672

  8. Making use of renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes renewable energy projects proposed for the rural areas of developing countries. Topics considered include biogas generation in Zimbabwe, biogas technology for water pumping in Botswana, soil fertility and energy problems in rural development in the Zaire rain forest, international scientific collaboration on biogas technologies for rural development, alcohol from biomass, an ethanol project in Zimbabwe, biomass alcohol and the fuel-food issue, solar water heating in Zimbabwe, absorbent box solar cookers, solar crop drying in Zimbabwe, the use of passive solar energy in Botswana buildings, the potential of mini hydro systems, woodfuel as a potential renewable energy source, small-scale afforestation for domestic needs in the communal lands of Zimbabwe, muscle power, the use of human energy in construction, hand-operated water pumps, animal power for water pumping in Botswana, the production of charcoal in Zambia, improving the efficiency of a traditional charcoal-burning Burmese cooking stove, social impacts, non-engineering constraints affecting energy use in a rural area, women and energy, and non-technical factors influencing the establishment of fuels-from-crops industries in developing countries.

  9. Making `Internal Thermal Energy' Visible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xueli

    2004-09-01

    In a 1992 paper published in this journal, Uri Ganiel described a pair of model carts used to demonstrate elastic and inelastic collisions. The wooden carts had low-friction wheels and a steel-strip bumper on one end. On one of the carts, a number of brass washers were rigidly mounted in vertical stacks to a wooden framework. The other cart was similar except that the washers were tied to rubber bands that were stretched horizontally and diagonally across the framework. When the first cart was rolled into a wall it bounced off with only a small reduction in speed ("elastic" collision). The second cart, on the other hand, was found to come nearly to a complete stop upon colliding with the wall ("inelastic" collision). Following the instructions given in Ganiel's paper, I built a pair of carts and demonstrated them to introductory-level physics students at a large public university. It was interesting to find that many students were distracted by the different-looking structures of the two model carts.2 They thought the different distributions of washers between the carts resulted in the rubber-band cart bouncing back a significantly shorter distance than the rigid-rod one after they both collided with a wall at the same initial speed. Apparently, the students had difficulties in understanding the collisions and used surface features to reason about them. To avoid this superficial distraction and to help students visualize easily "where the kinetic energy goes in an inelastic collision," I modified the rigid-rod cart to have washers fixed on hollow aluminum rods mounted at four different levels horizontally and diagonally (see Fig. 1). The new pair of the model carts look very similar to each other: They have the same bumpers, same wheels, same distributions of washers, and same masses.

  10. Healthcare transition managers make market exits easier for insurers.

    PubMed

    Resnick, L R

    1999-10-01

    Insurers have been struggling to meet and maintain their profit margins on the health insurance business they underwrite. As a result, many have exited or are contemplating exiting from the health insurance market. At the same time, managed care organizations are seeking ways to augment their enrollment base and satisfy investor expectations. Insurers that wish to transfer their health insurance business to other carriers and managed care organizations that are interested in accepting this business have turned to a new type of healthcare financing company--the healthcare transition manager--to facilitate the transaction. Part broker, part matchmaker, and part administrative coordinator, these companies make it possible for commercial insurers to exit the health insurance market without undue hardship to enrollees or the managed care plans that assume risk for their care. PMID:11066665

  11. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  12. An Institutional Approach to Understanding Energy Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Auriane Magdalena

    Energy is a central concern of sustainability because how we produce and consume energy affects society, economy, and the environment. Sustainability scientists are interested in energy transitions away from fossil fuels because they are nonrenewable, increasingly expensive, have adverse health effects, and may be the main driver of climate change. They see an opportunity for developing countries to avoid the negative consequences fossil-fuel-based energy systems, and also to increase resilience, by leap-frogging-over the centralized energy grid systems that dominate the developed world. Energy transitions pose both challenges and opportunities. Obstacles to transitions include 1) an existing, centralized, complex energy-grid system, whose function is invisible to most users, 2) coordination and collective-action problems that are path dependent, and 3) difficulty in scaling up RE technologies. Because energy transitions rely on technological and social innovations, I am interested in how institutional factors can be leveraged to surmount these obstacles. The overarching question that underlies my research is: What constellation of institutional, biophysical, and social factors are essential for an energy transition? My objective is to derive a set of "design principles," that I term institutional drivers, for energy transitions analogous to Ostrom's institutional design principles. My dissertation research will analyze energy transitions using two approaches: applying the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework and a comparative case study analysis comprised of both primary and secondary sources. This dissertation includes: 1) an analysis of the world's energy portfolio; 2) a case study analysis of five countries; 3) a description of the institutional factors likely to promote a transition to renewable-energy use; and 4) an in-depth case study of Thailand's progress in replacing nonrenewable energy sources with renewable energy sources. My research will

  13. Making the Transition from Geoscience Geek to Policy Wonk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, L.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscientists are often drawn into policymaking, willingly or otherwise, because mapping a course of action for a specific outcome benefits from geoscientific expertise. Policy development, such as legislation or regulation regarding energy, water, minerals, soils, hazards, land use, and other Earth-based processes, is informed by the geosciences. Some geoscientists have moved fully into policymaking as full time policymakers for congressional offices, government agencies, think tanks, non-profits, foundations, industry, and other places. Geoscientists turned policymakers need good communication skills, patience, persistence, strategic forethought, agility, timing, an understanding of competing interests, and the courage to advance geoscientifically sound policy with the right people at the right time. Transitioning from the geeky world of geoscience to the wonky world of policy for a brief time or full time is possible, can be fulfilling as well as frustrating, and ultimately can have a profound impact on how society adapts to living with a dynamic Earth.

  14. Energy transition in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Contents cover: The energy outlook; Energy demand management; Energy supply prospects and issues; Management of the energy sector; Financing energy investments; The role of the World Bank; Assumptions used for natural gas netback studies; and World energy indicators.

  15. X-Ray Transition Energies Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 128 X-Ray Transition Energies Database (Web, free access)   This X-ray transition table provides the energies and wavelengths for the K and L transitions connecting energy levels having principal quantum numbers n = 1, 2, 3, and 4. The elements covered include Z = 10, neon to Z = 100, fermium. There are two unique features of this data base: (1) a serious attempt to have all experimental values on a scale consistent with the International System of measurement (the SI) and (2) inclusion of accurate theoretical estimates for all transitions.

  16. Parallel Transitions in IT Outsourcing: Making It Happen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beulen, Erik; Tiwari, Vinay

    Global sourcing of IT services is growing consistently over the last decades. Along with this rapid growth, instances of failures, sore relationships or unsatisfactory performances during IT outsourcing engagements are prevalent and require management attention. Over two-thirds of the problems in these unsuccessful engagements arise due to failed or poor transition. Transition is immediately followed by contract signing and precedes service delivery phase. It sets the tone for the entire relationship and involves handover of outsourced services from either the client's internal IT department or the incumbent service provider. Recently second and third generation outsourcing engagements are coming into existence, with offshoring and multi-sourcing as an integral component of these engagements. Multi-sourcing deals, involving several service providers are emerging and require transition to be implemented in parallel. These developments exacerbate the complexity of transitions due to the presence of multiple service providers and several distributed or offshore locations, thereby further enhancing its bearing on the success of an engagement. What are the Critical Success Factors for parallel transitions? We conducted an initial Delphi study to explore success factors for parallel transitions. The findings highlight the importance of understanding the contractual agreement including transition exit criteria. Also the implementation of a joint steering committee contributes to transition success. All the stakeholders, including representatives of the incumbent service provider(s), should be represented in the steering committee to act responsive. Finally, the findings emphasis the need to manage dependencies between the transitions not limited to time lines and availability of critical resources for knowledge transfer and balancing between business continuity and timely and effective knowledge transfer.

  17. Making a Meaningful Connection--Freshman Transition and Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedmond, Rebecca M.; Kestler, Erin T.

    2010-01-01

    Student engagement is an essential part of the many transitions adolescents must make on their way to self-sufficient adulthood. Motivating students to learn at pivotal points in their school careers, especially as they transition into high school, is sometimes difficult. The Freshman Transition Initiative (FTI) at The George Washington University…

  18. Making the Transition to Middle Level Schools. Practitioner's Monograph #10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Sara

    A middle-grade restructuring effort implemented by the Monterey Peninsula Unified School District is described in this report. A literature review and interviews with four educators experienced in restructuring explore issues in middle-school transition at the school and district levels. Topics related to the implementation process include needs…

  19. Making the Transition from Preschool to Infant/Toddler Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Marjory

    1998-01-01

    Draws on discussions with child care workers to discuss important changes involved in moving from teaching preschoolers to teaching infants and toddlers. Describes differences in (1) relating to children; (2) parent/teacher relationships; (3) group dynamics; (4) curriculum; (5) routines and transitions; (6) coworker relationships; (7) director…

  20. Learning in Global Settings: Developing Transitions for Meaning-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norden, Birgitta; Avery, Helen; Anderberg, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    Global teaching and learning for sustainable development reaches from the classroom to the world outside, and is therefore a particularly interesting setting for practising transition skills. The article suggests a number of features perceived as crucial in developing young people's capability to act in a changing world and under circumstances…

  1. Making the Transition from Classical to Quantum Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutt, Amit

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the nature of the conceptual understandings developed by Year 12 Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) physics students as they made the transition from the essentially deterministic notions of classical physics, to interpretations characteristic of quantum theory. The research findings revealed the fact that the…

  2. Help Us Make the 9th Grade Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    New 9th graders reflect on the worries they had as middle school students about moving into high school. They also suggest ways of easing the transition and providing support in 9th grade. Teens want teachers to connect middle school students regularly with high school students, give them more responsibility in middle school, and focus on…

  3. Making the Transition to Hospice: Exploring Hospice Professionals' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Deborah P.; Rinfrette, Elaine S.

    2009-01-01

    Hospice care is available for 6 months before death but the length of use varies widely, suggesting that there are different perspectives on the appropriate timing for this transition. This qualitative study explored hospice professionals' views on the appropriate timing for and communication about hospice. Ethnography of team meetings informed…

  4. Making the Transition to Primary School: An Evaluation of a Transition Program for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Treyvaud, Karli; Matthews, Jan; Kienhuis, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    The transition to primary school is an important time for both children and parents. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to assess the effectiveness of a Transition to Primary School Parent Program in strengthening parent knowledge and confidence to manage the transition process, increasing parent involvement in their children's…

  5. Household energy management strategies in Bulgaria's transitioning energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carper, Mark Daniel Lynn

    Recent transition literature of post-socialist states has addressed the shortcomings of a rapid blanket implementation of neo-liberal policies and practices placed upon a landscape barren of the needed institutions and experiences. Included in these observations are the policy-making oversight of spatial socioeconomic variations and their individual and diverse methods of coping with their individual challenges. Of such literature addressing the case of Bulgaria, a good portion deals with the spatial consequences of restructuring as well as with embedded disputes over access to and control of resources. With few exceptions, studies of Bulgaria's changing energy sector have largely been at the state level and have not been placed within the context of spatial disparities of socioeconomic response. By exploring the variations of household energy management strategies across space, my dissertation places this resource within such a theoretical context and offers analysis based on respective levels of economic and human development, inherited material infrastructures, the organization and activities of institutions, and fuel and technological availability. A closed survey was distributed to explore six investigational themes across four geographic realms. The investigational themes include materials of housing construction, methods of household heating, use of electrical appliances, energy conservation strategies, awareness and use of energy conservation technologies, and attitudes toward the transitioning energy sector. The geographic realms include countrywide results, the urban-rural divide, regional variations, and urban divisions of the capital city, Sofia. Results conclude that, indeed, energy management strategies at the household level have been shaped by multiple variables, many of which differ across space. These variables include price sensitivity, degree of dependence on remnant technologies, fuel and substitute availability, and level of human and

  6. Transitions from Temporary to Permanent Work in Canada: Who Makes the Transition and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Tony; MacPhail, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on a microeconomic analysis of the annual transition rate from temporary to permanent work of individual workers in Canada for the period 1999-2004. Given that a large proportion of temporary employment is involuntary, an understanding of the factors associated with the transition to permanent work may inform public…

  7. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  8. Stellar activity effects on high energy exoplanet transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2016-01-01

    High energy (X-ray / UV) observations of transiting exoplanets have revealed the presence of extended atmospheres around a number of systems. At such high energies, stellar radiation is absorbed high up in the planetary atmosphere, making X-ray and UV observations a potential tool for investigating the upper atmospheres of exoplanets. At these high energies, stellar activity can dramatically impact the observations. At short wavelengths the stellar disk appears limb-brightened, and active regions appear as extended bright features that evolve on a much shorter timescale than in the optical making it difficult . These features impact both the transit depth and shape, affecting our ability to measure the true planet-to-star radius ratio.I will show results of simulated exoplanet transit light curves using Solar data obtained in the soft X-ray and UV by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory to investigate the impact of stellar activity at these wavelengths. By using a limb-brightened transit model coupled with disk resolved Solar images in the X-ray, extreme- and far-UV I will show how both occulted and unocculted active regions can mimic an inflated planetary atmosphere by changing the depth and shape of the transit profile. I will also show how the disk integrated Lyman-alpha Solar irradiance varies on both short and long timescales and how this variability can impact our ability to recover the true radius ratio of a transiting exoplanet.Finally, I will present techniques on how to overcome these effects to determine the true planet-to-star radius in X-ray and UV observations.

  9. Helping Prepare Community College Students to Make the Transition from College to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lagena Arlette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate students' perceptions about the need for more student training on making the transition from community college enrollment to employment. The hypothesis was that community college students would perceive that additional career counseling services would help them transition successfully into the world of…

  10. Aspects of energy transitions: History and determinants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Peter A.

    Energy intensity in the U.S. from 1780 to 2010 shows a declining trend when traditional energy is included, in contrast to the "inverted U-curve" seen when only commercial energy is considered. The analysis quantifies use of human and animal muscle power, wind and water power, biomass, harvested ice, fossil fuels, and nuclear power. Historical prices are provided for many energy resources. The analysis reaffirms the importance of innovation in conversion technologies in energy transitions. An increase in energy intensity in the early 20th century is explained by diminishing returns to pre-electric manufacturing systems, which produced a transformation in manufacturing. In comparison to similar studies for other countries, the U.S. has generally higher energy intensity. A population-weighted series of heating degree days and cooling degree days partially explains differences in energy intensity. Series are developed for 231 countries and territories with multiple reference temperatures, with a "wet-bulb" series accounting for the effects of humidity. Other variables considered include energy prices, income per capita, and governance indices. A panel regression of thirty-two countries from 1995 to 2010 establishes GDP per capita and share of primary energy as determinants of energy intensity, but fails to establish statistical significance of the climate variables. A group mean regression finds average heating and cooling degree days to be significant predictors of average energy intensity over the study period, increasing energy intensity by roughly 1.5 kJ per 2005 international dollar for each annual degree day. Group mean regression results explain differences in countries' average energy intensity, but not changes within a country over time. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) influences the economic competitiveness and environmental impacts of an energy resource and is one driver of energy transitions. The EROI of U.S. petroleum production has declined since 1972

  11. From Scripted Instruction to Teacher Empowerment: Supporting Literacy Teachers to Make Pedagogical Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Zhihui; Fu, Danling; Lamme, Linda Leonard

    2004-01-01

    The article describes a longitudinal professional development project in rural Florida (USA) schools that supports the efforts of inservice teachers to make pedagogical transitions from total reliance on prepackaged commercial programmes to making informed decisions about curriculum and pedagogy autonomously. It demonstrates that in order to…

  12. Making an Energy Conservation Program Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rump, Erwin E.; Hunter, James L.

    The first step of an energy conservation program is to monitor energy consumption. A system is explained that, in order to determine which buildings are energy efficient (considering all types of energy that a building might use), monitors total energy consumption. All such consumptions can be reduced to a common denominator: Barrels of Energy…

  13. A transitioning universe with anisotropic dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Anil Kumar

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a model of transitioning universe with minimal interaction between perfect fluid and anisotropic dark energy in Bianchi I space-time. The two sources are assumed to minimally interacted and therefore their energy momentum tensors are conserved separately. The explicit expression for average scale factor are considered in hybrid form that gives time varying deceleration parameter which describes both the early and late time physical features of universe. We also discuss the physical and geometrical properties of the model derived in this paper. The solution is interesting physically as it explain accelerating universe as well as singularity free universe.

  14. Activation energy of water structural transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmanskiy, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the nature of molecular motions that dominate in the thermodynamics of anomalies of liquid water properties in the range of 0-100 °C has been studied. Temperature dependencies of water properties have been approximated by exponential functions and the activation energies for water structure transitions have been evaluated. The activation energy values were compared with the energy spectra of characteristic vibrations and with those of cooperative molecular motion in the lattice-type structure of hydrogen bonds. It has been found that it is the reaction of hydrogen bond breaking that mainly limits the abnormal dynamics of water viscosity, self-diffusion, dielectric relaxation time and electric conductivity. It has been assumed that the thermodynamics of cooperative motion and resonance phenomena in water clusters form a basis for the differentiation mechanism of extrema points in temperature dependencies of water density, isobaric heat capacity, sound velocity, surface tension coefficient and compressibility.

  15. Energy bands in some transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, D. G.

    1981-08-01

    Self consistent linear combination of Gaussian orbitals energy band calculations were performed for the two paramagnetic 3d transition metals, chromium and vanadium. The energy bands densities of states and Fermi surfaces were obtained using the two most popular local exchange correlation potentials (Kohn-Sham-Gaspar and von Barth-Hedin) for chromium and the Kohn-Sham-Gaspar potential alone for vanadium. A comparison was made with the available experimental data. New interpretations for some of the neutron scattering data are made in the chromium case. Results are also presented for the Compton profiles and optical conductivities. These correlate well with the experiments if appropriate angular averages (for the Compton profile) and lifetime effcts (for the optical conductivity) are included. The electron energy loss spectrum, computed over the range 0-6.5 eV agreed well with experiment.

  16. Get Started: Energy Efficiency Makes More Sense Than Ever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alban, Josh; Drabick, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of making school building more energy efficient. Provides examples of physical retrofits and behavioral changes to save energy costs. Describes four-step process to create an energy efficiency plan. Includes resources and information such as U.S. Department of Energy's Energy STAR program (www.energystar.gov). (PKP)

  17. Method of making fully dense anisotropic high energy magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, D.K.

    1990-01-09

    This patent describes a method of making anisotropic permanent magnets. It comprises extruding a rare earth, transition metal, magnetic alloy together with an oxygen-getter material at a temperature of from about 600{degrees} C to about 1000{degrees} C at an extrusion ratio of from about 10:1 to about 26:1 the rare earth, transition metal, magnetic alloy and the oxygen-getter material being disposed within an extrusion zone in Separate and discrete locations.

  18. Making More Light with Less Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuritzky, Leah; Jewell, Jason

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center for Energy Efficient Materials (CEEM), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: energy. The mission of the CEEM is to discover and develop materials that control the interactions among light, electricity, and heat at the nanoscale for improved solar energy conversion, solid-state lighting, and conversion of heat into electricity.

  19. A Career in Professional Athletics: A Guide for Making the Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolig, Laura E., Ed.

    This booklet provides guidance to student-athletes on making the transition to a career in professional athletics. It contains a list of do's and don'ts for students in regard to their collegiate eligibility, along with suggestions on obtaining disability insurance coverage for protection from loss of future earnings. The booklet provides…

  20. From Incarceration to Productive Lifestyle. Making the Transition: An Instructional Guide for Incarcerated Youth Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This guide, which is intended for instructors of incarcerated youth, contains materials for use in helping incarcerated youth make the transition from incarceration to a productive life. Presented first are an overview of the project during which the guide was developed and a brief history of educational programming for incarcerated youth in New…

  1. Making the Transition to Teaching Online: Strategies and Methods for the First-Time, Online Instructor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Jennifer

    This paper discusses the changes in instruction needed to make the transition to teaching an online course. It discusses both traditional and alternative teaching methods a first-time online instructor might choose to use. The advantages and disadvantages of online courses are explored through a review of the literature, and ways in which online…

  2. Making the Most of Waste Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Thermo-Mechanical Systems Branch at NASA s Glenn Research Center is responsible for planning and conducting research efforts to advance thermal systems for space, aerospace, and non-aerospace applications. Technological areas pertain to solar and thermal energy conversion. For example, thermo-mechanical systems researchers work with gas (Stirling) and liquid/vapor (Rankine) systems that convert thermal energy to electrical power, as well as solar dynamic power systems that concentrate sunlight to electrical power. The branch s development of new solar and thermal energy technologies is propelling NASA s missions deep into unfamiliar territories of space. Solar dynamic power systems are actively improving the health of orbiting satellites, giving them longer life and a stronger radiation tolerance, thus, creating less need for on-orbit maintenance. For future missions, NASA may probe even deeper into the mysterious cosmos, with the adoption of highly efficient thermal energy converters that have the potential to serve as the source of onboard electrical power for satellites and spacecraft. Research indicates that these thermal converters can deliver up to 5 times as much power as radioisotope thermoelectric generators in use today, for the same amount of radioisotope. On Earth, energy-converting technologies associated with NASA s Thermo-Mechanical Systems Branch are being used to recover and transform low-temperature waste heat into usable electric power, with a helping hand from NASA.

  3. Using Left Overs to Make Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steuterman, Sally; Czarnecki, Alicia; Hurley, Paul; Peruski, Kathryn; Cartagena-Sierra, Alejandra; Evans, Isaac; Guzman, Alexis

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Material Science Antinides (MSA), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of MSA is to conduct transformative research in the actinide sciences with full integration of experimental and computational approaches, and an emphasis on research questions that are important to the energy future of the nation.

