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1

SEROPREVALENCE OF ERYTHROVIRUS B19 IgG AMONG SAUDI BLOOD DONORS IN MAKKAH, SAUDI ARABIA  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to erythrovirus B19 in Saudi blood donors in Makkah. Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: A total of 578 blood (serum) samples were tested for erythrovirus B19-specific-IgG antibody among Saudi blood donors in Makkah. Saudi Arabia. Results: Erythrovirus B19-specific-IgG antibodies were detected in 441/578 (76.3%) of Saudi blood donors of different age groups. Conclusion: This study indicated that 76.3% of Saudi blood donors in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia, had been exposed to erythrovirus B19. This result is in accordance with previous studies performed in other countries.

Johargy, Ayman K.

2009-01-01

2

SEROPOSITIVITY OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS AMONG SAUDI PREGNANT WOMEN IN MAKKAH  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the seroprevalence rates of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) to Chlamydia trachomatis in Saudi pregnant women. Subjects and Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a total of 1600 serum samples were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis known to cause a variety of clinical syndromes in women and newborn infants. Results: Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibodies were detected in 8.7% and IgM antibodies were found in 1.5% of different age groups. Conclusion: Pregnant Saudi women have low prevalence rate of Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibodies and lower prevalence for Chlamydia trachomatis IgM.

Ghazi, Hani O.; Daghestani, Mazin H.; Mohamed, Mohamed F.

2006-01-01

3

Development of GIS-based Wind Potential Map of Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.

Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.

2011-12-01

4

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Patients of Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients of a tertiary care hospital. Methods A total of 12,054 samples received from the outpatient as well as inpatient departments from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2009 in Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Stool examinations were performed by direct method and concentrated Techniques for all patients. Results Overall, the prevalence of intestinal parasites was 6.2% (740 cases). Majority of patients were infected by Entamoeba histolytica (4.7%) followed by Giardia lamblia (1.3%), while Ankylostoma duodenal (0.02%) exhibited the minimum prevalence. Parasitic infections were more frequent in non-Saudis than Saudis patients (7.1% vs. 5.8%; p<0.05). There was no significant difference between males and females regarding parasitic infections, with a female:male ratio of 1:1.08. There was a higher prevalence in patients under five years of age (9.1%), followed by patients aged 5-14 years (7.5%). Conclusion The notable finding from this study is the high prevalence of E. histolytica. Overall, parasitic infections were more prevalent in patients under five years of age and in non-Saudi nationals.

Zaglool, Dina AM; Khodari, Yousif AW; Gazzaz, Zohair J.; Dhafar, Khalid O.; Shaker, Hani AS; Farooq, Mian U.

2011-01-01

5

Seroprevalence of Erythrovirus B19 IgG Antibody among Paediatric Patients in Makkah and Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against B19 virus (B19V) in Makkah and Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: B19V-specific IgG antibodies were detected by a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera of 400 paediatric patients (185 males and 215 females) aged 1–17 years. Results: Of the 400 patients, 80 (20%) had sera positive for B19V-specific IgG. The difference

Ayman Johargy

2009-01-01

6

First case report of human myiasis with Sarcophaga species in Makkah city in the wound of a diabetic patient  

PubMed Central

We have reported a case of a 40-year-old male diabetic patient, resident of a rural area, who visited the outpatient clinic of the diabetic center in Alnoor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. He came to seek medical advice for a single wound in the back of the shoulder since 1 month. After examination, a larva was eliminated and sent to laboratory for confirmation. It was confirmed as the third-stage larva of Sarcophaga species after macroscopic and microscopic examination. This is the first case of a patient having diabetic wound myiasis with the larva of Sarcophaga species reported in the Makkah region of Saudi Arabia.

Zaglool, Dina Abdulla Muhammad; Tayeb, Khaled; Khodari, Yousif Abdul Wahid; Farooq, Mian Usman

2013-01-01

7

First case report of human myiasis with Sarcophaga species in Makkah city in the wound of a diabetic patient.  

PubMed

We have reported a case of a 40-year-old male diabetic patient, resident of a rural area, who visited the outpatient clinic of the diabetic center in Alnoor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. He came to seek medical advice for a single wound in the back of the shoulder since 1 month. After examination, a larva was eliminated and sent to laboratory for confirmation. It was confirmed as the third-stage larva of Sarcophaga species after macroscopic and microscopic examination. This is the first case of a patient having diabetic wound myiasis with the larva of Sarcophaga species reported in the Makkah region of Saudi Arabia. PMID:23633868

Zaglool, Dina Abdulla Muhammad; Tayeb, Khaled; Khodari, Yousif Abdul Wahid; Farooq, Mian Usman

2013-01-01

8

Does Attendance Kindergarten Affect on Pupils' Mathematics Achievement of Primary School in Makkah, Saudi Arabia? And What Are the Teachers' Expectations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate if there are any significant differences in the mathematical attainment of pupils' grade one of primary school in Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (K.S.A) between those pupils who had attended kindergarten and their peers who had not, and whether this effect continued into the second and third grades in…

Kashkary, Samera Y.; Robinson, John F.

2006-01-01

9

Seismic characteristics and kinematic models of Makkah and central Red Sea regions, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Makkah and central Red Sea regions have been re-evaluated from recent earthquake data analysis. Epicenters of recent seismic activity are concentrated in three local seismic zones. These are: Ad Damm Fault (NE), Nu'man-Makkah-Fattim (NW) and Jiddah-Red Sea (NW) seismic zones. Moreover, an extended seismic zone along the central part of Red Sea is observed. Most of these epicenters are distributed along tectonic faults, as indicated from the subsurface structure analysis of the aeromagnetic anomaly map. Some epicenters of small magnitudes are inaccurately located The study indicates the existence of large active structural basin south of Makkah region which traverse Ad Damm fault zone with the Red Sea transform faults.Slip vector analyses were carried out for 50 available earthquake focal mechanisms around Makkah region. In Nu'man, Makkah and Fatima structural zones, the slip vectors generally trending NW and NNW. However, in the southern part at the Ad Dam structure zone the slip vector trending NE-SW. These may result from the current complicated drifting motion of Arabian plate away from African plate combined with the opening of the Red Sea Rift. Keywords: Red Sea, Makkah, Fault plane solutions, slip vectors.

Al-Saud, Mashael M.

2009-04-01

10

Climate affected by dust aerosol over arid region of Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols play an important role in the global climate balance, and therefore they could be important in climate change. Natural variations of aerosols, especially due to dust storm are recognized as a significant climate forcing, that is, a factor that alters the Earth's radiation balance and thus tends to cause a global temperature change. Aerosol optical depth, ?(?) is the most comprehensive variable to characterize aerosol due to atmospheric pollution. The aerosol optical properties in Makkah observed during dust period (March-May) from 2006 to 2009 had been presented in this study. Aerosol optical depths at all wavelengths showed a sharp increase during major dust outbreak in spring when compared with the average for the season. For example at Makkah, aerosol optical depths increase from the spring average value of 0.43+/-0.02 at 550 nm to values >0.70 during major dust event days in 2006. These tend to increasingly of temperature during this period as results of absorbing aerosol effect. In this paper, we used AOD data from Terra MODIS to evaluate the trend of dust aerosol events in Makkah throughout 4 years dataset with supported data of subtype of aerosol and air temperature from CALIPSO and MERRA respectively. The higher values of AOD are corresponding to the low visibility due to presents of high concentration of dust.

Othman, N.; Matjafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.

2010-10-01

11

Steady improvement of infection control services in six community hospitals in Makkah following annual audits during Hajj for four consecutive years  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of annual review of the infection control practice in all Ministry of Health hospitals in the holy city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the Hajj period of four lunar Islamic years, 1423 to 1426 corresponding to 2003 to 2006. METHODS: audit of infection control service was conducted annually over

Tariq A Madani; Ali M Albarrak; Mohammad A Alhazmi; Tarik A Alazraqi; Abdulahakeem O Althaqafi; Abdulrahman H Ishaq

2006-01-01

12

Average surface albedo measurements in the UV, IR, and TSR on the Holy Mosque and places in Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Average albedo values were measured at three broad wavebands; UV region (295 - 385 nm), Total Solar Radiation, TSR, (305 - 2800 nm), and IR region (3500 - 50000 nm), over different surfaces in the Holy Mosque and Places in Makkah (21°.25 N, 39°.49 E). The Eppley Laboratory Radiometers of TUVR and PIR were used for UV and IR measurements respectively, while Kipp & Zonen Pyranometer of CM3 was adopted for the TSR observations. Measurements were performed during two different periods (summer 28/7-10/8/2004 at Holy Mosque and winter 18-30/1/2005 at Holy Places). Summer measurements showed that the average surface albedos of the Holy Mosque white marbles were 0.45, 0.70 and 1.14 at UV, TSR and IR regions respectively. These values have decreased to 0.12 and 0.18 at UV and TSR regions respectively over the Holy Mosque brown marbles. However, the average albedo value has increased to 1.38 at IR region due to the large Longwave radiation emission from the brown marble surfaces. The albedo values of the Holy Mosque red carpets were determined. The average albedo values were also measured over the Holy Places surfaces (18 m) of pilgrimage, (Muna and Arafat sites) during winter 2005. The observed average surface albedo values over Arafat selected area were 0.00, 0.22 and 1.18 at UV, TSR and IR regions respectively. The average albedo values over Muna selected area and Muna tents were also presented. The effect of clouds and solar zenith angle (SZA) on the measured albedo were investigated in this study.

Seroji, Abdulaziz R.

2005-08-01

13

What is the Significance of Adakitic Granitoids and Zircon Inheritance in Juvenile Arc Rocks of the Neoproterozoic Makkah Batholith, Saudi Arabia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neoproterozoic plutonic rocks of the Makkah batholith along the northern margin of the Jiddah terrane in western Saudi Arabia record >50 Ma of arc magmatism. Results of the first detailed survey using U-Pb zircon geochronology by SHRIMP-RG and trace-element geochemistry by ICP-MS provide important new constraints on subduction-related magmatism in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), but have also illuminated new problems. Samples from several dozen composite plutons ranging in composition from gabbro to granodiorite or granite were analyzed. SHRIMP-RG data for the plutons reveal 3 magmatic pulses at ca. 800, 775, and 750 Ma. Phase I (ca. 800 Ma) produced plutons that yielded U-Pb zircon ages of 803+/-17 Ma (previously reported zircon age of 816+/-3 Ma) and 804+/-5 Ma. The 803-Ma granite is nonconformably overlain by a potentially glacial diamictite at the base of the arc volcanic sequence. Phase II (ca. 775 Ma) plutons yielded ages of 781+/-8 Ma (previously reported zircon age of 760+/-10 Ma), 782+/-7 Ma, 776+/-6 Ma, and 770+/-5 Ma (previously reported zircon age of 769+/-5 Ma). Phase III (ca. 750 Ma) plutons yielded ages of 755+/-5 Ma, 747+/-5 Ma, 750+/-5 Ma, and 747+/-9 Ma. SHRIMP-RG was used to overcome a long-recognized problem of inheritance in the region. Inherited zircons of Mesoproterozoic age occur in one arc suite and in post-tectonic, A-type alkalic granites, and zircons as old as Archean occur in the arc volcanic rocks. The source of the inheritance is enigmatic. Remnants of Archean-Paleoproterozoic continental crust are exposed in the Afif terrane far to the SE. Could arc plutons of the Makkah batholith have interacted with previously unrecognized Pre-Neoproterozoic continental crust beneath the Jiddah terrane? Alternatively, did shallow arc magmas interact with buried glacial deposits and inherit far-traveled detrital zircons? The plutons exhibit geochemical signatures expected for juvenile oceanic arc rocks. They are I-type granitoids of the low- to medium-K series, show strong subduction signatures, and plot as volcanic arc granites on discrimination diagrams. Nearly half the samples show characteristics of adakites (high Sr/Y <130, low Y, steep REE patterns). Adakitic rocks previously recognized in the ANS were attributed to the subduction and melting of young, hot oceanic crust. However, the production of adakites from slab-melting should wane with time. That adakitic rocks occur in all 3 magmatic pulses (>50 Ma) suggests they were produced by a more sustained mechanism, such as melting of thickened eclogitic or garnet-granulitic lower crust. Anatexis in the lower crust is an appealing explanation for the adakitic chemistries, and for the source of the inherited zircons, but is not consistent with the arc characteristics and juvenile isotopic signatures of the Jiddah terrane. Could subduction of young oceanic crust be sustained long enough to produce adakitic magmas for >50 Ma (e.g. by oblique subduction of ridge segments)? If so, could the subduction of ridge segments at ca. 25 Ma intervals have produced the 3 magmatic pulses? Also, could large volumes of juvenile arc magmas melt enough older crust to inherit abundant zircons yet retain their original arc characteristics and isotopic signatures? We are using this opportunity to invite constructive dialogue to help resolve these questions.

Hargrove, U. S.; Stern, R. J.; Kimura, J.; Johnson, P. R.

2004-12-01

14

Report: pipeline transport of solid waste in the Grand Holy Mosque in Makkah.  

PubMed

The Grand Holy Mosque, located in the Holy City of Makkah in Saudi Arabia, attracts millions of Muslim visitors from all over the world, especially during the pilgrimage season. The daily amount of refuse generated in the Grand Holy Mosque and surrounding plazas reached a maximum value of 192.8 tons/day in 1998. Collection and transport of the solid waste generated during the peak times present a challenge to the Makkan authorities. The congested streets and high population density in the Holy Mosque and its surrounding plazas make the traditional methods of collecting and transporting solid waste impractical. This paper presents an alternative system for the collection and transport of solid waste generated in and around the Grand Holy Mosque in Makkah. The proposed system is based on a pneumatic transport technique, by which the waste is collected and transported in underground pipelines. A conceptual layout of the proposed system in the Mosque area is presented, and the merits of the suggested system are discussed. PMID:14661895

Al-Ghamdi, Abdullah Saeed; Abu-Rizaiza, Asad Seraj

2003-10-01

15

Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

2005-01-01

16

Prevalence of antibodies against the hepatitis C virus among voluntary blood donors at a makkah hospital.  

PubMed

One thousand four hundred and thirty nine voluntary blood donors attending the blood transfusion department at Al Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah were screened for antibodies against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) by second generation enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). A total of 52 donors (3.6%) were anti-HCV positive. Anti-HCV was detected in 1.7% of the Saudi donors as compared to 6.9% among Non-Saudi donors. Scrutiny of the data revealed a higher rate of anti-HCV in the age-group of above 40 years than in the other age groups. Further, when Non-Saudi blood donors were analysed according to their nationalities, Egyptian donors showed a prevalence of 27.2% of anti-HCV followed by Pakistanis (1.9%), Bangladeshis (1.9%), Yemenis (1.5%) and other nationalities (0.5%). When blood samples from 92 patients on maintenance hemodialysis were tested for anti-HCV, 75 (81.5%) patients were found positive for anti-HCV. We conclude that the prevalence of anti-HCV among blood donors in the Makkah region of Saudi Arabia is high and routine screening for anti-HCV should be conducted for all blood donors before they are accepted for donation. PMID:18583848

Ahmad, M S; Mahtab, A M; Abdullatif, A S; Tashkandy, M A; Kashreed, M S; Maulana, A

1995-01-01

17

Computer Literacy Improvement Needs: Physicians' Self Assessment in the Makkah Region  

PubMed Central

Objective A confidential inquiry by the Directorate General of health affairs, Makkah region, Saudi Arabia, found physicians were resistant to enter patient-related information in the electronic medical records system at different hospitals. This study aims to highlight their computer literacy needs. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted on physicians using a structured questionnaire bearing nine questions/stems with dichotomous answers, (i.e., yes/no) that was distributed among physicians at six different Ministry of Health hospitals in the Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia, between May and August 2009. The results for future needs in computer skills were categorized as "none" if the rate of answer "yes" to any stem was 0-25%, "little" if 26-50%, "some" if 51-75% and "substantial" if >75% rated "yes". Results The response rate of 82% of determined sample size (n = 451) was attained. Computer literacy improvement elements (CLIE), i.e., "word processing software skills (MS Word)", "presentation software skills (Power Point)", "internet search skills", "medical database search skills", "spreadsheet software skills (Excel)" and "advanced e-mail management skills" were in "substantial" need of improvement among the majority of settings and categories. All other computer literacy improvement elements were in "some" need of improvement. Conclusion The overall outcome of this study indicates that physicians need further computer literacy improvements.

Shaker, Hani Abdulsattar; Farooq, Mian Usman

2013-01-01

18

Simulating and Forecasting Flooding Events in the City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metropolitan cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as Jeddah and Riyadh, are more frequently experiencing flooding events caused by strong convective storms that produce intense precipitation over a short span of time. The flooding in the city of Jeddah in November 2009 was described by civil defense officials as the worst in 27 years. As of January 2010, 150 people were reported killed and more than 350 were missing. Another flooding event, less damaging but comparably spectacular, occurred one year later (Jan 2011) in Jeddah. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimize human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision and rescue plans. We have developed a coupled hydro-meteorological model for simulating and predicting flooding events in the city of Jeddah. We use the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model assimilating all available data in the Jeddah region for simulating the storm events in Jeddah. The resulting rain is then used on 10 minutes intervals to feed up an advanced numerical shallow water model that has been discretized on an unstructured grid using different numerical schemes based on the finite elements or finite volume techniques. The model was integrated on a high-resolution grid size varying between 0.5m within the streets of Jeddah and 500m outside the city. This contribution will present the flooding simulation system and the simulation results, focusing on the comparison of the different numerical schemes on the system performances in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

Ghostine, Rabih; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

2014-05-01

19

Steady improvement of infection control services in six community hospitals in Makkah following annual audits during Hajj for four consecutive years  

PubMed Central

Background the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of annual review of the infection control practice in all Ministry of Health hospitals in the holy city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the Hajj period of four lunar Islamic years, 1423 to 1426 corresponding to 2003 to 2006. Methods audit of infection control service was conducted annually over a 10-day period in six community hospitals with bed capacities ranging from 140 to 557 beds. Data were collected on standardized checklists on various infection control service items during surprise visits to the medical, pediatric, surgical, and critical care units, and the kitchens. Percentage scores were calculated for audited items. The results of the audit for hospitals were confidentially sent to them within four weeks after the end of Hajj. Results deficiencies observed in the first audit included lack of infection control committees, infection control units, infection control educational activities, and surveillance system and shortage of staff. These deficiencies were resolved in the subsequent audits. The average (range) scores of hospitals in 11 infection control items increased from 43% (20–67%) in the first audit to 78% (61–93%) in the fourth audit. Conclusion regular hospital infection control audits lead to significant improvement of infection control practice. There is a need to build a rigorous infection control audit into hospitals' ongoing monitoring and reporting to the Ministry of Health and to provide these hospitals with feed back on such audits to continuously strengthen the safety standards for patients, visitors, and employees.

Madani, Tariq A; Albarrak, Ali M; Alhazmi, Mohammad A; Alazraqi, Tarik A; Althaqafi, Abdulahakeem O; Ishaq, Abdulrahman H

2006-01-01

20

An update on the incidence of dengue gaining strength in Saudi Arabia and current control approaches for its vector mosquito  

PubMed Central

Background The cases of dengue reported earlier in the late 1990s from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) occurred in the cities of Jeddah and Makkah. Although the kingdom has ample financial resources to establish effective control measures for the dengue vector, numerous cases of dengue occur and fluctuate in numbers from year to year. This necessitates a serious review of the current vector control strategies being practiced in order to identify the existing shortcomings. This short report provides an update on epidemiology of dengue in KSA (specifically in cities of Jeddah and Makkah) with a critical look at the current vector control strategies. Findings In 2013, 4411 cases of dengue were reported, with 8 cases of mortality. This number of dengue incidence was four times higher compared to 2012. In 2013, the highest number of 1272 dengue cases was reported in May, while the lowest number (37) of cases was reported in September. Conclusions It is evident that the control strategies of the dengue vector presently employed are inadequate. There seems to be serious deficiencies in following proper scientific procedures during field application(s) of control materials against the vector as is evident by the increases in the number of dengue cases as well as frequent outbreaks of the vector mosquito populations. In this review, some specific suggestions are made to draw attention to the relevant KSA authorities of the possible reasons behind unsuccessful control results and as to how to improve the strategy of dengue vector control in the kingdom.

2014-01-01

21

Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0{+-}14.2 Bq/m{sup 3}, 83.4{+-}6.0 Bq/m{sup 3}, 61.6{+-}6.4 Bq/m{sup 3}, 63.7{+-}5.4 Bq/m{sup 3} and 87.5{+-}6.Bq/m{sup 3} and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m{sup 3}, 5.5 Bq/m{sup 3}, 1.1 Bq/m{sup 3}, 1.0 Bq/m{sup 3} and 24 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm{sup -3} set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The ''within regions''(different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region ''1''(p = 0.783) and versus region ''5''(P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region ''3''(P = 0.0160) and also versus region ''4''(p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other regions are near to the Al-Thuwayrat sands.

Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

2011-10-27

22

Molecular Detection of Mycobiota in Drinking Water at Four Different Sampling Points of Water Distribution System of Jeddah City (Saudi Arabia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study included collection of water samples (150 samples) from 10 different branches belonging to each water network in Jeddah City (Saudi Arabia). Samples included treated water (30 samples) and tap water in some hospitals (30 samples from cold water tap and 30 samples from hot water tap) and private houses (60 samples). According to results of the traditional identification

Rukaia M. Gashgari; Hesham M. Elhariry; Youssuf A. Gherbawy

2012-01-01

23

Microbial Contamination of Date Rutab Collected from the Markets of Al-Hofuf City in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The microbial contamination of 60 samples from six date cultivars in the rutab stage purchased from different retail outlets in AL-Hofuf City, Saudi Arabia was studied. All samples were found contaminated with aerobic mesophilic bacteria at loads in the order 102 to 105?cfu/cm2 with some significant differences among varieties that can be attributed to differences in the weather conditions during rutab season. Also all samples, except only one, were contaminated with molds and yeasts at loads in the order 102 to 103?cfu/cm2. Potentially pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 57 samples and A. flavus/parasiticus in 13 samples, while coliforms were detected in 39 samples.

Hamad, Siddig H.; Saleh, Farag A.; Al-Otaibi, Mutlag M.

2012-01-01

24

NO(2) and cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF) was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2) were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32-0.71), weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03-0.43), and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17-0.33), suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors. PMID:24192792

Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

2013-11-01

25

Quantifying temporal trends of atmospheric pollutants in Makkah (1997–2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a high interest in quantifying temporal trends of air pollutant concentrations as they serve to assess the effects of emission control strategies. In this paper temporal trends (1997–2012) in air pollutant concentrations in the City of Makkah, near the Holy Mosque, have been assessed with the help of Theil–Sen approach and changepoint analysis, which are applicable to both normal and non-normal distributed data and are therefore preferred over classic parametric statistics. Trend analysis of nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 10 micron or less (PM10) and ozone (O3) was performed, not only at mean concentrations but also at several selected quantiles (minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile and maximum). Trends were positive in SO2, NO2, PM10 and ozone and negative in CO and NO concentrations. NOx (negative) and NO2 (positive) trends were predominantly non-significant, however other pollutants showed mostly significant trends. Trends vary at various metrics suggesting different behaviour of air pollutants at various quantiles of the distributions. Changepoint analysis was performed, which provides further insight into the temporal trends and highlights the points when the trends have changed significantly. Potential factors responsible for the observed temporal trends are discussed. Further work on source apportionment of various emission sources and spatial variability of air pollutants is required to provide further insight into the causes behind the trends of air pollutants and help better manage air pollutant levels in Makkah and elsewhere in the country.

Munir, Said; Habeebullah, Turki M.; Seroji, Abdulaziz R.; Gabr, Safwat S.; Mohammed, Atif M. F.; Morsy, Essam A.

2013-10-01

26

Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Background This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32), followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07), and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69) than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men). Conclusion A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the highest incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases. Finally, Jouf had the highest changes in crude incidence rate and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of NHL among Saudi men.

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Alghamdi, Mansour M; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

2014-01-01

27

Saudi Arabia's experience in solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress in solar energy research in Saudi Arabia is discussed with emphasis on the efforts of a government research entity - King Adbulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Three programs currently underway at KACST are considered: the continuation of activities initiated under the Solar Energy Research American\\/Saudi (SOLERAS) program, a Saudi\\/German program, and projects developed and conducted completely

Fahad S. Huraib

1990-01-01

28

"Near miss" obstetric morbidity in an inner city hospital in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A defined "near-miss" end-point, e.g. peripartum hysterectomy, is a more useful measure of obstetric care in a modern inner-city hospital than maternal mortality. Thus, indication(s), type of operation, risk factors and surgical morbidity of all cases of peripartum hysterectomy conducted over a period of 85 months at King Abdul Aziz Hospital, Jeddah were reviewed. The incidence of hysterectomy was 1.22 per 1000 deliveries. Atonic postpartum haemorrhage was the most common reason (43.5%), followed by ruptured uterus (30.4%) and placenta accreta (26.1%). Of the atonic group, five patients were primigravidae, three of whom had severe pre-eclampsia. Abnormally prolonged labour was noted in this group. In the uterine rupture group, only two patients had had previous caesarean sections. In the placenta accreta group, three patients had placenta praevia, two of whom had scars from previous caesarean sections. One maternal death was attributed to amniotic fluid embolism. PMID:11338695

Nasrat, H A; Youssef, M H; Marzoogi, A; Talab, F

1999-07-01

29

The role of the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology in Information Services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper concentrates on one main organization which is responsible as a national centre for scientific and technological information in Saudi Arabia. It describes the services prepared by this national organization, such as databases, information services, computer activities and na tional networks. There are many databases, covering science and technology, bibliographies, terminology and manpower, besides other services such as online

Mohammed Ali Al-Tasan

1992-01-01

30

An Assessment of the Readiness of King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia, in Adopting Effective Online Staff Development Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internet access has grown in Saudi Arabia between 2000 and 2005 by more than 1000% and many governmental organizations are starting to provide part of their services using the internet. In addition, the Ministry of Higher Education has provided funding to all governmental universities to start developing strategies and guidelines for online…

Alwadie, Adnan D.

2011-01-01

31

Effect of Lead and Copper on the Growth of Heavy Metal Resistance Fungi Isolated from Second Industrial City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.

Siham, Al-Kadeeb A.

32

Water quality of bottled water in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A comparative study with Riyadh municipal and Zamzam water.  

PubMed

Nine domestic and three imported bottled water brands were analyzed in Saudi Arabia for various physicochemical water quality parameters. The results of the analysis were compared with the drinking water standards set by different regulatory agencies. The levels of different physicochemical parameters like pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), Ca, Mg, Na, K, NO(3), Cl, and SO(4) of all local and imported bottled water brands met the standards set by different regulatory agencies. Fifteen (15) trace metals viz. Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr, Pb, and Zn were also analyzed in all the samples. Comparison of analyzed results with the reported label values showed considerable variation for different parameters. Variation was also recorded for the analyzed parameters for 3 bottles of the same bottled water brand, both for local and imported bottled waters. Zamzam water was also collected from Makkah Al Mukarrama from different locations and analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. Bottled waters were also compared with the city municipal water supply and Zamzam water. PMID:21992118

Alfadul, Sulaiman M; Khan, Mujahid A

2011-01-01

33

The 3d Documentation of Projected Wooden Windows (the Roshans) in the Old City of Jeddah (saudi Arabia) Using Image-Based Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Roshan represents one of the most characteristic aspects of traditional architecture in Hejaz (Saudi Arabia) and a frequent feature in most of the Historical Jeddah's heritage buildings. The old city has witnessed continued degradation recently, which has caused the loss its traditional architecture and hundreds of these projected wooden windows. Documentation is a major step towards heritage preservation, whether threatened by man-made or natural factors. However, due to the absence of specialists and experts an architectural database of the Roshans does not exist. Surveying these architectural elements is a very laborious and difficult process when using conventional methodologies including the laser sensors approach mainly due to the onsite limitations. Establishing an architectural database of the Roshans is the main objective in this research paper, based on the continuous development of data capture and modelling methodologies that allows the accurate recording of even the most complex and intricate details and patterns which are typically found in Roshans. Recent advances in image based techniques (digital close-range photogrammetry and computer vision) such as the semi-automated solutions of Dense Stereo Matching (DSM) and 3D modelling software has offered an accurate, inexpensive and practical solution to surveying, documenting and reconstructing these architectural heritage features. In this paper the application of these methods is tested and evaluated on the Roshans in the old city of Jeddah.

Alitany, A.; Rebondo, E.; Adas, A.

2013-07-01

34

The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients.

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

2014-01-01

35

Preferences and attitudes of the Saudi population toward receiving medical bad news: A primary study from Riyadh city  

PubMed Central

Background: Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. Objectives: This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: In this study, 474 (46.8%) were males and 539 (53.2%) were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6%) preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5%) preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants' perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Factors such as marital status, age, and gender, and education play significant roles in how bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task.

Alrukban, Mohammed O.; Albadr, Badr O.; Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Alshuil, Mussab; Aldebaib, Abulrahman; Algannam, Tamim; Alhafaf, Faisal; Almohanna, Abdulaziz; Alfifi, Tariq; Alshehri, Abdullah; Alshahrani, Muhannad

2014-01-01

36

Tuberculosis incidence trends in Saudi Arabia over 20 years: 1991-2010  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and trends over a period of 20 years (1991-2010) and assess the impact of the National TB Control Program (NTP) on incidence trends. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of TB surveillance data reported by the Ministry of Health. We evaluated TB incidence data by nationality, age, and region of the country and assessed incidence trends over 20 years of study. Chi-squared test was used to assess trend change and its significance. RESULTS: There were a total of 64,345 reported TB cases over the study period. Of these 48% were Non-Saudis. TB annual incidence rate ranged between 14 and 17/100,000. For Saudis, the rate ranged between 8.6 and 12.2/100,000. Non-Saudis had 2-3 times higher incidence. Disease trend was rising over the first 10 years of the study period then it started to fall slightly. The incidence increased with age, but only people older than 45 years showed a declining trend. Regional variations were observed. Makkah and Jazan regions had the highest incidence rates. Disease trends were rising over the last 10 years in Makkah and Central regions. CONCLUSION: TB control seems to be facing some challenges in several regions of the Kingdom. NTP needs to evaluate and improve TB control strategies in order to reduce disease incidence to elimination levels.

Al-Orainey, Ibrahim; Alhedaithy, Mogbil A.; Alanazi, Awad R.; Barry, Mazin A.; Almajid, Fahad M.

2013-01-01

37

Insecticide resistance of Culex pipiens (L.) populations (Diptera: Culicidae) from Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia: Status and overcome  

PubMed Central

Three field populations of Cx. pipiens (L.) mosquitoes were collected from three different localities in Riyadh city. They were tested for developing resistance against commonly used insecticides to control mosquitoes in Riyadh. Two populations from Wadi Namar (WN1 and WN2) were highly resistant to deltamethrin (187.1- and 161.4-folds respectively). The field population from AL-Wadi district (AL-W) showed low resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin (3.8-folds) and moderate resistance to beta-cyfluthrin and bifenthrin (14- and 38.4-folds respectively). No resistance to fenitrothion was observed in WN1 population. Fenitrothion concentrations required to inhibit 50% of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in both WN1 population and the laboratory susceptible strain (S-LAB) were 0.073 and 0.078 ppm respectively. Piperonyl butoxide suppressed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides (>90%) in field populations indicating that oxidases and/or esterases play an important role in the reduction of pyrethroids toxicity. These results should be considered in the current mosquitoes control programs in Riyadh.

Al-Sarar, Ali S.

2010-01-01

38

Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR), and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling. Results A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001) in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83), followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82), and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98). The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years) and 1.71 + (0.09× years), respectively. Conclusion We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women.

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; Dohal, Ahlam A; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

2014-01-01

39

The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Background This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR), and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. Results A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2%) of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2) had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan, and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women.

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

2013-01-01

40

Center Pivot Irrigation Agriculture, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This enormous center pivot irrigated agricultural complex in Saudi Arabia (26.5N, 43.5E) is located about 250 miles northwest of the capital city of Riyadh. The darker circular fields are indicative of active growing crops as contrasted to the lighter toned fields indicating that they are either fallow or abandoned. Other recognizable features include Wadi ar Rumah, the cities of Buraydah, Unayzah and Ar Rassan and an airstrip at Gassim.

1992-01-01

41

School Psychology in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews status of school psychology in Saudi Arabia. Describes rapidity of social change in Saudi Arabia, Saudi system of education, school psychology services, administration, training facilities, and school psychology's contributions to Saudi society. Presents plan for future development of school psychology and describes challenges confronting…

el Sendiony, M. F. M.; And Others

1987-01-01

42

Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

1992-01-01

43

NASA Remote Sensing Validation Data: Saudi Arabia  

DOE Data Explorer

Since 1995, the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have co-operated to establish a 12 station network of high quality solar radiation monitoring installations across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. NREL and KACST realized the value of accurate surface solar radiation flux measurements for validation of satellite derived surface and atmospheric solar radiation flux measurements, and is making this data available to support validation of satellite data products related to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth component of the Earth Science Enterprise Earth Observing System (EOS) project to evaluate long term climate trends based on measuements from EOS Terra Platforms. A CIMEL 8 channel sunphotometer for measuring aerosol optical depth at 6 wavelengths and total column water has been deployed at the Solar Village station since February 24, 1999. [Taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/new_data/Saudi_Arabia/

Myers, Daryl R. (NREL); Al-Abbadi,Naif (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Energy Research Institite); Wilcox, Steve (NREL)

44

Thunderstorm distribution and frequency in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new average annual thunder day map for Saudi Arabia is presented. Based on this map, the distribution of thunderstorms over Saudi Arabia is analysed in terms of the factors related to the lightning performance of transmission lines such as thunderstorm days per year (Td/yr). Lightning activity continues for the present to be represented by thunderstorm frequency, which is routinely recorded at meteorological observation sites. Thunderstorm occurrence at a particular location is usually expressed as the number of days in a calendar year when thunder was heard, averaged over several years. This paper examines thunderstorm days in different areas of Saudi Arabia and specifically those areas where lightning strikes are more frequent; for this purpose, the software ArcGIS is used to produce contour maps which demonstrate areas of concern in Saudi Arabia in the period 1985-2003. Establishing the annual and seasonal Td/yr for Saudi Arabia enables transmission and distribution line engineers to calculate and better design a lightning protection system. Maps of thunder days/year (Td/yr) were constructed on the basis of the database records available on lightning incidence in Saudi Arabia at the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) (http://www.pme.gov.sa/). Annual thunderstorms are most frequent over the southwestern parts of the country, and generally decrease towards the west and east. Due to its low latitude and less temporal change, the west coast of the Red Sea recorded the lowest Td/yr. A secondary maximum Td/yr is apparent in the southeast to central part of the country. Thunderstorm frequency does not, in general, appear to vary in any consistent way with rainfall. There appears to be no evidence of any widespread temporal trend in thunderstorm frequency. The southern region in general, and especially the cities of Abha, Taif and Al-Baha, has shown greater numbers of thunderstorm days all year round. Similarly, this variation did show higher frequency throughout the year. The development of lightning incidence and the counting of Td/yr, as well as the establishment of annual and seasonal lightning maps of Saudi Arabia, are initiating a new era of producing and archiving thunderstorm maps and data records which serve the PME, the utilities, industry and the public.

Shwehdi, M. H.

