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1

Household survey of container-breeding mosquitoes and climatic factors influencing the prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence. Methods Monthly visits were performed between April 2008 and March 2009 to randomly selected houses. During each visit, mosquito larvae were collected from indoors and outdoors containers by either dipping or pipetting. Mosquitoes were morphologically identified. Data on temperature, relative humidity, rain/precipitations during the survey period was retrieved from governmental sources and analyzed. Results The city was warmer in dry season (DS) than wet season (WS). No rain occurred at all during DS and even precipitations did fall, wetting events were much greater during WS. Larval survey revealed the co-breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles in a variety of artificial containers in and around homes. 32?109 larvae representing 1st , 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stages were collected from 22?618 container habitats. Culicines was far the commonest and Aedes genus was as numerous as the Culex population. Ae. aegypti larval abundance exhibited marked temporal variations, overall, being usually more abundant during WS. Ten types of artificial containers were found with developing larvae. 70% of these habitats were located indoors. 71.42% of indoor containers were permanent and 28.58% was semi-permanent during WS. Cement tanks was the only container type permanent during DS. Ae. aegypti larval indices (CI, HI, BI) recorded were greater during WS. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate a high risk of dengue transmission in the holy city. PMID:23569860

Aziz, Al Thabiany; Dieng, Hamady; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Mahyoub, Jazem A; Turkistani, Abdulhafis M; Mesed, Hatabbi; Koshike, Salah; Satho, Tomomitsu; Salmah, MR Che; Ahmad, Hamdan; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ramli, Ahmad Saad; Miake, Fumio

2012-01-01

2

Physicians' perception about electronic medical record system in Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The study was done to determine the physicians' perception about electronic medical record system (EMRS) in the context of its productivity in order to improve its functionality and advantages. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was performed from July to August 2009 with structured questionnaire of 15 closed-ended questions with five points Likert scaling starting from strongly disagree to strongly agree as 1–5, reflecting the perception of physicians about EMRS. The physicians of the Makkah region working in six different hospitals were selected. “Positive” response means if percent of responses were rated 4 or 5 (agree/strongly agree), “neutral” if rated 3, and negative if rated 1 or 2 (strongly disagree/disagree). Descriptive data analysis techniques were used. Results: We selected 317 completed questionnaires. Majority of subjects were from King Fahd Hospital, Jeddah (83, 26.3%), residents (147, 46.4%), male (200,63.1%), expatriates (207, 65%), and age group 36–45 years (133, 42%) were dominant. The stem regarding importance of computers for practicing medicine and EMRS to improve quality of practice was appreciated by majority, that is, 77.7 and 71.2%, respectively. However, “It does not disrupt the workflow” (35.1%) and “EMRS is comfortable while entering the data instead of writing” (34.8%) were appreciated negatively. Consultants (53.9%), male (53.4%), expatriates (56.7%), physicians of King Abdul Aziz Hospital, Ta'if (56.9%), and age group of 46–55 years (53.8%) appreciated EMRS positively. Overall perception of EMRS was found positive by 52.8%. Conclusion: Majority appreciated the EMRS, but specific concerns about its usage easiness and workflow disturbance were opposed by them also. PMID:25625082

Shaker, Hani Abdulsattar; Farooq, Mian Usman; Dhafar, Khalid Obeid

2015-01-01

3

Average surface albedo measurements in the UV, IR, and TSR on the Holy Mosque and places in Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Average albedo values were measured at three broad wavebands; UV region (295 - 385 nm), Total Solar Radiation, TSR, (305 - 2800 nm), and IR region (3500 - 50000 nm), over different surfaces in the Holy Mosque and Places in Makkah (21°.25 N, 39°.49 E). The Eppley Laboratory Radiometers of TUVR and PIR were used for UV and IR measurements respectively, while Kipp & Zonen Pyranometer of CM3 was adopted for the TSR observations. Measurements were performed during two different periods (summer 28/7-10/8/2004 at Holy Mosque and winter 18-30/1/2005 at Holy Places). Summer measurements showed that the average surface albedos of the Holy Mosque white marbles were 0.45, 0.70 and 1.14 at UV, TSR and IR regions respectively. These values have decreased to 0.12 and 0.18 at UV and TSR regions respectively over the Holy Mosque brown marbles. However, the average albedo value has increased to 1.38 at IR region due to the large Longwave radiation emission from the brown marble surfaces. The albedo values of the Holy Mosque red carpets were determined. The average albedo values were also measured over the Holy Places surfaces (18 m) of pilgrimage, (Muna and Arafat sites) during winter 2005. The observed average surface albedo values over Arafat selected area were 0.00, 0.22 and 1.18 at UV, TSR and IR regions respectively. The average albedo values over Muna selected area and Muna tents were also presented. The effect of clouds and solar zenith angle (SZA) on the measured albedo were investigated in this study.