  4. Urban decision making for transportation investments: Portland's light-rail transit system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Edner, S.M.; Arrington, G.B.

    1985-03-01

    This report is a detailed case study of the various decisions which led to the investment in Portland, Oregon's light-rail transit system. The study reviews the alternatives that were considered, the factors that led to the choices made, and the impacts and secondary effects the choices triggered. Topics discussed include the withdrawal of the Mount Hood Freeway, the substitution of transit and the options considered, the changing political infrastructure that affected decision making, citizen participation in the process, financing of the system, involvement of the private sector downtown, and the actual building of the light-rail line. The report should be of special interest to staffs of local officials involved in making major transportation investment decisions.

  5. Make Energy at the Bay Area Maker Faire

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-06-24

    Think. Make. Innovate. A festival of invention, creativity and resourcefulness that gathers makers of all kinds. Scientists are seeking to find innovative solutions to the energy challenges in the world.

  6. Optimal strategies for electric energy contract decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Haili

    2000-10-01

    The power industry restructuring in various countries in recent years has created an environment where trading of electric energy is conducted in a market environment. In such an environment, electric power companies compete for the market share through spot and bilateral markets. Being profit driven, electric power companies need to make decisions on spot market bidding, contract evaluation, and risk management. New methods and software tools are required to meet these upcoming needs. In this research, bidding strategy and contract pricing are studied from a market participant's viewpoint; new methods are developed to guide a market participant in spot and bilateral market operation. A supplier's spot market bidding decision is studied. Stochastic optimization is formulated to calculate a supplier's optimal bids in a single time period. This decision making problem is also formulated as a Markov Decision Process. All the competitors are represented by their bidding parameters with corresponding probabilities. A systematic method is developed to calculate transition probabilities and rewards. The optimal strategy is calculated to maximize the expected reward over a planning horizon. Besides the spot market, a power producer can also trade in the bilateral markets. Bidding strategies in a bilateral market are studied with game theory techniques. Necessary and sufficient conditions of Nash Equilibrium (NE) bidding strategy are derived based on the generators' cost and the loads' willingness to pay. The study shows that in any NE, market efficiency is achieved. Furthermore, all Nash equilibria are revenue equivalent for the generators. The pricing of "Flexible" contracts, which allow delivery flexibility over a period of time with a fixed total amount of electricity to be delivered, is analyzed based on the no-arbitrage pricing principle. The proposed algorithm calculates the price based on the optimality condition of the stochastic optimization formulation

  7. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2015-01-27

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  8. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S.; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2016-04-26

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  9. Energy and Society: Investigations in Decision Making. [Student Manual].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Boulder, CO.

    This publication is the student handbook for a BSCS energy education module designed for high school, college, and adult students. It is designed to provide students with information about energy that will help them make decisions as citizens. Basically, this document is a text to supplement the activities and lesson plans in the teacher's guide.…

  10. Photoinduced energy transfer in transition metal complex oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The work done over the past three years has been directed toward the preparation, characterization and photophysical examination of mono- and bimetallic diimine complexes. The work is part of a broader project directed toward the development of stable, efficient, light harvesting arrays of transition metal complex chromophores. One focus has been the synthesis of rigid bis-bidentate and bis-tridentate bridging ligands. The authors have managed to make the ligand bphb in multigram quantities from inexpensive starting materials. The synthetic approach used has allowed them to prepare a variety of other ligands which may have unique applications (vide infra). They have prepared, characterized and examined the photophysical behavior of Ru(II) and Re(I) complexes of the ligands. Energy donor/acceptor complexes of bphb have been prepared which exhibit nearly activationless energy transfer. Complexes of Ru(II) and Re(I) have also been prepared with other polyunsaturated ligands in which two different long lived (> 50 ns) excited states exist; results of luminescence and transient absorbance measurements suggest the two states are metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ligand localized {pi}{r_arrow}{pi}* triplets. Finally, the authors have developed methods to prepare polymetallic complexes which are covalently bound to various surfaces. The long term objective of this work is to make light harvesting arrays for the sensitization of large band gap semiconductors. Details of this work are provided in the body of the report.

  11. Photoinduced energy transfer in transition metal complex oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The work we have done over the past three years has been directed toward the preparation, characterization and photophysical examination of mono- and bimetallic diimine complexes. The work is part of a broader project directed toward the development of stable, efficient, light harvesting arrays of transition metal complex chromophores. One focus has been the synthesis of rigid bis-bidentate and bis-tridentate bridging ligands. We have managed to make the ligand bphb in multigram quantities from inexpensive starting materials. The synthetic approach used has allowed us prepare a variety of other ligands which may have unique applications (vide infra). We have prepared, characterized and examined the photophysical behavior of Ru(II) and Re(I) complexes of the ligands. Energy donor/acceptor complexes of bphb have been prepared which exhibit nearly activationless energy transfer. Complexes of Ru(II) and Re(I) have also been prepared with other polyunsaturated ligands in which two different long lived ( > 50 ns) excited states exist; results of luminescence and transient absorbance measurements suggest the two states are metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ligand localized {pi}{r_arrow}{pi}* triplets. Finally, we have developed methods to prepare polymetallic complexes which are covalently bound to various surfaces. The long term objective of this work is to make light harvesting arrays for the sensitization of large band gap semiconductors. Details of this work are provided in the body of the report.

  12. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  13. DOE-HUD Initiative: Making Housing Affordable Through Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A new collaborative program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a significant step toward making HUD-aided housing more comfortable and affordable through greater energy efficiency. The initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing combines DOE's technical capabilities and HUD's experience in housing assistance. Over the next decade, the energy savings potential of this initiative is estimated to be 150 trillion Btu (0.15 quad) per year, or nearly $1.5 billion in annual energy costs.

  14. Estimation of drought transition probabilities in Sicily making use of exogenous variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; di Mauro, Giuseppe; Cancelliere, Antonino; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    Drought monitoring and forecasting play a very important role for an effective drought management. A timely monitoring of drought features and/or forecasting of an incoming drought do make possible an effective mitigation of its impacts, more than in the case of other natural disasters (e.g. floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.). An accurate selection of indices, able to monitor the main characteristics of droughts, is essential to help decision makers to implement appropriate preparedness and mitigation measures. Among the several proposed indices for drought monitoring, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has found widespread use to monitor dry and wet periods of precipitation aggregated at different time scales. Recently, some efforts have been made to analyze the role of SPI for drought forecasting, as well as to estimate transition probabilities between drought classes. In the present work, a model able to estimate transition probabilities from a current SPI drought class or from a current SPI value to future classes, corresponding to droughts of different severities, is presented and extended in order to include information provided by an exogenous variable, such as a large scale climatic index as the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO). The model has been preliminarily applied and tested with reference to SPI series computed on average areal precipitation in Sicily island, Italy, making use of NAO as exogenous variable. Results seem to indicate that winter drought transition probabilities in Sicily are generally affected by NAO index. Furthermore, the statistical significance of such influence has been tested by means of a Montecarlo analysis, which indicates that the effect of NAO on drought transition in Sicily should be considered significant.

  15. Substituent effect on electronic transition energy of dichlorobenzyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Young Wook; Chae, Sang Youl; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2016-01-01

    Ring-substituted benzyl radicals exhibit electronic energies of the D1 → D0 transition being shifted to red region with respect to the benzyl radical. The red-shifts of disubstituted benzyl radicals are highly dependent on the substitution positions irrespective of substituents. By analyzing the red-shifts of dichlorobenzyl radicals observed, we found that the substituent effect on electronic transition energy is attributed to the molecular plane shape of delocalized π electrons. We will discuss the influences of locations of Cl substituents on the D1 → D0 transition energies of dichlorobenzyl radicals using Hückel's molecular orbital theory.

  16. Reducing fatigue damage for ships in transit through structured decision making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.M.; Fackler, P.L.; Pacifici, K.; Murphy, K.D.; Nichols, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Research in structural monitoring has focused primarily on drawing inference about the health of a structure from the structure’s response to ambient or applied excitation. Knowledge of the current state can then be used to predict structural integrity at a future time and, in principle, allows one to take action to improve safety, minimize ownership costs, and/or increase the operating envelope. While much time and effort has been devoted toward data collection and system identification, research to-date has largely avoided the question of how to choose an optimal maintenance plan. This work describes a structured decision making (SDM) process for taking available information (loading data, model output, etc.) and producing a plan of action for maintaining the structure. SDM allows the practitioner to specify his/her objectives and then solves for the decision that is optimal in the sense that it maximizes those objectives. To demonstrate, we consider the problem of a Naval vessel transiting a fixed distance in varying sea-state conditions. The physics of this problem are such that minimizing transit time increases the probability of fatigue failure in the structural supports. It is shown how SDM produces the optimal trip plan in the sense that it minimizes both transit time and probability of failure in the manner of our choosing (i.e., through a user-defined cost function). The example illustrates the benefit of SDM over heuristic approaches to maintaining the vessel.

  17. Energy Released During the H-L Back Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldon, D.; Kolemen, E.; Gohil, P.; McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Schmitz, L.

    2015-11-01

    Prompt energy loss (ΔW) at the H-L transition, as a fraction of total stored energy before the transition, is about 30 % and is insensitive to density in ITER-similar DIII-D plasmas. Occasionally, some ELMs will appear before the transition and reduce total energy, thus reducing ΔW across the following transition. Other results (not in the ITER-similar shape) have shown that ELMs can be triggered in low powered H-modes, prior to H-L transitions, when the plasma is stable to ideal P-B modes (these are not typical type-I ELMs, despite superficial similarities) and E × B shear is strong. These are indeed ELMs occurring in H-mode and not part of a dithering transition. Finally, ELM ΔW is sensitive to edge toroidal rotation and becomes smaller than uncertainty (< 5 kJ) at low rotation (ωtor < 5 krad/s). These results point to a strategy where ΔW for the H-L transition may be reduced by the presence of (not type-I) ELMs before the transition, and ΔW for the ELMs may be reduced by controlling rotation. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  18. Trends in Ionization Energy of Transition-Metal Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Paul S.

    2005-01-01

    A rationale for the difference in the periodic trends in the ionization energy of the transition-metal elements versus the main-group elements is presented. The difference is that in the transition-metal elements, the electrons enter an inner-shell electron orbital, while in the main-group elements, the electrons enter an outer-shell electron…

  19. [Relationships between settlement morphology transition and residents commuting energy consumption].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Xiao, Rong-Bo; Sun, Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Settlement morphology transition is triggered by rapid urbanization and urban expansion, but its relationships with residents commuting energy consumption remains ambiguous. It is of significance to understand the controlling mechanisms of sustainable public management policies on the energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the process of urban settlement morphology transition. Taking the Xiamen City of East China as a case, and by using the integrated land use and transportation modeling system TRANUS, a scenario analysis was made to study the effects of urban settlement morphology transition on the urban spatial distribution of population, jobs, and land use, and on the residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gasses emission under different scenarios. The results showed that under the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the energy consumption of the residents at the morning peak travel time was 54.35 tce, and the CO2 emission was 119.12 t. As compared with those under BAU scenario, both the energy consumption and the CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology (TSM) scenario increased by 12%, and, with the implementation of the appropriate policies such as land use, transportation, and economy, the energy consumption and CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology with Policies (TSMP) scenario reduced by 7%, indicating that urban public management policies could effectively control the growth of residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the period of urban settlement morphology transition. PMID:24175530

  20. Meaning-Making Dynamics of Emancipated Foster Care Youth Transitioning into Higher Education: A Constructivist-Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okumu, Jacob O.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored college transition meaning-making dynamics of emancipated foster care youth and the role campus environments play in that process. It adds to the college student development theoretical base by acknowledging the needs, goals, and values of disenfranchised college students transitioning into higher education. Emancipated foster…

  1. Energy level transitions of gas in a 2D nanopore

    SciTech Connect

    Grinyaev, Yurii V.; Chertova, Nadezhda V.; Psakhie, Sergei G.

    2015-10-27

    An analytical study of gas behavior in a 2D nanopore was performed. It is shown that the temperature dependence of gas energy can be stepwise due to transitions from one size-quantized subband to another. Taking into account quantum size effects results in energy level transitions governed by the nanopore size, temperature and gas density. This effect leads to an abrupt change of gas heat capacity in the nanopore at the above varying system parameters.

  2. The Developmental Transition From Living With to Dying From Cancer: Hospice Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Deborah; Meeker, Mary Ann; Kutner, Jean S

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing utilization of hospice care, older adults with cancer enroll in hospice for shorter periods of time than those with other life-limiting illnesses. How older adults with cancer and their family members consider hospice is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare decision making in late-stage cancer in people who enrolled in hospice with those who declined. Concepts from the Carroll and Johnson (1990) decision-making framework guided the development of a hospice decision-making model. The study design was exploratory-descriptive, cross-sectional, and used a two-group comparison. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in the same interview. Open-ended questions were used to explore the illness trajectory and decision-making process. The interrelationships between functional ability, quality of life, and social support with hospice decision making were assessed using the Katz, QLQ-30, and Lubben Social Network Scales. Study participants included 42 older adults with cancer who had been offered hospice enrollment (24 non-hospice and 18 hospice) and 38 caregivers (15 non-hospice and 23 hospice); N = 80. The decisional model illustrates that the recognition of advanced cancer and information and communication needs were experienced similarly by both groups. There was interaction between the decisional stages: formulation of awareness and generation of alternatives that informed the evaluation of hospice but these stages were different in the hospice and non-hospice groups. The hospice enrollment decision represents a critical developmental juncture, which is accompanied by a transformed identity and substantive cognitive shift. Increased attention to the psychosocial and emotional issues that accompany this transition are important for quality end-of-life care. PMID:26176303

  3. The Developmental Transition from Living with to Dying From Cancer: Hospice Decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Waldrop, Deborah; Meeker, Mary Ann; Kutner, Jean S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing utilization of hospice care, older adults with cancer enroll in hospice for shorter periods of time than those with other life-limiting illnesses. How older adults with cancer and their family members consider hospice is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare decision-making in late-stage cancer in people who enrolled in hospice with those who declined. Concepts from the Carroll and Johnson (1990) decision-making framework guided the development of a hospice decision-making model. The study design was exploratory-descriptive, cross-sectional and used a 2-group comparison. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in the same interview. Open-ended questions were used to explore the illness trajectory and decision-making process. The interrelationships between functional ability, quality of life and social support with hospice decision-making were assessed using the Katz, QLQ-30 and Lubben Social Network Scales. Study participants included 42 older adults with cancer who had been offered hospice enrollment (24 non-hospice and 18 hospice) and 38 caregivers (15 non-hospice and 23 hospice); N=80. The decisional model illustrates that the Recognition of Advanced Cancer and Information and Communication Needs were experienced similarly by both groups. There was interaction between the decisional stages: Formulation of Awareness and Generation of Alternatives that informed the Evaluation of Hospice but these stages were different in the hospice and non-hospice groups. The hospice enrollment decision represents a critical developmental juncture which is accompanied by a transformed identity and substantive cognitive shift. Increased attention to the psychosocial and emotional issues that accompany this transition are important for quality end-of-life care. PMID:26176303

  4. Minimum energy paths of wetting transitions on grooved surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pashos, George; Kokkoris, George; Boudouvis, Andreas G

    2015-03-17

    A method that computes minimum energy paths (MEPs) of wetting transitions is developed. The method couples the Cahn-Hilliard formulation of a modified phase-field method with the simplified string method. Its main computational kernel is the fast Fourier transform that is efficiently performed on graphics processing units. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on two types of transitions of droplets on grooved surfaces. The first is the transition from the Cassie-Baxter wetting state to the Wenzel state, where it is shown that it progresses in a sequential manner with the droplet wetting each groove successively. The second transition type is a lateral displacement of the droplet against the grooves, where the droplet successively detaches/attaches from/to the rear/front protrusion of the surface (a transition in the reverse order is also possible). The energy barriers of both the transitions are extracted from the MEP; they are useful for the evaluation of the robustness of superhydrophobic surfaces (resistance to the Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel transition) and the droplet mobility on those surfaces (high mobility/small resistance to lateral displacements). The relation of the MEP with the potential transition paths coming from the solution space mapping is discussed. PMID:25715270

  5. Universal energy transport law for dissipative and diffusive phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Neel; Daraio, Chiara; Abeyaratne, Rohan; Kochmann, Dennis M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a scaling law for the energy and speed of transition waves in dissipative and diffusive media. By considering uniform discrete lattices and continuous solids, we show that—for arbitrary highly nonlinear many-body interactions and multistable on-site potentials—the kinetic energy per density transported by a planar transition wave front always exhibits linear scaling with wave speed and the ratio of energy difference to interface mobility between the two phases. We confirm that the resulting linear superposition applies to highly nonlinear examples from particle to continuum mechanics.

  6. Turbulent diffusion phase transition is due to singular energy spectrum.

    PubMed Central

    Wallstrom, T C

    1995-01-01

    The phase transition for turbulent diffusion, reported by Avellaneda and Majda [Avellaneda, M. & Majda, A. J. (1994) Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 346, 205-233, and several earlier papers], is traced to a modeling assumption in which the energy spectrum of the turbulent fluid is singularly dependent on the viscosity in the inertial range. Phenomenological models of turbulence and intermittency, by contrast, require that the energy spectrum be independent of the viscosity in the inertial range. When the energy spectrum is assumed to be consistent with the phenomenological models, there is no phase transition for turbulent diffusion. Images Fig. 2 PMID:11607590

  7. The carbon-consuming home: residential markets and energy transitions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Home heating and lighting markets have played crucial and underappreciated roles in driving energy transitions. When historians have studied the adoption of fossil fuels, they have often privileged industrial actors, markets, and technologies. My analysis of the factors that stimulated the adoption of anthracite coal and petroleum during the nineteenth century reveals that homes shaped how, when, and why Americans began to use fossil fuel energy. Moreover, a brief survey of other fossil fuel transitions shows that heating and lighting markets have been critical drivers in other times and places. Reassessing the historical patterns of energy transitions offers a revised understanding of the past for historians and suggests a new set of options for policymakers seeking to encourage the use of renewable energy in the future. PMID:22213886

  8. Understanding the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition.

    PubMed

    Steg, Linda; Perlaviciute, Goda; van der Werff, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change threatens the health, economic prospects, and basic food and water sources of people. A wide range of changes in household energy behavior is needed to realize a sustainable energy transition. We propose a general framework to understand and encourage sustainable energy behaviors, comprising four key issues. First, we need to identify which behaviors need to be changed. A sustainable energy transition involves changes in a wide range of energy behaviors, including the adoption of sustainable energy sources and energy-efficient technology, investments in energy efficiency measures in buildings, and changes in direct and indirect energy use behavior. Second, we need to understand which factors underlie these different types of sustainable energy behaviors. We discuss three main factors that influence sustainable energy behaviors: knowledge, motivations, and contextual factors. Third, we need to test the effects of interventions aimed to promote sustainable energy behaviors. Interventions can be aimed at changing the actual costs and benefits of behavior, or at changing people's perceptions and evaluations of different costs and benefits of behavioral options. Fourth, it is important to understand which factors affect the acceptability of energy policies and energy systems changes. We discuss important findings from psychological studies on these four topics, and propose a research agenda to further explore these topics. We emphasize the need of an integrated approach in studying the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition that increases our understanding of which general factors affect a wide range of energy behaviors as well as the acceptability of different energy policies and energy system changes. PMID:26136705

  9. Understanding the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition

    PubMed Central

    Steg, Linda; Perlaviciute, Goda; van der Werff, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change threatens the health, economic prospects, and basic food and water sources of people. A wide range of changes in household energy behavior is needed to realize a sustainable energy transition. We propose a general framework to understand and encourage sustainable energy behaviors, comprising four key issues. First, we need to identify which behaviors need to be changed. A sustainable energy transition involves changes in a wide range of energy behaviors, including the adoption of sustainable energy sources and energy-efficient technology, investments in energy efficiency measures in buildings, and changes in direct and indirect energy use behavior. Second, we need to understand which factors underlie these different types of sustainable energy behaviors. We discuss three main factors that influence sustainable energy behaviors: knowledge, motivations, and contextual factors. Third, we need to test the effects of interventions aimed to promote sustainable energy behaviors. Interventions can be aimed at changing the actual costs and benefits of behavior, or at changing people’s perceptions and evaluations of different costs and benefits of behavioral options. Fourth, it is important to understand which factors affect the acceptability of energy policies and energy systems changes. We discuss important findings from psychological studies on these four topics, and propose a research agenda to further explore these topics. We emphasize the need of an integrated approach in studying the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition that increases our understanding of which general factors affect a wide range of energy behaviors as well as the acceptability of different energy policies and energy system changes. PMID:26136705

  10. Exchange and relaxation effects in low-energy radiationless transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1978-01-01

    The effect on low-energy atomic inner-shell Coster-Kronig and super Coster-Kronig transitions that is produced by relaxation and by exchange between the continuum electron and bound electrons was examined and illustrated by specific calculations for transitions that deexcite the 3p vacancy state of Zn. Taking exchange and relaxation into account is found to reduce, but not to eliminate, the discrepancies between theoretical rates and measurements.