2005-09-01

45

Fluoride Content in Drinking Water Supplies of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater supplies about 34% ofthe total water demand for the capital city of SaudiArabia, Riyadh. The other 66% is desalinatedseawater. The fluoride level in Riyadh drinking watersupplies was evaluated. Samples were collected fromselected wells, treatment plants, desalinatedseawater, distribution network and 19 locally producedand imported bottled water. The fluoride level in theinfluent to the seven groundwater treatment plants andtheir final product

Abdulrahman I. Alabdula'aly; King Abdulaziz

1997-01-01

46

Communication with the seriously ill: physicians' attitudes in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To study some ethical problems created by accession of a previously nomadic and traditional society to modern invasive medicine, by assessment of physicians' attitudes towards sharing information and decision-making with patients in the setting of a serious illness. DESIGN: Self-completion questionnaire administered in 1993. SETTING: Riyadh, Jeddah, and Buraidah, three of the largest cities in Saudi Arabia. SURVEY SAMPLE:

A F Mobeireek; F A al-Kassimi; S A al-Majid; A al-Shimemry

1996-01-01

47

Awareness and attitude of cancer patients about participation in clinical research (CR) in Saudi Arabia. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Sheblaq NR,Traifi S,Al Sakiani M,Gasmelseed A,Abolfotouh MA,Jazieh AR. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Abdul Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ASCO 2013 Annual Meeting. 2013 May 31. 2013 Jun 04. Chicago, IL.

48

Tabanidae (Diptera) of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Samples were collected from southern, central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia using Malaise traps and sweep nets. Nine species of Tabanidae were identified, two for the first time from Saudi Arabia, Hybomitra peculiaris (Szilády) and Atylotus pulchellus (Loew). Therefore, the total number of Tabanidae in Saudi Arabia is 31 species. Remarks of the species recorded in this study were given. A key to the genera of Tabanidae occurring in the Arabian Peninsula is also provided. Available literature for Saudi Arabian Tabanidae is summarized and provided. It is concluded that the tabanid fauna of Saudi Arabia is more similar to that of the Palaearctic region than to the Afrotropical region.

Al Dhafer, H.M.; Dawah, H.A.; Abdullah, M.A.

2009-01-01

49

Tabanidae (Diptera) of saudi arabia.  

PubMed

Samples were collected from southern, central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia using Malaise traps and sweep nets. Nine species of Tabanidae were identified, two for the first time from Saudi Arabia, Hybomitra peculiaris (Szilády) and Atylotus pulchellus (Loew). Therefore, the total number of Tabanidae in Saudi Arabia is 31 species. Remarks of the species recorded in this study were given. A key to the genera of Tabanidae occurring in the Arabian Peninsula is also provided. Available literature for Saudi Arabian Tabanidae is summarized and provided. It is concluded that the tabanid fauna of Saudi Arabia is more similar to that of the Palaearctic region than to the Afrotropical region. PMID:23961046

Al Dhafer, H M; Dawah, H A; Abdullah, M A

2009-10-01

50

Teaching and evaluation methods of medical ethics in the Saudi public medical colleges: cross-sectional questionnaire study  

PubMed Central

Background Saudi Arabia is considered one of the most influential Muslim countries being as the host of the two most holy places for Muslims, namely Makkah and Madina. This was reflected in the emphasis on teaching medical ethics in a lecture-based format as a part of the subject of Islamic culture taught to medical students. Over the last few years, both teaching and evaluation of medical ethics have been changing as more Saudi academics received specialized training and qualifications in bioethics from western universities. Methods This study aims at studying the current teaching methods and evaluation tools used by the Saudi public medical schools. It is done using a self-administered online questionnaire. Results Out of the 14 medical schools that responded, the majority of the responding schools (6; 42.8%), had no ethics departments; but all schools had a curriculum dedicated to medical ethics. These curricula were mostly developed by the faculty staff (12; 85.7%). The most popular teaching method was lecturing (13; 92.8%). The most popular form of student assessment was a paper-based final examination (6; 42.8%) at the end of the course that was allocated 40% or more of the total grade of the ethics course. Six schools (42.8%) allocated 15-30% of the total grade to research. Conclusion Although there is a growing interest and commitment in teaching ethics to medical students in Saudi schools; there is lack of standardization in teaching and evaluation methods. There is a need for a national body to provide guidance for the medical schools to harmonize the teaching methods, particularly introducing more interactive and students-engaging methods on the account of passive lecturing.

2013-01-01

51

Update: Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A guide for persons planning on living in or relocating to Saudi Arabia for extended periods of time, this book features information on such topics as entry requirements, transportation, money matters, housing, schools, and insurance. The guide's contents include the following sections: (1) an overview; (2) before leaving; (3) on arrival; (4)…

McGregor, Joy; Nydell, Margaret

52

Occurrence of fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.

Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.

2013-09-01

53

Saudi National Security. Research report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research paper is to focus on Saudi National Security. The author highlights geographic and historic factors that impact on threats to Saudi Arabia, and the objectives for providing security. He discusses how to achieve these objectives, including military readiness and cooperation with other countries to guarantee Saudi security. This is to ensure interests which are vital to the industrial world as the result of a continued flow of oil with a reasonable price. Given is the author`s opinion about U.S. political strategy in the region to achieve stability in the Gulf Region.

Al-Ayed, I.

1996-05-01

54

Demographics: The Downfall of Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Threats to Saudi Arabia have historically been categorized as external, reference immediate neighbors, and internal via conservative Islamic opposition groups The United States, because of its security arrangement, has guaranteed the sovereignty of Saudi ...

A. N. Goetz

2003-01-01

55

Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Humans, Najran, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Alkhurma virus is a flavivirus, discovered in 1994 in a person who died of hemorrhagic fever after slaughtering a sheep from the city of Alkhurma, Saudi Arabia. Since then, several cases of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (ALKHF), with fatality rates up to 25%, have been documented. From January 1, 2006, through April 1, 2009, active disease surveillance and serologic testing of household contacts identified ALKHF in 28 persons in Najran, Saudi Arabia. For epidemiologic comparison, serologic testing of household and neighborhood controls identified 65 serologically negative persons. Among ALKHF patients, 11 were hospitalized and 17 had subclinical infection. Univariate analysis indicated that the following were associated with Alkhurma virus infection: contact with domestic animals, feeding and slaughtering animals, handling raw meat products, drinking unpasteurized milk, and being bitten by a tick. After multivariate modeling, the following associations remained significant: animal contact, neighboring farms, and tick bites.

Alzahrani, Abdullah G.; Al Shaiban, Hassan M.; Al Mazroa, Mohammad A.; Al-Hayani, Osama; MacNeil, Adam; Rollin, Pierre E.

2010-01-01

56

Role of solar energy research in transferring of technology to Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is blessed with abundant solar energy, which is renewable, clean, and freely available. This paper describes the status of the major research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities and achievements at the Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, in the field of solar energy. RD and D activities in the

S. H. Alawaji; S. M. Hasnain

1999-01-01

57

Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR) were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR) and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR) in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

2013-01-01

58

First Dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (?75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods) with derived abelisaurids – this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.

Kear, Benjamin P.; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Ali, Mohammed A.; Al-Mufarreh, Yahya A.; Matari, Adel H.; Al-Massari, Abdu M.; Nasser, Abdulaziz H.; Halawani, Mohammed A.

2013-01-01

59

Nuptiality pattern in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The data of this work are based on the 'Saudi Maternal and Child Health Survey' conducted in 1991. This was a nationwide house to house field survey. The study included 6294 ever-married Saudi female in the childbearing age who represent the target population. They were randomly selected from both urban and rural settings of the five geographical areas of Saudi Arabia. The mean current age of the sample of ever-married women was 31 years and the mean age at first marriage was 17 and 16 years for urban and rural females, respectively. Education was associated with upward shift of the age at first marriage. About 20 per cent of the sampled ever-married Saudi females got married before their 15th birthday and 83 per cent before reaching 20 years of age. These percentages are even higher in rural than urban settings. The overall percentage of women who were currently married at the time of the survey was 96 per cent. The divorced and widowed women of childbearing age were 2 and 3 per cent, respectively, of the total. Husband's educational level had positive impact on the frequency of divorce. The latter was highest among women married to illiterate husbands with a dose response pattern. Comparison has been made with the situation 4 years ago. An increase in literacy rates among Saudi ever-married women and their husbands was observed, however, a significant (P < 0.05) difference still exists between female and male literacy rates (38 and 71 per cent, respectively). The events of early marriage, before the age of 15 years, became less frequent. There is an overall decline in teenage marriages which explains a large part of the recent changes observed in nuptiality and pattern of birth in Saudi Arabia. PMID:8568953

Farag, M K; al-Mazrou, Y Y; Baldo, M H; Aziz, K M; al-Shehri, S N

1995-01-01

60

Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States - Workshop Papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chapter titles: Internal Stability In Saudi Arabia; Economic Achievements and Prospects For Saudi Arabia and the Other GCC States; Social Change in the Arab Gulf States and Political Implications; The Role Of Saudi Military Forces, in the Gulf Region; The...

A. Cordesman E. Nakhleh E. R. Peterson H. Askari J. E. Peterson

1988-01-01

61

Fungi inhabiting household environments in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Fungi inhabiting household environments in the West, East and Central localities of Riyadh city were screened. The screened area included bedrooms, drawing rooms, living rooms, kitchens and bathrooms. The common genera of fungi isolated were Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Drechslera, Embellisia, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scytalidium, Trichoderma, Torula and Ulocladium. Two uncommon genera Nodulosporium and Oidiodendron for Saudi Arabian mycoflora were also isolated. In all the localities, the highest number of fungal colonies per plate or per gram were found in the living rooms, followed by bedrooms. The number of colonies per plate or per gram was in general higher in densely populated than in less populated areas. PMID:7566061

Bokhary, H A; Parvez, S

1995-05-01

62

Changing attitudes in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

Martiradonna, Luigi

2014-04-01

63

Who Were the Fifteen Saudis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On September 11, 2001, the al-Qa'ida terrorist network succeeded in an act of terror which the world will not soon forget. The 19 terrorists who hijacked the four airliners were all Muslims from Arab states, 15 of them were citizens of Saudi Arabia. This ...

M. F. Piechot

2003-01-01

64

[The weight of immigration in Saudi Arabia].  

PubMed

The social, political, and economic implications of the immigrant presence in Saudi Arabia are explored. The author notes that about one-third of the population of the country is made up of working nonnationals. The tensions that exist are examined, with reference to the exclusion of the migrants from Saudi Arabian society and the extreme imbalance in the sex ratio caused by predominately male migration. The author suggests that dependence on migrant labor is likely to increase rather than decrease as Saudi nationals are oriented toward nontechnical studies and Saudi women are excluded from the labor force. PMID:12233432

De Klebnikoff, S

1982-01-01

65

Saudis awaken to their vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Arabia is becoming aware that it is vulnerable to internal and external pressures which threaten its security. The strains of rapid modernization and threats from hostile neighbors are undermining the consensus which has held the widely diverse country together in a system of open communication. Influence by the Bedouin (ruling) and the ulama (religious) groups has predominated a traditional society determined to modernize and still remain conservative. Members of the ruling class are seeking to profit from the modernization process, but the common Saudi resists becoming an industrial laborer. Recent events in Mecca, Afghanistan and elsewhere illustrate how political pressures are affecting the country's leadership in the threat of armed conflicts over its oil supplies. (DCK)

Tinnin, D.B.

1980-03-10

66

The Saudi Initiative for Asthma  

PubMed Central

The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA) provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Idrees, Majdy M.; Zeitouni, Mohamed O.; Alanezi, Mohammed O.; Al-Jahdal, Hamdan H.; Al Dabbagh, Maha

2009-01-01

67

Surface Rupture in Northwest Saudi Arabia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault rupture caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...

2010-09-28

68

Saudi Consumer Preference of Fast Food Outlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study empirically examines the attributes of fast food restaurants that influence the consumer preference of fast food outlets in Saudi Arabia. Based on the existing literature and an examination of the socio-cultural and economic environment of Saudi Arabia, two hypotheses have been developed. The hypotheses are that the fast food restaurant attributes of nutrition, price, taste, speed, delivery service,

Shahid N. Bhuian

2000-01-01

69

Lightning Thunderstorms Day Maps for Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main objectives of this original research is to establish and develop the annual and seasonal maps of the Isokeraunic level (Thunders days, Td) for the country. Also, collect and document thunderstorms and lightning activities in Saudi Arabia and present the steps of development and validation of these authentic maps. A new annual thunder day maps for Saudi

M. H. Shwehdi

2008-01-01

70

Career Choices Among Saudi Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 253 final-year students at the four Saudi medical schools found the most frequently-chosen specialties were internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology. Over one-fourth were unsure of career choice. Gender differences were found. Most common locations for postgraduate training were Saudi Arabia and Canada, and a…

Al-Faris, Eiad; And Others

1997-01-01

71

International agenda-setting effects of Saudi Arabian media: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of Saudi Arabian media in setting the intrapersonal, interpersonal and international agenda for the civil servant employees in Riyadh, the capital city. Al-Riyadh and Al-Sharq Al-Awsat were selected for analysis as they were reported to be the most popular Arabic language newspapers in Riyadh. In addition, the two television

Abdallah S. Al-Haqeel; Srinivas R. Melkote

1996-01-01

72

Seismic fragility curves for mid-rise reinforced concrete frames in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the development of seismic fragility curves for typical mid-rise plane reinforced concrete moment-resisting frames in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which is considered as low-seismicity area. Two structural models; four- and eight-storey moment-resisting frames were considered. Three cities with different seismic intensities, Abha, Jazan and Al-Sharaf, were selected to cover various values of mapped spectral

Yasser E. Ibrahim; Mostafa M. El-Shami

2011-01-01

73

Progress Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997  

SciTech Connect

In 1987, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) signed a five-year Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development (R and D), which has been extended to 2000. Tasks include: (1) upgrade solar radiation measurements in Saudi Arabia; (2) assemble a database of concurrent solar radiation, satellite (METEOSAT), and meteorological data; (3) adapt NREL models and other software for Saudi Arabia; (4) develop procedures, algorithms, and software to estimate solar irradiance; and (5) prepare a grid of solar radiation data for preparing maps and atlases and estimating solar radiation resources and solar energy system performances at locations in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Amoudi, Anmed; Alawaji, Saleh H.; Cornwall, Chris; Mahfoodh, Mohammed bin; Marion, Bill; Maxwell, Eugene L.; Wilcox, Stephen M.

1999-08-20

74

Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice toward medicines  

PubMed Central

The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15–20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines’ uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine’s efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students’ reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ?18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P < 0.014). The study showed that Saudi school students aged 15–20 years old have poor knowledge, misconception and negative attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students’ practice toward medicines.

Eldalo, Ahmed S.; Yousif, Mirghani A.; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad

2013-01-01

75

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

2013-12-01

76

The Impact of Foreign Cultures through the Video (VCR\\/ DVD\\/ VCD) and Television (TV) on Saudi Society as Perceived by Saudi Undergraduate Students in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to examine the perceptions of Saudi undergraduate students regarding the effect of the movies and programs of the Video (VCR\\/ DVD\\/ VCD) and television (TV) on Saudi culture. A survey method using a questionnaire was employed to collect the data for this study. A total of 83 Saudi undergraduate students of whom 58 (or 69.9%) were males

Hassan Omar Basfar

2007-01-01

77

Informal Networks and Saudi Regime Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The increasingly vocal Islamist opposition to the Saudi regime, which gathered strength following the Gulf War, lent new urgency to predictions of the regime's demise. The fact that the Saud family has retained control of the government throughout this pe...

D. H. McAllister

1997-01-01

78

Trajectory analysis of Saudi Arabian dust storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal and spatial characteristics of Saudi Arabian dust storms, with focus on associated air parcel trajectories, are investigated using station and gridded weather observations and remotely-sensed aerosol optical depth (AOD). For 13 focal stations, an extensive pool of 84-h backward trajectories is developed for dust storm days, and the trajectories are grouped into 3-5 representative clusters based on the K-means technique and Silhouette Coefficients. Saudi Arabian dust storms are most prominent during February-June, with a mid-winter peak along the southern coast of the Red Sea, spring peak across northern Saudi Arabia around the An Nafud Desert, and early summer peak in eastern Saudi Arabia around the Ad Dahna Desert. Based on backward trajectories, the primary local dust source is the Rub Al Khali Desert and the primary remote sources are the Saharan Desert, for western Saudi Arabia, and Iraqi Deserts, for northern and eastern Saudi Arabia. During February-April, the Mediterranean storm track is active, with passing cyclones and associated cold fronts carrying Saharan dust to Saudi Arabian stations along the northern coast of the Red Sea. Across Saudi Arabia, the highest AOD is achieved during dust storms that originate from the Rub Al Khali and Iraqi Deserts. Most stations are dominated by local dust sources (primarily Rub Al Khali), are characterized by three dominant trajectory paths, and achieve AOD values exceeding 1. In contrast, for stations receiving predominantly remote dust (particularly Saharan), 3-5 trajectory paths emerge and AOD values only reach approximately 0.6 as dust is lost during transport.

Notaro, Michael; Alkolibi, Fahad; Fadda, Eyad; Bakhrjy, Fawzieh

2013-06-01

79

Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

Fitzhugh, William

2006-01-01

80

Immunologic Hyporesponsiveness to Serogroup C but Not Serogroup A following Repeated Meningococcal A/C Polysaccharide Vaccination in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

In Saudi Arabia, vaccination with the meningococcal A/C polysaccharide (MACP) vaccine is advised every 3 years. A clinical outcome study was performed to test the effect of repeat vaccination with the MACP vaccine on the immune responses among Saudi nationals who live in the Makkah and Jeddah areas. Subjects (n = 230) aged 10 to 29 years were selected: 113 subjects with two or more prior vaccinations with the MACP vaccine, 79 subjects with one prior vaccination with the MACP vaccine, and 38 subjects naïve to vaccination with the MACP vaccine. All subjects received the MACP vaccine in 2002, and serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers were measured before and 1 month after vaccination with the MACP vaccine. For serogroup C, geometric mean SBA titers 1 month following vaccination with the MACP vaccine were 708.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 217.5 to 2,308.9) for those naïve to prior vaccination with the MACP vaccine, and they were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than 25.0 (95% CI, 12.4 to 50.2) for those who had received one prior vaccination with the MACP vaccine and 32.4 (95% CI, 18.7 to 56.4) for those who had received two or more doses of the MACP vaccine. For serogroup A, the geometric mean SBA titer 1 month after receipt of the MACP vaccine was 1,649.3 (95% CI, 835.2 to 3,256.9) for those naïve to prior vaccination, and the titers were lower (P = 0.67) than 2,185.7 (95% CI, 1,489.4 to 3,207.7) for those who had received one prior dose of the MACP vaccine and significantly lower (P = 0.042) than 3,540.8 (95% CI, 2,705.2 to 4,634.5) for those who had received two or more doses of the MACP vaccine. For serogroup C, the proportions of nonresponders (SBA titers, <8) were 19% for the naïve cohort, 52% for the cohort with one prior vaccination, and 49% for the cohort with two or more prior vaccinations. Following repeated doses of the MACP vaccine, hyporesponsiveness to serogroup C is evident, with high percentages of MACP vaccinees having SBA titers below the putative protective SBA titer. Serogroup A responses following vaccination with the MACP vaccine were boosted. Introduction of the serogroup C conjugate vaccine would provide long-term protection against serogroup C disease; however, quadrivalent conjugate vaccines are required to provide long-time protection against disease caused by serogroups A, W135, and Y.

Jokhdar, Hani; Borrow, Ray; Sultan, Abdulrazaq; Adi, Mousaed; Riley, Christine; Fuller, Emily; Baxter, David

2004-01-01

81

Empowering Saudi patients: how do Saudi health websites compare to international health websites?  

PubMed

Little information is known about how Saudi health websites compare internationally. The purpose of this paper is to compare two leading Saudi health websites with leading international health websites. The study was conducted as a convenience sample at a graduate health college in Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 students participated in the study. The study found that, in general, English websites have higher levels of performance with regard to quality of information, authority and objectivity, coverage and currency, and design. However, the respondents considered Saudi health websites to be superior with regard to maintaining privacy and security. The results indicate that much more work is needed in designing Saudi Health to make them more trustworthy and credible. The limitations of this work and future research directions are also discussed. PMID:23388302

Househ, Mowafa; Alsughayar, Abdulrahman; Al-Mutairi, Maha

2013-01-01

82

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saud dynasty, enjoys special importance in much of the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. The United States and Saudi Arabia have longstanding econo...

A. B. Prados C. M. Blanchard

2006-01-01

83

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saud dynasty, enjoys special importance in much of the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. The United States and Saudi Arabia have longstanding econo...

A. B. Prados C. M. Blanchard

2007-01-01

84

Noteworthy: oil markets: Saudis abandon WTI price as benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia's state-owned oil company no longer uses West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil as its pricing benchmark. Saudi Aramco, the third largest U.S. oil supplier, switched to the Argus Sour Crude Index (ASCI) in January.

Jackson Thies

2010-01-01

85

Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.  

PubMed

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to learn from this unique phenomenon of migration medicine. PMID:12615370

Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

2003-02-01

86

Saudi Arabia stock prices forecasting using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Corresponding author Abstract -In this paper, we have proposed artificial neural network for the prediction of Saudi stock market. The proposed predictions model, with its high degree of accuracy, could be used as investment advisor for the investors and traders in the Saudi stock market. The proposed model is based mainly on Saudi Stock market historical data covering a

Sunday Olusanya Olatunji; Mohammad Saad Al-Ahmadi; Moustafa Elshafei; Yaser Ahmed Fallatah

2011-01-01

87

Lateral cephalometric norms for Saudi adults: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning require careful evaluation of the patient’s cephalometric values and comparison to known population cephalometric means or norms. Despite the availability of several published studies on Saudi cephalometric norms, Caucasian norms are still referred to when Saudi patients are treated. To reach a consensus between these studies and to establish more accurately cephalometric norms for Saudis,

Abdullah M. Aldrees

2011-01-01

88

Attitudes of Saudi Arabian secondary preservice teachers toward teaching practices in science: The adequacy of preparation to use teaching strategies in classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Saudi Arabian secondary preservice science teachers (SPSTs) toward a variety of science teaching practices. An ultimate, essential goal of this study was to use generated information and findings to improve the current secondary science education programs in Saudi Arabia and to develop better science teacher practices. The selected practices were posted by the National Research Council in 1999. These indicated that students learn science best through understanding of science rather than memorization of scientific facts and concepts, building new knowledge and understanding on what is already known and believed, formulating new knowledge by modifying and refining current concepts and by adding new concepts to what is already known, taking care of their own learning, social learning environments and interactions, and application of knowledge to novel situations. The study's sample consisted of all (147) SPSTs enrolled in the spring semester of 2003 in four Teachers' Colleges: Riyadh, Makkah, Taif, and Dammam. All participants were performing student teaching in secondary schools. This study used quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. Only three SPSTs were purposefully selected from each college for seven semi-structured interview questions, lasting an hour per interview. They were asked to complete a 58-item questionnaire survey and respond to four open-ended survey questions. To assess their attitudes toward the above science teaching practices, data was analyzed using the Rasch analysis model, other parametric tests (e.g., a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent-samples t-test), and non-parametric tests (e.g., a chi-square of independent test). Furthermore, qualitative procedures were also used to assess SPSTs' views of some specific aspects about science teaching and the current secondary science education programs in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved through a careful analysis of frequent themes, patterns, and phrases mentioned by participants, which were coded and classified under broader categories. Findings of this study revealed that there were some significant differences among SPSTs in different Teachers' colleges with regard to certain demographic variables such as 'Teachers' College location' and 'age.' A broad conclusion was that although SPSTs felt that these six science teaching practices were crucial and effective teaching methods in classrooms, they did not frequently implement them due to several factors: large numbers of students in classrooms, classroom management issues, time demands, and lack of necessary materials and equipment.

Aljabber, Jabber M.

89

Sexual Behavior in Male Adolescents with Autism and Its Relation to Social-Sexual Skills in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to identify common sexual behavior among adolescents with autism, where parents and teachers of sixty-one male adolescents from twelve to twenty-one years of age were recruited from three cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were asked to respond to a sexual behavior questionnaire, and a social-sexual skills…

Huwaidi, Mohamed A.; Daghustani, Wid H.

2013-01-01

90

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region  

PubMed Central

Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

2011-01-01

91

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Health Behaviors between Saudi and British Adolescents Living in Urban Areas: Gender by Country Analyses  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648) and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158). The participants (14–18 year-olds) were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3%) was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%). The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week). Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among Saudi adolescents (64%) compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%). The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively). The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05) gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001) gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon.

Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Abahussain, Nada A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Nevill, Alan

2013-01-01

92

Coronavirus respiratory illness in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Although viruses that belong to the coronavirus family are known since the 1930s, they only gained public health attention when they were discovered to be the causative agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in China in 2002-2003. On 22 September 2012, the Ministry of Health (MOH) in Saudi Arabia announced the detection of what was described as a "rare pattern" of coronavirus respiratory infection in three individuals, two Saudi citizens and one person from the Gulf Region. Neither Saudi citizen survived the infection. Molecular analysis of the isolates showed that the virus belongs to the genus beta-coronavirus. It is not known if the new isolates are circulating in the population or has recently diverged. The emergence of these novel isolates that resulted in fatal human infection ascertains that health authorities all over the world must be vigilant for the possibility of new global pandemics due to novel viral infection. PMID:23103889

Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed Ali; Rubino, Salvatore

2012-10-01

93

Demographic perspectives on Saudi Arabia's development.  

PubMed

Demographic movements likely to be taking place in Saudi Arabia were hypothesized on the basis of general knowledge. The discussion reports on population size, general Arab demographic patterns, general determinants of fertility, Arab fertility patterns, Saudi fertility patterns, mortality in general, mortality in the Middle East, mortality in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian population growth, immigration, the changing composition of the work force, and third plan targets. Some doubt exists as to the size of Saudi Arabia's population, but there is little question that the total is growing rapidly. This expansion is taking place through stepped up immigration and a relatively high natural growth of indigenous Saudis, but statistics on population size, structure, and on the number of births and deaths leaves the magnitude of a number of important demographic trends in doubt. Yet, considerable evidence exists that several of the Arab countries in the region with fairly good demographic data are likely to have similar demographic patterns. In depth analysis of the demographic dynamics of these countries, particularly Jordan and Kuwait, identified several common elements bearing on several key parameters. Using what Saudi data is available and making comparisons with these neighboring countries, one can, based on expected levels of birth and death rates, indirectly infer the natural growth of Saudi Arabia's population. With several notable exceptions, Saudi Arabia's demographic patterns show a marked similarity to those experienced in the region as a whole. The average rate of population growth in both Saudi Arabia and the Arab region is about 3% a year and in both instances fertility rates are high. The demographic structure of these countries is characterized by the youthfulness of the population. In most of the Arab countries, the population aged 15 years or under accounts for over 48% of the population. The rate of the economically active population is low, ranging from 22% to 32% of the total population, with the female participation rate varying from 3.5% to 18.5%. In the nonagricultural sector, the average activity rate of women over the age of 15 usually does not exceed 6%. Arab countries are also characterized by their high infant mortality rates. In 1975 these rates ranged from 60 to 200/1000. Illiteracy rates for the group, as a whole, are also high, and they are significantly higher among women than among men. A multipurpose survey conducted in Saudi Arabia during 1976 and 1977 reported a live birthrate of 54.2/1000. This is somewhat above the UN figure of 49.5 for the country and over the average for Arab countries of 46.6 for 1975. The mortality rate for the Saudi population is 14.1/1000. If one accepts the birth and death rates indicated by the multipurpose survey, the population is growing at a national rate of 3% or more per year. PMID:12340437

Looney, R E

1985-06-01

94

Everything depends on the Saudis  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that oil markets are at their lowest level in 18 months, since before the Persian Gulf crisis. What is remarkable is that the world oil industry is producing essentially at capacity, yet OPEC shows no sign of taking advantage of this situation to drive up prices. Rather, commodity market forces are quickly exploiting any short-term surplus or shortage, and the oil market is exposed to continuing price volatility. Oil market uncertainties - the return of Iraqi and Kuwaiti production, prospects for exports from former Soviet republics, and the fragility of economic recovery - appear bigger than normal and threaten to oversupply markets in the spring when oil demand declines seasonally. The downward trend in world oil prices that began in November may continue into the second quarter of 1992. However, by the second half an economic recovery may be underway. If that happens, demand should grow and the market firm. At any rate, prices in 1992 may be more stable than commonly expected, because Saudi Arabia does not seem to want prices much above or below 1991 levels. That would be a range of $20 - $21 for WTI.

Sauer, J.W. (Conoco Inc., Houston, TX (US))

1992-02-01

95

Genetic variability of PXR in Saudi Arabians.  

PubMed

Polymorphisms in the PXR gene play important roles in influencing the efficacy and toxicity of a large number of endogenous and exogenous substrates. Because of ethnic specificity, several studies have been directed toward the determination of PXR polymorphisms in various populations. In the current study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of 19 coding and regulatory polymorphisms in the PXR gene in Saudi Arabians by direct sequencing. Our results show that the frequencies of the regulatory PXR SNPs in Saudi Arabians differ from those in other ethnic groups, and the results endorse the commonly seen ethnic pattern of a paucity of the PXR coding SNPs. PMID:23576071

Al-Dosari, Mohammed S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Alghamdi, Amal M; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Halwani, Rabih; Parvez, M Khalid; Khalid Parvez, M

2013-08-01

96

Eastern Egypt, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eastern Egypt, the Red Sea and Saudi Arabia can all be seen in this single view of the Near East (26.5N, 36.5E). Not since The Gemini XI photo taken in 1966, have NASA astronauts been able to capture such a scope of the Earth's surface as this mission provided from its 330 nautical mile orbit. Easily seen from this vantage point is eastern Egypt, the Nile River, Lake Nassar, the Red Sea and almost half of Saudi Arabia.

1990-01-01

97

A Survey of Root Canal Treatment in Saudi Arabia: A pilot study.  

PubMed

Objective: To characterize the methods and practices used in root canal treatment in Saudi Arabia. Method: A questionnaire was developed and distributed in 2010-2011 to a simple random sample of 205 dental practitioners and distributed among private and governmental sectors in 8 different Saudi Arabian cities. The questions were designed to provide understanding of the awareness and knowledge of dentists regarding the new instruments and modern techniques that exist in the practice of endodontics. Completed questionnaires were analyzed in terms of a simple summary statistic. Results: A total of 85.9% of the practitioners responded. The majority of respondents reported using step-back instrumentation as their main root canal preparation technique (79%) and K-type files as intracanal instruments (75%). Overall, 47% of respondents did not use intracanal medications in their practice. Cold lateral compaction was the method of choice for 86% of respondents. Only 3%, however, used magnification devices and only 20% used electronic apex locators. Among those who indicated using rotary nickel titanium files, 80% use a ProFile system. Conclusions: In Saudi Arabia, there are traditional trends in practice that do not appear to be supported by scientific evidence. The results of this survey demonstrate the importance of integrating evidence-based practice concepts into teaching curriculums, continuous education courses, and postgraduate studies. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate this trend. PMID:24984647

Natto, Zuhair S

2014-06-01

98

Perception on the Relationship between Cancer and Usage of Tobacco and Alcohol in Hail, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Aim: Increasing alcohol consumption in many countries is an important cause of cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of tobacco use and alcohol consumption and its related perception among population of Hail, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey from March to April 2012 covering 451 participants, in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. Results: Out of 451 respondents, 355(78.7%) were male and 96 (21.3%) were female giving a male to female ratio of 3.7:1. The age range of respondents was 11 - 77 years with a mean of 32 years. Prevalence of tobacco use and alcoholic beverages consumption were 30.3% and 7.5%, respectively. Most of the tobacco users and alcohol consumers showed positive knowledge concerning the relation between tobacco use and/or alcohol consumption and cancer. Conclusion: It is evident that the prevalence of tobacco consumption is rising in the Hail region. Female participation in tobacco and alcohol related studies in the Hail - Saudi Arabia represent a major obstacle since it is considered as social stigma due to complete prohibition by law. PMID:24298474

Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed

2013-10-01

99

Perception on the Relationship between Cancer and Usage of Tobacco and Alcohol in Hail, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Aim: Increasing alcohol consumption in many countries is an important cause of cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of tobacco use and alcohol consumption and its related perception among population of Hail, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey from March to April 2012 covering 451 participants, in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. Results: Out of 451 respondents, 355(78.7%) were male and 96 (21.3%) were female giving a male to female ratio of 3.7:1. The age range of respondents was 11 – 77 years with a mean of 32 years. Prevalence of tobacco use and alcoholic beverages consumption were 30.3% and 7.5%, respectively. Most of the tobacco users and alcohol consumers showed positive knowledge concerning the relation between tobacco use and/or alcohol consumption and cancer. Conclusion: It is evident that the prevalence of tobacco consumption is rising in the Hail region. Female participation in tobacco and alcohol related studies in the Hail – Saudi Arabia represent a major obstacle since it is considered as social stigma due to complete prohibition by law.

Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed

2013-01-01

100

Unconventional therapy use among asthma patients in a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Unconventional therapy (UT) is a therapeutic practice of alternative and complementary medicine that is not currently considered an integral part of modern medical practice. The aim of this article is to investigate the experience of Saudi patients with UT modalities in the treatment of asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study of asthma patients referred to King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2004. Information was collected using a pre-designed questionnaire administered through interviews. RESULTS: Two hundred consecutive patients with a mean age of 52.3 years (±18.7) were included in this study. Sixty-nine (34.5%) of those patients used some form of UT in the previous year. There was a tendency to use UT among the older age group (P = 0.029) and among those with longer duration of disease (P = 0.009). However, there was no significant correlation observed between the use of UT and gender, FEV1, or disease control. The most commonly used form of UT was recitation of Holy Quran (9%), honey (24.5%), herbs (23.5%), cautery (12%), and blackseed (10%). There was no significant correlation between disease control and the use of modalities. CONCLUSION: Unconventional therapy is frequently practiced by asthma patients in Saudi Arabia, who commonly believe that UT will lead to improvement. The lack of evidence necessitates the fostering of a national project to address the practice of UT.

Al Moamary, Mohamed S

2008-01-01

101

78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...tubular goods from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan,...

2013-08-22

102

Prevalence of hypodontia and developmental malformation of permanent teeth in Saudi Arabian schoolchildren.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hypodontia and congenital malformation in permanent teeth of Saudi Arabian male children. Five-hundred schoolchildren were investigated, selected randomly from Riyadh city. The age group of the examined sample ranged from 13 years and 6 months to 14 years and 6 months. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed. The findings indicated that hypodontia was present in about 4 per cent of the children; most frequently affected was the mandibular second premolars, maxillary laterals, and maxillary second premolars. Tooth malformations, mainly peg-shaped upper lateral incisors were also observed in about 4 per cent of the sample. PMID:2192761

al-Emran, S

1990-05-01

103

Compliance with DNR policy in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Do not resuscitate (DNR) is an important aspect of medical practice, although few studies from Arab Muslim countries address\\u000a this issue. King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Saudi Arabia has a policy addressing all aspects of patient care at end of\\u000a life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To assess compliance of physicians with the current DNR policy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cohort study of data prospectively collected from 15\\/10\\/2008

Alaa Gouda; Ahmad Al-Jabbary; Lian Fong

2010-01-01

104

Creating and Mapping Flash Flood Social and Physical Vulnerability Index of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past couple of years, the frequency and magnitude of flash floods are increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For effective planning and mitigation purposes, it is necessary to identify and visualize areas that are vulnerable to the flooding. In this paper, we will first create a flash flood social and physical vulnerability index for the city of Riyadh based on physical and social-economic data. Building upon the index, the areas of Riyadh that are highly vulnerable to flash floods will be identified and mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Finally, possible mitigation measures that can be used to reduce the impacts of flooding will be discussed in details.

Tauhidur Rahman, Muhammad; Aldosary, Adel S.; Nahiduzzaman, Khondokar Mohammad

2014-05-01

105

Teachers' Online Discussion Forums in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia has special online discussion forums for teachers as part of its internet website. The study surveys those teachers' online forums and reports the number of participants, number of threads and responses, topics with the highest and lowest posts and the forums role in teachers' professional development and…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2006-01-01

106

Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…

Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

2008-01-01

107

Cinder Cones in Northwest Saudi Arabia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Harrat Lunayyir basalt cinder cones and lava flows in Saudi Arabia seen from an aerial perspective. Deposits from the cinder cones cover nearby ridges and form fans at the base of the older non-volcanic ridge in the background. These well-preserved geomorphic forms indicate the relative youth of thi...