Seroji, Abdulaziz R.

2005-08-01

4

What is the Significance of Adakitic Granitoids and Zircon Inheritance in Juvenile Arc Rocks of the Neoproterozoic Makkah Batholith, Saudi Arabia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neoproterozoic plutonic rocks of the Makkah batholith along the northern margin of the Jiddah terrane in western Saudi Arabia record >50 Ma of arc magmatism. Results of the first detailed survey using U-Pb zircon geochronology by SHRIMP-RG and trace-element geochemistry by ICP-MS provide important new constraints on subduction-related magmatism in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), but have also illuminated new problems. Samples from several dozen composite plutons ranging in composition from gabbro to granodiorite or granite were analyzed. SHRIMP-RG data for the plutons reveal 3 magmatic pulses at ca. 800, 775, and 750 Ma. Phase I (ca. 800 Ma) produced plutons that yielded U-Pb zircon ages of 803+/-17 Ma (previously reported zircon age of 816+/-3 Ma) and 804+/-5 Ma. The 803-Ma granite is nonconformably overlain by a potentially glacial diamictite at the base of the arc volcanic sequence. Phase II (ca. 775 Ma) plutons yielded ages of 781+/-8 Ma (previously reported zircon age of 760+/-10 Ma), 782+/-7 Ma, 776+/-6 Ma, and 770+/-5 Ma (previously reported zircon age of 769+/-5 Ma). Phase III (ca. 750 Ma) plutons yielded ages of 755+/-5 Ma, 747+/-5 Ma, 750+/-5 Ma, and 747+/-9 Ma. SHRIMP-RG was used to overcome a long-recognized problem of inheritance in the region. Inherited zircons of Mesoproterozoic age occur in one arc suite and in post-tectonic, A-type alkalic granites, and zircons as old as Archean occur in the arc volcanic rocks. The source of the inheritance is enigmatic. Remnants of Archean-Paleoproterozoic continental crust are exposed in the Afif terrane far to the SE. Could arc plutons of the Makkah batholith have interacted with previously unrecognized Pre-Neoproterozoic continental crust beneath the Jiddah terrane? Alternatively, did shallow arc magmas interact with buried glacial deposits and inherit far-traveled detrital zircons? The plutons exhibit geochemical signatures expected for juvenile oceanic arc rocks. They are I-type granitoids of the low- to medium-K series, show strong subduction signatures, and plot as volcanic arc granites on discrimination diagrams. Nearly half the samples show characteristics of adakites (high Sr/Y <130, low Y, steep REE patterns). Adakitic rocks previously recognized in the ANS were attributed to the subduction and melting of young, hot oceanic crust. However, the production of adakites from slab-melting should wane with time. That adakitic rocks occur in all 3 magmatic pulses (>50 Ma) suggests they were produced by a more sustained mechanism, such as melting of thickened eclogitic or garnet-granulitic lower crust. Anatexis in the lower crust is an appealing explanation for the adakitic chemistries, and for the source of the inherited zircons, but is not consistent with the arc characteristics and juvenile isotopic signatures of the Jiddah terrane. Could subduction of young oceanic crust be sustained long enough to produce adakitic magmas for >50 Ma (e.g. by oblique subduction of ridge segments)? If so, could the subduction of ridge segments at ca. 25 Ma intervals have produced the 3 magmatic pulses? Also, could large volumes of juvenile arc magmas melt enough older crust to inherit abundant zircons yet retain their original arc characteristics and isotopic signatures? We are using this opportunity to invite constructive dialogue to help resolve these questions.

Hargrove, U. S.; Stern, R. J.; Kimura, J.; Johnson, P. R.