  11. Breaking and Making of Carbon-Carbon Bonds by Lanthanides and Third-Row Transition Metals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shaodong; Li, Jilai; Schlangen, Maria; Schwarz, Helmut

    2016-02-24

    Carbon-atom extrusion from the ipso-position of a halobenzene ring (C6 H5 X; X=F, Cl, Br, I) and its coupling with a methylene ligand to produce acetylene is not confined to [LaCH2 ](+) ; also, the third-row transition-metal complexes [MCH2 ](+) , M=Hf, Ta, W, Re, and Os, bring about this unusual transformation. However, substrates with substituents X=CN, NO2 , OCH3 , and CF3 are either not reactive at all or give rise to different products when reacted with [LaCH2 ](+) . In the thermal gas-phase processes of atomic Ln(+) with C7 H7 Cl substrates, only those lanthanides with a promotion energy small enough to attain a 4f(n) 5d(1) 6s(1) configuration are reactive and form both [LnCl](+) and [LnC5 H5 Cl](+) . Branching ratios and the reaction efficiencies of the various processes seem to correlate with molecular properties, like the bond-dissociation energies of the C-X or M(+) -X bonds or the promotion energies of lanthanides. PMID:26875940

  12. Native proteins trap high-energy transit conformations

    PubMed Central

    Brereton, Andrew E.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    During protein folding and as part of some conformational changes that regulate protein function, the polypeptide chain must traverse high-energy barriers that separate the commonly adopted low-energy conformations. How distortions in peptide geometry allow these barrier-crossing transitions is a fundamental open question. One such important transition involves the movement of a non-glycine residue between the left side of the Ramachandran plot (that is, ϕ < 0°) and the right side (that is, ϕ > 0°). We report that high-energy conformations with ϕ ~ 0°, normally expected to occur only as fleeting transition states, are stably trapped in certain highly resolved native protein structures and that an analysis of these residues provides a detailed, experimentally derived map of the bond angle distortions taking place along the transition path. This unanticipated information lays to rest any uncertainty about whether such transitions are possible and how they occur, and in doing so lays a firm foundation for theoretical studies to better understand the transitions between basins that have been little studied but are integrally involved in protein folding and function. Also, the context of one such residue shows that even a designed highly stable protein can harbor substantial unfavorable interactions. PMID:26601321

  13. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Uribe, Oscar; San Martin, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Alegre, María C.; Santos, Matilde; Guinea, Domingo

    2015-01-01

    Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB) prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling) caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction. PMID:26528978

  14. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Oscar Hernández; Martin, Juan Pablo San; Garcia-Alegre, María C; Santos, Matilde; Guinea, Domingo

    2015-01-01

    Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB) prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling) caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction. PMID:26528978

  15. Making Transitions Work: Short- and Long-Term Transition Strategies: A Planning Guide for Junior and Senior High School Teachers. Secondary Transition and Employment Project: STEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgart, Diane; And Others

    The guide, developed by the Secondary Transition and Employment Project (STEP) in Idaho, is for junior and senior high teachers of disabled students and provides strategies to aid in the transition of students from school to the community. Section I of the manual contains short-term transition strategies, for use with students graduating within a…

  16. Scaling and Topological Phase Transitions: Energy vs. Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuting; Gulden, Tobias; Janas, Michael; Kamenev, Alex

    The critical point of a topological phase transition is described by a conformal field theory. Finite-size corrections give rise to a scaling function away from criticality for both energy and entanglement entropy of the system. While in the past the scaling function for the usual von Neumann entropy was found to be equal for the trivial and the topological side of the transition, we find that the scaling functions for energy and Renyi entropy with α > 1 are different for the two sides. This provides an easy tool to distinguish between the trivial and topological phases near criticality.

  17. An earlier origin for stone tool making: implications for cognitive evolution and the transition to Homo.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jason E; Harmand, Sonia

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of the earliest known stone tools at Lomekwi 3 (LOM3) from West Turkana, Kenya, dated to 3.3 Ma, raises new questions about the mode and tempo of key adaptations in the hominin lineage. The LOM3 tools date to before the earliest known fossils attributed to Homo at 2.8 Ma. They were made and deposited in a more C3 environment than were the earliest Oldowan tools at 2.6 Ma. Their discovery leads to renewed investigation on the timing of the emergence of human-like manipulative capabilities in early hominins and implications for reconstructing cognition. The LOM3 artefacts form part of an emerging paradigm shift in palaeoanthropology, in which: tool-use and tool-making behaviours are not limited to the genus Homo; cranial, post-cranial and behavioural diversity in early Homo is much wider than previously thought; and these evolutionary changes may not have been direct adaptations to living in savannah grassland environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298464

  18. Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vuuren, Detlef P.; van Soest, Heleen; Riahi, Keywan; Clarke, Leon; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Tavoni, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Scenarios from integrated assessment models can provide insights into how carbon budgets relate to other policy-relevant indicators by including information on how fast and by how much emissions can be reduced. Such indicators include the peak year of global emissions, the decarbonisation rate and the deployment of low-carbon technology. Here, we show typical values for these indicators for different carbon budgets, using the recently compiled IPCC scenario database, and discuss how these vary as a function of non-CO2 forcing, energy use and policy delay. For carbon budgets of 2000 GtCO2 and less over the 2010–2100 period, supply of low carbon technologies needs to be scaled up massively from today’s levels, unless energy use is relatively low. For the subgroup of scenarios with a budget below 1000 GtCO2 (consistent with >66% chance of limiting global warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels), the 2050 contribution of low-carbon technologies is generally around 50%–75%, compared to less than 20% today (range refers to the 10–90th interval of available data).

  19. Energy Efficienct Processes for Making Tackifier Dispersions used to make Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Rakesh Gupta

    2006-07-26

    The primary objective of this project was to develop an energy efficient, environmentally friendly and low cost process (compared to the current process) for making tackifier dispersions that are used to make pressure-sensitive adhesives. These adhesives are employed in applications such as self-adhesive postage stamps and disposable diapers and are made by combining the tackifier dispersion with a natural or synthetic rubber latex. The current process for tackifier dispersion manufacture begins by melting a (plastic) resin and adding water to it in order to form a water-in-oil emulsion. This is then converted to an oil-in-water emulsion by phase inversion in the presence of continuous stirring. The resulting emulsion is the tackifier dispersion, but it is not concentrated and the remaining excess water has to be transported and removed. The main barrier that has to be overcome in the development of commercial quality tackifier dispersions is the inability to directly emulsify resin in water due to the very low viscosity of water as compared to the viscosity of the molten resin. In the present research, a number of solutions were proposed to overcome this barrier, and these included use of different mixer types to directly form the emulsion from the molten resin but without going through a phase inversion, the idea of forming a solid resin-in-water suspension having the correct size and size distribution but without melting of the resin, and the development of techniques of making a colloidal powder of the resin that could be dispersed in water just prior to use. Progress was made on each of these approaches, and each was found to be feasible. The most appealing solution, though, is the last one, since it does not require melting of the resin. Also, the powder can be shipped in dry form and then mixed with water in any proportion depending on the needs of the process. This research was conducted at Argonne National Laboratory, and it was determined the new process

  20. ENERGY AND CARBON BUDGETS IN TRANSITIONAL CROPPING SYSTEMS IN MINNESOTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy and carbon budgets were constructed for a wide range of cropping systems during the transition from conventional cropping practices. Cropping system treatments included factorial combinations of: conventional and organic systems (CNV and ORG), conventional tillage and strip tillage (CT and ST...

  1. Making the Transition from Further to Higher Education: The Impact of a Preparatory Module on Retention, Progression and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Hazel

    2005-01-01

    Articulation across the further education/higher education (FE/HE) interface is of vital importance in addressing the government's widening participation agenda. Many institutions are grappling with how best to prepare students to make this transition particularly when they are direct entrants and join ongoing cohorts of students who are already…

  2. The roles of users in shaping transitions to new energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schot, Johan; Kanger, Laur; Verbong, Geert

    2016-05-01

    Current government information policies and market-based instruments aimed at influencing the energy choices of consumers often ignore the fact that consumer behaviour is not fully reducible to individuals making rational conscious decisions all the time. The decisions of consumers are largely configured by shared routines embedded in socio-technical systems. To achieve a transition towards a decarbonized and energy-efficient system, an approach that goes beyond individual consumer choice and puts shared routines and system change at its centre is needed. Here, adopting a transitions perspective, we argue that consumers should be reconceptualized as users who are important stakeholders in the innovation process shaping new routines and enacting system change. We review the role of users in shifts to new decarbonized and energy-efficient systems and provide a typology of user roles.

  3. Internal Conversion Coefficients for Low-Energy Nuclear Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, I. M.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.

    1993-09-01

    Presented here are calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) of gamma rays for 35 observed low-energy nuclear transitions having Eγ ≲ 3 keV. Additionally, the ICCs for 24 high-multipole-order transitions which have been measured extensively are also given. The ICC calculations have been performed using Dirac-Fock electron wave functions, the exchange terms of the Dirac-Fock equations being included wthout any approximations both for the interaction between bound electrons and the interaction between bound and free electrons. Our previous studies have shown that the Dirac-Fock method allows ICC values to be obtained in best agreement with experimental data.

  4. Transition Metal Nitrides for Electrocatalytic Energy Conversion: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junfeng; Xie, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Electrocatalytic energy conversion has been considered as one of the most efficient and promising pathways for realizing energy storage and energy utilization in modern society. To improve electrocatalytic reactions, specific catalysts are needed to lower the overpotential. In the search for efficient alternatives to noble metal catalysts, transition metal nitrides have attracted considerable interest due to their high catalytic activity and unique electronic structure. Over the past few decades, numerous nitride-based catalysts have been explored with respect to their ability to drive various electrocatalytic reactions, such as the hydrogen evolution reaction and the oxygen evolution reaction to achieve water splitting and the oxygen reduction reaction coupled with the methanol oxidation reaction to construct fuel cells or rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. This Minireview provides a brief overview of recent progress on electrocatalysts based on transition metal nitrides, and outlines the current challenges and future opportunities. PMID:26494184

  5. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes

  6. Making a Drama out of Transition: Challenges and Opportunities at Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This case study explored how teachers and children perceive challenges and opportunities at transition. Using Forum Theatre (FT), an interactive drama approach, children were able to show aspects of transitions they perceived as challenging and how these barriers may be overcome. FT offered a tangible reference point for children to discuss their…

  7. From Initial Education to Working Life: Making Transitions Work. Education and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) conducted a thematic review to identify changes in young people's transition to working life during the 1990s and to identify those policies and programs that are effective in delivering successful transition outcomes for young people. The review focused on 14 countries with widely…

  8. "Ready for Big School": Making the Transition to Primary School--A Jamaican Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkead-Clark, Zoyah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this small-scale, qualitative study is to understand the perspective of varying stakeholders responsible for student transitions from pre-primary to primary school in the Jamaican context. The questions that guided the research are: What factors affect student transitions to primary school? What skills do children need in order to…

  9. Making scents of transition: smellscapes and the everyday in "old" and "new" urban Poland.

    PubMed

    Śliwa, Martyna; Riach, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the growing body of literature on transition within central and eastern Europe is developed by exploring how discussing the senses may illuminate the experience of change to post-socialism for urban dwellers. After situating the study within the rich ethnographic heritage on urban transition, the key tenets of ‘geographies of smell’ are outlined as a means of inquiry which emphasises the lived, sensually embodied experience of transition. The empirical study is focused upon the interrogation of the meanings created by, and attached to, olfactory experience in contemporary Poland, discussing three motifs that highlight the symbolic and transformative role of smell in relation to transition. In understanding smell as playing an active role in the creation of meaning, not only are current debates surrounding geographies of smell extended, but it is argued that addressing the relatively neglected sensual dimension of the social provides an avenue into more nuanced dimensions of urban transition. PMID:22319812

  10. Summer Center for Climate, Energy, and Environmental Decision Making (SUCCEED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Hoss, F.; Welle, P.; Larkin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Science, Technology, and Math (STEM) fields are responsible for more than half of our sustained economic expansion, and over the past 25 years the science and engineering workforce has remained at over 5% of all U.S. jobs. However, America lags behind other nations when it comes to STEM education; globally, American students rank 23th in math and 31st in science. While our youngest students show an interest in STEM subjects, roughly 40% of college students planning to major in STEM switch to other subjects. Women and minorities, 50% and 43% of school-age children, are disproportionally underrepresented in STEM fields (25% and 15%, respectively). Studies show that improved teacher curriculum combined with annual student-centered learning summer programs can promote and sustain student interest in STEM fields. Many STEM fields appear superficially simple, and yet can be truly complex and controversial topics. Carnegie Mellon University's Center for Climate and Energy Decision Making focuses on two such STEM fields: climate and energy. In 2011, we created SUCCEED: the Summer Center for Climate, Energy, and Environmental Decision Making. SUCCEED consisted of two pilot programs: a 2-day workshop for K-12 teacher professional development and a free 5-day summer school targeted at an age gap in the university's outreach, students entering 10th grade. In addition to teaching lessons climate, energy, and environment, the program aimed to highlight different STEM careers so students could better understand the breadth of choices available. SUCCEED, repeated in 2012, was wildly successful. A pre/post test demonstrated a significant increase in understanding of STEM topics. Furthermore, SUCCEED raised excitement for STEM; teachers were enthusiastic about accurate student-centered learning plans and students wanted to know more. To grow these efforts, an additional component has been added to the SUCCEED 2013 effort: online publicly available curricula. Using the curricula form

  11. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - St. Lucia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Saint Lucia, one of six Caribbean countries that make up the Windward Islands - the southern arc of the Lesser Antilles chain - at the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  12. Making the transition to middle schooling: A case study of experienced science teachers coping with change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Donna Dorough

    The increasing popularity of the middle school movement necessitates a need for more interpretive research in middle level education. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore science teachers' perceptions of the transition to a new middle school and the meanings they attached to this new experience. The participants were three eighth grade science teachers, each with 20 plus years of teaching experience. The primary data for analysis was a series of five interviews with each participant. Data collection also included weekly participant observation of team meetings. Findings revealed that the science teachers all had positive feelings attached to the ability to keep track of students' academic progress and behavior problems as a result of teaming. The changes associated with the first year were very stressful for all three, primarily the loss of the traditional junior high departmentalized structure. The two participants who transferred directly from the junior high school were very skeptical of any benefits from an interdisciplinary curriculum, the appropriateness of the middle school philosophy for eighth grade students, and the move to heterogeneously grouped science classes. In contrast, the former junior high teacher who had spent the past ten years teaching sixth grade at the elementary school had positive beliefs about the potential benefits of an interdisciplinary curriculum and heterogeneous grouping. Teacher stress associated with a change in the school setting and the science teachers' constraints to actualizing a meaningful middle schooling experience are illuminated. Teachers' lack of ownership in the reform decision making process, loss of time with their science teacher peers, diminished compliments from high school counterparts, and need for more empirical evidence supporting proposed changes all served as barriers to embracing the reform initiatives. The participants found taking a very slow approach to be their most useful means of

  13. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  14. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center is Helping to Facilitate the Transition to a New Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    The Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center (HTSC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses a systems engineering and integration approach to hydrogen research and development to help the United States make the transition to a new energy future - a future built on diverse and abundant domestic renewable resources and integrated hydrogen systems. Research focuses on renewable hydrogen production, delivery, and storage; fuel cells and fuel cell manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; analysis; education; and market transformation. Hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to power vehicles and to provide electricity and heat for homes and offices. This flexibility, combined with our increasing demand for energy, opens the door for hydrogen power systems. HTSC collaborates with DOE, other government agencies, industry, communities, universities, national laboratories, and other stakeholders to promote a clean and secure energy future.

  15. Energy levels and radiative transition rates for Ba XLVIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Indu; Goyal, Arun; Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, A. K.; Mohan, Man

    2016-01-01

    Energy levels and radiative rates are reported for transitions in F-like Ba XLVIII. Configuration interaction has been included among 27 configurations (generating 431 levels) over a wide energy range up to 618 Rydbergs, and the fully relativistic multi-configurational Dirac-Fock method adopted for the calculations. To assess the accuracy, calculations have also been performed with the flexible atomic code, FAC. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths are reported for all electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and magnetic quadrupole transitions from the lowest 3 levels, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. We have made comparisons of our results with existing available results and a good agreement has been achieved. Additionally, lifetimes for all 431 levels are listed.

  16. Energy spectra and optical transitions in germanene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Herath, Thakshila M; Apalkov, Vadym

    2016-04-27

    The band gap of buckled graphene-like materials, such as silicene and germanene, depends on external perpendicular electric field. Then a specially design profile of electric field can produce trapping potential for electrons. We study theoretically the energy spectrum and optical transitions for such designed quantum dots (QDs) in graphene-like materials. The energy spectra depend on the size of the QD and applied electric field in the region of the QD. The number of the states in the QD increases with increasing the size of the dot and the energies of the states have almost linear dependence on the applied electric field with the slope which increases with increasing the dot size. The optical properties of the QDs are characterized by two types of absorption spectra: interband (optical transitions between the states of the valence and conduction bands) and intraband (transitions between the states of conduction/valence band). The interband absorption spectra have triple-peak structure with peak separation around 10 meV, while intraband absorption spectra, which depend on the number of electrons in the dot, have double-peak structure. PMID:27008912

  17. Biomolecular dynamics: order-disorder transitions and energy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Paul C; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Onuchic, José N

    2012-07-01

    While the energy landscape theory of protein folding is now a widely accepted view for understanding how relatively weak molecular interactions lead to rapid and cooperative protein folding, such a framework must be extended to describe the large-scale functional motions observed in molecular machines. In this review, we discuss (1) the development of the energy landscape theory of biomolecular folding, (2) recent advances toward establishing a consistent understanding of folding and function and (3) emerging themes in the functional motions of enzymes, biomolecular motors and other biomolecular machines. Recent theoretical, computational and experimental lines of investigation have provided a very dynamic picture of biomolecular motion. In contrast to earlier ideas, where molecular machines were thought to function similarly to macroscopic machines, with rigid components that move along a few degrees of freedom in a deterministic fashion, biomolecular complexes are only marginally stable. Since the stabilizing contribution of each atomic interaction is on the order of the thermal fluctuations in solution, the rigid body description of molecular function must be revisited. An emerging theme is that functional motions encompass order-disorder transitions and structural flexibility provides significant contributions to the free energy. In this review, we describe the biological importance of order-disorder transitions and discuss the statistical-mechanical foundation of theoretical approaches that can characterize such transitions. PMID:22790780

  18. Biomolecular Dynamics: Order-Disorder Transitions and Energy Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Whitford, Paul C.; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.; Onuchic, José N.

    2013-01-01

    While the energy landscape theory of protein folding is now a widely accepted view for understanding how relatively-weak molecular interactions lead to rapid and cooperative protein folding, such a framework must be extended to describe the large-scale functional motions observed in molecular machines. In this review, we discuss 1) the development of the energy landscape theory of biomolecular folding, 2) recent advances towards establishing a consistent understanding of folding and function, and 3) emerging themes in the functional motions of enzymes, biomolecular motors, and other biomolecular machines. Recent theoretical, computational, and experimental lines of investigation are providing a very dynamic picture of biomolecular motion. In contrast to earlier ideas, where molecular machines were thought to function similarly to macroscopic machines, with rigid components that move along a few degrees of freedom in a deterministic fashion, biomolecular complexes are only marginally stable. Since the stabilizing contribution of each atomic interaction is on the order of the thermal fluctuations in solution, the rigid body description of molecular function must be revisited. An emerging theme is that functional motions encompass order-disorder transitions and structural flexibility provide significant contributions to the free-energy. In this review, we describe the biological importance of order-disorder transitions and discuss the statistical-mechanical foundation of theoretical approaches that can characterize such transitions. PMID:22790780

  19. Energy transitions in the early 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Meakin

    2013-01-01

    We are in the early stages of a long and complex transition from a global economy based on fossil energy to an economy based on low carbon renewable energy. However, fossil fuel resources are abundant and widely distributed, and they will remain the dominant source of primary energy for at least the next quarter century. In the United States, displacement of coal by natural gas for electric power generation has done more to reduce CO2 emissions than all new renewables combined, and this may occur globally for the next decade or two, even if the European Union does not take advantage of its large unconventional natural gas resources. Greater energy efficiency (not including the efficiencies associated with displacement of coal by gas) will also be more important than new renewables. Cost/benefit ratios are important for sustainability of the transition, and some energy efficiency technologies and displacement of coal by natural gas have lower cost/benefit ratios than wind power, solar power or biofuels. Money spent on the large scale deployment of wind, solar and especially biofuels would be better spent on research, development and demonstration of a broader suite of technologies that would support the energy transition, with a focus on improving the cost benefit ratios of already deployed technologies and developing alternatives. Advanced nuclear reactors, engineered geothermal systems, fossil fuel recovery coupled with CO2 sequestration and pre-combustion or post-combustion decarbonation of fossil fuels with geological CO2 sequestration are among the technologies that might be more cost effective than wind, solar or biofuels, and biofuels have serious adverse societal and environment consequences.

  20. Solar Electricity and Solar Fuels: Status and Perspectives in the Context of the Energy Transition.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewables is already ongoing, but it will be a long and difficult process because the energy system is a gigantic and complex machine. Key renewable energy production data show the remarkable growth of solar electricity technologies and indicate that crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines are the workhorses of the first wave of renewable energy deployment on the TW scale around the globe. The other PV alternatives (e.g., copper/indium/gallium/selenide (CIGS) or CdTe), along with other less mature options, are critically analyzed. As far as fuels are concerned, the situation is significantly more complex because making chemicals with sunshine is far more complicated than generating electric current. The prime solar artificial fuel is molecular hydrogen, which is characterized by an excellent combination of chemical and physical properties. The routes to make it from solar energy (photoelectrochemical cells (PEC), dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DSPEC), PV electrolyzers) and then synthetic liquid fuels are presented, with discussion on economic aspects. The interconversion between electricity and hydrogen, two energy carriers directly produced by sunlight, will be a key tool to distribute renewable energies with the highest flexibility. The discussion takes into account two concepts that are often overlooked: the energy return on investment (EROI) and the limited availability of natural resources-particularly minerals-which are needed to manufacture energy converters and storage devices on a multi-TW scale. PMID:26584653

  1. Vertical transition energies vs. absorption maxima: illustration with the UV absorption spectrum of ethylene.

    PubMed

    Lasorne, Benjamin; Jornet-Somoza, Joaquim; Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Lauvergnat, David; Robb, Michael A; Gatti, Fabien

    2014-02-01

    We revisit the validity of making a direct comparison between measured absorption maxima and computed vertical transition energies within 0.1 eV to calibrate an excited-state level of theory. This is illustrated on the UV absorption spectrum of ethylene for which the usual experimental values of 7.66 eV (V←N) and 7.11 eV (R(3s)←N) cannot be compared directly to the results of electronic structure calculations for two very different reasons. After validation of our level of theory against experimental data, a new experimental reference of 7.28 eV is suggested for benchmarking the Rydberg state, and the often-cited average transition energy (7.80 eV) is confirmed as a safer estimate for the valence state. PMID:23711543

  2. Phase/Shape Transitions and the Two Neutron Separation Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Zamfir, N. V.; Anghel, Sabina; Cata-Danil, G.