2010-09-28

108

Characteristics of erectile dysfunction in Saudi patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the characteristics of erectile dysfunction (ED) in ambulatory Saudi patients. A total of 680 male patients were assessed for ED using IIEF. Patients were also interviewed for sociodemographic data, medical history and risk factors for ED. Assessment for penile vasculature using color Doppler ultrasonography and rigidometer was performed. In all, 21.4% of the patients with severe ED were

A I El-sakka

2004-01-01

109

Saudi Arabic Arabic. Materials Status Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials status report for Saudi Arabic is one of a series intended to provide the nonspecialist with a picture of the availability and quality of texts for teaching a given language to English speakers. Each report consists of: (1) a brief narrative description of the language, the areas where it is spoken, its major dialects, its writing…

Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language/Area Reference Center.

110

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycle City contains an interactive city map that demonstrates how residents of every section of the city, formerly Dumptown, have recycled, reduced, and reused waste to turn their town around. There is a Dumptown Game with a Control Center to monitor displays while Dumptown changes as waste reduction programs are put in place. Students can create their own Recycle City scavenger hunt or go to the Activities area and see other ways to put Recycle City to use to help protect the environment.

1997-01-01

111

Current practices for labeling medications in hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Good medication labeling practices are imperative to ensure safe medication use. Non-adherence to labeling protocols is reported as one major source of medication errors. Objective This study was intended to evaluate and compare adherence to labeling guidelines for dispensed medications among the hospitals of the five different health sectors in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 14 public hospitals in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Labeling guidelines issued by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices were used as a standard assessment tool. A total of 218 medication labels were collected and evaluated for labeling adequacy. Descriptive statistics were used to elaborate the study findings. All analyses were performed with Microsoft Access. Results The study showed a substantial rate of adherence to the labeling guidelines. In terms of the established criteria, community and mail orders were reported to adhere strongly (90.5%), whereas injectables adhered least to the labeling guidelines. The labeling format, contents of the label, instructions on the labels, abbreviations used on the labels and drug names were also consistent with the guidelines (80.0%, 84.0%, 88.0%, 97.7% and 85.5%, respectively). Organizations belonging to the public sector reported a higher level of adherence (?80.0%) than the level found for private hospitals (70.0%). Conclusion In Riyadh hospitals, medication labeling following the guidelines issued by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices, is well accepted and rationally practiced. However, a nationwide study is recommended to evaluate if the guidelines are followed throughout Saudi Arabia.

Alkhani, Salma; Ahmed, Yusuf; Bin-Sabbar, Nora; Almogirah, Hailah; Alturki, Alanoud; Albanyan, Haifa; Adam, Mansour; Saleem, Fahad; Aljadhey, Hisham; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Vaida, Allen J.

2013-01-01

112

The rifted margin of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of rifted continental margins has always been of great scientific interest, and now, with dwindling economic oil deposits, these complex geological features assume practical importance as well. The ocean-continent transition is, by definition, laterally heterogeneous and likely to be extremely complicated. The southernmost shotpoints (4, 5, and 6) in the U.S. Geological Survey seismic refraction profile in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia lie within a transition region and thus provide a testing ground for methods that treat wave propagation in laterally heterogeneous media. This portion of the profile runs from the Farasan Islands in the Red Sea across the coast line and the Hijaz-Asir escarpment into the Hijaz-Asir tectonic province. Because the southernmost shotpoint is within the margin of the Saudi sub-continent, the full transition region is not sampled. Furthermore, such an experiment is precluded by the narrowness of the purely oceanic portion of the Red Sea.

McClain, J. S.; Orcutt, J. A.

113

Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island.

Not Available

1992-05-04

114

Quaternary Period in Saudi Arabia: Volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to rapid socioeconomic growth during the last 2 decades, the development of groundwater resources has been given priority in Saudi Arabia's development program. All through this period there have been intensive field studies, data collection, analyses, and interpretation related to the geology and hydrogeology of the region, the results of which have been presented in the form of tremendous amounts of field notes, maps, and accompanying explanations and regional technical reports written by government experts, university educators, and consulting engineers. This vast amount of available scientific and technological knowledge about geology, geomorphology, climatology, and hydrogeology of Saudi Arabia needs compilation. The authors of the various topics contained in this book have taken the lead in compiling, in an authoritative way, information which is extremely broad and interdisciplinary.

Memon, Bashir A.

115

Cryptosporidiosis among immunocompromised patients in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A total of (408) immunocompromised Saudi patients (<2 - >60 years) checked for Cryptosporidium infection showed 69.7% and 64.2% infection rates by Kinyoun's acid fast staining for oocysts and a monoclonal ELISA kit for C. parvum coproantigen detection respectively (P > 0.05). Microscopic examination of stained faecal smears was more sensitive than ELISA (P > 0.05) & showed 84.4% sensitivity, 81.7% specificity & 83.8% diagnostic accuracy. Infection rates of 47.6%, 78.2% & 82.3% were obtained by microscopic examination for children with chronic diarrhea and malnutrition, patients receiving immunosuppressive (I.S.) drugs for organ transplantation or cancers and patients with HIV and chronic diarrhoea respectively. Infection rates of 84% & 74.3% were in patients receiving I.S. drugs for organ transplantation and malignancy respectively. In all patients, the highest infection rate (84%) was among age group 16-40 years while the least (35.3%) was among infants <2 years (P<0.001). Infections in males (73.9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than females (62.6%). This high prevalence rate revealed the first reported for cryptosporidiosis among immunocompromised Saudis, indicating the presence of infection source(s) (nosocomial), and thus, transmission in Saudi Arabia. PMID:17926813

Sanad, Magda M; Al-Malki, Jamila S

2007-08-01

116

Tobacco Use among Health Care Workers in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The present study targeted health care workers (HCWs) in Governmental Hospitals and Primary Health Care Centers in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was used to assess tobacco use and the reasons for smoking. The present study included 736 HCWs. The overall prevalence of tobacco use amounted to 26.3% (14.8% current and 11.5% former users). In a binary logistic regression analysis, males were found significantly more prone to smoke compared to females (aOR = 3.081, 95% CI: 2.004–4.739). Similarly, parental history of tobacco use was found to be a significant risk factor (aOR = 1.540, 95% CI: 1.040–2.278). Among current users, 89.9% were interested in quitting and 66.1% tried before to quit. The prevalence of smoking among HCWs in the present study, besides being a public health problem, represents a potential barrier in involving this group as a first line for tobacco control. There is a need for a national intervention programme in the country in a tailored manner for HCWs to control tobacco use parallel to the running national program for public. These interventions should begin early in basic medical education and to be applied continually during one's medical career.

Mahfouz, Ahmed A.; Shatoor, Abdullah S.; Al-Ghamdi, Badr R.; Hassanein, Mervat A.; Nahar, Shamsun; Farheen, Aesha; Gaballah, Inasse I.; Mohamed, Amani; Rabie, Faten M.

2013-01-01

117

Quality of primary health care in Saudi Arabia: a comprehensive review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Little is known about the quality of primary care in Saudi Arabia, despite the central role of primary care centers in Saudi health strategy. This study presents an overview of quality of primary care in Saudi Arabia, and identifies factors impeding the achievement of quality, with the aim of determining how the quality of Saudi primary care could be

HANAN AL-AHMADI; MARTIN ROLAND

2005-01-01

118

Cities Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From The Economist, their Cities Guide offers practical information ranging from accommodations to insider tips on getting around various US and world cities. A very nice touch are areas like the City Briefing section (top news stories, history pieces, and other tidbits) and the Being There area (subtopics include how to kill an hour and gifts to take home). City Guide also contains sections on cultural events, shopping, history, facts, and much more. [REB].

2001-01-01

119

A cytological study of flowering plants from Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al-Turki, T. A., Filfilan, S. A. & Mehmood, S. F.: A cytological study of flowering plants from Saudi Arabia. - Willdenowia 30: 339-358. 2000. - ISSN 000-000. The chromosome numbers of 31 taxa belonging to 14 families of angiosperms collected from dif- ferent regions of Saudi Arabia are reported. These include first chromosome number reports for six species: Anabasis setifera

TURKI A. AL-TURKI; SHAFIK A. FILFILAN; SYED F. MEHMOOD

120

Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi

Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

2011-01-01

121

Blended Learning in Saudi Universities: Challenges and Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended…

Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah

2010-01-01

122

Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

Alquraini, Turki

2011-01-01

123

Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

Alquraini, Turki

2010-01-01

124

Craniofacial characteristics in Saudi Down’s syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Down’s syndrome is a genetic disorder that results from a chromosomal abnormality due to trisomy of all or a large part of chromosome 21. In Saudi Arabia the incidence has been reported as 1 in 554 live births, therefore, the aim of this study was to study the craniofacial characteristics in the Saudi Down’s syndrome patients in comparison with those

Reema Al-Shawaf; Wafa Al-Faleh

2011-01-01

125

Seroprevalence of Alkhurma and Other Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

A 2009 deployment of military units from several Saudi Arabian provinces to Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia, enabled us to evaluate exposure to Alkhurma, Crimean-Congo, dengue, and Rift Valley hemorrhagic fever viruses. Seroprevalence to all viruses was low; however, Alkhurma virus seroprevalence was higher (1.3%) and less geographically restricted than previously thought.

Albarrak, Ali; Almazroa, Mohammad A.; Al-Omar, Ibrahim; Alhakeem, Rafat; Assiri, Abdullah; Fagbo, Shamsudeen; MacNeil, Adam; Rollin, Pierre E.; Abdullah, Nageeb; Stephens, Gwen

2011-01-01

126

Information security governance in Saudi organizations: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to empirically examine the existence and implementation of information security governance (ISG) in Saudi organizations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An empirical survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, is conducted to explore and evaluate the current status and the main features of ISG in the Saudi environment. The questionnaire is developed based on ISG guidelines for boards of directors

Ahmad Abu-Musa

2010-01-01

127

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saud dynasty, enjoys special importance in much of the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. Since the establishment of the modern Saudi kingdom in 193...

A. B. Prados

2003-01-01

128

The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal

Sohail Bajammal; Rania Zaini; Wesam Abuznadah; Mohammad Al-Rukban; Syed Moyn Aly; Abdulaziz Boker; Abdulmohsen Al-Zalabani; Mohammad Al-Omran; Amro Al-Habib; Mona Al-Sheikh; Mohammad Al-Sultan; Nadia Fida; Khalid Alzahrani; Bashir Hamad; Mohammad Al Shehri; Khalid Bin Abdulrahman; Saleh Al-Damegh; Mansour M Al-Nozha; Tyrone Donnon

2008-01-01

129

Long-term monitoring and analysis of hourly solar UV radiation in the 290-380 nm range in the middle region of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The UV and global solar radiation on a horizontal surface at ground level in Riyadh City (latitude 24 degrees 34' N, longitude 46 degrees 43' E) have been measured and analyzed. Measurements of UV radiation (295-385 nm) were recorded every 10 min for five years (January 1983-December 1987). The maximum recorded hourly mean irradiance UV radiation was 28 W/m2 and occurred in July, while the minimum was 14 W/m2 in December. A steady monthly value of [formula: see text] was obtained and equaled 2.9%. A similar trend was found for the monthly variation of [formula: see text] and [formula: see text]. Maximum values of 90% and 2.6% were recorded in June for Kt and Kv, respectively, while minimum values of 35% and 1%, respectively, were obtained in December. A linear correlation was obtained between Kv and Kt. These findings were discussed and connected to the meteorological events. The results were compared with the regions of Kuwait, Bahrain, Dhahran, and Makkah. PMID:10902399

al-Dhafiri, A M; al-Ayed, M S; Mahfoodh, M B

2000-06-01

130

Gender-Segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms and the Saudi Labor Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of…

Baki, Roula

2004-01-01

131

Cephalometric norms for the Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia: a research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have established specific cephalometric norms for children with different ethnic backgrounds, showing different facial features for each group. Up till now, there is a paucity of information about the cephalometric features of Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia, who have distinct social and climatic characteristics. The aim of the present study was to

Ali H Hassan

2005-01-01

132

Historic Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly sponsored by the Historic Cities Center within the Department of Geography at Hebrew University and the Jewish National and University Library, the Historic Cities Web site is intended to contain maps, literature, documents, books, and other relevant material concerning the past, present, and future of historic cities While some of these documents and ephemera are still forthcoming to the site, visitors will find a wide array of historic city maps and views dating from 1486 to 1720. The scanned maps are searchable alphabetically, by date, and by individual cartographer. Additionally, a bit of information is provided about each cartographer. Overall, the site contains close to two hundred individual city maps and renderings, ranging from medieval Heidelberg to Casablanca. For persons with an interest in urban morphology and the history of cartography, the Historic Cities site will be a good place to start.

133

Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Saudi Arabia (SA) and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%), trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%), gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%), syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%), human immunodeficiency virus (2917 infections, 7.5%), genital warts (1382, 3.5%), genital herpes (216 infections, 0.6%), and chancroid (78 infections, 0.2%). The average annual incidence of STIs per 100,000 population for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively, was as follows: 14.8 and 7.5 for nongonococcal urethritis, 9.4 and 10.4 for trichomoniasis, 5.2 and 4.2 for gonorrhea, 1.7 and 6.4 for syphilis, 0.6 and 8.0 for HIV, 1.4 and 0.7 for genital warts, 0.1 and 0.4 for genital herpes, and 0.1 and 0.1 for chancroid. The incidence of STIs was somewhat steady over the surveillance period except for nongonococcal urethritis which gradually increased. Conclusion Nongonococcal urethritis, trichomoniasis, and gonococcal urethritis were the most commonly reported STIs in SA. Even though the incidence of STIs in SA is limited, appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.

Madani, Tariq A

2006-01-01

134

The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

2014-05-01

135

Economic costs of diabetes in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. Objective: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. Materials and Methods: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group) with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. Results: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380) than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. Conclusion: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our understanding of economic costs of diabetes and its related complications.

Alhowaish, Abdulkarim K.

2013-01-01

136

Motivations and future practice plans of orthodontic residents in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Aims: This study aims to explore the criteria used by graduate students while selecting a career as orthodontists and their future aspirations. Materials and Methods: A list of Saudi Board of Orthodontics (SB-Ortho) residents was obtained from the Central and Western regions of the Kingdom and all orthodontic residents (excluding the 1st year residents) were invited to participate in this survey. Permission to contact the orthodontic residents was obtained from the respective program directors. The final study sample composed of 36 orthodontic residents. Results: About 39% of residents chose orthodontic specialty after graduation, nearly 33% selected the career during the undergraduate education while the rest chose the specialty at other stages. Approximately, 67% of the residents chose orthodontic specialty because it is intellectual challenging. Around 25% of residents choose orthodontic to improve their earning and 39% join orthodontic for job prestige. Around 50% of orthodontic Saudi residents planned to use self-ligating brackets; 63.9% planned to use invisalign; 86.1% plan to use temporary anchorage devices. About 72% of residents plan to use a cone-beam computerized tomography; 89% plan to use a digital imaging program; 39% plan to use indirect bonding; and 28% plan to use lingual orthodontics. More than half of the residents showed interest to participate in the research and about a quarter of them were willing to work in small cities. Conclusions: Most of the orthodontic residents in Saudi Arabia take up this specialty as they felt that it was intellectually challenging. The SB-Ortho program adequately prepares the residents in all the modern aspects of the specialty.

Al-Hamlan, Nasir; Al-Ruwaithi, Moatazbellah M.; Al-Shraim, Nasir; El-Metwaaly, Ashraf

2013-01-01

137

Public Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is well established worldwide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive household survey study of the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from 1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM. Results Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70% Saudi and 30% non-Saudis. About 89% of the participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g. (T.V., newspapers and radio) and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5% and 46.3% respectively). Nearly 85% of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write), as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89%), prayer (54%), honey and bee products (54%), hijama (35.71%) and cauterization or medical massage therapy (22%) were the commonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8%), regulations for CAM (94.9%), health education (96.6%), specialized centers (94.8%) and CAM clinics (92.7%). While only 8.3% of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians. Conclusion There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positive attitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.

Elolemy, Ahmed Tawfik; AlBedah, Abdullah M.N.

2012-01-01

138

Breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia: a review  

PubMed Central

Background Breastfeeding is viewed as the optimal method of infant feeding that provides many benefits to both the infant and the mother. The monitoring and reporting of breastfeeding indicators are essential for any country to plan and implement effective promotion programs for sustainable breastfeeding. The aim of this review is to examine the available studies and data on breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia, and determine the potential factors that affect breastfeeding practices and duration in this country. Methods The databases of Web of Knowledge, Science Direct and PubMed were searched using the relevant key words. Only studies that reported breastfeeding practices, rates and indicators in Saudi Arabia were included. Standard WHO definitions for breastfeeding categories were used in this review. Results Seventeen cross-sectional studies were identified and reviewed and five stated they used standard definitions. The self-administered questionnaire as a measurement tool was the predominant method of data collection. Infants' ages range from less than six months up to five years. Initiation rates were high (mostly above 90%), but a few studies reported low rates of timely initiation (within the first hour). The exclusive breastfeeding rate could not be accurately determined as rates range from 0.8% to 43.9% among studies due to the lack of clear definitions and the nature of study design. The partial (mixed) feeding method was common and the category of 'any breastfeeding' has generally high rates. The mean duration of breastfeeding has showed a progressive decline over time from 13.4 months in 1987 to 8.5 months in 2010. Factors associated with a high prevalence of breastfeeding and longer duration include increased maternal age, low educational levels, rural residence, low income, multiparity and avoiding contraceptives. The most common reason for breastfeeding cessation was insufficient breast milk. Other reasons include sickness, new pregnancy and breastfeeding problems. Conclusions Breastfeeding indicators in Saudi Arabia could not be monitored or compared relying on the available data because no longitudinal studies have been conducted in this country. A cohort study design would be the most appropriate procedure to rigorously assess and report valid results on breastfeeding practices and patterns in the Saudi society.

2014-01-01

139

Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

1985-06-01

140

Black (samsum) ant induced anaphylaxis in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Ant allergy is a rare clinical problem that ranges from local to systemic reaction and life-threatening anaphylaxis. Different types of ants including the imported fire ants, the black (samsum) ants, and others, are considered health hazard in many parts of the world. We report a 32-year-old Saudi female from Hafr-Al-Batin in the Northern region of Saudi Arabia, with history of recurrent anaphylaxis following black (samsum) ant stings and we review the related literature. This is the first report of black (samsum) ant allergy in Saudi Arabia. PMID:17106560

Al-Shahwan, Mohammed; Al-Khenaizan, Sultan; Al-Khalifa, Mohammed

2006-11-01

141

Atypical Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

DiJulio, Betsy

2011-01-01

142

City Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

2000-01-01

143

Potential for the International Spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in Association with Mass Gatherings in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: A novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causing severe, life-threatening respiratory disease has emerged in the Middle East at a time when two international mass gatherings in Saudi Arabia are imminent. While MERS-CoV has already spread to and within other countries, these mass gatherings could further amplify and/or accelerate its international dissemination, especially since the origins and geographic source of the virus remain poorly understood. Methods: We analyzed 2012 worldwide flight itinerary data and historic Hajj pilgrim data to predict population movements out of Saudi Arabia and the broader Middle East to help cities and countries assess their potential for MERS-CoV importation. We compared the magnitude of travel to countries with their World Bank economic status and per capita healthcare expenditures as surrogate markers of their capacity for timely detection of imported MERS-CoV and their ability to mount an effective public health response. Results: 16.8 million travelers flew on commercial flights out of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates between June and November 2012, of which 51.6% were destined for India (16.3%), Egypt (10.4%), Pakistan (7.8%), the United Kingdom (4.3%), Kuwait (3.6%), Bangladesh (3.1%), Iran (3.1%) and Bahrain (2.9%). Among the 1.74 million foreign pilgrims who performed the Hajj last year, an estimated 65.1% originated from low and lower-middle income countries. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is an emerging pathogen with pandemic potential with its apparent epicenter in Saudi Arabia, where millions of pilgrims will imminently congregate for two international mass gatherings. Understanding global population movements out of the Middle East through the end of this year's Hajj could help direct anticipatory MERS-CoV surveillance and public health preparedness to mitigate its potential global health and economic impacts.

Khan, Kamran; Sears, Jennifer; Hu, Vivian Wei; Brownstein, John S; Hay, Simon; Kossowsky, David; Eckhardt, Rose; Chim, Tina; Berry, Isha; Bogoch, Isaac; Cetron, Martin

2013-01-01

144

Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in wadi Sayyah, Western Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an essential and vital component of our life support system where it is used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Wadi Sayyah is one of the most important wadis in the western part of Saudi Arabia to the northeast of Jeddah city. A total of 42 groundwater samples are collected from hand dug wells in this area and they are analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. The sequence of the abundance of the major ion is in the following order: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > SO4 2- > HCO3 - > NO3 -. The dominated hydrochemical facieses of groundwater are: CaCl, and mixed CaMgCl, and the alkaline earths(Ca2+, Mg2+) and strong acids (SO4 2-, Cl-) are dominating over alkalis (Na+, K+) and weak acids (HCO3 -, CO{3/-}). Statistical analysis indicates positive correlation among most of the chemical parameters. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the study area is generally hard to very hard, fresh to brackish and alkaline in nature. The rock weathering and evaporation are among the most dominant processes in controlling water quality. The chloro-alkali indices illustrate that 80 % of the water samples have positive indicating exchange of Na+ and K+ from water with Mg2+ and Ca2+ from the rock. The suitability of water for drinking and irrigation is determined using WHO standards for drinking; some indices for irrigation purposes and it indicate that the groundwater in the study area can be used for drinking purposes in most of the locations (31 wells), while it is suitable for irrigation uses.

Al-Ahmadi, Masoud Eid

2013-12-01

145

RISK FACTORS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN BAHRAH, SAUDI ARABIA  

PubMed Central

Background: Asthma is a common health problem whose prevalence in Saudi Arabia has risen over the last few decades. Brick factories in the city of Bahrah have exacerbated the problem, and increasing numbers of asthma cases are attending local primary health care centers. Objective: Determine the risk factors of asthma in Bahrah. Materials and Methods: The study was comprised of 110 cases of bronchial asthma resident in Bahrah who were diagnosed by the treating physicians and 110 healthy controls matched in age and sex. A questionnaire was completed from cases and controls, consisting of data regarding personal, familial, indoor and outdoor environmental factors that may be potential risk factors to asthma. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to assess risk factors. Results: The mean ages of cases and controls were 22.4 (± 16.7) and 22.8 (± 16.1) years, respectively. Each group consisted of 64 males (58%) and 46 (42%) females. There was a significant association between distance from houses to brick factories and bronchial asthma (Chi square for linear trend = 26.6, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that living within one kilometer of a brick factory (OR=5.1, CI=2.33-11.16), family history (OR=4.6, CI=2.16-9.78), allergic rhinitis (OR=3.39, CI=1.49-7.69), skin atopy (OR=4.6, CI=1.53-13.87) and recurrent respiratory tract infections (OR=4.1, CI=1.79-9.22) were independent risk factors for asthma in Bahrah. Conclusions and recommendations: Brick factories, family history and history of rhinitis, skin atopy, or recurrent respiratory tract infections are risk factors of bronchial asthma. An in-depth study to asses air pollution in Bahrah is recom-mended. People are advised not to live near brick factories.

Al-Mazam, Abdulaziz; Mohamed, Ashry G.

2001-01-01

146

Crustal structure beneath Saudi Arabia from receiver functions of a dense broadband network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using broadband seismic data recorded by the recently expanded station network in Saudi Arabia, operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS), we perform receiver function studies to estimate the Moho-depth and Poisson's ratio across Saudi Arabia. Previously published receiver function studies in the region suffered from scarce station distribution, and hence obtained only a coarse image of the Moho structure. In our case, we have access to seismic recordings on overall 101 stations operating since 2007. We finally select 201 earthquakes with high signal-to-noise recordings, using IRIS-station RAYN as reference. We deploy a slanting stacking method for receiver function analysis that combines the multiples (PpPs and PpSs+PsPs) with the converted phase Ps to reduce the trade-off between the thickness (H) and the seismic wave velocity of the crust. The method searches for the maximum amplitude in the H-Vp/Vs domain, which then corresponds to the best-fitting solution. Our results show that Moho depth rapidly increases from about 24-29 km at the Red Sea to about 33-35 km eastward over a short distance of about 100-200 km. Moho depth then gradually increases to ~38km at the boundary between the Arabian Shield and the Arabian Platform, and reaches 41-46 km under the Arabian Platform. At the he easternmost station that abuts against the Persian Gulf, we find a Moho depth of ~37 km. Because the SGS station network is densified over the volcanic provinces and in the Western Provinces of Saudi Arabia, we are able to conduct some localized high-resolution receiver function investigations. For instance, we discover an exceptional deep Moho of ~46 km, only 150 km away from Red Sea coast, reducing northward to 40km. Since this region has experienced magmatic activity, the deeper Moho may be due to crustal underplating as a result of the African superplume, which also causes high topography (above 2km) and positive gravity anomaly. The basaltic volcanic eruption near Madinah (A.D. 1256) motivates the hypothesis of the existence of a continental magma chamber, characterized by negative amplitude and higher Poisson's ratio in receiver functions. Using 13 stations around Madinah, we find high Poisson's ratio (0.271-0.301) and clear negative amplitudes in receiver function waveforms at four sites roughly aligned in North-South direction. This finding may be consistent with a small localized magma chamber beneath the city of Madinah.

Cui, Z.; Mai, P. M.

2012-12-01

147

EFL Teacher Preparation Programs in Saudi Arabia. Trends and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher education programs in Saudi Arabia and argues that available program options are in adequate for EFL teacher preparation. Recommendations are offered for improving EFL teacher education programs. (Author/VWL)

Al-Hazmi, Sultan

2003-01-01

148

The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written) which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.

Bajammal, Sohail; Zaini, Rania; Abuznadah, Wesam; Al-Rukban, Mohammad; Aly, Syed Moyn; Boker, Abdulaziz; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Al-Omran, Mohammad; Al-Habib, Amro; Al-Sheikh, Mona; Al-Sultan, Mohammad; Fida, Nadia; Alzahrani, Khalid; Hamad, Bashir; Al Shehri, Mohammad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Al-Damegh, Saleh; Al-Nozha, Mansour M; Donnon, Tyrone

2008-01-01

149

A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project  

SciTech Connect

The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.

Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.

1986-01-01

150

Chemical Composition of Bottled Water in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen domestic and seven imported bottled water brands were analysed in Saudi Arabia for various physico-chemical water quality parameters. The results of the analysis were compared with the drinking water standards set by Saudi Arabia and World Health Organization. The levels of different physico-chemical parameters like TDS, Ca, Mg, Na, K, NO3, Cl and SO4 of all local and imported

Abdulrahman I. Alabdula'aly; Mujahid A. Khan

1999-01-01

151

Familial hereditary progressive sensorineural hearing loss among Saudi population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and audiological studies of 234 Saudi patients from the central area of Saudi Arabia with progressive sensorineural hearing loss were carried out in Riyadh. One hundred and sixty-four came from 38 families, i.e. 70% of the total and 30% were sporadic cases. Consanguinity was found in 80.8%. Their hearing loss was characterized as being bilateral sensorineural, starting at 1

Siraj M. Zakzouk; Kawther Abul Fadle; Fatma H. Al Anazy

1995-01-01

152

Prevalence of Increased Albumin Excretion Rate in Young Saudi Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Albuminuria is an important risk predictor of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate amongst a subgroup of young Saudi army\\/navy recruits. Methods: 2,000 Saudi military recruits were tested for microalbuminuria by dipstick and 24-hour urine collection for quantitative evaluation. Results: In the whole

H. Abo-Zenah; A. El-Benayan; A. M. El Nahas

2008-01-01

153

Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience.

Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Koenig, Harold G

2013-01-01

154

Breast Cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy of women worldwide. It is the leading cause of female cancer related disability and mortality. In Saudi Arabia breast cancer ranks first among cancerous diseases in females. In the Gulf region, and especially in Saudi Arabia, few studies have been conducted to address breast cancer awareness. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the level of breast cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah, focusing on knowledge of breast cancer warning signs, risk factors, screening programs and breast self-examination (BSE). The design of this study was an exploratory correlational analysis. The sample comprised 200 Saudi females aged 20 and older living in Jeddah. Data were collected using face-to- face interviews. Breast cancer awareness was measured using a modified Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (Breast CAM) version 2. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's Product Moment correlation coefficients and ANOVA test were used to answer study questions. Out of 200 participants, 50.5% were aware of breast lump as a warning sign of breast cancer, 57.5% claimed that family history was risk factor, 20.5% had undergone breast screening, 79% heard about BSE, and 47.5% knew how to perform BSE. Findings indicated that Saudi females level of awareness of breast cancer is very inadequate. Public awareness interventions are needed in order to overcome an ever-increasing burden of this disease among Saudi females. PMID:23991994

Radi, Sahar Mahmoud

2013-01-01

155

Analysis of rocks around capital of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic studies of variety of rock samples around capital of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The samples were collected from East, West, North, and South about 20 km from city centre. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) in conjunction with MS257 Spectrograph (Oriel instrument) equipped with ICCD camera is used to record the LIBS data. The emission spectra of these samples have been recorded as functions of laser irradiance. The elemental composition and the relative abundance in each sample are found to be quite different. Quantities of Iron, Calcium, Carbon, Silicon, Aluminum, and Oxygen are detected in these samples. In samples from East, West and South, Iron and Silicon dominates. Dominant elements from North are Calcium and Silicon. Presence of Oxygen proves the existence of oxides in all samples. The color of the samples indicates the presence of Goethite and Hematite, oxides of Iron.

Farooq, W. A.; Al-Mutairi, F. N.; Alahmed, Z. A.

2013-08-01

156

Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the Kingdom for future scientists in Saudi Arabia as they explore the impact of global warming on animal species. PMID:23961171

Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

2012-04-01

157

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

1997-01-01

158

Open City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you interested in improving civic culture and knowledge with apps? If so, you will be delighted to learn about the Open City site. The Open City folks are a group of programmers, citizen activists, and policy types that create apps with open data in order "to improve transparency and understanding of our government." Chicagoans can stop by the Merchandise Mart to meet up and work with Open City in person. Everyone else can check out the Projects page to view apps like "Chicago Councilmatic," "How's Business?" and "Crime in Chicago." Each of these apps takes open source data from the city of Chicago and other organizations to create tools designed to help decision makers, journalists, and scholars with their various projects. The site also contains information about the people behind the organization and press releases about their work.

159

Bacteriologic potability of the drinking water in a diarrhea hyperendemic area in southwestern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

High prevalence of diarrhea was reported among people living in a semiurban community in Shebaa area in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. This was in comparison to prevalence in a nearby urban community in Abha, the capital city of The Southwestern Region of Saudi Arabia. Contamination of the desalinated water, commonly used for drinking, was one possible hypothesis for occurrence of this diarrhea problem. The objective of the present study was to test bacteriological potability of desalinated water in both Shebaa and Abha areas and to determine whether any contamination occurred during transportation from water distribution stations to houses or during storage in house reservoirs. Water samples were collected and analyzed by the Presumptive Coliform Test from a sample of water tankers transporting water and from tap water originating from house reservoirs in a sample of houses in the two areas. Source of drinking water was recorded for each of such houses. Of 117 water samples from 39 tankers transporting water, only one sample was positive bacteriologically and non-potable (potability = 99%). Whereas among 201 tap water samples from a random sample of houses, 26.4% showed contamination. Bacteriological non-potability was found in a significantly higher proportion of houses in Shebaa area (38.4%) than in Abha city (7.9%), (p<0.001). Also, desalinated water was used for drinking significantly more in Shebaa than in Abha (p<0.001). It is concluded that transportation of the desalinated water by water tankers has not significantly contributed to its contamination. Such contamination rather obviously occurred during storage in house reservoirs, and was possibly implicated, at least partly, in the increased prevalence of diarrhea in Shebaa. PMID:17214158

Abu-Zeid, H A; Aziz, M A; Abolfotouh, M; Moneim, M A

1995-01-01

160

Invincible Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Throughout history, cities have risen and fallen from prominence, and in recent times more attention has been paid to why this ebb and flow persists across the centuries. Documenting this process has increasingly been the province of historians, archaeologists, city planners, sociologists, and of course, photographers. Many photographers have been very interested in the world of post-industrial urban decay, and Camilo Jose Vergara is one of the best. With financial support from the Ford Foundation, this website brings together VergaraâÂÂs photographic record of the cities of Camden, New Jersey and Richmond, California in exquisite geographic and visual detail. First-time visitors will want to read through the introduction to the project offered by Vergara, and then perhaps click on the question mark on the homepage for a brief primer on how to use the user interface for each city. At that point, visitors shouldnâÂÂt be afraid to look over both cities, as they can zoom in and out around a number of interesting locales, including abandoned factories, old piers, and gated communities. Short of wandering through these cities in a peripatetic fashion, this website serves as an interesting introduction to some overlooked aspects of urbanity.

Vergara, Camilo J.

2006-01-01

161

75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department...1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

2010-09-28

162

75 FR 56506 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International...Natalia.Susak@trade.gov. U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts: Mr. Habeeb Saeed, U.S. Commercial...

2010-09-16

163

76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International...Natalia.Susak@trade.gov. U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts Ahmed Khayyat, Phone:...

2011-02-09

164

78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This...

2013-09-13

165

78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby report the waiver of this...

2013-04-19

166

Rainfall Climatology over Asir Region, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arid and semi-arid lands occupy about one-third of the land surface of the earth and support about one-fifth of the world population. The Asir area in Saudi Arabia is an example of these areas faced with the problem of maintaining sustainable water resources. This problem is exacerbated by the high levels of population growth, land use changes, increasing water demand, and climate variability. In this study, the characteristics of decade-scale variations in precipitation are examined in more detail for Asir region. The spatio-temporal distributions of rainfall over the region are analyzed. The objectives are to identify the sensitivity, magnitude, and range of changes in annual and seasonal evapotranspiration resulting from observed decade-scale precipitation variations. An additional objective is to characterize orographic controls on the space-time variability of rainfall. The rainfall data is obtained from more than 30 rain gauges spread over the region.

Sharif, H.; Furl, C.; Al-Zahrani, M.

2012-04-01

167

The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field. PMID:24953076

Alkhenizan, Abdullah

2014-08-01

168

Saudis adjusting to lower production levels  

SciTech Connect

This article points out that development work in Saudi Arabia reflects the realities of the oil industry in the second half of the 1980s. Gone are the multibillion investments in refineries, basic petrochemicals, associated gas gathering systems, and other production facilities. This article reviews alternatives that have sprung up in their place: an extensive program to mothball surplus offshore and onshore production facilities; new non-associated gas production facilities to offset the shortfall in associated gas supplies from declining crude oil production; additional investment in trunk pipelines to reduce national dependence on export terminals in the trouble-plagued Persian Gulf. Production last year averaged 4.689 million b/d. Output during the first half of this year fell to under 4 million b/d under new quotas established by the Organisation of Petroleeum Exporting Countries (OPEC). For the rest of 1987, production is not expected to exceed 4.2 million b/d.

Vielvoye, R.

