These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Engineering geological mapping of the holy city of Makkah Al Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of the holy city of Makkah demonstrates a unique example among the birth of cities in the world. It flourished in a desert area, having no reliable source of water, food, or any other human culture. With the continuous growth of the city, the area around the Holy Mosque becomes heavily populated and the density of buildings increases.

ABDULAZIZ AL SOLAMI; GABEL AL BARAKATI

2

Household survey of container-breeding mosquitoes and climatic factors influencing the prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence. Methods Monthly visits were performed between April 2008 and March 2009 to randomly selected houses. During each visit, mosquito larvae were collected from indoors and outdoors containers by either dipping or pipetting. Mosquitoes were morphologically identified. Data on temperature, relative humidity, rain/precipitations during the survey period was retrieved from governmental sources and analyzed. Results The city was warmer in dry season (DS) than wet season (WS). No rain occurred at all during DS and even precipitations did fall, wetting events were much greater during WS. Larval survey revealed the co-breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles in a variety of artificial containers in and around homes. 32?109 larvae representing 1st , 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stages were collected from 22?618 container habitats. Culicines was far the commonest and Aedes genus was as numerous as the Culex population. Ae. aegypti larval abundance exhibited marked temporal variations, overall, being usually more abundant during WS. Ten types of artificial containers were found with developing larvae. 70% of these habitats were located indoors. 71.42% of indoor containers were permanent and 28.58% was semi-permanent during WS. Cement tanks was the only container type permanent during DS. Ae. aegypti larval indices (CI, HI, BI) recorded were greater during WS. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate a high risk of dengue transmission in the holy city. PMID:23569860

Aziz, Al Thabiany; Dieng, Hamady; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Mahyoub, Jazem A; Turkistani, Abdulhafis M; Mesed, Hatabbi; Koshike, Salah; Satho, Tomomitsu; Salmah, MR Che; Ahmad, Hamdan; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ramli, Ahmad Saad; Miake, Fumio

2012-01-01

3

First case report of human myiasis with Sarcophaga species in Makkah city in the wound of a diabetic patient  

PubMed Central

We have reported a case of a 40-year-old male diabetic patient, resident of a rural area, who visited the outpatient clinic of the diabetic center in Alnoor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. He came to seek medical advice for a single wound in the back of the shoulder since 1 month. After examination, a larva was eliminated and sent to laboratory for confirmation. It was confirmed as the third-stage larva of Sarcophaga species after macroscopic and microscopic examination. This is the first case of a patient having diabetic wound myiasis with the larva of Sarcophaga species reported in the Makkah region of Saudi Arabia. PMID:23633868

Zaglool, Dina Abdulla Muhammad; Tayeb, Khaled; Khodari, Yousif Abdul Wahid; Farooq, Mian Usman

2013-01-01

4

Does Attendance Kindergarten Affect on Pupils' Mathematics Achievement of Primary School in Makkah, Saudi Arabia? And What Are the Teachers' Expectations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate if there are any significant differences in the mathematical attainment of pupils' grade one of primary school in Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (K.S.A) between those pupils who had attended kindergarten and their peers who had not, and whether this effect continued into the second and third grades in…

Kashkary, Samera Y.; Robinson, John F.

2006-01-01

5

Retrospective observational study examining indications for hospitalisation among haemodialysis patients at one of the Ministry of Health Hospitals in Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives To examine the indications for hospitalisations among haemodialysis patients. Design A retrospective observational study. Setting Alnoor Kidney Centre in Al Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah City, Saudi Arabia, which is a Ministry of Health hospital. Participants Participants were prevalent patients with end-stage renal disease on regular haemodialysis in 2011, who had received haemodialysis for more than three months. Each patient was followed up retrospectively, from the first date of initiating haemodialysis to the end of 2011. Main outcome measures (i) The primary reasons for hospital admissions and (ii) risk factors that increase the number of hospital admissions and which increase length of stay in hospital. Results The primary reasons for hospital admissions associated with increases in the length of stay in hospital were diseases of the circulatory system (which increased hospital bed days by 70%; 95% CI: 11–161%; p value?=?0.01 compared to all other reasons). The risk factors that increased the number of hospital admissions per patient-year at risk were increasing age (incidence rate ratio [IRR]?=?1.02 per 1 year of age; 95% CI: 1.01–1.03; p value?=?Saudi Arabia. PMID:25383197

Majeed, Azeem; Watt, Hilary

2014-01-01

6

Physicians' perception about electronic medical record system in Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The study was done to determine the physicians' perception about electronic medical record system (EMRS) in the context of its productivity in order to improve its functionality and advantages. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was performed from July to August 2009 with structured questionnaire of 15 closed-ended questions with five points Likert scaling starting from strongly disagree to strongly agree as 1–5, reflecting the perception of physicians about EMRS. The physicians of the Makkah region working in six different hospitals were selected. “Positive” response means if percent of responses were rated 4 or 5 (agree/strongly agree), “neutral” if rated 3, and negative if rated 1 or 2 (strongly disagree/disagree). Descriptive data analysis techniques were used. Results: We selected 317 completed questionnaires. Majority of subjects were from King Fahd Hospital, Jeddah (83, 26.3%), residents (147, 46.4%), male (200,63.1%), expatriates (207, 65%), and age group 36–45 years (133, 42%) were dominant. The stem regarding importance of computers for practicing medicine and EMRS to improve quality of practice was appreciated by majority, that is, 77.7 and 71.2%, respectively. However, “It does not disrupt the workflow” (35.1%) and “EMRS is comfortable while entering the data instead of writing” (34.8%) were appreciated negatively. Consultants (53.9%), male (53.4%), expatriates (56.7%), physicians of King Abdul Aziz Hospital, Ta'if (56.9%), and age group of 46–55 years (53.8%) appreciated EMRS positively. Overall perception of EMRS was found positive by 52.8%. Conclusion: Majority appreciated the EMRS, but specific concerns about its usage easiness and workflow disturbance were opposed by them also. PMID:25625082

Shaker, Hani Abdulsattar; Farooq, Mian Usman; Dhafar, Khalid Obeid

2015-01-01

7

Atypical Dengue Meningitis in Makkah, Saudi Arabia with Slow Resolving, Prominent Migraine like Headache, Phobia, and Arrhythmia  

PubMed Central

Although dengue meningitis is a rare presentation of dengue infection, our aim is to focus on atypical presentation of dengue meningitis that may appear in dengue endemic area like the Makkah region. We report two cases of clinical meningitis with positive dengue virus (DENV) IgM in cerebrospinal fluid, followed for minimal 3 months for their prominent attacks of migraine like headache, phobia, and arrhythmia. With special consideration to attack time, type, severity, and respond to classical therapy, using regular ECG monitoring, visual analog pain score and neuropsychological assessments were done. Both cases showed resistant migraine like headaches to classic anti-migraine therapy except for strong NSAID and narcotics with tendency to have severe to extreme severe daily migraine like headache on early to late afternoon time, associated with non-fatal arrhythmias and extreme death phobia, that resolve slowly in a minimal 3 month period. In conclusion, dengue meningitis in the endemic area may present atypically. PMID:24672183

Mamdouh, Kalakatawi H; Mroog, Kalakatawi M; Hani, Nasser H; Nabil, Elrefae M

2013-01-01

8

Average surface albedo measurements in the UV, IR, and TSR on the Holy Mosque and places in Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Average albedo values were measured at three broad wavebands; UV region (295 - 385 nm), Total Solar Radiation, TSR, (305 - 2800 nm), and IR region (3500 - 50000 nm), over different surfaces in the Holy Mosque and Places in Makkah (21°.25 N, 39°.49 E). The Eppley Laboratory Radiometers of TUVR and PIR were used for UV and IR measurements respectively, while Kipp & Zonen Pyranometer of CM3 was adopted for the TSR observations. Measurements were performed during two different periods (summer 28/7-10/8/2004 at Holy Mosque and winter 18-30/1/2005 at Holy Places). Summer measurements showed that the average surface albedos of the Holy Mosque white marbles were 0.45, 0.70 and 1.14 at UV, TSR and IR regions respectively. These values have decreased to 0.12 and 0.18 at UV and TSR regions respectively over the Holy Mosque brown marbles. However, the average albedo value has increased to 1.38 at IR region due to the large Longwave radiation emission from the brown marble surfaces. The albedo values of the Holy Mosque red carpets were determined. The average albedo values were also measured over the Holy Places surfaces (18 m) of pilgrimage, (Muna and Arafat sites) during winter 2005. The observed average surface albedo values over Arafat selected area were 0.00, 0.22 and 1.18 at UV, TSR and IR regions respectively. The average albedo values over Muna selected area and Muna tents were also presented. The effect of clouds and solar zenith angle (SZA) on the measured albedo were investigated in this study.

Seroji, Abdulaziz R.

2005-08-01

9

The meeting point : rethinking public space in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

Can urban intervention affect social behaviors within a city? And if so, what happens when that city is partial to cultural restrictions? The target in question here is the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The dilemma is that ...

Abuzeid, Reem

2012-01-01

10

Reliability assessment of an industrial city transmission system in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers the reliability assessment of 115-230 kV transmission lines that supply power to an industrial city in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. This assessment is made on data due to outages on different parts of this network. Analysis of the outages records and data, as well as a review on reliability, outages and adequacy indices are presented.

M. H. Shwehdi; M. T. Al-Saba

2003-01-01

11

Assessment of rockfall hazard at Al-Noor Mountain, Makkah city (Saudi Arabia) using spatio-temporal remote sensing data and field investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rockfall is one of the major concerns along different urban areas and highways all over the world. Al-Noor Mountain is one of the areas that threaten rockfalls to the Al-Noor escarpment track road and the surrounding urban areas. Thousands of visitors and tourisms use the escarpment track road to visit Hira cave which is located at the top of Al-Noor Mountain. In addition, the surrounding urban areas of Al-Noor Mountain are continuously spreading over the recent years. The escarpment track road and the surrounding urban areas are highly vulnerable and suffers from recurrent rockfall mostly in the rainy season. The steep and highly jointed slope along the different faces of the mountain makes these zones prone to failure due to different actions such as weathering, erosion and anthropogenic effect. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this study to determine the Al-Noor cliff stability, by identifying the unstable areas, and to apply the rockfall simulations. A combination of remote sensing, field study and 2D computer simulation rockfall program were performed to assess surface characteristics of the cliff faces. Bounce height, total and translational kinetic energy, translational velocity, and number of blocks have been estimated. Different unstable zones along the Al-Noor Mountain and escarpment track road were determined using filed investigation and remote sensing based image analysis. In addition the rockfall simulation analysis indicated that rockfall in zone 1 and zone 2 of the Al-Noor Mountain may reach the urban areas, whereas rockfall in zone 3 will not reach the urban areas, and rockfalls along the Al-Noor escarpment track road will have highly impact on the tourists. Proper preventive measures are also suggested to arrest the movement of falling rocks before reaching the urban areas and the Al-Noor escarpment track road. If proper care is taken, then further uncertain rockfall hazards can be prevented.

Youssef, Ahmed M.; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Al-Kathery, Mohamed; Bathrellos, George D.; Skilodimou, Hariklia D.

2015-01-01

12

Computer Literacy Improvement Needs: Physicians' Self Assessment in the Makkah Region  

PubMed Central

Objective A confidential inquiry by the Directorate General of health affairs, Makkah region, Saudi Arabia, found physicians were resistant to enter patient-related information in the electronic medical records system at different hospitals. This study aims to highlight their computer literacy needs. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted on physicians using a structured questionnaire bearing nine questions/stems with dichotomous answers, (i.e., yes/no) that was distributed among physicians at six different Ministry of Health hospitals in the Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia, between May and August 2009. The results for future needs in computer skills were categorized as "none" if the rate of answer "yes" to any stem was 0-25%, "little" if 26-50%, "some" if 51-75% and "substantial" if >75% rated "yes". Results The response rate of 82% of determined sample size (n = 451) was attained. Computer literacy improvement elements (CLIE), i.e., "word processing software skills (MS Word)", "presentation software skills (Power Point)", "internet search skills", "medical database search skills", "spreadsheet software skills (Excel)" and "advanced e-mail management skills" were in "substantial" need of improvement among the majority of settings and categories. All other computer literacy improvement elements were in "some" need of improvement. Conclusion The overall outcome of this study indicates that physicians need further computer literacy improvements. PMID:24223252

Shaker, Hani Abdulsattar; Farooq, Mian Usman

2013-01-01

13

An exploratory study on the role of intermediaries in delivering public services in Madinah City : Case of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of the intermediary in delivering public services from government departments to different stakeholders (business and citizens) and to highlight the challenges that face the development of e-government services in the context of Madinah City, in Saudi Arabia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses a broad literature review to identify

Faris Al-Sobhi; Vishanth Weerakkody; Muhammad Mustafa Kamal

2010-01-01

14

Simulating and Forecasting Flooding Events in the City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metropolitan cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as Jeddah and Riyadh, are more frequently experiencing flooding events caused by strong convective storms that produce intense precipitation over a short span of time. The flooding in the city of Jeddah in November 2009 was described by civil defense officials as the worst in 27 years. As of January 2010, 150 people were reported killed and more than 350 were missing. Another flooding event, less damaging but comparably spectacular, occurred one year later (Jan 2011) in Jeddah. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimize human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision and rescue plans. We have developed a coupled hydro-meteorological model for simulating and predicting flooding events in the city of Jeddah. We use the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model assimilating all available data in the Jeddah region for simulating the storm events in Jeddah. The resulting rain is then used on 10 minutes intervals to feed up an advanced numerical shallow water model that has been discretized on an unstructured grid using different numerical schemes based on the finite elements or finite volume techniques. The model was integrated on a high-resolution grid size varying between 0.5m within the streets of Jeddah and 500m outside the city. This contribution will present the flooding simulation system and the simulation results, focusing on the comparison of the different numerical schemes on the system performances in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

Ghostine, Rabih; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

2014-05-01

15

Steady improvement of infection control services in six community hospitals in Makkah following annual audits during Hajj for four consecutive years  

PubMed Central

Background the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of annual review of the infection control practice in all Ministry of Health hospitals in the holy city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the Hajj period of four lunar Islamic years, 1423 to 1426 corresponding to 2003 to 2006. Methods audit of infection control service was conducted annually over a 10-day period in six community hospitals with bed capacities ranging from 140 to 557 beds. Data were collected on standardized checklists on various infection control service items during surprise visits to the medical, pediatric, surgical, and critical care units, and the kitchens. Percentage scores were calculated for audited items. The results of the audit for hospitals were confidentially sent to them within four weeks after the end of Hajj. Results deficiencies observed in the first audit included lack of infection control committees, infection control units, infection control educational activities, and surveillance system and shortage of staff. These deficiencies were resolved in the subsequent audits. The average (range) scores of hospitals in 11 infection control items increased from 43% (20–67%) in the first audit to 78% (61–93%) in the fourth audit. Conclusion regular hospital infection control audits lead to significant improvement of infection control practice. There is a need to build a rigorous infection control audit into hospitals' ongoing monitoring and reporting to the Ministry of Health and to provide these hospitals with feed back on such audits to continuously strengthen the safety standards for patients, visitors, and employees. PMID:16934152

Madani, Tariq A; Albarrak, Ali M; Alhazmi, Mohammad A; Alazraqi, Tarik A; Althaqafi, Abdulahakeem O; Ishaq, Abdulrahman H

2006-01-01

16

An update on the incidence of dengue gaining strength in Saudi Arabia and current control approaches for its vector mosquito  

PubMed Central

Background The cases of dengue reported earlier in the late 1990s from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) occurred in the cities of Jeddah and Makkah. Although the kingdom has ample financial resources to establish effective control measures for the dengue vector, numerous cases of dengue occur and fluctuate in numbers from year to year. This necessitates a serious review of the current vector control strategies being practiced in order to identify the existing shortcomings. This short report provides an update on epidemiology of dengue in KSA (specifically in cities of Jeddah and Makkah) with a critical look at the current vector control strategies. Findings In 2013, 4411 cases of dengue were reported, with 8 cases of mortality. This number of dengue incidence was four times higher compared to 2012. In 2013, the highest number of 1272 dengue cases was reported in May, while the lowest number (37) of cases was reported in September. Conclusions It is evident that the control strategies of the dengue vector presently employed are inadequate. There seems to be serious deficiencies in following proper scientific procedures during field application(s) of control materials against the vector as is evident by the increases in the number of dengue cases as well as frequent outbreaks of the vector mosquito populations. In this review, some specific suggestions are made to draw attention to the relevant KSA authorities of the possible reasons behind unsuccessful control results and as to how to improve the strategy of dengue vector control in the kingdom. PMID:24890567

2014-01-01

17

Spatial and temporal variations of satellite-derived multi-year particulate data of Saudi Arabia: an exploratory analysis.  

PubMed

The effects of concentrations of fine particulate matter on urban populations have been gaining attention because fine particulate matter exposes the urban populace to health risks such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Satellite-derived data, using aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been adopted to improve the monitoring of fine particulate matter. One of such data sources is the global multi-year PM2.5 data (2001-2010) released by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). This paper explores the satellite-derived PM2.5 data of Saudi Arabia to highlight the trend of PM2.5 concentrations. It also examines the changes in PM2.5 concentrations in some urbanized areas of Saudi Arabia. Concentrations in major cities like Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, Makkah, Madinah and the industrial cities of Yanbu and Jubail are analyzed using cluster analysis. The health risks due to exposure of the populace are highlighted by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and targets. The results show a trend of increasing concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas. Significant clusters of high values are found in the eastern and south-western part of the country. There is a need to explore this topic using images with higher spatial resolution and validate the data with ground observations to improve the analysis. PMID:25350009

Aina, Yusuf A; van der Merwe, Johannes H; Alshuwaikhat, Habib M

2014-11-01

18

Spatial and Temporal Variations of Satellite-Derived Multi-Year Particulate Data of Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Analysis  

PubMed Central

The effects of concentrations of fine particulate matter on urban populations have been gaining attention because fine particulate matter exposes the urban populace to health risks such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Satellite-derived data, using aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been adopted to improve the monitoring of fine particulate matter. One of such data sources is the global multi-year PM2.5 data (2001–2010) released by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). This paper explores the satellite-derived PM2.5 data of Saudi Arabia to highlight the trend of PM2.5 concentrations. It also examines the changes in PM2.5 concentrations in some urbanized areas of Saudi Arabia. Concentrations in major cities like Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, Makkah, Madinah and the industrial cities of Yanbu and Jubail are analyzed using cluster analysis. The health risks due to exposure of the populace are highlighted by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and targets. The results show a trend of increasing concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas. Significant clusters of high values are found in the eastern and south-western part of the country. There is a need to explore this topic using images with higher spatial resolution and validate the data with ground observations to improve the analysis. PMID:25350009

Aina, Yusuf A.; van der Merwe, Johannes H.; Alshuwaikhat, Habib M.

2014-01-01

19

[Saudi Arabia].  

PubMed

The capital of Saudi Arabia is Riyadh. As of 1995, Saudi Arabia had a population of 17.9 million governed by an absolute monarchy. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $126.597 billion and $7240. Per capita income declined by 1.2% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Saudi Arabia owed $17.089 billion. For the same year, Saudi Arabia exported $41.5 billion in goods and services and imported $22.893 billion. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 3.5% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 69.7 years, the infant mortality rate was 29 per 1000 births, 97% had access to health services, and 95% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications. PMID:12347116

20

Quantifying temporal trends of atmospheric pollutants in Makkah (1997-2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a high interest in quantifying temporal trends of air pollutant concentrations as they serve to assess the effects of emission control strategies. In this paper temporal trends (1997-2012) in air pollutant concentrations in the City of Makkah, near the Holy Mosque, have been assessed with the help of Theil-Sen approach and changepoint analysis, which are applicable to both normal and non-normal distributed data and are therefore preferred over classic parametric statistics. Trend analysis of nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 10 micron or less (PM10) and ozone (O3) was performed, not only at mean concentrations but also at several selected quantiles (minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile and maximum). Trends were positive in SO2, NO2, PM10 and ozone and negative in CO and NO concentrations. NOx (negative) and NO2 (positive) trends were predominantly non-significant, however other pollutants showed mostly significant trends. Trends vary at various metrics suggesting different behaviour of air pollutants at various quantiles of the distributions. Changepoint analysis was performed, which provides further insight into the temporal trends and highlights the points when the trends have changed significantly. Potential factors responsible for the observed temporal trends are discussed. Further work on source apportionment of various emission sources and spatial variability of air pollutants is required to provide further insight into the causes behind the trends of air pollutants and help better manage air pollutant levels in Makkah and elsewhere in the country.

Munir, Said; Habeebullah, Turki M.; Seroji, Abdulaziz R.; Gabr, Safwat S.; Mohammed, Atif M. F.; Morsy, Essam A.

2013-10-01

21

Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001–2008  

PubMed Central

Background This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32), followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07), and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69) than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men). Conclusion A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the highest incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases. Finally, Jouf had the highest changes in crude incidence rate and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of NHL among Saudi men. PMID:25028562

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Alghamdi, Mansour M; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

2014-01-01

22

Wadi natural aggregates in Western Saudi Arabia for use in Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engineering properties (physical and mechanical) of Wadi Al-Yamanyah natural aggregate were determined. In addition, correlations\\u000a between these properties have been made. This Wadi is located in the central part of the western province of Saudi Arabia\\u000a between Makkah and Taif. The aggregate along the Wadi was studied and five major rock units were identified namely granite,\\u000a granodiorite, gneiss amphibole

A. A. Al Harthi; Y. E. Abo Saada

1997-01-01

23

Using geographical information systems for defining the accessibility to health care facilities in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Spatial data play an important role in the planning of health care facilities and their allocation. Today, geographical information systems (GIS) provide useful techniques for capturing, maintaining and analysing health care spatial data; indeed health geoinformatics is an emerging discipline that uses innovative geospatial technology to investigate health issues. The purpose of this paper is to define how GIS can be used for assessing the level of accessibility to health care. The paper identifies the advantages of using GIS in health care planning and covers GIS-based international accessibility with a focus on GIS applications for health care facilities in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A geodatabase that includes location of health services, road networks, health care demand and population districts was created using ArcGIS software. The geodatabase produced is based on collected data and covers issues, such as defining the spatial distribution of health care facilities, evaluating health demand types and modelling health service areas based on analysis of driving-time and straight-line distances. PMID:25599637

Murad, Abdulkader A

2014-01-01

24

An assessment of the readiness of King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia, in adopting effective online staff development programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet access has grown in Saudi Arabia between 2000 and 2005 by more than 1000% and many governmental organizations are starting to provide part of their services using the internet. In addition, the Ministry of Higher Education has provided funding to all governmental universities to start developing strategies and guidelines for online education. Healthcare services in Saudi Arabia are funded

Adnan D Alwadie

2011-01-01

25

Evaluation of neonatal jaundice in the Makkah region  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to detect the frequency at which the different types of neonatal jaundice occur in Makkah and to estimate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 239 neonates with neonatal jaundice, 20 anemic neonates and 21 healthy neonates. ABO incompatibility was observed in 31.6% of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia, in 14.3% of those with early onset jaundice, in 9.5% of those with persistent jaundice, in 8.5% of those with physiological jaundice, in 5% of anemic neonates and in 12% of all neonates. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was observed in 10.5% of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia, in 3.9% of those with physiological jaundice, in 11.1% of those with direct hyperbilirubinemia, in 12% of those with persistent jaundice, in 10% of anemic neonates and in 6.6% of all neonates. Rh incompatibility and polycythemia were found in 2.6% of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia and in 0.4% of all neonates. In comparison to control group, MDA was significantly higher in all groups except for the anemic group. In conclusion, ABO incompatibility and G6PD deficiency frequently result in neonatal jaundice in Makkah, whereas Rh incompatibility and polycythemia are rare. The MDA level may serve as an indicator of oxidative stress. PMID:24763104

Alkhotani, Abdulaziz; Eldin, Essam Eldin Mohamed Nour; Zaghloul, Amal; Mujahid, Shakil

2014-01-01

26

Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to compare the quality of bottled water with potabilized desalinated tap water. Fourteen brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market and analyzed for physicochemical parameters in the Royal Commission Environmental Laboratory. Results were compared with 5-year continuous monitoring data of tap water from different locations in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah (MYAS) including storage tanks of desalination plant. Results show that there was no significant difference in the quality of tap water and bottled water. Bacteriological test was never found positive in the 5-year data in tap water. Similarly, physicochemical analysis shows the persistent quality of tap water. Based on hardness analysis, bottled and tap water are categorized as soft water. Trihalomethanes (THMs) study also indicates that traces of disinfection by products (DBPs) are present in both tap and bottled water and are much less than the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency maximum permissible limits. It is also important to note that the tap water distribution network in MAYS is a high-pressure recirculation network and there is no chance to grow bacteria in stagnant water in pipe lines or houses. Recently, the Royal Commission has replaced the whole drinking water network, which was made of asbestos-cemented pipes with glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes, to avoid any asbestos contaminations. Based on these results, it is concluded that drinking water distributed in the city is of very good and persistent quality, comparable with bottled water. Continuous monitoring also guarantees the safe drinking water to the community. Hence, it is the responsibility of the Royal Commission to encourage the peoples in the city to drink tap water as it is as good as bottled water even better than some of the brands and is monitored regularly. It is also much cheaper compared to bottled water and is available round the clock. Preference for tap water over bottled water will also reduce the production of bottled water that has flooded the market, the enormous strain on the environment, and the pollution due to used empty plastic bottles in the landfill area and will help to keep the city clean. PMID:19011982

Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S

2009-12-01

27

An Assessment of the Readiness of King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia, in Adopting Effective Online Staff Development Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internet access has grown in Saudi Arabia between 2000 and 2005 by more than 1000% and many governmental organizations are starting to provide part of their services using the internet. In addition, the Ministry of Higher Education has provided funding to all governmental universities to start developing strategies and guidelines for online…

Alwadie, Adnan D.

2011-01-01

28

Effect of Lead and Copper on the Growth of Heavy Metal Resistance Fungi Isolated from Second Industrial City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.

Siham, Al-Kadeeb A.

29

New age estimations for the western outer city wall of ancient Tayma (NW Saudi Arabia) based on OSL and radiocarbon data and geomorphologic evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2004 tremendous progress has been achieved in deciphering the cultural genesis of the Tayma oasis (NW Saudi Arabia), due to the joint investigations of the German Archaeological Institute Berlin (DAI), the General Commission for Tourism and Antiquities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the Department of Archaeology and Epigraphy, King Saud University Riyadh. Nevertheless, archaeological research is still suffering from a lacking locally-based absolute chronology of buildings. The pattern of ancient constructions at Tayma is dominated by a prominent city wall system surrounding the ancient town center (Qraya) and stretching 15 km around the oasis. Its internal structure indicates several building periods, i.e. phases of wall modification or extension of the entire system. So far, according to silex and carnelian fragments included in the mud bricks and a previous 14C age of charcoal remains from the central excavation district (wall section at Area A), an initial construction date of the wall between the late 3rd and the early 2nd millennium BC seemed likely. At the excavated western outer city wall a new systematic dating approach - combining the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C methods - has been applied to generate a reliable age for the oldest branch of the wall system which nowadays is covered by aeolian sand. The dune deposit is genetically related to the existence of the wall and, therefore, dating its accumulation provides termini ante quem for the construction of the wall. Five OSL dates were generated from the dune deposit providing ages between 4,900 and 3,500 yrs. Two radiocarbon ages support the dating sequence and also contribute to its consistency. By combining the results with geomorphologic evidence we draw the following conclusions: Initial settlement activities at Qraya were accompanied by a regulation of wadi dynamics and the construction of the outer city wall, indicated by the abrupt boundary between the pre-settlement alluvial silt and the overlying wall-related dune deposit. According to the OSL and 14C dating results from this deposit, the wall section at C1 (western part of the ancient settlement, north of Area A) dates back to the middle of the 3rd millennium BC or even earlier. Furthermore, the burying of the still existing remains of the city wall at C1 by sand was already completed at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC.

Engel, M.; Klasen, N.; Brückner, H.; Eichmann, R.; Hausleiter, A.; Al-Najem, M. H.; Al-Said, S. F.; Schneider, P. I.

2009-04-01

30

Pilgrims satisfaction with ambulatory health services in Makkah, 2008  

PubMed Central

Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the level and correlates of patients’ satisfaction with ambulatory health services provided for pilgrims during Hajj period in 2008. Materials and Methods: This was a facility-based, cross-sectional study conducted in the Makkah region during the Hajj season in December 2008. A two-stage technique was used to select 500 patients from those who attended the ambulatory health services. One hundred subjects were selected by systematic random sampling (every fifth) from each of the five hospitals included in the study and asked to fill in a pilot-tested self-administered questionnaire. A total of 487 questionnaires were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and t-test, Mann Whitney test and ANOVA, or Kruskal-Wallis test was used as appropriate after checking for normality. Level of significance level was set to be <0.05 throughout the study. Results: From 478 subjects analyzed, 390 (81.6%) were man, 345 (72.2%) were married, 28.9% had either intermediate or high secondary school education, and 2.4% were skilled laborers. The total satisfaction score for health facilities was 20.45 ± 4.03 of 25. The satisfaction scores were 20.15 ± 4.7 of 25 for patient satisfaction with physicians and 21.35 ± 4.5 for patient satisfaction with paramedical personnel. The overall satisfaction score was 61.5 ± 4.5 of 75 points. There were significant relations between total satisfaction of health facilities with education level and with occupation (P = 0.012, 0.001, respectively). The total satisfaction of patients with physicians was significant only with education level. The overall satisfaction score had a significant relation with occupation (P = 0.03), but a borderline relation with the education level (P = 0.056). Conclusion: Satisfaction with ambulatory Hajj health services is acceptable. Some physicians and waiting area services need special attention to improve satisfaction levels with ambulatory health in the subsequent Hajj seasons. PMID:21359024

Al-Hoqail, Ibrahim A.; Abdalla, Abdelshakour M.; Saeed, Abdalla A.; Al-Hamdan, Nasir A.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.

2010-01-01

31

Knowledge about bronchial asthma management in primary health care physicians in Al-Khobar City, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Context: The prevalence of bronchial asthma (BA) is increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Primary health care (PHC) centers follow the national protocol, which is based on the severity of the disease for the management of asthma. The Saudi initiative for asthma (SINA) management adopted from the global initiative for asthma guidelines, which was recommended by several recent studies, is based on the control level of asthma. Aims: To assess the knowledge of PHC physicians and family medicine (FM) residents in Al-Khobar, about the management of BA. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in all PHC centers and the university FM clinic in Al-Khobar. All PHC physicians and 3rd and 4th year FM residents were included in the study. A self-administered questionnaire developed according to SINA guidelines was used to assess theoretical knowledge of BA, and a predesigned checklist was used to assess the different inhaler techniques. Scoring was established and collected data were analyzed. Results: Only 8% of the sample had good theoretical knowledge of BA; 41% had poor knowledge. The knowledge of the residents was better than that of the PHC physicians. The mean knowledge score was significantly better among those using guidelines compared to the rest. About 23% had good knowledge of inhaler techniques. Knowledge of PHC physicians and FM residents about dry powder inhalers was deficient, and PHC physicians had little knowledge of metered dose inhalers with spacers. Conclusion: The knowledge of physicians about the management of BA was deficient. The national guidelines based on the level of control for asthma management should be updated and physicians given periodic training. PMID:25657604

Yousef, Haneen A.; Koura, Manal; Yousef, Abdullah A.

2015-01-01

32

75 FR 43919 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia: Third City Stop Added to the Trade Mission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...organizations. In addition, they will attend a networking event with multipliers. In Dhahran...business matchmaking appointments, and networking activities. Energy participants will...specialists in Riyadh and Dhahran; and Networking receptions in two cities of the...

2010-07-27

33

Source Apportionment and Elemental Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the first comprehensive investigation of PM2.5 and PM10 composition and sources in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a multi-week multiple sites sampling campaign in Jeddah between June and September, 2011, and analyzed samples by XRF. The overall mean mass concentration was 28.4 ± 25.4 ?g/m3 for PM2.5 and 87.3 ± 47.3 ?g/m3 for PM10, with significant temporal and spatial variability. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.33. Chemical composition data were modeled using factor analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation to determine five and four particle source categories contributing significant amount of for PM2.5 and PM10 mass, respectively. In both PM2.5 and PM10 sources were (1) heavy oil combustion characterized by high Ni and V; (2) resuspended soil characterized by high concentrations of Ca, Fe, Al, and Si; and (3) marine aerosol. The two other sources in PM2.5 were (4) Cu/Zn source; (5) traffic source identified by presence of Pb, Br, and Se; while in PM10 it was a mixed industrial source. To estimate the mass contributions of each individual source category, the CAPs mass concentration was regressed against the factor scores. Cumulatively, resuspended soil and oil combustion contributed 77 and 82% mass of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PMID:24634602

Khodeir, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Zhong, Mianhua; Sun, Hong; Costa, Max; Chen, Lung-Chi; Maciejczyk, Polina

2014-01-01

34

Population distribution and household conditions in Saudi Arabia: reflections from the 2010 Census.  

PubMed

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the largest nation in the Arabian Peninsula is divided into 13 regions, which are of different development levels in terms of both population and public utility infrastructure. More than the other regions, population is high in Al-Riyadh, Makkah Al-Mokarramah, and the Eastern Region, due to urbanization. The current analysis of census results is aimed at understanding (i) regional variations in population and households and (ii) house ownership, type of housing, and housing infrastructure. Saudi Arabia's population is 26,090,555, living in 4,655,127 households with higher concentration in Al-Riyadh, Makkah Al-Mokarramah, and the Eastern Region. One-fourth of the households are in Makkah Al-Mokarrammah while another one-fourth in Al-Riyadh. Households are small with 6 persons in each. The proportion of households in own houses is less than half - mostly Saudi households. Households in the Kingdom live in apartments, traditional houses, villas or floor in a villa with differing proportions across regions and between Saudi and non-Saudi. While apartments are the major type of housing (major regions), traditional houses (Jazan, Al-Baha, Hail, and Aseer regions) and villas (Al-Riyadh region) still exist that are built by concrete (less than four-fifths), block/brick (less than one-fifth), mud (rare), and stone (rare) with varying regional proportions. Infrastructure - electricity, water, and sewage - vary across regions. The major source of electricity is public station followed by private station and private generators. Water source is mainly the public water inside the pipe unit but catchment tank water and well water are used. Three types of sewage system are prevalent in the Kingdom - public sewage, ditch sewage, and private sewage. An inequitable distribution of population across regions shows urbanization, causing an emergence of the modern housing sector influencing house ownership. Developed regions have less ownership, more rentals and office quarters, thus, presuming that development level and migration status are driving house ownership. The impact of infrastructural variations is difficult to interpret as such variations affect the interest of the public sector and customers. A lesser dependence on the public sector requires caution when assessing the situation and when creating policies and provisions to improve quality of life. PMID:25279321

Abdul Salam, Asharaf; Elsegaey, Ibrahim; Khraif, Rshood; Al-Mutairi, Abdullah

2014-01-01

35

Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR), and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling. Results A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001) in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83), followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82), and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98). The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years) and 1.71 + (0.09× years), respectively. Conclusion We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women. PMID:25028565

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; Dohal, Ahlam A; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

2014-01-01

36

Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development. PMID:12178138

1986-12-01

37

Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

38

Determination of 40K, 232Th and 238U activity concentrations in ambient PM2.5 aerosols and the associated inhalation effective dose to the public in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Natural radioactivity of soil samples has been studied in many countries of the Arabian Peninsula, including Saudi Arabia. Radiological indices based on soil radioactivity have been widely used in these studies. However, there are no available data about natural radioactivity of fine aerosol particles in such countries. The objective of this study is to determine the activity concentrations of (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U in airborne PM2.5 and the associated internal inhalation radiation dose to the public in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-four air samples in four locations throughout Jeddah were collected and analyzed for PM2.5 and the associated K, Th and U. The activity concentrations of the isotopes (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U were calculated. High atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations (mean: 50.81 ± 34.02 ?g/m(3)) were found. The natural radioactivity associated with PM2.5 due to the isotopes (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U were 301.8 ± 76.1, 11.8 ± 4.2 and 10.8 ± 3.4 Bq/kg, respectively, and the Raeq was calculated as 44.9 ± 14.0 Bq/kg. The inhalation annual effective radiation dose to the public due to natural isotopes of the airborne PM2.5 was in the range 15.03-58.87 nSv/year, depending on the age group. Although these dose values were associated with the PM2.5 fraction only, they were higher than the world references values in air reported in the UNSCEAR, 2000 report. PMID:24462924

Zytoon, Mohamed A; Aburas, Hani M; Abdulsalam, Mohammed I

2014-03-01

39

Saudi Arabia's experience in solar energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress in solar energy research in Saudi Arabia is discussed with emphasis on the efforts of a government research entity - King Adbulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Three programs currently underway at KACST are considered: the continuation of activities initiated under the Solar Energy Research American/Saudi (SOLERAS) program, a Saudi/German program, and projects developed and conducted completely by KACST. The objectives, management structure, and program organization of SOLEARS are outlined, and attention is focused on urban, rural/agricultural, and industrial applications as well as resource development activities and accomplishments. Solar-hydrogen projects pursued together with Germany are reviewed, and their objectives, program management, and technical plans are covered. Domestic programs dealing with photovoltaic-powered lightning and hot-water systems are summarized.

Huraib, Fahad S.