    2008-11-11

    We investigated the evolution of experimental two-neutron separation energies (S{sub 2n}) along the isotopic chains for the even-even nuclei. In order to enhance the sensitivity of our search, differential variation of the S{sub 2n} has been investigated. The emphasis is on finding nonmonotonic behaviors which can be correlated with phase/shape transition. Correlations of the ground state S{sub 2n} values with the excited states energies R{sub 4/2} ratio are also discussed.

  3. Transitions into the negative-energy Dirac continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Krekora, P.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2004-11-01

    We compare the predictions of the single-particle Dirac equation with quantum field theory for an electron subjected to a space and time dependent field. We demonstrate analytically and numerically that a transition into the negative-energy subspace predicted by the single-particle Dirac equation is directly associated with the degree of suppression of pair-production as described by quantum field theory. We show that the portion of the mathematical wave function that populates the negative-energy states corresponds to the difference between the positron spatial density for systems with and without an electron initially present.

  4. Energy and population: transitional issues and eventual limits.

    PubMed

    Werbos, P J

    1990-08-01

    The implication of population size for US energy requirements is explored in this essay. The basic argument is that the present supply of fuels and energy technologies is not sustainable in the long run, that a wide range of choices is possible when a complete transition is made to sustainable technologies, and that the growth of population and the composition of this growth during the next 30 years are the most serious problems impacting on the achievement of sustainable technology. The importance and future of fuel oil is discussed as well as the transition to sustainable energy supplies: conservation, renewables, nuclear and coal. Dependency on oil can only be changed through time and the infusion of money, but even with these givens, the transition is also dependent on the political and budgetary climate. The race is between crisis and cure. It is argued that the soft energy systems (biomass, solar water heater, wind, hydro, and geothermal energy) along with conservation will increase easily and naturally, but the total potential from these sources amounts to only 10% of the present US energy supply. Conservation offers greater hope because 80% of end-use fossil fuel is used in transportation and industry. Further growth of the population in the US would create a demand to desalinate water, which would increase the demand for energy. A totally soft energy economy is probably not feasible without a drastic reduction in US population. The expected direction is in the increased use of coal, and then nuclear energy. Unfortunately, coal contributes to greenhouse warming, and the supply is limited to 60-100 years. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism is connected to the widespread use of nuclear energy. Some breakthrough technology with cold fusion may offer a safer alternative. High technology renewables such as solar cells can be competitive with nuclear energy, if prices can be kept down. on earth or in space, are being investigated. Exploring a variety of advanced

  5. Energy efficient engine: Turbine transition duct model technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, K.; Thurlin, R.

    1982-01-01

    The Low-Pressure Turbine Transition Duct Model Technology Program was directed toward substantiating the aerodynamic definition of a turbine transition duct for the Energy Efficient Engine. This effort was successful in demonstrating an aerodynamically viable compact duct geometry and the performance benefits associated with a low camber low-pressure turbine inlet guide vane. The transition duct design for the flight propulsion system was tested and the pressure loss goal of 0.7 percent was verified. Also, strut fairing pressure distributions, as well as wall pressure coefficients, were in close agreement with analytical predictions. Duct modifications for the integrated core/low spool were also evaluated. The total pressure loss was 1.59 percent. Although the increase in exit area in this design produced higher wall loadings, reflecting a more aggressive aerodynamic design, pressure profiles showed no evidence of flow separation. Overall, the results acquired have provided pertinent design and diagnostic information for the design of a turbine transition duct for both the flight propulsion system and the integrated core/low spool.

  6. A Framework for Supporting Organizational Transition Processes Towards Sustainable Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Rajesh

    Economic development over the last century has driven a tripling of the world's population, a twenty-fold increase in fossil fuel consumption, and a tripling of traditional biomass consumption. The associated broad income and wealth inequities are retaining over 2 billion people in poverty. Adding to this, fossil fuel combustion is impacting the environment across spatial and temporal scales and the cost of energy is outpacing all other variable costs for most industries. With 60% of world energy delivered in 2008 consumed by the commercial and industrial sector, the fragmented and disparate energy-related decision making within organizations are largely responsible for the inefficient and impacting use of energy resources. The global transition towards sustainable development will require the collective efforts of national, regional, and local governments, institutions, the private sector, and a well-informed public. The leadership role in this transition could be provided by private and public sector organizations, by way of sustainability-oriented organizations, cultures, and infrastructure. The diversity in literature exemplifies the developing nature of sustainability science, with most sustainability assessment approaches and frameworks lacking transformational characteristics, tending to focus on analytical methods. In general, some shortfalls in sustainability assessment processes include lack of: · thorough stakeholder participation in systems and stakeholder mapping, · participatory envisioning of future sustainable states, · normative aggregation of results to provide an overall measure of sustainability, and · influence within strategic decision-making processes. Specific to energy sustainability assessments, while some authors aggregate results to provide overall sustainability scores, assessments have focused solely on energy supply scenarios, while including the deficits discussed above. This paper presents a framework for supporting

  7. A "Step-Back" Is Actually a "Step-Forward" When Attempting to Make the Transition from Administrator to Faculty within the Canadian College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Many college faculty have sought and secured administrative positions. This type of transition is not uncommon. What is uncommon, however, is the transition back from an administrative position to a faculty position within Canadian colleges. There are many barriers and obstacles to this type of role transition which make it very difficult to do. I…

  8. The Transition to Middle Level Schools: Making It a Good Experience for All Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Carol; Urdan, Tim

    1992-01-01

    Describes approaches for solving the problem of students' declining motivation and performance when they move to middle-level schools. Urges educators to examine school policies, practices, and procedures, and to make changes that will make it very clear to students that effort, challenge, improvement, and mastery are the goals of schooling. (16…

  9. Many-body energy localization transition in periodically driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    D’Alessio, Luca; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2013-06-15

    According to the second law of thermodynamics the total entropy of a system is increased during almost any dynamical process. The positivity of the specific heat implies that the entropy increase is associated with heating. This is generally true both at the single particle level, like in the Fermi acceleration mechanism of charged particles reflected by magnetic mirrors, and for complex systems in everyday devices. Notable exceptions are known in noninteracting systems of particles moving in periodic potentials. Here the phenomenon of dynamical localization can prevent heating beyond certain threshold. The dynamical localization is known to occur both at classical (Fermi–Ulam model) and at quantum levels (kicked rotor). However, it was believed that driven ergodic systems will always heat without bound. Here, on the contrary, we report strong evidence of dynamical localization transition in both classical and quantum periodically driven ergodic systems in the thermodynamic limit. This phenomenon is reminiscent of many-body localization in energy space. -- Highlights: •A dynamical localization transition in periodically driven ergodic systems is found. •This phenomenon is reminiscent of many-body localization in energy space. •Our results are valid for classical and quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit. •At critical frequency, the short time expansion for the evolution operator breaks down. •The transition is associated to a divergent time scale.

  10. The Post-School Outcomes Transition Survey: A Tool for Effective Decision Making?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ronald C.; Rabren, Karen; Hall, George

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of the "Post-School Outcomes Transition Survey" (PSOTS). The PSOTS was designed to ascertain whether individuals who received special education services in secondary school have obtained postschool employment or have enrolled in postsecondary education or training within 1 to 2 years of exiting high school. The…

  11. Students with Traumatic Brain Injury: Making the Transition from Hospital to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mira, Mary P.; Tyler, Janet Siantz

    1991-01-01

    This paper uses a case study of a 16-year-old girl with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to present information on the demographics of head injury, neuropathology, recovery patterns, acute rehabilitation, educationally significant effects, behavioral sequelae, the school as a vehicle for rehabilitation, a transition model, school reentry, and…

  12. Making the Transition: An Explanatory Model of Special Education Students' Participation in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler-Nalin, Paul; And Others

    The report of the National Longitudinal Transition Study presents initial findings on individual characteristics which relate to postsecondary education participation since 1985-86 among more than 8,000 youth (ages 13 to 23) with disabilities. A series of logistic regression models examines such factors as youth's background characteristics,…

  13. Making Community Connections: Educator Perspectives on Transition Planning for Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Karen; Mactavish, Jennifer; Lutfiyya, Zana Marie

    2006-01-01

    For students with intellectual disabilities and their families, planning for the transition from school to adult life can be a complicated process. Successful planning is sometimes made more challenging when post-school options and opportunities are not well known or understood. The purpose of this study is to seek out the perspectives of…

  14. Practice Makes Perfect? University Students' Response to a First-Year Transition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Catherine; Sheffield, Suzanne Le-May

    2008-01-01

    This paper shares new insights on the first-year university student transition experience. Our research focuses on students' practice of academic skills developed in a "Foundations for Learning" course, from their own perspective, after they completed the course. Once they had an opportunity to practice what they learned in subsequent…

  15. Building on Success: Helping Students Make Transitions from Year to Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Throughout a student's time in school, a variety of transitions will occur. From home to school, grade to grade, school to school, school to post-secondary training or employment, students experience changes in expectations, responsibilities and routines. This resource provides sample ideas and templates for creating a Learner Profile that…

  16. The Work Experiences of Transgender Individuals: Negotiating the Transition and Career Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budge, Stephanie L.; Tebbe, Esther N.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the work experiences of individuals who have started transitioning from their biological sex to a different gender expression through 18 interviews of transgender-identified individuals. Thirteen of the participants identified as male-to-female transsexuals, 2 participants identified as female-to-male transsexuals, 2…

  17. Declining Motivation After the Transition to Middle School: Schools Can Make a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Maehr, Martin L.; Midgley, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Investigated the effects of transitioning from elementary to middle school on the motivational beliefs of students attending two very different types of middle schools. Surveys of students at the end of grades 5, 6, and 7 indicated that while few differences existed in elementary school, students' motivational beliefs changed differently,…

  18. Rocking & Rolling: Supporting Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families. Helping Babies Make Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Sarah; Britt, Donna

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss three steps to helping babies with transitions: observe, ask, and respond (OAR). They advise teachers about how to ask a family questions about their baby and how to give the family suggestions to alleviate the baby's stress, without offending family members. This column includes a list of recommended resources. (Contains 7…

  19. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on transitions for individuals with disabilities contains nine papers discussing transition programs and issues. "Transition Issues for the 1990s," by Michael J. Ward and William D. Halloran, discusses self-determination, school responsibility for transition, continued educational engagement of at-risk students, and service…

  20. City-Level Energy Decision Making. Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Aznar, Alexandra; Day, Megan; Doris, Elizabeth; Mathur, Shivani; Donohoo-Vallett, Paul

    2015-07-08

    The Cities-LEAP technical report, City-Level Energy Decision Making: Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities, explores how a sample of cities incorporates data into making energy-related decisions. This report provides the foundation for forthcoming components of the Cities-LEAP project that will help cities improve energy decision making by mapping specific city energy or climate policies and actions to measurable impacts and results.

  1. Process for making whiskers, fibers and flakes of transition metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1992-01-01

    A process for making titanium and chromium nitrides of known morphology by reacting potassium titanate and chromium oxide in the gas phase with NH.sub.3. The products exhibit the same morphology as the starting material.

  2. Process for making whiskers, fibers and flakes of transition metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1992-06-02

    A process for making titanium and chromium nitrides of known morphology by reacting potassium titanate and chromium oxide in the gas phase with NH[sub 3]. The products exhibit the same morphology as the starting material.

  3. How We Make Energy Work: Grades 4, 5, 6 Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

    This packet of units is designed to focus on the technological aspects of energy. Four units are presented, with from 1-4 lessons included in each unit. Units include: (1) basic concepts and applications of energy; (2) steps and processes of energy production and transmission; (3) fuel acquisition; and (4) energy futures and application of…

  4. Making the transition to the third era of natural resources management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    We are entering the third era of National Park Service (NPS) natural resources management— an era defined by rapid and unprecedented global changes. This third era promises to overturn not only some of our most fundamental assumptions about parks and protected areas, but also many of the ideals we currently hold dear. A common initial reaction to the diverse challenges of this transition is to feel overwhelmed and adrift; I have certainly had such feelings myself. But these feelings carry the risk of reducing our effectiveness as resource stewards right when we can least afford to be less effective: during a transition that is demanding us to be particularly clear-headed and far-seeing. Here I briefly examine some of the challenges of this new era, focusing on those that can most often elicit feelings of discouragement. When we examine the challenges individually, they begin to lose some of their ability to cast gloom—especially when we consider them in the light of lessons from an earlier fundamental transition in NPS natural resources management, beginning a half-century ago. My perspective is shaped by my 35 years as a place-based scientist stationed in a large national park (Sequoia and Kings Canyon), and by my passion for national parks in general. While the discussion that follows is most relevant to large national parks set aside primarily for their natural features, several of the ideas are also relevant to other park units.

  5. Steering quantum transitions between three crossing energy levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, S. S.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2008-02-15

    We calculate the propagator and the transition probabilities for a coherently driven three-state quantum system. The energies of the three states change linearly in time, whereas the interactions between them are pulse shaped. We derive a highly accurate analytic approximation by assuming independent pairwise Landau-Zener transitions occurring instantly at the relevant avoided crossings, and adiabatic evolution elsewhere. Quantum interferences are identified, which occur due to different possible evolution paths in Hilbert space between an initial and a final state. A detailed comparison with numerical results for Gaussian-shaped pulses demonstrates a remarkable accuracy of the analytic approximation. We use the analytic results to derive estimates for the half-width of the excitation profile, and for the parameters required for creation of a maximally coherent superposition of the three states. These results are of potential interest in ladder climbing in alkali-metal atoms by chirped laser pulses, in quantum rotors, in transitions between Zeeman sublevels of a J=1 level in a magnetic field, and in control of entanglement of a pair of spin-1/2 particles. The results for the three-state system can be generalized, without essential difficulties, to higher dimensions.

  6. Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. T.

    2006-12-01

    The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of

  7. The Process of Occupational Decision Making: Patterns during the Transition to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Shanahan, Michael J.; Holmes, Mikki

    2002-01-01

    Interviews of 69 adults who had participated in the Youth Development Study as adolescents identified occupational decision-making themes: unfulfilled expectations, postponement of decisions, turning points, resources, and obstacles. Results suggest a need for changing and strengthening social policy especially related to career counseling.…

  8. With a Little Help from Their Friends: Making the Transition from Student to Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A university's seminar model suggests the design of a collaborative structure that promotes team sharing and problem solving. The mentoring that occurs in the seminar comes mainly from the student teachers sharing their experiences with each other and working together to make sense of their classrooms in the context of the theories they have…

  9. On Their Own? Making the Transition from School to Work in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crysdale, Stewart; King, Alan J. C.; Mandell, Nancy

    This book examines the factors responsible for the difficulties being experienced by many young Canadians trying to find permanent jobs in a growing economy and explains how Canadian youths can make the best use of the opportunities offered by academic and other programs to find a satisfying life in the workforce. The following are among the…

  10. Who Makes It to Secondary School? Determinants of Transition to Secondary Schools in Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddhu, Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable progress made, a significant proportion of children continue to drop out before reaching secondary school in India. This study investigates factors influencing parental decision-making with regard to children's secondary schooling in the context of a rural area of Uttar Pradesh. The study finds that cost, distance to the…

  11. A Model for Education: Energy-Water Consumption Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontrager, Ralph L.; Hubbard, Charles W.

    Public schools are in a position to convince society-at-large of the national energy problem. There is a direct relationship between energy costs to the schools and the type of educational programs they can provide. While waiting for a national energy policy with a section devoted to schools, districts can calculate the amount and cost of energy…

  12. A Guide to making Energy-Smart Purchases

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Being more energy efficient can be as simple and inexpensive as buying and installing caulk and weatherstripping or as complicated and expensive as building a state-of-the-art, energy-efficient house. However, whatever you do to reduce energy costs will usually require the purchase of goods or services.

  13. Many-body energy localization transition in periodically driven system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, Luca; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2013-03-01

    According to the second law of thermodynamics the total entropy and energy of a system is increased during almost any dynamical process. Notable exceptions are known in noninteracting systems of particles moving in periodic potentials. Here the phenomenon of dynamical localization can prevent heating beyond certain threshold. However, it was believed that driven ergodic systems will always heat without bound. Here, on the contrary, we report strong evidence of dynamical localization transition in periodically driven ergodic systems in the thermodynamic limit. This phenomenon is reminiscent of many-body localization in energy space. We report numerical evidence based on exact diagonalization of small spin chains and theoretical arguments based on the Magnus expansion. Our findings are valid for both classical and quantum systems.

  14. Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition Issues for the 1990s" (William Halloran…

  15. Nudged-elastic band method with two climbing images: Finding transition states in complex energy landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2015-01-09

    The nudged-elastic band (NEB) method is modified with concomitant two climbing images (C2-NEB) to find a transition state (TS) in complex energy landscapes, such as those with a serpentine minimal energy path (MEP). If a single climbing image (C1-NEB) successfully finds the TS, then C2-NEB finds it too. Improved stability of C2-NEB makes it suitable for more complex cases, where C1-NEB misses the TS because the MEP and NEB directions near the saddle point are different. Generally, C2-NEB not only finds the TS, but guarantees, by construction, that the climbing images approach it from the opposite sides along the MEP. In addition, C2-NEB provides an accuracy estimate from the three images: the highest-energy one and its climbing neighbors. C2-NEB is suitable for fixed-cell NEB and the generalized solid-state NEB.

  16. Nudged-elastic band method with two climbing images: Finding transition states in complex energy landscapes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2015-01-09

    The nudged-elastic band (NEB) method is modified with concomitant two climbing images (C2-NEB) to find a transition state (TS) in complex energy landscapes, such as those with a serpentine minimal energy path (MEP). If a single climbing image (C1-NEB) successfully finds the TS, then C2-NEB finds it too. Improved stability of C2-NEB makes it suitable for more complex cases, where C1-NEB misses the TS because the MEP and NEB directions near the saddle point are different. Generally, C2-NEB not only finds the TS, but guarantees, by construction, that the climbing images approach it from the opposite sides along the MEP.more » In addition, C2-NEB provides an accuracy estimate from the three images: the highest-energy one and its climbing neighbors. C2-NEB is suitable for fixed-cell NEB and the generalized solid-state NEB.« less

  17. Phase transition in the Jarzynski estimator of free energy differences.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Alberto; Silbey, Robert; Oppenheim, Irwin

    2012-05-01

    The transition between a regime in which thermodynamic relations apply only to ensembles of small systems coupled to a large environment and a regime in which they can be used to characterize individual macroscopic systems is analyzed in terms of the change in behavior of the Jarzynski estimator of equilibrium free energy differences from nonequilibrium work measurements. Given a fixed number of measurements, the Jarzynski estimator is unbiased for sufficiently small systems. In these systems the directionality of time is poorly defined and the configurations that dominate the empirical average, but which are in fact typical of the reverse process, are sufficiently well sampled. As the system size increases the arrow of time becomes better defined. The dominant atypical fluctuations become rare and eventually cannot be sampled with the limited resources that are available. Asymptotically, only typical work values are measured. The Jarzynski estimator becomes maximally biased and approaches the exponential of minus the average work, which is the result that is expected from standard macroscopic thermodynamics. In the proper scaling limit, this regime change has been recently described in terms of a phase transition in variants of the random energy model. In this paper this correspondence is further demonstrated in two examples of physical interest: the sudden compression of an ideal gas and adiabatic quasistatic volume changes in a dilute real gas. PMID:23004704

  18. Phase transition in the Jarzynski estimator of free energy differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Alberto; Silbey, Robert; Oppenheim, Irwin

    2012-05-01

    The transition between a regime in which thermodynamic relations apply only to ensembles of small systems coupled to a large environment and a regime in which they can be used to characterize individual macroscopic systems is analyzed in terms of the change in behavior of the Jarzynski estimator of equilibrium free energy differences from nonequilibrium work measurements. Given a fixed number of measurements, the Jarzynski estimator is unbiased for sufficiently small systems. In these systems the directionality of time is poorly defined and the configurations that dominate the empirical average, but which are in fact typical of the reverse process, are sufficiently well sampled. As the system size increases the arrow of time becomes better defined. The dominant atypical fluctuations become rare and eventually cannot be sampled with the limited resources that are available. Asymptotically, only typical work values are measured. The Jarzynski estimator becomes maximally biased and approaches the exponential of minus the average work, which is the result that is expected from standard macroscopic thermodynamics. In the proper scaling limit, this regime change has been recently described in terms of a phase transition in variants of the random energy model. In this paper this correspondence is further demonstrated in two examples of physical interest: the sudden compression of an ideal gas and adiabatic quasistatic volume changes in a dilute real gas.