1987-08-24

169

Breastfeeding and weaning practices in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A National Child Health Survey was conducted during 1987 for which a stratified multi-stage sampling was done. Out of the 8482 mothers interviewed 6131 had at least one live birth 5 years or less before the survey. Eighty-two per cent of the currently breastfed children, were less than 6 months of age, but only 55 per cent of the infants up to 1 month of age were breastfed without supplementation. The mean interval between supplementation and weaning for all age groups of mothers was 7.7 months. The predominant causes of weaning were child reaching suitable age and mother not having enough milk. This study establishes base line information about feeding practice on a nationwide basis in Saudi Arabia. PMID:7807620

al-Mazrou, Y Y; Aziz, K M; Khalil, M

1994-10-01

170

The VORISA Project: An Integrated Approach to Assessing Volcanic Hazard and Risk in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as 'Harrat'. The largest of these, Harrat Rahat, produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 AD with lava flows travelling within 20 km of the Islamic holy city Al-Madinah. With over 900 visible basaltic and trachytic vents and periodic seismic swarms indicating stalled eruptions, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital. To systematically address this need we developed the Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia (VORISA) Project, a 3-year, multi-disciplinary international research collaboration that integrates geological, geophysical, hazard and risk studies. Detailed mapping and geochemical studies are being combined with new and existing age determinations to determine the style and sequence of events during past basaltic and trachytic eruptions. Data from gravity and magnetotelluric surveys are being integrated with microearthquake data from an 8-station borehole seismic research array to geophysically characterise the structure and nature of the crust, and thus constrain possible physical controls on magma propagation. All available data are being synthesised in hazard models to determine patterns in eruption frequency, magnitude, and style of past activity, as well as the probable location and style of a future event. Combined with geospatial vulnerability data, these hazard models, which include a reconstruction of the 1256 AD eruption, enable us to calculate and communicate volcanic risk to the city of Al-Madinah.

Lindsay, J. M.; Moufti, R.

2013-12-01

171

Characterictics and Sources of Organic Tracers in Atmospheric Particulate Matter from the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and sources of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) can affect air quality of metropolitan areas as well as climate change. Their chemical components can be toxic to humans and hazardous to the environment. Saudi Arabia is witnessing new development and industrial activities, which are expected to contribute to natural, regional and anthropogenic PM inputs of organic tracers. This work investigates the characteristics and sources of the extractable organic matter (EOM) in atmospheric suspended PM from the city of Dhahran in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia. The major compounds were an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons (12-70% of EOM), plasticizers (7-30% of EOM for aryl phosphates and 4-18% of EOM for phthalates), n-alkanes (3-15% of EOM), hopane biomarkers (0.1-4.2% of EOM), n-alkanones (0.3-1.7% of EOM), PAHs (0.1-0.6% of EOM), sterane biomarkers (0.0-0.1% of EOM), and sterols (0.0-0.1% of EOM). Plasticizers are evidently major compounds (11- 48% of EOM) in the suspended PM of Dhahran, which likely have serious public health effects and environmental consequences. The major sources of these organic tracers are emissions from industrial factories north of the city, plastics and biomass burning, and petroleum product combustion.

Rushdi, A. I.; El-Mubarak, A. H.; Luis, L.; Mubarak, A. T.; Qurban, M.; Al-Mutlaq, K. F.; Simoneit, B. R.

2013-12-01

172

Saudi Arabia: Post-War Issues and U.S. Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saudi dynasty, enjoys special importance in the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. Since the establishment of the modern Saudi kingdom in 1932, it h...

A. B. Prados

2001-01-01

173

EFL Teachers' Perceptions, Evaluations and Expectations about English Language Courses as EFL in Saudi Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers' perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit…

Liton, Hussain Ahmed

2013-01-01

174

Perception of unethical negotiation tactics: A comparative study of US and Saudi managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent accession of Saudi Arabia to the World Trade Organization (WTO) will increase the country's participation in world trade and the Saudi market attractiveness to Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). As the opportunities for international trade grow, managers from across the globe, including those from the US will be engaged in negotiating with their Saudi counterparts. Owing to the cultural

Jamal A. Al-Khatib; Avinash Malshe; Mazen AbdulKader

2008-01-01

175

Human resource development in Gulf countries: an analysis of the trends and challenges facing Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to highlight the challenges of human capital development in the Gulf Arab countries in general and in Saudi Arabia in particular. A literature review and an analysis of the Saudi government's formal documents show that Saudi Arabia is facing several challenges in its economy system and human resource development (HRD) programmes. The main challenges

Mustapha M. Achoui

2009-01-01

176

Promoting Cultural Understanding: The Case of the Saudi Arabian Social Studies Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the role of the Saudi Arabian social studies curriculum in helping Saudi students to understand other cultures. Analysis of the content of social studies textbooks revealed that they cover a wide range of cultural information related to countries from around the world. Saudi students start their cultural education in grade 5…

Alaklobi, Fahad

177

Apterogyninae (Hymenoptera: Bradynobaenidae) from Saudi Arabia, with description of a new species.  

PubMed

Eleven species in three genera from Saudi Arabia are listed. Macroocula riyadha Gadallah & Pagliano, spec. nov. is described and figured. Apterogyna mateui Giner Marí, 1945, Macroocula nitida nitida (Bischoff, 1920) are newly recorded from Arabian Peninsula and Saudi Arabia, Macroocula magna (Invrea, 1965) is newly recorded from Saudi Arabia. PMID:24869704

Gadallah, Neveen S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al; Aldryhim, Yousif N; Fadl, Hassan; Elgharbawy, Ali A; Pagliano, Guido

2014-01-01

178

Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia. Second, the policymakers in Saudi Arabia should be more concerned with increasing productivity through adopting new technologies that increase economic prosperity. Therefore, the policymakers should continue diversifying economic resources and reduce their reliance on oil.

Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

179

City 2020+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to several public transport units running all across the city. This is accompanied by an analysis of probability density functions (PDF) for heat waves based on recent climate data and climate projections. A dense net of 40 PM measurement sites is operated in order to obtain the spatial pattern of PM concentration as depending on meteorological condition and location. It is lined out how this climate related sub-projects interact with investigations on social networks, governance issues, buildings structure development and health outcome. Related to the later the chemical composition of PM is analyzed in more detail and related to the spatial patterns of health deficiencies. At a later stage City2020+ will propose new strategies based on cooperation from the fields of medicine, geography, sociology, history, civil engineering, and architecture for adapting the city for future needs. The Project CITY 2020+ is part of the interdisciplinary Project House HumTec (Human Sciences and Technology) at RWTH Aachen University funded by the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments through the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG).

Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

2010-09-01

180

Patients' perception, views and satisfaction with pharmacists' role as health care provider in community pharmacy setting at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study will provide guiding information about the population perception, views and satisfaction with pharmacist’s performance as health care provider in the community pharmacy setting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Method The study was conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from July through December 2010. A total of 125 community pharmacies in Riyadh city were randomly selected according to their geographical distribution (north, south, east, and west). They represent about 10–15% of all community pharmacies in the city. The questionnaire composed of 8 items about patients’ views and satisfaction with the pharmacists’ role in the current community pharmacy practice. The questionnaire was coded, checked for accuracy and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). Results The response rate was almost 85% where 2000 patients were approached and 1699 of them responded to our questionnaire. The majority of respondents is young adults and adults (82.8%), male (67.5%) and married (66.9%). Seventy one percent of respondents assured that community pharmacist is available in the working while only 37.3% of respondents perceived the pharmacist as a mere vendor. About 38% assured sou moto counseling by the pharmacist, 35% reported pharmacist plays an active role in their compliances to treatments, 43% acknowledged the role of pharmacist in solving medication related problems, 34% considered the pharmacist as a health awareness provider and 44.6% felt that pharmacist is indispensable and an effective part of the health care system. Conclusion The image and professional performance of community pharmacist are improving in Saudi Arabia. The Saudi patients show better satisfaction, perception and appreciation of the pharmacists’ role in the health care team. However, extra efforts should be paid to improve the clinical skills of the community pharmacists. Community pharmacists need to be able to reach out to patient, assess their hesitations and promptly offer solution which was appreciated by the patients as the survey indicates. They should play a pro-active role in becoming an effective and indispensable part of health care. Furthermore, they should be able to advice, guide, direct and persuade the patient to comply correct usage of drugs. Finally, community pharmacists should equip themselves with appropriate knowledge and competencies in order to tender efficient and outstanding pharmaceutical health care.

Al-Arifi, Mohamed N.

2012-01-01

181

Mexico City  

... year. In winter, air quality can worsen significantly when thermal inversions keep polluted air masses close to the surface. ... color views acquired by MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera on April 9 and December 5, 2001, respectively. Mexico City can be ...

2013-04-18

182

Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 kin2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic. The initial phase of rifting of the Arabian Plate from the African Plate began as a wide zone of continental-crust extension manifested by basin and range topography. Freshwater lakes, northwest-trending marine gulfs, and alkali olivine basalt flows occupied these basins. Extensive dike swarms intruded parallel to the proto-Red Sea and marked the first phase of new mafic crust formed by volcanic processes. After a hiatus in volcanic activity, counterclockwise rotation of the Arabian Plate during middle Miocene time changed the stress pattern in the plate and a second phase of extrusion of alkali olivine basalt commenced along north-trending fractures. This stress pattern continues to influence Holocene volcanism. The earliest (pre-uplift) basalts to erupt on the Arabian Plate were predominantly under saturated picrite and ankaramite, whereas those to erupt near the axis of the proto-Red Sea rift zone were tholeiite. The within-plate volcanic rocks evolved from picrite-ankaramite to alkali olivine basalt with minor volumes of fractionated, under-saturated felsic rocks. Continued crustal thinning and dike intrusion along the proto-Red Sea were accompanied by melting of the continental crust to produce silicic magma as part of a bimodal volcanic suite (tholeiite-rhyolite). These magmas were emplaced as dikes, sills, layered bodies, and flows that mark the early construction of the Red Sea crust. Second-phase lavas are predominantly fractionated hawaiites and alkali olivine basalts. Because under saturated and oversaturated silicic magmas represent the second phase of activity, both fractional crystallization of the basaltic magma and melting of the crust are believed to have occurred. The historical record of volcanic activity in Saudi Arabia suggests that volcanism is dormant. The harrats should be evaluated for their potential as volcanic hazards and as sources of geothermal energy. The volcanic rocks are natural traps for groundwater ; thus water resources for agriculture may be significant and should be investigated.

Coleman, R. G.; Gregory, R. T.; Brown, G. F.

1983-01-01

183

Aerosols and water vapor dynamics over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia contains a vast desert area and the home of some of the largest deserts worldwide. This nature subjects the area to numerous dust storms. This is in addition to local emissions transported from industrial activities. The Arabian Peninsula dust storms have a major impact on air quality and affects dust cycle around the world. The nature of dust also affects air, ground traffics, and human health. Aerosols play a pivotal role in global climate change through their effects on the hydrological cycle and solar energy budget. Recently there have been some trials to study the nature of dust over the kingdom using satellite remote sensing and modeling to investigate the impact of aerosols of natural and anthropogenic origins from both local emissions and long-range transport on the air quality and atmospheric composition, yet a lot more needs to be done. In this study, data obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board of Terra and Aqua satellites are used to analyze aerosols properties over the thirteen provinces of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from April 2003 to January 2012. This analysis will help to characterize aerosol and cloud properties, and the seasonal hydrological factors to establish the relative contributions of aerosols derived from different regions to the different Saudi provinces and their impacts on local atmospheric composition and air quality. During this period, we have examined possible nature and anthropogenic/natural aerosols/dust sources. The analysis is based on important parameters including the aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine mode fraction (FMF), cloud properties including cloud top temperature (CTT), cloud top pressure (CTP) and the water vapor column. Correlation between water vapor and AOD was observed over three provinces which could be a result of pollution aerosols rather than dust and is, hence, acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Increasing anomalous aerosols pattern over 2010-2012 is also observed. Acknowledgement The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by the King Abdel Aziz City for Science & Technology (KACST) for funding this work under grant No. (MT-110-010). The support provided by the Deanship of Research at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) is gratefully acknowledged.

Farahat, Ashraf; El-Askary, Hesham; Al-Shaibani, Abdulaziz; Dogan, Umran

2014-05-01

184

A needs assessment for a master's program in dental public health in Jeddah Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives The Faculty of Dentistry at King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, is planning a master’s program in dental public health (DPH) to address the lack of adequate DPH professionals in the country. A needs assessment survey or situational analysis is typically recommended as the foundation of any curriculum development process. We conducted this survey to understand the level of DPH expertise existing in the country, to identify needs and gaps, and to explore perceptions in the area of DPH. Methods A DPH competency based survey was emailed to all onsite Saudi faculty members, all DPH practitioners in Jeddah city, and a random sample of dental interns (n = 122). The questionnaire collected information about participants’ demographics, knowledge of DPH, preferred method for gaining knowledge about DPH, perceptions about a new master’s program in DPH, preferred teaching and delivery methods, prerequisite education, and self-assessment of participants’ own DPH competency levels. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact statistics, and proportional odds ratios were calculated to analyze data. Results There was a total of 105 respondents (86.1%). About 98% had some knowledge of DPH. The most preferred method to gain knowledge on DPH was seminar series (47.6%). The most preferred methods for teaching instruction were using a “list of discussion topics” and “providing examples,” and the most preferred method for delivery of coursework was “face-to-face classroom activities with online readings and assignments.” The most preferred prerequisite education was having a bachelor’s degree in dentistry. Most participants considered themselves as having moderate experience and basic range of knowledge of DPH practices and competencies. Conclusion The survey has helped assess the participants’ views on the need for a graduate program in DPH. It is a preliminary step in designing a well-structured program, which will address the needs and gaps in oral public health in the country and inform the development of course content.

Al Agili, Dania E

2013-01-01

185

Drug-resistant ventilator associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: There is a wide geographic and temporal variability of bacterial resistance among microbial causes of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The contribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens to the VAP etiology in Saudi Arabia was never studied. We sought to examine the extent of multiple-drug resistance among common microbial causes of VAP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective susceptibility study in the adult intensive care unit (ICU) of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Susceptibility results of isolates from patients diagnosed with VAP between October 2004 and June 2009 were examined. The US National Healthcare Safety Network definition of MDR was adopted. RESULTS: A total of 248 isolates including 9 different pathogens were included. Acinetobacter spp. was highly (60-89%) resistant to all tested antimicrobials, including carbapenems (three- and four-class MDR prevalence were 86% and 69%, respectively). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was moderately (13-31%) resistant to all tested antimicrobials, including antipseudomonal penicillins (three- and four-class MDR prevalence were 13% and 10%, respectively). With an exception of ampicillin (fully resistant), Klebsiella spp. had low (0-13%) resistance to other tested antimicrobials with no detected MDR. Staphylococcus aureus was fully susceptible to vancomycin with 42% resistance to oxacillin. There were significant increasing trends of MDR Acinetobacter spp. however not P. aeruginosa during the study. Resistant pathogens were associated with worse profile of ICU patients but not patients’ outcomes. CONCLUSION: Acinetobacter in the current study was an increasingly resistant VAP-associated pathogen more than seen in many parts of the world. The current finding may impact local choice of initial empiric antibiotics.

Balkhy, Hanan H.; El-Saed, Aiman; Maghraby, Rana; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Khan, Raymond; Rishu, Asgar H.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

2014-01-01

186

Medical liability litigation in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: The author analyzed the anesthesia medical malpractice closed claims that were referred to the Legal Health Organization (LHO) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Annual reports covering the period from 1420H–1429H (1999–2008) were statistically analyzed to give mean figures and percentages in each annual report, and then demonstrated all together to run the differential analysis together with the trend along the studied period. Results: Data analysis showed an escalating trend for the total number of claims over the study period being started with 440 cases on 1420H and ended with 1356 cases by the year 1429H. The annual percentage of the final verdicts of accusation to the total number of claims presented to all committees ranges between 45.5%–60.2% with a mean value of 49.9%. Distribution of final verdicts among different clinical specialities showed that obstetrics takes the lead with a mean percentage of 25.5% along the studied period (1420H–1429H), followed by the practice of general surgery with a mean percentage of 13.8%. The sector of health care service showed a significant variation in relation to the mean number of final verdicts with accusation along the studied period, being the highest in the Ministry of Health sector with a mean number of 216.8 claims, followed by the private sector with a mean number of 197.3 claims. Conclusion: Adherence to the standards of medical practice is by far to the best approach to avoid and reduce the incidence of litigation.

Al-Saeed, Abdulhamid Hassan

2010-01-01

187

Viable airborne fungi in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aerobiological study to identify and quantify allergenic fungi and their seasonal fluctuations was conducted at two different sites, (Al-Batha, a more developed area in the south and Al-Ulia, a less developed area in the north) in Riyadh city, using portable Personal Volumetric Air Sampler (Burkard Manufacturing Co., England). Sampling was conducted twice a week in both the morning and

Abdulrahman Sulaiman Al-Suwaine; Syed Mohammed Hasnain

1999-01-01

188

Global solar radiation in Northeastern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the actual global solar radiation on a horizontal surface along with the prevailing meteorological conditions encountered during the measurement period from 1 January–31 December, for one complete year, in the Arabian Gulf Coast near the city of Dhahran. High resolution, real time solar radiation and meteorological data were collected, and processed. Hourly, daily, and monthly statistics of

Ahmet Aksakal; Shafiqur Rehman

1999-01-01

189

Energy and exergy utilization in agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for a period of 12 years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its two essential devices, namely tractors and pumps, and hence the sectoral energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained

I. Dincer; M. M. Hussain; I. Al-Zaharnah

2005-01-01

190

Developing a Career Resource for College Students in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the development of Career Oasis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM ) has pioneered the use of computer-based career guidance in Saudi Arabia. KFUPM contracted with Verbal Media, LLC, an American consulting company, to create a resource that would be available in both Arabic and English, in both online and paper-and-pencil…

Shatkin, Laurence; Atiyeh, Naim

191

An Interlibrary Loan Network Among Academic Libraries of Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A literature review reveals that there is little interlibrary loan (ILL) cooperation among the academic libraries of Saudi Arabia, and this article proposes a model ILL Network to counter budgetary constraints and increasing amounts of information by sharing resources. Describes the model's organizational structure, governance, and operational…

Siddiqui, Moid Ahmad

1996-01-01

192

Aetiology of Neonatal Septicaemia in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the 1,797 babies admitted to a hospital in Saudi Arabia over a 3-year period, 8% were documented as having NNS. Identified several gram-positive bacteria, several gram-negative bacteria, and candida albicans as etiological agents in the cases of NNS. Determined the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria. (BC)

Elbashier, Ali M.; And Others

1994-01-01

193

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bats, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The source of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus remains unknown. Molecular investigation indicated that bats in Saudi Arabia are infected with several alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Virus from 1 bat showed 100% nucleotide identity to virus from the human index case-patient. Bats might play a role in human infection.

Memish, Ziad A.; Mishra, Nischay; Olival, Kevin J.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Kapoor, Vishal; Epstein, Jonathan H.; AlHakeem, Rafat; Durosinloun, Abdulkareem; Al Asmari, Mushabab; Islam, Ariful; Kapoor, Amit; Briese, Thomas; Daszak, Peter; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

2013-01-01

194

Technology transfer to Saudi Arabia petrochemical industry experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia sought transferring petrochemical technology. The transfer aims to reduce the country's dependence on oil and to utilize national resources more efficiently. To investigate the factors affecting the transfer, conditions related to the technology in question and the receiving entity are analyzed. Multinational corporations play a major role in the transfer process. The research shows that joint venture transfers

A. A. K

1987-01-01

195

Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

2014-04-13

196

Quenching the thirst for potable water in arid Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

From shallow contaminated farm wells to one of the world's most advanced reverse osmosis treatment plants, from precise plant operation in urban areas to wholly inadequate operation and maintenance of facilities in rural municipalities, Saudi Arabia's water supply system is one of extreme contrasts. Establishing a safe, steady supply for the nation as a whole is a goal whose success

James F. Manwaring; Ramon G. Lee; Jack W. Hoffbuhr

1980-01-01

197

Education and the Satellite: Possibilities for Saudi Arabia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of developments in satellite communications and educational applications focuses on the possibilities of adapting satellite technology for instruction in developing countries. Topics include satellite use in Australia and the United States; and recommendations for the adoption of satellite technology in Saudi Arabia. (Author/LRW)

Al-Sharhan, Jamal

2000-01-01

198

A Survey of Technical and Skills Training in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most important task of development in Saudi Arabia is the cultivation of indigenous manpower to operate the equipment and run the factories. The Kingdom has recognized the importance of education and established a modern curriculum (elementary, junior, senior high) starting in the 1950s. Although there is some resistance to technical training…

Campbell, Clifton P.

199

Preliminary noise survey and data report of Saudi Arabian data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From November 1995 to March 1996 a total of 9 broadband temporary stations were deployed across Saudi Arabian shield. These stations consisted of STS-2 seismometers recorded continuously at 40 sps on RefTek dataloggers. All installations were at bedrock s...

R. Mellors

1997-01-01

200

Contribution of oil in economic growth of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationship between oil production and economic growth based on time-series data of Saudi Arabia from 1971 to 2010, and the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model approach for cointegration has been used. The innovative contribution of this study is to determine long-run relationship between oil production and economic growth by disaggregating oil production into domestic consumption of

Khalid A. Alkhathlan

2013-01-01

201

Personal Transformation: A Group Therapy Program for Saudi Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A personal transformation group therapy program was designed to help Saudi women function more effectively in their daily lives. The major cognitive idea of these groups was to enable women to better understand their thinking patterns so that they could learn techniques to change. Personal transformation group topics included: Self-Esteem;…

Pharaon, Nora Alarifi

202

University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

2012-01-01

203

Wind energy resource assessment for five locations in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of recently collected wind data at five sites in Saudi Arabia namely, Dhulum, Arar, Yanbu, Gassim and Dhahran is presented. The five sites represent different geographically and climatologically conditions. The data collected over a period spanned between 1995 and 2002 with different collection periods for each site. Daily, monthly and frequency profiles of the wind speed at the

Naif M. Al-Abbadi

2005-01-01

204

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2010: Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a monarchy ruled by the Al Saud family. The population is approximately 28.5 million, including 5.8 million foreigners. Since 2005 King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud has ruled under the title Custodian of the Two Holy Mosqu...

2011-01-01

205

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2008: Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a monarchy ruled by the Al-Saud family. The population is 28.2 million, including 5.8 million foreigners. Since 2005, King Abdullah bin Abd Al Aziz Al-Saud has ruled under the title Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, a refer...

2008-01-01

206

Wind energy applications in remote areas of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of wind power generation near the remote areas of Saudi Arabia is investigated. Meteorological data from twenty weather stations for a period of ten years are analyzed to obtain wind pattern and characteristics. The annual average wind velocity distribution, and frequency of occurrence are significant in assessing the wind power potential of a certain site, especially as the

A. M. Radhwan

1994-01-01

207

Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

2012-01-01

208

Microbiological quality of bottled water in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbiological quality of sixty six bottled water samples representing 14 locally produced and six imported brands in Saudi Arabia have been examined for total coliform and heterotrophic plate count using membrane filtration method. Three local brands of large capacity (10–20 liters) were also used to observe the storage effect for 75 days. No coliform was detected in any of

Abdulrahman I. Alabdulaaly; Mujahid A. Khan

1995-01-01

209

Saudi guidelines for testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection Joint Statement of the Saudi Thoracic Society, the Saudi Society of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the Saudi Association of Public Health, and the Society of Family and Community Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a common disease in Saudi Arabia. As most cases of tuberculosis are due to reactivation of latent infection, identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) who are at increased risk of progression to active disease, is a key element of tuberculosis control programs. Whereas general screening of individuals for LTBI is not cost-effective, targeted testing of

Hamdan H. Al Jahdali; Salim Baharoon; Abdullah A. Abba; Ziad A. Memish; Abdulrahman A. Alrajhi; Ali AlBarrak; Qais A. Haddad; Mohammad Al Hajjaj; Madhukar Pai; Dick Menzies

2010-01-01

210

Phytochemical and biological studies on Saudi Commiphora opobalsamum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerial part of Commiphora opobalsamum L. (Burseraceae) growing in Saudi Arabia was subjected to a phytopharmacological investigation in order to identify its major chemical constituents and to evaluate its extracts and isolated compounds in preliminary in vitro assays for antimicrobial, antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory (COX-2 inhibition), antioxidant and estrogenic activity. Six compounds were isolated and identified as the triterpenes friedelin,

Fawkeya A. Abbas; Shaza M. Al-massarany; Shabana Khan; Tawfeq A. Al-howiriny; Jaber S. Mossa; Ehab A. Abourashed

2007-01-01

211

The Use of the Mother Tongue in Saudi EFL Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of including or excluding the learner's mother tongue in the EFL classroom has been the subject of ongoing discussion and controversy for a long time. This paper attempts to investigate the use of native Arabic in English classes at two Saudi technical colleges. The main objectives were to examine the purpose of L1 use and the attitudes…

Alshammari, Marzook M.

2011-01-01

212

Overweight and obesity in Saudi females of childbearing age  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Overweight and obesity are among the most frequently encountered multifactorial disorders in most populations of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi females of childbearing age.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was approved by the University Scientific Committee. It included a group of 600 randomly recruited healthy females with

J S Al-Malki; M H Al-Jaser; A S Warsy

2003-01-01

213

Pre-Vocational Preparation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with few exceptions, occupational specialization programs for male students first become available at the secondary level (grades 10-12). Education is not compulsory, and substantial numbers drop out at all levels. Adolescents who leave school at the primary (elementary) or intermediate (grades 7-9) level must wait…

Campbell, Clifton P.

214

Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

2009-01-01

215

Cross-Cultural Communication: Saudi, Ukrainian, and Russian Students Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a cross-cultural online writing project in which three English-as-a foreign language (EFL) college instructors in Ukraine, Russia and Saudi Arabia and their undergraduate students participated. The aim of the project was to develop students' writing skills in EFL, to develop their awareness of local and global cultural issues…

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

2004-01-01

216

Human Resource Development in Saudi Arabia: An International Affair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Saudi Arabia has a modern nationwide school system that embraces institutions from kindergarten through the university level and encompasses special, adult, industrial, and commercial education. Education is not compulsory, and coeducation does not exist. Secondary vocational industrial schools have been established for young men who have…

Campbell, Clifton P.

217

Prevalence of Malocclusion, its Association with Occlusal Interferences and Temporomandibular Disorders among the Saudi Sub-Population.  

PubMed

Aims: This Study was conducted to determine the incidence of malocclusion, occlusal interferences, temporomandibular Disorder (TMD) among the Saudi population and to evaluate the possible existence of an association between malocclusion, occlusal interferences and TMD. Methods: 250 patients attending dental clinics in Abha city, Saudi Arabia for treatment was clinically examined for the degree of malocclusion. Patients were further evaluated for the presence of occlusal interferences and TMD. Data was evaluated by person's correlation and logistic regression to evaluate the association between malocclusion, occlusal interference and TMD. Results: The results of the study indicate 42.8% of the evaluated subjects had a definitive degree of malocclusion. Among the occlusal interference observed, balancing side interferences were high (47.6%), followed by protrusive interferences (41.2%). The prevalence of TMD among the evaluated subjects was 41.6%, with mandibular deviation and joint sounds were most prevalent. Statistical Analysis (Pearson's correlation) showed the statistically significant correlation between malocclusion and centric slide (p-0.030), posterior missing teeth (p-000). The statistically significant correlation was observed between TMD and balanced side interferences (p-0.000), slide RCP-ICP (p-0.001), reduced occlusal contacts (0.033). Logistic regression analysis showed the strong association of TMD with anterior open bite, increased maxillary overjet, balanced side interferences, and centric slide. Conclusion: The prevailing malocclusion and TMD among studied population is significantly higher. The preventive dental treatment and community dental education need to be more emphasized. PMID:24984617

Haralur, Satheesh B; Addas, Mohamed Khaled; Othman, Hesham I; Shah, Farhan K; El-Malki, Abdullah Idrees; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed Abdullah

2014-06-01

218

Analysis of regional travel time data from the November 1999 dead sea explosions observed in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Two large chemical explosions were detonated in the Dead Sea in order to calibrate seismic travel times and improve location accuracy for the International Monitoring System (IMS) to monitor a Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These explosions provided calibration data for regional seismic networks in the Middle East. In this paper we report analysis of seismic data from these shots as recorded by two seismic networks run by King Saud University (KSU) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Saudi Arabia. The shots were well observed in the distance range 180-480 km mostly to the south of the Dead Sea in the Gulf of Aqaba region of northwestern Saudi Arabia. An average one-dimensional velocity model for the paths was inferred from the travel times of the regional phases Pn, Pg and Sg. Short-period Sn phases were not observed. The velocity model features a thin crust (crustal thickness 26-30 km) and low velocities (average P-wave velocity 5.8-6.0 km/s), consistent with the extensional tectonics of the region and previous studies.

Rodgers, A; Abdullah, M S; Ar-Rajehi, A; Al-Khalifah, T; Al-Amri, M S; Al-Haddad, M S; Al-Arifi, N

2000-04-19

219

Kinetic City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kinetic City is an after-school standards-based science program in which kids complete activities in conjunction with a dynamic website. It includes science experiments, games, activities, challenges and more. It provides kids in grades three through five a fun, entertaining way to learn standards-based science. It is the ideal combination of technology and hands-on collaboration. A free log-in is required for some of the content on the site. An additional section for educators or parents is featured. This provides guidance on how to best implement some of the resources. Overall, this is a nice collection for more general resources on these topics.

2009-07-02

220

Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years.  

PubMed

Aim: To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. Materials and methods: This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results: A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Conclusion: Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47. PMID:24155577

Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

2013-02-01

221

Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years  

PubMed Central

Aim: To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. Materials and methods: This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results: A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Conclusion: Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia – A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47.

Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

2013-01-01

222

A first hazard analysis of the Quaternary Harrat Al-Madinah volcanic field, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern portion of the 20,000 km2 Harrat Rahat basaltic field in NW Saudi Arabia (Harrat Al-Madinah) has hosted some of the most recent volcanic eruptions in the country. Rapid growth of the city of Al-Madinah has spread out onto the lava flows and scoria cones of the Harrat, increasing exposure to any potential renewed volcanism. We present here a first-order probabilistic hazard analysis related to new vent formation and subsequent lava flow from this volcanic field. The 501 visible eruption vent sites were integrated with aeromagnetic survey data (as representative of potential regions of buried volcanic vents) to develop a probability density function for new eruption sites using Gaussian kernel smoothing. This revealed a NNW striking zone of high spatial hazard terminating < 10 km south of the city. Using the properties of the AD1256 eruption lava flows and the spatial PDF, an analysis of lava hazard was carried out. Assuming a future lava-producing eruption, around 25% of the city of Al-Madinah is exposed to a probability of 0.001 to 0.005 of lava inundation. The temporal eruption recurrence rate is estimated at approximately one vent per 3300 years, but the temporal record of the field is so poorly constrained that the lower and upper bounds for the recurrence interval are 13,300 yrs and 70 yrs, respectively. Applying a Poisson temporal model, this results in a worst-case lava inundation recurrence interval of approximately 14,300 years.

El Difrawy, M. A.; Runge, M. G.; Moufti, M. R.; Cronin, S. J.; Bebbington, M.

2013-11-01

223

From barriers to bridges: An investigation on Saudi student mobility (2006-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by increasing funding for higher education through grants and scholarships, enabled Saudi students to study at overseas universities. A number of non-Saudi students are also enrolled at Saudi Arabian universities. After a brief introduction to the cultural and educational history of the Arab region and Saudi identity, this article turns to contemporary higher education in Saudi Arabia. It introduces the King Abdullah Scholarship Programme and then goes on to present detailed enrolment data for 2006-2009, demonstrating trends and policy changes and identifying patterns in student mobility.

Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

2011-08-01

224

Cesarean section in a high-parity community in Saudi Arabia: clinical indications and obstetric outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The study of the indications for cesarean section (CS) and its outcomes are useful for hospitals, clinicians, and researchers in determining strategies to lower the primary and repeat CS rate. The aim of this study was to identify the indications for CS and the incidence of adverse maternal/fetal outcomes in a tertiary care setting. Methods A retrospective cohort study of women (n?=?4305) who gave birth by CS at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (June 2008 to February 2011), was performed. All of the women’s medical records were reviewed by two consulting physicians to obtain the primary indications for CS and determine the maternal characteristics, type of CS (emergency or elective), and birth weight. All adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded. The point and interval estimates of the odds ratios were calculated using a logistic regression model to identify the significant predictors of adverse maternal and/or fetal outcomes. Results Of a total of 22,595 deliveries from 2008 to 2011, 4,305 deliveries were CS deliveries (19.05%). Two-thirds (67%) of all CS deliveries were emergency CSs, and the remaining deliveries were elective CSs (33%). Difficult labor (35.9%), fetal distress (21.9%) and breech presentation (11.6%) were the most frequent indications of emergency CS, while previous CS (54.3%), breech presentation (20.4%) and maternal request (10.1%) ranked first for elective CS. Adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were diagnosed in 5.09% and 5.06% of deliveries, respectively, with a significantly higher incidence in the emergency (6.06% & 5.51% respectively) than in elective CS (3.10 & 4.16% respectively). Blood transfusion was the most frequent adverse maternal outcome (3.72%), followed by ICU admission (0.63%), HELLP (0.51%), and hysterectomy (0.30%), while IUGR (3.25%) was the most frequent adverse fetal outcome, followed by IUFD and the need for ICU admission (0.58% each). Adverse maternal outcomes were significantly predicted by high gravidity (OR?=?2.84, 95% CI:1.26-6.39, p?=?0.011) and preeclampsia (OR?=?2.84, 95%CI:1.83-4.39, p?Saudi Arabia. High gravidity was a significant predictor of adverse maternal outcomes. Encouraging Saudi women to consider embarking on fewer pregnancies could act as a safeguard against mandatory CSs for subsequent births in multigravida and grand-multigravida Saudi females. Future prospective study that addresses women with repeat CSs and their association with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes is recommended.

2014-01-01

225

Expanding cities, shrinking cities, sustainable cities: challenges, opportunities and examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decades, experts have been studying with growing concern statistics and demographic trends that show in many cities the urban population appears to be climbing up to astonishing numbers all over the world. Mega-Cities like Tokyo, Mexico City and Seoul are developing and nobody appears to be able to control their growth, nor to handle their impact on

DIETER D GENSKE; ARIANE RUFF

226

Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

Kearns, Peter

2012-01-01

227

Sprawl City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by environmental authors Leon Kolankiewicz and Roy Beck, Sprawl City is a site dedicated to informing and assisting the general public about the issues of sprawl and rural land lost in the United States. With oversight from a variety of academic and practicing planners, the site contains a host of information about the growing rate of sprawl among urbanized and urbanizing areas across the country. Most helpful are a series of studies by Kolankiewicz and Beck investigating sprawl in several different states and regions, including California, Florida, Minnesota, and the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Along with all of their reports and studies, a section of definitions offers a more concrete explanation of how "sprawl" and other terms are technically defined.

2000-01-01

228

Analysis of G6PD enzyme deficiency in Saudi population  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary conservation of a housekeeping gene such as G6PD is greater than that of tissue-specific genes, presumably because the latter may require more specific adaptation to the physiology of individual organisms. The abundance of distinct mutation sites and their clinical manifestations make G6PD ideal for structure-function analysis. Therefore, it is of interest to screen of G6PD deficiency in the blood donors in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report the mean and variation of enzyme activity in a huge set of Suadi to non-Saudi population with reference to the entire population. The sequence level conservation of G6PD among distant species is demonstrated using phylogenetic trees. These observations have implications in the sequence-structure-function understanding of G6PD with reference to its association to several human diseases.

Alharbi, Khalid K; Abed, Alaa Salem; Syed, Rabbani; khan, Imran Ali; Mustafa, Sabeena Muhammed

2012-01-01

229

Saudi Arabian connection: with Western security - and even survival  

SciTech Connect

Instability in the Persian Gulf, which supplies eight percent of US energy consumed (32 percent to Western Europe and 53 percent to Japan), is seen as the key to US economic, political, and military survival. Saudi Arabia's potential for large-scale and sustained production increases and its willingness to have a moderating voice in oil-price negotiations have made it crucial to US interests and receptive to policies which have injected Saudi Arabia into international finance. The opportunities for oil supply to be disrupted by domestic instabilities within individual Persian Gulf countries, within the Persian Gulf region as a whole, or from external interference from the Soviet Union are examined. The opportunity for an effective US military defense of the area is not encouraging for a number of strategic and diplomatic reasons. (DCK)

Adelman, K.L.