40

SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV) AND HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) AND RELATIONSHIP TO ALANINE TRANSFERASE (ALT) IN SAUDI WORKERS AT YANBU INDUSTRIAL CITY  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study the epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCP) in a relatively new industrial community in Yanbu, and to find out whether any relationship exists between increased serum Alanine Transferase (ALT) and HBV infection. Method: A group of Saudi male workers (n=332) (mean age = 32 years) were screened for Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), and Alanine Transferase (ALT) level and the results were correlated with age and marital status. Results: Overall, the prevalence of anti-HBc, HBsAg, and anti-HCV were 23.2%, 7.7% and 0.6% respectively. Age-related HBsAg carrier rates were 7.8%, 6.4% and 9.4% for age groups 18-20, 21-30 and over 30 years respec-tively. Anti-HBc positivity rates lucre 7.8%, 24.3% and 23.1 M for the same age groups. Anti-HCV was positive in only two cases (0.6%) of all subjects. Con-sidering marital status, HBsAg and anti-HBc positivity rates were 7.8% and 20.5% for single subjects compared with 7.4% and 24.5% for married subjects (P=> 0.5 and > 0.5). Twenty-two percent of all subjects had ALT levels above 35 U/L with no correlation between the increase of ALT and anti-HBc or HBsAg positivity. Conclusions: The findings of this work: (1) Support the notion of relatively low prevalence of HCV in the Saudi Population as compared to HBV. (2) Provide clues regarding possible routes of transmission of HBV in Saudis that may help in vaccination policies for control of HBV infection. (3) Emphasize the fact that ALT level is an independent factor of HBV infection, and (4) Signify the need to screen industrial workers fir non-viral causes of liver disease. PMID:23008562

Kashgari, Rashad H.; Mohamad, Adel A.

1997-01-01

41

Saudi Arabia Afghanistan  

E-print Network

Djibouti Kuwait Qatar Eritrea Bahrain 04705 #12;Iran India Pakistan Saudi Arabia Iraq Afghanistan Yemen Oman China Turkmenistan Turkey Tajikistan United Arab Emirates Kuwait Qatar Uzbekistan Eritrea Bahrain

Russell, Lynn

42

Improving the level of seismic hazard parameters in Saudi Arabia using earthquake location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia is characterized as largely aseismic; however, the tectonic plate boundaries that surround it are very active.\\u000a To improve characterization of seismicity and ground motion hazard, the Saudi Arabian Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) was\\u000a installed in 1998 and continues to be operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and\\u000a Technology (KACST). This article

Abdullah M. Al-Amri; Arthur J. Rodgers; Tariq A. Al-Khalifah

2008-01-01

43

Consanguineous Marriage in an Urban Area of Saudi Arabia: Rates and Adverse Health Effects on the Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the pattern and time trend of consanguineous marriage and its adverse health effects on the offspring in Dammam city, Eastern Province, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This city is known to attract Saudis from different parts of the coutry because it is in the heart of this industrial region. Five

Abdulkareem A. Al-Abdulkareem; Seifeddin G. Ballal

1998-01-01

44

Incidence of proximal femur fracture in an urbanized community in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis, an age-related disorder, is a major contributor to bone fractures among the elderly, especially postmenopausal women. Variable incidence have been reported from different geographical areas, however, none as yet from Saudi Arabia. We have reviewed case records of Saudi residents of Riyadh city, who were 40 years or older and who were admitted to any of the local acute-care

A. R. Al-Nuaim; M. Kremli; M. Al-Nuaim; S. Sandkgi

1995-01-01

45

Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

1992-01-01

46

Renewable success : development of good architecture in the case of Arriyadh Development Authority, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

ArRiyadh Development Authority (ADA) is an unusual city development authority within the Saudi Arabian government hierarchy. Part of its responsibilities is coordinating and overseeing the design and building of buildings ...

Alkhabbaz, Mohammed H

2010-01-01

47

Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

1990-01-01

48

Thunderstorm distribution and frequency in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new average annual thunder day map for Saudi Arabia is presented. Based on this map, the distribution of thunderstorms over Saudi Arabia is analysed in terms of the factors related to the lightning performance of transmission lines such as thunderstorm days per year (Td/yr). Lightning activity continues for the present to be represented by thunderstorm frequency, which is routinely recorded at meteorological observation sites. Thunderstorm occurrence at a particular location is usually expressed as the number of days in a calendar year when thunder was heard, averaged over several years. This paper examines thunderstorm days in different areas of Saudi Arabia and specifically those areas where lightning strikes are more frequent; for this purpose, the software ArcGIS is used to produce contour maps which demonstrate areas of concern in Saudi Arabia in the period 1985-2003. Establishing the annual and seasonal Td/yr for Saudi Arabia enables transmission and distribution line engineers to calculate and better design a lightning protection system. Maps of thunder days/year (Td/yr) were constructed on the basis of the database records available on lightning incidence in Saudi Arabia at the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) (http://www.pme.gov.sa/). Annual thunderstorms are most frequent over the southwestern parts of the country, and generally decrease towards the west and east. Due to its low latitude and less temporal change, the west coast of the Red Sea recorded the lowest Td/yr. A secondary maximum Td/yr is apparent in the southeast to central part of the country. Thunderstorm frequency does not, in general, appear to vary in any consistent way with rainfall. There appears to be no evidence of any widespread temporal trend in thunderstorm frequency. The southern region in general, and especially the cities of Abha, Taif and Al-Baha, has shown greater numbers of thunderstorm days all year round. Similarly, this variation did show higher frequency throughout the year. The development of lightning incidence and the counting of Td/yr, as well as the establishment of annual and seasonal lightning maps of Saudi Arabia, are initiating a new era of producing and archiving thunderstorm maps and data records which serve the PME, the utilities, industry and the public.

Shwehdi, M. H.

2005-09-01

49

NASA Remote Sensing Validation Data: Saudi Arabia  

DOE Data Explorer

Since 1995, the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have co-operated to establish a 12 station network of high quality solar radiation monitoring installations across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. NREL and KACST realized the value of accurate surface solar radiation flux measurements for validation of satellite derived surface and atmospheric solar radiation flux measurements, and is making this data available to support validation of satellite data products related to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth component of the Earth Science Enterprise Earth Observing System (EOS) project to evaluate long term climate trends based on measuements from EOS Terra Platforms. A CIMEL 8 channel sunphotometer for measuring aerosol optical depth at 6 wavelengths and total column water has been deployed at the Solar Village station since February 24, 1999. [Taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/new_data/Saudi_Arabia/

Myers, Daryl R. (NREL); Al-Abbadi,Naif (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Energy Research Institite); Wilcox, Steve (NREL)

50

Tabanidae (Diptera) of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Samples were collected from southern, central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia using Malaise traps and sweep nets. Nine species of Tabanidae were identified, two for the first time from Saudi Arabia, Hybomitra peculiaris (Szilády) and Atylotus pulchellus (Loew). Therefore, the total number of Tabanidae in Saudi Arabia is 31 species. Remarks of the species recorded in this study were given. A key to the genera of Tabanidae occurring in the Arabian Peninsula is also provided. Available literature for Saudi Arabian Tabanidae is summarized and provided. It is concluded that the tabanid fauna of Saudi Arabia is more similar to that of the Palaearctic region than to the Afrotropical region. PMID:23961046

Al Dhafer, H.M.; Dawah, H.A.; Abdullah, M.A.

2009-01-01

51

Occurrence of fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.

Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.

2013-09-01

52

The Jinadriyah anticlines: a surface model for oil fields in eastern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesozoic oil in Saudi Arabia exists in north\\/south-oriented anticlines. Such anticlines are usually studied using subsurface\\u000a data. The present study introduces, for the first time in Saudi Arabia, a surface analog for these anticlines. The study covers\\u000a two northerly oriented anticlines located in the Jinadriyah area at 15 km to the northeast of the Riyadh city. They are named\\u000a herein the

Mohammed J. Al-Mahmoud; Mesbah H. Khalil; Adel R. Moustafa

2009-01-01

53

Wadi Habawnah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These unique weathered volcanic intrusions near Wadi Habawnah, Saudi Arabia (18.0N, 44.0E) are located near Najran, north of the Yemen border. This harsh and rugged desert landscape has been heavily wind eroded and, to a lesser extent, water eroded, as evidenced by the dendritic patterns in this region where rainfall is a seldom occurance. Only a dwindling number of nomadic tribes inhabit this harsh region of few resources.

1985-01-01

54

Saudi Arabia Today. A Teaching Program on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: (1) Grades 1-3, Our Visit to Saudi Arabia; (2) Grades 4-6, A Modern Kingdom; (3) Junior High School, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; (4) Senior High School, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This package includes materials for students and accompanying teaching guides and posters for teaching about life in contemporary Saudi Arabia for grades 1-8. The student folder for grades 1-3 presents information about the Middle Eastern nation in the form of a boy's letter to a friend back home. In the letter are descriptions of the cities of…

Learning Enrichment, Inc., Williamsburg, VA.

55

Self-medication in Central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of self-medication and assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perception of consumers toward self-medication. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted over 4 weeks in May 2011 in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacies within 5 areas of the city (North, South, West, East, and Middle) were randomly selected for the study. All consumers were approached to participate in the study, with the exception of those buying cosmetic and medicinal equipments. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: A total of 538 out of 707 consumers attending community pharmacies in Riyadh city, agreed to participate in the study. Most responders were male (73%), 23-33 years old (35%), and college graduates (42%). A total of 285 medications were bought without a prescription. Of these, 149 (49%) medications should be dispensed by prescription only, and 155 (51%) were over the counter medications. The most common prescription medications dispensed without prescriptions were antibiotics (22%) and analgesics/antipyretics (19%). The most common reasons for buying medications without a prescription were that the symptoms were too minor to visit a doctor (54%), time saving (40%), and minor illnesses for which the participants knew the required treatment (40%). Overall, most participants had poor knowledge, and negative perceptions regarding self-medication. More than 68% of participants did not know whether the medicine they bought is a prescription-only or over the counter medication. Conclusion: Irresponsible self-medication is common in Saudi Arabia. Future studies should focus on improving the consumers’ awareness of self-medication and the proper use of medications. PMID:25737176

Aljadhey, Hisham; Assiri, Ghada A.; Mahmoud, Mansour A.; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa; Murray, Michael

2015-01-01

56

Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

2011-01-01

57

Sucking habits in Saudi children: prevalence, contributing factors and effects on the primary dentition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature on the prevalence of sucking habits shows that it varies from one population to another. The purposes of this study were to: 1) determine the preva- lence of sucking habits among preschool Saudi children liv- ing in Riyadh City, 2) assess the influence of some cultural factors on that prevalence, and 3) to study the

Najat M. A. Farsi; Fouad S. Salama; Cert Pedo

1997-01-01

58

Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR) were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR) and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR) in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations. PMID:24351742

Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

2013-01-01

59

Serum magnesium, iron and ferritin levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy attending makkah eye complex, khartoum, Sudan.  

PubMed

Diabetic retinopathy is the most common complications of diabetes mellitus that, in most occasions, lead to blindness. Multiple evidences linked the serum magnesium, iron and ferritin disturbance with diabetes and its complications. A case-control study was conducted at Makkah Eye Complex, Khartoum, Sudan, to compare the levels of serum magnesium, iron and ferritin in patients with diabetic retinopathy with diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (controls). Findings indicate that all patients had type 2 diabetes. The two groups (50 in each arm) were well matched in their basic characteristics. Median (25th-75th interquartile) of serum magnesium in patients with diabetic retinopathy were significantly lower than patients without diabetic retinopathy [1.48 (0.75-1.64) vs. 1.92 (1.4-2.3)mg/dl, P?=?0.022]. The median of serum iron and ferritin were lower in cases than control group but did not reach a statistical significance [20.5 (17.2-48.0) vs. 27.0 (16.0-54.0) ?g/dl, P?=?0.568; 98.0 (45.0-134.75) vs. 101.0 (47.0-161.0) ?g/l, P?=?0.818]. The duration of diabetes [16.5 (9.3) vs. 11.2 (6.6) years; P?=?0.014] and haemoglobin level [13.7 (0.9) vs. 12.5 (2.0) g/dl; P?=?0.039] were significantly higher in cases group than control group. A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum magnesium and iron levels. Twenty (40 %) patients had severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy with mild macular edema, which is the most prevalent type among the cases group. Hypomagnesaemia among diabetic patients was associated with diabetic retinopathy, while serum iron and ferritin have no significant effect in this setting. Severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy with mild macular edema is the prevalent type in this study. PMID:25613583

Hamdan, Hamdan Z; Nasser, Nasser M; Adam, Ammar M; Saleem, Mahgoub A; Elamin, Maha I

2015-05-01

60

First Dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (?75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods) with derived abelisaurids – this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region. PMID:24386326

Kear, Benjamin P.; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Ali, Mohammed A.; Al-Mufarreh, Yahya A.; Matari, Adel H.; Al-Massari, Abdu M.; Nasser, Abdulaziz H.; Halawani, Mohammed A.

2013-01-01

61

Assessment of patient safety culture in Saudi Arabian hospitals.  

PubMed

Context Healthcare organisations in Saudi Arabia are striving to improve patient safety and quality of care through implementation of safety systems and creating a culture of safety. Objective The purpose of this study to evaluate the extent to which the culture supports patient safety at Saudi hospitals. Data Collection A survey questionnaire was distributed hospital-wide in 13 general hospitals in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, to 223 health professionals including nurses, technicians, managers and medical staff. Measurement The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to identify dimensions of patient safety culture. Results Overall Patient Safety Grade was rated as excellent or very good by 60% of respondents, acceptable by 33% and failing or poor by 7%. More than half of respondents thought that managers overlook safety problems that happen over and over. Areas of strength for most hospitals were organisational learning/continuous improvement, teamwork within units, feedback and communication about errors. Areas with potential for improvement for most hospitals were under-reporting of events, non-punitive response to error, staffing, teamwork across hospital units. Conclusion Leadership is a critical element to the effectiveness of patient safety initiatives. Response to errors is an important determinant of safety culture in healthcare organisations. In order for healthcare organisations to create a culture of safety and improvement, they must eliminate fear of blame and create a climate of open communication and continuous learning. PMID:20430929

Alahmadi, H A

2010-10-01

62

76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi Arabia April 14-18, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade...Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia from April 14-18, 2012. Saudi Arabia offers abundant...Saturday, April 14--Day 1...............

2011-12-15

63

The Saudi Initiative for Asthma  

PubMed Central

The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA) provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system. PMID:19881170

Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Idrees, Majdy M.; Zeitouni, Mohamed O.; Alanezi, Mohammed O.; Al-Jahdal, Hamdan H.; Al Dabbagh, Maha

2009-01-01

64

Saudi Consumer Preference of Fast Food Outlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study empirically examines the attributes of fast food restaurants that influence the consumer preference of fast food outlets in Saudi Arabia. Based on the existing literature and an examination of the socio-cultural and economic environment of Saudi Arabia, two hypotheses have been developed. The hypotheses are that the fast food restaurant attributes of nutrition, price, taste, speed, delivery service,

Shahid N. Bhuian

2000-01-01

65

Surface Rupture in Northwest Saudi Arabia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault rupture caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...

66

Evaluation of engineering properties of scoria in central Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although black scoria deposits occur extensively in western Saudi Arabia, there has been little work undertaken on its engineering\\u000a characteristics as a light-weight aggregate which can be used in concrete for structural, masonry and insulating purposes.\\u000a In an attempt to remedy this, central Harrat Rahat was selected for an engineering evaluation of scoria deposits in the vicinity\\u000a of major cities

A. A. Sabtan; W. M. Shehata

2000-01-01

67

Seismic fragility curves for mid-rise reinforced concrete frames in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the development of seismic fragility curves for typical mid-rise plane reinforced concrete moment-resisting frames in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which is considered as low-seismicity area. Two structural models; four- and eight-storey moment-resisting frames were considered. Three cities with different seismic intensities, Abha, Jazan and Al-Sharaf, were selected to cover various values of mapped spectral

Yasser E. Ibrahim; Mostafa M. El-Shami

2011-01-01

68

Prevalence and characteristics of abnormal Papanicolaou smear in Central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the prevalence and characteristics of abnormal pap smear in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: In this retrospective case control study conducted in the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Histopathology at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, all pap smears screened for Saudi women between 2008 and 2011 were reviewed. Approximately 5000 pap smears are screened annually at King Abdulaziz Medical City utilizing the Bethesda III System (2001). All abnormal smears patients’ data were collected and compared to the data of randomly selected 200 normal smears’ patients. Results: Abnormal pap smear prevalence was found to be 4.3% (841/19,650 Saudi patients were found with atypical epithelial cells abnormalities). Its prevalence in the years 2008 was 5.7%, 2009 was 4.9%, 2010 was 4.2%, and 2011 was 2.5%. Abnormal smear patients have lower parity (p=0.001), and were less likely to use intra-uterine devices (p=0.03) compared with normal smear patients. Presence of abnormal cervical appearance was associated with increased epithelial cell abnormalities (p=0.045). The only positive history that has characterized patients with epithelial cell abnormalities was their previous history of abnormal pap smear (p=0.001). Squamous cell abnormalities were identified in 91% of the patients (767/841), and glandular cell abnormalities were identified in 9% of the patients (74/841). Conclusion: Prevalence of abnormal pap smears in central Saudi Arabia is relatively low, while advanced glandular abnormalities prevalence was observed to be high. PMID:25630016

Al-Kadri, Hanan M.; Kamal, Mehak; Bamuhair, Samira S.; Omair, Aamir A.; Bamefleh, Hana S.

2015-01-01

69

Prevalence of ocular pseudoexfoliation syndrome and associated complications in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX), and associated ophthalmic complications among Saudi patients. Methods: The prevalence of PEX and associated ocular co-morbidities were determined among the Saudi patients visiting the Primary Care Clinic of Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 2009 and January 2010. A total of 1967 patients were examined biomicoscopically by ophthalmologists to determine the presence of PEX and associated ocular complications. Results: Sixty-nine of the 1967 examined patients (3.5%) showed the presence of PEX with no significant gender difference. There was an age dependent increase in the prevalence of PEX after the age of 50 years. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome was associated with higher intraocular pressure, cataract, and poor vision. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of PEX in male and female Saudi patients. Conclusion: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an age-related disorder, and its prevalence increases with age. Further larger population based studies are warranted to assess the prevalence of PEX and associated risk factors. PMID:25630014

Al-Saleh, Sulaiman A.; Al-Dabbagh, Najwa M.; Al-Shamrani, Saad M.; Khan, Nusrat M.; Arfin, Misbahul; Tariq, Mohammad; Al-Faleh, Hafez M.

2015-01-01

70

The Impact of Foreign Cultures through the Video (VCR\\/ DVD\\/ VCD) and Television (TV) on Saudi Society as Perceived by Saudi Undergraduate Students in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to examine the perceptions of Saudi undergraduate students regarding the effect of the movies and programs of the Video (VCR\\/ DVD\\/ VCD) and television (TV) on Saudi culture. A survey method using a questionnaire was employed to collect the data for this study. A total of 83 Saudi undergraduate students of whom 58 (or 69.9%) were males

Hassan Omar Basfar

2007-01-01

71

Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers in saudi arabia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

2015-01-01

72

Quality assessment of various bottled waters marketed in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available brands of domestic bottled water in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor, and trace elements) is determined and compared with the chemical content labeled on the bottles and with drinking water standards of Saudi Arabian, World Health Organization, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The obtained results indicated that except for fluoride and bromate, the concentrations of dissolved salts, soluble cations and anions, nitrate, and trace elements of most bottled waters on sale were within the permissible limits set by standards used. On the other hand, the comparison between determined and reported label values recorded a substantial variation in some parameter values. Results indicated that more than 18 % of the sampled bottled waters exceeded the allowable limits for drinking water. Generated Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters were sodium chloride-sulfate type; however, the hydrochemical modeling indicated that all water samples were undersaturated for anhydrite, gypsum, and halite. PMID:23232848

Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul M; El-Maghraby, Salem E; Aly, Anwar A; Al-Wabel, Mohammed I; Al-Asmari, Zafer A; Nadeem, Mahmoud E

2013-08-01

73

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

2013-12-01

74

Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.

Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

2015-01-01

75

Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice toward medicines  

PubMed Central

The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15–20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines’ uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine’s efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students’ reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ?18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P < 0.014). The study showed that Saudi school students aged 15–20 years old have poor knowledge, misconception and negative attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students’ practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406

Eldalo, Ahmed S.; Yousif, Mirghani A.; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad

2013-01-01

76

Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail.

Not Available

1991-11-18

77

Trajectory analysis of Saudi Arabian dust storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal and spatial characteristics of Saudi Arabian dust storms, with focus on associated air parcel trajectories, are investigated using station and gridded weather observations and remotely-sensed aerosol optical depth (AOD). For 13 focal stations, an extensive pool of 84-h backward trajectories is developed for dust storm days, and the trajectories are grouped into 3-5 representative clusters based on the K-means technique and Silhouette Coefficients. Saudi Arabian dust storms are most prominent during February-June, with a mid-winter peak along the southern coast of the Red Sea, spring peak across northern Saudi Arabia around the An Nafud Desert, and early summer peak in eastern Saudi Arabia around the Ad Dahna Desert. Based on backward trajectories, the primary local dust source is the Rub Al Khali Desert and the primary remote sources are the Saharan Desert, for western Saudi Arabia, and Iraqi Deserts, for northern and eastern Saudi Arabia. During February-April, the Mediterranean storm track is active, with passing cyclones and associated cold fronts carrying Saharan dust to Saudi Arabian stations along the northern coast of the Red Sea. Across Saudi Arabia, the highest AOD is achieved during dust storms that originate from the Rub Al Khali and Iraqi Deserts. Most stations are dominated by local dust sources (primarily Rub Al Khali), are characterized by three dominant trajectory paths, and achieve AOD values exceeding 1. In contrast, for stations receiving predominantly remote dust (particularly Saharan), 3-5 trajectory paths emerge and AOD values only reach approximately 0.6 as dust is lost during transport.

Notaro, Michael; Alkolibi, Fahad; Fadda, Eyad; Bakhrjy, Fawzieh

2013-06-01

78

Rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The status of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Saudi Arabia (SA) was examined from various perspectives based on a systematic literature review and the authors’ personal experiences. In this regard, database and journal search were conducted to identify studies on RA in SA, yielding a total of 43 articles. Although efforts have been made to promote RA research in SA, current studies mostly represent only a few centers and may not accurately portray the national status of RA care. Notably, biological therapies were introduced early for almost all practicing rheumatologists in SA (government and private). However, no national guidelines regarding the management of RA have been developed based on local needs and regulations. Also, while efforts were made to establish RA data registries, they have not been successful. Taken together, this analysis can contribute to the planning of future guidelines and directives for RA care in SA. PMID:25491208

Almoallim, Hani M.; Alharbi, Laila A.

2014-01-01

79

75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi...representatives from a variety of U.S. ICT industry suppliers and service providers...Riyadh and Jeddah, Saudi Arabia's primary ICT hubs. Trade mission participants will...

2010-09-07

80

Architecting the Saudi solar manufacturing : using Enterprise Architecture Framework  

E-print Network

The demand for Saudi oil is increasing locally and internationally, and being one of the major oil exporters in the world, the government of Saudi Arabia needs to balance between local consumption and international demand. ...

Alsultan, Bassel F. (Bassel Fahad)

2013-01-01

81

Saudi Arabian National Center for Science and Technology (SANCST) Database.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subject areas covered by publications in database of Saudi Arabian National Center for Science and Technology are enumerated, noting Saudi contribution: total number of publications in individual subject areas, number of publications for each area and year, and publication trends (1960-1982). Scientific and technological activities in Saudi Arabia…

Manzoor, Suhail

1985-01-01

82

Sexual Behavior in Male Adolescents with Autism and Its Relation to Social-Sexual Skills in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to identify common sexual behavior among adolescents with autism, where parents and teachers of sixty-one male adolescents from twelve to twenty-one years of age were recruited from three cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were asked to respond to a sexual behavior questionnaire, and a social-sexual skills…

Huwaidi, Mohamed A.; Daghustani, Wid H.

2013-01-01

83

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Health Behaviors between Saudi and British Adolescents Living in Urban Areas: Gender by Country Analyses  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648) and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158). The participants (14–18 year-olds) were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3%) was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%). The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week). Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among Saudi adolescents (64%) compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%). The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively). The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05) gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001) gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. PMID:24300072

Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Abahussain, Nada A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Nevill, Alan

2013-01-01

84

Creating a GIS application for health services at Jeddah city  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the possibilities of using GIS for private hospitals at Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A GIS application is created to cover three main health planning issues which are distribution of health demand, classification of hospital patients and the definition of hospital service area. Each one of these issues is covered using several GIS functions including network analysis and

Abdulkader A Murad

2007-01-01

85

Cost containment: the Middle East. Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The 1970s and early 1980s saw the phenomenal growth and development of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia. This growth was unique in that it took place in a country that lacked basic infrastructure and trained personnel, but had recently acquired great wealth. Developments that took hundreds of years to occur in other countries took only 20 yrs to attain in Saudi Arabia. This growth posed unique challenges and required novel solutions. Recently, the country has had to cope with a drastic decrease in oil revenue, as well as cutbacks in healthcare funding. Now that the basic foundations of a national healthcare service have been constructed, it remains to be seen whether gains can be consolidated and steady progress made as more and more Saudi nationals take over and run their own public and private healthcare services. PMID:8087599

Chang, R W

1994-08-01

86

Patient exposures in Saudi diagnostic radiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostic X-ray radiography patients exposures have been studied during 1412 (H) (1992) in the Riyadh area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Dose imparted as well as doses to the thyroid, breast, lung, bone marrow, ovary and testis have been calculated for many types of radiographic examinations, Collective doses have been calculated. The dose imparted corresponds to an annual absorbed dose to the Saudi population, in the Riyadh area, of about 280 ?Gy, and a genetically significant dose of 108.8 ?Gy per person per year due to diagnostic radiology.

Ayad, M.; Melibary, Abdulrahman; Malabary, Tajuddin

1994-07-01

87

NMR used for Saudi crude asphaltenes  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with proton (/sup 1/H) and carbon 13 (/sup 13/C) has been used to determine the structural characteristics of asphaltenes from four commercial Saudi Arabian crude oils. These characteristics are important to refiners that have deep conversion processes to determine yields from the residual fractions of the Saudi crudes, and to determine the operating parameters of the process units. The spectra obtained give some structural similarities among the crude oils, as well as some differences. Values of various structural parameters have been tabulated from the spectra.

Hasan, M.U.; Siddiqui, M.N.; Arab, M.

1988-02-08

88

The education of women in Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

THE EDUCATION OF NOMEN IN SAUDI ARABIA A Thesis by LINDA JEAN QUINTANILLA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 198$ Major Subject...: Curriculum and Instruction THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN IN SAUDI ARABIA A Thesis LINDA JEAN QUINTANILLA Approved as to style and content by: r J ack K. Campbell hairman of Commi ee) Jesus Garcia (Member) ohn J McD rmott (Member) Wi liam H. eters (Head...

Quintanilla, Linda Jean

1985-01-01

89

Clonal diversity of Acinetobacter baumannii from diabetic patients in Saudi Arabian hospitals.  

PubMed

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB) represents a major health-care problem, causing high rates of morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the clonality of CR-AB isolated from diabetic patients from different regions in Saudi Arabia, as well as the relatedness of the ?-lactamase genes. A total of 64 non-repetitive CR-AB clinical isolates were collected from 16 different regions in Saudi Arabia from intensive care patients. Isolates were identified phenotypically by the Vitek 2 compact system and genotypically by amplification of the blaOXA-51-like gene. The target sequences were amplified by PCR and the clonal diversity of the isolates was explored by PFGE. Resistance studies revealed that the prevalence of imipenem and meropenem resistance was 92% and 96%, respectively, while the vast majority of the isolates were susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. In addition, blaVIM and blaOXA-23 were the most prevalent genes in the isolates under investigation, while ISAba1 was the most dominant insertion sequence. PFGE results showed 13 clusters; clone H was dominant, comprising 20 isolates from four hospitals, followed by clones C and F, comprising 11 isolates each from three and six hospitals, respectively. Moreover, the current study signified the clonal diversity of CR-AB in Saudi Arabia and showed the ability of some clones to infect patients in many different cities. PMID:25106863

Alsultan, Abdulrahman A; Aboulmagd, Elsayed; Evans, Benjamin A; Amyes, Sebastian G B

2014-11-01

90

Attitudes and practices of complementary and alternative medicine among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Saudi Arabian adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 736 adolescents (358 males, 378 females) aged 15-19 years from secondary schools. The study was carried out in Al-Khobar city, Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The findings revealed that the use of CAM by adolescents in their lifetime ranged from 1.6% for acupuncture to 58.6% for honey treatment, with significant differences between genders, except in the use of dietary supplements, black cumin, and acupuncture therapies. Females were more likely to use CAM for treating abdominal pains, cold and flu, and cough than males (P < 0.000). Family members and friends (67.7%) were the main source of CAM usage, followed by television (10%), and Internet (8%). Religious and medicinal herb healers were the CAM healers most commonly visited by adolescents. Nearly 21-43% of adolescents had positive attitudes toward CAM, with some significant differences between males and females. It can be concluded that CAM is widely used by Saudi adolescents, but caution should be exercised for the safe usage of some CAM treatments. CAM should not be ignored; however there is an urgent need to establish regulations for CAM usage. PMID:25560362

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Abahussain, Nada A

2015-01-01

91

Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001). About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively). The greater majority (67%) considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks. PMID:24576364

Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen

2014-03-01

92

Population dynamics and tuberculosis: a cross sectional study of an overlooked disease in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: International travel, migration and human population movements facilitate the spread of tuberculosis (TB). Objective: To study the impact of poorly screened expatriates working in Saudi Arabia on the local incidence of TBs. Patients and methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Chest Disease Hospital, Taif. All confirmed cases of TB from June 2009 to May 2010 admitted to the hospital were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were diagnosed cases of TB (pulmonary & extra-pulmonary) in patients between the ages of 14 to 65 years. Patients with HIV and coexistent malignancies were excluded. The age, gender and ethnic group of each patient was recorded, and patients were divided into two groups. Of the two groups, Group A consisted of Taif residents and group B of patients referred from other cities in the country. Results: Of the 686 cases studied, 370 (54%) were Saudi nationals (Group A = 80 & Group B = 290) and 316 (46%) cases were from other countries. Males outnumbered females and most of the patients were aged 20 to 29 years. The number of cases from the areas close to the pilgrimage sites, i.e. Makah (233) and Jeddah (275), outnumbered those in Taif (110). Conclusions: Our study identifies an increased prevalence of TB cases in areas close to the pilgrimage (Group B). The higher proportion of non-Saudi TB patients in group B is most likely explained by the higher number of poorly screened illegal expatriates in the region. PMID:24454274

Al-Bishri, Jamal; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Adnan, Mubarki; Tariq, Malik; Abdullah, Harthi; Abdulgoni, Thubaiti; Bander, Guraibi; Altalhi, Mansoor

2014-01-01

93

California and Saudi Arabia: geologic contrasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing hydrocarbon futures in unexplored basins involves geology by analogy. Through 1978, approximately 265 fields were discovered in California containing 22 billion bbl of oil, 53% being in the 10 largest fields, ranging in size from 0.6 to 2.4 billion bbl. Through 1978, about 50 fields were found in Saudi Arabia containing 206 billion bbl of oil, 78% in the

R. G. Jr

1984-01-01

94

Karst Hazard Assessment of Eastern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karst phenomena exist in areas in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia, forming solution features such as sinkholes, collapsed dolines and solution caverns, as a result of the chemical leaching of the carbonate and evaporite formations by percolating water. The instability of these karst phenomena could produce land subsidence problems. This paper reviews the geology of documented karstic rock units

Ammar A. Amin; Khalid A. Bankher

1997-01-01

95

Quaternary Period in Saudi Arabia: Volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to rapid socioeconomic growth during the last 2 decades, the development of groundwater resources has been given priority in Saudi Arabia's development program. All through this period there have been intensive field studies, data collection, analyses, and interpretation related to the geology and hydrogeology of the region, the results of which have been presented in the form of tremendous

Bashir A. Memon

1985-01-01

96

Advertising agency scene in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looks at advertising agencies in Saudi Arabia and describes their strengths and the facilities they can offer. Focuses on five major advertising agencies – Tihama for Advertising, Public Relations and Marketing; United Outdoor Advertising Company Ltd.; Raed Marketing and Advertising; Narwah Public Relations, Advertising and Marketing; and Transworld Publicity Limited – and mentions five others. Explores the history of advertising

Orham Erdem; Secil Tuncalp

1998-01-01

97

Cinder Cones in Northwest Saudi Arabia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Harrat Lunayyir basalt cinder cones and lava flows in Saudi Arabia seen from an aerial perspective. Deposits from the cinder cones cover nearby ridges and form fans at the base of the older non-volcanic ridge in the background. These well-preserved geomorphic forms indicate the relative youth of thi...

98

Teachers' Online Discussion Forums in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia has special online discussion forums for teachers as part of its internet website. The study surveys those teachers' online forums and reports the number of participants, number of threads and responses, topics with the highest and lowest posts and the forums role in teachers' professional development and…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2006-01-01

99

Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

Alwadie, Adnan D.

2013-01-01

100

Creating and Mapping Flash Flood Social and Physical Vulnerability Index of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past couple of years, the frequency and magnitude of flash floods are increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For effective planning and mitigation purposes, it is necessary to identify and visualize areas that are vulnerable to the flooding. In this paper, we will first create a flash flood social and physical vulnerability index for the city of Riyadh based on physical and social-economic data. Building upon the index, the areas of Riyadh that are highly vulnerable to flash floods will be identified and mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Finally, possible mitigation measures that can be used to reduce the impacts of flooding will be discussed in details.

Tauhidur Rahman, Muhammad; Aldosary, Adel S.; Nahiduzzaman, Khondokar Mohammad

2014-05-01

101

A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.  

PubMed

Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially unnecessary desalination infrastructure that is likely to become more energy and cost efficient in future. PMID:22504624

Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

2012-07-15

102

The cultural challenges of educating Saudi ophthalmic patients at KKESH.  

PubMed

The purpose of this final article in a three-part series "Ophthalmic nursing in Saudi Arabia: A western expatriate's perspective" is to acquaint readers with some of the cultural challenges confronting the expatriate nursing staff when educating Saudi ophthalmic patients at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The foreign nurse is able to plan and provide patient education that is culturally compatible, by possessing an increased awareness and understanding of the diversity in Saudi culture and how it influences their healthcare beliefs. PMID:8301188

Astle, B J

1993-12-01

103

Providing Culturally Congruent Care for Saudi Patients and their Families.  

PubMed

Abstract This article aims to increase an awareness of caring for Saudi families by non-Saudi nurses to improve their understanding of culturally competent care from a Saudi perspective. Healthcare providers have a duty of a care to deliver holistic and culturally specific health care to their patients. As a consequence of 'duty of care' obligations, healthcare providers must facilitate culturally congruent care for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds. For the Saudi family considerable cultural clashes may arise when Saudi patients are hospitalised and receive care from healthcare professionals who do not understand Islamic principles and Saudi cultural beliefs and values. The healthcare workforce in Saudi Arabia is a unique multicultural workforce that is mix of Saudi and significant other nationalities. Saudi nurses for example represent only 36.3% of the workforce in the different health sectors. Whilst the different ethnic and cultural background expatriate nurses represent 63.7% (Ministry of Health, 2010). This article also could increase the awareness of healthcare professionals caring for Arab and Muslims patients in another context in the world. PMID:24138356

Al Mutair, Abbas Saleh; Plummer, Virginia; O'Brien, Anthony Tony; Clerehan, Rosemary

2013-10-19

104

The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One -hundred twenty (60 Saudi and 60 non-Saudi) sexually active female health care professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were anonymously surveyed using the English version of the female sexual function index questionnaire. The individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain, and overall score for the Saudi and non-Saudi women were calculated and compared. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics. No statistically significant differences were found between Saudi and non-Saudi women in desire (P = .22) and arousal scores (P = .47). However, non-Saudi women had significantly higher lubrication (P < .001), orgasm (P = .015), satisfaction (P = .004), and pain scores (P = .015). The overall scores in Saudi and non-Saudi women were low (23.40 ± 4.50 compared with 26.18 ± 5.97), but non-Saudi women had a significantly higher overall score (P = .005). Taken together, sexual dysfunction is prevalent among Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers, with Saudi women demonstrating lower scores in four sexual function domains and the overall score. PMID:25601160

Rouzi, Abdulrahim A.; Sahly, Nora; Sawan, Dana; Kafy, Souzan; Alzaban, Faten

2015-01-01

105

The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One -hundred twenty (60 Saudi and 60 non-Saudi) sexually active female health care professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were anonymously surveyed using the English version of the female sexual function index questionnaire. The individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain, and overall score for the Saudi and non-Saudi women were calculated and compared. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics. No statistically significant differences were found between Saudi and non-Saudi women in desire (P = .22) and arousal scores (P = .47). However, non-Saudi women had significantly higher lubrication (P < .001), orgasm (P = .015), satisfaction (P = .004), and pain scores (P = .015). The overall scores in Saudi and non-Saudi women were low (23.40 ± 4.50 compared with 26.18 ± 5.97), but non-Saudi women had a significantly higher overall score (P = .005). Taken together, sexual dysfunction is prevalent among Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers, with Saudi women demonstrating lower scores in four sexual function domains and the overall score. PMID:25601160

Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Sahly, Nora; Sawan, Dana; Kafy, Souzan; Alzaban, Faten

2015-01-01

106

Saudi Arabia: World Oil Report 1991  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco), the only operator in the country, that has accelerated its production expansion program aimed at boosting capacity from the current 8.5 million bpd to 10 million bpd. Initially expected to be completed by 1999, it now appears a sustainable 10 million bpd rate may be attainable by 1996. By this time next year, at least nine major onshore projects will have been started as well as five offshore. Included will be development of Hawtah, the initial oil discovery in the Central province south of Riyadh. The program also means significantly increased drilling. In fact, 1991 completions should easily double those of last year.