2004-12-01

5

Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

2005-01-01

6

Assessment of rockfall hazard at Al-Noor Mountain, Makkah city (Saudi Arabia) using spatio-temporal remote sensing data and field investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rockfall is one of the major concerns along different urban areas and highways all over the world. Al-Noor Mountain is one of the areas that threaten rockfalls to the Al-Noor escarpment track road and the surrounding urban areas. Thousands of visitors and tourisms use the escarpment track road to visit Hira cave which is located at the top of Al-Noor Mountain. In addition, the surrounding urban areas of Al-Noor Mountain are continuously spreading over the recent years. The escarpment track road and the surrounding urban areas are highly vulnerable and suffers from recurrent rockfall mostly in the rainy season. The steep and highly jointed slope along the different faces of the mountain makes these zones prone to failure due to different actions such as weathering, erosion and anthropogenic effect. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this study to determine the Al-Noor cliff stability, by identifying the unstable areas, and to apply the rockfall simulations. A combination of remote sensing, field study and 2D computer simulation rockfall program were performed to assess surface characteristics of the cliff faces. Bounce height, total and translational kinetic energy, translational velocity, and number of blocks have been estimated. Different unstable zones along the Al-Noor Mountain and escarpment track road were determined using filed investigation and remote sensing based image analysis. In addition the rockfall simulation analysis indicated that rockfall in zone 1 and zone 2 of the Al-Noor Mountain may reach the urban areas, whereas rockfall in zone 3 will not reach the urban areas, and rockfalls along the Al-Noor escarpment track road will have highly impact on the tourists. Proper preventive measures are also suggested to arrest the movement of falling rocks before reaching the urban areas and the Al-Noor escarpment track road. If proper care is taken, then further uncertain rockfall hazards can be prevented.

Youssef, Ahmed M.; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Al-Kathery, Mohamed; Bathrellos, George D.; Skilodimou, Hariklia D.

2015-01-01

7

Residential water usage: A case study of the major cities of the western region of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socioeconomic and climatological data of the major cities of the western region of Saudi Arabia have been used to develop several models to estimate the residential water usage for different kinds of houses. The developed models correlate the residential water usages with temperature, income, family size, price of water, and availability of a garden within the house. The study shows

Omar S. Abu Rizaiza

1991-01-01

8

Simulating and Forecasting Flooding Events in the City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metropolitan cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as Jeddah and Riyadh, are more frequently experiencing flooding events caused by strong convective storms that produce intense precipitation over a short span of time. The flooding in the city of Jeddah in November 2009 was described by civil defense officials as the worst in 27 years. As of January 2010, 150 people were reported killed and more than 350 were missing. Another flooding event, less damaging but comparably spectacular, occurred one year later (Jan 2011) in Jeddah. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimize human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision and rescue plans. We have developed a coupled hydro-meteorological model for simulating and predicting flooding events in the city of Jeddah. We use the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model assimilating all available data in the Jeddah region for simulating the storm events in Jeddah. The resulting rain is then used on 10 minutes intervals to feed up an advanced numerical shallow water model that has been discretized on an unstructured grid using different numerical schemes based on the finite elements or finite volume techniques. The model was integrated on a high-resolution grid size varying between 0.5m within the streets of Jeddah and 500m outside the city. This contribution will present the flooding simulation system and the simulation results, focusing on the comparison of the different numerical schemes on the system performances in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

Ghostine, Rabih; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

2014-05-01

9

Breast cancer knowledge and related behaviors among women in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,092 women attending urban primary health care centers in Abha City southwestern Saudi Arabia about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and related practices. Only 22.0% heard about mammography, and 41.5% heard about breast self-examination (BSE). More than half of the women in the study identified changes occurring in case of breast cancer and identified risk factors. Only 8.3% were examined by clinical breast examination (CBE), 6.2% were examined by mammography, and 29.7% performed BSE. The study points to the insufficient knowledge of women and the low practice of BSE, CBE, and mammography. Public awareness should be enhanced by all available means including mass media, schools, social gatherings, and waiting areas in primary health care centers. There is an urgent need for continuing medical education programs for health care workers in the region concerning breast cancer. PMID:23797712

Mahfouz, Ahmed A; Hassanein, Mervat H A; Nahar, Shamsun; Farheen, Aesha; Gaballah, Inasse I; Mohamed, Amani; Rabie, Faten M; Aftab, Razia

2013-09-01

10

An update on the incidence of dengue gaining strength in Saudi Arabia and current control approaches for its vector mosquito  