1980-02-01

230

Dermatological manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The Saudi Ministry of Health data indicates that almost 32% of viral hepatitis cases were caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). It has been widely reported that chronic HCV infection is associated with and may trigger or exacerbate many skin manifestations in 20-40% of patients visiting dermatologists. The most commonly encountered dermatological manifestations of HCV infection globally include mixed cryoglobulinemia, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous and/or oral lichen planus, urticaria, pruritus, thrombocytopenic purpura, and psoriasis. The current article indicates that HCV infection is increasing in Saudi Arabia and approximately 12% of the reported dermatological manifestations are caused by HCV infection. We recommend the urgent need for large-scale, case-control studies to understand the impact of HCV infection in patients with skin disease. PMID:24888650

Halawani, Mona R

2014-06-01

231

Maastrichtian species of the coral genus Cunnolites from Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight species of the genus Cunnolites Barrére (1746) from the Maastrichtian of Central Saudi Arabia are described and illustrated in this paper. These consist of Cunnolites (Cunnolites) macrostoma (Reuss, 1854), C. (C.) tenuiradiata (Fromentel, 1870), C. (C.) elliptica (Lamarck, 1816), C. (Paracunnolites) orbignyi (Fromentel, 1864), C. (P.) undulata (Goldfuss, 1826) var. plana (Oppenheim, 1930), C. (P.) humilis (Quenstedt, 1880), C. (P.) minima (Fromentel, 1863) and C. (Plesiocunnolites) reussi (Fromentel, 1862). Species of the genus Cunnolites from Saudi Arabia are distinguished by their septa of different cycles being highly perforate at the lower, axial and upper parts of the corallum; their granules and pennulae on the lateral sides of septa are numerous but become fewer in the lower part of corallum and by some of their septa being anastomosed.

Ghalib El-Asa'ad, M. A.

232

The Saudi Arabian International Student Experience: From a Gender-Segregated Society to Studying in a Mixed-Gender Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Saudi Arabia gender segregation is a cultural practice that occurs across all public and private domains. This segregation has shaped the lives of Saudi citizens and is driven socially through cultural and religious discourses and politically through regulation and policy. For Saudi students undertaking their education in western countries, the…

Alhazmi, Ahmed; Nyland, Berenice

2013-01-01

233

A Study of Pattern of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Prevalence of Obesity in a Saudi Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to assess the pattern of body mass index (BMI) prevalence of obesity, and the association between obesity and other health-related problems in a Saudi population. The study was conducted in Queza district of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A systematic random sample of Saudi nationals aged 16 years and above were selected (total number 1037; 611 males

Mohammad Naji S. Kordy; Fathi Mahmoud El-gamal

1995-01-01

234

Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus among dialysis patients in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dialysis patients are at risk for contracting blood-borne infections, including hepatitis viruses (HBV and HCV). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among hamodialysis patients in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. Study subjects comprised 81 Bahraini and 34 Saudi dialysis patients, and as control 7714 Bahraini and 2330 Saudi blood donors. Serologic markers

W. Y. Almawi; A. A. Qadi; H. Tamim; G. Ameen; A. Bu-Ali; S. Arrayid; M. M. Abou Jaoude

2004-01-01

235

Analysis of raudhas vegetation in central Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study analyses the vegetation of three raudhas in central Saudi Arabia (Kharj, Khuraim and Binban). Seventy-five stands were examined and the martrix of 68 species×75 stands, based on species cover data, was classified using TWINSPAN and ordinated using DECORANA. Eleven vegetation groups were generated: one dominated byHammada elegansand five dominated byAcaciaspp. (A. iraquensis, A. elatior, A. seyal, A.

K. H. Shaltout; M. A. Mady

1996-01-01

236

Desert Wadis and Smoke from Kuwait Oil Fires, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smoke from the Kuwait Oil Fires obscures the view of the desert wadis, Saudi Arabia (29.5N, 42.5E). During the brief Gulf war between Iraq and the Allied forces, many of the oil wells in Kuwait were destroyed and set afire. For several months, those fires burned out of control, spewing smoke and ash for hundreds of miles in many directions depending on the altitude, time of year and the prevailing winds.

1991-01-01

237

Geological mapping in northwestern Saudi Arabia using LANDSAT multispectral techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various computer enhancement and data extraction systems using LANDSAT data were assessed and used to complement a continuing geologic mapping program. Interactive digital classification techniques using both the parallel-piped and maximum-likelihood statistical approaches achieve very limited success in areas of highly dissected terrain. Computer enhanced imagery developed by color compositing stretched MSS ratio data was constructed for a test site in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Initial results indicate that several igneous and sedimentary rock types can be discriminated.

Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.; Moik, J. G.

1975-01-01

238

The competition and market structure in the Saudi Arabia banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate the market structure of Saudi Arabia banking industry; and to evaluate the monopoly power of banks during the years 1993-2006. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is examining the market structure using the most frequently applied measures of concentration k-bank concentration ratio (CRk) and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and it is evaluating

Saeed Al-Muharrami

2009-01-01

239

An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

2013-01-01

240

Cladosporium and respiratory allergy: Diagnostic implications in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An allergological study to evaluate allergenicity to Cladosporium, Burkard 7-Day Volumetric Spore Trap and Personal Volumetric air sampler (viable mode) were employed to conduct air sampling\\u000a for 12 months in three regions of Saudi Arabia. The study was extended for a continuous 3rd year at one site. Skin prick testing\\u000a (SPT) was also conducted on 605 allergic individuals using commercial

Syed M. Hasnain; Abdulrahman S. Al-Frayh; Abdulrahman Al-Suwaine; Mohammad O. Gad-El-Rab; Khatija Fatima; Sultan Al-Sedairy

2004-01-01

241

Operational results from the Saudi solar village photovoltaic power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's largest photovoltaic power system was carried into the operation phase a few months ago. This system was developed and fabricated in the United States and it is providing electrical energy to three remote villages in Saudi Arabia. The facility includes a 350 kW photovoltaic array, 1-MW diesel powered generator, 1100 kWH lead acid batteries, a 300 KVA inverter

F. S. Huraib; A. Al-Sani; B. H. Khoshaim

1982-01-01

242

[MERS-CoV: a new virus from Saudi Arabia].  

PubMed

Since about a year, a new pulmonary pathology occurred in Saudi Arabia and some cases are imported in Europa. This disease is due to a coronavirus named MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndome Coronavirus). The main symptoms are fever, pulmonary and digestive troubles, with a risk of nosocomial transmission and a mortality of about 42%. The reservoir is probably the dromedary camel and the bat is the vector. There is no specific treatment or vaccine. PMID:24855771

Bourée, Patrice

2014-04-01

243

Information Assurance in Saudi Organizations – An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents selective results of a survey conducted to find out the much needed insight into the status of information\\u000a security in Saudi Arabian organizations. The purpose of this research is to give the state of information assurance in the\\u000a Kingdom and to better understand the prevalent ground realities. The survey covered technical aspects of information security,\\u000a risk management

Syed Irfan Nabi; Abdulrahman A. Mirza; Khaled Alghathbar

2010-01-01

244

Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.

245

CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism in Saudi Arabians.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to evaluate CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism in a Saudi Arabian population by determining the frequencies of CYP2C19*2, *3, *4, *6, *7 and *17 alleles and their relevant genotypes. Genomic DNA was isolated from 192 healthy Saudi Arabians, representing different geographical regions, and genotyping of the selected CYP2C19 variants was carried out by direct sequencing after PCR amplification. The allelic frequency of heterozygous CYP2C19*2 was 8.2% with only one individual found to carry the homozygous genotype of this defective allele. None of the other investigated poor metabolizer alleles (i.e. CYP2C19*3, *4, *6 and *7) was detected in the study population. About 46% of the examined volunteers were found to carry CYP2C19*17 genotype (37.5% heterozygous and 8.1% homozygous of the defective allele) with an overall CYP2C19*17 allelic frequency of 26.9%. In addition, a novel CYP2C19 SNP (G356A) and another very rare SNP (C336T) have been identified in this study with a frequency of about 50% for each. Further studies are required to evaluate the metabolic and clinical relevance of CYP2C19*17, G356A and C336T in the Saudi Arabian population. PMID:22747643

Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Alghamdi, Amal M; Bagulb, Khawla M; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Halwani, Rabih; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Al-Dosari, Mohammed S

2013-01-01

246

Web-based Health Educational Program in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this exploratory study is to provide an overview of a web-based health educational site created by the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Sources of data included two interviews with Saudi IT personnel, three health educators, and two medical consultants working at KFSH&RC. The interviews ranged between 45 minutes and 120 minutes. The KFSH&RC website was also searched for the type of health information content posted. Results show that the KFSH&RC web-based health educational site provides health information through a medical encyclopedia, a social networking platform, health educational links, and targeted health information for children, which includes tools such as games and coloring books. Further research is needed on the effectiveness of the KFSH&RC web-based health education site in terms of improving knowledge and changing behavior of Saudi patients. The study recommends that targeted web-based health education strategies should be developed to reach large rural populations which have inadequate computer skills and limited access to the internet. PMID:25000016

Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Alsaleh, Mahassen; Elmetwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa

2014-01-01

247

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9+/-5 to 163+/-32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49+/-2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.

2010-07-01

248

Stroke in Saudi Arabia: a review of the recent literature  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a major cerebrovascular disease resulting in high mortality and persistent disability in adults across the world. Besides coronary heart disease and cancer, stroke is the commonest cause of death in most industrialized countries. Survivors of stroke are often left with severe mental and physical disabilities, which create a major social and economic burden, ranking as the second most common cause of death worldwide and a major source of morbidity. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the largest country in the Middle East occupying approximately four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula supporting a population of more than 28 million. Stroke is becoming a rapidly increasing problem and an important cause of illness and deaths in Saudi Arabia. However, compared with the developed countries, research regarding the incidence, prevalence and their socio-demographic properties of stroke is still insufficient due to lack of appropriate studies being conducted in these specified areas. This review aims to discuss the range of the aspect of stroke in Saudi Arabia from the literature published.

Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Zamzami, Marwan Mohamed

2014-01-01

249

The Saudi Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of COPD.  

PubMed

The Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) launched the Saudi Initiative for Chronic Airway Diseases (SICAD) to develop a guideline for the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This guideline is primarily aimed for internists and general practitioners. Though there is scanty epidemiological data related to COPD, the SICAD panel believes that COPD prevalence is increasing in Saudi Arabia due to increasing prevalence of tobacco smoking among men and women. To overcome the issue of underutilization of spirometry for diagnosing COPD, handheld spirometry is recommended to screen individuals at risk for COPD. A unique feature about this guideline is the simplified practical approach to classify COPD into three classes based on the symptoms as per COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the risk of exacerbations and hospitalization. Those patients with low risk of exacerbation (<2 in the past year) can be classified as either Class I when they have less symptoms (CAT < 10) or Class II when they have more symptoms (CAT ? 10). High-risk COPD patients, as manifested with ?2 exacerbation or hospitalization in the past year irrespective of the baseline symptoms, are classified as Class III. Class I and II patients require bronchodilators for symptom relief, while Class III patients are recommended to use medications that reduce the risks of exacerbations. The guideline recommends screening for co-morbidities and suggests a comprehensive management approach including pulmonary rehabilitation for those with a CAT score ?10. The article also discusses the diagnosis and management of acute exacerbations in COPD. PMID:24791168

Khan, Javed H; Lababidi, Hani M S; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S; Zeitouni, Mohammed O; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H; Al-Amoudi, Omar S; Wali, Siraj O; Idrees, Majdy M; Al-Shimemri, Abdullah A; Al Ghobain, Mohammed O; Alorainy, Hassan S; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S

2014-04-01

250

The Saudi Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of COPD  

PubMed Central

The Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) launched the Saudi Initiative for Chronic Airway Diseases (SICAD) to develop a guideline for the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This guideline is primarily aimed for internists and general practitioners. Though there is scanty epidemiological data related to COPD, the SICAD panel believes that COPD prevalence is increasing in Saudi Arabia due to increasing prevalence of tobacco smoking among men and women. To overcome the issue of underutilization of spirometry for diagnosing COPD, handheld spirometry is recommended to screen individuals at risk for COPD. A unique feature about this guideline is the simplified practical approach to classify COPD into three classes based on the symptoms as per COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the risk of exacerbations and hospitalization. Those patients with low risk of exacerbation (<2 in the past year) can be classified as either Class I when they have less symptoms (CAT < 10) or Class II when they have more symptoms (CAT ? 10). High-risk COPD patients, as manifested with ?2 exacerbation or hospitalization in the past year irrespective of the baseline symptoms, are classified as Class III. Class I and II patients require bronchodilators for symptom relief, while Class III patients are recommended to use medications that reduce the risks of exacerbations. The guideline recommends screening for co-morbidities and suggests a comprehensive management approach including pulmonary rehabilitation for those with a CAT score ?10. The article also discusses the diagnosis and management of acute exacerbations in COPD.

Khan, Javed H.; Lababidi, Hani M. S.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Zeitouni, Mohammed O.; AL-Jahdali, Hamdan H.; Al-Amoudi, Omar S.; Wali, Siraj O.; Idrees, Majdy M.; Al-Shimemri, Abdullah A.; Al Ghobain, Mohammed O.; Alorainy, Hassan S.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.

2014-01-01

251

Factors associated with diarrhoea prevalence in saudi arabia.  

PubMed

The weather of Saudi Arabia is hot and dry for most of the year. The country is devoid of surface water which often help the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. Nevertheless, this country is not free from diarrhoeal diseases. The role of such factors as crowding, patterns of water use, sanitation, quality of housing, feeding practices and region of residence have not been adequately studied. The 1987 National Child Health Survey data were used to earmark the roles of the aforementioned determinants of diarrhoea in Saudi children aged below six. A stratified and representative sample of 8,566 married women living in rural and urban areas were interviewed by 120 female nurses. There were about two episodes of diarrhoea per child per year. Children aged 6 to 23 months had nearly double the prevalence rate of the older children. Children from rural areas and the southern region had higher rates than children from other areas. Children who were both breast and bottle fed, children of 1-4 member families and of families with 3 or more persons per room had higher prevalence rates. Children of families whose homes had earthen floors, those who used well water and those without toilet facilities who used open fields for defecation had significantly higher rates. In spite of adverse climate and little use of surface water these factors were significantly associated with higher prevalence rates of diarrhoea in Saudi children under six years of age. PMID:23012207

Al-Mazrou, Y Y; Khan, M U; Aziz, K M; Farid, S M

1995-01-01

252

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9{+-}5 to 163{+-}32 Bqm{sup -3} and an average of 49{+-}2 Bqm{sup -3}. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm{sup -3} set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

Alyami, S. H. [Saudi School in KualaLumpur, Ministry of Education, 55000 KualaLumpur (Malaysia); Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M.S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2010-07-07

253

Isolation and identification of microbes associated with mobile phones in Dammam in eastern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was conducted to determine microbial contamination of mobile phones in the city of Dammam, in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia, and identify the most important microbial species associated with these phones in order to take the necessary remedial measures. Materials and Methods: The analysis of a total of 202 samples was done to identify fungal and pathogenic bacteria isolates. Sterile swabs were firmly passed on the handset, the buttons and the screens of mobile phones, then inoculated into media of bacteria and fungi. Frequency distribution of isolates were calculated. Results: There were 737 isolated of the following bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria sicca, Micrococcus luteus, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterobacter aerogenes at the rate of 56.58, 13.57, 8.01, 7.73, 6.51, 3.66, 2.85 and 1.09% respectively. There were fungal isolates as follows: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus ochraceus at the rate of 29.07, 26.74, 20.93, 10.47, 6.98, 2.33, 2.33, 1.16%, respectively. Conclusions: The study showed that all mobile phones under consideration were infected by several microbes, most of which belonged to the natural flora of the human body as well as airborne fungi and soil. This means that it is necessary to sterilize hands after contact with a phone since it is a source of disease transmission.

Al-Abdalall, Amira H. A.

2010-01-01

254

Pilot study of the prevalence of head lice infestation in a population of Saudi Arabian children.  

PubMed

The prevalence of infestation with the head louse, Pediculus capitis, was assessed among the child population, from birth to 10 years old inclusive, of the rapidly expanding Saudi Arabian city of Jeddah. Over a period of two months, 300 consecutive children attending the general practitioner for any reason were examined specifically to identify those infested with head lice: 37 cases of active infestation were found, which is an overall prevalence of 12%. An interesting distribution, however, was noted in respect of age, ranging from less than 2% in the first year of life, rising rapidly to around 30% in ages six to eight years, thereafter declining steadily to about 16% by age 10 years. The distribution of infestation among males and females was broadly similar. These results show a high head lice infestation, particularly in the early school years, where presumably interpersonal contacts are most frequent, facilitating contagious spread. As the head lice is known to spread several viral and rickettsial diseases, such as relapsing fever and typhus, greater efforts should be made towards patient education in hygiene, and towards identifying and treating the disease when found. PMID:3609553

Boyle, P

1987-06-01

255

Residential Saudi load forecasting using analytical model and Artificial Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, load forecasting has become one of the main fields of study and research. Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) is an important part of electrical power system operation and planning. This work investigates the applicability of different approaches; Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and hybrid analytical models to forecast residential load in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). These two techniques are based on model human modes behavior formulation. These human modes represent social, religious, official occasions and environmental parameters impact. The analysis is carried out on residential areas for three regions in two countries exposed to distinct people activities and weather conditions. The collected data are for Al-Khubar and Yanbu industrial city in KSA, in addition to Seattle, USA to show the validity of the proposed models applied on residential load. For each region, two models are proposed. First model is next hour load forecasting while second model is next day load forecasting. Both models are analyzed using the two techniques. The obtained results for ANN next hour models yield very accurate results for all areas while relatively reasonable results are achieved when using hybrid analytical model. For next day load forecasting, the two approaches yield satisfactory results. Comparative studies were conducted to prove the effectiveness of the models proposed.

Al-Harbi, Ahmad Abdulaziz

256

Knowledge, Beliefs, and Psychosocial Effect of Acne Vulgaris among Saudi Acne Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, beliefs, and psychosocial effect of acne vulgaris among acne patients attending referral dermatology clinic in Al-Khobar city. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on all Saudi acne patients (males and females) attending referral dermatology clinic in Al-Khobar Governmental Hospital. The data were collected by using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results. Like other studies conducted before, we found that 58.33% of our sample have poor knowledge about factors that affect acne vulgaris with a significant correlation with both age and gender (P = 0.012 and P = 0.031, resp.). There was significant association of reporting affected social activities with age and educational level (P = 0.023 and P = 0.013, resp.). Variation between both genders regarding reporting feeling stressed due to acne was significant (P = 0.001). The majority of our sample sought medical advice after one year. The most commonly used treatment for acne vulgaris before seeking medical help was peeling products. The majority of our patients thought that acne needs no treatment by physicians. Doctors' treatment is considered guaranteed and safe by the vast majority of our patients. Conclusion. This study showed that knowledge about acne is still insufficient among acne patients.

Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Rubaya, Ahmed A.

2013-01-01

257

Environmental benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy in Saudi Arabia's electric sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of electric system expansion in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Environmental concerns are important to consider because they represent costs to society that are not typically reflected in the price that consumers pay for electricity. In past analyses of electric expansion options in Saudi Arabia, the tendency has been to

Othman Alnatheer

2006-01-01

258

Bin-Jaliah Elected as Secretary General of Saudi Society for Medical Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. "Ismaeel M. Bin-Jaliah, a Regular Member of APS, has been elected as the Secretary General of Saudi Society for Medical Education (SSME) in November 2007. Dr Bin-Jaliah is an Assistant Professor of Neurophysiology and the Director of Medical Education Center at King Khalid University in Abha, Aseer, Saudi Arabia."

2008-02-01

259

Present State, Challenges, and Future of Power Generation in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity consumption rates in Saudi Arabia have been steadily on the rise over the past three decades. While the population of about 26 million is growing at a high rate of 3%, the growth in total number of power utility customers is increasing at a higher rate of 5%. Between 2006 and 2007, the Saudi Electric Company, SEC reported an

Ramzy R. Obaid; Anwar H. Mufti

2008-01-01

260

Towards a unified 3D animated dictionary for Saudi sign language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a part of our work related to an ongoing ambitious project funded by the Saudi National plan for Sciences and Technologies, to build a virtual translator from Arabic Text to Saudi Sign Language. This project comprises two main parts. The first part concerns the mapping between words (or morphemes) in the input text and their

Yahya O. Mohamed Elhadj; Zouhir Zemirli; Basma Al-faraj

2012-01-01

261

The Effects of Using Peer and Teacher Feedback into Saudi Writing Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to investigate the efficacy of two commonly used techniques of feedback in teaching writing: teachers' feedback and peers' feedback in the Saudi educational context. The study was comprised of 132 Saudi EFL students enrolled at the Department of English in the University of Hai'l. The data collection was carried out…

Alhaisoni, Eid; Alzuoud, Khalid

2012-01-01

262

Readers’ interpretations of visual and verbal narratives of a National Geographic story on Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a National Geographic magazine story on Saudi Arabia as a case study, this article examines how pictures and text in a photo story interact to produce meaning for readers. Specifically, it investigates how participants’ perceptions of Saudi Arabia differed when they were exposed only to the text of the article, only to its photographs, or to both text and

Andrew L. Mendelson; Fabienne Darling-Wolf

2009-01-01

263

Growing Up under Pressure: The Cultural and Religious Context of the Saudi System of Gifted Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay presents an overview of the system of gifted education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To highlight the characteristics of this system, however, its presentation is preceded by a discussion of particular aspects of Saudi society and its general system of education. These aspects distinctly differentiate the general and gifted systems of…

Aljughaiman, Abdullah M.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2013-01-01

264

Exploring the importance and implementation of COBIT processes in Saudi organizations: An empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the importance and implementation of the Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT) processes in Saudi organizations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An empirical survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, was conducted to achieve this purpose. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed to a selected sample of organizations in Saudi Arabia. Of

Ahmad Abu-musa

2009-01-01

265

Factors Influencing Jordanian and Saudi Arabian Teacher Decisions to Pursue the Principalship: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was carried out to gain a better understanding of how teachers in Jordan and Saudi Arabia view the principalship and identify factors that influence teachers' candidacy to pursue a position as principal. Study participants comprised 800 teachers who worked in public schools in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Participants rated 2…

Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Wuzynani, Muhammad M.

2013-01-01

266

National Culture-Management Practices: United States and Saudi Arabia Contrasted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful conduct of business in Saudi Arabia requires attitudes and skills significantly different from those needed in the United States. Distinct societal differences can turn winning practices in one culture into failures in another. Despite Saudi Arabia's recent emergence as a wealthy marketplace, traditional values and a unique lifestyle…

Hashmi, Mahmud S.

267

Utilization of hospital resources: a survey-based study of Saudi hospitals in Riyadh City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to show that there is inappropriate utilization of resources in hospitals in all three health care sectors (whether Ministry of Health, military or private). Such misuses can be tracked down by understanding the factors associated with such utilization. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The results were based on the assessment of some of the health staff and it

Badran Al-Omar; Saad Al-Ghanim

2010-01-01

268

Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to compare the quality of bottled water with potabilized desalinated tap water. Fourteen brands of\\u000a local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market and analyzed for physicochemical parameters\\u000a in the Royal Commission Environmental Laboratory. Results were compared with 5-year continuous monitoring data of tap water\\u000a from different locations in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah

Maqbool Ahmad; Ahmad S. Bajahlan

2009-01-01

269

Are Cities Dying?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper organizes a discussion of the costs and benefits of cities around the question: Are cities becoming obsolete? While minimizing transport costs for manufactured goods no longer justifies the existence of cities, they still facilitate the division of labor and the flow of ideas. Cities' higher housing, commuting, and pollution costs seem stable over time. Only the costs associated

Edward L. Glaeser

1998-01-01

270

Heavy Thunderstorm Synoptic Climatology and Forcing Mechanisms in Saudi Arabia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects. These forecasts become possible when the movement and the development of the mid-latitude disturbances are known very well. To further increase our understanding of the inter-annual variability of thunderstorms in semi-arid areas such as Saudi Arabia, it is necessary to consider the relationship between this variability and the large-scale atmospheric parameters in addition to the geographical features. Moreover, better insight into the monthly variations of the synoptic situations in Saudi Arabia is considered to be important for understanding the broad mechanisms responsible for thunderstorm occurrences in this geographical area. This information is highly important for aviation and other sectors in Saudi Arabia - both public and private. This paper aims to investigate the favourable synoptic environments for heavy thunderstorm initiation and development in Saudi Arabia. The importance of the monthly synoptic analysis of all days (1998-2003), heavy thunderstorm days, and dry days was intended to be demonstrated. Therefore, the monthly mean charts and deviations from the mean (anomalies) of specific meteorological parameters for heavy thunderstorm days and dry days for the months of January-December for the period 1998-2003, was illustrated to examine the synoptic conditions leading to heavy thunderstorm events in Saudi Arabia.

Ghulam, Ayman S.

2010-05-01

271

Epidemiology of antituberculosis drug resistance in Saudi Arabia: findings of the first national survey.  

PubMed

The real magnitude of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drug resistance in Saudi Arabia is still unknown because the available data are based on retrospective laboratory studies that were limited to hospitals or cities. A representative national survey was therefore conducted to investigate the levels and patterns of anti-TB drug resistance and explore risk factors. Between August 2009 and July 2010, all culture-positive TB patients diagnosed in any of the tuberculosis reference laboratories of the country were enrolled. Isolates obtained from each patient were tested for susceptibility to first-line anti-TB drugs by the automated Bactec MGIT 960 method. Of the 2,235 patients enrolled, 75 cases (3.4%) were lost due to culture contamination and 256 (11.5%) yielded nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Finally, 1,904 patients (85.2% of those enrolled) had available drug susceptibility testing results. Monoresistance to streptomycin (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 9.1), isoniazid (5.4%; 95% CI, 4.7 to 6.2), rifampin (1%; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.3) and ethambutol (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.2) were observed. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) was found in 1.8% (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.4) and 15.9% (95% CI, 15.4 to 16.5) of new and previously treated TB cases, respectively. A treatment history of active TB, being foreign-born, having pulmonary TB, and living in the Western part of the country were the strongest independent predictors of MDR-TB. Results from the first representative national anti-TB drug resistance survey in Saudi Arabia suggest that the proportion of MDR-TB is relatively low, though there is a higher primary drug resistance. A strengthened continuous surveillance system to monitor trends over time and second-line anti-TB drug resistance as well as implementation of innovative control measures, particularly among immigrants, is warranted. PMID:23459478

Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Varghese, Bright; Shoukri, Mohammed M; Al-Omari, Ruba; Al-Herbwai, Mais; Alrabiah, Fahad; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A; Abuljadayel, Naila; Al-Thawadi, Sahar; Zumla, Alimuddin; Zignol, Matteo; Raviglione, Mario C; Memish, Ziad

2013-05-01

272

Epidemiology of Antituberculosis Drug Resistance in Saudi Arabia: Findings of the First National Survey  

PubMed Central

The real magnitude of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drug resistance in Saudi Arabia is still unknown because the available data are based on retrospective laboratory studies that were limited to hospitals or cities. A representative national survey was therefore conducted to investigate the levels and patterns of anti-TB drug resistance and explore risk factors. Between August 2009 and July 2010, all culture-positive TB patients diagnosed in any of the tuberculosis reference laboratories of the country were enrolled. Isolates obtained from each patient were tested for susceptibility to first-line anti-TB drugs by the automated Bactec MGIT 960 method. Of the 2,235 patients enrolled, 75 cases (3.4%) were lost due to culture contamination and 256 (11.5%) yielded nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Finally, 1,904 patients (85.2% of those enrolled) had available drug susceptibility testing results. Monoresistance to streptomycin (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 9.1), isoniazid (5.4%; 95% CI, 4.7 to 6.2), rifampin (1%; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.3) and ethambutol (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.2) were observed. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) was found in 1.8% (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.4) and 15.9% (95% CI, 15.4 to 16.5) of new and previously treated TB cases, respectively. A treatment history of active TB, being foreign-born, having pulmonary TB, and living in the Western part of the country were the strongest independent predictors of MDR-TB. Results from the first representative national anti-TB drug resistance survey in Saudi Arabia suggest that the proportion of MDR-TB is relatively low, though there is a higher primary drug resistance. A strengthened continuous surveillance system to monitor trends over time and second-line anti-TB drug resistance as well as implementation of innovative control measures, particularly among immigrants, is warranted.

Varghese, Bright; Shoukri, Mohammed M.; Al-Omari, Ruba; Al-Herbwai, Mais; AlRabiah, Fahad; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.; Abuljadayel, Naila; Al-Thawadi, Sahar; Zumla, Alimuddin; Zignol, Matteo; Raviglione, Mario C.; Memish, Ziad

2013-01-01

273

Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL) in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P ? 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06), followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40) and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75). After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03), older age (P = 0.003), rural origin (P = 0.03), positive family history of the same lesion(s) (P = 0.01), shorter duration of ?6 months (P = 0.02), generalized spread (P ? 0.02), and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02). Conclusion . The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the Skindex scale. Further studies of specific diseases and educational programs targeting patients at higher risk for QoL impairments are recommended.

Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Khowailed, Mohammad S; Suliman, Wijdan E; Al-Turaif, Deema A; Al-Bluwi, Eman; Al-Kahtani, Hassan S

2012-01-01

274

Susceptibility of Saudi Bulinus truncatus to infection with Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium with observations on protein electrophoretic pattern of the snails.  

PubMed

A laboratory-based susceptibility study was carried out on snails Bulinus truncatus collected from highland Abha, Asser, Saudi Arabia to Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium to investigate the potential role of Saudi B. truncatus in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium and to know the possibility that the parasite might be able to spread into Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that, compared to Egyptian snails, survival of snails at day 25 post-exposure was significantly higher in Saudi B. truncatus ones. The infection rate was higher in Saudi snails as compared to Egyptian ones. The incubation period was shorter in Saudi snails but the duration of cercarial shedding was longer in the Egyptian than in the Saudi snails. The production of S. haematobium cercariae per snail was higher in Egyptian snails than in Saudi ones. These results suggest that Saudi B. truncatus can play a role in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium in Saudi Arabia and therefore this parasite might be able to spread into the Kingdom. In addition, electrophoretic analysis of tissue soluble proteins was done to determine the effects of the parasite on both the Egyptian and Saudi snails. The electrophoretic analysis revealed the occasional presence or absence of certain bands in infected snails in comparison with non-infected one. PMID:19329256

Mostafa, Osama M S; Bin Dajem, Saad M; Abu El Einin, Hanaa M

2009-05-12

275

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among Male Primary School Children in Dammam, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Associated Factors.  

PubMed

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders that develop in children and becomes apparent in the preschool and early school years. Several family and maternal-related factors were shown to be associated with ADHD. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of ADHD and associated family and psychosocial factors among male primary school children in Dammam city, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 1287 students aged 6-13 years in 67 government and 10 private primary schools was selected by multistage systematic random sampling. Data was collected using two types of questionnaires: the modified Arabic version of the Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale (ADDES) school version, and Parents' questionnaire to diagnose the three main subtypes of ADHD namely: inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and combined ADHD. The majority of the boys were from government schools (83.0%), were of age 6-<9 years (40.5%) and of Saudi nationality (80.7%). The overall prevalence of combined ADHD was 16.4%, with a prevalence of 12.4% for hyperactivity-impulsivity and 16.3% for inattention disorders respectively. The study also revealed a variety of family factors to be significantly associated with the development of ADHD. The prevalence of each subtype of ADHD was higher if the child was the 6th one in the family. The prevalence of hyperactivity-impulsivity disorder was significantly higher among children living with single parents than those living with both parents (25.0% vs. 12.2% respectively; r =0.016). Inattention was significantly higher among those who had bottle feeding than breastfeeding (21.2% vs. 14.4% respectively; r=0.03). Conclusion and recommendations: several approaches directed to the child, family, the primary health care services, the school, and the community should be implemented to reduce the prevalence and incidence of ADHD. PMID:19302773

Al Hamed, Jamal H; Taha, Attia Z; Sabra, Amr A; Bella, Hassan

2008-01-01

276

Pattern of management of urologic cancer in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: To compare the current uro-oncologic practice pattern in Saudi Arabia with the standard of care practice and to identify obstacles in our health care system that prevent offering such a treatment. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 247 practicing urologists in Saudi Arabia using a designed questionnaire. This questionnaire contains 19 questions focusing on management of bladder and renal cancers. Results: Of the 247 contacted urologists, 86 completed the questionnaire. Seventy six percent see more than 10 bladder cancer cases/year and 83% used rigid cystoscope for diagnosis under general anesthesia. Eighty two percent perform over 10 bladder tumor resections/year; however, 90% of them perform less than five cystectomies/year, if any. Seventy nine percent had intravesical therapy available at their hospitals and majority of them use it after resection in selected patients. Fifty percent preferred re-resection within 2–4 weeks for T1 and/or G3 tumors and majority of them (86%) perform cystectomy for muscle invasive disease and ninety six percent perform ileal conduit. Thirty four percent see over 10 renal cancers/year. Forty nine percent perform radical nephrectomy for less than 4 cm renal masses and for more than 4 cm, only 9% do laparoscopic nephrectomy while the majority preferred open technique although 77% of the hospitals participated in this survey have a urologist capable of doing laparoscopy. Conclusion: A significant number of urologists in Saudi Arabia do not apply some of the well-accepted standard practices in urologic cancer. To improve this, we need to work on our referral system and establish education and training programs to make the urologist familiar with the new modalities of treatment.

Al-Othman, Khalid; Al-Hathal, Naif

2010-01-01

277

Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.  

PubMed

Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

2012-01-01

278

Predictors of work-related stress among nurses working in primary and secondary health care levels in Dammam, Eastern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Work-related stress (WRS) is an insidious and persistent part of everyday life related to the response of people to work environment. Nursing is a strenuous job and WRS is prevalent among nurses. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of WRS among nurses working in primary and secondary health care levels in Dammam, Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 17 primary health care centers (PHCCs) representing the primary level of health care and? Medical Tower Complex (MTC) representing the secondary health care level in Dammam city. The total number of nurses included in the study was 637 nurses (144 in PHCCs) and (493 MTC). Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, which was developed based on the pertinent literature. It included two main parts: Sociodemographic and job characteristics of nurses and 31 WRS questions. Results: The overall prevalence of WRS among all studied nurses was 45.5%; 43.1% and 46.2% in primary and secondary levels, respectively. In the primary level, there was a statistical significant association between WRS and being married (85.5%), and having living three children and more (53.2%). Moreover, younger age group 20-<30 years (79.4%), Saudi nationality (86.8%), being married (74.6%), having nonbachelor degree (83.3%), work shifts (89.5%), and working in surgical department (46.5%) were the significant associating factors with the occurrence of WRS among nurses in secondary levels. Young age was the only predicting factor for WRS in primary care level. While being female, Saudi, married, with work shifts, and working in surgical department were found to predict WRS in the secondary level. Recommendations: Appropriate strategy in health care organization to investigate stress in health care settings is recommended. Moreover, interventional programs to identify, and relieve sources and effects of stress should be developed.

Al-Makhaita, Huda M.; Sabra, Amr A.; Hafez, Ahmed S.

2014-01-01

279

Isolation of pigeon herpes encephalomyelitis virus in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A virus was isolated from the brains of pigeons suffering from nervous disorders in different localities of the Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The new isolate caused a high morbidity, ranging from 33% to 50%, and a mortality rate which reached 40%. The virus produced pinpoint greyish pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated hens' eggs and induced syncytial formation followed by rounding and lysis of the cells in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures. Virus infectivity was significantly reduced following treatment by 20% ether or chloroform. The isolated virus was identified as pigeon herpes encephalomyelitis virus by serum-neutralization, agar gel diffusion and fluorescent antibody staining techniques. PMID:2994283

Shalaby, M A; el-Sisi, M A; Ismail, O E; Afaleque, A I

1985-07-01

280

A passive solar test facility for Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

A passive solar test facility has been designed for Dammam, Saudi Arabia. It will be located on the campus of King Faisal University, adjacent to the Persian Gulf. This maritime desert climate is terribly sevre, and one for which it is a formidable challenge to design a year around thermally efficient building. This facility incorporates seven different passive strategies: proper orientation, operable shading for windows, flow-through ventilation, externally insulated thermal mass, wind tower with direct evaporative cooling, indirect evaporative cooling through a double shell, and solar water heating. Construction should begin in June of 1983. Upon completion, the building will be monitored for at least two years.