Not Available

1991-08-01

107

Waters and desalination programs of Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Arabia is an arid desert country without rivers or sweet-water lakes. It does, however, have large amounts of ground water and seawater. These waters must be desalted by some means in order to make them potable. The most frequently used methods for that purpose are: multistage flash (MSF) evaporation, reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED). Because of rapid industrialization of the country, the demand for fresh water has been growing steadily. This, in turn, has resulted in a spectacular growth of the water-desalination industry. This paper discusses the availability and properties of the waters. It gives a detailed description of the major accomplishments and of the ongoing and future programs in the field of water desalination in Saudi Arabia. 14 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

Wojcik, C.K.; Maadhah, A.G.

1981-07-01

108

Consanguinity among the Saudi Arabian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted on 3212 Saudi families to investigate the prevalence of consanguineous marriages. The families were interviewed and the information on the relationship between the husband and wife was obtained. The overall rate of consanguinity shows that 57.7% of the families screened were consanguineous. The most frequent were first cousin marriages (28.4%) followed by distant relative marriages (15.2%)

M A el-Hazmi; A R al-Swailem; A S Warsy; A M al-Swailem; R Sulaimani; A A al-Meshari

1995-01-01

109

Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. PMID:25460975

Alghamdi, Mansour A; Alam, Mohammed S; Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa; Harrison, Roy M; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I

2015-02-15

110

Quality of Life in Saudi Vitiligo Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Vitiligo has a devastating psychosocial effect. The cultural traditions of Saudi society are quite different compared with the western world. Hence, a quality of life study using a different questionnaire suitable to the cultural traditions of the society is necessary to measure qualify of life in vitiligo patients. Objective: This study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL) in Saudi vitiligo patients and their family. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study at National Center for Vitiligo and Psoriasis, Saudi Arabia. A validated Arabic questionnaire of 41 questions was developed and utilized specifically for this study. Arabic language instrument was distributed to 260 vitiligo patients. Scores were compared in relation to demographic, clinical, and social variables in 4 dimensions of scale (relationship with colleagues, family relationship, social relationship, and self respect). Results: Overall score QOL was 17.1. Mean score for males was 11.1, whereas that for females was 23.9 (P < 0.05). Females scored significantly higher in all the 4 dimensions. Patients with exposed disease lesions scored significantly higher than those with unexposed lesions 5 vs 3.4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The overall score of QOL in vitiligo is relatively high, indicating a negative impact of the disease on QOL. QOL in women is significantly more affected than in men. PMID:21572679

Al-Mubarak, Luluah; Al-Mohanna, Hind; Al-Issa, Ahmed; Jabak, Monzer; Mulekar, Sanjeev V

2011-01-01

111

Characteristics of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis patients in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and biochemical characteristics of children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Methods: In this retrospective study conducted between June 2012 and November 2013 at the King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, we evaluated pediatric DKA admissions from 1995-2008 (Phase 1). From the case files, we obtained information related to patients’ age, gender, weight, presenting complaints, serum biochemical profile, and management. Results: This study included 373 DKA admissions with a median age of 11 years (interquartile range [IQR]:8-13). The patients in the subgroup of age more than 10 years old had the highest proportion of admissions (n=250, 67%, p<0.000). The median duration of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 3 years (IQR:2-6). New-onset DM was 47%. Predominant precipitating cause was acute illness, mostly viral syndrome in 22% of all cases, and non-compliance to insulin regimen was in 79% of the diagnosed diabetic cases. Blood glucose, pH, anion gap, serum osmolality, serum potassium, and serum phosphate showed the highest change during the initial 6 hours of management, while trends of serum bicarbonate and blood urea nitrogen demonstrated a predominant change in the initial 12 hours. Conclusion: The notable findings in this study, such as, higher mean age of presentation, high rate of non-compliance to insulin as the cause of precipitation, and a high prevalence of abdominal pain at presentation should be followed up with further comparative studies. PMID:25630000

Naeem, Mohammed A.; Al-Alem, Hala A.; Al-Dubayee, Mohammed S.; Al-Juraibah, Fahad N.; Omair, Amir; Al-Ruwaili, AbdulKarim S.; Al-Saleh, Abdullah M.

2015-01-01

112

Stratigraphic and paleogeographical significance of Silurian acritarchs from Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant and well-preserved acritarchs of Early Silurian and late Middle to Late Silurian age have been obtained from marine subsurface sequences in seven exploratory wells drilled by the Saudi Arabian Oil Company in central and northwestern parts of Saudi Arabia. Preliminary results on their stratigraphic distribution allow an informal zonation of 9 regional acritarch assemblages zones to be proposed. Correlations

Alain Le Hérisse; Haytham Al-Tayyar; Hans van der Eem

1995-01-01

113

Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

2014-01-01

114

Educational R&D in Saudi Arabia: An Ethnomethodological Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational development in Saudi Arabia is closely related to Moslem religious belief. A review of the socio/cultural behavior based upon Saudi religious belief can provide insight to educators on how to make educational and research activities in developing nations more relevant to people with a non-Western frame of reference. Among muslims,…

Shaker, Paul

115

Measuring the Climate of Training in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One practitioner's experience in setting up on-the-job training in Saudi Arabia is described, including training materials, cultural environment, and the Saudi work ethic. In a related article, off-duty life for Americans is discussed, including dress for women and men, cultural aspects, and entertainment. (CT)

Spicer, Richard G.

1981-01-01

116

Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples  

PubMed Central

Introduction Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1) to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2) to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic. Methods and materials We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results A generally poor level of knowledge (59%) and a neutral attitude (76%) toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%), black magic (67.5%), intrauterine devices (71.3%), and contraceptive pills (42.9%). The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001) or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001), if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003) and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001). Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6%) and fertile outpatients (71.5%). Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%), using alternative medicine (42%), engaging in physical exercise (39%), eating certain foods (22%), and quitting smoking (12%). Conclusion These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. PMID:23874117

Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Alabdrabalnabi, Abdullah A; Albacker, Rehab B; Al-Jughaiman, Umar A; Hassan, Samar N

2013-01-01

117

Education Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

Shaked, Haim

2014-01-01

118

The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

2014-05-01

119

California and Saudi Arabia: geologic contrasts  

SciTech Connect

Assessing hydrocarbon futures in unexplored basins involves geology by analogy. Through 1978, approximately 265 fields were discovered in California containing 22 billion bbl of oil, 53% being in the 10 largest fields, ranging in size from 0.6 to 2.4 billion bbl. Through 1978, about 50 fields were found in Saudi Arabia containing 206 billion bbl of oil, 78% in the 10 largest fields, ranging in size from 7 to 83 billion bbl. The contrasts in field size distribution and in the total amount of oil present are explained by the dramatically different geology and geologic histories. California's surface geology is characterized by rare Precambrian, isolated Paleozoic, and widespread Mesozoic accreted terranes and intrusions, and by highly uplifted and depressed Tertiary sedimentary prisms bounded by widespread high-angle thrusting and strike-slip and normal faulting. Numerous families of medium to small anticlines and fault traps, commonly involving moderately dipping to overturned beds, have resulted from Tertiary tectonism, which segmented California dramatically. Saudi Arabia is characterized by a broad Precambrian shield area, flanked on the east by very long, gently dipping cuestas of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments, with an upper thin veneer of nearly flat Tertiary strata. Most structures involving the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are large, but gentle and unfaulted, representing a passive reaction of the sediments to underlying mild basement distortion and/or movement of Cambrian salt, all occurring while the arabian plate continued to subside and tip to the northeast. The contrasts between California and Saudi Arabia oil field and geology result from contrasting plate-tectonic settings and history.

Alexander, R.G. Jr.

1984-09-01

120

Economic costs of diabetes in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. Objective: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. Materials and Methods: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group) with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. Results: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380) than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. Conclusion: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our understanding of economic costs of diabetes and its related complications. PMID:23723724

Alhowaish, Abdulkarim K.

2013-01-01

121

Breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia: a review  

PubMed Central

Background Breastfeeding is viewed as the optimal method of infant feeding that provides many benefits to both the infant and the mother. The monitoring and reporting of breastfeeding indicators are essential for any country to plan and implement effective promotion programs for sustainable breastfeeding. The aim of this review is to examine the available studies and data on breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia, and determine the potential factors that affect breastfeeding practices and duration in this country. Methods The databases of Web of Knowledge, Science Direct and PubMed were searched using the relevant key words. Only studies that reported breastfeeding practices, rates and indicators in Saudi Arabia were included. Standard WHO definitions for breastfeeding categories were used in this review. Results Seventeen cross-sectional studies were identified and reviewed and five stated they used standard definitions. The self-administered questionnaire as a measurement tool was the predominant method of data collection. Infants' ages range from less than six months up to five years. Initiation rates were high (mostly above 90%), but a few studies reported low rates of timely initiation (within the first hour). The exclusive breastfeeding rate could not be accurately determined as rates range from 0.8% to 43.9% among studies due to the lack of clear definitions and the nature of study design. The partial (mixed) feeding method was common and the category of 'any breastfeeding' has generally high rates. The mean duration of breastfeeding has showed a progressive decline over time from 13.4 months in 1987 to 8.5 months in 2010. Factors associated with a high prevalence of breastfeeding and longer duration include increased maternal age, low educational levels, rural residence, low income, multiparity and avoiding contraceptives. The most common reason for breastfeeding cessation was insufficient breast milk. Other reasons include sickness, new pregnancy and breastfeeding problems. Conclusions Breastfeeding indicators in Saudi Arabia could not be monitored or compared relying on the available data because no longitudinal studies have been conducted in this country. A cohort study design would be the most appropriate procedure to rigorously assess and report valid results on breastfeeding practices and patterns in the Saudi society. PMID:24422991

2014-01-01

122

Domestic water conservation potential in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Domestic water conservation in arid climates can result in efficient utilization of existing water supplies. The impacts of conservation measures such as the installation of water-saving devices, water metering and pricing schemes, water rationing and public awareness programs, strict plumbing codes, penalties for wasting water, programs designed to reduce leakage from public water lines and within the home, water-efficient landscaping, economic and ethical incentives are addressed in detail. Cost savings in arid climates, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia, in relation to some conservation techniques, are presented. Water conservation technology and tentative demonstration and implementation of water conservation programs are discussed.

Abdulrazzak, Mohammed J.; Khan, Muhammad Z. A.

1990-03-01

123

Saudi payload specialists during tour of center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud and Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassan, payload specialists from Saudi Arabia, are briefed in one of the mission control center support rooms by Kathleen V. Cannon (facing camera), payloads officer. Looking on is Erlinda Stevenson, secretary in the payload specialist coordination office (29713); Visitors tour the payload operations control center (POCC) in the mission control center during a Spacelab 3 simulation (29714); Visitors pose for picture in one of the Mission Control Center support rooms (29715); Visitors briefed by Kathleen V. Cannon (right) in one of the Mission Control Center support rooms. Erlinda Stevenson is also pictured (29716).

1985-01-01

124

Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

1985-06-01

125

Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in Saudi men using the International Prostate Symptoms Score  

PubMed Central

Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia-related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common among older men, the incidence and prevalence are increasing rapidly, and they are associated with diminished health-related quality-of-life (QOL). Objective: The aim was to describe the prevalence of LUTS in Saudi population and its relation to some other parameters. Subjects and Methods: Saudi men over the age of 40 were invited to participate in the study; in Riyadh city from August 2012 through March 2013. All participants were assessed for the serum level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination. Participants were given a linguistically validated Arabic version of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Demographic and other medical comorbidities were assessed. Results: Based on the IPSS, a subdivision of men into three symptoms classes has been proposed, resulting in groups with mild (1265, 58.3%), moderate (505, 27.3%), and severe symptoms (81, 4.4%) and the prevalence of moderate to severe was 31.7%. There was a weak, but significant correlation between the total IPSS and age, total prostate volume, and PSA. Severity of symptoms is increasing with increased age. Multiple regression analysis reported that prostate volume and all individual items of IPSS except straining were significant predictors of QOL and patient satisfaction, where frequency and incomplete emptying had the heaviest impact on patient's QOL. Conclusion: LUTS were common among men in Saudi population over 40, the prevalence increases with age and most of them were unpleased because of their urinary symptoms, poor QOL was mainly determined by individual symptoms; mainly frequency and incomplete emptying.

Arafa, Mostafa A.; Farhat, Karim; Aqdas, Saad; Al-Atawi, Mohamed; Rabah, Danny M.

2015-01-01

126

Air monitoring network program in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has initiated a program to install air quality network stations throughout the country in order to measure concentration of the ambient air pollutants. The site selection of these stations is an important objective to be accomplished and must be done based on scientific and rational work. To accomplish this objective, a modified version of atmospheric transport and dispersion model, known as air resources laboratories - atmospheric transport and dispersion (ARL- ATAD) model, is used to evaluate long range transport and diffusion of air pollutants from major pollution causing sources such as refineries, open-air burning of associated gases of oil fields and major industries. Hourly meteorological data for a period of three years (from 1977 to 1979) on wind speed, wind direction, pressure, and temperature from 20 synoptic stations in Saudi Arabia is processed and used as model input. In addition to these, meteorological data from three upper air stations is also processed in order to determine base and top of critical inversion heights. Various pollution causing sources are identified within the study area. Air trajectories are drawn with sources as the origins of the trajectories and the dispersion characteristics is studied with distance and time. Based on long term meteorological records, the adversely affected zones are statistically identified for potential station sites. PMID:7100907

Husain, T; Khan, S M

1982-04-01

127

Assessment of fluoride concentrations in commercially available mouthrinses in central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the fluoride concentration of different commercially available mouthrinses in central Saudi Arabia, and compare the obtained measurements with label values. Methods: This cross-sectional study identified 25 brands of mouthrinses in the markets of Riyadh city between August and September 2013. Nineteen brands of mouthrinses whose labels indicate the percentage of sodium fluoride (NaF) and 6 brands not indicating the fluoride percentage were included in the study. Three bottles of 2 manufacturing batches of each brand were acquired, coded, and analyzed after dilution using specific electrodes for fluoride and an ion analyzer at the College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: The average fluoride concentrations in the tested mouthrinses ranged from 8.4 ppm (Voza) to 448.7 ppm (Sensodyne “Pronamel”). Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in the fluoride concentration between the studied 25 brands. Almost 60% of the brands’ fluoride concentrations were significantly different (mainly lower) from the label value. However, only 5 brands contain fluoride at a concentration not significantly different from the recommended fluoride concentration in daily mouthrinses 0.05% (225 ppm). Conclusion: Most of the studied commercially available mouthrinses contain topical fluoride at concentrations below the manufacturers’ label value, but above the recommended 0.05%. PMID:25316478

Aldrees, Abdullah M.; AlBeshri, Sultan S.; AlSanie, Ibrahim S.; Alsarra, Ibrahim A.

2014-01-01

128

Impact of lipid disorders on mortality among Saudi patients with heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Dyslipidemia, a known cardiovascular risk factor, is extremely common among Saudis, both adults and children. The impact, however, of dyslipidemia and several other lipid disorders in patients with congestive heart failure in this particular population has not been documented. This study aims to fill the gap. Methods This retrospective, single center study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Of the 500 cases seen during the period between 2002 and 2008, 392 were included in the study. Charts were reviewed and information on medical history, medications, and lipid status were documented. Results Low HDL-cholesterol level was the most common lipid disorder with 82.9%, followed by hypertriglyceridemia (35.2%), atherogenic dyslipidemia (27.8%), and hypercholesterolemia (9.2%). Diabetes mellitus was the single most significant predictor of mortality (p = 0.001). Among the lipid disorders, only low levels of HDL-cholesterol contributed to significant mortality risk [OR 1.29 (Confidence Interval 1.04–1.59) (p-value < 0.01)] adjusted for age, gender and statin use. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that emphasis should be on the elevation of HDL-cholesterol levels among subjects with congestive heart failure, without compromising any ongoing management of LDL-lowering drugs. Management should not be limited to conventional statin use and should promote other treatments to elevate HDL-cholesterol levels.

Al Qahtani, M.; Al Backer, T.; Al Anazi, T.; Al Johani, N.; Binsalih, S.; AlGobain, M.; Alshammari, H.

2014-01-01

129

Potential for the International Spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in Association with Mass Gatherings in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: A novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causing severe, life-threatening respiratory disease has emerged in the Middle East at a time when two international mass gatherings in Saudi Arabia are imminent. While MERS-CoV has already spread to and within other countries, these mass gatherings could further amplify and/or accelerate its international dissemination, especially since the origins and geographic source of the virus remain poorly understood. Methods: We analyzed 2012 worldwide flight itinerary data and historic Hajj pilgrim data to predict population movements out of Saudi Arabia and the broader Middle East to help cities and countries assess their potential for MERS-CoV importation. We compared the magnitude of travel to countries with their World Bank economic status and per capita healthcare expenditures as surrogate markers of their capacity for timely detection of imported MERS-CoV and their ability to mount an effective public health response. Results: 16.8 million travelers flew on commercial flights out of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates between June and November 2012, of which 51.6% were destined for India (16.3%), Egypt (10.4%), Pakistan (7.8%), the United Kingdom (4.3%), Kuwait (3.6%), Bangladesh (3.1%), Iran (3.1%) and Bahrain (2.9%). Among the 1.74 million foreign pilgrims who performed the Hajj last year, an estimated 65.1% originated from low and lower-middle income countries. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is an emerging pathogen with pandemic potential with its apparent epicenter in Saudi Arabia, where millions of pilgrims will imminently congregate for two international mass gatherings. Understanding global population movements out of the Middle East through the end of this year's Hajj could help direct anticipatory MERS-CoV surveillance and public health preparedness to mitigate its potential global health and economic impacts. PMID:23884087

Khan, Kamran; Sears, Jennifer; Hu, Vivian Wei; Brownstein, John S; Hay, Simon; Kossowsky, David; Eckhardt, Rose; Chim, Tina; Berry, Isha; Bogoch, Isaac; Cetron, Martin

2013-01-01

130

Support for court-yard houses : Riyad, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

The objective of this report is to explore the application of the support concept in the Saudi Arabian context, as a result of the author's interest in the concept of user participation. To do so, the following steps were ...

Akbar, Jamel A

1981-01-01

131

Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in wadi Sayyah, Western Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an essential and vital component of our life support system where it is used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Wadi Sayyah is one of the most important wadis in the western part of Saudi Arabia to the northeast of Jeddah city. A total of 42 groundwater samples are collected from hand dug wells in this area and they are analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. The sequence of the abundance of the major ion is in the following order: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > SO4 2- > HCO3 - > NO3 -. The dominated hydrochemical facieses of groundwater are: CaCl, and mixed CaMgCl, and the alkaline earths(Ca2+, Mg2+) and strong acids (SO4 2-, Cl-) are dominating over alkalis (Na+, K+) and weak acids (HCO3 -, CO{3/-}). Statistical analysis indicates positive correlation among most of the chemical parameters. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the study area is generally hard to very hard, fresh to brackish and alkaline in nature. The rock weathering and evaporation are among the most dominant processes in controlling water quality. The chloro-alkali indices illustrate that 80 % of the water samples have positive indicating exchange of Na+ and K+ from water with Mg2+ and Ca2+ from the rock. The suitability of water for drinking and irrigation is determined using WHO standards for drinking; some indices for irrigation purposes and it indicate that the groundwater in the study area can be used for drinking purposes in most of the locations (31 wells), while it is suitable for irrigation uses.

Al-Ahmadi, Masoud Eid

2013-12-01

132

Uncertainty of Mitigation Measures to Floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an aspect of the changing climatic conditions and anthropogenic impact; however, floods and torrents have been recently existed in Jeddah, the coastal Saudi city along the Red Sea. Distributed over 28 surface water basins, totaling an area of more than 2500km2, floods cover more than 15% of the area. This is well pronounced in 2009 and 2011, and it was attributed mainly to the torrential rainfall peaks the area witnesses lately. In addition, there is a chaotic urban distribution from the coastal zone to the adjacent mountain chains to the east, where torrential water runs towards the coast. A detailed assessment has been obtained using advanced space tools (e.g. high-resolution satellite images), and the application was carried out on several aspects of these images and at different dates. This was accomplished in combination the applications of geo-spatial systems to induce the mechanism of water flow regime and to identify the major reasons behind the high risk magnitude. Consequently, the geomorphologic and hydrologic parameters for flood occurrence were recognized. In the light of this catastrophic status; however, mitigation measures are rare enough to protect the area under risk. Recently, and after the 2009 and the recurrent 2011 disasters, which were resulted from floods, some mitigation measures have been undertaken and others were proposed. However, there is still uncertainty for an integrated flood control system. This can be viewed from the unsuitability of the selected sites and erroneous applications for flood controls. Besides, there is a lack to: 1) a giant channeling system for the risk area, 2) check dams, 3) ponds for water collection, 4) sediments-fixing controls, 5) traced watercourses. This is in addition to absence of proper legislation to prevent chaotic urban activities along valleys' pathways.

Al Saud, M.

2011-12-01

133

Crustal structure beneath Saudi Arabia from receiver functions of a dense broadband network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using broadband seismic data recorded by the recently expanded station network in Saudi Arabia, operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS), we perform receiver function studies to estimate the Moho-depth and Poisson's ratio across Saudi Arabia. Previously published receiver function studies in the region suffered from scarce station distribution, and hence obtained only a coarse image of the Moho structure. In our case, we have access to seismic recordings on overall 101 stations operating since 2007. We finally select 201 earthquakes with high signal-to-noise recordings, using IRIS-station RAYN as reference. We deploy a slanting stacking method for receiver function analysis that combines the multiples (PpPs and PpSs+PsPs) with the converted phase Ps to reduce the trade-off between the thickness (H) and the seismic wave velocity of the crust. The method searches for the maximum amplitude in the H-Vp/Vs domain, which then corresponds to the best-fitting solution. Our results show that Moho depth rapidly increases from about 24-29 km at the Red Sea to about 33-35 km eastward over a short distance of about 100-200 km. Moho depth then gradually increases to ~38km at the boundary between the Arabian Shield and the Arabian Platform, and reaches 41-46 km under the Arabian Platform. At the he easternmost station that abuts against the Persian Gulf, we find a Moho depth of ~37 km. Because the SGS station network is densified over the volcanic provinces and in the Western Provinces of Saudi Arabia, we are able to conduct some localized high-resolution receiver function investigations. For instance, we discover an exceptional deep Moho of ~46 km, only 150 km away from Red Sea coast, reducing northward to 40km. Since this region has experienced magmatic activity, the deeper Moho may be due to crustal underplating as a result of the African superplume, which also causes high topography (above 2km) and positive gravity anomaly. The basaltic volcanic eruption near Madinah (A.D. 1256) motivates the hypothesis of the existence of a continental magma chamber, characterized by negative amplitude and higher Poisson's ratio in receiver functions. Using 13 stations around Madinah, we find high Poisson's ratio (0.271-0.301) and clear negative amplitudes in receiver function waveforms at four sites roughly aligned in North-South direction. This finding may be consistent with a small localized magma chamber beneath the city of Madinah.

Cui, Z.; Mai, P. M.

2012-12-01

134

Cities Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From The Economist, their Cities Guide offers practical information ranging from accommodations to insider tips on getting around various US and world cities. A very nice touch are areas like the City Briefing section (top news stories, history pieces, and other tidbits) and the Being There area (subtopics include how to kill an hour and gifts to take home). City Guide also contains sections on cultural events, shopping, history, facts, and much more. [REB].

135

Individualized medicine enabled by genomics in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The biomedical research sector in Saudi Arabia has recently received special attention from the government, which is currently supporting research aimed at improving the understanding and treatment of common diseases afflicting Saudi Arabian society. To build capacity for research and training, a number of centres of excellence were established in different areas of the country. Among these, is the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, with its internationally ranked and highly productive team performing translational research in the area of individualized medicine. Here, we present a panorama of the recent trends in different areas of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia drawing from our vision of where genomics will have maximal impact in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe advances in a number of research areas including; congenital malformations, infertility, consanguinity and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer and genomic classifications in Saudi Arabia, epigenetic explanations of idiopathic disease, and pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. We conclude that CEGMR will continue to play a pivotal role in advances in the field of genomics and research in this area is facing a number of challenges including generating high quality control data from Saudi population and policies for using these data need to comply with the international set up. PMID:25776094

Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Assidi, Mourad; Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Dallol, Ashraf; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Ahmed, Farid; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed

2015-12-01

136

Individualized medicine enabled by genomics in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The biomedical research sector in Saudi Arabia has recently received special attention from the government, which is currently supporting research aimed at improving the understanding and treatment of common diseases afflicting Saudi Arabian society. To build capacity for research and training, a number of centres of excellence were established in different areas of the country. Among these, is the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, with its internationally ranked and highly productive team performing translational research in the area of individualized medicine. Here, we present a panorama of the recent trends in different areas of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia drawing from our vision of where genomics will have maximal impact in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe advances in a number of research areas including; congenital malformations, infertility, consanguinity and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer and genomic classifications in Saudi Arabia, epigenetic explanations of idiopathic disease, and pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. We conclude that CEGMR will continue to play a pivotal role in advances in the field of genomics and research in this area is facing a number of challenges including generating high quality control data from Saudi population and policies for using these data need to comply with the international set up. PMID:25776094

2015-01-01

137

Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. PMID:23966783

Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Koenig, Harold G

2013-01-01

138

HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN SAUDI ARABIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE  

PubMed Central

Health services in Saudi Arabia have developed enormously over the last two decades, as evidenced by the availability of health facilities throughout all parts of the vast Kingdom. The Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) provides over 60% of these services while the rest are shared among other government agencies and the private sector. A series of development plans in Saudi Arabia have established the infra-structure for the expansion of curative services all over the country. Rapid development in medical education and the training of future Saudi health manpower have also taken place. Future challenges facing the Saudi health system are to be addressed in order to achieve the ambitious goals set by the most recent health development plan. These include the optimum utilization of current health resources with competent health managerial skills, the search for alternative means of financing these services, the maintenance of a balance between curative and preventive services, the expansion of training Saudi health manpower to meet the increasing demand, and the implementation of a comprehensive primary health care program. PMID:23008647

Sebai, Zohair A.; Milaat, Waleed A.; Al-Zulaibani, Abdulmohsen A.

2001-01-01

139

Nursing: Attitudes, perceptions and strategies for progress in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Western countries are experiencing a nursing shortage which will impact on future nurse manpower supply in Saudi Arabia because the Kingdom is dependent on expatriate nurses. The young people of Saudi Arabia are the Kingdom's most valuable resources but are reluctant to enter nursing. Therefore, a random survey was administered to 1,131 secondary and university students to determine attitudes and general knowledge of Saudi nationals toward the health care system, perceived role of the nurse and recommendations for improving Saudization of the nursing profession. The majority of those surveyed preferred hospitalization within the Kingdom with Saudi nationals delivering the nursing care rather than expatriates. The nurse was perceived as being a caring person who was responsible for giving more than custodial care. Moreover, the role of the nurse was perceived as an extension of the physician with little or no role in disease detection and prevention. The low image and status of nursing, traditional and social values were identified as major inhibiting factors that affect the Saudi nationals' reluctance to enter nursing. Increasing financial rewards, utilizing the media and segregation of hospitals into male and female were the most frequently cited recommendations to promote Saudization of nursing. Data from this study provided insight into the current perception of nursing as a potential career for Saudi nationals and could provide direction for future concerns in the development of nursing in the Kingdom. PMID:17590766

Jackson, C L; Gary, R

1991-07-01

140

Health services and the political culture of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Health services occupy a high priority in the development agenda of Saudi Arabia, Saudi culture--devotion to Islam, extended-family values, the segregated status of females and the Al Saud monarchic hegemony--is being formulated in an increasingly deliberate fashion, constituting a new 'political culture' which acts as a screen to insure that technological and human progress remain within acceptable bounds. There is a general disposition on the part of the Saudi populace to use modern health services as these become available, largely under governmental auspice. The role of the government in providing health care for pilgrims during the hajj to Mecca is of particular culture importance. Cultural sensitivities concerning male physicians and female patients will be minimized by the training of a substantial number of Saudi female physicians, whose efforts will be directed toward female patients. At present, most health care in the Kingdom is delivered by male expatriate physicians, as part of the general massive reliance upon expatriate workers: although the expatriates will eventually be replaced by Saudi physicians, this dependency, which is felt to threaten Saudi culture, will continue for a decade or more. Private medicine is rapidly increasing though not on the same scale as government medicine. The provision of government health services is a source of legitimation for the Al Saud regime. In general, health services appear to constitute a form of modernization which meets the test of cultural compatibility. PMID:4035414

Gallagher, E B; Searle, C M

1985-01-01

141

Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (Ta) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in Ta as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because Tas are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3–5 °C in Ta over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher Ta, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high Ta. This report examines how increases in Ta might affect body temperature (Tb) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which Ta often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When Ta exceeds Tb, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their Tb; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases Tb is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their Tb to increase as Ta increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in Ta. The data presented should serve as base-line information on Tb of animals in the Kingdom for future scientists in Saudi Arabia as they explore the impact of global warming on animal species. PMID:23961171

Williams, Joseph B.; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Haseeb A.

2011-01-01

142

Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the Kingdom for future scientists in Saudi Arabia as they explore the impact of global warming on animal species. PMID:23961171

Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

2012-04-01

143

Tensile city  

E-print Network

Tensile City is a story that provides the answer to the following question: II If we were to leap forward in time and visit a city of the future, what would learn about our contemporary city ? II The story unfolds when ...

Chakkour, Mario Henri

1987-01-01

144

Caryospora biarmicusis sp.n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting falcons from the genus Falco in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The oocysts of Caryospora biarmicusis sp.n. is described from the feces of the lanner falcon, Falco biarmicus, from the falcon market in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Sporulated oocysts are ovoid in shape, measuring 40.2 x 34.7 (37.5-42.4 x 32.9-35.7) microm; shape index (L/W) is 1.16 (1.08-1.31) microm. The oocyst wall is smooth and bi-layered. Micropyle and polar granule are absent, but an oocyst residuum is present. Sporocysts are spheroid, 20.1 (18.6-21.3) microm; with a smooth single-layered wall, lacking Stieda body. Sporocyst residuum is present as numerous small granules. Sporozoites are stout with a large single refractile body. PMID:21634236

Alyousif, M S; Alfaleh, F A; Al-Shawa, Y R

2011-04-01

145

The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field. PMID:24953076

Alkhenizan, Abdullah

2014-08-01

146

78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...retarded, by reason of imports from India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...terminal on 202-205-1810. Persons with mobility impairments who will need special...

2013-07-10

147

Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517) and nondonors (n = 316), between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5%) and lack of time (16%) as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71%) and health reasons (19%). Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true. PMID:21897588

Abdel Gader, Abdel Galil M.; Osman, Abdel Moniem A.; Al Gahtani, Furgah H.; Farghali, Mohamed N.; Ramadan, Ali H.; Al-Momen, Abdel Kareem M.

2011-01-01

148

The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Holzheimer, Clous [ENVINET GmbH, Environmental Radiation Detection, Hans-Pinsel-Straße 4, 85540 Haar (Munich) (Germany)

2014-09-30

149

The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

2014-09-01

150

Adsorption of cobalt ions from waste water on activated Saudi clays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to remove the Cobalt ions from wastewater by three types of Saudi clay. These were collected from Tabbuk city (Tabbuk clay), Khiber city (Khiber clay), and Bahhah city (Bahhah clay). The paper also examined the effect of different activators on the enhancement of adsorption capacity of clays for cobalt ions. The results showed minor enhancement in the adsorption capacities of cobalt ions on three types of clays activated by acid treatment. The adsorption capacity of clays improved particularly for Tabbuk clay when treated with hydrogen peroxide as an activator. The adsorption capacity increased from 3.94 to 12.9 mg/g for the untreated and treated Tabbuk clay, respectively. Also, the adsorption capacity of Bahhah clay increased by activating with sodium chloride from 3.44 to 12.55 mg/g for untreated and treated sample, respectively. The equilibrium adsorption data were correlated using five equilibrium equations, namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, Langmuir-Freundlich, BET, and Toth isotherm equations. Langmuir isotherm agreed well with the experimental data of Khiber and Bahhah clay, while Freundlich model and Langmuir-Freundlich model fitted well with the experimental data of Tabbuk and Bahhah clay activated by NaCl. The results showed that Freundlich model fitted well with the experimental data of Tabbuk clay when activated by H2O2 and H2SO4. Finally, the BET model did not describe the experimental data well for the three types of clay after activation.

Al-Jlil, Saad A.

2014-11-01

151

The VORISA Project: An Integrated Approach to Assessing Volcanic Hazard and Risk in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as 'Harrat'. The largest of these, Harrat Rahat, produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 AD with lava flows travelling within 20 km of the Islamic holy city Al-Madinah. With over 900 visible basaltic and trachytic vents and periodic seismic swarms indicating stalled eruptions, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital. To systematically address this need we developed the Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia (VORISA) Project, a 3-year, multi-disciplinary international research collaboration that integrates geological, geophysical, hazard and risk studies. Detailed mapping and geochemical studies are being combined with new and existing age determinations to determine the style and sequence of events during past basaltic and trachytic eruptions. Data from gravity and magnetotelluric surveys are being integrated with microearthquake data from an 8-station borehole seismic research array to geophysically characterise the structure and nature of the crust, and thus constrain possible physical controls on magma propagation. All available data are being synthesised in hazard models to determine patterns in eruption frequency, magnitude, and style of past activity, as well as the probable location and style of a future event. Combined with geospatial vulnerability data, these hazard models, which include a reconstruction of the 1256 AD eruption, enable us to calculate and communicate volcanic risk to the city of Al-Madinah.

Lindsay, J. M.; Moufti, R.

2013-12-01

152

Promoting Cultural Understanding: The Case of the Saudi Arabian Social Studies Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the role of the Saudi Arabian social studies curriculum in helping Saudi students to understand other cultures. Analysis of the content of social studies textbooks revealed that they cover a wide range of cultural information related to countries from around the world. Saudi students start their cultural education in grade 5…

Alaklobi, Fahad

153

SocioEconomic Epidemiology of Consanguineous Matings in the Saudi Arabian Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate and socio-economic factors associated with consanguineous matings among 4498 Saudi families living in Riyadh have been evaluated. The incidence of consanguinity in the urban Saudi population is unusually high, has been common among Saudi people during the past decades and has not changed significantly even among the younger generation. There is a statistically significant relationship between educational level

Simin Saedi-Wong; Abdul Rahman Al-Frayh; Henry Y. H. Wong

1989-01-01

154

Petromin: The slow death of statist oil development in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper recounts the history of Saudi Arabia's first national oil company, Petromin, which was originally supposed to take the place of foreign-owned Aramco. As a result of Petromin's inefficiency and personal rivalries among the Saudi elite, however, Petromin was progressively relegated to the sidelines in favour of a gradually ‘Saudiised’ Aramco. As a result, the organisation of the Saudi

Steffen Hertog

2008-01-01

155

EFL Teachers' Perceptions, Evaluations and Expectations about English Language Courses as EFL in Saudi Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers' perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit…

Liton, Hussain Ahmed

2013-01-01

156

Education and training programs for expatriate and Saudi nurses at KKESH.  

PubMed

The purpose of this second article in a series of "Ophthalmic nursing in Saudi Arabia: A western expatriate's perspective" is to acquaint readers with the education and training programs for the expatriate nursing staff and Saudi nurses at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. PMID:8301179

Astle, B J

1993-10-01

157

Historic Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly sponsored by the Historic Cities Center within the Department of Geography at Hebrew University and the Jewish National and University Library, the Historic Cities Web site is intended to contain maps, literature, documents, books, and other relevant material concerning the past, present, and future of historic cities While some of these documents and ephemera are still forthcoming to the site, visitors will find a wide array of historic city maps and views dating from 1486 to 1720. The scanned maps are searchable alphabetically, by date, and by individual cartographer. Additionally, a bit of information is provided about each cartographer. Overall, the site contains close to two hundred individual city maps and renderings, ranging from medieval Heidelberg to Casablanca. For persons with an interest in urban morphology and the history of cartography, the Historic Cities site will be a good place to start.

158

City Mayors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on the expertise of a team of editors who reside in Britain, Germany, Spain, Mexico, France, and a number of other countries, the City Mayors organization is an "international network of professionals working to promote strong cities and good local government." Their website takes on all of the important urban issues of the day, including governance, affordable housing, sustainable development, transportation, and a number of other pressing issues. On their homepage, visitors will find links to recent news stories from cities around the world and direct links to thematic sections such as business, finance, environment, and development. One section that should not be missed is the "City Rankings" area, which includes helpful lists of the largest cities in the world by land area, population and density, along with a list of the most expensive cities in the world.