PubMed Central

Background The cases of dengue reported earlier in the late 1990s from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) occurred in the cities of Jeddah and Makkah. Although the kingdom has ample financial resources to establish effective control measures for the dengue vector, numerous cases of dengue occur and fluctuate in numbers from year to year. This necessitates a serious review of the current vector control strategies being practiced in order to identify the existing shortcomings. This short report provides an update on epidemiology of dengue in KSA (specifically in cities of Jeddah and Makkah) with a critical look at the current vector control strategies. Findings In 2013, 4411 cases of dengue were reported, with 8 cases of mortality. This number of dengue incidence was four times higher compared to 2012. In 2013, the highest number of 1272 dengue cases was reported in May, while the lowest number (37) of cases was reported in September. Conclusions It is evident that the control strategies of the dengue vector presently employed are inadequate. There seems to be serious deficiencies in following proper scientific procedures during field application(s) of control materials against the vector as is evident by the increases in the number of dengue cases as well as frequent outbreaks of the vector mosquito populations. In this review, some specific suggestions are made to draw attention to the relevant KSA authorities of the possible reasons behind unsuccessful control results and as to how to improve the strategy of dengue vector control in the kingdom. PMID:24890567

2014-01-01

11

Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0{+-}14.2 Bq/m{sup 3}, 83.4{+-}6.0 Bq/m{sup 3}, 61.6{+-}6.4 Bq/m{sup 3}, 63.7{+-}5.4 Bq/m{sup 3} and 87.5{+-}6.Bq/m{sup 3} and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m{sup 3}, 5.5 Bq/m{sup 3}, 1.1 Bq/m{sup 3}, 1.0 Bq/m{sup 3} and 24 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm{sup -3} set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The ''within regions''(different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region ''1''(p = 0.783) and versus region ''5''(P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region ''3''(P = 0.0160) and also versus region ''4''(p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other regions are near to the Al-Thuwayrat sands.

Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

2011-10-27

12

Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m3, 83.4±6.0 Bq/m3, 61.6±6.4 Bq/m3, 63.7±5.4 Bq/m3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m3, 5.5 Bq/m3, 1.1 Bq/m3, 1.0 Bq/m3 and 24 Bq/m3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm-3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The "within regions" (different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region "1" (p = 0.783) and versus region "5" (P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region "3" ( P = 0.0160) and also versus region "4" (p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other regions are near to the Al-Thuwayrat sands.

Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

2011-10-01

13

Molecular Detection of Mycobiota in Drinking Water at Four Different Sampling Points of Water Distribution System of Jeddah City (Saudi Arabia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study included collection of water samples (150 samples) from 10 different branches belonging to each water network in Jeddah City (Saudi Arabia). Samples included treated water (30 samples) and tap water in some hospitals (30 samples from cold water tap and 30 samples from hot water tap) and private houses (60 samples). According to results of the traditional identification

Rukaia M. Gashgari; Hesham M. Elhariry; Youssuf A. Gherbawy

2012-01-01

14

Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecA and PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL(+) isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80) were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence. PMID:25523075

Abou Shady, Hala M; Bakr, Alaa Eldin A; Hashad, Mahmoud E; Alzohairy, Mohammad A

2015-01-01

15

Spatial and Temporal Variations of Satellite-Derived Multi-Year Particulate Data of Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Analysis  

PubMed Central

The effects of concentrations of fine particulate matter on urban populations have been gaining attention because fine particulate matter exposes the urban populace to health risks such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Satellite-derived data, using aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been adopted to improve the monitoring of fine particulate matter. One of such data sources is the global multi-year PM2.5 data (2001–2010) released by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). This paper explores the satellite-derived PM2.5 data of Saudi Arabia to highlight the trend of PM2.5 concentrations. It also examines the changes in PM2.5 concentrations in some urbanized areas of Saudi Arabia. Concentrations in major cities like Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, Makkah, Madinah and the industrial cities of Yanbu and Jubail are analyzed using cluster analysis. The health risks due to exposure of the populace are highlighted by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and targets. The results show a trend of increasing concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas. Significant clusters of high values are found in the eastern and south-western part of the country. There is a need to explore this topic using images with higher spatial resolution and validate the data with ground observations to improve the analysis. PMID:25350009

Aina, Yusuf A.; van der Merwe, Johannes H.; Alshuwaikhat, Habib M.