Woods, P.K.

1983-06-01

281

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity. PMID:3485894

Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Mossa, J S; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Said, M S; Tariq, M

1986-01-01

282

Sydenham chorea in a 5-year-old Saudi patient.  

PubMed

Despite improvements in socio-economic status and the standard of health care services, rheumatic fever continuous to occur in Saudi Arabia, although with decreasing frequency. The disease is most commonly observed in school-aged children, but can also occur in a younger age group. Carditis and arthritis are the major clinical symptoms on presentation of acute rheumatic fever in young children. Rheumatic chorea is infrequently reported in young children. Here, a case of Sydenham chorea, in a 5-year-old boy, is presented. Although rare, the diagnosis of Sydenham chorea should always be considered in young children with choreiform movements. PMID:24983288

Lardhi, Amer A

2014-07-01

283

Luminescence dating of the Wabar meteorite craters, Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Luminescence dating has been used to find the age of meteorite impact craters at Wabar (Al Hadida) in Saudi Arabia. The luminescence characteristics of the shocked material were determined. Using a variety of luminescence dating techniques applied to impactite formed by the meteorite, and to the underlying sand, the age is found to be 290 ?? 38 years. A comparison is made with two possible historically recorded ages. An impact as young as this has implications for the assessment of hazards from the impact on Earth of small meteorites. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Prescott, J. R.; Robertson, G. B.; Shoemaker, C.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Wynn, J.

2004-01-01

284

Marble brain disease in two Saudi Arabian siblings.  

PubMed

Marble brain disease, also known as Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome, is a syndrome consisting primarily of renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification and osteopetrosis. The majority of reports originate from the Middle East. It is an autosomal recessive condition owing to carbonic anhydrase type II deficiency in renal and brain cells with a variant form of osteopetrosis. We report two siblings with this condition from Saudi Arabia. Both cases improved in both somatic growth and mental development after commencing treatment for renal tubular acidosis in the form of alkaline therapy and potassium supplementation. PMID:16156988

Muzalef, Abdullah; Alshehri, Mohammed; Al-Abidi, Abdulaziz; Al-Trabolsi, Hassan A

2005-09-01

285

Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

Ricks, Thomas

2011-01-01

286

Central City Business.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business owners and managers from 10 large cities were surveyed regarding (1) perceptions of their cities' business climate; (2) plans for increasing/decreasing their work force; and (3) whether they had considered moving/closing their businesses. Results suggest that for central city business to thrive, improvement must occur in urban quality of…

Matz, Deborah

1981-01-01

287

Smart cities in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban performance currently depends not only on the city’s endowment of hard infrastructure (‘physical capital’), but also, and increasingly so, on the availability and quality of knowledge communication and social infrastructure (‘human and social capital’). The latter form of capital is decisive for urban competitiveness. Against this background, the concept of the ‘smart city’ has recently been introduced as a

A. Caragliu; C. Del Bo; P. Nijkamp

2009-01-01

288

Standardizing city tourism statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major problems that city tourism managers face are the availability and comparability of market research information for their own city and their strongest competitors. To overcome this problem in market volume and share studies on European city tourism, an intelligent database system was developed. A comprehensive knowledge acquisition process on the quality and comparability of the statistics led to

Karl W Wöber

2000-01-01

289

Predictors of smoking among male college students in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia. PMID:24673080

Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S

2013-11-01

290

Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges  

PubMed Central

Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

BaHammam, Ahmed S.

2011-01-01

291

Risk factors associated with postpartum depression in the Saudi population  

PubMed Central

Introduction Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the major psychological disorders worldwide that affects both mother and child. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk of PPD with obstetric and demographic variables in Saudi females. Materials and methods Data were collected by interviewing females 8–12 weeks postpartum. PPD symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or higher. Variables included in this study were age, education, occupation, parity, baby’s sex, pregnancy period, delivery type, hemoglobin level, anemia, and iron pills taken during pregnancy. Results Of the 352 postpartum females, the prevalence of PPD symptom risk was 117 (33.2%). Among the PPD symptomatic females, 66 (39.8%) had low hemoglobin levels, and 45 (40.5%) females were anemic during pregnancy (P?0.05). These results suggest that early postpartum anemia, indicated by low hemoglobin level, is a significant risk factor for PPD (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.74; P=0.03). Other variables, including age, parity, education, occupation, and delivery type, were not significantly correlated (P=0.15–0.95), but marginally indicative of the risk of depressive symptoms. Conclusion Low hemoglobin level and anemia during pregnancy were risk factors for PPD in Saudi females. Many other factors may be considered risk factors, such as age, occupation, and parity. Anemic women need more attention and to be checked regarding their PPD, and treated if necessary.

Alharbi, Abeer A; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad

2014-01-01

292

Evolution of gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

The beginning of the natural gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia is traced back to 1959 when Aramco embarked on a program to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) for export from low pressure gases such as stabilizer overhead, spheroid, tank farm, and refinery off-gases. The processing scheme involves compression and refrigeration to extract C3+ raw NGL, a raw NGL gathering system, and a fractionation plant to separate propane, butane, and natural gasoline. NGL extracted in Abqaiq and Ras Tanura is moved to Ras Tanura for fractionation, storage, and export. The system, built in several increments, has total design capacity of 500 MMscfd of feed gases to produce 320,000 bpd of NGL composed of 40% propane, 30% butane, and 30% natural gasoline. Phase II of the Saudi gas program envisages collection and processing of associated gas produced with Arabian medium and heavy crude oils largely in the northern onshore and offshore fields. Further domestic development may focus on more diversification in gas product utilization and on upgrading to higher value products.

Showail, A.

1983-01-01

293

Water contamination and esophageal cancer at Gassim Region, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Between January 1980 and December 1982, 183 patients with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the esophagus who were referred to a tertiary referral hospital were studied. Thirty-two (17%) patients were referred from Gassim Region at the north central part of Saudi Arabia. In contrast, only 5% of total cancer patient referrals were from this area. A case-control study showed a significant regional difference within Saudi Arabia and the most referrals from Gassim area. A prospective case-control study showed persistently high numbers of referrals from that region during 1983-1987. When patients from Gassim Region were compared with those referred from other locations, no statistical differences were noted between the two groups except for the source of drinking water. Water analysis from Gassim area showed a high solid content with elevated levels of calcium, magnesium, and to a lesser extent, chromium iron, cadmium, and cobalt. Traces of petroleum oil were found in five of six water samples from Gassim during 1983, compared with 3 of 49 samples from other areas. Mutagenicity tests on water specimens form Gassim Region indicated the presence of possible carcinogens. It is being suggested that the high prevalence of esophageal cancer in this region may be related to contamination of water by impurities such as petroleum oils. Malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency, as well as other factors may have promoted such malignancies.

Amer, M.H.; El-Yazigi, A.; Hannan, M.A.; Mohamed, M.E. (King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

1990-05-01

294

Musculoskeletal Pain Disorders among Secondary School Saudi Female Teachers  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study was conducted to estimate prevalence and pattern of musculoskeletal pain disorders among secondary school Saudi female teachers in Al-Khobar area and the psychodemographic and psychosocial factors that may affect them. Material and Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using sample of secondary schools teachers (governmental and private school) in Al-Khobar area, Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Result. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain disorders was 79.17%. Main sites of pain were lower back (63.8%) followed by shoulder (45.4%), neck (42.1%), leg (40.0%), wrist (16.2%), and elbow joint (10.0%). Factors that showed significant relationship were type of school (p value 0.038), age (p value 0.002), weight (p value 0.007), number of children (p value 0.006), shoe type (p value 0.000), teaching years (p value 0.003), and working daily hours (p value 0.027). Conclusion. Secondary school female teachers showed high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain disorders in most anatomic sites, namely, the back, shoulder, neck, legs, wrist, and elbow joint. Risk factors associated with significant pain were type of school, age, weight, number of children, and number of teaching years.

Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Zuhair, Shatha Z.

2013-01-01

295

Pattern of lymph node pathology in Western saudi arabia.  

PubMed

Background: This study aimed to characterize the histopathological pattern of lymph node pathology among Saudi patients and to highlight the age and gender variations of these lesions as base line data. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data from lymph node biopsy specimens received at the Department of Pathology, King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia from January 2006 to December 2013. Results: Of the 289 lymph node biopsy specimens received, 154 (53.3%) were from males and 135 (46.7%) from females giving a male: female ratio of 1.14:1. Age of the patients ranged from 2.5 to 96 years with a mean age 33.9 years. The commonest lymph node group affected was the cervical (30.4%) followed by axillary (9.7%) and inguinal (8.7%). Malignant lymphoma [71 Hodgkin's disease (HD), 57 non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)] 128 (44.3%), reactive hyperplasia 68 (23.5%), and tuberculosis 41 (14.2%) were the common causes of lymph node enlargement. While HD, reactive hyperplasia and tuberculosis were commonest in young adult patients (10-29 years old) and rare above the age of 50 years; NHL was the predominant cause of lymph node enlargement above 50 years. Conclusions: Lymph node biopsy plays an important role in establishing the cause of lymphadenopathy. Among the biopsied nodes, lymphomas were the most common (44.3%) followed by non-specific reactive hyperplasia (23.5%) and tuberculous lymphadenitis (14.2%). PMID:24969903

Albasri, Abdulkader Mohammed; El-Siddig, Abeer Abdalla; Hussainy, Akbar Shah; Alhujaily, Ahmed Safar

2014-01-01

296

Parental responses to consanguinity and genetic disease in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

In-depth interviews of 36 Saudi families whose children suffered from neuro-metabolic disorders were conducted at a specialist hospital in Riyadh in order to examine parental understanding of disease and attitudes towards future births and consanguineous marriages. Parents had difficulty accepting a genetic explanation for diseases that did not affect all children at the time of birth; they also expressed religious or folk beliefs to account for illness. Coping behaviours included denial and resignation to the situation, divorce and remarriage. Some families adopted a cautious approach to cousin marriages and future births; this was significantly related to their education level, but not to previous infant deaths. Awareness of medical facts brought little emotional comfort to parents but allowed for preventive measures through screening adult carriers and identifying affected infants. This study presents new material from Saudi Arabia to strengthen current awareness that the range of religious beliefs, social attitudes and reproductive behaviours adopted by families in a society undergoing rapid change is of direct relevance to health care. PMID:1776043

Panter-Brick, C

1991-01-01

297

Denied Dignity: Systematic Discrimination and Hostility toward Saudi Shia Citizens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch, "the world's leading independent organizations dedicated to defending and protecting human rights", has a revealing report available on their website about the discrimination that has occurred against the Shia religious community in Saudi Arabia. The Report, found in the "Publications" tab of the website, can be read online in English or Arabic (click the yellow "L" near the top of the page), can be downloaded as a PDF, or ordered for purchase. The report includes a summary of the situation at the beginning of the report, plus recommendations to Saudi Arabia from Human Rights Watch to rectify the situation, as well as information about the report's research methodology. Under the "Reports" tab there are hundreds of other reports available online, and they can be browsed by date, country, or issue. Additionally scholars will appreciate that the "Methodology" the Human Rights Watch researchers use to document abuse of human rights throughout the world is available here in a comprehensive document entitled "Our Research Methodology".

298

Perception of nursing care: views of Saudi Arabian female nurses.  

PubMed

'Values are principles and standards that have meaning and worth to an individual, family, group, or community' (Purnell & Paulanka 1998: p.3). Values are central to the care provided by nurses. The provision of nursing care within the context of value clarification, has been explored from various perspectives, however, as values vary within cultures, there is a limited range of studies reflecting on Saudi Arabian nurses' perspectives of nursing care. Through a Heideggerian phenomenological research design, six nurses were enrolled through purposive sampling. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews, which were audio tape-recorded, were chosen as the methods of data collection. A seven stage framework approach was applied to analyse and organise the research findings in three conceptual themes: values in context of Islam, the nurse-patient relationship, and identity's influence on being in the world of nursing. The findings of the research indicate that values in nursing and the perception of care are closely linked to the Islamic values of the informants. However, one of the most challenging aspects emerging from this study is related to these nurses' experiences related to the public's negative perception of nursing as a profession for Saudi Arabian women. PMID:18844568

Mebrouk, Jette

2008-04-01

299

Creating a GIS application for retail centers in Jeddah city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to identify the role of geographical information systems (GIS) in supporting retail planners in monitoring and analyzing retail development and growth. At first, a review about retail planning and its relevant issues is made. Second, GIS is defined together with its applications in retail planning. The third part discusses the created GIS application that is designed for two retail centers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. This application is created to help planners in defining the distribution of retail demand, describing customers profile, analyzing trade areas and modeling retail flows. Two useful models have been produced by this study. One is called market penetration and the other is based on spatial interaction technique. The former is created to examine retail center catchment area, while the latter is used to model the interaction between demand areas and retail centers.

Murad, AbdulKader A.

2003-11-01

300

The pattern of acute rheumatic fever in children: Experience at the children's hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background The study was carried out in Riyadh City Hospital to determine the hospital prevalence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), its characteristics and to determine the proportion of the ARF population that have recurrent attacks. Methods The study was an analysis of 83 children with ARF, admitted to the Children’s Hospital, Riyadh, over a 10-year period (1994–2003). The diagnosis of ARF was based on clinical features as defined in the modified Jones criteria with evidence of recent streptococcal infection. The diagnosis of recurrence of rheumatic fever in children with rheumatic heart disease was based on the presence of one major criterion apart from carditis or two minor criteria, in addition to evidence of preceding streptococcal infection. Results The mean age at presentation was 9 years. In 31 (37%) cases, arthritis was the only major Jones criterion. In 30 (36%) others, arthritis was associated with carditis and in 3 (4%), with chorea. Cardiac involvement was documented in 44 (53%) cases; it occurred alone in 5 (6%), with arthritis in 30 (36%), and with chorea in 9 (11%) others. Among the 44 with carditis, the pattern of cardiac involvement was valvular only (mild carditis) in 30 (68%), while it was severe in the remaining 14 (32%) cases who also had heart failure. The involvement of the mitral valve alone occurred in 26 (59%) cases in the form mitral regurgitation, while both aortic and mitral valve regurgitation were present in 11 (25%) cases, and aortic valve regurgitation alone in four (9%) others. Chorea was the only major criterion of ARF in 5 children (6%), while it occurred in association with other major criteria in 12 (15%) others. Nineteen (23%) children had recurrent attacks of ARF. Conclusion ARF continues to occur in Saudi Arabia in the period (1994–2003), despite the progress made in the socio-economic development of the country, and this is often associated with severe cardiac involvement.

Qurashi, Mansour Al

2009-01-01

301

Hyperendemicity of diarrhea in a valley area, Asir Region, southwestern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A random sample of 781 subjects living around a valley in Shebaa area, southwestern Saudi Arabia, and 1284 subjects from the rest of Shebaa, along with a sample of 1095 from a nearby urban community in Abha city have been studied following a notification of a suggestive increase of diarrhea in the valley. This was to determine whether the prevalence of diarrhea was high in the valley and to formulate hypotheses about possible implicated factors. The family head was interviewed about episodes of diarrhea among family members during the 2-week period preceding the interview, about source of drinking water, and about some demographic variables. Observations were made and data were collected on presence and frequency of flies in the house, methods of excreta and refuse disposal, valley and wells water, and the nearby agricultural farms. The 2-week diarrhea episode rate per subject was significantly (p<0.0001) highest in the valley (0.20), was 0.09 in the rest of Shebaa, and was lowest in the urban community area. (0.05). The rate decreased by age (p<0.001) and increased by frequency of flies in the house (p<0.0001), particularly in the valley. Drinking only from the desalinated water was associated with diarrhea episode rate of 0.12 as compared to 0.05 for drinking only from bottled water or from any other combination of sources (p<0.01). The valley and wells water was grossly polluted and was regularly used for irrigating and washing fresh fruits and vegetables from nearby farms. Hypotheses for the factors possibly contributing to this hyperendemicity of diarrhea in the valley include inadequate excreta and refuse disposal, contamination of the valley and wells water, contamination of the desalinated water during transportation or storage and abundance of flies. PMID:17214157

Abu-Zeid, H A; Aziz, M A; Abolfotouh, M; Moneim, M A; Al-Erian, R

1995-01-01

302

Wooden Bay Window (Rowshan) Conservation in Saudi-Hejazi Heritage Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prominent feature of the architectural style of heritage buildings in western Saudi Arabia (Hijaz) cities such as Jeddah is the extensive use in their facades of projected intricately carved wooden bay window (Rowshan sl, Rawasheen pl). Throughout Balad or the old town in Jeddah, the element of Rowshan can be found made from many different types of woods such as teak, Javan, mahogany, other types of african and middle eastern woods and with different sizes, proportions, and varied intricate ornamentations and motifs. Besides its aesthetic value, the rawasheen and their many components and parts provide other functions such as ventilation, lighting, and spatial and visual privacy for building interiors from the outside. The profound degradation of Rawasheen is impacting the authenticity and heritage value of old buildings in historical Jeddah because of many factors that include: extensive moisture damage, using improper repair methods and joinery techniques to maintain rawasheen, using unsuitable cleaning products and wood paints, and replacing damaged parts with unkown types of wood. In order to prevent any further deterioration of Rawasheen, documentation of rawasheen and its components using recent digital methodologies and the utilization of proper repair techniques must be followed when working with these elements to ensure longevity of conservation, and preservation of value and authenticity.Through the disucssion of Rowshan repair methodology that was developed that include the digital documentation of all intricate details of rowshan panels and wood engraving which allowed replicating damaged elements beyond repair and applied to a listed building in old Jeddah, the paper provides Rowshan repair guidelines which relate to documentation, diagnostic methods, investigations and tests, repair methodology and reinforcement.

Adas, A. A.

2013-07-01

303

U.S.-Saudi Partnership: Is This Marriage Headed for Divorce.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis seeks to determine whether the relationship between the United States and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia can continue to survive in light of the unprecedented developments that have challenged this partnership within the last decade. It will addr...

E. Sylvester

2008-01-01

304

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of March 1985 are presented. (ERA ...

1985-01-01

305

75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7220] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations...

2010-11-02

306

Human infection with Bertiella studeri (Cestode: Anoplocephalidae) in an Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Perhaps this is the first case of bertiellosis studeri record in Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia. The patient was resistant to Niclosamide but successfully treated with Commiphora molmol extract. PMID:20503589

Al-Mathal, Ebtesam M; Saleh, Nagla Mostafa K; Morsy, Tosson A

2010-04-01

307

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project. Final Report, Project Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proposals for research on solar cooling are presented for four Saudi Arabian universities. The universities are the University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran, King Saud University in Riyadh, King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, and King Faisal Unive...

1986-01-01

308

Eurasian and Sub-Saharan African mitochondrial DNA haplogroup influences pseudoexfoliation glaucoma development in Saudi patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have a role on the development of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEG) in the Saudi Arab population. Methods The mtDNA regulatory region and coding regions comprising mtDNA haplogroup diagnostic polymorphisms were sequenced in patients with PEG (n=94), healthy matched controls (free of PEG; n=112) and a healthy Saudi Arab population group (n=810). Results The Eurasian haplogroup T and the Sub-Saharan African Haplogroup L2 confer susceptibility to PEG, whereas the Eurasian haplogroup N1 was associated with reduced risk to develop PEG in the Saudi Arab population. Conclusions Mitochondrial haplogroups T and L2 may play a role in the development of PEG in the Saudi Arabian population.

Cabrera, Vicente M.; Larruga, Jose M.; Osman, Essam A.; Gonzalez, Ana M.; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A.

2011-01-01

309

Phytophagous and predaceous mites associated with vegetable crops from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate phytophagous and predatory mites associated with vegetable plants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eight phytophagous and 10 predacious mites were collected from 14 species of vegetable crops covering five major production localities. Out of these 18 mite species, 13 species are new to the mite fauna of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the two species, Tenuipalpus punicae and Agistemus exsertus, are reported for the first time on vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. For each mite species found, notes on host plant association and occurrence period are given. An illustrated key for the identification of the 18 mite species reported in this study is provided and this can be used to improve the IPM programs by applying the local natural predatory mites in controlling mite pests in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Atawi, Fahad J.

2011-01-01

310

Legal Issues in End-of-life Care: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia and United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This paper provides different perspectives on end-of-life legal issues in Saudi Arabia, and contrasts those perspectives with current legal practice in the United States. Background: Islamic law governs end-of-life legal issues in Saudi Arabia which applies to end-of-life legal issues. There is a specific legal terminology, derived from the Qura'an, that is used to settle conflicts in end-of-life care.

Amani Babgi

2009-01-01

311

Heterogeneity and Variation of Clinical and Haematological Expression of Haemoglobin S in Saudi Arabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sickle cell haemoglobin (Hb S) occurs at a high frequency in the Eastern (EP), South-Western (SWP) and North-Western (NWP) Provinces of Saudi Arabia and the presentation of the Hb S is believed to exhibit clinical diversity in the different regions. Three areas of Saudi Arabia were screened to determine the frequency of Hb S and ?- and ?-thalassaemias and glucose-6-phosphate

Mohsen A. F. El-Hazmi

1992-01-01

312

A Framework for a Competency Based Medical Curriculum in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: We recently adopted a competency based curriculum based on the CanMEDs model. This shift required the cross-mapping of all key CanMEDs competencies with the competencies for higher education in Saudi Arabia as per the Saudi National Commission for Academic Accreditation & Assessment (NCAAA) guidelines. Objectives: To formulate competencies for our curriculum and to create a framework aligned with NCAAA, CanMEDs and Saudi Meds. Methods: After finalization of program outcomes, the program goals were cross-mapped with CanMEDs and Saudi Meds competencies and then the CanMEDs competencies were reverse mapped with our outcomes. Finally benchmarking of outcomes with the programs of the Universities of Manitoba and Toronto was done. Results: We were able to cross-map and match major outcomes of our program with both the CanMEDs and the Saudi Meds frameworks, ensuring that the outcomes are in line with NCAAA, CanMEDs and Saud Meds. Also, our program objectives were bench marked with two of the Canadian medical schools. Conclusion: We propose that our framework can be a model for other universities in Saudi Arabia to consider when shifting to a competency based curriculum.

Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Kaliyadan, Feroze; Bahgat, Mohamed; Aboulmagd, Elsayed

2013-01-01

313

Improving the care of sepsis: Between system redesign and professional responsibility: A roundtable discussion in the world sepsis day, September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion in September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as part of the World Sepsis Day held in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to (1) review the chasm between the current management of sepsis and best practice, (2) discuss system redesign and role of the microsystem in sepsis management, (3) emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of the care of sepsis and that improvement of the care of sepsis is the responsibility of all, (4) discuss the bundle concept in sepsis management, and (5) reflect on the individual responsibility of the health care team toward sepsis with a focus on accountability and the moral agent. PMID:24987470

Arabi, Yaseen; Alamry, Ahmed; Levy, Mitchell M; Taher, Saadi; Marini, Abdellatif M

2014-07-01

314

Improving the care of sepsis: Between system redesign and professional responsibility: A roundtable discussion in the world sepsis day, September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion in September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as part of the World Sepsis Day held in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to (1) review the chasm between the current management of sepsis and best practice, (2) discuss system redesign and role of the microsystem in sepsis management, (3) emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of the care of sepsis and that improvement of the care of sepsis is the responsibility of all, (4) discuss the bundle concept in sepsis management, and (5) reflect on the individual responsibility of the health care team toward sepsis with a focus on accountability and the moral agent.

Arabi, Yaseen; Alamry, Ahmed; Levy, Mitchell M.; Taher, Saadi; Marini, Abdellatif M.

2014-01-01

315

Initial results from the Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia project: Microearthquakes in the northern Harrat Rahat monogenetic volcanic field, Madinah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 8-station borehole seismic research array is recording microearthquake data in northern Harrat Rahat. This recently active monogenetic volcanic field lies southeast of the Islamic holy city of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The VORiSA seismographs are operated in collaboration between King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah and the Institute of Earth Science and Engineering, University of Auckland, in New Zealand. The goal of the VORiSA project is to evaluate the seismic and volcanic hazard around Madinah. To this end, we will evaluate the local earthquake activity including the extent to which local earthquakes are tectonic or volcanic. We also will use seismicity to understand the subsurface structure. The analytical goals of the seismic research array are the following: (1) Calculate a new seismic velocity model, (2) Map subsurface structures using seismic tomography, and (3) Explore for fracture zones using shear wave splitting analysis. As compared to seismographs installed on the surface, borehole seismometers detect smaller and more numerous microearthquake signals. The sensitivity and location of the borehole sensors in the VORiSA array are designed to detect these weak signals. The array has a total aperture of 17 km with station spacing at 5 - 10 km. The seismometers are housed in IESE model S21g-2.0, two Hz, 3-component borehole sondes. Sensor depths range from 107 - 121 m. The data acquisition system at each stand-alone station consists of a Reftek 130-01, 6-channel, 24 bit data logger which records at 250 samples per second. The power source is a deep cycle battery with solar recharge. Local temperatures reach extremes of 0° to 50°C, so the battery and recorder are contained in a specially designed underground vault. The vault also provides security in the remote and sparsely populated volcanic field. Recording began on 31 March 2012. An average of one earthquake every three days suggests that currently this is not a highly seismic area. However, seismic swarms, likely related to magmatic intrusion, have occurred in 1999 in Harrat Rahat (~145 earthquakes, M1.4 to 2.3) (Moufti et al., 2010) and in 2009 in Harrat Lunayyir (~30,000 earthquakes up to M5.4) (Pallister et al., 2010). We can locate microearthquakes of Mm = -1 within the array, a significant advantage over the previous surface network. We have characterized instrument noise using power spectrum probability density functions (McNamara and Buland, 2004). All stations show a very high signal to noise ratio; for a near-source M-1 event S/N is ~5. The available data are still too sparse for advanced analysis and currently appear as a cloud of seismicity.

Kenedi, C. L.; Alvarez, M. G.; Abdelwahed, M. F.; Aboud, E.; Lindsay, J. M.; Mokhtar, T. A.; Moufti, M. R.

2012-12-01

316

Preliminary noise survey and data report of Saudi Arabian data  

SciTech Connect

From November 1995 to March 1996 a total of 9 broadband temporary stations were deployed across Saudi Arabian shield. These stations consisted of STS-2 seismometers recorded continuously at 40 sps on RefTek dataloggers. All installations were at bedrock sites. Using data sections selected randomly during the deployment, noise studies showed that most stations were exceptionally quiet with noise level near the USGS low noise model for frequencies higher than 0.1 Hz. At lower frequencies, the horizontal components showed increased noise levels, possibly due to instrumental characteristics. High-frequency (greater than 1 Hz) noise varied as much as 10 db between day and night for some stations (RAYN, TAIF) while more isolated stations (HALM) were constant. Seasonal noise levels also varied, with April to June being the quietest months. Slight changes in peak microseism frequency also occurred seasonally.

Mellors, R.

1997-08-01

317

Measuring Studentsâ Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

Alhadlaq, Hisham; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Perkins, Katherine K.; Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-10-02

318

Preliminary assessment of atmospheric turbidity at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral beam solar radiation measurements for the period July 1980 to June 1981 were made in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Lat. 26° 23', Long. 50° 00'), using broad-band niter techniques. Schott filters (OG1, RG2 and R08) arranged on an automatically rotated disk mounted on an Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrhcliometer were used for the measurements. The Beer-Lambert relation was used to calculate optical depths from which values of the Angström Coefficient of Turbidity, ?, were obtained for the wavelength exponent, ? = 1.3. In addition, Herovanu's method was used to obtain ? and ? values for each month. The 12-month average values of ? and ? were 0.22 and 1.28, respectively.

Abdelrahman, M. A.; Nimmo, B. G.

319

Congenital pouch colon syndrome in a Saudi Arabian neonate.  

PubMed

Congenital pouch colon syndrome is partial or complete replacement of the colon by a pouch-like structure and anorectal malformation. Commonly reported from northern India, we believe this is the first report of congenital pouch colon syndrome in a Saudi Arabian neonate. He was referred with an imperforate anus and diagnosed as having a high anorectal malformation. The patient underwent a sigmoid colostomy. Continued abdominal distension after the colostomy prompted sonography and computed tomography, which showed an air- and fluid-containing cystic structure in the abdomen. Exploration revealed a thick-walled cystic structure in continuity with the distal colostomy and with a blood supply mainly from the superior mesenteric artery. The ureters were dilated and tortuous and the pouch opened into the posterior vesical wall. The pouch was resected and an end colostomy fashioned. The etiopathogenesis classification and management of the congenital pouch colon syndrome are discussed. PMID:18206446

Donkol, Ragab H; Jetley, Nishith Kumar; Al Mazkary, Mufareh H

2008-01-01

320

Evaluation of medication package inserts in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to examine if package inserts (PIs) supplied with prescribed and over-the-counter medications in Saudi Arabia contain information relevant for the safe and appropriate use of these medications. Methods Sixty PIs for prescription-only medications (n = 37) and over-the-counter medications (n = 23) were evaluated against a set of safety criteria compiled from the literature. Results Analyzed PIs were defective in many aspects. Particularly of concern were unclear dosage instructions, lack of measures to be taken when an administrative error was made, inappropriate presentation of side effects, and lack of measures to be taken if serious side effects occurred. Conclusion This study indicated that information relevant to the safe and appropriate use of medications was not uniformly mentioned in the PIs analyzed. To avoid medication errors due to deficits in the current PIs, we recommend improvement in the existing PIs based on best practice for information content and design.

Al-aqeel, Sinaa A

2012-01-01

321

Dialysis centers in the kingdom of saudi arabia.  

PubMed

To help future planning of the dialysis services in the different geographical regions and health sectors in Saudi Arabia, we surveyed its 130 active hemodialysis (HD) centers using a questionnaire about their manpower, hemodialysis equipment, as well as, peritoneal dialysis and transplant patients at the end of the year 2000. Almost all the dialysis centers were on hospital campus but of variable sizes with an average ratio of 14.8 dialysis machines per center (range 2-113 machines per center). The distribution of the dialysis centers according to the geographical regions of Saudi Arabia included 18(14%) in the northern, 25(19%) in the southern, 13(10%) in the eastern, 35(27%) in the western and 39(30%) in the central region. There was a total of 6,694 dialysis patients served on 1,918 hemodialysis machines. There were 1,793(93%) HD machines capable of performing bicarbonate dialysis. There was an average ratio of 3.5 patients per one HD machine. In addition to the hemodialysis, there were 28(22%) centers engaged in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 56(43%) centers in the follow-up of post transplant patients. The total number of the nephrologists, regardless of their expertise was 212 of whom 180(84%) spoke Arabic; the average ratio was 32 patients per nephrologist (range of 14-58). There were 1320 hemodialysis nurses of whom only 465(35%) spoke Arabic. The average ratio of patients to nurses was five patients per nurse (range of 4-6). There were 72(55%) social workers and 70(54%)dietitians with average patients ratios to these supporting services of 1:93 patients (range of 1:58-137) and 1:96 patients (range of 1:53-137), respectively. The study HD patients had a mean age of 47.8 +/- 17.1 years (range: 2-92 years); of them, 52.5% were males and 12% had non-Saudi nationality. Of the hemodialysis patients, 1,815(27%) were diabetics. The calculated net increase of dialysis population was 988 patients per year (14.8%). There were 5,700(85%) patients on regular bicarbonate dialysate. Chronic viral infection were noted in more than half of all the dialysis population: thus 3,380(50%) were positive for hepatitis C viral (HCV) serology, 448(7%) had positive hepatitis B (HBV) antigenemia and six(0.1%) had the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated a satisfactory advancement achieved in many Saudi dialysis centers in terms of equipment, personnel and patients' care. However, there should be more emphasis in the future on quality care through better self-assessment of the performance of these centers. PMID:18209376

Souqiyyeh, M Z; Al-Attar, M B; Zakaria, H; Shaheen, F A

2001-01-01

322

iCity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to present a novel tool for predictive modelling of urban growth. The proposed tool, named iCity – Irregular City, extends the traditional formalization of cellular automata (CA) to include an irregular spatial structure, asynchronous urban growth, and a high spatio-temporal resolution to aid in spatial decision making for urban planning. The iCity software tool

D. Stevens; S. Dragicevic; Kristina Rothley

2007-01-01

323

Smoking pattern among female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking is the most important avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the world. The estimated annual death rate of 4.9 million people in 1999 is expected to rise to 10 million by the 2020s and 2030s, 7 million of which will occur in developing countries. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and assess its pattern among non-medical female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1020 female students selected from the literature and science colleges by multi-stage stratified random sampling technique with proportional allocation. Data were collected using a self-administered modified WHO Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire. Results: Results revealed that occurrence of smoking among female college students was 8.6%. It was significantly higher among literature college students (12.1%) than among Science College students (3.4%). The mean age at which smoking started was 16 ± 2.4 years, with a minimum of 11 years. More than half of the students who smoked were cigarette smokers, while 43.2% were shisha smokers. There was a strong relationship between parents who smoked and daughters who smoked. The main motive for smoking was curiosity (44.3%), followed by relief of tension (26.1%). Conclusions: It may be concluded that smoking is increasing among female college students in Saudi Arabia. Accordingly, it is recommended that a preventive comprehensive health education program on smoking be initiated for females in middle schools, that stricter tobacco control measures be adopted by the government, and that anti-smoking clinics be established in colleges.

Koura, Manal R.; Al-Dossary, Ahlam F.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.

2011-01-01

324

Drowning in children: Aseer Central Hospital experience, Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Aim: To study the reasons, magnitude and outcome of drowning following submersion in water of children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Aseer Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients (0-13) years old who drowned and were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia, between January 1st 1999 and December 31st 2009. Results: A total of 19 cases were admitted following submersion in water. The mean age was 5.2 years ±3.8. Majority of victims (94.1%) were from the highland areas. Events most frequently occurred in the summer (46.7%), followed by spring and winter, 33.3% and 20%, respectively. Home events constituted 44.4% of submersion cases. Of these, 55.6% drowned in a washing container, While 53.4% submersed in swimming pools. Twenty-two percent of these accidents occurred in the sea and in wells while 11.1% occurred in a lake. The mean duration of submersion was 4.04 minutes ± 5.35. Cardiac arrest was reported upon arrival at hospital in 42.1% of the victims. There were seven deaths (36.8 %) and in one patient (5.2 %) there was severe brain injury. In all deceased cases, no adults were watching the children when the accidents occurred. Conclusion: Drowning is a significant risk factor facing our children and can claim lives. The media as well as the authority should play a major role in increasing the public awareness to minimize or prevent such a problem.

Al-Fifi, Suliman H.; Shabana, Medhat A.; Zayed, Mohammed; Al-Binali, Ali M.; Al-Shehri, Mohammed A.

2011-01-01

325

Prevailing Misconceptions of Vitiligo among Saudi School Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify the prevailing myths and misconception about vitiligo among the school students in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in 18 schools of Qassim Regions in Saudi Arabia, Data was collected by 486 pre-tested, self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires included a section on social-demographic information (age, sex, education of parents) besides prevailing myths on vitiligo. Data was analyzed by using SPSS (version 17 for Windows). Results The response rate: Males 46.3%, and females 53.3%. With vitiligo disease: 24.1% and non-diseased 75.9%, with positive family history: Males 9.3%, female 13.8%. Myths among students compared with gender: Vitiligo with; Fish/milk food (P= 0.374), calcium deficiency (P= 0.001), iron deficiency (P= <0.001), Vit C deficiency (P= 0.225), infectious (P= <0.001), Chicken pox like disease (P= <0.001), precancerous (P= 0.212) and not curable (P= <0.001). Myths among students compared with diseased/not diseased, namely that relation of vitiligo with: Fish/milk food (P= 0.006), calcium deficiency (P= <0.001), iron deficiency (P= 0.022), Vit C deficiency (P= <0.001), infectious (P= 0.228), Chicken pox like disease (P= <0.001), precancerous (P= 0.051) and not curable (P= 0.231). Conclusion The prevailing myths and conceptions delay seeking medical advice and should be addressed by focused health education programs through school health services.