159

Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 kin2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic. The initial phase of rifting of the Arabian Plate from the African Plate began as a wide zone of continental-crust extension manifested by basin and range topography. Freshwater lakes, northwest-trending marine gulfs, and alkali olivine basalt flows occupied these basins. Extensive dike swarms intruded parallel to the proto-Red Sea and marked the first phase of new mafic crust formed by volcanic processes. After a hiatus in volcanic activity, counterclockwise rotation of the Arabian Plate during middle Miocene time changed the stress pattern in the plate and a second phase of extrusion of alkali olivine basalt commenced along north-trending fractures. This stress pattern continues to influence Holocene volcanism. The earliest (pre-uplift) basalts to erupt on the Arabian Plate were predominantly under saturated picrite and ankaramite, whereas those to erupt near the axis of the proto-Red Sea rift zone were tholeiite. The within-plate volcanic rocks evolved from picrite-ankaramite to alkali olivine basalt with minor volumes of fractionated, under-saturated felsic rocks. Continued crustal thinning and dike intrusion along the proto-Red Sea were accompanied by melting of the continental crust to produce silicic magma as part of a bimodal volcanic suite (tholeiite-rhyolite). These magmas were emplaced as dikes, sills, layered bodies, and flows that mark the early construction of the Red Sea crust. Second-phase lavas are predominantly fractionated hawaiites and alkali olivine basalts. Because under saturated and oversaturated silicic magmas represent the second phase of activity, both fractional crystallization of the basaltic magma and melting of the crust are believed to have occurred. The historical record of volcanic activity in Saudi Arabia suggests that volcanism is dormant. The harrats should be evaluated for their potential as volcanic hazards and as sources of geothermal energy. The volcanic rocks are natural traps for groundwater ; thus water resources for agriculture may be significant and should be investigated.

Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

1983-01-01

160

Disparities in Health Care Delivery and Hospital Outcomes between Non-Saudis and Saudi Nationals Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndromes in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Saudi Arabia has a non-Saudi workers population. We investigated the differences and similarities of expatriate non-Saudi patients (NS) and Saudi nationals (SN) presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with respect to therapies and clinical outcomes. Methods The study evaluated 2031 of the 5055 ACS patients enrolled in the Saudi Project for Assessment of Acute Coronary Syndrome (SPACE) from 2005 to 2007. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analysis were performed to account for major imbalances in age and sex in the two groups. Results The mean patient age was 56.2±9.8, and 83.5% of the study cohort were male. SN were more likely to have risk factors of atherosclerosis. ST-elevation MI (STEMI) was the most common ACS presentation in NS, while non-ST ACS was more common in SN. The median symptom-to-door time was significantly greater in NS patients (Median 175 min (197) vs. 130 min (167), p=0.027). The only difference in pharmacological therapies between the two groups was that NS were more likely to receive fibrinolytic therapy. NS were less likely than SN to undergo percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI; 32.6% vs. 42.8%, p=0.0001) or primary PCI (7.8% vs. 22.8%, p<0.001). Hospital mortality, cardiogenic shock, and heart failure were significantly higher in NS compared to SN. After adjusting for baseline variables and therapies, the odds ratios for hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock in NS were 2.9 (95% CI 1.5–6.2, p=0.004) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.5–4.9, p<0.001), respectively. Conclusion Our findings indicate disparities in hospital care between NS and SN ACS patients. NS patients had worse hospital outcomes, which may reflect unequal health coverage and access-to-care issues. PMID:25881231

AlFaleh, Hussam F.; Al Shamiri, Mostafa Q.; Ullah, Anhar; AlHabib, Khalid F; Hersi, Ahmad Salah; AlSaif, Shukri; AlNemer, Khalid; Taraben, Amir; Malik, Asif; Abuosa, Ahmed M; LA, Mimish; Kashour, Tarek

2015-01-01

161

City Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

2000-01-01

162

Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1-5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804

Darwish, Magdy A; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A

2014-01-01

163

The use of remote sensing and geographic information system technologies to detect, monitor, and model urban change in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The city of Riyadh, the capital city of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has undergone tremendous urban growth in the last half century. Fueled by social, economic, and political considerations, population and resource usage has grown at a pace that threatens to strain both the resources and the local and regional infrastructure required to support such growth. This dissertation examines the potential of remotely sensed data analyzed with other geospatial data in a geographic information systems (GIS) context to provide information that can be employed by policy makers and persons involved in making decisions concerning the future of urban development in the city of Riyadh. The dissertation research found and recovered a large number of extant aerial images of the city of Riyadh and subjected these to a rigorous photo-interpretation process that characterizes the evolving land uses in the city of Riyadh. The results were compared with an official land use map prepared from other sources, and correlated with available population estimates and water usage. Comparisons revealed the superiority of remotely sensed data to accurately capture land usage, and to reveal the growth patterns that drive resource consumption and degradation of environmental qualities. Classical models of urban structure including the Islamic City model were contrasted with the urban growth pattern in Riyadh in an attempt to capture the dynamics of growth of the city from the turn of the century to the present. Remotely sensed data has in the past been vastly underutilized in guiding urban development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. But new satellite imaging and GIS analysis systems have the spatial resolution and capability to more accurately and economically acquire land use data than by any other means. This dissertation demonstrates the value of these technologies and recommends their adoption in a new spatial data infrastructure initiative for the Kingdom.

Al-Sahhaf, Nasr Abdulhamid

164

The state public health informatics in saudi arabia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this exploratory study is to provide an overview on the state of Public health informatics (PHI) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study defines PHI and discusses the current status and future challenges which face the Saudi health system. Data collection methods included interviews with public health and PHI experts, and database search, using relevant keyword terms in PubMed. Results of this research show that public health information systems (PHIS) are not well-developed to deliver efficient health care in Saudi Arabia. There are several challenges that need to be addressed with the implementation of PHIS such as the need for readiness assessment, resistant to change, integration of systems, and confidentiality and privacy of health information. Future challenges include profiling users, developing a national PHIS and monitoring the impact of PHIS on healthcare outcomes need to be addressed. PMID:25000065

Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Almadani, Wedad; Househ, Mowafa; El Metwally, Ashraf

2014-01-01

165

Numerical simulation diagnostics of a flash flood event in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 26 January 2011, a severe storm hit the city of Jeddah, the second largest city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The storm resulted in heavy rainfall, which produced a flash flood in a short period of time. This event caused at least eleven fatalities and more than 114 injuries. Unfortunately, the observed rainfall data are limited to the weather station at King Abdul Aziz International airport, which is north of the city, while the most extreme precipitation occurred over the southern part of the city. This observation was useful to compare simulation result even though it does not reflect the severity of the event. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) developed at Colorado State University was used to study this storm event. RAMS simulations indicted that a quasi-stationary Mesoscale convective system developed over the city of Jeddah and lasted for several hours. It was the source of the huge amount of rainfall. The model computed a total rainfall of more than 110 mm in the southern part of the city, where the flash flood occurred. This precipitation estimation was confirmed by the actual observation of the weather radar. While the annual rainfall in Jeddah during the winter varies from 50 to 100 mm, the amount of the rainfall resulting from this storm event exceeded the climatological total annual rainfall. The simulation of this event showed that warm sea surface temperature, combined with high humidity in the lower atmosphere and a large amount of convective available potential energy (CAPE) provided a favorable environment for convection. It also showed the presence of a cyclonic system over the north and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, and a subtropical anti-cyclone over Northeastern Africa that contributed to cold air advection bringing cold air to the Jeddah area. In addition, an anti-cyclone (blocking) centered over east and southeastern parts of the Arabian Peninsula and the Arabian Sea produced a low level jet over the southern part of the Red Sea, which transported large water vapor amounts over Jeddah. The simulation results showed that the main driver behind the storm was the interaction between these systems over the city of Jeddah (an urban heat island) that produced strong low-level convergence. Several sensitivity experiments were carried out showed that other variables could have contributed to storm severity as well. Those sensitivity experiments included several simulations in which the following variables were changed: physiographic properties were altered by removing the water surfaces, removing the urban heat island environment from the model, and changing the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei. The results of these sensitivity experiments showed that these properties have significant effects on the storm formation and severity.

Samman, Ahmad

166

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

167

Open City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you interested in improving civic culture and knowledge with apps? If so, you will be delighted to learn about the Open City site. The Open City folks are a group of programmers, citizen activists, and policy types that create apps with open data in order "to improve transparency and understanding of our government." Chicagoans can stop by the Merchandise Mart to meet up and work with Open City in person. Everyone else can check out the Projects page to view apps like "Chicago Councilmatic," "How's Business?" and "Crime in Chicago." Each of these apps takes open source data from the city of Chicago and other organizations to create tools designed to help decision makers, journalists, and scholars with their various projects. The site also contains information about the people behind the organization and press releases about their work.

168

Developing a Career Resource for College Students in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the development of Career Oasis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM ) has pioneered the use of computer-based career guidance in Saudi Arabia. KFUPM contracted with Verbal Media, LLC, an American consulting company, to create a resource that would be available in both Arabic and English, in both online and paper-and-pencil…

Shatkin, Laurence; Atiyeh, Naim

169

Ordovician acritarch assemblages from central and northwestern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary account of acritarch populations derived from three oil exploration boreholes in central and northwestern Saudi Arabia ranging in age from Tremadoc to early Ashgill is given. Comparisons are made with assemblages of similar age in North Africa and northwest Europe.

Monika Jachowicz

1995-01-01

170

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Basic Properties of Reservoir Rocks By Dr. Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin Professor, Department of Petroleum Engineering © Copyright by Dr. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 The nature of petroleum 1 1.2 The petroleum reservoir 1 1.3 Significance of rock properties

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

171

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Assessment of Rainfall Augmentation  

E-print Network

;Introduction The University of North Dakota worked with Weather Modification Inc. to conduct a research project Submitted to The Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Through Weather Modification Inc. Fargo, North Dakota, USA David Delene, Michael Poellot, Cedric Grainger, and Jeffrey Tilley

Delene, David J.

172

Geology of the Wabar meteorite craters, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a systematic survey of the Wabar meteorite craters in Saudi Arabia and of the surrounding strewn field of impact glass and impact-formed 'instant rock' are presented. A strewn field of impactites and instant rocks, exposed in patches between younger sand dunes, extends about 500 m northwest of Philby A and about 300 m southwest and south of Philby

E. M. Schoemaker; J. C. Wynn

1997-01-01

173

Downslope changes in the shape of pediment debris, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shape characteristics of some 5280 clasts from debris resting on five rock-cut pediments in western Saudi Arabia have been examined. The majority of the clasts are angular but discernible downslope changes in sphericity and roundness have been detected using linear regression methods. This is in spite of the fact that the pediments in question all have overall slopes of

Peter Vincent; Ahmad Sadah

1995-01-01

174

Strength and compressibility of Abqaiq marl, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of construction projects and the lack of good quality soil for use in these projects in eastern Saudi Arabia necessitate the use of available marginal soils. Most, if not all, engineering projects use the fine-grained calcareous sediments, known locally as marl, either as a foundation material or as a fill material. The lack of published information on

Saad A. Aiban

1995-01-01

175

Large eruption complex odontome in a Saudi patient  

PubMed Central

Odontomas are odontogenic tumors formed of various dental tissues.They are classified into: central odontomas that are common, eruption odontomas that are rare with only 23 cases reported to date, and peripheral odontomas that are also rare. We present a case of a large complex eruption odontome in a 24-year-old Saudi male. PMID:25719590

Ahmed, Khalid A.

2015-01-01

176

Higher Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Solutions, and Opportunities Missed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education faces common worldwide challenges imposed by social and economic factors. Yet, each system has its own challenges and demands that need to be looked at within its own context. Higher education in Saudi Arabia faces three challenges: limitation of places, depletion of resources, and quality measures. Some measures have been…

Alkhazim, Mohammad A.

2003-01-01

177

Personal Transformation: A Group Therapy Program for Saudi Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A personal transformation group therapy program was designed to help Saudi women function more effectively in their daily lives. The major cognitive idea of these groups was to enable women to better understand their thinking patterns so that they could learn techniques to change. Personal transformation group topics included: Self-Esteem;…

Pharaon, Nora Alarifi

178

Parental responses to consanguinity and genetic disease in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth interviews of 36 Saudi families whose children suffered from neuro-metabolic disorders were conducted at a specialist hospital in Riyadh in order to examine parental understanding of disease and attitudes towards future births and consanguineous marriages. Parents had difficulty accepting a genetic explanation for diseases that did not affect all children at the time of birth; they also expressed religious

Catherine Panter-Brick

1991-01-01

179

Seroepidemiology of rubella in Saudi Arabia: an adapted vaccination policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubella haemagglutination antibodies were tested for in sera of 1793 unvaccinated subjects with age ranging from birth to 40 years. This was to assess the immune status of the population and to see the feasibility of introduction and the proper age for rubella vaccination in a Saudi community. Those with titres of greater than or equal to 1:8 were considered

M A Abdullah; G Jamjoom; Z A Karrar; A Badreldine; N Al Jishi; S A Taha

1984-01-01

180

Pre-Vocational Preparation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with few exceptions, occupational specialization programs for male students first become available at the secondary level (grades 10-12). Education is not compulsory, and substantial numbers drop out at all levels. Adolescents who leave school at the primary (elementary) or intermediate (grades 7-9) level must wait…

Campbell, Clifton P.

181

On Selected Morphemes in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a year of study of Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL), we are documenting our findings to provide a grammatical sketch of the language. This paper represents one part of that endeavor and focuses on a description of selected morphemes, both manual and non-manual, that have appeared in the course of data collection. While some of the…

Morris, Carla; Schneider, Erin

2012-01-01

182

Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

2012-01-01

183

On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

2012-01-01

184

Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

2012-01-01

185

Health care worker contact with MERS patient, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25418612

Hall, Aron J; Tokars, Jerome I; Badreddine, Samar A; Saad, Ziad Bin; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Masri, Malak; Haynes, Lia M; Gerber, Susan I; Kuhar, David T; Miao, Congrong; Trivedi, Suvang U; Pallansch, Mark A; Hajjeh, Rana; Memish, Ziad A

2014-12-01

186

Cross-Cultural Communication: Saudi, Ukrainian, and Russian Students Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a cross-cultural online writing project in which three English-as-a foreign language (EFL) college instructors in Ukraine, Russia and Saudi Arabia and their undergraduate students participated. The aim of the project was to develop students' writing skills in EFL, to develop their awareness of local and global cultural issues…

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

2004-01-01

187

Reference Growth Charts for Saudi Arabian Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to provide Saudi Arabian population reference growth standards for height, weight, body mass index (BMI), head circumference and weight for length\\/stature. The estimated distribution cen- tiles are obtained by splitting the population into two separate age groups: infants, birth to 36 months and children and adolescents, age 2 to 19 years. The reference values

P. J. Foster; T. Kecojevi?

188

Health Care Worker Contact with MERS Patient, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25418612

Tokars, Jerome I.; Badreddine, Samar A.; Saad, Ziad Bin; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Masri, Malak; Haynes, Lia M.; Gerber, Susan I.; Kuhar, David T.; Miao, Congrong; Trivedi, Suvang U.; Pallansch, Mark A.; Hajjeh, Rana; Memish, Ziad A.

2014-01-01

189

Groundwater recharge in an arid karst area (Saudi Arabia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For one of the most important and intensively used aquifers in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia, the Umm er Radhuma aquifer, it was uncertain whether the natural outflow of the big springs along the Gulf coast, estimated at more than 100 m3 s\\

HEINZ HOETZL

190

Education and the Satellite: Possibilities for Saudi Arabia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of developments in satellite communications and educational applications focuses on the possibilities of adapting satellite technology for instruction in developing countries. Topics include satellite use in Australia and the United States; and recommendations for the adoption of satellite technology in Saudi Arabia. (Author/LRW)

Al-Sharhan, Jamal

2000-01-01

191

Developing Reading and Literacy Skills in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the Saudi national reading curriculum for Grades 1-6; defines the word identification, reading comprehension and teaching approaches; describes the reading lesson design, reading themes, the word identification and reading comprehension skills developed; and reports the strengths and weaknesses of the reading curriculum.…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2007-01-01

192

Perceptions of Saudi Students towards Electronic and Traditional Writing Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings of an experiment that investigated the reactions of Saudi college students to collaborative learning techniques introduced in two modalities: face-to-face and web-based learning. Quantitative data were collected with a questionnaire that examined the changes of three constructs: attitudes toward collaboration,…

Alqurashi, Fahad

2008-01-01

193

Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

2014-04-13

194

Religious Fundamentalism among Young Muslims in Egypt and Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18-25, reveal that…

Moaddel, Mansoor; Karabenick, Stuart A.

2008-01-01

195

Impact of Unleaded Gasoline in Reducing Emissions in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Saudi Arabia is dealing progressively with tighter restrictions on refined product qualities. Efforts are ongoing within the country c oncerning the phase-out of lead in motor gasoline and the reduction of sulfur in diese l as well. The removal of lead is the main characteristic of environmental friendly gasol ine. The detrimental health effects of using leaded gasoline are

S. Halim Hamid

2001-01-01

196

Quality of Gastroenterology Research Published in Saudi Arabian Scientific Journals  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: Evidence-based medicine has established itself in the field of gastroenterology. In this study we aim to assess the types of study designs of gastroenterology-related articles published in Saudi scientific journals. Patients and Methods: An online review using PubMed was carried out to review gastroenterology-related articles published in six Saudi medical journals in the time interval from 2003 to 2012. To classify the level of evidence in these articles we employed the Oxford's levels of evidence. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the levels of evidence between published articles. Results: A total of 721 gastroenterology-related articles were reviewed, of which 591 articles met our inclusion criteria; 80.7% were level IV. The three most common types of studies we encountered were cross-sectional (33.9%), case reports (27.9%), and case series (18.8%). Forty-three percent of the published research was in the field of hepatobiliary and spleen. The total number of articles increased from 260 articles in the 1st 5-year period (2003–2007) to 330 in the 2nd period (2008–2012). However, no statistically significant difference in the level of evidence was noted. In Annals of Saudi Medicine Journal, articles with level II increased from 0 to 10% with a P value 0.02. Conclusion: In our review of gastroenterology-related published articles in Saudi scientific journals, we observed an increase in the quantity of articles with the quality and level of evidence remaining unchanged. Further research is recommended to explore different reasons affecting the volume and quality of gastroenterology-related research in Saudi scientific journals. PMID:25843195

Almaghrabi, Majed M.; Alamoudi, Abdullah S.; Radi, Suhaib A.; Merdad, Anas A.; Makhdoum, Ahmad M.; Batwa, Faisal A.

2015-01-01

197

From barriers to bridges: An investigation on Saudi student mobility (2006-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by increasing funding for higher education through grants and scholarships, enabled Saudi students to study at overseas universities. A number of non-Saudi students are also enrolled at Saudi Arabian universities. After a brief introduction to the cultural and educational history of the Arab region and Saudi identity, this article turns to contemporary higher education in Saudi Arabia. It introduces the King Abdullah Scholarship Programme and then goes on to present detailed enrolment data for 2006-2009, demonstrating trends and policy changes and identifying patterns in student mobility.

Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

2011-08-01

198

A first hazard analysis of the Quaternary Harrat Al-Madinah volcanic field, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern portion of the 20,000 km2 Harrat Rahat basaltic field in NW Saudi Arabia (Harrat Al-Madinah) has hosted some of the most recent volcanic eruptions in the country. Rapid growth of the city of Al-Madinah has spread out onto the lava flows and scoria cones of the Harrat, increasing exposure to any potential renewed volcanism. We present here a first-order probabilistic hazard analysis related to new vent formation and subsequent lava flow from this volcanic field. The 501 visible eruption vent sites were integrated with aeromagnetic survey data (as representative of potential regions of buried volcanic vents) to develop a probability density function for new eruption sites using Gaussian kernel smoothing. This revealed a NNW striking zone of high spatial hazard terminating < 10 km south of the city. Using the properties of the AD1256 eruption lava flows and the spatial PDF, an analysis of lava hazard was carried out. Assuming a future lava-producing eruption, around 25% of the city of Al-Madinah is exposed to a probability of 0.001 to 0.005 of lava inundation. The temporal eruption recurrence rate is estimated at approximately one vent per 3300 years, but the temporal record of the field is so poorly constrained that the lower and upper bounds for the recurrence interval are 13,300 yrs and 70 yrs, respectively. Applying a Poisson temporal model, this results in a worst-case lava inundation recurrence interval of approximately 14,300 years.

El Difrawy, M. A.; Runge, M. G.; Moufti, M. R.; Cronin, S. J.; Bebbington, M.

2013-11-01

199

Cesarean section in a high-parity community in Saudi Arabia: clinical indications and obstetric outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The study of the indications for cesarean section (CS) and its outcomes are useful for hospitals, clinicians, and researchers in determining strategies to lower the primary and repeat CS rate. The aim of this study was to identify the indications for CS and the incidence of adverse maternal/fetal outcomes in a tertiary care setting. Methods A retrospective cohort study of women (n?=?4305) who gave birth by CS at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (June 2008 to February 2011), was performed. All of the women’s medical records were reviewed by two consulting physicians to obtain the primary indications for CS and determine the maternal characteristics, type of CS (emergency or elective), and birth weight. All adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded. The point and interval estimates of the odds ratios were calculated using a logistic regression model to identify the significant predictors of adverse maternal and/or fetal outcomes. Results Of a total of 22,595 deliveries from 2008 to 2011, 4,305 deliveries were CS deliveries (19.05%). Two-thirds (67%) of all CS deliveries were emergency CSs, and the remaining deliveries were elective CSs (33%). Difficult labor (35.9%), fetal distress (21.9%) and breech presentation (11.6%) were the most frequent indications of emergency CS, while previous CS (54.3%), breech presentation (20.4%) and maternal request (10.1%) ranked first for elective CS. Adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were diagnosed in 5.09% and 5.06% of deliveries, respectively, with a significantly higher incidence in the emergency (6.06% & 5.51% respectively) than in elective CS (3.10 & 4.16% respectively). Blood transfusion was the most frequent adverse maternal outcome (3.72%), followed by ICU admission (0.63%), HELLP (0.51%), and hysterectomy (0.30%), while IUGR (3.25%) was the most frequent adverse fetal outcome, followed by IUFD and the need for ICU admission (0.58% each). Adverse maternal outcomes were significantly predicted by high gravidity (OR?=?2.84, 95% CI:1.26-6.39, p?=?0.011) and preeclampsia (OR?=?2.84, 95%CI:1.83-4.39, p?Saudi Arabia. High gravidity was a significant predictor of adverse maternal outcomes. Encouraging Saudi women to consider embarking on fewer pregnancies could act as a safeguard against mandatory CSs for subsequent births in multigravida and grand-multigravida Saudi females. Future prospective study that addresses women with repeat CSs and their association with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes is recommended. PMID:24575731

2014-01-01

200

City Lore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York, the City Lore organization is a nonprofit organization devoted to promoting the cultural heritage of the city through a variety of programs and events. Two online exhibits dealing with the Puerto Rican Day parade and the making of lace highlight some of their more recent work. A resources link on the site leads to several helpful articles that highlight the study of urban culture and folklore, along with a list of related links. One of the best parts of the site is an area dealing with New York Favorites, which is essentially a list of places and sights that local New Yorkers have submitted to the site. Finally, the site contains City Lore's online People's Hall of Fame, which recognizes the life-long contributions of persons who have dedicated themselves to the maintenance and practice of a number of folkways and traditions.

201

City Image & City Design: The Lynchian Tradition  

E-print Network

, vast space, and the enormous future." --What Time is This Place? 1972 Imageability City form #12 and environmental performance (Christopher Zegras) and connections among city design, public policy35 City Image & City Design: The Lynchian Tradition Most of Kevin Lynch's ideas about city form

Ishii, Hiroshi

202

City 2020+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to several public transport units running all across the city. This is accompanied by an analysis of probability density functions (PDF) for heat waves based on recent climate data and climate projections. A dense net of 40 PM measurement sites is operated in order to obtain the spatial pattern of PM concentration as depending on meteorological condition and location. It is lined out how this climate related sub-projects interact with investigations on social networks, governance issues, buildings structure development and health outcome. Related to the later the chemical composition of PM is analyzed in more detail and related to the spatial patterns of health deficiencies. At a later stage City2020+ will propose new strategies based on cooperation from the fields of medicine, geography, sociology, history, civil engineering, and architecture for adapting the city for future needs. The Project CITY 2020+ is part of the interdisciplinary Project House HumTec (Human Sciences and Technology) at RWTH Aachen University funded by the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments through the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG).

Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

2010-09-01

203

Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Introduction In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results Approximately half of all subjects (53.3%) reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01), a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001), and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001) were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively), whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%). Conclusion Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals’ places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. PMID:25152628

Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Al-Omani, Manar; Al Johar, Alwaleed; Al Hakbani, Abdulaziz; Alaskar, Ahmed S

2014-01-01

204

Hydrocarbon habitat in main producing areas, Saudi Arabia: discussion  

SciTech Connect

Most petroleum geologists have wondered why the Persian (Arabian) Gulf area contained such enormous volumes of petroleum. Saudi Arabia alone has produced 44.1 billion barrels of oil, and remaining reserves are estimated at 177.2 billion bbl. Previous studies concluded the Jurassic Callovian to Oxforidan organic-rich carbonates were the only rocks considered rich enough to be the likely source for Saudi Arabia's vast reserves. These authors believed the unique size of the accumulations reflected the scale of the system, with large volumes of petroleum-generating rocks coupled efficiently to large traps. It was argued that the type of organic matter generally associated with carbonates was algal-rich, oil prone, and a more efficient generator compared with the organic matter in clastics. It was concluded that the previously identified source rocks only partly answer the question of the unique size of oil accumulations in the part of the Middle East.

Barker, C.; Dickey, P.A.

1984-01-01

205

A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25587347

Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-Elaiwi, Abdulrahman M.; Athar, Md Tanwir; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Eid, Ahmed; Al-Asmary, Saeed M.

2014-01-01

206

Dermatological manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The Saudi Ministry of Health data indicates that almost 32% of viral hepatitis cases were caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). It has been widely reported that chronic HCV infection is associated with and may trigger or exacerbate many skin manifestations in 20-40% of patients visiting dermatologists. The most commonly encountered dermatological manifestations of HCV infection globally include mixed cryoglobulinemia, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous and/or oral lichen planus, urticaria, pruritus, thrombocytopenic purpura, and psoriasis. The current article indicates that HCV infection is increasing in Saudi Arabia and approximately 12% of the reported dermatological manifestations are caused by HCV infection. We recommend the urgent need for large-scale, case-control studies to understand the impact of HCV infection in patients with skin disease. PMID:24888650

Halawani, Mona R

2014-06-01

207

Chemistry, Mineralogy and maturity status of Obhor Sabkha, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogy and pore water chemistry of subsoil of the relatively stronger crustal layer above the watertable and the ground\\u000a water chemistry at two locations in the coastal clayey sabkha areas of Obhor, Saudi Arabia confirm the predominance of evaporites\\u000a like halite, gypsum, aragonite and calcite and the trend of progressive sabkhaization from top downwards. Of the two locations\\u000a studied,

M. A. M. Al-Ghamdi; D. Hossain; A. M. B. Mufti

1997-01-01

208

Geological mapping in northwestern Saudi Arabia using LANDSAT multispectral techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various computer enhancement and data extraction systems using LANDSAT data were assessed and used to complement a continuing geologic mapping program. Interactive digital classification techniques using both the parallel-piped and maximum-likelihood statistical approaches achieve very limited success in areas of highly dissected terrain. Computer enhanced imagery developed by color compositing stretched MSS ratio data was constructed for a test site in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Initial results indicate that several igneous and sedimentary rock types can be discriminated.

Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.; Moik, J. G.

1975-01-01

209

Gender Representation in Television Advertisements in Britain and Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study conducted a content analysis of TV adverts from Channel One in Saudi Arabia and ITV1 in the United Kingdom in 2000–2001.\\u000a A total of 164 adverts were analyzed from each country. The analysis compared the representation of men and women. Results\\u000a showed that men and women were equally visually represented as lead characters in advertisements in both countries,

Atif Nassif; Barrie Gunter

2008-01-01

210

Profile of benign breast diseases in western Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the histopathological patterns of benign breast diseases (BBD) among Saudi patients. Methods: This is a retrospective review of BBD reports of Saudi patients of both genders and all age groups seen between January 2006 and December 2013 at King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: Out of the total 1005 breast biopsies, 603 cases (60%) were BBD. The female to male ratio was 30.7:1. The overall mean age for BBD was 27.5 years, with an age range of 14-80 years. The most common lesion was fibroadenoma (FA) accounting for 44.3% of cases (mean age: 23.5 years), followed by 23.4% fibrocystic change (FCC) (mean age: 37.1 years). Both lesions had a peak occurrence in the third decade. Inflammatory lesions constituted 13.9% of cases. Most common were granulomatous mastitis (3.5%), chronic mastitis (3.3%), and acute mastitis with abscess (3.1%). Other major lesions encountered were fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia (3.1%), intraductal papilloma (2.8%), and benign phylloides tumor (2.6%). All benign diagnoses in male patients were gynecomastia and most patients (68.4%) were under 40 years. Conclusion: In this study, BBD constituted 60% of breast lumps, and were mostly FA and FCC. The BBD peaked at the 20-29 year age range. PMID:25491220

Albasri, Abdulkader M.

2014-01-01

211

Nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding pain in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Unrelieved pain is a worldwide health care problem that can lead to unnecessary complications and increased health care expenditure. The aim of this study was to examine nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward pain in Saudi Arabia. A descriptive design was employed using the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey regarding pain. The study took place in a tertiary teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. All nurses employed in the hospital were eligible to participate. A total of 775 questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in acute care, intensive care, and nursing education and administration settings. In all, 593 respondents completed the questionnaires, representing a response rate of 76.5%. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Most participants were from overseas (97.5%), speaking 23 different languages; 36.5% of nurses held a bachelors of science degree in nursing or the equivalent. The mean score of correctly answered items in was 16.9 (95% confidence interval, 16.6-17.31) out of a total possible score of 40. Nurses demonstrated some misconceived attitudes such as not giving the required dose of morphine to a smiling patient despite the patient being in pain. It is of concern that the findings identified problems of inadequate knowledge and inappropriate attitudes regarding pain assessment and management in Saudi Arabia. Considering these problems, the development of pain programs and policies affecting national and international nurses is highly imperative. PMID:25179424

Eid, Thurayya; Manias, Elizabeth; Bucknall, Tracey; Almazrooa, Adnan

2014-12-01

212

The Saudi Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of COPD  

PubMed Central

The Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) launched the Saudi Initiative for Chronic Airway Diseases (SICAD) to develop a guideline for the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This guideline is primarily aimed for internists and general practitioners. Though there is scanty epidemiological data related to COPD, the SICAD panel believes that COPD prevalence is increasing in Saudi Arabia due to increasing prevalence of tobacco smoking among men and women. To overcome the issue of underutilization of spirometry for diagnosing COPD, handheld spirometry is recommended to screen individuals at risk for COPD. A unique feature about this guideline is the simplified practical approach to classify COPD into three classes based on the symptoms as per COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the risk of exacerbations and hospitalization. Those patients with low risk of exacerbation (<2 in the past year) can be classified as either Class I when they have less symptoms (CAT < 10) or Class II when they have more symptoms (CAT ? 10). High-risk COPD patients, as manifested with ?2 exacerbation or hospitalization in the past year irrespective of the baseline symptoms, are classified as Class III. Class I and II patients require bronchodilators for symptom relief, while Class III patients are recommended to use medications that reduce the risks of exacerbations. The guideline recommends screening for co-morbidities and suggests a comprehensive management approach including pulmonary rehabilitation for those with a CAT score ?10. The article also discusses the diagnosis and management of acute exacerbations in COPD. PMID:24791168

Khan, Javed H.; Lababidi, Hani M. S.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Zeitouni, Mohammed O.; AL-Jahdali, Hamdan H.; Al-Amoudi, Omar S.; Wali, Siraj O.; Idrees, Majdy M.; Al-Shimemri, Abdullah A.; Al Ghobain, Mohammed O.; Alorainy, Hassan S.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.

2014-01-01

213

The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population  

PubMed Central

Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop® software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the “gummy” smile picture (P-value =0.003), diastema picture (P-value =0.000) and the “Reverse” smile picture (P-value =0.004). As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009). Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. “Dental background” participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the “nondental” group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. PMID:25653558

Mokhtar, Hadeel A; Abuljadayel, Layla W; Al-Ali, Reem M; Yousef, Mohammed

2015-01-01

214

The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population.  

PubMed

Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop(®) software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the "gummy" smile picture (P-value =0.003), diastema picture (P-value =0.000) and the "Reverse" smile picture (P-value =0.004). As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009). Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. "Dental background" participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the "nondental" group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. PMID:25653558

Mokhtar, Hadeel A; Abuljadayel, Layla W; Al-Ali, Reem M; Yousef, Mohammed

2015-01-01

215

Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.

216

The Saudi Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of COPD.  

PubMed

The Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) launched the Saudi Initiative for Chronic Airway Diseases (SICAD) to develop a guideline for the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This guideline is primarily aimed for internists and general practitioners. Though there is scanty epidemiological data related to COPD, the SICAD panel believes that COPD prevalence is increasing in Saudi Arabia due to increasing prevalence of tobacco smoking among men and women. To overcome the issue of underutilization of spirometry for diagnosing COPD, handheld spirometry is recommended to screen individuals at risk for COPD. A unique feature about this guideline is the simplified practical approach to classify COPD into three classes based on the symptoms as per COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the risk of exacerbations and hospitalization. Those patients with low risk of exacerbation (<2 in the past year) can be classified as either Class I when they have less symptoms (CAT < 10) or Class II when they have more symptoms (CAT ? 10). High-risk COPD patients, as manifested with ?2 exacerbation or hospitalization in the past year irrespective of the baseline symptoms, are classified as Class III. Class I and II patients require bronchodilators for symptom relief, while Class III patients are recommended to use medications that reduce the risks of exacerbations. The guideline recommends screening for co-morbidities and suggests a comprehensive management approach including pulmonary rehabilitation for those with a CAT score ?10. The article also discusses the diagnosis and management of acute exacerbations in COPD. PMID:24791168

Khan, Javed H; Lababidi, Hani M S; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S; Zeitouni, Mohammed O; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H; Al-Amoudi, Omar S; Wali, Siraj O; Idrees, Majdy M; Al-Shimemri, Abdullah A; Al Ghobain, Mohammed O; Alorainy, Hassan S; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S

2014-04-01

217

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9{+-}5 to 163{+-}32 Bqm{sup -3} and an average of 49{+-}2 Bqm{sup -3}. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm{sup -3} set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

Alyami, S. H. [Saudi School in KualaLumpur, Ministry of Education, 55000 KualaLumpur (Malaysia); Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M.S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2010-07-07

218

Clostridium difficile in retail baskets, trolleys, conveyor belts, and plastic bags in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) prevalence on retail surfaces and shoppers plastic bags. Methods: From 20 June to 10 August 2011, in a cross-sectional epidemiological study, 17 supermarkets from 2 cities, Albaha and Altaif, Saudi Arabia were sampled. A total of 800 samples, which comprised 200 samples per surveyed surface, were studied. These included baskets, trolleys, conveyer belts, and outgoing shoppers’ plastic bags. Clostridium difficile strains were isolated. The isolates were characterized using ribotyping and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of toxin A (tcdA), toxin B (tcdB), binary toxin (cdtB), and toxin C (tcdC) genes. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined on a Muller-Hinton agar with 5% sheep blood agar using E-tests. Results: Overall, the C. difficile prevalence on sampled surfaces was 0.75%. The highest prevalence was found on retail baskets and trolleys, followed by plastic bags. A total of 5 different ribotypes were identified. Alterations in tcdC were detected in ribotype 027 and BT1. All the identified isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, but resistant to levofloxacin. Conclusion: In this study, C. difficile was present at a rate of 0.75% on supermarket surfaces. Spore disinfection of implicated surfaces may be necessary to control any community-acquired infections caused by this pathogen. PMID:25316477

Alqumber, Mohammed A.

2014-01-01

219

Coping strategies for stress used by adolescent girls in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Secondary school girls, ages 15 – 19 yrs were surveyed to find out the coping strategies they used when stressed. Adolescents, who are affected with stress and depression early in life, suffer from depression throughout their lives especially if they are utilizing improper ways to cope with it. Methods: A cross sectional school based survey among 1028 adolescent girls was conducted among the secondary schools in Riyadh city,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: About 25% stated that they cry, 19% listen to music, 15% start eating a lot, 12% sit alone/isolate themselves, 11% pray/read the Quran, 10% get into a verbal argument or a fight. Only a few, 3% exercise, and 2% stated that they find someone to discuss and talk to. Conclusion: Majority of the adolescent girls in our survey, rely on emotion related coping mechanisms rather than problem solving mechanisms. This can cause long term implications in these adolescents as there is an increased probability to develop depression later on in life. Policy makers need to implement strategies for early identification of stress and depression. Talking to friends and family can serve as an effective way to cope with stress. PMID:25225507

Raheel, Hafsa

2014-01-01

220

Residential Saudi load forecasting using analytical model and Artificial Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, load forecasting has become one of the main fields of study and research. Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) is an important part of electrical power system operation and planning. This work investigates the applicability of different approaches; Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and hybrid analytical models to forecast residential load in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). These two techniques are based on model human modes behavior formulation. These human modes represent social, religious, official occasions and environmental parameters impact. The analysis is carried out on residential areas for three regions in two countries exposed to distinct people activities and weather conditions. The collected data are for Al-Khubar and Yanbu industrial city in KSA, in addition to Seattle, USA to show the validity of the proposed models applied on residential load. For each region, two models are proposed. First model is next hour load forecasting while second model is next day load forecasting. Both models are analyzed using the two techniques. The obtained results for ANN next hour models yield very accurate results for all areas while relatively reasonable results are achieved when using hybrid analytical model. For next day load forecasting, the two approaches yield satisfactory results. Comparative studies were conducted to prove the effectiveness of the models proposed.

Al-Harbi, Ahmad Abdulaziz

221

Air quality in Mecca and surrounding holy places in Saudi Arabia during Hajj: initial survey.  