2014-01-01

16

NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF) was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2) were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71), weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43), and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33), suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors. PMID:24192792

Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

2013-01-01

17

NO(2) and cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF) was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2) were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32-0.71), weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03-0.43), and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17-0.33), suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors. PMID:24192792

Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

2013-11-01

18

Using geographical information systems for defining the accessibility to health care facilities in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Spatial data play an important role in the planning of health care facilities and their allocation. Today, geographical information systems (GIS) provide useful techniques for capturing, maintaining and analysing health care spatial data; indeed health geoinformatics is an emerging discipline that uses innovative geospatial technology to investigate health issues. The purpose of this paper is to define how GIS can be used for assessing the level of accessibility to health care. The paper identifies the advantages of using GIS in health care planning and covers GIS-based international accessibility with a focus on GIS applications for health care facilities in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A geodatabase that includes location of health services, road networks, health care demand and population districts was created using ArcGIS software. The geodatabase produced is based on collected data and covers issues, such as defining the spatial distribution of health care facilities, evaluating health demand types and modelling health service areas based on analysis of driving-time and straight-line distances. PMID:25599637

Murad, Abdulkader A

2014-01-01

19

Temporal variations of O3 and NOx in the urban background atmosphere of the coastal city Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone is a pollutant of major concern because of its well recognized effects upon human health and crop yields. This study analyses in depth a new dataset for ozone from Jeddah, a coastal city in Saudi Arabia within the Middle Eastern region, for which very few ozone data are currently available, collected between March 2012 and February 2013. The measurements presented include NO, NO2 and ozone as well as relevant meteorological variables. The data show a marked seasonal variation in ozone with highest concentrations in the summer months and lowest average concentrations in the winter. Concentrations also show a substantial difference between weekdays and weekends, with higher NO and NO2 on weekdays, but lower concentrations of ozone. Plots of total oxidant versus NOx concentration indicate background concentrations of ozone (at zero NOx) ranging from 38.2 ppb in January to 59 ppb in May consistent with the northern hemisphere spring maximum in ozone concentrations. The slope of total oxidant/NOx varies from 0.13 in March to 0.68 in August. The two summer months of July and August are anomalous with slopes of around double that of other months, suggesting a higher efficiency of ozone production at lower primary pollutant concentrations arising from much reduced daytime traffic. A substantial weekend/weekday difference in ozone which is higher at weekends appears to be attributable to lower daytime traffic activity and hence reduced emissions of NOx to a “NOx-saturated” atmosphere.

Alghamdi, M. A.; Khoder, M.; Harrison, Roy M.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Goknil, M. H.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Lihavainen, H.; Kulmala, M.; Hämeri, K.

2014-09-01

20

Evaluation of neonatal jaundice in the Makkah region  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to detect the frequency at which the different types of neonatal jaundice occur in Makkah and to estimate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 239 neonates with neonatal jaundice, 20 anemic neonates and 21 healthy neonates. ABO incompatibility was observed in 31.6% of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia, in 14.3% of those with early onset jaundice, in 9.5% of those with persistent jaundice, in 8.5% of those with physiological jaundice, in 5% of anemic neonates and in 12% of all neonates. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was observed in 10.5% of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia, in 3.9% of those with physiological jaundice, in 11.1% of those with direct hyperbilirubinemia, in 12% of those with persistent jaundice, in 10% of anemic neonates and in 6.6% of all neonates. Rh incompatibility and polycythemia were found in 2.6% of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia and in 0.4% of all neonates. In comparison to control group, MDA was significantly higher in all groups except for the anemic group. In conclusion, ABO incompatibility and G6PD deficiency frequently result in neonatal jaundice in Makkah, whereas Rh incompatibility and polycythemia are rare. The MDA level may serve as an indicator of oxidative stress. PMID:24763104

Alkhotani, Abdulaziz; Eldin, Essam Eldin Mohamed Nour; Zaghloul, Amal; Mujahid, Shakil

2014-01-01

21

An Assessment of the Readiness of King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia, in Adopting Effective Online Staff Development Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internet access has grown in Saudi Arabia between 2000 and 2005 by more than 1000% and many governmental organizations are starting to provide part of their services using the internet. In addition, the Ministry of Higher Education has provided funding to all governmental universities to start developing strategies and guidelines for online…

Alwadie, Adnan D.

2011-01-01

22

A study of solar ultraviolet radiation at Makkah Solar Station  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of solar ultraviolet radiation (295-385 nm) and total global radiation (290-3,000 nm), continuously recorded at a station in Makkah (21.5{degree}N, 39.8{degree}E) for 17 months in 1987-1988, has shown that the monthly average daily UV was 200 Wh m{sup {minus}2}. The ratio of UV to total global radiation varied from a maximum of 0.043 to a minimum of 0.028. A drop of 25% below the average 0.036, detected in the summer months, is attributed to scattering and absorption by dust and low tropospheric ozone. Comparison with Dhahran and Kuwait has shown that the effect was localized. A study of diurnal variation and clear, midday hourly radiation and the ratio of UV to global radiation, Iv/Ig, also revealed an overall depletion in the summer months, despite the relative decrease in attenuation of Iv during cloudy days and at low solar altitudes. Multiple regressions of Hv and Iv on relevant variables with coefficients of determination exceeding 90% have been performed. Frequency distribution of daily UV is briefly discussed.