Sharaf, Fawzy Khalil

2014-01-01

326

ORS use in diarrhoea in Saudi children: is it adequate?  

PubMed

The prevalence of diarrhoea and especially the pattern of diarrhoea therapy in Saudi children under 5 years were studied as a part of the Maternal and Child Health Survey during 1991. A statistically representative sample of over 6300 mothers, from all over the country was interviewed by trained nurses. There were 3.8 episodes of diarrhoea per child under 5 per year. For treating diarrhoea, ORS, salt-sugar solution (SSS), other available solutions, intravenous fluid and various drugs were the therapeutic agents. In 73 per cent of cases ORS, nearly 3 per cent SSS, 33 per cent other solutions and in over 4 per cent intravenous fluid were used. Anti-diarrhoeal drugs and antibiotics were used in over 40 per cent of cases. Over 9 per cent of cases did not use any treatment. Young mothers used ORS at a higher rate (84 per cent) for their children compared to the average for all (73 per cent). Children of illiterate parents used ORS at a higher rate than children of literate parents. In urban area, the use-rate was lower (68 per cent) than in rural area (80 per cent). The regional use-rates were almost similar excepting a higher rate in the northern area. In over 87 per cent of cases, advice on diarrhoea therapy was obtained from government health centres (physicians/nurses), while only 3 per cent of the diarrhoea cases acquired information from national media. The overall use-rate of ORS was thus better than many other countries and there was a 25 per cent increase over the previous Saudi findings in 1987.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8568951

al-Mazrou, Y Y; Aziz, K M; Khan, M U; Farag, M K; al-Shehri, S N

1995-01-01

327

City of Cambridge: CityViewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the best way to experience the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts? You could read a history of Harvard University, take a walking tour, or perhaps browse a topical website. But why not look at the Cambridge CityViewer for edification? This unique tool "allows the public to view, query, mark up, and print custom maps using only a web browser." Notedly, the viewer works best with Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. Visitors can check out ten different topical overlays, including those dealing with city parks, construction projects, land parcels, sewers, zoning, and traffic. There are many ways to get started, such as performing a simple search, an advanced search, or even just by typing in a street name and number. For anyone with an interest in urban history, planning, and land use, this site is a rare treat.

328

Prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among saudi medical students in riyadh, saudi arabia.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3 %. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7 %. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1 % of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8 % of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7 % of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9 % reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum. PMID:24903238

Almutairi, Khalid M

2014-08-01

329

From intelligent to smart cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing upon the smart experiences of ‘world class’ cities in N. America, Canada and Europe, this special issue draws together five papers from leading international experts on the transition from intelligent to smart cities. Together they do what Hollands (‘Will the real smart city stand up?’ City 12(3), 302–320) has recently asked of smart cities and provide the definitional components,

Mark Deakin; Husam Al Waer

2011-01-01

330

Time distribution of the precipitable water vapor in central Saudi Arabia and its relationship to solar activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas. It plays a major role in the dynamics of atmospheric circulation, radiation exchange within the atmosphere, and climate variability. Knowledge of the distribution of water vapor is important for understanding climate change and global warming. In this study, radiosonde data from 1985 to 2012 were used to examine the monthly, interannual, and annual variations and trends of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in central Saudi Arabia in the city of Riyadh (24° 43?N; 46° 40?E, 764 m a.s.l.). The results revealed a clear seasonal cycle of PWV with a maximum during the summer months (June-August) and a minimum during the winter (December-February). This variation follows the mean monthly variation of air temperature. The PWV displays considerable variability at the interannual scale. We could not attribute the variations to the air temperature because no relationship was found between the two variables when the interannual variations were examined. Study of the annual variations of the PWV showed cyclic variations with a period of approximately 10-11 years. The two maximums and minimums were in 1996 and 2007 and 1989 and 2000, respectively. The results showed that the annual PWV values are anticorrelated with solar activity, represented by sunspot number, during solar cycles 22 and 23. The physical mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This finding is preliminary, and future investigations are recommended.

Maghrabi, A. H.; Al Dajani, H. M.

2014-04-01

331

The Happiness of Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida R., Mellander C. and Rentfrow P. J. The happiness of cities, Regional Studies. This research examines the factors that shape the happiness of cities, whereas much of the existent literature has focused on the happiness of nations. It is argued that in addition to income, which has been found to shape national-level happiness, human capital levels will play an

Charlotta Mellander; Peter J. Rentfrow

2011-01-01

332

Salt Lake City, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

2002-01-01

333

The Emerging Generic Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities everywhere have experienced dramatic changes in their size, density, demography and economy in recent decades. With rapid urbanization and globalization of trade and employment, the impact of these changes is all the more apparent in many of the fast growing South Asian and non-western cities. While the likely impact of 9\\/11 on the design of large and tall buildings

Malik A

334

Walkout in Crystal City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

Barrios, Greg

2009-01-01

335

Lost City News Release  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This press release from the National Science Foundation provides an overview of the 2003 expedition to the Lost City Hydrothermal Field at the Atlantis Massif. It briefly describes the expedition, features of the Lost City, research results and implications for future discoveries. Photos and images accompany the text.

Affairs, Office O.; Foundation, National S.

336

Smart networked cities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to critically assess the lack of a global inter-urban perspective in the smart city policy framework from a conceptual standpoint. We argue here that the smart city policy agenda should be informed by and address the structure of transnational urban networks as this can affect the efficiency of such local policies. The significance of this global network

Emmanouil Tranos; Drew Gertner

2012-01-01

337

Smart City Components Architicture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research is essentially to modularize the structure of utilities and develop a system for following up the activities electronically on the city scale. The GIS operational platform will be the base for managing the infrastructure development components with the systems interoperability for the available city infrastructure related systems. The concentration will be on the available utility networks in order

Mahmoud Al-Hader; A. Rodzi; A. R. Sharif; N. Ahmad

2009-01-01

338

Air pollution in cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality in cities is the result of a complex interaction between natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. Air pollution in cities is a serious environmental problem – especially in the developing countries. The air pollution path of the urban atmosphere consists of emission and transmission of air pollutants resulting in the ambient air pollution. Each part of the path is

Helmut Mayer

1999-01-01

339

Energy conservation and its implication for architectural design and town planning in the hot-arid areas of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States keep their oil output high to satisfy an energy-hungry world. Correspondingly their income is high and national development intensive. A more modest development programme, better architectural designs, better town planning and more intensive use of solar energy would dramatically reduce the need for this high income and so would lead to production cuts and oil conservation.

Abd-El-Hamid; Khair-El-Din

1985-01-01

340

An Investigation of the Scope, Purpose, and Effects of United States Foreign Military Sales to Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Security Assistance Program has grown rapidly in the 1970s and Saudi Arabia has been an integral part of the growth. By 1976 Saudi Arabia became the largest purchaser of U.S. arms and equipment worldwide. The research analyzes the purpos...

B. L. Dycus J. A. Fiorillo

1977-01-01

341

Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

2011-01-01

342

Investigating the Perceived Threats of Computerized Accounting Information Systems in Developing Countries: An Empirical Study on Saudi Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to investigate the significant perceived security threats of computerized accounting information systems (CAIS) in Saudi organizations. An empirical survey using a self-administered questionnaire has been carried out to achieve this objective. The survey results revealed that almost half of the responded Saudi organizations have suffered financial losses due to internal and external CAIS security

Ahmad A. Abu-Musa

2005-01-01

343

Susceptibility to primary angle closure glaucoma in Saudi Arabia: the possible role of mitochondrial DNA ancestry informative haplogroups  

PubMed Central

Purpose In a previous preliminary analysis we reported that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup R0a was significantly more frequent in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) Saudi patients than in healthy Saudi controls. This result prompted us to extend our work using a significant larger Saudi PACG cohort and more healthy controls. Methods We sequenced the mtDNA regulatory hypervariable region-I (HVS-I) and coding regions, comprising haplogroup diagnostic polymorphisms, in 227 PACG Saudi patients and compared their haplogroup frequencies with those obtained from 186 matched healthy controls (free of PACG by examination) and from a large sample of 810 healthy Saudi Arabs representing the general Saudi population. Results MtDNA Haplogroups R0a and J, the most abundant lineages in Saudi Arabia, were in significant higher frequencies in the PACG patients than in controls, while the widespread western Eurasian haplogroup U was associated with reduced risk to developing PACG. Conclusions Haplogroups R0a and J could be ancestry informative markers for PACG in the Saudi Arabian population. In addition, the western Eurasian haplogroup U may play a mild protective effect to this illness.

Gonzalez, Ana M.; Osman, Essam A.; Larruga, Jose M.; Cabrera, Vicente M.; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A.

2011-01-01

344

Seasonal concentrations of lead in outdoor and indoor dust and blood of children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Because detrimental effects of exposure to lead (Pb) on human health have been observed, we previously investigated concentrations of Pb in water supplies and blood of adult residents of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The objectives of the present study were to: (1) examine seasonal rates of deposition of Pb in dust in several areas of Riyadh city, (2) measure concentrations of Pb in both outdoor and indoor dust, (3) compare concentrations of Pb in dust in Riyadh with those reported for other cities, and (4) quantify Pb in blood of children living in Riyadh. Mean, monthly deposition of PB in outdoor dust was 4.7 × 10(1) ± 3.6 tons km(-2), with a mean Pb concentration of 2.4 × 10(2) ± 4.4 × 10(1) ?g/g. Mean, monthly deposition of Pb in indoor dust was 2.7 ± 0.70 tons km(-2), with a mean concentration of 2.9 × 10(1) ± 1.5 × 10(1) ?g Pb/g. There was a significant (P < 0.01) correlation between concentrations of Pb in outdoor and indoor dust. There was no correlation between concentrations of Pb in indoor dust and that in blood of children of Riyadh, whereas there was a weakly significant (P < 0.05) correlation between concentrations of Pb in outdoor dust and that in blood of children. The mean (±SD) concentration of Pb in blood of children in Riyadh was 5.2 ± 1.7, with a range of 1.7-1.6 × 10(1) ?g/dl. Concentrations of Pb in blood of 17.8 % of children in Riyadh were greater than 10 ?g/dl, which is the CDC's level of concern. PMID:24213703

El-Desoky, Gaber E; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Habila, Mohamed; Giesy, John P

2014-06-01

345

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). Conclusion The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method.

Kamel, Remah M

2013-01-01

346

Inequality and City Size*  

PubMed Central

Between 1979 and 2007 a strong positive monotonic relationship between wage inequality and city size has developed. This paper investigates the links between this emergent city size inequality premium and the contemporaneous nationwide increase in wage inequality. After controlling for the skill composition of the workforce across cities of different sizes, we show that at least 23 percent of the overall increase in the variance of log hourly wages in the United States from 1979 to 2007 is explained by the more rapid growth in the variance of log wages in larger locations relative to smaller locations. This influence occurred throughout the wage distribution and was most prevalent during the 1990s. More rapid growth in within skill group inequality in larger cities has been by far the most important force driving these city size specific patterns in the data. Differences in the industrial composition of cities of different sizes explain up to one-third of this city size effect. These results suggest an important role for agglomeration economies in generating changes in the wage structure during the study period.

Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Pavan, Ronni

2013-01-01

347

Geographic distribution of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene mutations in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A descriptive study was undertaken to characterize cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene mutations in the Saudi Arabian cystic fibrosis (CF) population in relation to their clinical picture, demographic features and ethnic origin. From October 1992 to September 1997, 70 patients (46 families) diagnosed with CF were screened for CFTR mutations. A total of 12 mutations were identified in 34 families (70% of the CF alleles in the study group). Most of the families were native Saudis, and in 88% of the families the parents were in consanguineous marriages. The most common Saudi mutations were 1548delG and I1234V. There was no significant difference in the clinical picture between patients of different ethnic origins with the same CFTR mutation. PMID:11924117

Banjar, H

1999-11-01

348

Description of Nematotaenia dispar from gray monitor (Varanus griseus) a new record in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Due to the increasing information on the reptile fauna in Saudi Arabia and the importance of this group of vertebrate animals, it is of great interest to study the parasites that can infect them. Out of total ten gray monitor Varanus griseus of both sex, only three were found to be infected (representing an infection rate of 30%) with parasitic worms. The parasitic burden index was 20. As regards to sex, 60.7% of the infected Varanus were males. These gray monitor, Varanus griseus of both sexes were caught from the arid area of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The present study provided that Nematotaenia dispar was the only worm isolated and identified from the infected gray monitor. The present is the first record of this parasite from Saudi Arabia. PMID:19530630

Al-Mohammed, Hamdan I

2009-04-01

349

Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930

Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

2011-07-01

350

Tour by Saudi prince Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud prior to mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tour by Saudi prince Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud, payload specialists for STS 51-G mission, prior to mission. Al-Saud and Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassam, the backup payload specialist, man the controls on the flight deck of the crew compartment trainer in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory (29788); the Saudi payload specialists share the hatch of the crew compartment trainer (29789); Portrait view of Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassam during a visit to the Shuttle mockup and integraion laboratory (29790); Don Sirroco, left, explains the middeck facilities in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory (29791); Portrait view of Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration laboratory (29792); The Saudi payload specialists witness a space food demonstration in the life sciences laboratory at JSC. Al-Saud (left) and Al-Bassam (second left) listen as Rita M. Rapp, food specialist, discusses three preparations of re-hydratable food for space travelers. Lynn S. Coll

1985-01-01

351

Causative relationship between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer in various regions of Saudi Arabia: an overview.  

PubMed

The unwarranted connection between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer has gained new ground in recent years. Breast cancer in Saudi females accounts for approximately 21% of all cancers and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Saudi females is also 21.5%. DM is diagnosed in the age group of 30+ years with possible exposure to predisposing factors like hyperinsulinemia and obesity at younger age. Further, 12% of the breast cancer cases are diagnosed in the young females aged 20-34 years. Despite the readily available access to healthcare facilities in the Kingdom, a large number of diabetics, approximately 27.9%, were unaware of having diabetes mellitus. This subpopulation is quite susceptible of developing breast cancer at later age. This review discusses common etiological and predisposing factors for breast cancer and diabetes, regional distribution and possible correlation of diabetes and cancer in Saudi Arabia. PMID:21627349

Arif, Jamal M; Al-Saif, Ahmad M; Al-Karrawi, Mohammed A; Al-Sagair, Othman A

2011-01-01

352

The use of pharmacoeconomic evidence to support formulary decision making in Saudi Arabia: Methodological recommendations  

PubMed Central

In pharmacoeconomics the costs and consequences of alternative medications are compared. Many countries have begun to use pharmacoeconomic evidence to support decisions on licensing, pricing, reimbursement, or addition to the formulary. In Saudi Arabia, it is not mandatory to submit cost effectiveness evidence to support licensing or addition to the formulary decisions however, data will be considered if submitted. Previous evidence suggests that the use of pharmacoeconomic evidence by Saudi Pharmacy and Therapeutic (P&T) committee members in formulary decisions making process is limited mainly because of lack of expertise and lack of resources. This paper intended to provide Saudi P&T decision makers with a clear set of best practice methodological recommendations to help in increasing the utilisation of pharmacoeconomic evidence in the formulary decisions making process.

AL Aqeel, Sinaa A.; Al-Sultan, Mohammed

2011-01-01

353

Exports and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A VAR Model Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR), Impulse Response Function (IFR) and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

Alhajhoj, Hassan

354

Microtremor Measurements Over a Non-Producing Reservoir in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan of the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) program, we are conducting a small-scale pilot passive seismic experiment over a non-producing reservoir to better understand and characterize the origin of various near-surface noises. In this paper, we present the results obtained so far from five stations distributed at various locations of interest over the Dammam Dome structure, which is where the first discovery of oil in Saudi Arabia is situated. One of our stations is located on a concrete foundation structure that used to house the old seismic station at KFUPM. The remaining four stations are situated within the Dammam Dome structure at KFUPM where both middle and upper Rus Formations are exposed. Continuous data was collected at all stations with a Geospace Seismic Recording system manufactured by the OYO Geospace. We systematically selected recordings at all stations at different times of the day in order to check the diurnal variations and site dependences. We analyzed time series data and performed spectral analysis at various frequency range of interest between 0.1-30 Hz. We also looked at microtremor signals between 2 to 3 Hz to see whether or not there exists the correlation between low-frequency microtremors and hydrocarbon bearing structures under the subsurface as reported by various researchers in the region. The results obtained so far show no clear signals between 2-3 Hz. We hope that our ongoing experiment will likely contribute in resolving the ongoing debate on the use of microtremor signals as a direct hydrocarbon indicator by bringing new data and experimental results. Meanwhile, strong signals were consistently observed between 23-25 Hz, specifically at stations located on open grounds. We observed microtremor signals due to site amplifications at frequency < 3Hz with periodic peaks at an average frequency of about10 Hz before the amplification disappears. We also noticed spectral spikes that have likely originated from heavy machinery working at construction sites at a distance which disappear at night.

Popoola, A. K.; Kaka, S. I.

2011-12-01

355

State of health economic evaluation research in Saudi Arabia: a review  

PubMed Central

Background If evaluation of economic evidence is to be used increasingly in Saudi Arabia, a review of the published literature would be useful to inform policy decision-makers of the current state of research and plan future research agendas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the state of health economic evaluation research within the Saudi context with regard to the number, characteristics, and quality of published articles. Methods A literature search was conducted on May 8, 2011 to identify health economic articles pertaining to Saudi Arabia in the PubMed, Embase, and EconLit databases, using the following terms alone or in combination: “cost*”, “economics”, “health economics”, “cost-effectiveness”, “cost-benefit”, “cost minimization”, “cost utility analysis”, and “Saudi”. Reference lists of the articles identified were also searched for further articles. The tables of contents of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal and the Saudi Medical Journal were reviewed for the previous 5 years. Results The search identified 535 citations. Based on a reading of abstracts and titles, 477 papers were excluded. Upon reviewing the full text of the remaining 58 papers, 43 were excluded. Fifteen papers were included. Ten were categorized as full economic evaluations and five as partial economic evaluations. These articles were published between 1997 and 2010. The majority of the studies identified did not clearly state the perspective of their evaluation. There are many concerns about the methods used to collect outcome and costs data. Only one study used some sort of sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of uncertainty on the robustness of its conclusions. Conclusion This review highlights major flaws in the design, analysis, and reporting of the identified economic analyses. Such deficiencies mean that the local economic evidence available to decision-makers is not very useful. Thus, building research capability in health economics is warranted.

Al-Aqeel, Sinaa A

2012-01-01

356

Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition. PMID:12656385

Abdou, Adel A

2003-03-01

357

Conjunctival nevi: clinical and histopathologic features in a Saudi population  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Conjunctival nevi are benign lesions with wide variation in clinical and histopathological features. The differentiation between benign nevi and other pigmented lesions is essential. The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of the histopathologic types of conjunctival nevi among the Saudi population and to provide the basic knowledge needed for proper clinical diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study of surgically excised benign conjunctival nevi was conducted at a tertiary care eye hospital from 1995 to 2006. Clinical data was collected from medical records and the histopathologic features reviewed by a single pathologist. RESULTS: A total 105 conjunctival nevi were included from 104 consecutive patients (mean age, 26 years, 54 males and 50 females). The anatomical location was the bulbar conjunctiva in 83%, juxtalimbal in 12%, caruncle in 4% and palpebral in 1%. The lesion was removed for cosmetic reasons in 38% while 8% of the lesions were removed to rule out malignancy. The compound nevus was the commonest (72%) in all age groups, followed by subepithelial nevus (24%) and finally junctional nevus (3%). CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of the histopathologic types of this tumor in our population matches the pattern in other areas of the world with the compound nevus being the commonest lesion. However, fewer lesions among our patients are removed to rule out malignancy.

Alkatan, Hind M.; Al-Arfaj, Khalid M.; Maktabi, Azza

2010-01-01

358

Adverse drug reactions caused by methotrexate in Saudi population  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study is to document adverse drug reactions (ARDs) of methotrexate (MTX) in Saudi patients. Methods Cross sectional study of adult patients on MTX, attending rheumatology drug monitoring clinics in a university hospital, over a period of 24 weeks. Adverse drug reactions were sought by patient interview, files review and laboratory abnormalities. Results Data collected included patients’ demographics, diagnoses, co-morbidities, MTX dose and duration, other medications, laboratory abnormalities and adverse reactions, their severity, preventability, and outcome. Out of a total of 593 patients screened, 186 (31.4%) using MTX were interviewed. Most of the patients were female (88.5%). Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were detected in 61 patients (32.8%). Patients with ADRs took a mean dose of 12.9 mg (2.5–22.5 mg). Ten ADRs (16.4% of total reactions) were preventable; they ranged between severe, moderate and mild. The most common ADRs were gastrointestinal (GI) (52.5%), followed by anemia (8.2%) and chest tightness (6.6%). The duration of the reaction ranged from few hours to 4 years. Conclusion In conclusion our patients with adverse reactions were younger, took less medications and had less co-morbidities. Our results were different from those published in the literature relating MTX toxicity.

Al-Malaq, Haya M.; Al-Arfaj, Hussein F.; Al-Arfaj, Abdurhman S.

2012-01-01

359

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in expatriates in northern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a protozoal disease transmitted by sandflies. It is endemic across the desert of the Middle East to Afghanistan and Africa. This paper reviews the findings in 148 expatriates with cutaneous leishmaniasis seen in Arar, northern Saudi Arabia, during a five year period. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was seen in all age groups. Farm workers, labourers and military personnel stationed in the region during the Gulf war were most affected. There was a seasonal variation with maximum incidence between November and January. The lesions were commonly multiple, the number of lesions per patient ranged from one to twelve. 18% of the lesions were located on the face, 34% on the upper extremity, 42% on the lower extremity and six per cent on other sites. The average duration of the lesions before diagnosis was two months. The most common complications were secondary bacterial skin infection (pyoderma and cellulitis) and residual scarring. The response to sodium stibogluconate was good. There has been a gradual reduction in the number of cases from a peak of 64 in 1991 to twelve in 1995. As compared to studies in the indigenous population, cutaneous leishmaniasis tends to be more frequent and server in expatriates from non endemic areas. There is a need for increased awareness of this disorder, especially in the home countries of these expatriates. PMID:9299828

Kubeyinje, E P; Belagavi, C S; Jamil, Y A

1997-04-01

360

The Microbiology of Tonsils in Khamis Civil Hospital, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Tonsillitis is a common infection in all age groups, especially under the age of five. Organisms causing this condition vary from place to place. Our aim is to find out the main causative agents of this condition in our hospital. Patients and Methods. Fifty-two consenting patients who needed tonsillectomy in Khamis civil hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between September 2006 and April 2007, were enrolled for the study. Swabs were taken from their inner surfaces and cultured for anaerobes and aerobes according to standard microbiological techniques. Results. Fifty-two patients, consisting of 30 males and 22 females were enrolled. Their mean age was 9.81 ± 6.47. Nearly 65% of patients had positive cultures while 35% were negative. The commonest bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (44.1%); and Group B Streptococcus (35.3 %). Two Gram-negative bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, (8.82%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.94 %), were also isolated. No anaerobe was isolated. Conclusion. Gram-positive cocci, consisting of Staphylococcus aureus and Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae), are the major causes of tonsillitis requiring surgery in our hospital. Antibiotic treatment of this condition should be directed largely against these organisms.

Al Ahmary, Mohammed S.; Al Mastour, Ali S.; Ghnnam, Wagih M.

2012-01-01

361

Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia. PMID:22134079

Khater, Ashraf E M

2012-01-01

362

Epidemiology of accidental home poisoning in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia).  

PubMed Central

In a prospective study on 178 cases of accidental home poisoning admitted to the main children's hospital in Riyadh poisoning was found to account for 5.6% of the total annual admissions--greater than any other developing country and approaching Western proportions. The commonest ages were between 1 and 5 years. Drugs accounted for 52% of cases and household products for 46%. This picture also differs from the pattern of poisoning in developing countries and is more akin to that of industrialised countries. The most important factors in aetiology, besides the age of the patient and the underprivileged social class, were the abundance of drugs and household chemicals in the Saudi home, none of them in child proof containers; inappropriate storage; and lack of supervision of children. Cultural factors also contributed. The frequency of poisoning in childhood may be decreased in the long run by improved housing, socioeconomic status, and education. The place and methods of health education, also a long term objective, is discussed. For immediate primary prevention two important legislative measures are proposed: (1) provision of childproof containers of drugs and other chemicals used in the home and (2) banning of over the counter sales of drugs. For more accurate epidemiological data collection, and thereby better preventative planning, a national register of accidental poisoning and other accidents is recommended. Poison information centres are also deemed necessary.

Mahdi, A H; Taha, S A; Al Rifai, M R

1983-01-01

363

Hydrogeochemical Processes of Alkhobar Aquifer in Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na) is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration was found to be higher than the recommended limit for drinking purposes. The Saturation Indices (SI) indicated that the regional groundwater is under-saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, pyrite and aragonite minerals and oversaturated with respect to goethite and hematite minerals. The hardness of groundwater is very high as compared to the established standards. The F contents are within permissible limits for drinking. The nitrate contents are within permissible limits for domestic use. Two water types i.e., Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 and Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 dominate the Al-Ahsa whereas Na-Ca-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 water types are dominant in Al-Dammam, Al-Khobar and Al-Qatif areas. Overall, the study provided useful information on some important hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater of the eastern region. Further studies are required to determine heavy trace metals concentration for multiple uses.

Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.

364

Sleep medicine services in Saudi Arabia: The 2013 national survey  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: We conducted this national survey to quantitatively assess sleep medicine services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to identify obstacles that specialists and hospitals face, precluding the establishment of this service. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was designed to collect the following: General information regarding each hospital, information regarding sleep medicine facilities (SFs), the number of beds, the number of sleep studies performed and obstacles to the establishment of SFs. The questionnaire and a cover letter explaining the study objectives were mailed and distributed by respiratory care practitioners to 32 governmental hospitals and 18 private hospitals and medical centers in the KSA. RESULTS: The survey identified 18 SFs in the KSA. The estimated per capita number of beds/year/100,000 people was 0.11 and the per capita polysomnography (PSG) rate was 18.0 PSG/year/100,000 people. The most important obstacles to the progress of sleep medicine in the KSA were a lack of trained sleep technologists and a lack of sleep medicine specialists. CONCLUSION: The sleep medicine services provided in the KSA have improved since the 2005 survey; however, these services are still below the level of service provided in developed countries. Organized efforts are needed to overcome the identified obstacles and challenges to the progress of sleep medicine in the KSA.

Bahammam, Ahmed S.; Alsaeed, Mashni; AlAhmari, Mohammed; AlBalawi, Ibrahim; Sharif, Munir M.

2014-01-01

365

Anti-inflammatory activity of selected plants from Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Thirteen selected Saudi Arabian plants, belonging to seven different families, were tested for possible anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenin-induced paw edema model in rats. The methanolic extracts of Vernonia schimperi, Trichodesma trichodesmoides var. tomentosum, and Anabasis articulata exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity. The active extracts were further subjected to fractionation with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol and tested together with their mother liquor for their anti-inflammatory activity in the same rat model. The most potent fractions were the n-butanol fractions of Anabasis articulata and Vernonia shimperi and the aqueous mother liquor of Trichodesma trichodesmoides. Nevertheless, the three potent methanolic extracts showed higher anti-inflammatory activities than their individual fractions. The antioxidant properties were assessed by their in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. It was concluded that the anti-inflammatory activity is dependent, at least in part, on the reduction of prostaglandin (PGE2) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity. PMID:24772817

Abdallah, Hossam M; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Ashour, Osama M; Shehata, Ibrahim A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

2014-01-01

366

Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

Aljaloud, Sulaiman O.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

2013-01-01

367

Metamorphic evolution of the Qazaz metamorphic complex, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precambrian accretionary orogens largely contributed to continental growth, owing to their high production rates of juvenile crust compared to Phanerozoic accretionary orogens. The Pan-African orogeny is responsible for the evolution and growth of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Qazaz metamorphic complex in Saudi Arabia is one of the metamorphic complexes that were exhumed due to the activity of the largest Proterozoic shear zone system on the Earth - the Najd Fault System. The Qazaz complex is an example of an unusual new type of core-complex associated with crustal scale strike-slip faulting. Petrography and thermodynamic modelling were used to study the metamorphic evolution of the complex. The core of the complex records peak metamorphic conditions of 560 - 640 oC and 7-8 kbar. The bounding strike-slip shear zones operated at a temperature range of 400-600 oC while the pressure range varied from 5 to 0.5 kbar over a very short distance within the shear zone. The complex shows exhumation of about 25 km due to the activity of the Najd Fault System.

Hassan, Mahmoud; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt; Meyer, Sven; Passchier, Cees

2014-05-01

368

Trends in Ectopic Pregnancies in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in ectopic pregnancies (EP) in a tertiary care center of Eastern Saudi Arabia. Method. Information about patients with ectopic pregnancies who had been admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, between January 2000 and 31 December 2011 was collected from a computerized hospital registry. Age-specific ectopic pregnancy incidence was calculated. The data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences), version 14.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). Results. There were 274 EPs during the study period; the yearly incidence in terms of 24,098 deliveries was 1.19%. The average age was 28.99?Å 5.62 years. During a three-year period (2000–2002), the incidence was 0.92%; from 2003 to 2005, the incidence was 1.01%; from 2006 to 2008, the incidence was 1.51%; and from 2009 to 2011, the incidence was 1.35%. Age-adjusted ectopic pregnancy incidence rates steadily increased from 92.23 per 10,000 women years during the period 2000–2002 to 149.408 during the 2006–2008 period; since then, it has declined to 110.313 per 10,000 women years. Conclusions. Our study reveals that the incidence of EP has decreased from what it had been during the mid-2000s but has remained significantly elevated when compared to the early 2000s.

Abdulaziz Al-Turki, Haifa

2013-01-01

369

Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance. PMID:23762541

Aljaloud, Sulaiman O; Ibrahim, Salam A

2013-01-01

370

Art in Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The organizers of Art in Cities say, "Cities are like a huge art gallery with a permanently changing exhibition." Therefore, this web site exists to collect submissions of artwork from cities all over the world, and plot it on a map. To view the art, browse by selecting points on the map, or search by City, Submitter, or artist (Artwork by). There is also a quick link to the most recent uploads. On the day we visited, this link lead to stencil art and graffiti from several cities in the Netherlands, including Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Eindhoven, as well as one from San Bernardino, CA. This was just the first page of 473 for this specific link, which is in turn only a fraction of the close to 6,000 pieces of art on view at the site. Submitting art is as easy as uploading an image from your computer, and filling out a few fields on a form thus encouraging anyone to walk the streets of their city looking for art to add the site.

371

From intelligent to smart cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking Hollands' previous statement on the transition from intelligent to smart cities as its point of departure (‘Will the real smart city stand up?’ City 12(3), 302–320), this article reflects upon the anxieties currently surrounding such developments. In particular, it considers the suggestion that such developments have more to do with cities meeting the corporate needs of marketing campaigns than

Mark Deakin; Husam Al Waer

2011-01-01

372

Testing international dental maturation scoring system and population-specific Demirjian versions on Saudi sub-population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the Demirjian method and revised versions for estimating chronological age (CA) from dental age (DA) in a sample of children. Study Design: A sample of 252 individuals of known age (4 to 14 yrs), sex (males: 125, females: 127), and ethnicity (Saudi) was collected. Each individual was aged using the original Demirjian method and revised versions, including Saudi, Kuwaiti, Belgian, and revised international curves. The differences between dental age and chronological age were analyzed using paired sample t-tests with Bonferroni corrections and multinomial regression tests at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: The results indicated an over-aging of the sample as a whole by about 10 months using Demirjian tables, 5.5 months using Kuwaiti tables, 24.7 months using Belgian tables, and 5 months using revised international tables. The sample was under-aged by 0.6 month using Saudi tables. The overall discrepancies between CA and DA were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) for all methods with the exception of Saudi curves. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the Saudi population method is most accurate on a Saudi population. Key words:Age estimation, juvenile, forensic dentistry, Saudi Arabia.

2014-01-01

373

Antibiotic Attack (Kinetic City)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game is a part of the Tau Pack of the Kinetic City site (see description below). In this simulation, the patient's bodies are filled with bacteria. The object is to cure as many patients as possible. Learning concepts enforced here are that antibiotics are specific for the type of bacteria they treat, their strength, and that the bacteria may also become resistant to the bacteria by mutations.KINETIC CITY DESCRIPTION: "Kinetic City" (www.kineticcity.com) is a fun, Web-based after-school science club for kids, ages 8 through 11. It combines exciting online animations and activities with boxes of hands-on science experiments. Children earn "Kinetic City" power points and collect stickers as they complete missions and learn standards-based science content. Here's how it works: The "Kinetic City" super crew (Keisha, Curtis, Megan and Max) needs the help of Earth kids to save their planet Vearth, from the science-distorting computer virus Deep Delete. Each of Deep Delete's 60 hideous strains attacks a different area of science with disastrous consequences. After each attack, teams of Earth kids fight back by viewing a short online animation describing the situation on Vearth; performing a series of activities to re-learn the lost science and going on a mission to Vearth during which they answer science questions and gobble up Deep Delete viruses. Their scores appear on their own Kinetic City Club Web page. "Kinetic City" is produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), with a grant from the National Science Foundation. AAAS writes the "Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy," which forms the basis of most state science standards.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-01-01

374

Universities Scale Like Cities  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the ‘gross university income’ in terms of total number of citations over ‘size’ in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities -the top-100 European universities- we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

van Raan, Anthony F. J.

2013-01-01

375

Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action  

PubMed Central

Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution.

Al-Naami, Mohammed Y.; Arafah, Maria A.; Al-Ibrahim, Fatimah S.

2010-01-01

376

Histopathologic characterization of prostate diseases in madinah, saudi arabia.  

PubMed

Aims: To delineate the histopathological pattern of prostate diseases and to highlight age variations in prostate specific antigen (PSA) values and histopathological features. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was made of all prostate biopsy reports seen between January 2006 and December 2013 at the King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Prostate lesions were tabulated and classified into benign and malignant groups. Histological scoring of adenocarcinomas was accomplished using the Gleason system. PSA values were correlated with Gleason scores. Results: Of 417 prostate lesions reviewed, 343 (82.3%) were benign and 74 (17.7%) were malignant, giving a benign to malignant ratio of 4.6:1. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (both with and without inflammation) was the commonest prostatic lesion and accounted for 80.3% of all cases and 97.6% of all benign cases. The age range was 20 to 97 years with a mean of 69.2 years and a peak age group at 70-79 years. Seventy one cases of adenocarcinoma accounted for 95.9% of the total of 74 malignant tumors. It showed an age range of 44 to 95 years, a mean age of 70.9 years and peak prevalence in the 80-89 year age group. Gleason score seven was the most frequent (39.4%) in occurrence. Most adenocarcinomas, 41 cases (57.7%), were moderately differentiated (Gleason score of 5-7). PSA values ranged widely between 16-1,865ng/ml with a mean of 363.4ng/ml. Elevated PSA (>100ng/ml) levels were found in 53 (81.6%) patients. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between serum PSA level and Gleason score (p=0.0304). Conclusions: Prostatic lesions constitute a significant source of morbidity among adult males in Madinah. Benign prostatic hyperplasia was the commonest benign prostatic lesion and adenocarcinoma was the commonest histological subtype of prostatic cancer. PMID:24935366

Albasri, Abdulkader; El-Siddig, Abeer; Hussainy, Akbar; Mahrous, Mervat; Alhosaini, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Alhujaily, Ahmed

2014-01-01

377

Remote sensing of aerosols over the Solar Village, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol optical properties over Solar Village, Saudi Arabia have been studied using ground-based remote sensing observations through the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Our analysis covered 8 recorded years of aerosol measurements, starting from February 1999 through January 2007. The seasonal mean values of aerosol optical thickness (AOT), the Ångström wavelength exponent ? and the surface wind speed ( V), exhibit a one year cyclical pattern. Seasonal variations are clearly found in the shape and magnitude of the volume size distribution (VSD) of the coarse size mode due to dust emission. The Spring is characterized by dusty aerosols as the modal value of the exponent ? was low ~ 0.25 while that of AOT was high ~ 0.3. The modal value of wind speed was the highest ~ 3.6 m/s in spring. The increase in wind speed is responsible for increasing the concentration of dust particles during Spring. Spring of 2003 has the highest mean values of AOT, V and VSD and the lowest mean value for the exponent ?. The seasonal mean values of the exponent ? are anticorrelated with those of the wind speed ( r = - 0.63). The annual mean values of the exponent ? are well correlated ( r = 0.77) with those of the difference between the maximum and minimum values of temperature ? T. They are anticorrelated ( r = - 0.74) with the annual mean values of the relative humidity. Large aerosol particles and high relative humidity increase the radiative forcing. This results in reduction of the values of the temperature difference ? T.