PubMed

The Arabian Peninsula experiences severe air pollution, the extent and sources of which are poorly documented. Each year in Saudi Arabia this situation is intensified during Hajj, the Holy Pilgrimage of Islam that draws millions of pilgrims to Mecca. An initial study of air quality in Mecca and surrounding holy sites during the 2012 Hajj (October 24-27) revealed strongly elevated levels of the combustion tracer carbon monoxide (CO, up to 57 ppmv) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) along the pilgrimage route-especially in the tunnels of Mecca-that are a concern for human health. The most abundant VOC was the gasoline evaporation tracer i-pentane, which exceeded 1200 ppbv in the tunnels. Even though VOC concentrations were generally lower during a follow-up non-Hajj sampling period (April 2013), many were still comparable to other large cities suffering from poor air quality. Major VOC sources during the 2012 Hajj study included vehicular exhaust, gasoline evaporation, liquefied petroleum gas, and air conditioners. Of the measured compounds, reactive alkenes and CO showed the strongest potential to form ground-level ozone. Because the number of pilgrims is expected to increase in the future, we present emission reduction strategies to target both combustive and evaporative fossil fuel sources. PMID:24983190

Simpson, Isobel J; Aburizaiza, Omar S; Siddique, Azhar; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Nicola J; Gartner, Aaron; Khwaja, Haider; Meinardi, Simone; Zeb, Jahan; Blake, Donald R

2014-08-01

222

Saudi Elementary School Science Teachers' Beliefs: Teaching Science in the New Millennium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored Saudi elementary school science teachers' beliefs about the process of teaching and learning science. This involved the exploration of their views about the new Saudi science curriculum, which emphasizes critical thinking and problem solving. Comprehensive interviews were held in 8 schools with 4 male and 6 female--2 of whom…

Alghamdi, Amani K. Hamdan; Al-Salouli, Misfer Saud

2013-01-01

223

Tirbyi in the Muslim World, with a Focus on Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational systems of Muslim societies, particularly that of Saudi Arabia, have been under scrutiny, especially after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. The Saudi educational system is mostly based on Islamic precepts. Nonetheless, the United States government and other…

Bangura, Abdul Karim

2004-01-01

224

Growing Up under Pressure: The Cultural and Religious Context of the Saudi System of Gifted Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay presents an overview of the system of gifted education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To highlight the characteristics of this system, however, its presentation is preceded by a discussion of particular aspects of Saudi society and its general system of education. These aspects distinctly differentiate the general and gifted systems of…

Aljughaiman, Abdullah M.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2013-01-01

225

Lithologic characteristics and diagenesis of the Devonian Jauf sandstone at Ghawar Field, Eastern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Devonian Jauf Formation in Saudi Arabia is an important hydrocarbon reservoir. However, in spite of its importance as a reservoir, published studies on the Jauf Formation more specifically on the reservoir quality (including diagenesis), are very few. This study, which is based on core samples from two wells in the Ghawar Field, northeastern Saudi Arabia, reports the lithologic

Khalid A. Al-Ramadan; Mahbub Hussain; Badrul Imam; Salih Saner

2004-01-01

226

Seismic Hazard Assessment in the Tihamat Asir Region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of earthquakes, faulting of Pleistocene sediments, uplifting of Pleistocene coral reefs, recent incised wadis and lava effusions in addition to hot springs all clearly indicate that southeastern Saudi Arabia is tectonically active. This paper reviews the tectonic features of southwestern Saudi Arabia and provides new approaches and maps for the interpretation of old and recent earthquake data for

Zekai ?en; Khalid Al-Suba'i

2001-01-01

227

Influence of mineralogy on swelling and consolidation of soils in eastern Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

Influence of mineralogy on swelling and consolidation of soils in eastern Saudi Arabia Shahid Azam Saudi Arabia. Mineralogical evolution and engineering behaviour of such soils are governed by local geology and severe climatic and environmental conditions prevalent in the region. Based on laboratory

Ahmad, Sajjad

228

Evaluating EFL Intermediate Teachers' Performance in the Light of Quality Standards in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research aimed at four points: First, Identifying the most appropriate standards of EFL Saudi teachers' performance in the light of quality standards. Second, designing an objective and comprehensive evaluation rubric based on quality standards to evaluate EFL Saudi intermediate teachers' performance. Third, determining to what extent…

Al-Thumali, Amani Dakheel Allah

2011-01-01

229

Leukemia in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia: A population-based study (1987-1988).  

PubMed

This is the first population-based data in Saudi Arabia on the incidence of leukemias in the Eastern Region, as conducted by its regional tumor registry. Data on cancer were captured from all health facilities in the region in 1987-1988. Population census was derived from a survey. Data on cancer deaths were obtained from all death registries. Crude, age-specific, age-standardized, and relative age-standardized incidence rates were used as indicators for the incidence of leukemia. There were 124 cases of leukemias registered. The yearly average crude incidence rate was 5.2 and 3.6 per 100,000 for Saudi males and females, respectively. The age-standardized incidence rate was 7.3 and 6.1 per 100,000 per year in Saudi males and females respectively. The relative age-standardized incidence of leukemias in Saudi males and females ranked, respectively, third and second highest on the international scale. Death from leukemia among Saudis was responsible for 8.9% of the total deaths from cancer. Statistical indicators point to a high incidence rate of leukemias in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia among Saudis. Leukemia was the third leading cause of death from cancer. The relative age-standardized rate of leukemias among Saudis of either gender rank very high on the international scale. PMID:17429230

Al-Bar, A A; Ibrahim, E M; Al-Tamimi, T M; Assuhaimi, S A; Ibrahim, A W; Gabriel, G S; Mishriky, A M

1996-09-01

230

Cancer in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia: A population-based study (1987-1988).  

PubMed

This study presents the findings of the first population-based tumor registry in the Eastern region (ER). Data on all cancer sites, in 1987 and 1988, were captured from all health facilities in the ER. A regional population census was obtained from regional health authorities. Cancer deaths were obtained from death registries. Age-specific rate, crude incidence rate (CIR), age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) and relative age-standardized incidence rate (%ASR) were compared with available population-based data from 137 tumor registries. 1559 primary cancer cases were captured. The CIR and ASR/100,000/year for cancer among Saudi males were respectively 59.8 and 125.7. The corresponding rates among Saudi females were 43.6 and 95.5. These rates rank very low on the international scale. Cancer sites with the highest %ASR among Saudi males were lung, lymphomas, leukemias, urinary bladder and tumors of uncertain primary. For Saudi females, these sites were breast, leukemias, tumors of brain and nervous system, thyroid and tumors of uncertain primary. Lung cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer among Saudi males. The first regional population-based cancer registry in Saudi Arabia was established in 1987. The overall cancer ASR in the ER is low. The leading cancer sites with the highest %ASR are lung in Saudi males and breast in Saudi females. PMID:17377466

Al Tamimi, T M; Ibrahim, E M; Ibrahim, A W; Al-Bar, A A; Assuhaimi, S A; Gabriel, G S; Mishriky, A M; Al-Idrissi, H Y; Al-Sohaibani, M O; Al-Sibai, M A

1997-01-01

231

Lung cancer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia: A population-based study.  

PubMed

This study presents the findings of the first population-based tumor registry in the Eastern region (ER). Data on all cancer sites, in 1987 and 1988, were captured from all health facilities in the ER. A regional population census was obtained from regional health authorities. Cancer deaths were obtained from death registries. Age-specific rate, crude incidence rate (CIR), age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) and relative age-standardized incidence rate (%ASR) were compared with available population-based data from 137 tumor registries. 1559 primary cancer cases were captured. The CIR and ASR/100,000/year for cancer among Saudi males were respectively 59.8 and 125.7. The corresponding rates among Saudi females were 43.6 and 95.5. These rates rank very low on the international scale. Cancer sites with the highest %ASR among Saudi males were lung, lymphomas, leukemias, urinary bladder and tumors of uncertain primary. For Saudi females, these sites were breast, leukemias, tumors of brain and nervous system, thyroid and tumors of uncertain primary. Lung cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer among Saudi males. The first regional population-based cancer registry in Saudi Arabia was established in 1987. The overall cancer ASR in the ER is low. The leading cancer sites with the highest %ASR are lung in Saudi males and breast in Saudi females. PMID:17372393

Al Tamimi, T M; Al-Bar, A; Al-Suhaimi, S; Ibrahim, E; Ibrahim, A; Wosornu, L; Gabriel, G S

1996-01-01

232

Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi

Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

2009-01-01

233

Adiposity and physical activity levels among preschool children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the levels of adiposity and physical activity among Saudi preschool children from Jeddah. Methods: Participants included 224 Saudi preschool children, randomly selected from public and private preschools in Jeddah during April and May of 2006, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index, triceps and subscapular skinfolds, fat percentage, fat mass (FM),

Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa; Amani A. Al-Rasheedi

2007-01-01

234

Saudi Mode of Greeting Rituals: Their Implications for Teaching and Learning English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the sociolinguistic aspects of Saudi greeting rituals, discussing the phraseology and nonverbal signals employed by greeter and greetee in various situations. Also explores the communication problems that Saudis and Americans have when communicating in each other's language and culture. (MDM)

Hassanain, Khalid S. A.

1994-01-01

235

Environmental benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy in Saudi Arabia's electric sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of electric system expansion in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Environmental concerns are important to consider because they represent costs to society that are not typically reflected in the price that consumers pay for electricity. In past analyses of electric expansion options in Saudi Arabia, the tendency has been to

Othman Alnatheer

2006-01-01

236

Biofouling problems in membrane processes for water desalination and reuse in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia is a fast growing country with limited drinking water supplies. Its water consumption is expected to reach 20 billion m3 annually by the year 2000. Most of this water is required for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes. In order to meet these large water demands, about one-third of the world capacity of water desalination is produced in Saudi

F. A. Abd El Aleem; K. A. Al-Sugair; M. I. Alahmad

1998-01-01

237

Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality in Offsprings of Diabetic Mothers in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of diabetic mothers and their offspring in Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Suggests diabetes mellitus in pregnancy may be a common problem in Saudi Arabia, as poor maternal diabetic control results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results suggest that health education and improved coverage of…

Al-Dabbous, Ibrahim A. Al-; And Others

1995-01-01

238

Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Health Informatics Masters Program at KSAU-HS University, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Saudi health sector has witnessed a significant progress in recent decades with some Saudi hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this progress has not been accompanied by the same advancement in the health informatics field whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals in order to achieve important objectives such…

Majid, Altuwaijri

2007-01-01

239

An investigation into the acceptance of online banking in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a regional leader, Internet banking in Saudi Arabia is yet to be fully utilised as a value-adding tool to improve customer relationships and achieve cost advantages. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that encourage customers to adopt online banking in Saudi Arabia. The research constructs were developed based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) and

Sabah Abdullah Al-Somali; Roya Gholami; Ben Clegg

2009-01-01

240

Knowledge and Practice of Pulp Therapy in Deciduous Teeth among General Dental Practitioners in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been observed that the general dentists and pedodontists differ in their treatment recommendations for pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Aim: To determine the knowledge and practice of pulp therapy in deciduous teeth by general dental practitioners (GDP) in two cities of southern Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: Fifty GDP selected at random from government and private dental clinics were questioned about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth in Abha and Najran cities using a 10-item questionnaire. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 11.0 and descriptive statistics were obtained. Results: All 50 participants responded to the survey. Pulpotomy was suggested as the first line of treatment for pulp-exposed primary tooth by 32 respondents with 44 using Buckley's formocresol and 32 applying it on the pulp for 5 minutes. 43 respondents squeeze dried the cotton pellet before application on the pulp. In pulpectomy procedure 44 respondents preferred zinc oxide eugenol as obturation material with 22 using handheld reamers and 15 using slow-speed lentilospirals for obturation. 12 respondents used obturation techniques which had no scientific relevance. In order of preference Glass ionomer cement (GIC), silver amalgam, and stainless steel crowns were the materials of choice for final restoration of endodontically treated deciduous teeth. All 50 answered in the affirmative when asked if they would like to have additional information about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Conclusion: The study concluded that general dentists were regularly performing pulp therapy in decidous teeth and therefore need to be frequently updated about these procedures. PMID:23440030

Togoo, RA; Nasim, VS; Zakirulla, M; Yaseen, SM

2012-01-01

241

City of Anaheim City Manager's Office  

E-print Network

City of Anaheim City Manager's Office Volunteer Web Design Intern Job Description 1 The City of Anaheim seeks an intern to assist the City Manager's Office in graphic design with an emphasis on web design. This internship will give the intern valuable real-world experience in web design, as well

de Lijser, Peter

242

Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL) in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P ? 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06), followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40) and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75). After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03), older age (P = 0.003), rural origin (P = 0.03), positive family history of the same lesion(s) (P = 0.01), shorter duration of ?6 months (P = 0.02), generalized spread (P ? 0.02), and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02). Conclusion . The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the Skindex scale. Further studies of specific diseases and educational programs targeting patients at higher risk for QoL impairments are recommended. PMID:22866015

Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Khowailed, Mohammad S; Suliman, Wijdan E; Al-Turaif, Deema A; Al-Bluwi, Eman; Al-Kahtani, Hassan S

2012-01-01

243

Kinetic City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, this website offers an assortment of science experiments, games, activities, and projects. In the Shape it Up game, students can learn about land formations and processes. Users can learn the basic interactions of mixing different chemicals in the Slush Rush link. Educators can find Leader packets and information on how to start a Kinetic City club. Besides the games educating users about topics in the physical sciences, the website also offers a variety of biology-related activities. After filling out the free sign-up form, the website saves individual's power points and results.

244

Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

Kearns, Peter

2012-01-01

245

Urban dwelling environments in rapidly growing cities : case study, Unayzah, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

The study is concerned with two critical issues: a) the housing situation of middle income groups; b) the use of land in new developments. A tentative planning model for urban land development and a survey of existing ...

Alohali, Yousef Nasser

1983-01-01

246

Aetiological factors contributing to road traffic accidents in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The study analysed 13,390 police records of road traffic accidents (RTAs) covering a three and a half year period according to different suspected aetiological factors. The majority of the accidents were recorded for vehicles in good condition on well-paved straight roads with well-operating traffic light systems. Adverse weather conditions such as precipitation, fog and dust were of minimal importance, with most of the accidents being reported during sunny days during the rush period of 12 noon to 3 pm. Driver's error was identified as the main contributing factor in about two thirds of all RTAs mainly as reckless driving and excess speeding. About 27% of the drivers were professional drivers and 41% were in the age group 25-35 years in good health with no alcohol or drug intake. Hence, human errors may be attributed to carelessness, experience, lack of knowledge or attention, over-exhaustion or fatigue. The effects of physical stressors on performance of drivers need to be further explored and clarified but this need not underestimate the importance of vehicle and environment since most accidents are multifactoral and a slight change in them may effectively enhance perception and minimise personal error. Recommendations for remedial measures adopting an interdisciplinary approach are presented. PMID:8936950

Nofal, F H; Saeed, A A; Anokute, C C

1996-10-01

247

Assessment of low vitamin D among Saudi Arabians  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To compare the performance of 3 commonly used 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) assays among a sample of the Saudi population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out between January 2011 and December 2012 at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia. After informed consent, blood samples for measurement of 25-OHD level was extracted from 200 adults. The vitamin D level of each individual were determined using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), radio-immuno assay (RIA), and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. Assays were also compared through commonly used cut-points for classification of vitamin D deficiency. Bias between assays was evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Results: The average age of patients was 45.7±16.1 years. A significant difference between the assays was found. The mean 25-OHD levels were highest for the LC-MS/MS (21.65 ng/mL, 95% CI 19.74-23.56), intermediate for RIA (16.607 ng/mL, 95% CI 14.87-18.32), and lowest for CLIA method (13.864 ng/mL, 95% CI 12.109-15.618). Using 30 ng/mL as a cutoff value, only 6% was found to have normal levels of 25-OHD using CLIA, 9% using RIA, and 22% using LC-MS/MS. Conclusion: Levels of 25-OHD and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency are dependent on the assay used. The reported high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among the Saudi population can be partially explained by the use of assays that underestimate vitamin D levels. PMID:25316470

Sadat-Ali, Mir; Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen H.; Al-Shaikh, Iman H.; Al-Turki, Haifa A.; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Al-Othman, Abdallah A.

2014-01-01

248

Knowledge, attitude, and behavior among Saudis toward cancer preventive practice  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC) or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test. Results: The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE); 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ‘heard of cancer warning signal’ were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8%) felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6%) insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics. Conclusion: Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information. PMID:22175041

Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Al-Hamdan, Nasser A.; Mohamed, Gamal

2011-01-01

249

Sarcoidosis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

AIM: To review a general hospital’s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. METHODS: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998–2008). RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17). The most common presentations were cough (48%), dyspnea (21%), joint pain (18%), splenomegaly (12%), hepatomegaly (9%), and lymphadenopathy (5%). The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in 14 (46.7%). The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29) except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%), and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. CONCLUSION: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis. PMID:21264167

Al-Khouzaie, Thamer H.; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.; Al Subhi, Faisal M.

2011-01-01

250

Frequency and associated risk factors of recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis among Saudi adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To explore the frequency and associated risk factors of recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis (RDKA) among Saudi adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 103 T1DM adolescents (aged 13-18 years, 57 males) who were hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) between January 2013 and May 2014 at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The respondents were purposively, conveniently selected, and interviewed using a structured Arabic questionnaire including clinical information and demographics. Results: Fifty-six participants had experienced one episode of DKA, 41 had 2 episodes, and 6 had ?3 episodes. Compared with adolescents who had hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ?9, mean difference in RDKA was found among adolescents with >9 HbA1c. Similarly, adolescents who stopped insulin and those with lipodystrophy at the injection site had a higher frequency of RDKA. Discontinuing insulin (67%) was the major reason for RDKA followed by infection (31%). Among adolescents who discontinued insulin treatment, 31 (46.3%) gave no reason for stopping, 25 (37.3%) reported feeling sick, 7 (10.4%) gave a combination of reasons, and 4 (6%) reported a lack of supplies or other reasons. Regression analysis revealed that a higher HbA1c level and the presence of lipodystrophy were independent risk factors for RDKA. Conclusion: The frequency of RDKA was significantly greater in the T1DM adolescents with a higher HbA1c level, lipodystrophy, and those who had discontinued insulin treatment. Comprehensive multidisciplinary diabetes education should be offered to control modifiable risk factors in these patients. PMID:25719588

Al-Hayek, Ayman A.; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Braham, Rim B.; Turki, Anoud S.; Al-Sabaan, Fahad S.

2015-01-01

251

Oral injuries in children attending a hospital in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims  To determine the occurrence, causes, types and severity of oral trauma and the time elapsed until seeking dental care in children\\u000a seen in a hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Data included all cases of oro-facial trauma for children aged 17 years and younger who presented at the emergency and dental\\u000a departments of the hospital during a 12-month period.

Manal Al-Malik

2009-01-01

252

Menetrier`s disease in a Saudi child.  

PubMed

Menetrier`s disease is a rare form of acquired gastropathy that presents mostly during adulthood, but is extremely rare in children. It is a clinicopathological diagnosis that typically presents with abdominal pain, vomiting, and edema secondary to hypoalbuminemia. Endoscopy usually shows giant gastric mucosal folds, and gastric biopsy shows foveolar hyperplasia and decreased oxyntic glands. Here, we describe a 5-year-old boy from Saudi Arabia with typical presentation of Menetrier`s disease and serological evidence of acute cytomegalovirus infection. PMID:24252900

Alfares, Fahad A; Raddaoui, Emad M; El-Mouzan, Mohammad I; Alangari, Abdullah A

2013-11-01

253

Luminescence dating of the Wabar meteorite craters, Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Luminescence dating has been used to find the age of meteorite impact craters at Wabar (Al Hadida) in Saudi Arabia. The luminescence characteristics of the shocked material were determined. Using a variety of luminescence dating techniques applied to impactite formed by the meteorite, and to the underlying sand, the age is found to be 290 ?? 38 years. A comparison is made with two possible historically recorded ages. An impact as young as this has implications for the assessment of hazards from the impact on Earth of small meteorites. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.; Shoemaker, C.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Wynn, J.

2004-01-01

254

Sale of US military aircraft to Saudi Arabia. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War in the late 1980s resulted in a gigantic downsizing and consolidation of America`s defense industries, as domestic demand plummeted and the volume of international arms trading fell. However, in total world arms exports the United States exports more arms than any other nation. The country of Saudi Arabia has been the destination of a disproportionate amount of these weapons. The following account is an examination of the US military aerospace industry, the world military aerospace market, US government policy concerning arms exports, and the Saudi aerospace market. Each of these entities profoundly impacts US-Saudi military aerospace commerce. By individually analyzing the above factors, it will be demonstrated that the supply relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia is dependent on the convergence of several long standing and deep seated aspirations on the part of the three major players: the US Aerospace Industry, the US Government, and the Saudi Government. The US military aerospace industry`s exports are critical to ensure its independent survival, help fund crucial RD programs, and maintain a viable defense high tech industrial base in the U.S. In addition, it wishes to exert a military presence in the Gulf area and nurture relations with Saudi Arabia in particular, as the world`s leading oil producer. The Saudi government requires a military defense anchored in high tech aerospace systems, as well as a dependable and capable military ally such as the US.

Bents, E.R.

1995-05-01

255

Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny of the most abundant haplogroup (preHV)1 (R0a) was constructed based on 13 whole mtDNA genomes. Results The Saudi Arabian group showed greatest similarity to other Arabian Peninsula populations (Bedouin from the Negev desert and Yemeni) and to Levantine populations. Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs had only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component (7%), similar to the specific North-African contribution (5%). In addition, a small Indian influence (3%) was also detected. Conclusion The majority of the Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85%) have a western Asia provenance. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV)1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages) matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia. PMID:17331239

Abu-Amero, Khaled K; González, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Bosley, Thomas M; Cabrera, Vicente M

2007-01-01

256

Clean Cities Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

Not Available

2004-01-01

257

The Incidence Rate of Thyroid Cancer Among Women in Saudi Arabia: An Observational Descriptive Epidemiological Analysis of Data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008.  

PubMed

This study provides a descriptive epidemiological data of thyroid cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR) and the age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) stratified by the region and year of diagnosis. This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi thyroid cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were applied using descriptive statistics with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. A total of 2,930 cases were recorded in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR at 9.43 per 100,000 women, followed by Tabuk at 7.11 and eastern region at 6.5, while Jazan and Jouf had the lowest average ASIRs at 1.97 and at 2.72, respectively. The region of Qassim recorded the greatest changes of ASIR at 5.5 per 100,000 women from 2001 to 2008. There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, Tabuk and eastern region were the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. While, Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Finally, the region of Qassim had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of thyroid cancer disease among Saudi women. PMID:24859807

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Almalki, Shaia S; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

2014-05-25

258

Architectural Academic Tourism: Saudi Chronicles or Social Mobility for Women through Architectural Design and Education in Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

). At the time of writing, the school is essentially a commuter college open from around 8am-4pm Monday through Friday with a visionary president who has the ostensible where-with-all (and backing) to realise expansionary dreams. My students were eager... ?? They have been there years and made no progress professionally; their answer was all the same: where will I go? They do not see themselves as having options, so they put up with [the situation]. Saudi women are controlled--they only understand control...

Jann, Marga

2014-07-21

259

Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges  

PubMed Central

Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor. PMID:21264164

BaHammam, Ahmed S.

2011-01-01

260

Work-Related Health Disorders among Saudi Computer Users  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and eye and vision complaints among the computer users of King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabian Airlines (SAUDIA), and Saudi Telecom Company (STC). Stratified random samples of the work stations and operators at each of the studied institutions were selected and the ergonomics of the work stations were assessed and the operators' health complaints were investigated. The average ergonomic score of the studied work station at STC, KAU, and SAUDIA was 81.5%, 73.3%, and 70.3, respectively. Most of the examined operators use computers daily for ? 7 hours, yet they had some average incidences of general complaints (e.g., headache, body fatigue, and lack of concentration) and relatively high level of incidences of eye and vision complaints and musculoskeletal complaints. The incidences of the complaints have been found to increase with the (a) decrease in work station ergonomic score, (b) progress of age and duration of employment, (c) smoking, (d) use of computers, (e) lack of work satisfaction, and (f) history of operators' previous ailments. It has been recommended to improve the ergonomics of the work stations, set up training programs, and conduct preplacement and periodical examinations for operators. PMID:25383379

Jomoah, Ibrahim M.

2014-01-01

261

Parental responses to consanguinity and genetic disease in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

In-depth interviews of 36 Saudi families whose children suffered from neuro-metabolic disorders were conducted at a specialist hospital in Riyadh in order to examine parental understanding of disease and attitudes towards future births and consanguineous marriages. Parents had difficulty accepting a genetic explanation for diseases that did not affect all children at the time of birth; they also expressed religious or folk beliefs to account for illness. Coping behaviours included denial and resignation to the situation, divorce and remarriage. Some families adopted a cautious approach to cousin marriages and future births; this was significantly related to their education level, but not to previous infant deaths. Awareness of medical facts brought little emotional comfort to parents but allowed for preventive measures through screening adult carriers and identifying affected infants. This study presents new material from Saudi Arabia to strengthen current awareness that the range of religious beliefs, social attitudes and reproductive behaviours adopted by families in a society undergoing rapid change is of direct relevance to health care. PMID:1776043

Panter-Brick, C

1991-01-01

262

Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world. PMID:25737650

Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M

2015-03-01

263

"Outbreak" of hand injuries during Hajj festivities in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Pediatric hand surgeons in Europe and North America are aware of the yearly "outbreak" of pediatric hand injuries on Halloween from carving pumpkins. This study reports another yearly "outbreak" of hand injuries--in Saudi Arabia from slaughtering sheep. During the 3 days of festivities following the Hajj ceremony, hundreds of thousands of sheep are slaughtered. Over 4 consecutive years, 298 patients attended the emergency room of Riyadh Central Hospital with injuries related to the slaughtering of animals sustained during the 3 days of festivity. Almost three quarters of patients (73%) were injured on the first day of festivity. The majority (92%) were nonprofessionals. Children accounted for 6.7% of patients. In adults, the female-to-male ratio was 1:7. The most common mechanism of injury was a knife cut (80.9%). Almost three quarters of injuries (73.5%) affected the hands, with more involvement of the left than the right hand. Only 7.7% of patients with hand injuries were admitted to the hospital for treatment. It was concluded that implementing safety measures while slaughtering, and educating the general population would be important in the prevention of these hand injuries in Saudi Arabia. PMID:10454321

Rahman, M M; Al-Zahrani, S; Al-Qattan, M M

1999-08-01

264

Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T.polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world. PMID:25737650

Bukhari, Najat A.; Al-Otaibi, Reem A.; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M.

2014-01-01

265

Religious involvement and health in dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Patients on hemodialysis experience considerable psychological and physical stress due to the changes brought on by chronic kidney disease. Religion is often turned to in order to cope with illness and may buffer some of these stresses associated with illness. We describe here the religious activities of dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia and determined demographic, psychosocial, and physical health correlates. We administered an in-person questionnaire to 310 dialysis patients (99.4 % Muslim) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that included the Muslim Religiosity Scale, Structured Clinical Interview for Depression, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and other established measures of psychosocial and physical health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified characteristics of patients who were more religiously involved. Religious practices and intrinsic religious beliefs were widespread. Religious involvement was more common among those who were older, better educated, had higher incomes, and were married. Overall psychological functioning was better and social support higher among those who were more religious. The religious also had better physical functioning, better cognitive functioning, and were less likely to smoke, despite having more severe overall illness and being on dialysis for longer than less religious patients. Religious involvement is correlated with better overall psychological functioning, greater social support, better physical and cognitive functioning, better health behavior, and longer duration of dialysis. Whether religion leads to or is a result of better mental and physical health will need to be determined by future longitudinal studies and clinical trials. PMID:25316206

Al Zaben, Faten; Khalifa, Doaa Ahmed; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal; Al Shohaib, Saad; Binzaqr, Salma Awad; Badreg, Alae Magdi; Alsaadi, Rawan Ali; Koenig, Harold G

2015-04-01

266

Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ=-0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r=0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t=2.898; df=18; p<0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. PMID:22353176

Alharbi, O A; Phillips, M R; Williams, A T; Gheith, A M; Bantan, R A; Rasul, N M

2012-04-01

267

Denied Dignity: Systematic Discrimination and Hostility toward Saudi Shia Citizens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch, "the world's leading independent organizations dedicated to defending and protecting human rights", has a revealing report available on their website about the discrimination that has occurred against the Shia religious community in Saudi Arabia. The Report, found in the "Publications" tab of the website, can be read online in English or Arabic (click the yellow "L" near the top of the page), can be downloaded as a PDF, or ordered for purchase. The report includes a summary of the situation at the beginning of the report, plus recommendations to Saudi Arabia from Human Rights Watch to rectify the situation, as well as information about the report's research methodology. Under the "Reports" tab there are hundreds of other reports available online, and they can be browsed by date, country, or issue. Additionally scholars will appreciate that the "Methodology" the Human Rights Watch researchers use to document abuse of human rights throughout the world is available here in a comprehensive document entitled "Our Research Methodology".

268

Musculoskeletal Pain Disorders among Secondary School Saudi Female Teachers.  

PubMed

Objective. This study was conducted to estimate prevalence and pattern of musculoskeletal pain disorders among secondary school Saudi female teachers in Al-Khobar area and the psychodemographic and psychosocial factors that may affect them. Material and Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using sample of secondary schools teachers (governmental and private school) in Al-Khobar area, Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Result. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain disorders was 79.17%. Main sites of pain were lower back (63.8%) followed by shoulder (45.4%), neck (42.1%), leg (40.0%), wrist (16.2%), and elbow joint (10.0%). Factors that showed significant relationship were type of school (p value 0.038), age (p value 0.002), weight (p value 0.007), number of children (p value 0.006), shoe type (p value 0.000), teaching years (p value 0.003), and working daily hours (p value 0.027). Conclusion. Secondary school female teachers showed high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain disorders in most anatomic sites, namely, the back, shoulder, neck, legs, wrist, and elbow joint. Risk factors associated with significant pain were type of school, age, weight, number of children, and number of teaching years. PMID:23970968

Darwish, Magdy A; Al-Zuhair, Shatha Z

2013-01-01

269

Timing of uplift peripheral to the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A Prominent escarpment is found along the western margin of the Arabian Shield. Elevations along this escarpment are up to 3200 m above the Red Sea. Between the Red Sea and the crest of the escarpment is a relatively featureless coastal plane that is ??? 50 km across. The coastal plane abruptly gives way to the steep mountainous terrain, the elevation of which increases abruptly towards the high crest. The elevation slowly decreases to the east of the high crest. Forty-four apatite fission-track ages have been determined on rocks from the Proterozoic Arabian Shield in southwestern Saudi Arabia. These ages range from 13.8 to 568 Ma. In general, the youngest ages are found at low elevations along the base of the escarpment near the eastern edge of the coastal plane. The oldest ages are from along and to the east of the crest. The fission-track data from Saudi Arabia show that there was a period of minor uplift and cooling during the Cretaceous. This was followed by a relatively stable period which lasted until the Mid to Upper Miocene. The latest uplift and erosion began slightly younger than 13.8 Ma. This latest episode resulted in a minimum uplift of 3 km and is related to the Red Sea Rift. Samples totally annealed prior to this latest episode of uplift and cooling have not yet reached the surface.

Naeser, C.W.; Zimmermann, R.A.; Bohannon, R.G.; Schmidt, D.L.

1990-01-01

270

In vitro cytotoxic screening of selected Saudi medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity. PMID:21953271

Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

2012-04-01

271

Assessing oral cancer knowledge among Saudi medical undergraduates.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide with more than 263,000 patients diagnosed in 2008. Nonspecialists' negative attitudes and poor working knowledge of oral cancer significantly contribute to suboptimal detection of early-stage disease which leads to delays in diagnosis. We aimed to assess the working knowledge and views associated with oral cancer prevention among medical students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of 4th, 5th, and 6th year undergraduate medical students was undertaken. Questions included knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention. The overall response rate was 82 % (137/167). Mean score of cancer knowledge was 57.8 % which was below the expected standard of 70 %. Only 53 % correctly answered all questions related to oral cancer. This result had no association with either the academic year (p = 0.23) or gender (p = 0.37). Interestingly, 72 % of the respondents did not feel confident in performing an oral examination. Sixty-three percent of the medical students believed it to be beyond their role to aid patients in smoking cessation measures or to take part in other disease preventative strategies. This study demonstrates a dearth of knowledge relating to the diagnosis and management of oral cancer among clinical students within an established Saudi medical school. An immediate refinement of current medical curricula to address these deficiencies is warranted. PMID:23900623

Kujan, Omar; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Azzegahiby, Saleh; Alenzi, Faris Q; Idrees, Majdy

2013-12-01

272

Epidemiology of infant burn in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To identify the epidemiology, pattern, outcome, and impact of infant burns in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of admitted infants charts over 4 years (2008-2013) at the Burn Unit of King Fahad Hospital, Hofuf, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. The charts were reviewed for age, gender, etiology, site of injury, total body surface area (TBSA), depth of burn, hospital stay, and discharge status. Results: The total number of admissions to the Burn Unit was 510 cases. Out of these cases, 84 were infants, constituting 16.5% of total admissions. Scald burn was the most common etiology affecting 73 infants (86.9%). The highest percentage of total body surface area was between 5-10%, which occurred in 41 infants (48.8%). The average hospital stay was 10 days. No infant mortality was reported during this period. Conclusion: The prevalence of burns among infants in our hospital is high, and preventive measures must be implemented to decrease the occurrence of burns in this age group. PMID:25737175

Alsalman, Abdulla K.; Algadiem, Emran A.; Alalwan, Maysaa A.; Farag, Tarek S.

2015-01-01

273

The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi women attending the infertility clinic in Central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection among Saudi women, its clinical presentation, and its association to infertility. Methods: This study was conducted between October 2012 and July 2013 at King Khalid University Hospital and King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Female patients aged between 19 and 46 years old with infertility problems seen at both hospitals were recruited to join the study. A separate group of female patients without infertility problems was also recruited from both hospitals to serve as controls for the study. Endocervical swabs were collected from both groups of patients, and samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction. Results: There was a statistically significantly greater prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women (n=8, 8.0%) compared with the fertile group of women (n=1, 1.0%). The C. trachomatis infection was significantly correlated to infertility. Conclusion: A significant association between infertility and increased prevalence of C. trachomatis infection is shown in this study, thus, we suggest that screening for Chlamydial infection to be part of the routine investigation for infertility. PMID:25630006

Alfarraj, Dunia A.; Somily, Ali M.; Alssum, Rasheed M.; Abotalib, Zeinab M.; El-Sayed, Amal A.; Al-Mandeel, Hazim H.

2015-01-01

274

Confidentiality, informed consent and children's participation in the Saudi biobank governance: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The growth of research biobanks has created many new ethical challenges worldwide. This article outlines and discusses key issues in the governance of Saudi Biobank, a newly established national biobank in Saudi Arabia launched in 2014. The Saudi Biobank project includes human biological samples from participants aged 10-70 years and aims to conduct an extensive study on the influence of genes, environment and lifestyle in common diseases. We examined the strengths and weaknesses of Saudi Biobank's governance as well as the similarities and differences with 4 other biobanks (in the United Kingdom, Iceland, Estonia and Canada). Three different ethical issues are discussed in detail: confidentiality, informed consent and children's participation in research. We evaluated these issues in relation to international ethical guidelines and Islamic law. The insights gained may be useful in developing national biobanking regulations in other Islamic countries, particularly in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. PMID:25601806

Alahmad, G H; Dierickx, K

2014-11-01

275

Aggregate model and analysis of the energy dynamics in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is facing a crisis in the near future centered on increasing energy consumption. Today, the kingdom consumes approximately 1/3 of its oil production. If no action is taken and the kingdom continues ...

Al-Ahmed, Khalid A. (Khalid Abdulrahim)

2012-01-01

276

78 FR 39712 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait Clarification...participants is selected, all interested U.S. IT and cyber-security firms and trade organizations which have not...

2013-07-02

277

Stakeholder value network analysis for the energy system of Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

Saudi Arabia is experiencing a considerable escalation in its consumption of electricity, provoked by economic progress and population increase. Such an escalation threatens the economic output of the Kingdom: more oil and ...

Alonso, Francisco J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

278

Bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

The bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were studied for two successive years (January 1996-December 1997) at 12 collecting stations representing six sectors of the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia. The predominant species...

Doha, Said Abdallah; Samy, Abdallah Mohammed

2010-11-01

279

Strategic use of ICT in the Saudi system of higher education: King Saud University   

E-print Network

This study investigates ICT in Saudi HE as represented by the researcher’s own institution: King Saud University (KSU). Using a naturalistic approach in pursuing the inquiry and making use of mixed methods, the research ...

Alkhatnai, Mubarak Hadi Marie

2013-11-29

280

Saudi Students' Perspectives on their Teachers' Transmission of Negative Messages: A Hidden Curriculum  

E-print Network

of Education, 1980). The Cost of Education Education in Saudi Arabia starts at the kindergarten or primary stage and proceeds through the elementary, intermediate (junior high), and secondary (high school) stages, ending with higher education (colleges...

Abdulsalam, Abdulkhaliq G.