  19. Basic JCL for the CRAY-1 operating system (COS) with emphasis on making the transition from CDC 7600/SCOPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, G.; Saunders, D.

    1983-01-01

    Users of the CDC 7600 at Ames are assisted in making the transition to the CRAY-1. Similarities and differences in the basic JCL are summarized, and a dozen or so examples of typical batch jobs for the two systems are shown in parallel. Some changes to look for in FORTRAN programs and in the use of UPDATE are also indicated. No attempt is made to cover magnetic tape handling. The material here should not be considered a substitute for reading the more conventional manuals or the User's Guide for the Advanced Computational Facility, available from the Computer Information Center.

  20. Toward the renewables - A natural gas/solar energy transition strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, J. A.; Escher, W. J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The inevitability of an energy transition from today's non-renewable fossil base toward a renewable energy base is considered from the viewpoint of the need for a national transition strategy. Then, one such strategy is offered. Its technological building blocks are described in terms of both energy use and energy supply. The strategy itself is then sketched at four points in its implementation; (1) initiation, (2) early transition, (3) late transition, and (4) completion. The transition is assumed to evolve from a heavily natural gas-dependent energy economy. It then proceeds through its transition toward a balanced, hybrid energy system consisting of both centralized and dispersed energy supply technologies supplying hydrogen and electricity from solar energy. Related institutional, environmental and economic factors are examined briefly.

  1. Nanotechnology makes biomass electrolysis more energy efficient than water electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y X; Lavacchi, A; Miller, H A; Bevilacqua, M; Filippi, J; Innocenti, M; Marchionni, A; Oberhauser, W; Wang, L; Vizza, F

    2014-01-01

    The energetic convenience of electrolytic water splitting is limited by thermodynamics. Consequently, significant levels of hydrogen production can only be obtained with an electrical energy consumption exceeding 45 kWh kg(-1)H2. Electrochemical reforming allows the overcoming of such thermodynamic limitations by replacing oxygen evolution with the oxidation of biomass-derived alcohols. Here we show that the use of an original anode material consisting of palladium nanoparticles deposited on to a three-dimensional architecture of titania nanotubes allows electrical energy savings up to 26.5 kWh kg(-1)H2 as compared with proton electrolyte membrane water electrolysis. A net energy analysis shows that for bio-ethanol with energy return of the invested energy larger than 5.1 (for example, cellulose), the electrochemical reforming energy balance is advantageous over proton electrolyte membrane water electrolysis. PMID:24892771

  2. Nanotechnology makes biomass electrolysis more energy efficient than water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. X.; Lavacchi, A.; Miller, H. A.; Bevilacqua, M.; Filippi, J.; Innocenti, M.; Marchionni, A.; Oberhauser, W.; Wang, L.; Vizza, F.

    2014-06-01

    The energetic convenience of electrolytic water splitting is limited by thermodynamics. Consequently, significant levels of hydrogen production can only be obtained with an electrical energy consumption exceeding 45 kWh kg-1H2. Electrochemical reforming allows the overcoming of such thermodynamic limitations by replacing oxygen evolution with the oxidation of biomass-derived alcohols. Here we show that the use of an original anode material consisting of palladium nanoparticles deposited on to a three-dimensional architecture of titania nanotubes allows electrical energy savings up to 26.5 kWh kg-1H2 as compared with proton electrolyte membrane water electrolysis. A net energy analysis shows that for bio-ethanol with energy return of the invested energy larger than 5.1 (for example, cellulose), the electrochemical reforming energy balance is advantageous over proton electrolyte membrane water electrolysis.

  3. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration (Report and Appendix)

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2008-05-01

    This document describes the hydrogen transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration (FTA).

  4. Sustainable Schools: Making Energy Efficiency a Lifestyle Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Ken; Sinclair, Mark; Gralton, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Promoting efficient energy use in schools that consequently reduces greenhouse gas emissions is the purpose of a residential Energy Efficiency in Schools (EEIS) program reported on in this paper. Research on this program aligns with one of the "key "overarching" sustainability issues", set out in the "Learning for Sustainability: NSW Environmental…

  5. Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Giulia; Irons, Pete C; Webb, Edward C; Chapwanya, Aspinas

    2014-01-30

    The biological cycles of milk production and reproduction determine dairying profitability thus making management decisions dynamic and time-dependent. Diseases also negatively impact on net earnings of a dairy enterprise. Transition cows in particular face the challenge of negative energy balance (NEB) and/or disproportional energy metabolism (fatty liver, ketosis, subacute, acute ruminal acidosis); disturbed mineral utilization (milk fever, sub-clinical hypocalcemia); and perturbed immune function (retained placenta, metritis, mastitis). Consequently NEB and reduced dry matter intake are aggravated. The combined effects of all these challenges are reduced fertility and milk production resulting in diminishing profits. Risk factors such as NEB, inflammation and impairment of the immune response are highly cause-and-effect related. Thus, managing cows during the transition period should be geared toward reducing NEB or feeding specially formulated diets to improve immunity. Given that all cows experience a reduced feed intake and body condition, infection and inflammation of the uterus after calving, there is a need for further research on the immunology of transition dairy cows. Integrative approaches at the molecular, cellular and animal level may unravel the complex interactions between disturbed metabolism and immune function that predispose cows to periparturient diseases. PMID:24378117

  6. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  7. Can decoherence make quantum theories unfalsifiable? Understanding the quantum-to-classical transition without it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriols, X.

    2016-03-01

    Exact predictions for most quantum systems are computationally inaccessible. This is the so-called many body problem, which is present in most common interpretations of quantum mechanics. Therefore, predictions of natural quantum phenomena have to rely on some approximations (assumptions or simplifications). In the literature, there are different types of approximations, ranging from those whose justification is basically based on theoretical developments to those whose justification lies on the agreement with experiments. This last type of approximations can convert a quantum theory into an “unfalsifiable” quantum theory, true by construction. On the practical side, converting some part of a quantum theory into an “unfalsifiable” one ensures a successful modeling (i.e. compatible with experiments) for quantum engineering applications. An example of including irreversibility and dissipation in the Bohmian modeling of open systems is presented. On the ontological level, however, the present-day foundational problems related to controversial quantum phenomena have to avoid (if possible) being contaminated by the unfalsifiability originated from the many body problem. An original attempt to show how the Bohmian theory itself (minimizing the role of many body approximations) explains the transitions from a microscopic quantum system towards a macroscopic classical one is presented.

  8. Controlling Light to Make the Most Energy From the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, Dennis; Corcoran, Chris; Eisler, Carissa; Flowers, Cris; Goodman, Matt; Hofmann, Carrie; Sadtler, Bryce

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion (LMI), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of LMI to tailor the morphology, complex dielectric structure, and electronic properties of matter so as to sculpt the flow of sunlight and heat, enabling light conversion to electrical and chemical energy with unprecedented efficiency.

  9. Energy Policy Decision-Making: The Need for Balanced Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVolpi, A.

    1974-01-01

    Indicates that the credibility of environmentalists and nuclear advocates has been damaged by misinformed alarmist positions. Advocates the public's right of equal standing on advisory councils in the areas of energy development, environmental protection, and public safety. (GS)

  10. Transition Metal Oxide Alloys as Potential Solar Energy Conversion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Toroker, Maytal; Carter, Emily A.

    2013-02-21

    First-row transition metal oxides (TMOs) are inexpensive potentia alternative materials for solar energy conversion devices. However, some TMOs, such as manganese(II) oxide, have band gaps that are too large for efficiently absorbing solar energy. Other TMOs, such as iron(II) oxide, have conduction and valence band edges with the same orbital character that may lead to unfavorably high electron–hole recombination rates. Another limitation of iron(II) oxide is that the calculated valence band edge is not positioned well for oxidizing water. We predict that key properties, including band gaps, band edge positions, and possibly electron–hole recombination rates, may be improved by alloying TMOs that have different band alignments. A new metric, the band gap center offset, is introduced for simple screening of potential parent materials. The concept is illustrated by calculating the electronic structure of binary oxide alloys that contain manganese, nickel, iron, zinc, and/or magnesium, within density functional theory (DFT)+U and hybrid DFT theories. We conclude that alloys of iron(II) oxide are worth evaluating further as solar energy conversion materials.

  11. Household Energy Consumption: Community Context and the Fuelwood Transition*

    PubMed Central

    Link, Cynthia F.; Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the influence of community context on change over time in households’ use of non-wood fuels. Our theoretical framework builds on sociological concepts in order to study energy consumption at the micro-level. The framework emphasizes the importance of nonfamily organizations and services in the local community as determinants of the transition from use of fuelwood to use of alternative fuels. We use multilevel longitudinal data on household fuel choice and community context from rural Nepal to provide empirical tests of our theoretical model. Results reveal that increased exposure to nonfamily organizations in the local community increases the use of alternative fuels. The findings illustrate key features of human impacts on the local environment and motivate greater incorporation of social organization into research on environmental change. PMID:23017795

  12. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ti VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Kanti; Keenan, Francis; Msezane, Alfred Z.

    2012-06-01

    Energies for 568 levels among the n=3+3p^64l+3s3p^54l configurations of Ti VI are calculated using the GRASP (General-purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Program) code, which is based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method. Additionally, radiative rates are calculated for all types of transitions, namely electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2). Lifetimes are also calculated for all the levels and extensive comparisons are made with the earlier available data as well as with other parallel calculations from the FAC (Flexible Atomic Code). Discrepancies for several levels with the earlier calculations of Mohan et al, (ADNDT 93 105 (2007)) are highlighted.

  13. Transition metal oxide hierarchical nanotubes for energy applications.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Yongcheng; Wu, Hao; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-01-15

    We report a general synthetic method for transition metal oxide (TMO) hierarchical nanotube (HNT) structures by a solution-phase cation exchange method from Cu2O nanowire templates. This method leads to the formation of hollow, tubular backbones with secondary, thin nanostructures on the tube surface, which substantially increases the surface reactive sites for electrolyte contacts and electrochemical reactions. As proofs-of-concept, several representative first-row TMO HNTs have been synthesized, including CoOx, NiOx, MnOx, ZnOx and FeOx, with specific surface areas much larger than nanotubes or nanoparticles of corresponding materials. An example of the potential energy storage applications of CoOx HNTs as supercapacitors is also demonstrated. PMID:26629880

  14. Spin symmetry transitions make DNA strands separate. New insight into the mechanism of transcription.

    PubMed

    Tulub, Alexander A; Stefanov, Vassily E

    2015-01-01

    The DFT:B3LYP (6-31G** basis set) method, including the hyperfine and spin-orbit couplings (HFC and SOC, respectively), is used to study the separation of two complementary trinucleotide sequences, (dC-dG-dA)-(dG-dC-dT), upon the action of two Mg(2+) cofactors (a simplified model). The computations reveal a crossing of the singlet (S) potential energy surface by the triplet (T) surface at two distinct points. Within the crossing region the T curve lies below the S curve. Adhering to the concept of the minimal energy path, one can assume that the T path is more favorable compared to that of the S path. The T path is not simple; it consists of two, T+ and T-, curves initially separated by the HFC and SOC. On reaching the second crossing point, both curves merge into the T0 state, which facilitates the T → S transfer. Totally, the process of the two trinucleotide separation (the first step of transcription) appears as the S → T → S symmetry conversion. PMID:26656910

  15. Hanford Site cleanup and transition: Risk data needs for decision making (Hanford risk data gap analysis decision guide)

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, S.; Glantz, C.; Harper, B.; Bilyard, G.; Miller, P.

    1995-10-01

    Given the broad array of environmental problems, technical alternatives, and outcomes desired by different stakeholders at Hanford, DOE will have to make difficult resource allocations over the next few decades. Although some of these allocations will be driven purely by legal requirements, almost all of the major objectives of the cleanup and economic transition missions involve choices among alternative pathways. This study examined the following questions: what risk information is needed to make good decisions at Hanford; how do those data needs compare to the set(s) of risk data that will be generated by regulatory compliance activities and various non-compliance studies that are also concerned with risk? This analysis examined the Hanford Site missions, the Hanford Strategic Plan, known stakeholder values, and the most important decisions that have to be made at Hanford to determine a minimum domain of risk information required to make good decisions that will withstand legal, political, and technical scrutiny. The primary risk categories include (1) public health, (2) occupational health and safety, (3) ecological integrity, (4) cultural-religious welfare, and (5) socio-economic welfare.

  16. Energy boost in laser wakefield accelerators using sharp density transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döpp, A.; Guillaume, E.; Thaury, C.; Lifschitz, A.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Malka, V.

    2016-05-01

    The energy gain in laser wakefield accelerators is limited by dephasing between the driving laser pulse and the highly relativistic electrons in its wake. Since this phase depends on both the driver and the cavity length, the effects of dephasing can be mitigated with appropriate tailoring of the plasma density along propagation. Preceding studies have discussed the prospects of continuous phase-locking in the linear wakefield regime. However, most experiments are performed in the highly non-linear regime and rely on self-guiding of the laser pulse. Due to the complexity of the driver evolution in this regime, it is much more difficult to achieve phase locking. As an alternative, we study the scenario of rapid rephasing in sharp density transitions, as was recently demonstrated experimentally. Starting from a phenomenological model, we deduce expressions for the electron energy gain in such density profiles. The results are in accordance with particle-in-cell simulations, and we present gain estimations for single and multiple stages of rephasing.

  17. Coal exports may make Australia's energy sector among least sustainable

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-15

    Plentiful coal and cheap energy prices have resulted in an unusually heavy carbon footprint. Clearly, Australia has to rethink how much coal it will use to feed its own growing economy while becoming more conscious of its significant carbon export problem. For a country long used to digging the coal out of the ground and shipping it overseas, climate change will be a game changer.

  18. Exploring Agricultural Livelihood Transitions with an Agent-Based Virtual Laboratory: Global Forces to Local Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Ellis, Erle C.

    2013-01-01

    Rural populations are undergoing rapid changes in both their livelihoods and land uses, with associated impacts on ecosystems, global biogeochemistry, and climate change. A primary challenge is, thus, to explain these shifts in terms of the actors and processes operating within a variety of land systems in order to understand how land users might respond locally to future changes in broader-scale environmental and economic conditions. Using ‘induced intensification’ theory as a benchmark, we develop a generalized agent-based model to investigate mechanistic explanations of relationships between agricultural intensity and population density, environmental suitability, and market influence. Land-use and livelihood decisions modeled from basic micro-economic theories generated spatial and temporal patterns of agricultural intensification consistent with predictions of induced intensification theory. Further, agent actions in response to conditions beyond those described by induced intensification theory were explored, revealing that interactions among environmental constraints, population pressure, and market influence may produce transitions to multiple livelihood regimes of varying market integration. The result is new hypotheses that could modify and enrich understanding of the classic relationship between agricultural intensity and population density. The strength of this agent-based model and the experimental results is the generalized form of the decision-making processes underlying land-use and livelihood transitions, creating the prospect of a virtual laboratory for systematically generating hypotheses of how agent decisions and interactions relate to observed land-use and livelihood patterns across diverse land systems. PMID:24039892

  19. Examining Longitudinal Relationships between Dysfunctional Career Thoughts and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy in School-to-Work Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Boyoung; Lee, Bo Hyun; Ha, Gyuyoung; Lee, Hong Kwon; Lee, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of dysfunctional career thoughts between two-wave longitudinal data (Time 1 and Time 2) in career decision-making self-efficacy during school-to-work transition periods. Career decision-making self-efficacy was measured before (Time 1) and after college graduation (Time 2). The results indicated that the growth of…

  20. Surviving, and Maybe Thriving, on Vouchers: A Guide for Organizations Making the Transition to Individual Training Accounts under the Workforce Investment Act. Working Ventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Sheila

    This booklet, which is intended for organizations making the transition to individual training accounts (ITAs) under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), explains how educational and training institutions can make vouchers work for them. After a brief overview of the WIA's main provisions regarding ITAs and the future of voucher programs, the…

  1. Development and application of a battery energy storage system simulation program for rail transit systems. Volume 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, C.E.; Uher, R.A.

    1995-03-01

    Under the Rail Transit Energy Management Program, a computer model was developed to assess the economic feasibility of applying battery energy storage to rail transit systems. This model was applied to the Port Authority of Allegheny County (PAT) (Pittsburgh) light rail system and the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority`s (WMATA) MetroRail. The results indicate that the payback periods for investment into battery energy storage and relatively long; 14 years for WMATA and 10 years for PAT. These payback periods are marginal and with the risk associated with implementing battery storage, it is doubtful whether transit management would be inclined to make such an investment. The capital cost of battery storage can be reduced by eliminating the power conditioning equipment and allowing the battery to be connected directly to the third rail catenary or trolley system. The model can easily be modified to assess the economic feasibility of other alternative energy sources such as cogeneration and other storage media, such as superconducting magnetic energy storage.

  2. Energy at the Frontier: Low Carbon Energy System Transitions and Innovation in Four Prime Mover Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Kathleen M.

    All too often, discussion about the imperative to change national energy pathways revolves around long timescales and least cost economics of near-term energy alternatives. While both elements certainly matter, they don't fully reflect what can drive such development trajectories. This study explores national energy transitions by examining ways in which four prime mover countries of low carbon energy technology shifted away from fossil fuels, following the first global oil crisis of 1973. The research analyzes the role of readiness, sectoral contributions and adaptive policy in the scale-up and innovations of advanced, alternative energy technologies. Cases of Brazilian biofuels, Danish wind power, French nuclear power and Icelandic geothermal energy are analyzed for a period of four decades. Fundamentally, the research finds that significant change can occur in under 15 years; that technology complexity need not necessarily impede change; and that countries of different governance approaches and consumption levels can effectuate such transitions. This research also underscores that low carbon energy technologies may be adopted before they are competitive and then become competitive in the process. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  3. Transition from supercapacitor to battery behavior in electrochemical energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, B.E. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-06-01

    In this paper the storage of electrochemical energy in battery, supercapacitor, and double-layer capacitor devices is considered. A comparison of the mechanisms and performance of such systems enables their essential features to be recognized and distinguished, and the conditions for transition between supercapacitor and battery behavior to be characterized. Supercapacitor systems based on two-dimensional underpotential deposition reactions are highly reversible and their behavior arises from the pseudocapaccitance associated with potential-dependence of two-dimensional coverage of electroactive adatoms on an electrode substrate surface. Such capacitance can be 10-100 times the double-layer capacitance of the same electrode area. An essential fundamental difference from battery behavior arises because, in such systems, the chemical and associated electrode potentials are a continuous function of degree of charge, unlike the thermodynamic behavior of single-phase battery reactants. Quai-two-dimensional systems, such as hyperextended hydrous RuP{sub 2}, also exhibit large pseudocapacitance which, in this case, is associated with a sequence of redox redox processes that are highly reversible.

  4. Transition in Education: Policy Making and the Key Educational Policy Areas in the Central-European and Baltic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rado, Peter

    This report examines transition in educational systems and identifies key policy areas in Central-Eastern European countries. It summarizes policy implications of the transition process within the educational context of these countries. Chapter 1, "Transition and Education," outlines key characteristics of the transition process and describes the…

  5. Replacing energy by von Neumann entropy in quantum phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Angela; Jia Xun; Chakravarty, Sudip . E-mail: sudip@physics.ucla.edu

    2007-06-15

    We propose that quantum phase transitions are generally accompanied by non-analyticities of the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy. In particular, the entropy is non-analytic at the Anderson transition, where it exhibits unusual fractal scaling. We also examine two dissipative quantum systems of considerable interest to the study of decoherence and find that non-analyticities occur if and only if the system undergoes a quantum phase transition.

  6. Comment on ``Induced transitions and energy of a damped oscillator''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, George J.; Hadjiagapiou, Ioannis A.

    1999-04-01

    In a recent paper Croxson [Phys. Rev. A 49, 588 (1994)] reported dissipation-induced transition probabilities from the ground state to higher states for a quantum harmonic oscillator. A partial approximate result was given for the oscillator to remain in its ground state, while for higher transitions the situation became complicated. Our approach provides an exact simple form closed expression for any order of transition. In addition, we supply the evolution of the work done by the system on its environment.

  7. Method for making an aluminum or copper substrate panel for selective absorption of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, M. L.; Sharpe, M. H.; Krupnick, A. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A panel is described for selectively absorbing solar energy comprising an aluminum substrate. A zinc layer was covered by a layer of nickel and an outer layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide or a copper substrate with a nickel layer. A layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide distal from the copper substrate was included. A method for making these panels is disclosed.

  8. [Transition to adult care for children with chronic neurological disorders; which is the best way to make it?].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Chronic neurological disorders in children have significant effects on adult medical and social function. Transition from pediatric to adult services is a complex process. No objective data are available to inform physicians about the most effective approach. Nevertheless the most recommended approach is a joint pediatric/adult transition clinic. Malnutrition, either under or overnutrition, is a common condition among neurologically impaired children. Undernutrition is most prevalent, and its causes are diverse: insufficient caloric intake, excessive nutrient losses and abnormal energy metabolism. Malnutrition is associated with significant morbidity, while nutritional rehabilitation improves overall health as well as quality of life. It is not easy to determine which the nutritional needs in these patients are. Besides, they often present difficulties for oral feeding, mainly due to oromotor dysfunction. Gastrointestinal symptoms, gastro esophageal reflux and constipation, as well as spasticity, scoliosis and joint deformities contribute to these difficulties. Because of that, an assessment of nutritional status should be performed periodically, and to assess efficacy and security of oral intake. If modifying oral diet we cannot confirm an adequate support, a nasogastric tube or a gastrostomy need to be considered. Often, a fundoplication is associated to the placement of a gastrostomy. Although the outcomes in a better nutritional status and quality of life are often obtained, it is not an easy decision for families. PMID:25077342

  9. Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The role of universities in contributing to lifelong learning is likely to undergo significant change in the next few years as the higher education sector grapples with the government's overhaul of university funding. Opportunities for progression to university for those studying outside of A-levels are particularly uncertain in the emerging…

  10. Energy balance in the solar transition region. II - Effects of pressure and energy input on hydrostatic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Avrett, E. H.; Loeser, R.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation of energy by hydrogen lines and continua in hydrostatic energy-balance models of the transition region between the solar chromosphere and corona is studied using models which assume that mechanical or magnetic energy is dissipated in the hot corona and is then transported toward the chromosphere down the steep temperature gradient of the transition region. These models explain the average quiet sun and also the entire range of variability of the Ly-alpha lines. The relations between the downward energy flux, the pressure of the transition region, and the different hydrogen emission are described.