Sabbah, I.; Hasan, Fatma M.

2008-11-01

378

Human papillomavirus genotyping and integration in ovarian cancer Saudi patients  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with different malignancies but its role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial. This study investigated the prevalence, genotyping and physical state of HPV in ovarian cancer Saudi patients. Methods Hundred formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) ovarian carcinoma tissues and their normal adjacent tissues (NAT) were included in the study. HPV was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerated HPVL1 consensus primer pairs MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6 + to amplify a broad spectrum of HPV genotypes in a single reaction. The HPV positive samples were further genotyped using DNA sequencing. The physical state of the virus was identified using Amplification of Papillomavirus Oncogene Transcripts (APOT) assay in the samples positive for HPV16 and/or HPV18. Results High percentage of HPV (42%) was observed in ovarian carcinoma compared to 8% in the NAT. The high-risk HPV types 16, 18 and 45 were highly associated with the advanced stages of tumor, while low-risk types 6 and 11 were present in NAT. In malignant tissues, HPV-16 was the most predominant genotype followed by HPV-18 and -45. The percentage of viral integration into the host genome was significantly high (61.1%) compared to 38.9% episomal in HPV positive tumors tissues. In HPV18 genotype the percentage of viral integration was 54.5% compared to 45.5% episomal. Conclusion The high risk HPV genotypes in ovarian cancer may indicate its role in ovarian carcinogenesis. The HPV vaccination is highly recommended to reduce this type of cancer.

2013-01-01

379

Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD&D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science & Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines

F. S. Huraib; S. M. Hasnain; S. H. Alawaji

1996-01-01

380

Water in the City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water in the City is part of the Franklin Institute Science Museum's Science in the City Web site. The activity is described as a way to investigate the most precious natural resource in cities. The resources accumulated and presented on the site are held within several areas that include Water Basics, Water Science, Philadelphia Water Ways, Worldwide Water Ways, and References and Activities. The water basics page, for example, contains a glossary of water terminology; water trivia; and information on water myths and realities, dams, water power, conserving water, and keeping water clean. Although most resources are from outside sources, the site does a good job of explaining the concepts and providing kids with a single spot to explore other sites with information on this specific subject.

381

Cities Around the World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Carthage to Chicago, this fascinating digital collection from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee presents quite a cornucopia of photographic images drawn from the world's cities, past and present. The images are from the American Geographic Society Library, and just two photographers, Harrison Forman and the noted urban geographer, Harold Mayer, took the pictures. All told, there are over 5500 photographic images in this collection, and first-time visitors should read over the brief introductory essays on the scope and content of this project before jumping into the materials. By clicking on the "Cities" section, visitors can browse around the cities with the most photographs, and then they may also wish to perform a detailed search. There are some fun surprises here, including an aerial view of the Union Stock Yards in Chicago and the governor's residence in Dar es Salaam.

382

100 Resilient Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The future of cities is the subject of much hand-wringing in urban policy circles. As of late, a popular topic has been the concept of urban "resilience" and the Rockefeller Foundation has taken this matter on with its 100 Resilient Cities initiative. On its website, first-time visitors should first explore the "What is Resilience?" area. Here, the topic is explained in detail and an infographic links to a number of helpful resources. Moving on, visitors can explore the foundation's blog and some of the Most Read entries, such as "The Five Fastest Growing Cities" and "Slumdog Urbanism." Each entry features a comments section that allows visitors to chime in with their own thoughts on resilience in the 21st century. The site is rounded out with a nice subscription feature, allowing readers the opportunity to receive email updates once new material is published on the site.

383

Life in the City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they take a close-up look at biodiversity in a city park. The site opens by telling kids that, despite appearances, a great deal of biodiversity exists in cities. From tiny mites to mighty trees, thousands of species thrive there. It then takes them to a slice of life from a thriving city park, where they are asked to find 10 hidden critters living alongside the trees, plants, and insects. Each time they locate one of the tiny critters, they are rewarded with a quick look at its importance to the habitat.

384

The Atlantic Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What will the future of cities be like? It's a riveting question and one that excites the passions of the folks at The Atlantic Cities website. Their work here "explores the most innovative ideas and pressing issues facing today's global cities and neighborhoods." Visitors should browse through their newest articles, which might include "Why Our Kids Need Play" and "How Poverty Taxes the Brain." The site also has some neat features, including the Charts, Photos, and Urban Wonk areas. Geographers and artists will love the Maps section, which includes both scholarly and humorous offerings. First-time visitors should pay special attention here to "A Block-by-Block Map of Brooklyn, in Garbage" and "One Map, A World of Temperatures." Additionally, visitors can also sign up to receive their e-newsletter and other updates, including information about upcoming conferences and lectures sponsored by The Atlantic.

2013-09-23

385

Ultrafine particles in cities.  

PubMed

Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

2014-05-01

386

The Institutional Context of School to Work Transition in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using questionnaire data collected in 2000 from 524 senior general high school students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, researchers explored the gap between national development goals and student educational interests. They analyzed the relationship between available curriculum and student perceptions of the curriculum's ability to prepare them for the…

Wiseman, Alexander W.; Alromi, Naif H.

387

Learning Preferences of Saudi University Students with Native English Speaking Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many countries building up human and technological resources, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has embarked on the goal of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) to its citizens. One goal for the KSA Ministry of Education is increasing acceptance rates at teacher colleges for both genders specializing in English, in addition to…

Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Yahya, Noorchaya; Unzueta, Caridad H.

2009-01-01

388

Health Data Standards and Adoption Process: Preliminary Findings of a Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for,…

Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

2011-01-01

389

Deletion mutations in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in Western Saudi children  

PubMed Central

Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD and BMD) are caused, in the majority of cases, by deletions in the dystrophin gene (DMD). The disease is an X-linked neuromuscular diseases typically caused by disrupting (DMD) or non-disrupting (BMD) the reading frame in the dystrophin (DMD) gene. In the present study, amplifications of the genomic DNAs of unrelated 15 Saudi DMD males were carried out using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nine-hotspot regions of exons 4, 8, 12, 17, 19, 44, 45, 48 and 51. We detected six Saudi patients having deletions in a frequency of 40%. The frequency of deletions in exon 51 (20%) was the most common deletion frequently associated with our Saudi sample males. Exons 19, 45, and 48 were present in a frequency of 6.7% each. All deletions were recognized as an individual exonic deletions, while no gross deletion where detected. Finally, the molecular deletions in the Saudi males was expected to be characterized by a moderate frequency among different populations due to the geographical KSA region, which it is in the crossroad of intense migrations and admixture of people coming from continental Asia, Africa, and even Europe. In conclusion, attempts to include an extra DNA samples might reflect a valid vision of the deletions within the high frequency deletion regions (HFDR’s) in the DMD gene mutations in KSA.

Tayeb, Mohammed T.

2010-01-01

390

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, July 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yanbu is located in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia on the Red Sea at a latitude of 24.1 degrees North and a longitude of 37.8 degrees East. It was selected as the location for the Soleras Solar Powered Desalination Plant. This preliminary report des...

1986-01-01

391

U.S. Military/Security Assistance for Saudi Arabia Strategic Implications for the 1990s.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the 1950s the United States has had a strong Military/Security Assistance program with Saudi Arabia. This paper looks at the history of this program in some detail. Additionally, the paper looks at the dynamics of military balance among the nations ...

L. R. Mayes

1990-01-01

392

Teaching Arabic and the Preparation of Its Teachers before Service in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…

Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

2012-01-01

393

Bringing the Field into the Classroom: A Field Methods Course on Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The methodology used in one graduate-level linguistics field methods classroom is examined through the lens of the students' experiences. Four male Deaf individuals from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia served as the consultants for the course. After a brief background information about their country and its practices surrounding deaf education, both…

Stephen, Anika; Mathur, Gaurav

2012-01-01

394

Curriculum Change in the Developing Country: The Case of Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on current thought in multicultural education, this paper discusses the need for Americans to help Saudi Arabia integrate western technology into education without subjecting the country to cultural imperialism. The paper is purported to rest on the "reconceptualist" theories of curriculum development. The author cites four particular cases…

Shaker, Paul

395

Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric…

Amr, Mostafa Abdel-Monhem; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Hablas, Hatem Refaat

2010-01-01

396

Perception of Saudi dentists and lay people to altered smile esthetics  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate and compare the perceptions of Saudi dentists and lay people to altered smile features. Methods Thirty-six digital smile photographs with altered features were used. Altered features included the following: crown length, width, gingival level of the lateral incisors, gingival display, midline diastema, and upper midline shift. The photographs were presented to a sample of 30 dentists and 30 lay people with equal gender distribution. Each participant rated each picture with a visual analogue scale, which ranged from 0 (very unattractive) to 100 (very attractive). Results Dentists were more critical than lay people when evaluating symmetrical crown length discrepancies. Compared to lay people, Saudi dentists gave lower ratings to a crown length discrepancy of >2 mm (P < 0.001), crown width discrepancy of ?2 mm (P < 0.05), change in gingiva to lip distance of ?2 mm (P < 0.01), and midline deviation of >1 mm (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between dentists and lay people towards alterations in the gingival level of the lateral incisors or towards a space between the central incisors. No significant sex difference was seen across the groups. Conclusion In this sample, Saudi dentists gave significantly lower attractiveness scores to crown length and crown width discrepancies, midline deviations, and changes in gingiva to lip distance compared to Saudi lay people.

Talic, Nabeel; AlOmar, Samar; AlMaidhan, Asma

2012-01-01

397

Magnitude and risk factors for burnout among primary health care physicians in Asir Province, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Job-related burnout is an occupational hazard for health care professionals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of burnout and its associated factors among physicians working at primary health care centres in Asir province, Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional survey applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with standard cutoffs, 29.5% of respondents reported high emotional exhaustion, 15.7% high depersonalization and 19.7% low personal accomplishment, with 6.3% scoring high in all 3 dimensions. High emotional exhaustion score was associated with younger age, Saudi nationality and salary 15,000-20,000 SR. Physicians who had more working days and those who had longer duration of annual vacation were less likely to report emotional exhaustion. High depersonalization score was associated with Saudi nationality, working for 5-15 years and salary > 20,000 SR. Low personal accomplishment score was associated with younger age, non-Saudi nationality, working for > or =5 years and more annual vacation. PMID:24617120

Al-Sareai, N S; Al-Khaldi, Y M; Mostafa, O A; Abdel-Fattah, M M

2013-05-01

398

Despite Doubts, 3 Prominent Universities Sign Deals with a Saudi University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, the ambitious $10-billion research institution that Saudi Arabia plans to open in 2009, has signed agreements with three leading universities to help it design a curriculum and hire faculty members. The agreements, with Stanford University, the University of California at Berkeley, and the…

Fischer, Karin

2008-01-01

399

Saudi Arabia Puts Its Billions behind Western-Style Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Saudi Arabia has been developing at breakneck speed since the end of World War II, when oil production transformed this country of Bedouins into one of the richest polities in the world. Its higher-education system, however, has not kept pace. The Ministry of Higher Education was not established until 1975, and its task was to educate a population…

Krieger, Zvika

2007-01-01

400

Making E-Learning Invisible: Experience at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe progress at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in developing and implementing a user-centered road map for teaching and learning, with pervasive e-learning as a core element. They named the approach "Invisible" e-learning. As part of it, they are investigating ways to capture and share expertise, as in…

Alwalidi, Abdullah; Lefrere, Paul

2010-01-01

401

Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more \\

Abdallah S Al-Rethaiaa; Alaa-Eldin A Fahmy; Naseem M Al-Shwaiyat

2010-01-01

402

Fundamental Skills Training in the Saudi Naval Expansion Program: Evaluation Report I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and evaluation of a fundamental skills training (FST) program for enlisted personnel in the Royal Saudi Naval Forces (RSNF) are described. The FST program was 6 months in length and preceded technical training. The goal of FST was to incre...

T. M. Duffy D. Fugate

1982-01-01

403

Saudi Secondary School Teachers Attitudes' towards Using Interactive Whiteboard in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research aims at investigating the Saudi Secondary school Teachers' Attitudes towards using Interactive Whiteboard in the classrooms. The research uses the Quasi- Experimental approach, with one group (100) teachers, and limited to the Secondary school Teachers that enrolled in the first semester of (2011/2012) academic year. The research uses…

Isman, Aytekin; Abanmy, Fahad AbdulAziz; Hussein, Hisham Barakat; Al Saadany, Mohammed Abdelrahman

2012-01-01

404

Attitudes of Saudi Universities Faculty Members towards Using Learning Management System (JUSUR)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research aims to identify the Attitudes of faculty members at Saudi Universities towards using E-learning Management System JUSUR, which follows the National Center for E-learning. A descriptive analysis was used as a research methodology. Ninety participants in this research were asked to complete a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire, which…

Hussein, Hisham Barakat

2011-01-01

405

Extent of phytate degradation in breads and various foods consumed in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of phytate degradation in breads and various foods consumed in Saudi Arabia was followed after baking or cooking. Phytate phosphorus content in raw and baked or cooked food was determined by ion-exchange and colorimeteric methods. White bread containing soda, namely Tamees, had a lower degree of phytate degradation followed by pita brown bread, namely Burr, in comparison to

Hassan A. Almana

2000-01-01

406

The Effects of Using WebQuests on Reading Comprehension Performance of Saudi EFL Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a report on the effects of using WebQuest on Saudi male EFL students reading comprehension performance. WebQuests expose students to several online resources and require them to gather information about a specific topic. The experimental group received traditional teaching plus WebQuests as supplementary activities. The control group…

Alshumaimeri, Yousif A.; Almasri, Meshail M.

2012-01-01

407

Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the first report in 1961, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has progressively become a leading cause of nosocomial infections. MRSA infection may have a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality. Limited number of studies in Saudi Arabia has attempted to investigate infection and risk factors associated with nosocomial acquired MRSA. This study was designed to estimate the hidden prevalence

Awadh R. Al-Anazi

408

Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

2010-01-01

409

Evaluation of solar energy research and its applications in Saudi Arabia — 20 years of experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-seventies Saudi Arabia has been at the forefront of research and development into solar energy. For example, two major international joint research and development (R&D) programs were funded, in cooperation with the United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany, aimed at developing renewable energy technology and demonstrating its applications by designing and installing several pilot

Saleh H. Alawaji

2001-01-01

410

Water Quality and Planktonic Communities in Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa,Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important wat er resources in Al- Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of thi s aquatic body. The aim of this research was to study the water characteristics and the planktonic organisms inhibiting Al-Khadoud spring and its irrigational

Adel A. Fathi; Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani

2009-01-01

411

Teachers' Continuing Professional Development Programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to review the historical development of continuing professional development programmes (CPDPs) for teachers, as well as the policies and objectives of such programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from the inception of these programmes until now. Styles of CPDPs that the Education Training Centres (ETCs) offer are…

Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

2011-01-01

412

Measurement of Perceived Parenting Style Influence on Academic Achievement among Saudi College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between academic achievement and parenting styles among Saudi college students. The participants in this study consisted of 349 male and 219 female college students, whose age ranged from 18-25 years. The instruments for the current study were: (a) an Arabic translation of the Revised Parental…

Alanizi, Faris Mayoof Mokheimer

2010-01-01

413

Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

2011-01-01

414

Special Education Teacher Transition-Related Competencies and Preparation in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…

Alnahdi, Ghaleb

2014-01-01

415

From Barriers to Bridges: An Investigation on Saudi Student Mobility (2006-2009)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by…

Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

2011-01-01

416

A clinico-epidemiological study of sickle cell anaemia in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Ninety-nine Saudi Arabian children aged between 3 months and 15 years attending the sickle cell anaemia (SCA) clinic were studied using a review of case notes and an interview at clinic visits. All the patients come from the southwest and west area of Saudi Arabia. Despite the lack of infant screening for SCA, 73 per cent were diagnosed before the age of 3 years, reflecting severe early symptoms of the disease. The serious complications of SCA were two times higher, the number of admissions were three times higher and the attack rate for pneumococcal meningitis was nine times higher in our study population than previously reported from the Eastern Province of the country. Hand-foot syndrome was the commonest complication affecting 58 per cent of the children. It has been stated previously that there is no need to give penicillin prophylaxis to SCA children in Saudi Arabia, based on the observations in the Eastern Province only. Our study shows that SCA in western and southwestern population of Saudi Arabia is as severe as is described in American blacks. Therefore, we recommend penicillin prophylaxis to be given to the SCA children in the southwest and west regions of the country. PMID:1861279

Mulik, R; Butikofer, A; Aramouni, G; Munshi, N; Iliff, P

1991-06-01

417

System approach to grazing in desert ecosystems: A case study in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - This paper highlights a system approach to grazing in a desert ecosystem used by the Range and Animal Development Research in the northern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Various factors affecting plant and animal production in a high potential desert system (wadi bottom) are discussed. The use of cultural treatments for increased forage production, the effect

M. M. Mirreh

418

Venomous snakes of Saudi Arabia and the Middle East: a keynote for travellers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographically Saudi Arabia and the Middle East include Asian Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestine, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Iran and the previous Southern Asiatic Soviet Republics. The snake fauna contains species in common with northern Africa, Europe and central Asia and towards the east there is infiltration of species characteristic of tropical Asia. A classification of the venomous snakes

M. Ismail; Z. A. Memish

2003-01-01

419

Franchising and small medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in industrializing economies : A Saudi Arabian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of interest in franchising among small medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to identify attitudes towards the mode of operation's success held by practitioners. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review is presented to explain franchising and the reasons for its adoption by SMEs. Secondary

Muhammad Asad Sadi; Joan C. Henderson

2011-01-01

420

Inflammatory bowel disease register: Steps towards Crohn's & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia (CCFSA)  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are among the leading cause of financial burden, morbidity and employee absenteeism in developed countries because of their chronic remitting and relapsing courses. IBD is estimated to affect the Canadian economy to the tune of 100 million dollars per year. The data regarding exact prevalence in Asian countries, including Saudi Arabia, is still incomplete as there is underreporting and lack of proper registry of the diagnosed cases. The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease) has increased over the last decade in Saudi Arabia due to increased IBD awareness among population, as more patients seek medical help and also due to unknown reasons. There is a need of proper registration of IBD patients and establishment of Crohn’s & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia (CCFSA) as in other parts of the world. The Crohn’s & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia will be a forum which will co ordinate IBD treatment and research in the country in addition to health education among IBD population.

Masoodi, Ibrahim; Alsayari, Khalid; Albishri, Jamal

2012-01-01

421

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: University of Riyadh. Solar air conditioning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research on solar air conditioning at the University of Riyadh in Riyhadh, Saudi Arabia is presented. Topics relevant to the university's proposed solar cooling laboratory are discussed: absorption systems and various contingencies, photovoltaic solar collectors and thermoelectric elements, measuring instruments, solar radiation measurement and analysis, laboratory specifications, and decision theories. Dual cycle computations and equipment specifications are included among the appendices.

Not Available

1986-01-01

422

Estimating PM 10 air concentrations from dust storms in Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the emission of PM10 dust has been constructed using the concept of a threshold friction velocity which is dependent on surface roughness. Surface roughness in turn was correlated with geomorphology or soil properties for Kuwait, Iraq, part of Syria, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. The PM10 emission algorithm was incorporated into a Lagrangian transport

Roland R. Draxler; Dale A. Gillette; Jeffrey S. Kirkpatrick; Jack Heller

2001-01-01

423

Socio-demographic Determinants of Compliance among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Saudi Arabia has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes. This study was conducted with the following objectives: (1) To study the socio-demographic profile of diabetic patients in Abha. (2) To find the socio-demographic determinants of compliance among diabetic patients in Abha. Material and Methods: A self administered questionnaire which had detailed the socio-demographic features and various aspects of compliance was used on a random sample of registered diabetics at two primary health care centres of Abha. Results: Most of the patients (70.4 percent) were between 40-60 years age. Most of the patients were men (about 60 percent) and Saudis. Majority of patients did not have a university education. Young patients (age<40) were more compliant with all aspects of management, except medication (23.8 percent). Women were significantly more compliant with exercise (49.7 percent), while men were significantly more compliant with follow up (81.1 percent). Saudi patients were significantly compliant with medication (79.2 percent), while non Saudis were compliant with exercise (62.9 percent). All single patients were diet compliant. Smokers were significantly less compliant with exercise. Patients with normal BMI were significantly more compliant with diet and exercise. Conclusion: Patients were found to be generally less compliant towards the regimen. Socio-demographic factors which were significantly associated with non compliance were age, gender, nationality, educational status, marital status, smoking status and BMI.

Salam, Mohammad Abdul; Siddiqui, Aesha Farheen

2013-01-01

424

Feasibility of hybrid (wind + solar) power systems for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hourly mean wind-speed and solar radiation data for the period 1986–1993 [except the years 1989 (some data is missing) and 1991 (Gulf War)] recorded at the solar radiation and meteorological monitoring station, Dhahran (26° 32? N, 50° 13? E), Saudi Arabia, have been analyzed to report the monthly variation of wind speed and solar radiation, probability distribution of wind speed

M. A. Elhadidy; S. M. Shaahid

1999-01-01

425

Adult Education in Saudi Arabia: Development Plans in an Emerging Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes adult education efforts in Saudi Arabia's national program to eliminate the country's high illiteracy rate. Includes discussions of literacy training on television and in institutions, new schools and practices, the importance of economic and social implications, need for skilled manpower, and other adult education problems and goals.…

Hamidi, Abulrahman S.

1979-01-01

426

Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water). These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. RESULTS: A total of 95 water

Eed L Sh AlOtaibi

2009-01-01

427

Lack of MERS coronavirus neutralizing antibodies in humans, eastern province, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province. PMID:24274664

Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Albuali, Waleed H; Bertram, Stephanie; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M; Yousef, Abdullah A; Al-Nafaie, Awatif N; Al-Ali, Amein K; Obeid, Obeid E; Alkharsah, Khaled R; Pöhlmann, Stefan

2013-12-01

428

Low Y chromosome variation in Saudi-Arabian hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to characterise the amount of variation on the mammalian Y chromosome in order to assess its potential for use in evolutionary studies. We report very low levels of polymorphism on the Y chromosome of Saudi-Arabian hamadryas baboons, Papio hamadryas hamadryas. We found no segregating sites on the Y, despite sequence analysis of 3 kb noncontiguous intron sequence

L J Lawson Handley; R L Hammond; G Emaresi; A Reber; N Perrin; LJ Lawson Handley

2006-01-01

429

Development of an Information Security Awareness Training Program for the Royal Saudi Naval Forces (RSNF).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Royal Saudi Naval Forces (RSNF) are vulnerable to the same kinds of threats to its information infrastructure as the rest of the industrialized nations, As an officer in the RSNF, I am familiar with the special information assurance needs and interest...

S. M. Alageel

2003-01-01

430

Socio-demographic Determinants of Compliance among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Abha, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Background and Objectives: Saudi Arabia has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes. This study was conducted with the following objectives: (1) To study the socio-demographic profile of diabetic patients in Abha. (2) To find the socio-demographic determinants of compliance among diabetic patients in Abha. Material and Methods: A self administered questionnaire which had detailed the socio-demographic features and various aspects of compliance was used on a random sample of registered diabetics at two primary health care centres of Abha. Results: Most of the patients (70.4 percent) were between 40-60 years age. Most of the patients were men (about 60 percent) and Saudis. Majority of patients did not have a university education. Young patients (age<40) were more compliant with all aspects of management, except medication (23.8 percent). Women were significantly more compliant with exercise (49.7 percent), while men were significantly more compliant with follow up (81.1 percent). Saudi patients were significantly compliant with medication (79.2 percent), while non Saudis were compliant with exercise (62.9 percent). All single patients were diet compliant. Smokers were significantly less compliant with exercise. Patients with normal BMI were significantly more compliant with diet and exercise. Conclusion: Patients were found to be generally less compliant towards the regimen. Socio-demographic factors which were significantly associated with non compliance were age, gender, nationality, educational status, marital status, smoking status and BMI. PMID:24551644

Salam, Mohammad Abdul; Siddiqui, Aesha Farheen

2013-12-01

431

Medicinal plant diversity in the flora of Saudi Arabia 1: a report on seven plant families  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary survey on the medicinal plant diversity in the flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been made with seven families: Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Capparidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Labiatae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae, as an initial study. These families are represented in the flora with 254 species (i.e. 12% of the total species), and individually with 21, 7, 29, 66, 76, 22

M. Atiqur Rahman; Jaber S. Mossa; Mansour S. Al-Said; Mohammed A. Al-Yahya

2004-01-01

432

The Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…

Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung

2012-01-01

433

The Academic Profession in a Rentier State: The Professoriate in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the academic profession in Saudi Arabia, a state dependent upon oil exports, and explores how different social groups are accommodated within the higher education system. The discussion examines the relationship between political power and academic labour, and seeks to explain how local policies and practices are negotiating…

Mazawi, Andre Elias

2005-01-01

434

NONAQUEOUS POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HIGH-BOILING DISTILLATES OF SAUDI ARABIAN CRUDE OILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonaqueous potentiometric titration and elemental analysis were used to study basic and nonbasic functionalities present in high-boiling distillates of four Saudi Arabian crude oils. Model nitrogen compounds were titrated under similar titration conditions to differentiate them into strong, weak and nonbasic species. The strong bases titrated were due to the presence of pyridine and its benzologs like acridines, phe-nanthridines and

Mohammad Farhat Ali; Mohammed Ashraf Ali

1988-01-01

435

Molecular phylogeny of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars from Saudi Arabia by DNA fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity among 13 different cultivars of date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) of Saudi Arabia was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The screening of 140 RAPD primers allowed selection of 37 primers which revealed polymorphism, and the results were reproducible. All 13 genotypes were distinguishable by their unique banding patterns produced by 37 selected primers. Cluster

N. S. Al-Khalifah; E. Askari

2003-01-01

436

Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province.

Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Albuali, Waleed H.; Bertram, Stephanie; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M.; Yousef, Abdullah A.; Al-Nafaie, Awatif N.; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Obeid, Obeid E.; Alkharsah, Khaled R.

2013-01-01

437

Power system stabilizer tuning study of east-central power system in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of tuning the existing power system stabilizers (PSSs) of the Saudi Electricity Company (SEC) power system and its effect on increasing the power transfer limit of the interconnection between Eastern Operating Area (SEC- EOA) and Central Operating Area (SEC-COA). This work is also investigating the optimal location of installing additional power system stabilizers (PSSs) in

M. A. Abido

2011-01-01

438

ARAMCO Education: Teaching Speech Communication to a Sub-Culture in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on experiences gained by an educator from Indiana University who taught a speech communication course in Saudi Arabia, this paper details the adaptations the educator had to make in order to teach Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) employees and their spouses in the politically difficult period of 1981-82. Following a brief background…

Dick, Robert C.

439

The economic costs of tobacco consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Pending a comprehensive study of tobacco economics in Saudi Arabia, our aim was to estimate the economic costs of tobacco consumption in Saudi Arabia over a period of 10 years (2001-2010). METHODS: Pertinent data on imported tobacco were obtained from the Saudi Customs Authority through the Central Department of Statistics and Information. Mortality was calculated using the following parameters: 1 ton of tobacco consumed causes an average of 0.65 premature deaths, and the net loss was calculated as US$47.6 million (2011 US$ prices) for every 1000 tons of tobacco consumed. This represented the net cost of premature deaths and the direct and indirect costs of morbidity. RESULTS: Using 2011 prices, the economic loss due to tobacco was US$20.5 billion over the last 10 years, without accounting for smuggled (illegally imported) tobacco. If the smuggling rate was 10% or 25%, the economic loss would be 22.6 or 25.6 billion US$, respectively. There were 280 000 premature deaths during the same period without accounting for smuggled tobacco. CONCLUSIONS: In Saudi Arabia, short-term and long-term economic gains will result from reductions in tobacco use. PMID:23696558

Albedah, Abdullah M N; Khalil, Mohamed K M

2013-05-21

440

Saudi Arabia and Canada Lead in Pay for Faculty Members, Study Finds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starting salaries for newly minted professors are highest in Canada, but for the best prospects of raising earnings over an academic career, one should look to Saudi Arabian universities. These are some of the findings of a new study that looks at faculty pay across international borders, examining salary data in 15 countries, among them the…

Fischer, Karin

2008-01-01

441

Biochemical Profiles in Friesian Cattle Naturally Infected with Theileria annulata in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical parameters were studied in adult and young Friesian cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata in the Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. Forty-three clinical cases of tropical theileriosis were studied, together with 40 clinically healthy Friesian cattle. Cattle clinically infected with T. annulata had significantly lower serum total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, iron and copper concentrations

O. H. Omer; K. H. El-Malik; M. Magzoub; O. M. Mahmoud; E. M. Haroun; A. Hawas; H. M. Omar

2003-01-01

442

Haematological profiles in pure bred cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Abbott Cell Dyn 3500 haematology analyzer was employed to study haematological parameters in 41 adult and young Friesian cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata in the Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Comparison was made with clinically healthy adult and young Friesian cattle. Changes in blood parameters in T. annulata-infected cattle indicated severe macrocytic hypochromic anaemia, panleukopenia, lymphocytopenia, eosinopenia, neutropenia

O. H Omer; K. H El-Malik; O. M Mahmoud; E. M Haroun; A Hawas; D Sweeney; M Magzoub

2002-01-01

443

Seismic stratigraphic study of two Oxfordian carbonate sequences, eastern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this case study, seismic stratigraphic interpretation techniques were used to map facies changes and develop a depositional model for two Oxfordian carbonate sequences of eastern Saudi Arabia. Well data and regional geology indicate that the two sequences, R1 and R2, were deposited on a broad carbonate platform and undergo a lateral transition from grainstone to basinal mudstone within the

G. S. Langdon; S. J. Malecek

1987-01-01

444

Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

445

The incidence of end-stage renal disease in two regions of kingdom of saudi arabia.  

PubMed

Maintaining patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on renal replacement therapy is expensive and it is important to increase efforts towards reducing the incidence of ESRD. For this, a sound knowledge of the magnitude of the problem is necessary. This study was undertaken to estimate the incidence of ESRD in two regions of Saudi Arabia namely: Gizan, situated in the Southern area with a population of 654,685; and Al-Madinah, situated in the North Western area with a population of 828,477. All general hospitals and primary care centers under the Ministry of Health in the two regions were included in the study. Those patients in whom two consecutive serum creatinine values above 265 micromol/L were recorded were recruited into the study. There were no non governmental centers offering care for patients with renal failure in the study regions at the time of the study. A total of 108 patients in Al-Madinah region and 187 patients in Gizan fulfilled the criteria of the study. Sex distribution was similar in both regions, 61% male and 39% female. There were 71.3% Saudi and 28.7% Non-Saudi patients in Al-Madinah and 65.2% Saudis and 34.7% Non-Saudi patients in Gizan. Analysis of age distribution showed that the highest prevalence occurred among patients between 41 and 60 years of age in Al-Madinah whereas in Gizan it was between 21 to 50 years. The annual incidence of ESRD in Al-Madinah was 65.2 per million population (PMP) and in Gizan 189 PMP. The higher incidence in Gizan may be due to ethnic, socio-economic and environmental factors. A large scale study covering all parts of the Kingdom is needed to throw more light on such variations in the incidence of ESRD in the Kingdom. PMID:18583735

Mitwalli, A H; Al-Swailem, A R; Aziz, K M; Aswad, S; Paul, T; Mohammed, A R; Diwan, M; Wafa, A M

1995-01-01

446

Clinical Epidemiology and Phenotypic Characteristics of Crohn's Disease in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: Despite the remarkable increase in the incidence of Crohn's disease among Saudis in recent years, data about Crohn's disease in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn's disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A data registry, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Information System (IBDIS), was used to register Crohn's disease patients who presented to the gastroenterology clinics in four tertiary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 2009 and February 2013. Patients’ characteristics, disease location, behavior, age at diagnosis according to the Montreal classification, course of the disease, and extraintestinal manifestation were recorded. Results: Among 497 patients with Crohn's disease, 59% were males with a mean age at diagnosis of 25 years [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 24-26, range 5-75 years]. The mean duration from the time of complaint to the day of the diagnosis was 11 months, and the mean duration of the disease from diagnosis to the day of entry to the registry was 40 months. Seventy-seven percent of our patients were aged 17-40 years at diagnosis, 16.8% were ?16 years of age, and 6.6% were >40 years of age. According to the Montreal classification of disease location, 48.8% of patients had ileocolonic involvement, 43.5% had limited disease to the terminal ileum or cecum, 7.7% had isolated colonic involvement, and 16% had an upper gastrointestinal involvement. Forty-two percent of our patients had a non-stricturing, non-penetrating behavior, while 32.8% had stricturing disease and 25.4% had penetrating disease. Conclusion: Crohn's disease is frequently encountered in Saudi Arabia. The majority of patients are young people with a predilection for males, while its behavior resembled that of western societies in terms of age of onset, location, and behavior.

Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M.; Alharbi, Othman R.; Azzam, Nahla A.; Almalki, Ahmed S.; Alswat, Khalid A.; Almadi, Majid A.

2014-01-01

447

Vents to events: determining an eruption event record from volcanic vent structures for the Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed "monogenetic" volcanic eruptions commonly occur in continental settings without obvious structural alignments or rifting/extensional structures. Nevertheless, these may develop as fissures, representing the surface expression of dykes with a range of orientations, especially when stress regimes vary over time and/or older crustal features and faults are exploited by rising magmas. Dykes reaching the surface as fissures can last hours to months and produce groups of closely aligned vents, hiding the true extent of the source fissure. Grouped or aligned vents in a distributed volcanic environment add complexity to hazard modelling where the majority of eruptions are single-vent, point-source features, represented by cones, craters or domes; i.e. vent groups may represent fissure events, or single eruptions coincidently located but erupted hundreds to tens of thousands of years apart. It is common practice in hazard estimation for intraplate monogenetic volcanism to assume that a single eruption cone or crater represents an individual eruptive event, but this could lead to a significant overestimate of temporal recurrence rates if multiple-site and fissure eruptions were common. For accurate recurrence rate estimates and hazard-event scenarios, a fissure eruption, with its multiple cones, must be considered as a single multi-dimensional eruptive event alongside the single-vent eruptions. We present a statistical method to objectively determine eruptive events from visible vents, and illustrate this using the 968 vents of the 10 Ma to 0.6 ka volcanic field of Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia. A further method is presented to estimate the number of hidden vents in a thick volcanic pile. By combining these two methods for Harrat Rahat, we determined an updated spatial recurrence rate estimate, and an average temporal recurrence rate of 7.5 × 10-5 events/year. This new analysis highlights more concentrated regions of higher temporal hazard in parts of Harrat Rahat, which has significant implications for the city of Al-Madinah and surroundings.

Runge, Melody G.; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Kenedi, Catherine L.; Moufti, Mohammed Rashad H.

2014-03-01

448