2009-10-29

281

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, June 1985  

SciTech Connect

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of June 1985 are presented. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

282

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of March 1985 are presented. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-03-01

283

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, April 1985  

SciTech Connect

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of April 1985 was presented. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

284

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, May 1985  

SciTech Connect

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of May 1985 are presented. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

285

Isolation and identification of microbes associated with mobile phones in Dammam in eastern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was conducted to determine microbial contamination of mobile phones in the city of Dammam, in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia, and identify the most important microbial species associated with these phones in order to take the necessary remedial measures. Materials and Methods: The analysis of a total of 202 samples was done to identify fungal and pathogenic bacteria isolates. Sterile swabs were firmly passed on the handset, the buttons and the screens of mobile phones, then inoculated into media of bacteria and fungi. Frequency distribution of isolates were calculated. Results: There were 737 isolated of the following bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria sicca, Micrococcus luteus, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterobacter aerogenes at the rate of 56.58, 13.57, 8.01, 7.73, 6.51, 3.66, 2.85 and 1.09% respectively. There were fungal isolates as follows: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus ochraceus at the rate of 29.07, 26.74, 20.93, 10.47, 6.98, 2.33, 2.33, 1.16%, respectively. Conclusions: The study showed that all mobile phones under consideration were infected by several microbes, most of which belonged to the natural flora of the human body as well as airborne fungi and soil. This means that it is necessary to sterilize hands after contact with a phone since it is a source of disease transmission. PMID:22022665

Al-Abdalall, Amira H. A.

2010-01-01

286

Students’ attitude toward use of over the counter medicines during exams in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To explore the use of over the counter (OTC) medicines among students during exams in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Method A cross-sectional study was designed; using a self-administered twenty-two item online questionnaire for the students’ convenience and easy response disclosure. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13®. Results A total of N = 1596 students participated in this survey, of whom 829 (51.9%) were university students and 767 (48.1%) were high school students. Overall, 80.0% of the respondents disclosed the use of OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for headache and pain relief. In addition, other substances used during the exams were Energy Drinks (5.0%), Flu Medication (5.0%), Vitamins (5.0%) and Antibiotics (5.0%). Female students were found to be more knowledgeable about safety issues concerning the use of OTC medicines (5.11 ± 1.27, p = <0.001) than male students. Ease in access to OTC medicine, availability of pharmacist consultation and advertisement in print and electronic media were the main factors disclosed by the respondents that may result in an increase in the use of OTC products. The use of OTC medicines was generally higher among female students (p = 0.001). Conclusion The use of OTC medication during exams was more among high school and university students. Gender, age and educational institution were found significantly affecting the use of OTC medicines during exams. PMID:24648821

Almalak, Haya; Albluwi, Ala’a Ibrahim; Alkhelb, Dalal Ahmed; Alsaleh, Hajar Mohmmed; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Aljadhey, Hisham

2013-01-01

287

Atmospheric turbidity and transmittance of solar radiation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades, the urban areas in the city of Riyadh—the capital of Saudi Arabia—were increasing at an exceptionally high rate through a series of development plans. The major plans had been completed by the end of 1982. Some other big utility projects were started and completed during 1987. As a consequence, the air quality has deteriorated markedly and air pollution episodes recorded during these activities showed that particulates were present in the atmosphere at high concentrations. Later in January 1991 the Gulf war started and the firing of the oil fields in Kuwait soon followed. It was estimated that soot particulates were emitted at a rate of 600 ton d -1 along with high rates of other gases. This event has led to significant air quality and visibility problems. Direct normal solar radiation has been measured during the summer months of July and August which were characterized by very dry and cloudless weather for the period between 1982 and 1992. A year-to-year trend of the transmittance of direct normal solar irradiance was then determined. The atmospheric fine aerosol (<2 ?m diameter) loading data during the same period were used to establish a correlation between the aerosol concentration and the extinction coefficient. The total horizontal and direct normal solar radiation measurements during some days when the dark smoke emitted from the oil field fires in Kuwait were passing over Riyadh are presented. The reduction in solar irradiation reflects the intensity of dark smoke at a distance of 500 km from Kuwait.

El-Shobokshy, Mohammad S.; Al-Saedi, Yaseen G.

288

Wooden Bay Window (Rowshan) Conservation in Saudi-Hejazi Heritage Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prominent feature of the architectural style of heritage buildings in western Saudi Arabia (Hijaz) cities such as Jeddah is the extensive use in their facades of projected intricately carved wooden bay window (Rowshan sl, Rawasheen pl). Throughout Balad or the old town in Jeddah, the element of Rowshan can be found made from many different types of woods such as teak, Javan, mahogany, other types of african and middle eastern woods and with different sizes, proportions, and varied intricate ornamentations and motifs. Besides its aesthetic value, the rawasheen and their many components and parts provide other functions such as ventilation, lighting, and spatial and visual privacy for building interiors from the outside. The profound degradation of Rawasheen is impacting the authenticity and heritage value of old buildings in historical Jeddah because of many factors that include: extensive moisture damage, using improper repair methods and joinery techniques to maintain rawasheen, using unsuitable cleaning products and wood paints, and replacing damaged parts with unkown types of wood. In order to prevent any further deterioration of Rawasheen, documentation of rawasheen and its components using recent digital methodologies and the utilization of proper repair techniques must be followed when working with these elements to ensure longevity of conservation, and preservation of value and authenticity.Through the disucssion of Rowshan repair methodology that was developed that include the digital documentation of all intricate details of rowshan panels and wood engraving which allowed replicating damaged elements beyond repair and applied to a listed building in old Jeddah, the paper provides Rowshan repair guidelines which relate to documentation, diagnostic methods, investigations and tests, repair methodology and reinforcement.

Adas, A. A.

2013-07-01

289

Indoor air quality levels in a University Hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Aim of the Study: The complex hospital environment requires special attention to ensure a healthy indoor air quality (IAQ) to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections and occupational diseases. Poor hospital IAQ may cause outbreaks of building-related illness such as headaches, fatigue, eye, and skin irritations, and other symptoms. The general objective for this study was to assess IAQ inside a large University hospital at Al-Khobar City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Different locations representing areas where most activities and tasks are performed were selected as sampling points for air pollutants in the selected hospital. In addition, several factors were studied to determine those that were most likely to affect the IAQ levels. The temperature and relative percent humidity of different air pollutants were measured simultaneously at each location. Results: The outdoor levels of all air pollutant levels, except volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were higher than the indoor levels which meant that the IAQ inside healthcare facilities (HCFs) were greatly affected by outdoor sources, particularly traffic. The highest levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and those less than 10 microns (PM10) inside the selected hospital were found at locations that are characterized with m4ore human activity. Conclusions: Levels of particulate matter (both PM10 and TSP) were higher than the Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs). The highest concentrations of the fungal species recorded were Cladosporium and Penicillium. Education of occupants of HCF on IAQ is critical. They must be informed about the sources and effects of contaminants and the proper operation of the ventilation system. PMID:24696632

El-Sharkawy, Mahmoud F.; Noweir, Mohamed E. H.

2014-01-01

290

City School Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This city school policy is intended to provide a definition of the relationship between Portland, Oregon, and the Portland Public Schools. The city's responsibility for education lies in city programs that affect the public schools. Four themes run through the publication, including rejuvenation and maintenance of city neighborhoods, best use of…

City School Policy Committee, Portland, OR.

291

Main controls on hydrocarbon accumulation in the paleozoic in central Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia is renown for its rich oil and gas resources with the bulk of the reserves reservoired in the Mesozoic. However,\\u000a the discovery of Paleozoic fields in the late 1980s has encouraged further exploration in the Paleozoic. This paper reviews\\u000a the salient features of the Paleozoic petroleum geology in central Saudi Arabia and discusses the main factors controlling\\u000a hydrocarbon

Bai Guoping

2007-01-01

292

Bone mineral density of the spine and femur in healthy Saudis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reference values of bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in healthy Saudis of both sexes and compared with US \\/ northern European and other reference data. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and femur including subregions: trochanter, Ward’s triangle, and neck, in 1,980 randomly selected Saudis (age range 20–79 years; 915 males and 1,065 females) living

M. Salleh M. Ardawi; Abdulraouf A. Maimany; Talal M. Bahksh; Hasan A. N. Nasrat; Waleed A. Milaat; Raja M. Al-Raddadi

2005-01-01

293

Epizootiological aspects of peste des petits ruminants and rinderpest in sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Epizootiological aspects of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and rinderpest in sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia are examined. The presence of PPR has been suspected on occasions, but virus isolation has been successful only once. Information regarding PPR and rinderpest in sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia is scarce. The only survey conducted indicated that neither disease is endemic in the country. PMID:11107629

al-Naeem, A; Abu Elzein, E M; al-Afaleq, A I

2000-12-01

294

City Stories Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The City Stories project is a network of city-based storytelling sites, tying real people in real cities all over the world together with a thread of personal stories. The first City Stories site was begun by Derek Powazek, and with offers from volunteers to maintain sites across the world, the City Stories network has expanded to several dozen cities, including Tumon (in Guam), Denver, San Diego, Chicago, and Seattle. The site also notes that City Stories will be expanding to over twenty new cities in the near future. Essentially, each City Stories site is a collection of short stories and thought pieces by local residents, sharing experiences and ideas through the site. Visitors to each site can also post their comments about each individual piece of writing and add their own stories. Finally, each site also contains links about their city for persons seeking to learn a bit more about the place.

295

Back pain among health care workers in a Saudi Aramco facility: prevalence and associated factors.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for back pain among health care workers of Saudi Aramco. A validated questionnaire was used to collect information on back pain in the last 12 months as well as relevant risk factors among health care workers at a single Saudi Aramco health care facility. Completed responses were received from 964 of 3,295 workers. Three significant predictors for the presence of back pain were identified: female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.7), Saudi nationality (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.4-3.9), and working as a surgeon (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 1.4-21.5). Educational level was of borderline significance (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.98-2.7). An interaction between gender and race was identified, with Saudi females being at particularly high risk of reporting back pain (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.8-8.5). Gender, occupation, and nationality were identified as risk factors for back pain, and a particularly high risk was seen among female Saudis health care workers in Saudi Aramco. Nationality may be important because of cultural difference between groups, but also because of differences in benefits available. PMID:23298422

Behisi, Marwan Ahmed; Al-Otaibi, Sultan Thoail; Beach, Jeremy

2013-01-01

296

Vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic and a common health problem worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the vitamin D status in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to study its relation to various variables. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pediatric clinic in Jeddah Clinic Hospital-Kandarah, Jeddah, KSA, from October through December 2010, in which 510 healthy children aged 4–15 years were enrolled. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured. Dietary vitamin D intake and duration of daily sunlight exposure were determined. 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL and <7 ng/mL were defined as relative and severe vitamin D deficiency, respectively. Results: The mean concentration of 25(OH)D was 13.07 ± 7.81 ng/mL. Seventy subjects (13.72%) had normal 25(OH)D level ranging 20–70 ng/mL. Three hundred (58.82%) had relative 25(OH)D deficiency and 140 (27.45%) had severe deficiency (P=0.000). 220 (43.14%) subjects were males and 290 (56.86%) were females having a statistically significant higher incidence of 25(OH)D deficiency (P=0.019). 54.9% were Saudis, 27.45% were Yemenis and 11.76% were Egyptians. Saudis and Yemenis were more subjected to 25(OH)D deficiency in comparison to Egyptians and other nationalities (P=0.01). There were significant inverse correlations between 25(OH)D levels and bony aches (P=0.000). 56.25% of asymptomatic children had vitamin D deficiency (P=0.000). Duration of sunlight exposure and daily intake of vitamin D had significant effects on serum level of vitamin D (P=0.000). Conclusions: A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah was observed in this study. Vitamin D supplementation of food products can prevent vitamin D deficiency in these children. PMID:22470865

Mansour, Maha M. H. K.; Alhadidi, Khaled M.

2012-01-01

297

Improving the care of sepsis: Between system redesign and professional responsibility: A roundtable discussion in the world sepsis day, September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion in September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as part of the World Sepsis Day held in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to (1) review the chasm between the current management of sepsis and best practice, (2) discuss system redesign and role of the microsystem in sepsis management, (3) emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of the care of sepsis and that improvement of the care of sepsis is the responsibility of all, (4) discuss the bundle concept in sepsis management, and (5) reflect on the individual responsibility of the health care team toward sepsis with a focus on accountability and the moral agent. PMID:24987470

Arabi, Yaseen; Alamry, Ahmed; Levy, Mitchell M.; Taher, Saadi; Marini, Abdellatif M.

2014-01-01

298

Initial results from the Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia project: Microearthquakes in the northern Harrat Rahat monogenetic volcanic field, Madinah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 8-station borehole seismic research array is recording microearthquake data in northern Harrat Rahat. This recently active monogenetic volcanic field lies southeast of the Islamic holy city of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The VORiSA seismographs are operated in collaboration between King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah and the Institute of Earth Science and Engineering, University of Auckland, in New Zealand. The goal of the VORiSA project is to evaluate the seismic and volcanic hazard around Madinah. To this end, we will evaluate the local earthquake activity including the extent to which local earthquakes are tectonic or volcanic. We also will use seismicity to understand the subsurface structure. The analytical goals of the seismic research array are the following: (1) Calculate a new seismic velocity model, (2) Map subsurface structures using seismic tomography, and (3) Explore for fracture zones using shear wave splitting analysis. As compared to seismographs installed on the surface, borehole seismometers detect smaller and more numerous microearthquake signals. The sensitivity and location of the borehole sensors in the VORiSA array are designed to detect these weak signals. The array has a total aperture of 17 km with station spacing at 5 - 10 km. The seismometers are housed in IESE model S21g-2.0, two Hz, 3-component borehole sondes. Sensor depths range from 107 - 121 m. The data acquisition system at each stand-alone station consists of a Reftek 130-01, 6-channel, 24 bit data logger which records at 250 samples per second. The power source is a deep cycle battery with solar recharge. Local temperatures reach extremes of 0° to 50°C, so the battery and recorder are contained in a specially designed underground vault. The vault also provides security in the remote and sparsely populated volcanic field. Recording began on 31 March 2012. An average of one earthquake every three days suggests that currently this is not a highly seismic area. However, seismic swarms, likely related to magmatic intrusion, have occurred in 1999 in Harrat Rahat (~145 earthquakes, M1.4 to 2.3) (Moufti et al., 2010) and in 2009 in Harrat Lunayyir (~30,000 earthquakes up to M5.4) (Pallister et al., 2010). We can locate microearthquakes of Mm = -1 within the array, a significant advantage over the previous surface network. We have characterized instrument noise using power spectrum probability density functions (McNamara and Buland, 2004). All stations show a very high signal to noise ratio; for a near-source M-1 event S/N is ~5. The available data are still too sparse for advanced analysis and currently appear as a cloud of seismicity.

Kenedi, C. L.; Alvarez, M. G.; Abdelwahed, M. F.; Aboud, E.; Lindsay, J. M.; Mokhtar, T. A.; Moufti, M. R.

2012-12-01

299

Structural evolution of Harmaliyah oil field, eastern Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

The history of structural growth of the Harmaliyah oil field in eastern Saudi Arabia was studied by means of a series of paleostructural maps to determine if early entrapment of hydrocarbons played an important role in preserving the high porosity of the Kimmeridgian (Upper Jurassic) Arab D reservoir. The Arab D has been affected by shallow or preburial diagenesis - a common feature in Arabian Upper Jurassic calcarenitic reservoirs. Closure forming the structural trap in the Arab D at Harmaliyah oil field developed principally during the late Turonian (Late Cretaceous). During Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic)-early Turonian (Late Cretaceous) time, shallow or preburial diagenesis of the calcarenitic Arab D reservoir rocks seems to have played a major part in preservation of porosity before the porosity was filled with hydrocarbons.

Ibrahim, M.W. (Kenton Court, London, England); Khan, M.S.; Khatib, H.

1981-11-01

300

Offshore sandstone reservoir perforating practices used in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Perforating wells for production has been a widely accepted industry practice for nearly 50 years. Today many producing wells are completed with metal casings cemented across the hydrocarbon bearing zones for controlling oil, gas, water and solid particles entry into the wellbores. Reservoir fluid flow into wellbores is obtained through perforation tunnels made in casings, cement sheath and reservoir rock. Perforation technology and methods of evaluating perforation efficiencies have been advanced greatly by the industry during the past 50 years. The resulting selection of well perforating devices and perforating methods is vast. However, only few studies have been published addressing field assessment of well perforation efficiencies. The inability of many oil producing wells to flow to surface hampers their perforation effectiveness evaluation. Saudi Arabian offshore oil production is obtained from flowing wells. This situation readily lends itself for analysis of well production profiles and perforation flow efficiencies. This paper examines perforation efficiencies of jet guns in the flowing oil wells.

Benedyczak, C.; Al-Towailib, A.A.

1983-03-01

301

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Immigrant Saudi Worker: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), an uncommon disorder in South-East Asia, including Bangladesh, often presents as granulomatous plaque on the exposed areas, with a high index of suspicion required for diagnosis. Here we report the first imported case of CL caused by Leishmania tropica in a migrant Bangladeshi worker in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The case, initially suspected as a case of cutaneous tuberculosis, arrived at specimens reception unit (SRU) of diagnostic labs of icddr,b being referred by the physician for ALS testing for tuberculosis. At his arrival in the SRU, one of the health personnel of the unit who used to work in KSA suspected him as a case of CL. The diagnosis was confirmed by smear microscopy which revealed plenty of amastigotes within macrophages. PCR was performed to confirm the species. He was treated with sodium stibogluconate at Shahid Suhrawardy Medical College Hospital, Dhaka. PMID:25076674

Razzak, Mohammad A.; Chanda, Bikash C.; Bhaskar, Khondaker R.H.; Mondal, Dinesh

2014-01-01

302

Preliminary noise survey and data report of Saudi Arabian data  

SciTech Connect

From November 1995 to March 1996 a total of 9 broadband temporary stations were deployed across Saudi Arabian shield. These stations consisted of STS-2 seismometers recorded continuously at 40 sps on RefTek dataloggers. All installations were at bedrock sites. Using data sections selected randomly during the deployment, noise studies showed that most stations were exceptionally quiet with noise level near the USGS low noise model for frequencies higher than 0.1 Hz. At lower frequencies, the horizontal components showed increased noise levels, possibly due to instrumental characteristics. High-frequency (greater than 1 Hz) noise varied as much as 10 db between day and night for some stations (RAYN, TAIF) while more isolated stations (HALM) were constant. Seasonal noise levels also varied, with April to June being the quietest months. Slight changes in peak microseism frequency also occurred seasonally.

Mellors, R.

1997-08-01

303

Fanconi anemia associated with moyamoya disease in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

We report a 10-year-old Saudi girl who has Fanconi anemia (FA) and was admitted due to acute hemiplegia, of the right side. She had a previous attack of left side hemiplegia that resolved spontaneously. The brain magnetic resonance angiography showed a cerebrovascular pattern of moyamoya disease. She underwent partially matched related donor stem cell transplantation (SCT), but unfortunately died 3 months later with post SCT complications. The association of moyamoya disease with FA is uncommon, and is rarely reported in the literature. Although this condition may be acquired, it is considered a truly congenital defect in FA, and to identify the etiology of this association furthermore genetic mutation analysis is needed. PMID:25719591

Al-Hawsawi, Zakaria M.; Al-Zaid, Mohamed A.; Barnawi, Ashwaq I.; Yassine, Saadeddine M.

2015-01-01

304

Magnetically inferred basement structure in central Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A compilation of magnetic data for a region in central Saudi Arabia where Precambrian basement is partly exposed on the Arabian shield and partly concealed by overlying Phanerozoic strata, shows a central sector of conspicuous N-S-trending anomalies, a heterogeneous western sector of short-wave-length, high-intensity anomalies, and an eastern sector of low- to moderate-intensity broad-wavelength anomalies. Anomalies in the western and central sectors correlate with Neoproterozoic metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and intrusive rocks of the Arabian shield. The flat magnetic signature of the eastern sector may reflect the presence of a crustal block different in character to the terranes of the orogenic belt and, speculatively, may outline a continental block that collided with the Neoproterozoic terranes and thereby caused their deformation and tectonic accretion. -from Authors

Johnson, P.R.; Stewart, I.C.F.

1995-01-01

305

Characterization of familial breast cancer in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of genetic factors to the development of breast cancer in the admixed and consanguineous population of the western region of Saudi Arabia is thought to be significant as the disease is early onset. The current protocols of continuous clinical follow-up of relatives of such patients are costly and cause a burden on the usually over-stretched medical resources. Discovering the significant contribution of BRCA1/2 mutations to breast cancer susceptibility allowed for the design of genetic tests that allows the medical practitioner to focus the care for those who need it most. However, BRCA1/2 mutations do not account for all breast cancer susceptibility genes and there are other genetic factors, known and unknown that may play a role in the development of such disease. The advent of whole-exome sequencing is offering a unique opportunity to identify the breast cancer susceptibility genes in each family of sufferers. The polymorphisms/mutations identified will then allow for personalizing the genetic screening tests accordingly. To this end, we have performed whole-exome sequencing of seven breast cancer patients with positive family history of the disease using the Agilent SureSelect™ Whole-Exome Enrichment kit and sequencing on the SOLiD™ platform. Results We have identified several coding single nucleotide variations that were either novel or rare affecting genes controlling DNA repair in the BRCA1/2 pathway. Conclusion The disruption of DNA repair pathways is very likely to contribute to breast cancer susceptibility in the Saudi population.

2015-01-01

306

Carbonic Anhydrase II Deficiency in a Saudi Woman  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Carbonic anhydrase (CA) II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the CA II gene that leads to osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis (RTA), and cerebral calcification. Our aim is to present a patient with the classic triad of CA II deficiency syndrome to enhance the awareness about this rare syndrome. METHODS We describe the clinical and radiological findings of a Saudi woman patient with CA II deficiency syndrome. RESULTS A Saudi woman in her 20s presented to our hospital for evaluation of increased bone density. She was known to have delayed developmental milestone with growth retardation and poor scholastic performance. She had multiple fragile fractures started at the age of 15 involving the lower extremities. A physical examination revealed dysmorphic features and intellectual disability with intelligence quotient (IQ) of 36. The initial blood workup showed a picture of distal RTA with hypokalemia, and the radiological imaging confirmed the presence of osteopetrosis and multiple kidney stones. The combination of osteopetrosis with RTA raised the possibility of CA II deficiency. Therefore, computed tomography (CT) of the brain was done and showed intracranial calcification involving the basal ganglia. She was started on potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate. In addition, she underwent right-sided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy. Her DNA analysis came to show a sequence variant c.232+1G>A, which was detected in both of the CA II genes (homozygous). CONCLUSION Early recognition of the disease is a key, as an early appropriate treatment institution is essential in order to prevent further complications. PMID:25674028

Alhuzaim, Omar N; Almohareb, Ohoud M; Sherbeeni, Safiya M

2015-01-01

307

Unusual Features of Rosacea in Saudi Females with Dark Skin  

PubMed Central

Background Data on the clinical presentation of rosacea among darker-skinned ethnic groups is scarce. This article presents the clinical spectrum of rosacea in Saudi female patients with differences highlighted according to skin types. Methods Female patients diagnosed with rosacea at the dermatology clinic in King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between February 2010 and May 2011 were studied prospectively. Data collected included demographics, duration of the disease, personal history of any atopic disorder, aggravating factors, cutaneous and ocular symptoms, the presence of migraine, Helicobacter pylori infection, skin phototypes, and the clinical types and severity of rosacea. Results Fifty patients consented to join the study: 20 (40%) were patients with skin type 4, 9 (18%) had skin type 5, and 21 (42%) had skin type 6. The cheeks, glabella, and chin were involved in 26 (52%) patients. Extrafacial lesions affecting chest, back, and ears were identified in 7 patients (14%). Severe erythematotelangiectatic rosacea was diagnosed in 21 patients (42%): skin type 4 comprised 50%, higher than the incidences for skin type 5 (22%) and skin type 6 (42.9%). The severe papulopustular subtype of rosacea was noted in 7 patients (14.0%), affecting 20% with skin type 4 and 14% with skin type 6. Severity of the erythematotelangiectatic or papulopustular subtypes of rosacea was not significantly associated with skin type (P=0.5691 and P=0.7740, respectively). Conclusion This study addresses the growing interest in skin diseases in dark-skinned individuals. Rosacea is one of the skin disorders that had always been described for fair-skinned populations, but our results indicate that darker-skinned individuals also can be affected by rosacea and the clinical presentation is similar to that seen in patients with fair skin. PMID:25249796

Al Balbeesi, Amal Omar; Halawani, Mona R.

2014-01-01

308

Periodontal health and diabetes awareness among Saudi diabetes patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed to examine diabetic patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, regarding their general diabetic and oral health-related awareness and practices, their awareness of the association of diabetes with periodontal disease, and their sources of diabetes-related information. Methods Diabetic patients (n=454) who were receiving care at the diabetes clinic in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to May 2014, completed a six-part questionnaire assessing their sociodemographic characteristics, general and oral health awareness and practices, and sources of diabetes-related information. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. Results The responses indicated inadequate health-related practices in the surveyed group: 22.2% brushed their teeth twice daily, 73.6% never flossed their teeth, and while 80.2% visited a physician in the past year, only 12.6% visited a dentist during the same year. Of the respondents, 94.8% reported that they had never received advice on oral hygiene tasks in relation to diabetes from a health professional. Awareness about the diabetes and periodontal disease association was limited: 46.7% knew that diabetics have gum problems more often if their blood sugar stays very high, and only 21.8% knew that gum disease makes it harder to control blood sugar in diabetic patients. A significant association (P<0.05) was found between a higher level of education and greater general and oral awareness, as well as a significant association (P<0.05) between longer duration of disease, regular exercise, and regular visits to the physician and awareness about diabetes mellitus. Additionally, a significant association (P<0.05) was found between regular dental visits and both periodontal disease and diabetes awareness. Family and friends were the main source of diabetes-related information, and the Internet was the least likely source. Conclusion Customized educational programs should be planned for diabetic patients according to community needs. PMID:25673974

Bahammam, Maha A

2015-01-01

309

Systemic lupus erythematosus and infections: a retrospective study in Saudis.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics with special reference to infections in Saudi patients with SLE. One-hundred and ninety-nine patients with SLE treated at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia over a period of 15 years (1990-2005) were retrospectively reviewed. There were 162 females and 37 males (4.4 : 1) with an average age of 35 years at onset of disease. Duration of diseases ranged from one to 23 years with a mean of 7.23 years. Some of the clinical characteristics of SLE patients observed were nephritis (53.7%), fever (53.26%), neuropsychological disorder (36.18%), malar/butterfly rash (27.6%), pulmonary disorder (22.6%), photosensitivity (21.6%), cardiac involvement (21.1%) and oral ulcers (19.09%). Infection was the major complication with 58.79% of SLE patient having suffered from various infections. A total of 22 species of pathogens including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, viruses and fungi were isolated from 117 SLE patients. Single to multiple episode of infection with various pathogens were recorded however, majority of patients harboured one or two species of pathogens. Bacterial infection was predominant (78.6%) followed by viral (28.2%) and fungal (28.2%) infections. Forty-four percent of SLE patients were found to be infected with organisms classified as opportunistic. The high incidence of infections in SLE patients may be attributed to the multiple intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors including deficiency of complement (C3 and C4), disease activity, renal impairment, use of glucocorticoid and cytotoxic drugs. It is concluded that more judicious use of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents will be critical to limit the infections in SLE and a high alert and close monitoring of patients will ensure optimal patient outcome, both in terms of morbidity and mortality. PMID:17728372

Al-Rayes, H; Al-Swailem, R; Arfin, M; Sobki, S; Rizvi, S; Tariq, M

2007-01-01

310

The Saudi Arabian heat low: Aerosol distributions and thermodynamic structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation and microphysical data are employed to deduce the bulk radiative and microphysical characteristics of the aerosol layer over the Saudi Arabian Peninsula and the adjacent Arabian Sea. Observed particle size distributions, total mass loadings, and vertical distributions of the dust are presented for five analysis periods. There is a large daily variability of the dust mass loading over the desert. The broadband radiative characteristics of the dust are inferred by comparing calculations for a dust free atmosphere with in situ broadband radiative measurements. The dust had no detectable effect on the longwave radiative fluxes, while it approximately doubled the clear sky shortwave absorption. The total shortwave absorption by the dust is dependent on the underlying surface albedo. The solar absorptance of the dust is expressed in terms of the dust mass loading and is incorporated into a broadband shortwave radiative transfer model to assess the surface and tropospheric energy budgets. For the desert cases the dust is largely responsible for a net 24 hour radiative energy convergence between, 530 and 800 mbar. A 24-hour radiative energy convergence is also found over the ocean; however, the layer depth is shallower than the desert case, being limited to the top of the dust layer. The thermodynamic structure of the heat low is presented. Calculations of temperature advection from the Saudi Arabian Peninsula to the Arabian Sea, suggest that horizontal advection aids in offsetting a net 24 hour tropospheric energy convergence over the desert. This warm air advection, along with the transport of dust over the Arabian Sea, may assist in maintaining the low level inversion and shallow moist layer observed over the western and central Arabian Sea.

Ackerman, Steven A.; Cox, Stephen K.

1982-10-01

311

Secular increase in placental weight in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Ramadan is an annual period of day-time fasting during which people in Saudi Arabia, including pregnant women, change their diets and physical activity. We recently reported that among babies who were in the second or third trimester of gestation during Ramadan placental growth slowed. We also found that, over the four years of the study, placental weight increased by 29 g per year. We have now extended our data collection in order to examine this trend in more detail. Methods We studied the birth records of 17 660 singletons born in King Saud Hospital, Unizah, Saudi Arabia, over a ten year period. The records included birth weight, placental weight and gestational age. Results During the first six years of the study period mean placental weight rose by more than 100 g while mean birth weight was unchanged. This secular increase in placental weight was accompanied by a change in the placenta’s response to Ramadan. During the first half of the study period babies who were in their second or third trimester of gestation during Ramadan had reduced placental weight (475 g and 476 g compared with 484 g, p < 0.001 for both). During the second half of the study period babies who were in their first trimester of gestation during Ramadan had reduced placental weight (533 g compared with 539 g, p = 0.03). Conclusions We suggest that the secular increase in placental weight reflects changes in maternal body composition. These have altered placental responses to the dietary changes during Ramadan. The biological processes underlying these responses are not known. PMID:21429577

Alwasel, S.H.; Abotalib, Z.; Aljarallah, J.S.; Osmond, C.; Alkharaz, S.M.; Alhazza, I.M.; Harrath, A.; Thornburg, K.; Barker, D.J.P.

2012-01-01

312

Creating a GIS application for retail centers in Jeddah city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to identify the role of geographical information systems (GIS) in supporting retail planners in monitoring and analyzing retail development and growth. At first, a review about retail planning and its relevant issues is made. Second, GIS is defined together with its applications in retail planning. The third part discusses the created GIS application that is designed for two retail centers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. This application is created to help planners in defining the distribution of retail demand, describing customers profile, analyzing trade areas and modeling retail flows. Two useful models have been produced by this study. One is called market penetration and the other is based on spatial interaction technique. The former is created to examine retail center catchment area, while the latter is used to model the interaction between demand areas and retail centers.

Murad, AbdulKader A.

2003-11-01

313

The Cultural and Language Challenges in Teaching Saudi Arabian Students, in the English Language, the Mathematics Needed in Order to be Successful  

E-print Network

The Cultural and Language Challenges in Teaching Saudi Arabian Students, in the English Language University The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia jsasser@pmu.edu.sa Abstract This paper deals with cultural factors and language challenges in teaching Saudi Arabian students, in the English language, the mathematics they need

Spagnolo, Filippo

314

Knowledge and attitude of Saudi health professions’ students regarding patient’s bill of rights  

PubMed Central

Background: Patient’s rights are worldwide considerations. Saudi Patient’s Bill of Rights (PBR) which was established in 2006 contained 12 items. Lack of knowledge regarding the Saudi PBR limits its implementation in health facilities. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of health professions’ students at College of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS) Riyadh Saudi Arabia regarding the existence and content of Saudi PBR as well as their attitude toward its ineffectiveness. Methods: A 3-parts survey was used to collect data from 239 volunteer students participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS. Results: Results showed that although the majority of students (96.7%) believe in the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights, half (52.3%) of them had perceptual knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and only 7.9% of them were knowledgeable about some items (1–4 items) of the bill. Privacy and confidentiality of patient was the most common known patient’s rights. Students’ academic level was not correlated to neither their knowledge regarding the bill existence or its content nor to their attitude toward the bill. The majority of the students (93%) reported that only one course within their curriculum was patient’s rights-course related. About one quarter (23.4%) of the students reported that teaching staff used to mention patient’s rights in their teaching sessions. Conclusion: The Saudi health professions students at CAMS have positive attitude toward the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights nevertheless they showed limited knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and its contents. CAMS curriculums do not support the subject of patient’s rights. PMID:25197675

El-Sobkey, Salwa B.; Almoajel, Alyah M.; Al-Muammar, May N.

2014-01-01

315

2 CITY COUNCIL CITY OF NEW YORK  

E-print Network

Working Waterfront Association New York/New Jersey Baykeeper 24 25 #12;3 1 2 A P P E A R A N C E 13 Nellie Tsipoura 14 Research Associate Natural Resources Defense Council 15 Ronald Bourque 161 2 CITY COUNCIL 3 CITY OF NEW YORK 4 -------------------------------x 5 THE TRANSCRIPT

Columbia University

316

Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

Ricks, Thomas

2011-01-01

317

Vitamin D status among patients visiting a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a retrospective review of 3475 cases  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in several chronic, non-communicable diseases independent of its conventional role in bone and calcium homeostasis. In this retrospective study, we determined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association to several cardiometabolic indices among patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A total of 3475 charts of out-patient subjects who visited KAMC from September 2009 until December 2010 were reviewed and included. Variables of interest included measurements of vitamin D status, glycemic and renal profile, as well as trace elements (calcium and phosphorous). Results The over-all prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the cohort studied was 78.1% in females and 72.4% in males. 25(OH) vitamin D was significantly associated with increasing age and weight (p-values?

2014-01-01

318

What Is Clean Cities?  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

Not Available

2007-08-01

319

"City of Bits"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"City of Bits" is the MIT Press's first WWW book, "City of Bits: Space, Place, and the Infobahn," is about a new type of "city," constructed of interconnected virtual spaces on the network. The online version functions as a companion to its printed counterpart. Reader comments or queries are embedded in the text to become part of an on-going dialogue in which author and reader will interact. ("City of Bits," MIT Press, 1995) [From Edupage 6/22/95

320

Knowledge and Attitudes of Primary Health Care Physicians Towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) of primary health care (PHC) physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: A crosssectional study including all physicians working at PHC centers in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, was carried out from the beginning of April 2010

Norah Abdullah Al-Rowais; Abdullah M. N. Al Bedah; Mohamed K. M. Khalil; Ahmed Tawfik El Olemy; Asim A. H. Khalil; Mohamed H. S. Alrasheid; Hisham Al Khashan; Mansour Al Yousef; Ahmed Abdel Razak Ba Fart

2012-01-01

321

Investing in Learning English: A Case of Three Saudi Students in Singapore 25 Investing in Learning English  

E-print Network

Investing in Learning English: A Case of Three Saudi Students in Singapore 25 Investing in Learning English: A Case of Three Saudi Students in Singapore Radhika Jaidev Centre for English Language Arabia in the middle of 2008 to learn English so that they could take either the TOEFL iBT or the IELTS

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

322

SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study  

SciTech Connect

Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

323

A systematic review of population-based dental caries studies among children in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective Dental caries critically impacts the health and development of children. Understanding caries experience is an important task for Saudi Arabian policymakers to identify intervention targets and improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to analyze current data to assess the nationwide prevalence and severity of caries in children, to identify gaps in baseline information, and to determine areas for future research. Methods A search of published and unpublished studies in PubMed, Google, and local Saudi medical and dental journals was conducted for the three keywords “dental,” “caries,” and “Saudi Arabia.” The inclusion criteria required that the articles were population-based studies that assessed the prevalence of dental caries in healthy children attending regular schools using a cross-sectional study design of a random sample. Results/discussion The review was comprised of one unpublished thesis and 27 published surveys of childhood caries in Saudi Arabia. The earliest study was published in 1988 and the most recent was published in 2010. There is a lack of representative data on the prevalence of dental caries among the whole Saudi Arabian population. The national prevalence of dental caries and its severity in children in Saudi Arabia was estimated to be approximately 80% for the primary dentition with a mean dmft of 5.0 and approximately 70% for children’s permanent dentition with a mean DMFT score of 3.5. The current estimates indicate that the World Health Organization (WHO) 2000 goals are still unmet for Saudi Arabian children. Conclusion Childhood dental caries is a serious dental public health problem that warrants the immediate attention of the government and the dental profession officials in Saudi Arabia. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate oral health goals. Without the ability to describe the current situation, it is not possible to identify whether progress is being made toward these goals. A roadmap with a clear starting point, destination, and pathway is a desperately needed tool to improve the oral health of Saudi Arabian children. PMID:23960549

Al Agili, Dania Ebrahim

2012-01-01

324

Smart cities in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban performance currently depends not only on the city’s endowment of hard infrastructure (‘physical capital’), but also, and increasingly so, on the availability and quality of knowledge communication and social infrastructure (‘human and social capital’). The latter form of capital is decisive for urban competitiveness. Against this background, the concept of the ‘smart city’ has recently been introduced as a

A. Caragliu; C. Del Bo; P. Nijkamp

2009-01-01

325

Assessing the current state of dental informatics in saudi arabia: the new frontier.  

PubMed

Dental informatics is an emerging field that has the potential to transform the dental profession. This study aims to summarize the current applications of dental informatics in Saudi Arabia and to identify the challenges facing expansion of dental informatics in the Saudi context. Search for published articles and specialized forum entries was conducted, as well as interviews with dental professionals familiar with the topic. Results indicated that digital radiography/analysis and administrative management of dental practice are the commonest applications used. Applications in Saudi dental education included: web-based learning systems, computer-based assessments and virtual technology for clinical skills' teaching. Patients' education software, electronic dental/oral health records and the potential of dental research output from electronic databases are yet to be achieved in Saudi Arabia. Challenges facing Saudi dental informatics include: lack of IT infrastructure/support, social acceptability and financial cost. Several initiatives are taken towards the research in dental informatics. Still, more investments are needed to fully achieve the potential of various application of informatics in dental education, practice and research. PMID:25000042

Al-Nasser, Lubna; Al-Ehaideb, Ali; Househ, Mowafa

2014-01-01

326

75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...organizations. In addition, they will attend a networking event with multipliers. In Dhahran...business matchmaking appointments, and networking activities. Energy participants will...specialists in Riyadh and Dhahran; and Networking receptions in two cities of the...