  11. Viscosity, glass transition and activation energy of solid cis-polyisoprene and trans-polyisoprene blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baboo, Mahesh; Sharma, Kananbala; Saxena, N. S.

    2011-11-01

    Blends of cis-polyisoprene (CPI) and trans-polyisoprene (TPI) have been prepared by solution casting to study viscosity, glass transition temperature and activation energy for the glass transition. The viscosity of blends having different weight ratios has been obtained through a single experiment measuring storage and loss modulus using the dynamic mechanical analyser technique. The glass transition temperature is determined through the temperature at which the minimum of temperature derivative curve of viscosity falls. The activation energy of glass transition and fragility index have been obtained by employing the Vogel-Fulchar-Tammann (VFT) equation by assuming non-Arrhenius behaviour of viscosity of polymer blends. Results indicate that both glass transition and activation energy for the glass transition are influenced by composition and crosslink density of the blend.

  12. A space bourne crystal diffraction telescope for the energy range of nuclear transitions

    SciTech Connect

    von Ballmoos, P.; Naya, J.E.; Albernhe, F.; Vedrenne, G.; Smither, R.K.; Faiz, M.; Fernandez, P.; Graber, T.

    1995-10-01

    Recent experimental work of the Toulouse-Argonne collaboration has opened for perspective of a focusing gamma-ray telescope operating in the energy range of nuclear transitions, featuring unprecedented sensitivity, angular and energy resolution. The instrument consists of a tunable crystal diffraction lens situated on a stabilized spacecraft, focusing gamma-rays onto a small array of Germanium detectors perched on an extendible boom. While the weight of such an instrument is less than 500 kg, it features an angular resolution of 15 in., an energy resolution of 2 keV and a 3 {sigma} narrow line sensitivity of a few times 10{sup {minus}7} photons s{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}2} (10{sup 6} sec observation). This instrumental concept permits observation of any identified source at any selected line-energy in a range of typically 200 keV to 1300 keV. The resulting ``sequential`` operation mode makes sites of explosive nucleosynthesis natural scientific objectives for such a telescope: the nuclear lines of extragalactic supernovae ({sup 56}Ni, {sup 44}Ti, {sup 60}Fe) and galactic novae (p{sup {minus}}p{sup +} line, {sup 7}Be) are accessible to observation, one at a time, due to the erratic appearance and the sequence of half-lifes of these events. Other scientific objectives, include the narrow 511 keV line from galactic broad class annihilators (such as 1E1740-29, nova musca) and possible redshifted annihilation lines from AGN`s.

  13. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  14. Critical behavior in the inverse to forward energy transition in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow.

    PubMed

    Seshasayanan, Kannabiran; Alexakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the critical transition from an inverse cascade of energy to a forward energy cascade in a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow as the ratio of magnetic to mechanical forcing amplitude is varied. It is found that the critical transition is the result of two competing processes. The first process is due to hydrodynamic interactions and cascades the energy to the large scales. The second process couples small-scale magnetic fields to large-scale flows, transferring the energy back to the small scales via a nonlocal mechanism. At marginality the two cascades are both present and cancel each other. The phase space diagram of the transition is sketched. PMID:26871152

  15. SunShot Initiative: Making Solar Energy Affordable for All Americans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    Through SunShot, DOE supports efforts by private companies, universities, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, making solar energy affordable for more American families and businesses.

  16. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    support further improvements in efficiency and scale up renewable generation at an acceptable level of cost and reliability. Chapter 6 examines energy use and GHG emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use, arguing that energy use and GHG emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use in China are high relative to other countries because of China's historical support for small and medium-sized enterprises using domestic technology; its continued provision of energy subsidies to fertilizer producers; and its lack of a well-functioning agricultural extension system. The case studies illustrate the limits of energy and climate policy in China without institutional reform. China's leaders have historically relied on economic growth to defer the difficult changes in political economy that accompany economic and social transition. However, many of the challenges of energy and climate policy require political decisions that reallocate resources among stakeholders. For instance, restructuring the Chinese economy away from heavy industrial investment and toward a higher GDP share of consumption will require financial sector reforms, such as interest rate liberalization or higher dividend payments for state-owned enterprises, that reallocate income from the industrial sector to households. Increasing power system flexibility will require price reforms that reallocate revenues and costs among generators, between generators and the grid companies, between producers and ratepayers, among ratepayer classes, and between and among provinces. Strong public interest institutions are needed to make these changes, which suggests that China's energy and GHG emissions trajectories will be determined, to a large extent, by the politics of institutional reform.

  17. Energy surface and minimum energy paths for Fréedericksz transitions in bistable cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Bessarab, P. F.; Aksenova, E. V.; Romanov, V. P.; Uzdin, V. M.

    2016-04-01

    The multidimensional energy surface of a cholesteric liquid crystal in a planar cell is investigated as a function of spherical coordinates determining the director orientation. Minima on the energy surface correspond to the stable states with particular director distribution. External electric and magnetic fields deform the energy surface and positions of minima. It can lead to the transitions between states, known as the Fréedericksz effect. Transitions can be continuous or discontinuous depending on parameters of the liquid crystal which determine an energy surface. In a case of discontinuous transition when a barrier between stable states is comparable with the thermal energy, the activation transitions may occur, and it leads to the modification of characteristics of the Fréedericksz effect with temperature without explicit temperature dependencies of liquid crystal parameters. A minimum energy path between stable states on the energy surface for the Fréedericksz transition is found using the geodesic nudged elastic band method. Knowledge of this path, which has maximal statistical weight among all other paths, gives the information about a barrier between stable states and configuration of director orientation during the transition. It also allows one to estimate the stability of states with respect to the thermal fluctuations and their lifetime when the system is close to the Fréedericksz transition.

  18. Maine Yankee: Making the Transition from an Operating Plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI)

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, W.; McGough, M. S.

    2002-02-26

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges faced by Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company in making the transition from an operating nuclear power plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Maine Yankee (MY) is a 900-megawatt Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactor whose architect engineer was Stone & Webster. Maine Yankee was put into commercial operation on December 28, 1972. It is located on an 820-acre site, on the shores of the Back River in Wiscasset, Maine about 40 miles northeast of Portland, Maine. During its operating life, it generated about 1.2 billion kilowatts of power, providing 25% of Maine's electric power needs and serving additional customers in New England. Maine Yankee's lifetime capacity factor was about 67% and it employed more than 450 people. The decision was made to shutdown Maine Yankee in August of 1997, based on economic reasons. Once this decision was made planning began on how to accomplish safe and cost effective decommissioning of the plant by 2004 while being responsive to the community and employees.

  19. Power lines: Urban space, energy development and the making of the modern Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, Todd Andrew

    "Power Lines: Urban Space, Energy Development, and the Making of the Modern Southwest" explores the social and environmental transformation of the postwar Southwest and the resulting disputes between urban boosters, federal officials, Native Americans, and environmental activists. The dissertation focuses on the infrastructure built to provide the burgeoning populations of Phoenix, Los Angeles, and other Southwestern cities with electricity. This infrastructure allowed metropolitan boosters in the Southwest to attract Cold War defense manufacturing and to build a new suburban landscape even as industrialization on Indian lands provided electricity for those landscapes. Tracing the transition of electrical generation from a dispersed geography relying on local resources to a centralized geography utilizing primarily coal from Navajo land, "Power Lines" demonstrates the increasing centrality of Indian lands and labor to the metropolitan Southwest. Paying close attention to these networks reveals the far-reaching changes caused by postwar metropolitan growth. "Power Lines" challenges understandings of urban space that neglect the material resources that allow cities to "live." As the nation's cities and suburbs became increasingly energy-intensive, electrical utilities reached deep into the metropolitan periphery, transforming landscapes hundreds of miles from city centers into urban space. The construction of the new "geography of power" in the Southwest also reflects the impact of growth liberalism on postwar growth, as federal money funded suburban, manufacturing, and infrastructure developments. This pursuit of growth produced new political struggles, both as the development of energy resources conflicted with emerging environmentalist sensibilities and as American Indians increasingly resented the industrialization of their land for the benefit of others. By the 1970s, the simultaneous pursuit and criticism of growth came to define the modern Southwest. The

  20. Control of valence and conduction band energies in layered transition metal phosphates via surface functionalization.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Levi C; Kolb, Brian; Kolpak, Alexie M

    2016-05-18

    Layered transition metal phosphates and phosphites (TMPs) are a class of materials composed of layers of 2D sheets bound together via van der Waals interactions and/or hydrogen bonds. Explored primarily for use in proton transfer, their unique chemical tunability also makes TMPs of interest for forming large-scale hybrid materials. Further, unlike many layered materials, TMPs can readily be solution exfoliated to form single 2D sheets or bilayers, making them exciting candidates for a variety of applications. However, the electronic properties of TMPs have largely been unstudied to date. In this work, we use first-principles computations to investigate the atomic and electronic structure of TMPs with a variety of stoichiometries. We demonstrate that there exists a strong linear relationship between the band gap and the ionic radius of the transition metal cation in these materials, and show that this relationship, which opens opportunities for engineering new compositions with a wide range of band gaps, arises from constraints imposed by the phosphorus-oxygen bond geometry. In addition, we find that the energies of the valence and conduction band edges can be systematically tuned over a range of ∼3 eV via modification of the functional group extending from the phosphorus. Based on the Hammett constant of this functional group, we identify a simple, predictive relationship for the ionization potential and electron affinity of layered TMPs. Our results thus provide guidelines for systematic design of TMP-derived functional materials, which may enable new approaches for optimizing charge transfer in electronics, photovoltaics, electrocatalysts, and other applications. PMID:27157509

  1. Mathematical Under-Preparedness: The Influence of the Pre-Tertiary Mathematics Experience on Students' Ability to Make a Successful Transition to Tertiary Level Mathematics Courses in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourigan, M.; O'Donoghue, J.

    2007-01-01

    Internationally, the consequences of the "Mathematics problem" are a source of concern for the education sector and governments alike. Growing consensus exists that the inability of students to successfully make the transition to tertiary level mathematics education lies in the substantial mismatch between the nature of entrants' pre-tertiary…

  2. Beyond the Chinese Dream: How Women Executives Working in Multinational Corporations in the People's Republic of China Describe and Make Meaning of Midlife Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Marjorie J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain understanding of Chinese women executives going beyond the Chinese dream, to learn how they describe and make meaning of their midlife transition experience. A narrative inquiry and holistic content and form approach was used to explore two-stage life stories: narratives of self-actualization of women…

  3. High-pressure phase transition makes B4.3C boron carbide a wide-gap semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hushur, Anwar; Manghnani, Murli H.; Werheit, Helmut; Dera, Przemyslaw; Williams, Quentin

    2016-02-01

    Single-crystal B4.3C boron carbide is investigated through the pressure-dependence and inter-relation of atomic distances, optical properties and Raman-active phonons up to ~70 GPa. The anomalous pressure evolution of the gap width to higher energies is striking. This is obtained from observations of transparency, which most rapidly increases around 55 GPa. Full visible optical transparency is approached at pressures of  >60 GPa indicating that the band gap reaches ~3.5 eV at high pressure, boron carbide is a wide-gap semiconductor. The reason is that the high concentration of structural defects controlling the electronic properties of boron carbide at ambient conditions initially decreases and finally vanishes at high pressures. The structural parameters and Raman-active phonons indicate a pressure-dependent phase transition in single-crystal natB4.3C boron carbide near 40 GPa, likely related to structural changes in the C-B-C chains, while the basic icosahedral structure appears to be less affected.

  4. High-pressure phase transition makes B4.3C boron carbide a wide-gap semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Hushur, Anwar; Manghnani, Murli H; Werheit, Helmut; Dera, Przemyslaw; Williams, Quentin

    2016-02-01

    Single-crystal B4.3C boron carbide is investigated through the pressure-dependence and inter-relation of atomic distances, optical properties and Raman-active phonons up to ~70 GPa. The anomalous pressure evolution of the gap width to higher energies is striking. This is obtained from observations of transparency, which most rapidly increases around 55 GPa. Full visible optical transparency is approached at pressures of  >60 GPa indicating that the band gap reaches ~3.5 eV; at high pressure, boron carbide is a wide-gap semiconductor. The reason is that the high concentration of structural defects controlling the electronic properties of boron carbide at ambient conditions initially decreases and finally vanishes at high pressures. The structural parameters and Raman-active phonons indicate a pressure-dependent phase transition in single-crystal (nat)B4.3C boron carbide near 40 GPa, likely related to structural changes in the C-B-C chains, while the basic icosahedral structure appears to be less affected. PMID:26751337

  5. Energy states and energy flow near the transition states of unimolecular reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.B. |

    1994-10-01

    The use of lasers with jet-cooled samples has improved energy and angular momentum resolution for the reactant and time resolution for the rate constant by orders of magnitude. The resolution of product quantum states has added a new dimension to unimolecular dynamics. In the past, the geometry, barrier height and vibrational frequencies of the transition state in RRKM theory were adjusted to fit thermal unimolecular reaction rate data. There have been successful quantitative tests of the ability of ab initio theory to calculate transition state geometries accurately and barrier heights to a few kJ/mol for simple molecules. Predicted frequencies tend to be somewhat too high for the softest modes which are of most importance in determining rates; however, the basic normal modes and sequence of frequencies seem to be correctly predicted. RRKM theory can be used with ab initio results to predict rate constants to within a factor of two or three and may be used for quantitative extrapolation to conditions not accessible in the laboratory but important in practical situations. Experiments on single molecular eigenstates have revealed quantum statistical fluctuations in rates which are predicted quantitatively in the appropriate extension of RRKM theory. Many experiments seeking to demonstrate non-statistical or non-RRKM dynamics have demonstrated the very wide range of applicability of the RRKM model. A few such experiments have demonstrated a lack of complete vibrational energy randomization in a reactant molecule. Dynamical theory has provided an exact quantum analog to RRKM theory which will combine with future experiments to define the extent to which quantized motion along the reaction coordinate and coupling between the reaction coordinate and vibrational degrees of freedom at the transition state are important. 42 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Transition radiation at radio frequencies from ultrahigh-energy neutrino-induced showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motloch, Pavel; Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Privitera, Paolo; Zas, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    Coherent radiation at radio frequencies from high-energy showers fully contained in a dense radio-transparent medium—like ice, salt, soil, or regolith—has been extensively investigated as a promising technique to search for ultrahigh-energy neutrinos. Additional emission in the form of transition radiation may occur when a neutrino-induced shower produced close to the Earth's surface emerges from the ground into atmospheric air. We present the first detailed evaluation of transition radiation from high-energy showers crossing the boundary between two different media. We found that transition radiation is sizable over a wide solid angle and coherent up to ˜1 GHz . These properties encourage further work to evaluate the potential of a large-aperture ultrahigh-energy neutrino experiment based on the detection of transition radiation.

  7. Requirements for supercomputing in energy research: The transition to massively parallel computing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This report discusses: The emergence of a practical path to TeraFlop computing and beyond; requirements of energy research programs at DOE; implementation: supercomputer production computing environment on massively parallel computers; and implementation: user transition to massively parallel computing.

  8. Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration (Report and Appendix)

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-11-01

    This document describes the fuel cell transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration (FTA). This document provides a description of the demonstration sites, funding sources, and data collection activities for fuel cell transit bus evaluations currently planned from FY10 through FY12.

  9. The Life Course in the Making: Gender and the Development of Adolescents' Expected Timing of Adult Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lisa J.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' expectations about the timing of adult role transitions have the potential to shape their actual transitions, setting the stage for their adult lives. Although expectations about timing emerge by early adolescence, little is known about how these expectations develop across adolescence. This longitudinal study examined developmental…

  10. Energy harvesting from localized dynamic transitions in post-buckled elastic beams under quasi-static loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchani, Wassim

    The deployability of structural health monitoring self-powered sensors relies on their capability to harvest energy from signals being monitored. Many of the signals required to assess the structure condition are quasi-static events which limits the levels of power that can be extracted. Several vibration-based techniques have been proposed to increase the transferred level of power and broaden the harvester operating bandwidth. However, these techniques require vibration input excitations at frequencies higher than dominant structural response frequencies which makes them inefficient and not suitable for ambient quasi-static excitations. This research proposes a novel sensing and energy harvesting technique at low frequencies using mechanical energy concentrators and triggers. These mechanisms consist of axially-loaded bilaterally-constrained beams with attached piezoelectric energy harvesters. When the quasi-static axial load reaches a certain mechanical threshold, a sudden snap-through mode-switching occurs. These transitions excite the attached piezoelectric scavengers with high-rate input accelerations, generating then electric power. The main objectives are to understand and model the post-buckling behavior of bilaterally-constrained beams, control it by tailoring geometry and material properties of the buckled elements or stacking them into system assemblies, and finally characterize the energy harvesting and sensing capability of the system under quasi-static excitations. The fundamental principle relies on the following concept. Under axial load, a straight slender beam buckles in the first buckling mode. The increased transverse deformations from a buckled shape lead to contact interaction with the lateral boundaries. The contact interaction generates transverse forces that induce the development of higher order buckling configurations. Transitions between the buckled configurations occur not only during loading, but also unloading. In this work, the post

  11. Scaling Relationships for Adsorption Energies of C2 Hydrocarbons on Transition Metal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G

    2011-08-18

    Using density functional theory calculations we show that the adsorption energies for C{sub 2}H{sub x}-type adsorbates on transition metal surfaces scale with each other according to a simple bond order conservation model. This observation generalizes some recently recognized adsorption energy scaling laws for AH{sub x}-type adsorbates to unsaturated hydrocarbons and establishes a coherent simplified description of saturated as well as unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on transition metal surfaces. A number of potential applications are discussed. We apply the model to the dehydrogenation of ethane over pure transition metal catalysts. Comparison with the corresponding full density functional theory calculations shows excellent agreement.

  12. Universal empirical formula for optical transition energies of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamal, G. R. Ahmed; Mominuzzaman, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    A general empirical relation for calculating first seven optical transition energies of semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is proposed here for the first time. The proposed formula effectively relates first seven optical transition energies of semiconducting SWCNTs with their chiral indices (n, m) through exponential form containing two specific terms (n+2m) and (2n-m). Both mod 1 and mod 2 types of semiconducting tubes are considered here over a wide diameter range from 0.4 nm to 4.75 nm. It was observed that the proposed empirical relations can predict the recent experimental data of those optical transitions with high accuracy.

  13. The Role of Grain Boundary Energy on Grain Boundary Complexion Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Bojarski, Stephanie A.; Rohrer, Gregory S.

    2014-09-01

    Grain boundary complexions are distinct equilibrium structures and compositions of a grain boundary and complexion transformations are transition from a metastable to an equilibrium complexion at a specific thermodynamic and geometric conditions. Previous work indicates that, in the case of doped alumina, a complexion transition that increased the mobility of transformed boundaries and resulted in abnormal grain growth also caused a decrease in the mean relative grain boundary energy as well as an increase in the anisotropy of the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). The current work will investigate the hypothesis that the rates of complexion transitions that result in abnormal grain growth (AGG) depend on grain boundary character and energy. Furthermore, the current work expands upon this understanding and tests the hypothesis that it is possible to control when and where a complexion transition occurs by controlling the local grain boundary energy distribution.

  14. Treatment of Electronic Energy Level Transition and Ionization Following the Particle-Based Chemistry Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Lewis, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A new method of treating electronic energy level transitions as well as linking ionization to electronic energy levels is proposed following the particle-based chemistry model of Bird. Although the use of electronic energy levels and ionization reactions in DSMC are not new ideas, the current method of selecting what level to transition to, how to reproduce transition rates, and the linking of the electronic energy levels to ionization are, to the author s knowledge, novel concepts. The resulting equilibrium temperatures are shown to remain constant, and the electronic energy level distributions are shown to reproduce the Boltzmann distribution. The electronic energy level transition rates and ionization rates due to electron impacts are shown to reproduce theoretical and measured rates. The rates due to heavy particle impacts, while not as favorable as the electron impact rates, compare favorably to values from the literature. Thus, these new extensions to the particle-based chemistry model of Bird provide an accurate method for predicting electronic energy level transition and ionization rates in gases.

  15. Correlation between oxygen adsorption energy and electronic structure of transition metal macrocyclic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kexi; Lei, Yinkai; Wang, Guofeng

    2013-11-28

    Oxygen adsorption energy is directly relevant to the catalytic activity of electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this study, we established the correlation between the O{sub 2} adsorption energy and the electronic structure of transition metal macrocyclic complexes which exhibit activity for ORR. To this end, we have predicted the molecular and electronic structures of a series of transition metal macrocyclic complexes with planar N{sub 4} chelation, as well as the molecular and electronic structures for the O{sub 2} adsorption on these macrocyclic molecules, using the density functional theory calculation method. We found that the calculated adsorption energy of O{sub 2} on the transition metal macrocyclic complexes was linearly related to the average position (relative to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the macrocyclic complexes) of the non-bonding d orbitals (d{sub z{sup 2}}, d{sub xy}, d{sub xz}, and d{sub yz}) which belong to the central transition metal atom. Importantly, our results suggest that varying the energy level of the non-bonding d orbitals through changing the central transition metal atom and/or peripheral ligand groups could be an effective way to tuning their O{sub 2} adsorption energy for enhancing the ORR activity of transition metal macrocyclic complex catalysts.