2010-04-26

327

Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms and primary glaucoma in Saudis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The frequencies of apolipoprotein E (APOE) alleles and genotypes were examined in 230 Saudi subjects including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; n=60) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG; n=40) patients as well as 130 control subjects. Methods The presence of glaucoma in patients was based on clinical examination and/or ophthalmic records. The APOE allele frequency (?2, ?3, and ?4) was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by reverse-hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. Results Analysis of data showed a complete absence of ?2 allele and a significantly lower frequency of the ?3 allele in primary glaucoma patients (90.5%) compared to the control subjects (95.7%, p=0.034, relative risk [RR]=0.473, protective fraction [PF]=0.318). The frequency of the ?4 allele was significantly higher in the glaucoma patients (9.5%) compared to the control subjects (4.2%, p=0.034, RR=2.169, etiological fraction [EF]=0.329). The ?3/?3 genotype was more common in controls than patients (p=0.060, RR=0.465, PF=0.322). The difference in genotype (?3/?4) was not statistically significant between the two groups (p=0.283). Genotype ?4/?4 was found only in 3% of patients while being completely absent in the controls (p=0.080). The genotypes, ?2/?2, ?2/?3, and ?2/?4, were absent in both the test and control groups. When patients were divided on the basis of types of glaucoma, POAG patients had a significantly higher frequency of ?4 allele and ?4/?4 genotype than controls whereas there was no significant difference between PACG patient and control groups in frequencies of APOE alleles and genotypes. Conclusions This study indicates that the ?4 allele may be associated with POAG and could be a risk factor while ?3 may be protective for POAG, and APOE polymorphisms may not be associated at all with PACG in Saudis. PMID:19421411

Al-Dabbagh, Najwa Mohammed; Al-Dohayan, Nourah; Arfin, Misbahul

2009-01-01

328

Barriers to integrating information technology in Saudi Arabia science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined current level of information technology integration in science education in the Yanbu school district in Saudi Arabia, and barriers to use. Sub-domains investigated included: infrastructure and resources, policy and support, science teachers' personal beliefs, and staff development. Survey determined demographic data and level of technology implementation, personal computer use, and current instructional practice. Mean frequency of information technology use was 1--2 times during a semester. Science teachers rated barriers limiting use of technology in teaching with a scale ranging from 0 (does not limit) to 3 (greatly limits). Results found all four factors were significant barriers: infrastructure and resources (M = 2.06; p < .001), staff development (M = 2.02; p <.001), policy and support (M = 1.84; p < .041) and science teachers' personal beliefs regarding technology (M = 1.15; p < .001). Regression analysis found that locations, level of training, teaching experience, and gender predicted frequency of use (F(3,168) = 3.63, R2 = .10, p < .014). Teachers who received in-service training programs used IT significantly more frequently than those who did not receive any training (t = 2.41, p = 0.017). Teachers who received both pre-service and in-service training used IT significantly more frequently than those who did not receive any training (t = 2.61, p = 0.01). Low technology users perceived that there was no support or incentives for using technology, while high technology users did not perceive these barriers (r = -0.18, p = .01). High technology users had positive personal beliefs about how information technology benefits learning, while low technology users held negative beliefs about technology use (r = -0.20, p = .003). The more barriers science teachers experienced, the less likely they were to be information technology users (r = -0.16, p = .02). There is a need for more computers in school, more teacher training, more time for teachers to learn to use technology, and more readily-available, technical support staff. Further studies are needed to represent all science teachers in Saudi Arabia, assess technology capacity of all schools, and assess in-service staff development strategies.

Al-Alwani, Abdulkareem Eid Salamah

329

Tour by Saudi prince Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud prior to mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tour by Saudi prince Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud, payload specialists for STS 51-G mission, prior to mission. Al-Saud and Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassam, the backup payload specialist, man the controls on the flight deck of the crew compartment trainer in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory (29788); the Saudi payload specialists share the hatch of the crew compartment trainer (29789); Portrait view of Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassam during a visit to the Shuttle mockup and integraion laboratory (29790); Don Sirroco, left, explains the middeck facilities in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory (29791); Portrait view of Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration laboratory (29792); The Saudi payload specialists witness a space food demonstration in the life sciences laboratory at JSC. Al-Saud (left) and Al-Bassam (second left) listen as Rita M. Rapp, food specialist, discusses three preparations of re-hydratable food for space travelers. Lynn S. Coll

1985-01-01

330

Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences.  

PubMed

The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions. PMID:25737651

Alaklabi, Abdullah

2015-03-01

331

Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences  

PubMed Central

The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions. PMID:25737651

Alaklabi, Abdullah

2014-01-01

332

Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

2014-09-01

333

Patterns of childhood nephrotic syndrome in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

To determine the patterns in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) in our region, we retrospectively studied 25 nephrotic patients evaluated and followed-up in the hospitals of the Aljouf region in Saudi Arabia. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The incidence of idiopathic NS was two to six cases per 100,000 children/year, while the prevalence was 12 cases per 100,000 children. Five patients presented with hypertension, seven (28%) with respiratory tract infection, three (12%) with tender abdomen, two (8%) with gross hematuria, one (4%) with thrombosis of renal veins with seizure and shock and the remaining seven presented to the hospital without complications. Twenty-three (92%) patients were sensitive to the first steroid course and two (8%) patients were steroid resistant, and both of them proved to have focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) on biopsy. Of those who responded, six (24%) patients remained in remission, while 17 (68%) patients became steroid dependant. Of those who were diagnosed as steroid dependent, three patients were biopsied and one of them was diagnosed as FSGS, while the remaining two had minimal change glomerulonephritis. Regarding steroid-dependent patient relapses, seven (41%) patients showed infrequent relapses and ten (59%) patients had frequent relapses. We conclude that the patterns of NS and the response to treatment observed in this study did not differ significantly from studies from other places in the world. PMID:24029283

Alhassan, Abdulaziz; Mohamed, Waleed Z; Alhaymed, Mohamed

2013-09-01

334

Hydrocarbon habitat in main producing areas, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Current hydrocarbon production in Saudi Arabia is from reservoirs of Cretaceous and Jurassic age. Geochemical studies of the sediments and oils suggest that the hydrocarbons were derived from two separate source-rock provinces. Oil production from the large fields in the southern part of the area is from Jurassic carbonate reservoirs. Most of these oils were derived from thermally mature, thinly laminated, organic-rich carbonate rocks of Jurassic age (Callovian-Oxfordian). These source rocks were deposited in an intrashelf basin which is limited to the southern part of the main producing areas. Extensive vertical migration of oils originating in these sediments is prevented by superjacent evaporite seals deposited during the Late Jurassic. Fields in the northern producing areas appear to have derived their hydrocarbons from a source-rock province on the north. Production from Cretaceous clastic and carbonate reservoirs is limited to the northeastern part of the producing areas. This distribution may be explained by limitation of thermally mature Cretaceous source rocks to the northeastern areas or by the local lack of subjacent evaporite seals to separate these reservoirs from Jurassic source rocks. Thermal maturation studies indicate that the hydrocarbons in Mesozoic reservoirs migrated into the present traps during the early Tertiary.

Ayres, M.G. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA); Bilal, M.; Jones, R.W.; Slentz, L.W.; Tartir, M.; Wilson, A.O.

1982-01-01

335

Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance. PMID:23762541

Aljaloud, Sulaiman O.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

2013-01-01

336

Epidemiology of neural tube defects in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the distribution and pattern of neural tube defects in Saudi Arabia by creating a hospital based registry. Methods: All cases registered in the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC) neural tube defect (NTD) registry since it was established in October 2000 until December 2012 were studied through active surveillance comprising a registrar who collects NTD information by reviewing the patient’s medical records, and interviewing patient’s families. Results: The total number of patients registered from October 2000 to December 2012 was 718 patients. There were more females (417, 58%) than males (301, 42%). Of 620 mothers who underwent antenatal ultrasonography; 392 (63%) were diagnosed at birth, and 204 (33%) were diagnosed with antenatal hydrocephalus. In our registry sample, most mothers (95%) did not take folic acid 3 months prior to pregnancy, and 76% did not take folic acid during the 3 months after conception with the affected child. Only 5% received folic acid prior to conception. Conclusions: The KFSH&RC-NTD registry has met its objectives as a source of data that may significantly contribute to the prevention of NTDs, and improving quality of care for NTD patients through active publication of registry findings and management approaches. PMID:25551116

AlShail, Essam; De Vol, Edward; Yassen, Ahsan; Elgamal, Essam A.

2014-01-01

337

Precipitation Patterns Observed over the Southwest Region of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2008 and 2009, an intensive field program has been conducted in the southwest region of Saudi Arabia, which is adjacent to the Red Sea and is bounded by the Yemen border to the south and the region around Jeddah to the north. The period of study focused on analysis of observations for the months of June-August. This period coincides with a climatological peak in precipitation over the region. This region is mountainous with terrain ranging from sea level to a maximum height of about 2800 m. During the field program, convection was observed almost daily during mid-afternoon was focused along the mountain peaks. This peak in convection coincided with the sea breeze reaching the top of the tallest terrain features. The intensity of convection was modulated by the strength of the sea breeze (predominate wind direction, amount of moisture in the boundary layer, etc.) and strength of a persistent mid-level inversion. The main objective of this study focuses on characterizing the spatial and temporal features of convection and related it to the atmospheric conditions that were observed during the months of June-August. The study examines precipitation and atmospheric conditions using a network of C-Band radars (Abha, Baha, Jeddah, Jizan, and Taif) and surface and upper data collected from the site located in Abha. The presentation will provide an overview of the field program and give a summary of the precipitation and atmospheric characteristics for the two years used in the study.

Kucera, Paul; Chapman, Michael

2010-05-01

338

HIV Transmission at a Saudi Arabia Hemodialysis Unit  

PubMed Central

Background.?Hemodialysis is associated with increased risk of healthcare-associated infections but considered a low-risk setting for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. We investigated 3 hemodialysis unit (HDU) patients with new HIV infections to determine whether transmission was hemodialysis-associated and to correct factors that contributed to transmission. Methods.?Each patient was evaluated for HIV risk factors. Blood samples were tested to determine relatedness of HIV strains. Clinical data (gathered over 18 months) was reviewed to identify seroconversions at 12 HDUs. Infection prevention and control practices were evaluated at 14 HDUs. Findings.?No other HIV seroconversions were identified during the study. HIV gag, pol, and env gene sequences were consistent with a clonal relationship. HIV and hepatitis C virus prevalence rates at one HDU 1 (5.7% and 6.5%, respectively) were higher than for 11 other HDUs (0% and 0.15%, respectively). Conclusions.?Sequencing supports either patient-to-patient or common-source transmission. Infections occurred despite Saudi Arabia's low HIV prevalence and national dialysis policies that emphasize stringent infection prevention and control practices. PMID:24846636

Mashragi, Faisal; Bernstein, Robert S.; Al-Mazroa, Mohammad; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.; Filemban, Sanaa; Assiri, Abdullah; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Hazmi, Mohammad; Alzahrani, Abdullah; Stephens, Gwen; Memish, Ziad A.

2014-01-01

339

Evaluation of emulsified asphalt for use in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Arabia currently contains 31,000 km (18,600 mi) of paved roads and 42,000 km (25,200 mi) of agricultural roads, with the prospect of more roads to be constructed. The low population (6 million) compared to the large area of the country (2,253,300 kmS, 900,000 miS) coupled with the high cost of crushed aggregate makes maintenance and road building costs very high. Local emulsified-asphalt economics, plants, and uses were investigated in this study. Emulsified asphalt proved to be attractive when used for local road maintenance and road bases and low-volume road construction, especially when used with dune sand and marl. Emulsified asphalts were evaluated for use with dune sand and marl and at two portland cement contents. Three types of emulsified asphalts were used which included locally produced, laboratory prepared, and Chevron USA emulsions. Emulsion treated mixes were tested for tensile strength, Poisson's ratio, resilient modulus, fatigue life, and rutting characteristics. Both diametral and beam fatigue tests were used and tests were conducted at 10, 25, 40, and 55C (50, 77, 104, and 131F). The open-graded mix was tested for fatigue characteristics using beam flexure with a confining membrane.

Al-Abdulwahhab, H.I.

1985-01-01

340

Hydrogeochemical Processes of Alkhobar Aquifer in Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na) is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration was found to be higher than the recommended limit for drinking purposes. The Saturation Indices (SI) indicated that the regional groundwater is under-saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, pyrite and aragonite minerals and oversaturated with respect to goethite and hematite minerals. The hardness of groundwater is very high as compared to the established standards. The F contents are within permissible limits for drinking. The nitrate contents are within permissible limits for domestic use. Two water types i.e., Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 and Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 dominate the Al-Ahsa whereas Na-Ca-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 water types are dominant in Al-Dammam, Al-Khobar and Al-Qatif areas. Overall, the study provided useful information on some important hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater of the eastern region. Further studies are required to determine heavy trace metals concentration for multiple uses.

Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.

341

Discovery of familial cerebral cavernous malformation in a Saudi population.  

PubMed

Familial cerebral cavernous malformation is a rare entity. It has been described commonly among the Hispanic population and sparsely among the Italian, French, Swedish and Chinese populations. We discovered two families with this condition among the Saudi population for the first time. Both the index patients had a seizure as a prominent manifestation of their underlying structural lesion. One of them had recurrent attacks of bleeding in the cavernoma leading to a focal neurological deficit. The siblings and the parents of both the patients were screened using CT of the brain imaging. Two members within each family were found to have symptomatic cavernoma. A molecular genetics study revealed heterozygous KRIT1/CCM1 for a frameshift mutation in one of the patients. No detectable mutation was found in the other patient. These cases illustrate the existence of this condition beyond the commonly known geographical area of higher prevalence. Moreover, KRIT1/CCM1 might be the possible target gene that is mutated in this region. PMID:24265337

Nahrir, Shahpar; Al-Hameed, Majed H; Al-Sinaidi, Omar A; Al Shakweer, Wafa

2013-01-01

342

Doctor-patient communication: a skill needed in saudi arabia.  

PubMed

Doctor-patient communication is a skill essential for the satisfaction of the patients' needs and expectations. It involves an art that every practicing physician should have. The situations in health care delivery that demands good doctor-patient communication are many. Diabetes care, the management of hypertension, explaining serious disease diagnoses, prognosis, and investigative procedures are some of the common situations where good doctor-patient communication is very essential. Doctor-patient communication assumes a special status in Saudi Arabia where as a result of mixed ethnicity of the manpower in the health service and the expatriate community, there is a vast diversity of languages, health traditions and beliefs. The skill of doctor-patient communication can be developed and improved by the application of the principles of the patient-centered approach, the utilization of patient-oriented evidence that matters, and its inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum in the first few years of medical school. There should be continuous medical education programs for practicing doctors on the skills of doctor-patient communication through seminars and workshops. This would be a further step towards the improvement of the consumer's well-being. PMID:23008663

Elzubier, Ahmed G

2002-01-01

343

Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2014-09-30

344

Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom. PMID:23961067

El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

2010-04-01

345

Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom. PMID:23961067

El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

2010-01-01

346

Microtremor Measurements Over a Non-Producing Reservoir in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan of the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) program, we are conducting a small-scale pilot passive seismic experiment over a non-producing reservoir to better understand and characterize the origin of various near-surface noises. In this paper, we present the results obtained so far from five stations distributed at various locations of interest over the Dammam Dome structure, which is where the first discovery of oil in Saudi Arabia is situated. One of our stations is located on a concrete foundation structure that used to house the old seismic station at KFUPM. The remaining four stations are situated within the Dammam Dome structure at KFUPM where both middle and upper Rus Formations are exposed. Continuous data was collected at all stations with a Geospace Seismic Recording system manufactured by the OYO Geospace. We systematically selected recordings at all stations at different times of the day in order to check the diurnal variations and site dependences. We analyzed time series data and performed spectral analysis at various frequency range of interest between 0.1-30 Hz. We also looked at microtremor signals between 2 to 3 Hz to see whether or not there exists the correlation between low-frequency microtremors and hydrocarbon bearing structures under the subsurface as reported by various researchers in the region. The results obtained so far show no clear signals between 2-3 Hz. We hope that our ongoing experiment will likely contribute in resolving the ongoing debate on the use of microtremor signals as a direct hydrocarbon indicator by bringing new data and experimental results. Meanwhile, strong signals were consistently observed between 23-25 Hz, specifically at stations located on open grounds. We observed microtremor signals due to site amplifications at frequency < 3Hz with periodic peaks at an average frequency of about10 Hz before the amplification disappears. We also noticed spectral spikes that have likely originated from heavy machinery working at construction sites at a distance which disappear at night.

Popoola, A. K.; Kaka, S. I.

2011-12-01

347

Victory City: The City of the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the past 40-odd years, Orville Simpson II has been pursuing a dream, his vision of a city of the future, a Victory City based on reason and efficiency. Victory Cities would be entirely self-contained under one roof, ideally consisting of seven linked buildings -- each 102 stories -- containing residences, offices, industry, and retail space. Although the idea of snap-out modular walls, furniture bolted to the floors, and no kitchens (residents will be transported to the cafeterias by Ferris wheels) does not appeal to everyone, Simpson must be given credit for the depth and breadth of his vision. Users reading the Residents Guide will find that few details have been overlooked. Simpson addresses issues such as the money and food systems, education, postal service, transportation, security, recreation, pets, healthcare, ecological issues, and so on. Users can view numerous floor plans and conceptual drawings in the Victory City tour, review his arguments for the city in the Purpose/Benefits section, and read a collection of newspaper and magazine features on the man and his city in the Media Coverage section. Simpson is, by the way, still seeking investors.

348

Triage systems: a review of the literature with reference to Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This review evaluates some of the international literature on triage in order to provide evidence-based data for the medical community in Saudi Arabia specifically and the Eastern Mediterranean Region in general. The aim is to encourage national health planners and decision-makers to apply formal triage systems in the emergency departments of general and specialist hospitals and other relevant health settings, including primary and psychiatric care. Research and training on triage is extremely limited in Saudi Arabia and the Region and this review highlights the need for more research on triage systems and for the inclusion of training on triage in medical education programmes. PMID:20799600

Qureshi, N A

2010-06-01

349

Promoting health education and public awareness about dengue and its mosquito vector in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Currently, dengue fever is considered as main health problems in Mekkah and Jeddah of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with dramatically increase in the number of cases reported every year. This is associated with obvious failure in the recent control and management programs for the mosquito vector (Aedes aegypti). Here, we suggested promoting the health education and public awareness among Saudi people to improve the control of dengue mosquito vector. Several suggestions and recommendations were highlighted here to ensure effectiveness in the future control and management programs of dengue mosquito vector in KSA. PMID:25403705

Aziz, Al; Al-Shami, Salman; Mahyoub, Jazem A; Hatabbi, Mesed; Ahmad, Abu; Md Rawi, Che

2014-11-18

350

New generic and species records for the flora of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations. PMID:25313281

Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M.; Al-Ansari, A.M.; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A.A.

2014-01-01

351

Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.  PMID:25544092

El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al

2014-01-01

352

Ultra-high CPV system development and deployment in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.

Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor

2013-09-01

353

Assessment of impact of mass movements on the upper Tayyah valley's bridge along Shear escarpment highway, Asir region (Saudi Arabia) using remote sensing data and field investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Escarpment highways, roads and mountainous areas in Saudi Arabia are facing landslide hazards that are frequently occurring from time to time causing considerable damage to these areas. Shear escarpment highway is located in the north of the Abha city. It is the most important escarpment highway in the area, where all the light and heavy trucks and vehicle used it as the only corridor that connects the coastal areas in the western part of the Saudi Arabia with the Asir and Najran Regions. More than 10 000 heavy trucks and vehicles use this highway every day. In the upper portion of Tayyah valley of Shear escarpment highway, there are several landslide and erosion potential zones that affect the bridges between tunnel 7 and 8 along the Shear escarpment Highway. In this study, different types of landslides and erosion problems were considered to access their impacts on the upper Tayyah valley's bridge along Shear escarpment highway using remote sensing data and field investigation. These landslides and erosion problems have a negative impact on this section of the highway. Results indicate that the areas above the highway and bridge level between bridge 7 and 8 have different landslides including planar, circular, rockfall failures and debris flows. In addition, running water through the gullies cause different erosional (scour) features between and surrounding the bridge piles and culverts. A detailed landslides and erosion features map was created based on intensive field investigation (geological, geomorphological, and structural analysis), and interpretation of Landsat image 15 m and high resolution satellite image (QuickBird 0.61 m), shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM 90 m), geological and topographic maps. The landslides and erosion problems could exhibit serious problems that affect the stability of the bridge. Different mitigation and remediation strategies have been suggested to these critical sites to minimize and/or avoid these problems in the future.

Youssef, A. M.; Al-Kathery, M.; Pradhan, B.

2015-01-01

354

The association of exposure to the 2009 south war with the physical, psychological, and family well-being of Saudi children  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the nutritional, psychological, behavioral, family adjustment, and psychiatric assessment of Saudi children exposed to the 2009-2010 Jazan war. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in Saudi Arabia in July 2010. One hundred and eighty-six children exposed to the South war in Jazan, and 157 unexposed children in King Khaled Military City, Hafr Al Batin were studied for evidence of malnutrition using physical measures, evaluating psychological problems using the Child Behavior Inventory, behavioral problems using the Rutter Scale A2, family adjustment using the McMaster Family adjustment device, and for psychiatric disorders. The association of different socioeconomic variables with the psychological outcome of the exposed group was also studied. Results: The exposed children were well nourished, had more anxiety (p=0.044), better adaptation (p<0.001), less aggression (p=0.025), less deviant behavior (p=0.007), better family adjustment and had more post traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety, nightmares, and grief reaction. In the exposed children, females had more anxiety (p=0.006), and males had more antisocial behavior (p=0.02). Older children had less deviant behavior (p=0.005), better adaptation (p=0.007) and better planful behavior (p<0.001). Children of elder mothers had better planful behavior (p=0.039). Children from bigger families were less aggressive (p=0.049), and had less antisocial behavior (p=0.04). Conclusion: This study found that children exposed to the Jazan war had more anxiety. Unexpectedly they were well nourished and had higher adaptation, lower antisocial behavior, and better family adjustment. The socioeconomic status was associated with the psychological outcome. PMID:25630008

Hatw, Mohamed M. El; Taher, Aly A. El; Hamidi, Ahmed El; Alturkait, Fawziyah A.

2015-01-01

355

Evaluation of the orthopedic residency training program in Saudi Arabia and comparison with a selected Canadian residency program  

PubMed Central

Objective The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002). The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (P<0.0001). Most residents preferred studying multiple-choice questions before examinations. Saudi and Canadian participants considered their programs to be overcrowded. Unlike Canadian participants, Saudi trainees reported an inadequate level of training (P<0.0001). Conclusion Educational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents’ progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers. PMID:25278788

Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Alrabai, Hamza M; Alrehaili, Osama A; Aljurayyan, Abdulaziz N; Alsaif, Ranyah M; Algarni, Nizar; Al-Khawashki, Hazem M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D

2014-01-01

356

The intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a lead sink for its rat host in the industrial areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The present study sought to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a bioindicator for lead accumulation in two industrial areas of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Rats (Meriones libycus) were collected from two sites (industrial area II and Salbukh) in Riyadh. In the industrial area II, the mean levels of lead concentrations were found to be 1.96, 1.92, 1.4 and 30.72 ?g/g in the rats’ liver, kidney and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In Salbukh, meanwhile, the lead concentrations were 1.63, 1.52, 1.20 and 21.31 ?g/g in the rats’ liver, kidney, and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In addition, in industrial area II, compared with the liver, kidney and intestine of their host, the bioconcentration factors of lead were found to be, respectively, 15.6, 16 and 21.9 times higher in H. diminuta, and were 7.5, 8, and 10.2 times higher in the same organs compared to H. diminuta in Salbukh. The present study, therefore, proved that H. diminuta could be used as a bioindicator for heavy metal contamination in the industrial areas of the city of Riyadh. PMID:25183950

Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Gewik, Mohamed M.; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S.

2013-01-01

357

The intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a lead sink for its rat host in the industrial areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The present study sought to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a bioindicator for lead accumulation in two industrial areas of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Rats (Meriones libycus) were collected from two sites (industrial area II and Salbukh) in Riyadh. In the industrial area II, the mean levels of lead concentrations were found to be 1.96, 1.92, 1.4 and 30.72 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In Salbukh, meanwhile, the lead concentrations were 1.63, 1.52, 1.20 and 21.31 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney, and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In addition, in industrial area II, compared with the liver, kidney and intestine of their host, the bioconcentration factors of lead were found to be, respectively, 15.6, 16 and 21.9 times higher in H. diminuta, and were 7.5, 8, and 10.2 times higher in the same organs compared to H. diminuta in Salbukh. The present study, therefore, proved that H. diminuta could be used as a bioindicator for heavy metal contamination in the industrial areas of the city of Riyadh. PMID:25183950

Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Gewik, Mohamed M; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

2014-09-01

358

HIV-Care Outcome in Saudi Arabia; a Longitudinal Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical characteristics of HIV-1 infection in people inhabiting Western, Sub-Saharan African, and South-East Asian countries are well recognized. However, very little information is available with regard to HIV-1 infection and treatment outcome in MENA countries including the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states. Methods Clinical, demographic and epidemiologic characteristics of 602 HIV-1 infected patients followed in the adult Infectious Diseases Clinic of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a tertiary referral center were longitudinally collected from 1989 to 2010. Results Of the 602 HIV-1 infected patients in this observation period, 70% were male. The major mode of HIV-1 transmission was heterosexual contact (55%). At diagnosis, opportunistic infections were found in 49% of patients, most commonly being pneumocysitis. AIDS associated neoplasia was also noted in 6% of patients. A hundred and forty-seven patients (24%) died from the cohort by the end of the observation period. The mortality rate peaked in 1992 at 90 deaths per 1000 person-year, whereas the mortality rate gradually decreased to <1% from 1993-2010. In 2010, 71% of the patients were receiving highly active retroviral therapy. Conclusions These data describe the clinical characteristic of HIV-1-infected patients at a major tertiary referral hospital in KSA over a 20-year period. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy resulted in a significant reduction in both morbidity and mortality. Future studies are needed in the design and implementation of targeted treatment and prevention strategies for HIV-1 infection in KSA.

Al-Mozaini, Maha A.; Mansour, Michael K.; Al-Hokail, Abdullah A.; Mohmed, Magid A.; Daham, Munirah A. Bin; Al-Abdely, Hail M.; Frayha, Husn H.; Al-Rabiah, Fahad A.; Alhajjar, Sami H.; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Adra, Chaker N.; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.

2015-01-01

359

Human papillomavirus genotyping and integration in ovarian cancer Saudi patients  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with different malignancies but its role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial. This study investigated the prevalence, genotyping and physical state of HPV in ovarian cancer Saudi patients. Methods Hundred formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) ovarian carcinoma tissues and their normal adjacent tissues (NAT) were included in the study. HPV was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerated HPVL1 consensus primer pairs MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6 + to amplify a broad spectrum of HPV genotypes in a single reaction. The HPV positive samples were further genotyped using DNA sequencing. The physical state of the virus was identified using Amplification of Papillomavirus Oncogene Transcripts (APOT) assay in the samples positive for HPV16 and/or HPV18. Results High percentage of HPV (42%) was observed in ovarian carcinoma compared to 8% in the NAT. The high-risk HPV types 16, 18 and 45 were highly associated with the advanced stages of tumor, while low-risk types 6 and 11 were present in NAT. In malignant tissues, HPV-16 was the most predominant genotype followed by HPV-18 and -45. The percentage of viral integration into the host genome was significantly high (61.1%) compared to 38.9% episomal in HPV positive tumors tissues. In HPV18 genotype the percentage of viral integration was 54.5% compared to 45.5% episomal. Conclusion The high risk HPV genotypes in ovarian cancer may indicate its role in ovarian carcinogenesis. The HPV vaccination is highly recommended to reduce this type of cancer. PMID:24252426

2013-01-01

360

Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action  

PubMed Central

Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution. PMID:20103958

Al-Naami, Mohammed Y.; Arafah, Maria A.; Al-Ibrahim, Fatimah S.

2010-01-01

361

Harmonic analysis of precipitation climatology in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annual rainfall records of 20 stations for 30 years are used in order to detect rainfall regimes and climatic features of Saudi Arabia using harmonic analysis techniques. In this study, the percentages of variance, amplitudes, and phase angles are calculated in order to depict the spatial and temporal characteristics of the country's rainfall. The first harmonic explains 42 % of rainfall variation in the western (W) region. This percentage increases toward east (E) and north (N) with 69 and 67 %, respectively. In the southwest (SW) region, the percentages explain 43 % of rainfall variation. The percentages of variance in W and SW are lower than in the E, NW, and central (C) regions. This implies significant contributions of the second harmonic in W and SW regions with 26 and 16 %, respectively. The high percentages of the second and third harmonics in W and SW regions suggest that these two regions are affected by different weather systems at different times. The SW region has the highest amplitudes of the first, second, and third harmonics. The amplitude of the first harmonic reaches to 21 mm in SW and 9 mm in both C and E regions. The time of maximum rainfall is calculated using phase angle; the result reflects that maximum rainfall is shifted forward on the time axis toward the spring season in SW and C regions, January in E and NW regions, and October and November in the W region. This reveals that the SW region is a completely different climatic region, though some of what affects this region also affects the central region. Conditions in the E and NW regions are mainly affected by Mediterranean weather systems, while the W region is affected by unstable conditions caused by the active Red Sea Trough (RST) in October and November.

Tarawneh, Qassem

2015-02-01

362

Pirfenidone treatment in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A Saudi experience  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Recent trials involving pirfenidone suggest a beneficial effect in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). OBJECTIVE: To report on the efficacy and safety of pirfenidone in the treatment of patients with IPF, at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The study included 58 patients with IPF who were evaluated from March 2012 to March 2013. During the study period, 33 patients received pirfenidone, and the remaining patients (n = 25) served as a control group. Baseline clinical characteristics, physiological parameters and the results of a 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were compared between the groups. Furthermore, we compared changes in forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLco), six-minute walk distance (6MWD) and SF-36 for both groups during follow-up. The last follow-up period ended in January 2014. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in baseline clinical characteristics between the groups. Furthermore, we found no differences in FVC, DLco and SF-36 during follow-up (median, 12 months). However, patients receiving pirfenidone treatment were less likely to experience reductions in 6MWD compared with the control group (13% vs. 52%, respectively; P = 0.001). Although adverse events were more frequently reported by the pirfenidone group compared with the control group (85 vs. 56%, respectively; P = 0.015), these patients did not require discontinuation of treatment. CONCLUSION: Pirfenidone treatment preserves functional capacity, as reflected by the 6MWD. Adverse events associated with pirfenidone treatment were generally well tolerated by the patients. PMID:25593606

Alhamad, Esam H.

2015-01-01

363

Ash Shutbah: A possible impact structure in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the Ash Shutbah circular structure in central Saudi Arabia (21°37'N 45°39'E) using satellite imagery, field mapping, thin-section petrography, and X-ray diffraction of collected samples. The approximately 2.1 km sized structure located in flat-lying Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone has been nearly peneplained by erosional processes. Satellite and structural data show a central area consisting of Dhruma Formation sandstones with steep bedding and tight folds plunging radially outward. Open folding occurs in displaced, younger Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation blocks surrounding the central area, but is absent outside the circular structure. An approximately 60 cm thick, unique folded and disrupted orthoquartzitic sandstone marker bed occurring in the central area of the structure is found 140 m deeper in undisturbed escarpment outcrops located a few hundred meters west of the structure. With exception of a possible concave shatter cone found in the orthoquartzite of the central area, other diagnostic shock features are lacking. Some quartz-rich sandstones from the central area show pervasive fracturing of quartz grains with common concussion fractures. This deformation was followed by an event of quartz dissolution and calcite precipitation consistent with local sea- or groundwater heating. The combination of central stratigraphic uplift of 140 m, concussion features in discolored sandstone, outward-dipping concentric folds in the central area, deformation restricted to the rocks of the ring structure, a complex circular structure of 2.1 km diameter that appears broadly consistent with what one would expect from an impact structure in sedimentary targets, and a possible shatter cone all point to an impact origin of the Ash Shutbah structure. In fact, the Ash Shutbah structure appears to be a textbook example of an eroded, complex impact crater located in flat-lying sedimentary rocks, where the undisturbed stratigraphic section can be studied in escarpment outcrops in the vicinity of the structure.

Gnos, Edwin; Hofmann, Beda A.; Schmieder, Martin; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.; Matter, Albert; Alwmark, Carl

2014-10-01

364

City of Cambridge: CityViewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the best way to experience the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts? You could read a history of Harvard University, take a walking tour, or perhaps browse a topical website. But why not look at the Cambridge CityViewer for edification? This unique tool "allows the public to view, query, mark up, and print custom maps using only a web browser." Notedly, the viewer works best with Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. Visitors can check out ten different topical overlays, including those dealing with city parks, construction projects, land parcels, sewers, zoning, and traffic. There are many ways to get started, such as performing a simple search, an advanced search, or even just by typing in a street name and number. For anyone with an interest in urban history, planning, and land use, this site is a rare treat.

365

Cities Centre University of Toronto  

E-print Network

Cities Centre University of Toronto On the Mandate of the new University of Toronto Cities Centre selections from the Proposal for the Establishment of a Cities Centre at the University of Toronto December the University of Toronto Cities Centre. OBJECTIVES The overall objectives of the Cities Centre are to promote

Sokolowski, Marla

366

From intelligent to smart cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing upon the smart experiences of ‘world class’ cities in N. America, Canada and Europe, this special issue draws together five papers from leading international experts on the transition from intelligent to smart cities. Together they do what Hollands (‘Will the real smart city stand up?’ City 12(3), 302–320) has recently asked of smart cities and provide the definitional components,

Mark Deakin; Husam Al Waer

2011-01-01

367

A Think-Aloud Protocols Investigation of Dictionary Processing Strategies among Saudi EFL Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to examine qualitatively how Saudi EFL female students look-up word meanings in their dictionaries while reading. We aimed to identify and describe the look-up strategies used by these students. The subjects of the study were ten third-year English major students. A think-aloud protocol was used in order to gain insights into the…

Alhaysony, Maha

2012-01-01

368

New evidence for land plants from the lower Middle Ordovician of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macerations of Middle Ordovician (Llanvirnian) shales from Saudi Arabia yield an assemblage of spores of probable land plants (cryptospores), acritarchs, and chitinozoa. The production of sporopollenin-containing, sporelike tetrads is considered a fundamental character of the embryophytes, because no extant algae produce spores of this type. No trilete spores were found at this horizon, reinforcing previous assertions that obligate meiotic tetrads

Paul K. Strother; Said Al-Hajri; Alfred Traverse

1996-01-01

369

Cortical fabrics of Upper Jurassic ooids, Arab Formation, Saudi Arabia: Implications for original carbonate mineralogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the occurrence of partly leached ooids, interpreted to have been originally aragonitic, that still preserve intra-cortical fabric details in the Upper Jurassic of Saudi Arabia. A thin dark layer of insoluble material (probably organic matter) separates adjacent carbonate lamellae. Selective leaching of carbonate occurs in each lamella, yielding intra-cortical moldic porosity. It is the presence of the

Dave L. Cantrell

2006-01-01

370

Petroleum geochemistry of the Midyan and Jaizan basins of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1960s, petroleum exploration activities in the offshore Red Sea areas of Saudi Arabia tested gas and condensate reservoired in the Miocene sands immediately below the Mansiyah evaporites in the offshore Midyan basin. Recent onshore exploration activity in the Red Sea has resulted in the discovery of accumulations of oil, gas and condensate in the Lower Miocene Maqna Group

Gary A. Cole; Mahdi A. Abu-Ali; Edwin L. Coiling; Henry I. Halpern; William J. Carrigan; G. Richard Savage; Reggie J. Scolaro; Saleh H. AI-Sharidi

1995-01-01

371

Seismic stratigraphic study of two Oxfordian carbonate sequences, eastern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this case study, seismic stratigraphic interpretation techniques were used to map facies changes and develop a depositional model for two Oxfordian carbonate sequences of eastern Saudi Arabia. Well data and regional geology indicate that the two sequences, R1 and R2, were deposited on a broad carbonate platform and undergo a lateral transition from grainstone to basinal mudstone within the

G. S. Langdon; S. J. Malecek

1987-01-01

372

The porosity and engineering properties of vesicular basalt in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of non-connected vesicles in extensive basalt flows in western Saudi Arabia greatly affects their engineering properties such as compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio and sonic velocities. In order to evaluate some of these properties, the density and\\/or the porosity of the material must be known. Using conventional methods to determine the porosity or the density of

A. A. Al-Harthi; R. M. Al-Amri; W. M. Shehata

1999-01-01

373

Compressibility and swelling characteristics of Al-Khobar Palygorskite, eastern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansive soils are found in different locations in eastern Saudi Arabia. The area is arid with high temperatures, highly variable humidity and an excessive rate of evaporation compared to the low precipitation. This resulted in the formation of water sensitive soils. In the present investigation, line valve buildings for a sweet water feeder (1118 mm in diameter) were constructed on a

Saad A. Aiban

2006-01-01

374

Notes on the geology of Western Irak and Northern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the high western border areas of Western Irak and Northern Saudi Arabia the land slopes gently eastwards to the Mesoptamian Plain and the Persian Gulf. Thirteen physiographic provinces can be recognized within the area. Rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Recent outcrop, and it is probable that the entire stratigraphic column is present. Few structural features are impressive.