  16. Glass transition and random walks on complex energy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Barrat, Alain; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2009-08-01

    We present a simple mathematical model of glassy dynamics seen as a random walk in a directed weighted network of minima taken as a representation of the energy landscape. Our approach gives a broader perspective to previous studies focusing on particular examples of energy landscapes obtained by sampling energy minima and saddles of small systems. We point out how the relation between the energies of the minima and their number of neighbors should be studied in connection with the network's global topology and show how the tools developed in complex network theory can be put to use in this context. PMID:19792062

  17. Transition report, United States Department of Energy: A report to the President-Elect. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This report is a description of the Department of Energy transition issues. The topics of the report include: Congressional, Intergovernmental and Public Affairs; Conservation and Renewable Energy; Defense Programs; New Production Reactors; Economic Regulatory Administration; Energy Information Administration; energy research; environment, safety and health; fossil energy; General Counsel; hearings and appeals, Inspector General, international affairs and energy emergencies; management and administration, minority economic impact; nuclear energy; policy, planning and analysis, radioactive waste management; and power marketing administrations: Bonneville Power Administration, Western Area Power Administration, Alaska Power Administration, Southeastern Power Administration, and Southwestern Power Administration.

  18. Making Sustainable Energy Choices: Insights on the Energy/Water/Land Nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    This periodic publication summarizes insights from the body of NREL analysis work. In this issue of Analysis Insights, we examine the implications of our energy choices on water, land use, climate, developmental goals, and other factors. Collectively, NREL's work helps policymakers and investors understand and evaluate energy choices within the complex web of connections, or nexus, between energy, water, and land.

  19. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Puerto Rico (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - a U.S. territory located about 60 miles east of the Dominican Republic and directly west of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  20. Use of energy policy research and/or analysis in congressional decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Ahiarah, S.C.O.

    1985-01-01

    Regardless of what anyone thinks about it, policy science, as conceived by Lasswell, has become a discipline that is breeding new professionals who are producing policy researches and/or analyses decision making. But are they so used - is the intended marriage between PRA information and public policy decision making taking place. Many think they are, although others are skeptical. This study goes beyond the question of whether or not PRAs are used in public policy decision making, to investigate the purposes for which they are used therein. The public-policy decision making context selected is the legislative (congressional) decision making occasions in energy issues between 1979 and 1982; the objects of use are the energy PRAs from three congressional support agencies - the General Accounting Office, the Office of Technology Assessment, and the Congressional Budget Office. The findings are that when use is defined as congressional admission of the PRAs, all support agency PRAs are used, but when use is defined in terms of Congress Considering or adapting the PRAs in its decision making contexts, only a portion of all the support agency PRAs get used. The PRAs that are consideratively or adaptively used are more likely to be used for enlightenment, position support, and/or symbolic-propagandistic purposes.

  1. Reference free, high-precision measurements of transition energies in few electron argon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Csilla I.; Amaro, Pedro; Guerra, Mauro; Schlesser, Sophie; Gumberidze, Alexander; Santos, José Paulo; Indelicato, Paul

    2013-04-01

    The use of a vacuum double crystal spectrometer, coupled to an electron-cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS), allows to measure low-energy x-ray transitions energies in highly-charged ions with accuracies of the order of a few parts per million. We have used this installation to measure the 1s2p 1 P1 → 1s2 1 S0 diagram line and the 1s2s 3 S1 → 1s2 1 S0 forbidden M1 transition energies in helium-like argon, the 1s2s2p 2 Pj → 1s2 2s 2 S1/2 transitions in lithium-like argon and the 1s2s2 2p 1 P1 → 1s2 2s2 1 S0 transition in beryllium-like argon. These transition measurements have accuracies between 2 and 4 ppm depending on the line intensity. Thanks to the excellent agreement between the simulations and the measurements, we were also able to measure the transition width of all the allowed transitions. The results are compared to recent QED and relativistic many-body calculations.

  2. Surface free energy of alkali and transition metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses an interesting issue on the surface free energy of metallic nanoparticles as compared to the bulk material. Starting from a previously reported equation, a theoretical model, that involves a specific term for calculating the cohesive energy of nanoparticle, is established in a view to describe the behavior of surface free energy of metallic nanoparticles (using different shapes of particle: sphere, cube and disc). The results indicate that the behavior of surface energy is very appropriate for spherical nanoparticle, and thus, it is the most realistic shape of a nanoparticle. The surface energy of copper, silver, gold, platinum, tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, paladium and alkali metallic nanoparticles is only prominent in the nanoscale size, and it decreases with the decrease of nanoparticle size. Thus, the surface free energy plays a more important role in determining the properties of nanoparticles than in bulk materials. It differs from shape to another, and falls down as the number of atoms (nanoparticle size) decreases. In the case of spherical nanoparticles, the onset of the sharp decrease in surface energy is observed at about 110 atom. A decrease of 16% and 45% in surface energy is found by moving from bulk to 110 atom and from bulk to 5 atom, respectively. The predictions are consistent with the reported data.

  3. Astronomy in Sustainable Energy: A New Approach to Make It Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of a new approach to teaching non-science students concepts of sustainable energy using astronomy, real life and fictional scenarios. Teaching non-science majors about energy is important because of the challenge that scientific (il)literacy poses for tangible and political problems like energy. We have established a course in which students are involved in critical thinking and the process of scientific reasoning while discovering the nature of energy and its role in our lives and its presentation in the fiction genre. In the course, students construct and apply their knowledge of transformation of energy to understanding of the concepts of the formation of the sun and the planets. Along with these concepts, students learn about ways of harnessing energy for sustaining life on Earth. During the course students transform their "Why do I care?” to "What can I do?” We are achieving this change by starting with a broad introduction of the concepts and physical laws involved in understanding of the Solar Nebular hypothesis during which we discuss the role of different forms of energy involved in the process. In the next step we narrow down the discussion to importance and use of energy on Earth and then we discuss the role of different forms of energy in maintaining our individual lives. Thus students go from intangible notions about energy to making informed decisions on what type of sustainable energy makes sense to use in their houses and how many burgers they want to eat per day. Moving towards sustainable energy technologies requires a public who understands the science behind the issues. The work presented here is aimed at providing a mechanism for increase literacy regarding these issues and testing this mechanism's success.

  4. IBS and possible luminosity improvement for RHIC operation below transition energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov,A.V.

    2009-05-04

    There is a strong interest in low-energy RHIC collisions in the energy range below present RHIC transition energy. These collisions win help to answer one of the key questions in the field of QCD about the existence and location of a critical point on the QCD phase diagram. For such low-energy RHIC operation, particle losses from the RF bucket are of particular concern since the longitudinal beam size is comparable to the existing RF bucket at low energies. In this paper, we explore an Intrabeam Scattering (IBS) feature below transition energy that drives the transverse and longitudinal beam temperatures towards equilibrium to see whether we can minimize longitudinal diffusion due to IBS and predict some luminosity improvement for the low-energy RHIC project.

  5. Modeling and control of distributed energy systems during transition between grid connected and standalone modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafat, Md Nayeem

    Distributed generation systems (DGs) have been penetrating into our energy networks with the advancement in the renewable energy sources and energy storage elements. These systems can operate in synchronism with the utility grid referred to as the grid connected (GC) mode of operation, or work independently, referred to as the standalone (SA) mode of operation. There is a need to ensure continuous power flow during transition between GC and SA modes, referred to as the transition mode, in operating DGs. In this dissertation, efficient and effective transition control algorithms are developed for DGs operating either independently or collectively with other units. Three techniques are proposed in this dissertation to manage the proper transition operations. In the first technique, a new control algorithm is proposed for an independent DG which can operate in SA and GC modes. The proposed transition control algorithm ensures low total harmonic distortion (THD) and less voltage fluctuation during mode transitions compared to the other techniques. In the second technique, a transition control is suggested for a collective of DGs operating in a microgrid system architecture to improve the reliability of the system, reduce the cost, and provide better performance. In this technique, one of the DGs in a microgrid system, referred to as a dispatch unit , takes the additional responsibility of mode transitioning to ensure smooth transition and supply/demand balance in the microgrid. In the third technique, an alternative transition technique is proposed through hybridizing the current and droop controllers. The proposed hybrid transition control technique has higher reliability compared to the dispatch unit concept. During the GC mode, the proposed hybrid controller uses current control. During the SA mode, the hybrid controller uses droop control. During the transition mode, both of the controllers participate in formulating the inverter output voltage but with different

  6. Energy Independence for North America - Transition to the Hydrogen Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, J.

    2003-08-24

    The U.S. transportation sector is almost totally dependent on liquid hydrocarbon fuels, primarily gasoline and diesel fuel from conventional oil. In 2002, the transportation sector accounted for 69 percent of the U.S. oil use; highway vehicles accounted for 54 percent of the U.S. oil use. Of the total energy consumed in the U.S., more than 40 percent came from oil. More significantly, more than half of this oil is imported and is projected by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) to increase to 68 percent by 2025 [1]. The supply and price of oil have been dictated by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 2002, OPEC accounted for 39 percent of world oil production and this is projected by the EIA to increase to 50 percent in 2025. Of the world's oil reserves, about 80 percent is owned by OPEC members. Major oil price shocks have disrupted world energy markets four times in the past 30 years (1973-74, 1979-80, 1990-1991, and 1999- 2000) and with each came either a recession or slowdown in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the United States. In addition, these market upheavals have cost the U.S. approximately $7 trillion (in 1998 dollars) in total economic costs [2]. Finally, it is estimated that military expenditures for defending oil supplies in the Middle East range from $6 billion to $60 billion per year [3] and do not take into account the costs of recent military operations in Iraq (i.e., Operation Iraqi Freedom, 2003). At the outset of his administration in 2001, President George W. Bush established the National Energy Policy Development (NEPD) Group to develop a national energy policy to promote dependable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy for the future in order to avert potential energy crises. In the National Energy Policy report [4], the NEPD Group urges action by the President to meet five specific national goals that America must meet--''modernize conservation, modernize our energy infrastructure, increase energy

  7. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE RX J1633.9-2442 TRANSITION DISK: EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE PLANETS IN THE MAKING

    SciTech Connect

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Kraus, Adam L.; Menard, Francois C.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Romero, Gisela A.; Orellana, Mariana; Ireland, Michael J.

    2012-06-10

    We present continuum high-resolution Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the transition disk object RX J1633.9-2442, which is located in the Ophiuchus molecular cloud and has recently been identified as a likely site of ongoing giant planet formation. The observations were taken at 340 GHz (880 {mu}m) with the SMA in its most extended configuration, resulting in an angular resolution of 0.''3 (35 AU at the distance of the target). We find that the disk is highly inclined (i {approx} 50 Degree-Sign ) and has an inner cavity {approx}25 AU in radius, which is clearly resolved by our observations. We simultaneously model the entire optical to millimeter wavelength spectral energy distribution and SMA visibilities of RX J1633.9-2442 in order to constrain the structure of its disk. We find that an empty cavity {approx}25 AU in radius is inconsistent with the excess emission observed at 12, 22, and 24 {mu}m. Instead, the mid-IR excess can be modeled by either a narrow, optically thick ring at {approx}10 AU or an optically thin region extending from {approx}7 AU to {approx}25 AU. The inner disk (r {approx}< 5 AU) is mostly depleted of small dust grains as attested by the lack of detectable near-IR excess. We also present deep Keck aperture masking observations in the near-IR, which rule out the presence of a companion up to 500 times fainter than the primary star (in K band) for projected separations in the 5-20 AU range. We argue that the complex structure of the RX J1633.9-2442 disk is best explained by multiple planets embedded within the disk. We also suggest that the properties and incidence of objects such as RX J1633.9-2442, T Cha, and LkCa 15 (and those of the companions recently identified to these two latter objects) are most consistent with the runaway gas accretion phase of the core accretion model, when giant planets gain their envelopes and suddenly become massive enough to open wide gaps in the disk.

  8. Systemic aspects of the transition to sustainable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlögl, R.

    2015-08-01

    The supply of free energy to our societies is today an intricate system comprising the regimes of technologies, regulatory frameworks, socio-economic impacts and techno-ecological interactions. As a consequence it is challenging to define clear directions or even device a master plan for the transformation of a single national energy system into a sustainable future. Even the term "sustainable" needs extensive discussion in this context that should not be defined solely in technological or ecological senses. The contribution illustrates some of the elements of the energy system and their interdependencies. It will become clear that multiple reasons exist to change the traditional generation and use of energy even when climate protection is not a sufficiently strong argument for a change.

  9. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  10. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Guadeloupe; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-27

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Guadeloupe, an overseas region of France located in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Guadeloupe’s utility rates are approximately $0.18 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), below the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  11. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Antigua and Barbuda; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Antigua and Barbuda, an independent nation in the Leeward Islands in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Antigua and Barbuda’s utility rates are approximately $0.37 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), which is above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  12. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Trinidad and Tobago; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island nation located off the coast of Venezuela. Trinidad and Tobago’s electricity rates are some of the lowest in the Caribbean at approximately $0.04 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), well below the regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  13. Large impact of reorganization energy on photovoltaic conversion due to interfacial charge-transfer transitions.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi

    2015-05-14

    Interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions are expected to be a novel charge-separation mechanism for efficient photovoltaic conversion featuring one-step charge separation without energy loss. Photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions has been investigated using several TiO2-organic hybrid materials that show organic-to-inorganic ICT transitions in the visible region. In applications of ICT transitions to photovoltaic conversion, there is a significant problem that rapid carrier recombination is caused by organic-inorganic electronic coupling that is necessary for the ICT transitions. In order to solve this problem, in this work, I have theoretically studied light-to-current conversions due to the ICT transitions on the basis of the Marcus theory with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations. An apparent correlation between the reported incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) and calculated reorganization energies was clearly found, in which the IPCE increases with decreasing the reorganization energy consistent with the Marcus theory in the inverted region. This activation-energy dependence was systematically explained by the equation formulated by the Marcus theory based on a simple excited-state kinetic scheme. This result indicates that the reduction of the reorganization energy can suppress the carrier recombination and enhance the IPCE. The reorganization energy is predominantly governed by the structural change in the chemical-adsorption moiety between the ground and ICT excited states. This work provides crucial knowledge for efficient photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions. PMID:25892453

  14. The life course in the making: gender and the development of adolescents' expected timing of adult role transitions.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Lisa J; Beal, Sarah J

    2012-11-01

    Adolescents' expectations about the timing of adult role transitions have the potential to shape their actual transitions, setting the stage for their adult lives. Although expectations about timing emerge by early adolescence, little is known about how these expectations develop across adolescence. This longitudinal study examined developmental trajectories of adolescents' anticipated ages of school completion, job entry, marriage, and parenthood over the high school years, focusing on gender differences. Latent growth curve analysis of data from 411 rural youths followed from Grades 9 through 12 (age at Grade 9: M = 14.35, SD = 0.77) indicated a significant increase in adolescents' anticipated ages of entry into work and parenthood as well as gender differences in the trajectory of the expected age of marriage. Gender role attitudes, school performance, romantic relationships, and expected educational and occupational attainment were associated with the anticipated timing of role transitions, with significant variations by gender. Adolescents' expected ages of entry into adult family roles predicted their educational attainment and family role transitions in early adulthood. The findings provide insights into the process through which adolescent boys and girls construct their expectations regarding the transition to adulthood and, in turn, their future life course. PMID:22448985

  15. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  16. Free energy and phase transition of the matrix model on a plane wave

    SciTech Connect

    Hadizadeh, Shirin; Ramadanovic, Bojan; Semenoff, Gordon W.; Young, Donovan

    2005-03-15

    It has recently been observed that the weakly coupled plane-wave matrix model has a density of states which grows exponentially at high energy. This implies that the model has a phase transition. The transition appears to be of first order. However, its exact nature is sensitive to interactions. In this paper, we analyze the effect of interactions by computing the relevant parts of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop operator in the finite temperature plane-wave matrix model to three-loop order. We show that the phase transition is indeed of first order. We also compute the correction to the Hagedorn temperature to order two loops.

  17. A new US energy agenda: US leadership in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-20

    For the first time since the Carter Administration at the end of 1980, the US is embarked upon energy management beyond laissez faire' free market determination. The election of Bill Clinton to the Presidency could mean the release of years-old pressures to greatly increase efficiency, dramatically reduce hydrocarbon dependency, and curtail pollution to unheard of degrees. Doubtlessly, it will also unleash debates about how to do this without imposing protectionism or further slowing the domestic economy. In this issue a veteran energy analyst, J. Lange Winckler, assesses the changes to be expected. ED supplements the text with graphics that illustrate four scenarios of energy growth and utilization over the next 40 years. This issue also includes the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam and Singapore as of November 6, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, November 1992 Edition.

  18. Career Decision Making for Male Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Model of Critical Factors Aiding in Transitional Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Gregory B.

    2009-01-01

    This study is intended to reveal helpful information that will guide high school practitioners in serving students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) more effectively. ADHD is neurological in origin, making it invisible. This disorder makes people susceptible to distractibility, impulsivity, disorganization, frustration, anxiety,…

  19. Porous nanoarchitectures of spinel-type transition metal oxides for electrochemical energy storage systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Jong-Won; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-12-14

    Transition metal oxides possessing two kinds of metals (denoted as AxB3-xO4, which is generally defined as a spinel structure; A, B = Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, etc.), with stoichiometric or even non-stoichiometric compositions, have recently attracted great interest in electrochemical energy storage systems (ESSs). The spinel-type transition metal oxides exhibit outstanding electrochemical activity and stability, and thus, they can play a key role in realising cost-effective and environmentally friendly ESSs. Moreover, porous nanoarchitectures can offer a large number of electrochemically active sites and, at the same time, facilitate transport of charge carriers (electrons and ions) during energy storage reactions. In the design of spinel-type transition metal oxides for energy storage applications, therefore, nanostructural engineering is one of the most essential approaches to achieving high electrochemical performance in ESSs. In this perspective, we introduce spinel-type transition metal oxides with various transition metals and present recent research advances in material design of spinel-type transition metal oxides with tunable architectures (shape, porosity, and size) and compositions on the micro- and nano-scale. Furthermore, their technological applications as electrode materials for next-generation ESSs, including metal-air batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors, are discussed. PMID:26549729

  20. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  1. Helping Students Make the Transition into High School: The Effect of Ninth Grade Academies on Students' Academic and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Marie-Andrée; Garcia, Ivonne

    2016-01-01

    Ninth Grade Academies (NGAs)--also called Freshman Academies--have attracted national attention as a particularly intensive and promising approach for supporting a successful transition for high school freshmen. An NGA is a self-contained learning community for ninth-graders that operates as a school within a school. NGAs have four core structural…

  2. Helping Children on the Autism Spectrum Make a Successful Transition from Middle School to High School and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Diane; Hutnick, Marilyn; Glover, Sandi; Glover, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Transitioning from middle school to high school is a tremendous change for all students; it is especially important for learners on the Autism Spectrum. In this article, the authors discuss the move to high school and give seven tips for successfully navigating these years. We draw upon the experiences of Mrs. Sandi Glover and her 21-year-old son…

  3. Helping Low-Income Urban Youth Make the Transition to Early Adulthood: A Retrospective Study of the YMCA Youth Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Julie; Kirkner, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Low-income urban youth of color often face challenges in their transition to early adulthood. High school out-of-school time (OST) programs that promote positive youth development may help youth to better negotiate this period. However, little research exists on the long-term impact of such programs on young adults. The authors conducted a pilot…

  4. Seamless Transitions: Collaborations That Benefit Children and Their Families Making the Move from Preschool to Early Elementary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Sheila Roman, Ed.

    This report summarizes the proceedings of two clinics on early childhood clinics and provides descriptions of successful preschool-to-elementary transition programs. The two clinics brought together Head Start representatives, public and private day care personnel, elementary school teachers and administrators, state department of education staff,…

  5. What Can Be Learned from the Roller Coaster Journeys of Young People Making Ultimately Successful Transitions beyond School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Jennifer; Anderson, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This project investigated the interrelationships between family expectations and young people's post-school plans. All of the participants were from financially disadvantaged families. The research used interviews to understand these young people's perspectives of their transition experiences: the ways in which young people's school experiences…

  6. Sexual Communication, Sexual Goals, and Students' Transition to College: Implications for Sexual Assault, Decision-Making, and Risky Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.; Blayney, Jessica A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to understand college students' experiences and perceptions of sexual communication and sexual goals, and how they were affected by the transition from high school to college. Participants were heterosexual college students (N = 29). Single-sex focus groups were conducted and analyzed for themes. Major themes…

  7. Minimal cooling speed for glass transition in a simple solvable energy landscape model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Castillo, Isaac Pérez; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2016-06-01

    The minimal cooling speed required to form a glass is obtained for a simple solvable energy landscape model. The model, made from a two-level system modified to include the topology of the energy landscape, is able to capture either a glass transition or a crystallization depending on the cooling rate. In this setup, the minimal cooling speed to achieve glass formation is then found to be related with the crystallization relaxation time, energy barrier and with the thermal history. In particular, we obtain that the thermal history encodes small fluctuations around the equilibrium population which are exponentially amplified near the glass transition, which mathematically corresponds to the boundary layer of the master equation. The change in the glass transition temperature is also found as a function of the cooling rate. Finally, to verify our analytical results, a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation was implemented.

  8. Study of Early Transition Metal Carbides for Energy Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Agnese, Yohan

    An increase in energy and power density is needed to match the growing energy storage demands linked with the development of renewable energy production, and portable electronics. Several energy storage technologies exist including lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors. These systems are mutually complementary. For example, supercapacitors can deliver high power densities whereas batteries can be used for high energy density applications. The first objective of this work was to investigate the electrochemical performances of a new family of 2-D materials called MXenes by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements and to propose new solutions to tackle the energy storage concern. To achieve this goal, several directions have been explored. The first part of the research focused on Ti3C 2-based MXenes behavior as electrode materials for supercapacitors in aqueous electrolytes. The charge storage mechanisms in basic and neutral aqueous electrolytes, investigated by X-ray diffraction, were demonstrated to be attributed to cations intercalation between Ti3C2 layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy highlighted the contribution of oxygenated functional groups on surface redox reactions in sulfuric acid. High capacitances were achieved, up to 520 F/cm3 and 325 F/g. Then the electrochemical behaviors of MXenes in sodium-based organic electrolytes were explored. A new hybrid system of sodium-ion capacitor was proposed. It was demonstrated that V2C-based MXene electrodes were suitable to be used as positive electrodes with an operating potential from 1 V to 3.5 V vs. Na+/Na. Continuous intercalation and de-intercalation of sodium ions between the V2C layers during sodiation and desodiation were showed by X-ray diffraction. An asymmetric sodium-ion capacitor full cell was assembled using hard carbon as negative electrode and showed promising results, with a capacity of 50 mAh/g. The last part was focused on the

  9. Theoretical Study of Energy Levels and Transition Probabilities of Boron Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian Yi, Zhang; Neng Wu, Zheng

    2009-08-01

    Full Text PDF Though the electrons configuration for boron atom is simple and boron atom has long been of interest for many researchers, the theoretical studies for properties of BI are not systematic, there are only few results reported on energy levels of high excited states of boron, and transition measurements are generally restricted to transitions involving ground states and low excited states without considering fine structure effects, provided only multiplet results, values for transitions between high excited states are seldom performed. In this article, by using the scheme of the weakest bound electron potential model theory calculations for energy levels of five series are performed and with the same method we give the transition probabilities between excited states with considering fine structure effects. The comprehensive set of calculations attempted in this paper could be of some value to workers in the field because of the lack of published calculations for the BI systems. The perturbations coming from foreign perturbers are taken into account in studying the energy levels. Good agreement between our results and the accepted values taken from NIST has been obtained. We also reported some values of energy levels and transition probabilities not existing on the NIST data bases.

  10. Energy and environmental policy in a period of transition

    SciTech Connect

    Stalon, C.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses governance aspects of electric industry restructuring. The creation and preservation of a governance system to ensure reliable and efficient trades within interconnected and independent trading areas is the main topic. The closely related issue of defining and imposing responsibilities on non-utility generators is also discussed in detail. It is recommended that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission promote private governance of interconnections. 1 tab.

  11. Land cover change using an energy transition paradigm in a statistical mechanics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachary, Daniel S.

    2013-10-01

    This paper explores a statistical mechanics approach as a means to better understand specific land cover changes on a continental scale. Integrated assessment models are used to calculate the impact of anthropogenic emissions via the coupling of technoeconomic and earth/atmospheric system models and they have often overlooked or oversimplified the evolution of land cover change. Different time scales and the uncertainties inherent in long term projections of land cover make their coupling to integrated assessment models difficult. The mainstream approach to land cover modelling is rule-based methodology and this necessarily implies that decision mechanisms are often removed from the physical geospatial realities, therefore a number of questions remain: How much of the predictive power of land cover change can be linked to the physical situation as opposed to social and policy realities? Can land cover change be understood using a statistical approach that includes only economic drivers and the availability of resources? In this paper, we use an energy transition paradigm as a means to predict this change. A cost function is applied to developed land covers for urban and agricultural areas. The counting of area is addressed using specific examples of a Pólya process involving Maxwell-Boltzmann and Bose-Einstein statistics. We apply an iterative counting method and compare the simulated statistics with fractional land cover data with a multi-national database. An energy level paradigm is used as a basis in a flow model for land cover change. The model is compared with tabulated land cover change in Europe for the period 1990-2000. The model post-predicts changes for each nation. When strong extraneous factors are absent, the model shows promise in reproducing data and can provide a means to test hypothesis for the standard rules-based algorithms.

  12. State transitions redistribute rather than dissipate energy between the two photosystems in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, Wojciech J; Santabarbara, Stefano; Mosebach, Laura; Wollman, Francis-André; Rappaport, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis converts sunlight into biologically useful compounds, thus fuelling practically the entire biosphere. This process involves two photosystems acting in series powered by light harvesting complexes (LHCs) that dramatically increase the energy flux to the reaction centres. These complexes are the main targets of the regulatory processes that allow photosynthetic organisms to thrive across a broad range of light intensities. In microalgae, one mechanism for adjusting the flow of energy to the photosystems, state transitions, has a much larger amplitude than in terrestrial plants, whereas thermal dissipation of energy, the dominant regulatory mechanism in plants, only takes place after acclimation to high light. Here we show that, at variance with recent reports, microalgal state transitions do not dissipate light energy but redistribute it between the two photosystems, thereby allowing a well-balanced influx of excitation energy. PMID:27249564

  13. Intensity transitions in Cyg XR-1 observed at high energies from OSO 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    The observed transitions at energies above 20 keV show that the spectrum of Cyg XR-1 exhibits the pivoting effect during intensity transitions expected from two-temperature accretion disk models of the X-ray emitting region. Cyg XR-1 was observed with the high-energy X-ray spectrometer on board the OSO-8 satellite from November 11-19, 1975 and from October 27 to November 15, 1976 (excluding the period from November 1 to November 7, 1976).

  14. Relativistic M-subshell radiationless transition probabilities and energies for Zn, Cd and Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, J.M.; Parente, F.; Indelicato, P.; Marques, J.P.

    2014-09-15

    Theoretical calculations of radiationless transition probabilities and energies for M-subshell vacancies in Zn, Cd, and Hg are tabulated using the Dirac–Fock method. Transition probabilities between an initial vacancy state and a final two-vacancies state are presented for each initial and final atomic angular momentum quantum number. Calculations were performed in the single configuration approach with the Breit interaction, self-energy and (Uehling) vacuum polarization corrections included in the self-consistent method. Higher-order retardation corrections and QED effects were also included as perturbations.

  15. Development regulation changes local elected leaders can make to promote energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Kron, Jr, N F

    1980-07-01

    This report lists actions that local officials can make to change their community's development regulations and thereby lessen the effects of local energy problems. The term development regulations, as used here, is a general reference to local or state controls over land use and development that affect design, orientation, placement, location, and related characteristics of buildings and infrastructure. The regulations include items such as zoning, subdivision controls, setbacks, yard and height requirements, and solar-access ordinances.

  16. Modeling the Oil Transition: A Summary of the Proceedings of the DOE/EPA Workshop on the Economic and Environmental Implications of Global Energy Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L

    2007-02-01

    The global energy system faces sweeping changes in the next few decades, with potentially critical implications for the global economy and the global environment. It is important that global institutions have the tools necessary to predict, analyze and plan for such massive change. This report summarizes the proceedings of an international workshop concerning methods of forecasting, analyzing, and planning for global energy transitions and their economic and environmental consequences. A specific case, it focused on the transition from conventional to unconventional oil and other energy sources likely to result from a peak in non-OPEC and/or global production of conventional oil. Leading energy models from around the world in government, academia and the private sector met, reviewed the state-of-the-art of global energy modeling and evaluated its ability to analyze and predict large-scale energy transitions.

  17. Geo-portal as a planning instrument: supporting decision making and fostering market potential of Energy efficiency in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuca, Branka; Brumana, Raffaella; Oreni, Daniela; Iannaccone, Giuliana; Sesana, Marta Maria

    2014-03-01

    Steady technological progress has led to a noticeable advancement in disciplines associated with Earth observation. This has enabled information transition regarding changing scenarios, both natural and urban, to occur in (almost) real time. In particular, the need for integration on a local scale with the wider territorial framework has occurred in analysis and monitoring of built environments over the last few decades. The progress of Geographic Information (GI) science has provided significant advancements when it comes to spatial analysis, while the almost free availability of the internet has ensured a fast and constant exchange of geo-information, even for everyday users' requirements. Due to its descriptive and semantic nature, geo-spatial information is capable of providing a complete overview of a certain phenomenon and of predicting the implications within the natural, social and economic context. However, in order to integrate geospatial data into decision making processes, it is necessary to provide a specific context, which is well supported by verified data. This paper investigates the potentials of geo-portals as planning instruments developed to share multi-temporal/multi-scale spatial data, responding to specific end-users' demands in the case of Energy efficiency in Buildings (EeB) across European countries. The case study regards the GeoCluster geo-portal and mapping tool (Project GE2O, FP7), built upon a GeoClustering methodology for mapping of indicators relevant for energy efficiency technologies in the construction sector.

  18. Wind Power: A Renewable Energy Source for Mars Transit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Kohout, Lisa; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Martian environment presents significant design challenges for the development of power generation systems. Nuclear-based systems may not be available due to political and safety concerns. The output of photovoltaics are limited by a solar intensity of 580 W/sqm as compared to 1353 W/sqm on Earth. The presence of dust particles in the Mars atmosphere will further reduce the photovoltaic output. Also, energy storage for a 12-hour night period must be provided. In this challenging environment, wind power generation capabilities may provide a viable option as a Martian power generation system. This paper provides an analysis of the feasibility of such a system.

  19. Statistical mechanics model for the transit free energy of monatomic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Duane C.; Chisolm, Eric D.; Bock, N.; de Lorenzi-Venneri, G.

    2010-04-01

    In applying vibration-transit (V-T) theory of liquid dynamics to the thermodynamic properties of monatomic liquids, the point has been reached where an improved model is needed for the small (˜10%) transit contribution. Toward this goal, an analysis of the available high-temperature experimental entropy data for elemental liquids was recently completed [D. C. Wallace, E. D. Chisolm, and N. Bock, Phys. Rev. E 79, 051201 (2009)]. This analysis yields a common curve of transit entropy vs T/θtr , where T is temperature and θtr is a scaling temperature for each element. In the present paper, a statistical mechanics model is constructed for the transit partition function, and is calibrated to the experimental transit entropy curve. The model has two scalar parameters, and captures the temperature scaling of experiment. The calibrated model fits the experimental liquid entropy to high accuracy at all temperatures. With no additional parameters, the model also agrees with both experiment and molecular dynamics for the internal energy vs. T for Na. With the calibrated transit model, V-T theory provides equations subject to ab initio evaluation for thermodynamic properties of monatomic liquids. This will allow the range of applicability of the theory, and its overall accuracy, to be determined. More generally, the hypothesis of V-T theory, which divides the many-atom potential energy valleys into random and symmetric classes, can also be tested for its application beyond monatomic systems.

  20. Energy star product specification development framework: Using data and analysis to make program decisions

    SciTech Connect

    McWhinney, Marla; Fanara, Andrew; Clark, Robin; Hershberg, Craig; Schmeltz, Rachel; Roberson, Judy

    2003-09-12

    The Product Development Team (PD) in the US Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR Labeling Program fuels the long-term market transformation process by delivering new specifications. PD's goal is to expand the reach and visibility of ENERGY STAR as well as the market for new energy-efficient products. Since 2000, PD has launched nine new ENERGY STAR specifications and continues to evaluate new program opportunities. To evaluate the ENERGY STAR carbon savings potential for a diverse group of products, PD prepared a framework for developing new and updating existing specifications that rationalizes new product opportunities and draws upon the expertise and resources of other stakeholders, including manufacturers, utilities, environmental groups and other government agencies. By systematically reviewing the potential of proposed product areas, PD makes informed decisions as to whether or not to proceed with developing a specification. In support of this strategy, PD ensures that new product specifications are consistent with the ENERGY STAR guidelines and that these guidelines are effectively communicated to stakeholders during the product development process. To date, the framework has been successful in providing consistent guidance on collecting the necessary information on which to base sound program decisions. Through the application of this framework, PD increasingly recognizes that each industry has unique market and product characteristics that can require reconciliation with the ENERGY STAR guidelines. The new framework allows PD to identify where reconciliation is needed to justify program decisions.

  1. Electron Energy Levels in the 1D-2D Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Michael; Sanjeev, Kumar; Thomas, Kalarikad; Creeth, Graham; English, David; Ritchie, David; Griffiths, Jonathan; Farrer, Ian; Jones, Geraint

    Using GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures we have investigated the behaviour of electron energy levels with relaxation of the potential confining a 2D electron gas into a 1D configuration. In the ballistic regime of transport, when the conductance shows quantized plateaux, different types of behaviour are found according to the spins of interacting levels, whether a magnetic field is applied and lifting of the momentum degeneracy with a source-drain voltage. We have observed both crossing and anti-crossing of levels and have investigated the manner in which they can be mutually converted. In the presence of a magnetic field levels can cross and lock together as the confinement is altered in a way which is characteristic of parallel channels. The overall behaviour is discussed in terms of electron interactions and the wavefunction flexibility allowed by the increasing two dimensionality of the electron distribution as the confinement is weakened. Work supported by UK EPSRC.

  2. Energy transitions in superhydrophobicity: low adhesion, easy flow and bouncing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat

    2008-10-01

    The concept of superhydrophobicity was introduced in the 1990s as a result of the investigation of the microstructure of extremely water-repellent plant leaves. Since that time, artificial superhydrophobic surfaces have been developed and implemented, stimulated by advances in nanotechnology, and giving one of the most successful examples of a bio-inspired technology transferred into engineering applications. Superhydrophobicity is usually defined as the ability of a surface to have (i) a very high water contact angle (CA) and (ii) low CA hysteresis. Here we argue that the ability of a water droplet to bounce off a surface constitutes a third property that is crucial for applications. Furthermore, this property is naturally related to the first two properties, since the energy barriers separating the 'sticky' and 'non-sticky' states needed for bouncing droplets have the same origin as those needed for high CA and for low CA hysteresis.

  3. Spectroscopic elucidation of uncoupled transition energies in the major photosynthetic light-harvesting complex, LHCII

    PubMed Central

    Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Calhoun, Tessa R.; Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic couplings between chromophores in photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes, and interactions of pigments with the surrounding protein environment, produce a complicated energy landscape of delocalized excited states. The resultant electronic structure absorbs light and gives rise to energy transfer steps that direct the excitation toward a site of charge separation with near unity quantum efficiency. Knowledge of the transition energies of the uncoupled chromophores is required to describe how the wave functions of the individual pigments combine to form this manifold of delocalized excited states that effectively harvests light energy. In an investigation of the major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII), we develop a method based on polarized 2D electronic spectroscopy to experimentally access the energies of the S0–S1 transitions in the chromophore site basis. Rotating the linear polarization of the incident laser pulses reveals previously hidden off-diagonal features. We exploit the polarization dependence of energy transfer peaks to find the angles between the excited state transition dipole moments. We show that these angles provide a spectroscopic method to directly inform on the relationship between the delocalized excitons and the individual chlorophylls through the site energies of the uncoupled chromophores. PMID:20622154

  4. Precise Determination of the Lyman-1 Transition Energy in Hydrogen-like Gold Ions with Microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Grabitz, P.; Kilbourne, C.; Kiselev, O.; McCammon, D.; Scholz, P.

    2014-09-01

    The precise determination of the transition energy of the Lyman-1 line in hydrogen-like heavy ions provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields. We report the determination of the Lyman-1 transition energy of gold ions (Au) with microcalorimeters at the experimental storage ring at GSI. X-rays produced by the interaction of 125 MeV/u Au ions with an internal argon gas-jet target were detected. The detector array consisted of 14 pixels with silicon thermistors and Sn absorbers, for which an energy resolution of 50 eV for an X-ray energy of 59.5 keV was obtained in the laboratory. The Lyman-1 transition energy was determined for each pixel in the laboratory frame, then transformed into the emitter frame and averaged. A Dy-159 source was used for energy calibration. The absolute positions of the detector pixels, which are needed for an accurate correction of the Doppler shift, were determined by topographic measurements and by scanning a collimated Am-241 source across the cryostat window. The energy of the Lyman-1 line in the emitter frame is eV, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty in the position of the cryostat relative to the interaction region of beam and target.

  5. Quantum transition state dynamics of the cyclooctatetraene unimolecular reaction on ab initio potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokizaki, Chihiro; Yoshida, Takahiko; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    The cyclooctatetraene (COT) anion has a stable D4h structure that is similar to the transition state configurations of the neutral C-C bond-alternation (D4h ↔ D8h ↔ D4h) and ring-inversion (D2d ↔ D4h ↔ D2d) unimolecular reactions. The previously measured photodetachment spectrum of COT- revealed the reaction dynamics in the vicinity of the two transition states on the neutral potential energy surface. In this work, the photodetachment spectrum is calculated quantum mechanically on ab initio-level potential energy surfaces within a three degree-of-freedom reduced-dimensionality model. Very good agreement has been obtained between theory and experiment, providing reliable interpretations for the experimental spectrum. A detailed picture of the reactive molecular dynamics of the COT unimolecular reaction in the transition state region is also discussed.

  6. Large conversion of energy in dielectric elastomers by electromechanical phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tong-Qing; Suo, Zhi-Gang

    2012-08-01

    When air is pumped in, a tubular balloon initially inflates slightly and homogeneously. A short section of the balloon then forms a bulge, which coexists with the unbulged section of the balloon. As more air is pumped in, the bulged section elongates at the expense of the unbulged section, until the entire balloon is bulged. The phenomenon is analogous to the liquid-to-vapor phase transition. Here we study the bulging transition in a dielectric elastomer tube as air is pumped into the balloon and a voltage is applied through the thickness of the membrane. We formulate the condition for coexistent budged and unbulged sections, and identify allowable states set by electrical breakdown and mechanical rupture. We find that the bulging transition dramatically amplifies electromechanical energy conversion. Energy converted in an electromechanical cycle consisting of unbulged and bulged states is thousands of times that in an electromechanical cycle consisting of only unbulged states.

  7. STABILITY IN BCC TRANSITION METALS: MADELUNG AND BAND-ENERGY EFFECTS DUE TO ALLOYING

    SciTech Connect

    Landa, A; Soderlind, P; Ruban, A; Peil, O; Vitos, L

    2009-08-28

    The phase stability of the bcc Group VB (V, Nb, and Ta) transition metals is explored by first-principles electronic-structure calculations. Alloying with a small amount of a neighboring metal can either stabilize or destabilize the bcc phase. This counterintuitive behavior is explained by competing mechanisms that dominate depending on particular dopand. We show that band-structure effects dictate stability when a particular Group VB metal is alloyed with its nearest neighbors within the same d-transition series. In this case, the neighbor with less (to the left) and more (to the right) d electrons, destabilize and stabilize bcc, respectively. When alloying with neighbors of different d-transition series, electrostatic Madelung energy dominates over the band energy and always stabilizes the bcc phase.

  8. Energy levels and radiative transition rates for Ge XXXI, As XXXII, and Se XXXIII

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Sunny Singh, J.; Jha, A.K.S.; Mohan, Man

    2014-07-15

    Fine-structure energies of the 67 levels belonging to the 1s{sup 2}, 1s 2l, 1s3l, 1s4l, 1s5l, and 1s6l configurations of Ge XXXI, As XXXII, and Se XXXIII have been calculated using the General-Purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Package. In addition, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, transition wavelengths, and line strengths have been calculated for all electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and magnetic quadrupole transitions among these levels. Lifetimes are also presented for all excited levels of these three ions. We have compared our results with the results available in the literature and the accuracy of the data is assessed. We predict new energy levels, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities where no other theoretical or experimental results are available, which will form the basis for future experimental work.

  9. Sexual Communication, Sexual Goals, and Students’ Transition to College: Implications for Sexual Assault, Decision-Making, and Risky Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.; Blayney, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to understand college students’ experiences and perceptions of sexual communication and sexual goals, and how they were affected by the transition from high school to college. Participants were heterosexual college students (N = 29). Single-sex focus groups were conducted and analyzed for themes. Major themes included gender differences in communication of sexual interest, with men reportedly perceiving more sexualized intentions than women intended to communicate. Gender similarities were observed related to preferring indirect and nonverbal communication and to having more freedom to pursue sexual goals in college. Men focused more intently on casual sex goals, whereas women reported more relationship goals and concerns about reputation. PMID:20502624

  10. The vibrational energy flow transition in organic molecules: Theory meets experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bigwood, R.; Gruebele, M.; Leitner, D. M.; Wolynes, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    Most large dynamical systems are thought to have ergodic dynamics, whereas small systems may not have free interchange of energy between degrees of freedom. This assumption is made in many areas of chemistry and physics, ranging from nuclei to reacting molecules and on to quantum dots. We examine the transition to facile vibrational energy flow in a large set of organic molecules as molecular size is increased. Both analytical and computational results based on local random matrix models describe the transition to unrestricted vibrational energy flow in these molecules. In particular, the models connect the number of states participating in intramolecular energy flow to simple molecular properties such as the molecular size and the distribution of vibrational frequencies. The transition itself is governed by a local anharmonic coupling strength and a local state density. The theoretical results for the transition characteristics compare well with those implied by experimental measurements using IR fluorescence spectroscopy of dilution factors reported by Stewart and McDonald [Stewart, G. M. & McDonald, J. D. (1983) J. Chem. Phys. 78, 3907–3915]. PMID:9600899