Raoul C. Mitchell

1959-01-01

375

Notes on the geology of Western Irak and Northern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  From the high western border areas of Western Irak and Northern Saudi Arabia the land slopes gently eastwards to the Mesoptamian Plain and the Persian Gulf. Thirteen physiographic provinces can be recognized within the area.Rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Recent outcrop, and it is probable that the entire stratigraphic column is present. Few structural features are impressive. Such

Raoul C. Mitchell

1959-01-01

376

Geochemical, UPb zircon, and Nd isotope investigations of the Neoproterozoic Ghawjah Metavolcanic rocks, Northwestern Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

rocks, Northwestern Saudi Arabia Kamal A. Ali a, , Robert J. Stern a , William I. Manton a , Jun of Natural History, Laboratory for Isotope Geology, Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden d BP America Exploration & Production Company, Houston TX, USA e Geological Consultant, 1242 Tenth Street, NW Washington DC

Stern, Robert J.

377

Inherent heterogeneity of sediments in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia — a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior and properties of sediments depend on their compositional characteristics and formation processes, as well as the environmental conditions during their geological history, i.e. post-formation processes. A vertical cut made in a hill in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, reveals a vivid picture of the inherent heterogeneity of sediments that have been deposited at different geological ages. A review of the

Naser A. Al-Shayea

2000-01-01

378

Survey of trace elements in household and bottled drinking water samples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total dissolved beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the drinking water of 101 households and 21 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to ascertain the water quality for human consumption. The Inductively

I Al-Saleh; I Al-Doush

1998-01-01

379

Saudi Arabia Puts Its Billions behind Western-Style Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Saudi Arabia has been developing at breakneck speed since the end of World War II, when oil production transformed this country of Bedouins into one of the richest polities in the world. Its higher-education system, however, has not kept pace. The Ministry of Higher Education was not established until 1975, and its task was to educate a population…

Krieger, Zvika

2007-01-01

380

A study of satisfaction among primary health care patients in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary Health Care is essential health care based on delivering integrated health services (curative and preventive). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia adopted this approach in 1980, and by the year 1987 the Ministry of Health had established 1477 Primary Health Care centers. The expansion in Primary Health Care created a need for various types of evaluation. Theorists recommended the study

Ahlam A. Mansour; Muneera H. Al-Osimy

1993-01-01

381

Energy and exergy use in public and private sector of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then

I. Dincer; M. M. Hussain; I. Al-Zaharnah

2004-01-01

382

Heuristic evaluation of the usability of e-government websites: a case from Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect affecting any website quality is its usability (ease of use). Usability can be considered as one of the major problems driving the underuse of governmental websites. In this paper, we present the results of evaluating the usability of 14 Saudi government websites using heuristic evaluation.

Hend S. Al-Khalifa

2010-01-01

383

From Barriers to Bridges: An Investigation on Saudi Student Mobility (2006-2009)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by…

Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

2011-01-01

384

Adult Education in Saudi Arabia: Development Plans in an Emerging Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes adult education efforts in Saudi Arabia's national program to eliminate the country's high illiteracy rate. Includes discussions of literacy training on television and in institutions, new schools and practices, the importance of economic and social implications, need for skilled manpower, and other adult education problems and goals.…

Hamidi, Abulrahman S.

1979-01-01

385

Learning Preferences of Saudi University Students with Native English Speaking Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many countries building up human and technological resources, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has embarked on the goal of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) to its citizens. One goal for the KSA Ministry of Education is increasing acceptance rates at teacher colleges for both genders specializing in English, in addition to…

Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Yahya, Noorchaya; Unzueta, Caridad H.

2009-01-01

386

Estimating PM 10 air concentrations from dust storms in Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the emission of PM10 dust has been constructed using the concept of a threshold friction velocity which is dependent on surface roughness. Surface roughness in turn was correlated with geomorphology or soil properties for Kuwait, Iraq, part of Syria, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. The PM10 emission algorithm was incorporated into a Lagrangian transport

Roland R. Draxler; Dale A. Gillette; Jeffrey S. Kirkpatrick; Jack Heller

2001-01-01

387

Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric…

Amr, Mostafa Abdel-Monhem; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Hablas, Hatem Refaat

2010-01-01

388

The Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…

Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung

2012-01-01

389

Characteristics of the Home Context for the Nurturing of Gifted Children in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates factors in the home environment and their influence on children's analytical, creative, and practical skills. A sample of 294 gifted children (195 male) was recruited from grades 4-7 in Saudi Arabia, where the family context is highly influenced by the principles of Islam. Results did not confirm the effect of birth…

Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2014-01-01

390

A rracticaj ntudy of an electromagnetic interference (EMI) problem from Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic Field interference (EMI) caused by electric transmission and distribution lines on neighboring metallic utilities such as communication cables, water, gas and oil pipelines became a major concern in Saudi Arabia due to the significant increase in the load, rapid and large power, water desalination and pipelines systems expansion, new discoveries of oil and gas resources, and short-circuits. The mechanisms

M. H. Shwehdi

2004-01-01

391

Bringing the Field into the Classroom: A Field Methods Course on Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The methodology used in one graduate-level linguistics field methods classroom is examined through the lens of the students' experiences. Four male Deaf individuals from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia served as the consultants for the course. After a brief background information about their country and its practices surrounding deaf education, both…

Stephen, Anika; Mathur, Gaurav

2012-01-01

392

Oral cancer prevention and early detection : Knowledge and practice among Saudi Arabian healthcare practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Despite the crucial role that healthcare practitioners (HCPs) have in preventing and detecting oral cancer (OC), studies suggest that dentists and physicians do not adequately detect early stage OC which is attributed to their attitude and knowledge. This Saudi Arabian study aims to assess HCP's knowledge and practice vis-à-vis OC's risk factors and patient evaluation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A

Louay Jaber; Sami Shaban; Deema Hariri

2012-01-01

393

Satellite imaging coral reef resilience at regional scale. A case-study from Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

Satellite imaging coral reef resilience at regional scale. A case-study from Saudi Arabia Gwilym a National Coral Reef Institute, Nova Southeastern University, Dania Beach, FL 33004, USA b Living Oceans estimating a proxy for coral reef resilience using remote sensing. Data spanning large areas of coral reef

Purkis, Sam

394

The Effects of Using WebQuests on Reading Comprehension Performance of Saudi EFL Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a report on the effects of using WebQuest on Saudi male EFL students reading comprehension performance. WebQuests expose students to several online resources and require them to gather information about a specific topic. The experimental group received traditional teaching plus WebQuests as supplementary activities. The control group…

Alshumaimeri, Yousif A.; Almasri, Meshail M.

2012-01-01

395

Essential oils of some seasonal flowering plants grown in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical comoposition of the essential oils of fourteen Saudi Arabian plants, namely (Rumex vesicarius, Erucaria hispanica, Schimpera arabica, Savignya parviflora, Horwoodia dicksoniae, Sisymbrium irio, Plantago amplexicaulis, Plantago boissieri, Arnebia linearifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella hamosa, Lotus halophilus, Reseda muricata, Cenchrus ciliaris have been analyzed by GC-MS. It was found that palmitic acid represented the major constituent in most of these

S. A. Al-Mazroa; L. H. Al-Wahaibi; A. A. Mousa; H. Z. Alkhathlan

396

Feasibility of hybrid (wind + solar) power systems for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hourly mean wind-speed and solar radiation data for the period 1986–1993 [except the years 1989 (some data is missing) and 1991 (Gulf War)] recorded at the solar radiation and meteorological monitoring station, Dhahran (26° 32? N, 50° 13? E), Saudi Arabia, have been analyzed to report the monthly variation of wind speed and solar radiation, probability distribution of wind speed

M. A. Elhadidy; S. M. Shaahid

1999-01-01

397

An Exploration of E-Learning Benefits for Saudi Arabia: Toward Policy Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine policies and solutions addressing (a) improving education for citizens of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and (b) providing alternative instructional delivery methods, including e-learning for those living in remote areas. Theoretical Framework: The theoretical framework of this study was based on the…

Alrashidi, Abdulaziz

2013-01-01

398

Optimal Dynamic Production Policy: The Case of a Large Oil Field in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model the optimal dynamic oil production decisions for a stylized oilfield resembling the largest developed light oil field in Saudi Arabia, Ghawar. We use data from a number of sources to estimate the cost and revenue functions used in the dynamic programming model. We also pay particular attention to the dynamic aspects of oil production. We use a nonparametric

Weiyu Gao; Peter Hartley; Robin C. Sickles

399

Impacts of Irrigation on Shallow Groundwater in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has witnessed rapid and comprehensive developments during the last two decades in the social, industrial, agricultural and construction sectors. Expansion of agricultural areas and excessive use of irrigation water has resulted in the formation and continuous rise of a shallow water-table and waterlogging in some parts of the Kingdom such as the Eastern Province. This

Walid A. Abderrahman; M. Rasheeduddin; Jamal K. Nejem

2000-01-01

400

Website Interface Design: Similarity and Differences between Saudi Arabian and United States University Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expansion of the Internet and online learning around the globe makes it more important to understand the differences in website design among cultures. Furthermore, the members of educational institutions around the world rely on the Internet more than ever before in a variety of aspects. Also, web design differs from culture to culture. Saudi

Alyahya, Dalia Mohammed

2011-01-01

401

Mycotoxin-producing fungi occurring in sorghum grains from Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty one species belonging to 17 fungal genera were found to be associated with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grain samples imported to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. An agar plate method was used to screen 24 samples collected from\\u000a different markets located in Riyadh region. Statistical comparisons of fungal isolation frequencies revealed that Aspergillus niger, Penicillium funiculesum and Rhizopus stolonifer were

Mohamed A. Yassin; Abdel-Rheem El-Samawaty; Ali Bahkali; Mohamed Moslem; Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam; Kevin D. Hyde

2010-01-01

402

Fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. ) germination and establishment under arid environmental conditions of Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to conduct an autecological investigation of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.) in the Al-Gassim region of Saudi Arabia, upon which range rehabilitation could be based. Germination, seedling, transplanting, and water relation characteristics of the species under controlled and field conditions were determined. Most of the field work was conducted at plain and sand dune areas of the Al-Gassim, Saudi Arabia, and supplemented with growth chamber experiments. Seeds of tetrapolid and diploid forms, native to the United States, were introduced to Saudi Arabia, and their performance was determined. The Al-Gassim soil and climatic features were analyzed. Laboratory and field tests proved that fourwing saltbush was able to become established under and tolerate wide ranges of soil and harsh climatic conditions as found in the Al-Gassim. The best temperature range for germination was 15 to 35 C. High salinity in the soil of the plains area was found to be the only soil character that slightly decreased seedling growth, but germination and survival behaviors were not affected. The adaptation to extreme environmental conditions coupled with its known high nutritional forage values makes fourwing saltbush a valuable range plant in the arid regions of Saudi Arabia. As demand on rangeland increases, improved forage plants must have drough and salinity resistance mechanisms, and improved range management techniques should be used to achieve optimum returns.

Al-Hedaithy, S.S.M.

1983-01-01

403

Wind power cost assessment at twenty locations in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has vast open land and hence has great potential of harnessing solar and wind energy sources for domestic and industrial use. This study proposes to assess wind power cost per kWh of electricity produced using three types of wind electric conversion systems at 20 locations within the Kingdom. These sites cover the eastern, central, and

S Rehman; T. O Halawani; M Mohandes

2003-01-01

404

Despite Doubts, 3 Prominent Universities Sign Deals with a Saudi University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, the ambitious $10-billion research institution that Saudi Arabia plans to open in 2009, has signed agreements with three leading universities to help it design a curriculum and hire faculty members. The agreements, with Stanford University, the University of California at Berkeley, and the…

Fischer, Karin

2008-01-01

405

Cement Dust Pollution as a Cause of Sea Turtle Hatchling Mortality at Ras Baridi, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cement dust on hatchling survival are discussed. An estimated 120 tonnes of partially processed cement dust is carried daily by predominant winds and smothers Saudi Arabia’s most important mainland sea turtle nesting beaches. In places, the fine-particle dust has accumulated to depths of >100 cm with a resulting decrease in hatchling emergence. It was found that a

Nicolas J Pilcher

1999-01-01

406

ARAMCO Education: Teaching Speech Communication to a Sub-Culture in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on experiences gained by an educator from Indiana University who taught a speech communication course in Saudi Arabia, this paper details the adaptations the educator had to make in order to teach Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) employees and their spouses in the politically difficult period of 1981-82. Following a brief background…

Dick, Robert C.

407

Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis in Saudi Arabia: Are We Off the Hook?  

PubMed Central

Some 400 million people worldwide are currently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and the infection is common in the Middle East. Another 170 million people around the globe presently live with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Both HBV and HCV represent a worldwide epidemic. Despite significant decline in the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in Saudi Arabia, these viral diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, and impose a great burden on the country's healthcare system. On the other hand, Saudi epidemiology studies have shown that the hepatitis A virus seroprevalence in the country has reduced considerably over the past two decades. The progress in mapping the epidemiological pattern of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia has not only aided our understanding of the disease, but has also exposed the small but relevant gaps in our identification of the intricate details concerning the disease's clinical expression. In this review, we aim to document the timeline of viral hepatitis epidemiology in Saudi Arabia, while summarizing the relevant published literature on the subject. PMID:23150019

Abdo, Ayman A.; Sanai, Faisal M.; Al-Faleh, Faleh Z.

2012-01-01

408

Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more \\

Abdallah S Al-Rethaiaa; Alaa-Eldin A Fahmy; Naseem M Al-Shwaiyat

2010-01-01

409

Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

2015-01-01

410

Saudi Secondary School Teachers Attitudes' towards Using Interactive Whiteboard in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research aims at investigating the Saudi Secondary school Teachers' Attitudes towards using Interactive Whiteboard in the classrooms. The research uses the Quasi- Experimental approach, with one group (100) teachers, and limited to the Secondary school Teachers that enrolled in the first semester of (2011/2012) academic year. The research uses…

Isman, Aytekin; Abanmy, Fahad AbdulAziz; Hussein, Hisham Barakat; Al Saadany, Mohammed Abdelrahman

2012-01-01

411

Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

2010-01-01

412

A dose comparison survey in CT departments of dedicated paediatric hospitals in Australia and Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

AIM: To measure and compare computed tomography (CT) radiation doses delivered to patients in public paediatric hospitals in Australia and Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Doses were measured for routine CT scans of the head, chest and abdomen/pelvis for children aged 3-6 years in all dedicated public paediatric hospitals in Australia and Saudi Arabia using a CT phantom measurement cylinder. RESULTS: CT doses, using the departments’ protocols for 3-6 year old, varied considerably between hospitals. Measured head doses varied from 137.6 to 528.0 mGy·cm, chest doses from 21.9 to 92.5 mGy·cm, and abdomen/pelvis doses from 24.9 to 118.0 mGy·cm. Mean head and abdomen/pelvis doses delivered in Saudi Arabian paediatric CT departments were significantly higher than those in their Australian equivalents. CONCLUSION: CT dose varies substantially across Australian and Saudi Arabian paediatric hospitals. Therefore, diagnostic reference levels should be established for major anatomical regions to standardise dose. PMID:23150767

Mohiy, Hussain Al; Sim, Jenny; Seeram, Euclid; Annabell, Nathan; Geso, Moshi; Mandarano, Giovanni; Davidson, Rob

2012-01-01

413

Cluster analysis and quality assessment of logged water at an irrigation project, eastern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multivariate statistical technique, cluster analysis, was used to assess the logged surface water quality at an irrigation project at Al-Fadhley, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. The principal idea behind using the technique was to utilize all available hydrochemical variables in the quality assessment including trace elements and other ions which are not considered in conventional techniques for water quality assessments

Mahbub Hussain; Syed Munaf Ahmed; Walid Abderrahman

2008-01-01

414

Erectile Dysfunction and Other Sexual Activity Dysfunctions among Saudi Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction (ED) in Type 2 diabetic Saudi patients, to determine the effect of Type 2 diabetic on other sexual activities (intercourse satisfaction, orgasmic function, sexual desire, overall satisfaction), and to assess whether glycemic control and duration of diabetes have an influence on sexual activities or not. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 376 of Type 2 diabetic male Saudi patients. Erectile dysfunction and other sexual activities dysfunctions were evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) by a fill coded questionnaire. Additionally, the level of glycosylated hemoglobin was measured to classify the diabetes control status in patients. Results Erectile Dysfunction was reported by 83% of male Saudi diabetic patients. The results show that there was a significant association between the presence of ED and both the age and the duration of diabetes. Family income, occupation, and educational level of the patients show a significant association between them and erectile dysfunction (ED). Moreover, glycemic control did not show a significant association with ED in our sample. Conclusion The findings showed that prevalence of ED among male Saudi diabetic patients is high. It increases with age and duration of diabetes. Also, the study showed that the glycemic control did not correlate with ED. It is recommended that the family physician and diabetologist should ask routinely for this complication in patients with diabetes just like any other diabetes complication. PMID:25780354

AlMogbel, Turki Abdullah

2014-01-01

415

Histopathological features of breast cancer in Al-Madinah region of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To observe the frequency of breast cancer among Saudi patients and to highlight the age variations and features of advanced cancer. Methods: A retrospective study of breast cancer biopsies from all Saudi patients performed between January 2006 and December 2013 in King Fahad Hospital, Al-Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All the available demographic and tumor related data was analyzed. Results: Of 1005 breast tissues reviewed, 982 specimens were from female, and 23 from male patients. In females, 398 specimens (40.5%) were diagnosed as malignant. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) (85.2%) was most common, followed by ductal carcinoma in situ (8%), and invasive lobular carcinoma (2.7%). The mean age of Saudi females with IDC was 46.9 years. Approximately 48.7% IDC were Grade III tumors. A tumor size >2.5 cm was found in 61.1% patients, whereas axillary nodal metastasis was present in 57.1% and lymphovascular invasion in 64.1% who underwent axillary nodal dissection. In males, 4 specimens (17.4%) were malignant (all IDC). Conclusion: Our finding are consistent with previous reports of breast cancer being diagnosed in younger age group, in advanced stages, and with features of aggressive behavior; which signals the urgency for implementation of breast screening programs. PMID:25491214

Albasri, Abdulkader; Hussainy, Akbar S.; Sundkji, Ibrahim; Alhujaily, Ahmed

2014-01-01

416

Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in Saudi patients with rheumatic heart disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Saudi patients. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Saudi RHD patients. Genomic DNA was isolated from 99 RHD patients attending the Pediatric Cardiology Clinic at the Maternity and Children Hospital, Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia from March 2013 to June 2014, and from 145 age- and gender-matched controls. Patient clinical records were reviewed to report major and minor modified Jones’ criteria for diagnosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by echocardiography. The ACE I/D polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Results: A significant difference in ACE D allele carriage (DD+ID) distribution between RHD cases and controls was identified (p=0.02, odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-10.8). The D allele carriage was significantly associated with development of mitral valve lesions alone (p=0.03). Conclusion: The ACE I/D polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of RHD in the Saudi population. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:25719581

Al-Harbi, Khalid M.; Almuzaini, Ibrahim S.; Morsy, Mohamed M.; Abdelaziz, Nada A.; Al-Balawi, Alia M.; Abdallah, Atiyeh M.

2015-01-01

417

Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the first report in 1961, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has progressively become a leading cause of nosocomial infections. MRSA infection may have a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality. Limited number of studies in Saudi Arabia has attempted to investigate infection and risk factors associated with nosocomial acquired MRSA. This study was designed to estimate the hidden prevalence

Awadh R. Al-Anazi

418

Molluscicidal activity of some Saudi Arabian euphorbiales against the snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi.  

PubMed

The comparative susceptibility of the snail vector of intestinal schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria pfeifferi to the action of extracts from Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales has been determined. Methanol and chloroform extracts of the plants tested (Jatropha glauca, Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia schimperiana) were the most promising from the molluscicidal point of view with LD(50) values in the range 10-100 ppm. PMID:10771201

Al-Zanbagi, N A; Banaja, A A; Barrett, J

2000-05-01

419

Molluscicidal activity of some Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales against the snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative susceptibility of the snail vector of intestinal schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria pfeifferi to the action of extracts from Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales has been determined. Methanol and chloroform extracts of the plants tested (Jatropha glauca, Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia schimperiana) were the most promising from the molluscicidal point of view with LD50 values in the range 10–100 ppm.

Najia A Al-Zanbagi; Abdul-Elah A Banaja; John Barrett

2000-01-01

420

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Study, Yanbu, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of global and normal incident radiation at the Yanbu, Saudi Arabia solar powered desalination plant site are documented. The use of parabolic, two axis tracking, point focusing solar collectors necessitates the measurement and analysis of the normal incident data. The accuracy of the measuring instruments and the results of analysis of one year solar radiation are briefly discussed. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

421

The acoustical performance of mosques' main prayer hall geometry in the eastern province, Saudi arabia  

E-print Network

The acoustical performance of mosques' main prayer hall geometry in the eastern province, Saudi.hossam@gmail.com Proceedings of the Acoustics 2012 Nantes Conference 23-27 April 2012, Nantes, France 949 #12;Abstract The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech

Boyer, Edmond

422

Coronary heart disease mortality in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia in 1989 and 1990.  

PubMed

Unfortunately, mortality statistics are not available for Saudi Arabia. In the absence of such data, this paper introduces data collected on the number of deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD), considered as a proportion of the total number of deaths, for patients in six hospitals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, for each month of the years 1409H and 1410H of the Hijri lunar calendar. These proportions, the so-called proportionate mortality ratio (PMR), are categorized in terms of gender and age, and in terms of a three-level lifestyle variable; namely, rural, urban, or bedouin. The data were analyzed using logistic regression. As might be expected, female deaths from CHD are a lower proportion of total deaths than are male deaths from CHD. However, an interesting conclusion is that CHD seems to be a less prevalent recorded cause of death among bedouins than among rural or urban Saudis. Some possible reasons are discussed. The proportion of recorded CHD deaths is higher in winter months and generally increases with increasing age (except for the very old). This study suggests some hypotheses about the size of the future CHD incidence in Saudi Arabia; it a) indicates the urgent need for comprehensive data collection and b) suggests the need for an effective health care program. PMID:17586951

Alobaid, A A; Gilchrist, R; Bointon, B

1994-09-01

423

Erythraeid mites (Prostigmata, Erythraeidae) from Saudi Arabia, description of three new species and a new record  

PubMed Central

Abstract Three erythraeid genera Balaustium von Heyden, Charletonia Oudemans, and Erythraeus Latreille (Trombidiformes: Prostigmata) are reported for first time from Saudi Arabia based on three new larval species, Balaustium yousifi sp. n., Charletonia bahaensis sp. n., and Erythraeus (Erythraeus) uhadi sp. n. and one new record Erythraeus (Zaracarus) lancifer Southcott. All the three new species are described and illustrated from larvae. PMID:25349508

Kamran, Muhammad; Alatawi, Fahad J.

2014-01-01

424

Health Data Standards and Adoption Process: Preliminary Findings of a Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for,…

Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

2011-01-01

425

The Plains City Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City

van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

2006-01-01

426

Science Originals: Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People have a love-hate relationship with cities, for the opportunities they provide and the problems they create. This video presentation, an accompaniment to Science's 8 February 2008 special issue on cities, discusses some of the implications of rapid urbanization for our daily lives, our environment, and future sustainability.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

2008-02-08

427

Utah: Salt Lake City  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, ... view. The Uinta Mountains contain the highest peaks in Utah and are notable as the most prominent east-west trending range in the ...

2014-05-15

428

Walkout in Crystal City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

Barrios, Greg

2009-01-01

429

European cities: Towards a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article puts forth the thesis that European cities are increasingly influenced by recreation, changing the essential quality of the urban space. I begin by setting out a theoretical framework in which cities are seen as specific places used as a resource by mobile individuals in a specific \\

Mathis Stock

2006-01-01

430

Air pollution in cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality in cities is the result of a complex interaction between natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. Air pollution in cities is a serious environmental problem – especially in the developing countries. The air pollution path of the urban atmosphere consists of emission and transmission of air pollutants resulting in the ambient air pollution. Each part of the path is

Helmut Mayer

1999-01-01

431

The Happiness of Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida R., Mellander C. and Rentfrow P. J. The happiness of cities, Regional Studies. This research examines the factors that shape the happiness of cities, whereas much of the existent literature has focused on the happiness of nations. It is argued that in addition to income, which has been found to shape national-level happiness, human capital levels will play an

Charlotta Mellander; Peter J. Rentfrow

2011-01-01

432

Salt Lake City, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

2002-01-01

433

Smart City Components Architicture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research is essentially to modularize the structure of utilities and develop a system for following up the activities electronically on the city scale. The GIS operational platform will be the base for managing the infrastructure development components with the systems interoperability for the available city infrastructure related systems. The concentration will be on the available utility networks in order

Mahmoud Al-Hader; A. Rodzi; A. R. Sharif; N. Ahmad

2009-01-01

434

Smart networked cities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to critically assess the lack of a global inter-urban perspective in the smart city policy framework from a conceptual standpoint. We argue here that the smart city policy agenda should be informed by and address the structure of transnational urban networks as this can affect the efficiency of such local policies. The significance of this global network

Emmanouil Tranos; Drew Gertner

2012-01-01

435

Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.  

PubMed

Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

2015-01-01

436

Incidence and potential causative factors associated with chronic benign neutropenia in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Benign neutropenia often presents in certain populations without any genotype nor phenotype. Middle East countries are among the regions where endemic cases of chronic benign neutropenia are reported in the general population with an incidence of approximately between 10-15%. Not many studies have been performed to ascertain the cause or burden associated with this condition. The objective of the current study was to identify the frequency and characterize the consequences of chronic benign neutropenia in the country of Saudi Arabia. Results Benign neutropenia was found to be high in the Saudi Arabia general population (up to 20%), with an average neutrophil count of 1.48 (range 0.99 – 1.95 × 109cells/L), with Saudis having a higher incidence of chronic benign neutropenia compared to non-Saudis (p = <0.05). Complete blood count analyses showed significant difference in the total white cell count of neutrophils (p < 0.0001), WBC (p < 0.0001), lymphocytes (p < 0.001), monocytes (p < 0.001), eosinophils (p = 0.013) as well as the CD19 B cells (p = 0.008). Conclusions Our study is the first to carefully quantitate benign neutropenia in Saudi Arabia. We identified that this condition is prevalent in the middle aged population (18 years to 55 years). These individuals not only had lower neutrophil counts, but also reduced peripheral blood cells types, especially the B-lymphocyte population (CD19 subset). As B-lymphocytes are involved in antibody production and antigen recognition, a decrease might easily predispose the individuals to infectious agents. As such more mechanistic studies need to be undertaken to understand the cause and potential long-term consequences of benign neutropenia.

2015-01-01

437

Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh  

PubMed Central

Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

2015-01-01

438

Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

439

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping  

PubMed Central

Abstract Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

2011-01-01

440

Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon. PMID:25437521

Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

2015-01-01

441

A survey of root canal treatment of molar teeth by general dental practitioners in private practice in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the practice and depth of knowledge of root canal treatment by general dental practitioners working in private dental centers in different cities within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to 400 general dental practitioners. Completed questionnaires were analyzed in term of simple summary statistics. A total of 252 (63%) practitioners responded. The majority of the respondents were Syrians (59%) and Egyptians (32%). Ninety-one per cent of the respondents indicated that they performed root canal treatment. Amongst those who carried out root canal treatment, only seven practitioners (3%) used rubber dam for isolation. More than half of the respondents (55%) used saline to irrigate canals during treatment. Forty-six per cent of practitioners used formocresol as an inter appointment medicament. The standardized and step-back preparation techniques were the method of choice for the majority of the respondents (91%). Ninety-seven per cent of the practitioners used stainless steel hand instruments to prepare root canals and the majority (92%) used gutta-percha for obturation. Seventy-four per cent of the respondent used cold lateral condensation. The average number of radiographs routinely taken for root canal treatment was four. Ninety-three per cent indicated that they usually completed a root canal treatment of molar teeth in three or more visits. Eighty-eight per cent of the practitioners preferred waiting for 1 or 2 weeks to restore the teeth permanently. Results of this study confirm that many general dental practitioners are not following quality guidelines for endodontic treatment. PMID:23960485

Al-Fouzan, Khalid S.

2010-01-01

442

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping  

E-print Network

. [Fabaceae (a.k.a., Leguminosae)], and Z. spina-christi [Rhamnaceae] are available for bees after the rainy season, in addition to cultivated alfalfa, eucalyptus, sunflower, date palm, and some fruit trees (Alghoson 2004; Aloraydh and Alfarraj 1994... Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 13(2): 123–127. Alqarni AS (2006b) Influence of some protein diets on the longevity and some physiologi- cal conditions of honeybee Apis mellifera L. workers. Journal of Biological Sciences 6(4): 734...

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

2012-06-14

443

City Lights of Europe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growth in 'mega-cities' is altering the landscape and the atmosphere in such a way as to curtail normal photosynthesis. By using data from The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System, researchers have been able to look at urban sprawl by monitoring the emission of light from cities at night. By overlaying these 'light maps' onto other data such as soil and vegetation maps, the research shows that urbanization can have a variable but measurable impact on photosynthetic productivity. For more information, read Bright Lights, Big City Image by the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio

2002-01-01

444

GPHY 421 Sustainable Cities Prof. Ulrich Kamp 1 SUSTAINABLE CITIES  

E-print Network

architecture, and urban forestry and agriculture. We will discuss how sustainable cities of today are, and howGPHY 421 ­ Sustainable Cities ­ Prof. Ulrich Kamp 1 SUSTAINABLE CITIES (GPHY 421) - Fall 2011 of sustainability efforts in cities around the world. Topics include, for example, urban sprawl and smart growth

Vonessen, Nikolaus

445

First Insight into the Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia? †  

PubMed Central

This study constitutes a first attempt to describe the genetic population structure and drug resistance of the tubercle bacilli circulating in Saudi Arabia. A total of 1,505 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis, isolated between 2002 and 2005 from seven regions of Saudi Arabia, were studied. The sample studied showed a male-to-female sex ratio of 1.27, with half of the cases among foreign-born individuals and 47% within the 21- to 40-year-old age group; a total resistance rate of 19.7%; and multiple drug resistance of 4.5%. Upon spoligotyping, a total of 387 individual patterns were obtained (clustering rate, 86.4%; 182 clusters containing between 2 and 130 isolates per cluster). A total of 94% of the strains matched the spoligotype patterns in an international database. Nearly 81% of the isolates in this study belonged to established phylogeographic clades: Central Asian (CAS), 22.5%; ill-defined T clade, 19.5%; East African-Indian (EAI), 13.5%; Haarlem, 7.5%; Latin American-Mediterranean, 7.2%; Beijing, 4.4%; Manu, 2.7%; X, 0.9%; and Bovis, 0.9%. Two clonal complexes with unique spoligotyping signatures (octal codes 703777707770371 and 467777377413771) specific to Saudi Arabia were identified. These belonged to the CAS and EAI clades, respectively, as confirmed upon secondary typing using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs). The results obtained underline the predominance of historic clones of principal genetic group 1, which are responsible for roughly 45% of all tuberculosis cases in Saudi Arabia. The high rate of clustering observed might be an indication of rapid ongoing transmission within certain communities and/or subpopulations in Saudi Arabia; nonetheless, spoligotyping is known to overestimate clustering, and only a systematic second-line typing, such as MIRUs, coupled with a better tuberculosis registry and epidemiological investigations would allow us to know the exact rate of ongoing transmission and associated risk factors in Saudi Arabia. PMID:17507515

Al-Hajoj, Sahal A. M.; Zozio, Thierry; Al-Rabiah, Fahad; Mohammad, Viquar; Al-Nasser, Maryam; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin

2007-01-01

446

Light in the city  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on enhancing the awareness of light for the pedestrian,and using light as a way of revealing the structure of the city and its relation to the cosmos. It proposes that aesthetic qualities of light inform ...

Srinivasan, Kavita, 1976-

2002-01-01

447

Transforming Cities With Transit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are cities transformed by the creation of new transit lines? How can existing transit lines be modified to create new land use opportunities for housing and commercial properties? These subjects are covered by a 172-page conference edition of a forthcoming paper from the World Bank. The paper was authored by Hiroaki Suzuki, Robert Cervero, and Kanako Iuchi. Visitors will note that the work focuses on "identifying barriers to and opportunities for effective coordination of transport infrastructure and urban development." The work takes on a number of global best practices of transit-oriented metropolises that have direct relevance to cities in developing countries and offers both analysis and suggestions for future projects. Sections here include "Lessons from Sustainable Transit-Oriented Cities," "Integrating Transit and Urban Development in Cities in the Developing World," and "Toward Sustainable Urban Futures."

Cervero, Robert.

448

The 3Cities Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the Universities of Nottingham and Birmingham, the 3Cities Project is "an inter- and multi-disciplinary study of the iconography, spatial forms and literary and visual cultures of New York City, Chicago and Los Angeles in the period 1870s to 1930s." At present, the site hosts a collection of essays on the three cities, information on the project as a whole, and links and information for related conferences and seminars. The Project has also posted on a different site the City Sites electronic book, a collection of ten multimedia essays on New York and Chicago. Visitors can access these essays via interactive maps, a list, or by following theme-based "pathways." A lengthy bibliography rounds out the site.

449

Sister Cities International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People from around the world have sought to establish links with other individuals from different nations, and since 1956, cities have sought to also establish meaningful relationships with other urban areas through the Sister Cities International organization. Currently, the organization represents more than 2,500 communities in 126 countries. Visitors to the site can learn which cities are currently seeking partnerships with other cities, read about the organization's annual conference, and also read about the programs they administer. Also, its calendar of events is quite full with programs designed for the general public, such as those dealing with relationships with countries in the Middle East and the question of local government. Finally, the material on the site is available in a number of different languages, including French, German, Spanish, and Japanese.

450

City sewer collectors biocorrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

Ksia¸?ek, Mariusz

2014-12-01

451

Design a Solar City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students design and build a model city powered by the sun! They learn about the benefits of solar power, and how architectural and building engineers integrate photovoltaic panels into the design of buildings.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

452

Between house and city  

E-print Network

In an attempt to understand the relationships between a residential building type and the city, this thesis explores the quality of the urban context resulting from the assemblage of these buildings. The investigation takes ...

Kallus, Rachel Admati

1982-01-01

453

Art in Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The organizers of Art in Cities say, "Cities are like a huge art gallery with a permanently changing exhibition." Therefore, this web site exists to collect submissions of artwork from cities all over the world, and plot it on a map. To view the art, browse by selecting points on the map, or search by City, Submitter, or artist (Artwork by). There is also a quick link to the most recent uploads. On the day we visited, this link lead to stencil art and graffiti from several cities in the Netherlands, including Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Eindhoven, as well as one from San Bernardino, CA. This was just the first page of 473 for this specific link, which is in turn only a fraction of the close to 6,000 pieces of art on view at the site. Submitting art is as easy as uploading an image from your computer, and filling out a few fields on a form thus encouraging anyone to walk the streets of their city looking for art to add the site.

454

From intelligent to smart cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking Hollands' previous statement on the transition from intelligent to smart cities as its point of departure (‘Will the real smart city stand up?’ City 12(3), 302–320), this article reflects upon the anxieties currently surrounding such developments. In particular, it considers the suggestion that such developments have more to do with cities meeting the corporate needs of marketing campaigns than

Mark Deakin; Husam Al Waer

2011-01-01

455

Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction profiles; final project report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat-Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used: five on land, with most charges placed below the water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and detonated from a ship. Slightly more than 61 metric tons of explosives were used in 19 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by 100 newly-developed portable seismic stations deployed in approximately 200 km-long arrays for each firing. Each station consisted of a standard 2-Hz vertical component geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. In this final report, we fully document the field and data-processing procedures and present the final seismogram data set as both a digital magnetic tape and as record sections for each shot point. Record sections include a normalized set of seismograms, reduced at 6 km/s, and a true-amplitude set, reduced at 8 km/s, which have been adjusted for amplifier gain, individual shot size, and distance from the shot point. Appendices give recorder station and shot information, digital data set descriptions, computer program listings, arrival times used in the interpretation, and a bibliography of reports published as a result of this project. We used two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques in the data analysis, and our interpretation is based primarily on horizontally layered models. The Arabian Shield is composed, to first-order, of two layers, each about 20 km thick, with average velocities of 6.3 km/s and 7.0 km/s, respectively. At the western shield margin the crust thins to less than 20 km total thickness, beyond which the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain are interpreted to be underlain by oceanic crust. A major crustal lateral velocity inhomogeneity northeast of Sabhah in the Shammar Tectonic Province is interpreted as the suture zone of two crustal blocks of different composition. Several high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust correlate with mapped gneissic dome structures. Two intra-crustal reflectors at13 km depth are interpreted as the tops of mafic intrusives. The Mohorovicic discontinuity beneath the shield varies from 43 km depth in the northeast with 8.2 km/s mantle velocity to 38 km depth in the southwest with 8.0 km/s mantle velocity. Two velocity discontinuities are identified in the upper mantle, at 59 and 70 km depth. We suggest further work, including refined analyses of the data employing filtering and synthetic seismogram techniques, as well as consideration of attenuation properties. Extension of the seismic refraction profile to the Arabian Gulf and some short profiles perpendicular to the existing profile would be fruitful areas for future field work.

Healy, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Blank, H.R.; Gettings, M.E.; Kohler