Khogali, A. (Univ. of Khartoum (Sudan)); Al-Bar, O.F. (Univ. of Nottingham, Leicestershire (United Kingdom))

1992-01-01

23

New age estimations for the western outer city wall of ancient Tayma (NW Saudi Arabia) based on OSL and radiocarbon data and geomorphologic evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2004 tremendous progress has been achieved in deciphering the cultural genesis of the Tayma oasis (NW Saudi Arabia), due to the joint investigations of the German Archaeological Institute Berlin (DAI), the General Commission for Tourism and Antiquities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the Department of Archaeology and Epigraphy, King Saud University Riyadh. Nevertheless, archaeological research is still suffering from a lacking locally-based absolute chronology of buildings. The pattern of ancient constructions at Tayma is dominated by a prominent city wall system surrounding the ancient town center (Qraya) and stretching 15 km around the oasis. Its internal structure indicates several building periods, i.e. phases of wall modification or extension of the entire system. So far, according to silex and carnelian fragments included in the mud bricks and a previous 14C age of charcoal remains from the central excavation district (wall section at Area A), an initial construction date of the wall between the late 3rd and the early 2nd millennium BC seemed likely. At the excavated western outer city wall a new systematic dating approach - combining the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C methods - has been applied to generate a reliable age for the oldest branch of the wall system which nowadays is covered by aeolian sand. The dune deposit is genetically related to the existence of the wall and, therefore, dating its accumulation provides termini ante quem for the construction of the wall. Five OSL dates were generated from the dune deposit providing ages between 4,900 and 3,500 yrs. Two radiocarbon ages support the dating sequence and also contribute to its consistency. By combining the results with geomorphologic evidence we draw the following conclusions: Initial settlement activities at Qraya were accompanied by a regulation of wadi dynamics and the construction of the outer city wall, indicated by the abrupt boundary between the pre-settlement alluvial silt and the overlying wall-related dune deposit. According to the OSL and 14C dating results from this deposit, the wall section at C1 (western part of the ancient settlement, north of Area A) dates back to the middle of the 3rd millennium BC or even earlier. Furthermore, the burying of the still existing remains of the city wall at C1 by sand was already completed at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC.

Engel, M.; Klasen, N.; Brückner, H.; Eichmann, R.; Hausleiter, A.; Al-Najem, M. H.; Al-Said, S. F.; Schneider, P. I.

2009-04-01

24

The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008  

PubMed Central

Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients. PMID:24511244

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

2014-01-01

25

The 3d Documentation of Projected Wooden Windows (the Roshans) in the Old City of Jeddah (saudi Arabia) Using Image-Based Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Roshan represents one of the most characteristic aspects of traditional architecture in Hejaz (Saudi Arabia) and a frequent feature in most of the Historical Jeddah's heritage buildings. The old city has witnessed continued degradation recently, which has caused the loss its traditional architecture and hundreds of these projected wooden windows. Documentation is a major step towards heritage preservation, whether threatened by man-made or natural factors. However, due to the absence of specialists and experts an architectural database of the Roshans does not exist. Surveying these architectural elements is a very laborious and difficult process when using conventional methodologies including the laser sensors approach mainly due to the onsite limitations. Establishing an architectural database of the Roshans is the main objective in this research paper, based on the continuous development of data capture and modelling methodologies that allows the accurate recording of even the most complex and intricate details and patterns which are typically found in Roshans. Recent advances in image based techniques (digital close-range photogrammetry and computer vision) such as the semi-automated solutions of Dense Stereo Matching (DSM) and 3D modelling software has offered an accurate, inexpensive and practical solution to surveying, documenting and reconstructing these architectural heritage features. In this paper the application of these methods is tested and evaluated on the Roshans in the old city of Jeddah.

Alitany, A.; Rebondo, E.; Adas, A.

2013-07-01

26

Knowledge about bronchial asthma management in primary health care physicians in Al-Khobar City, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Context: The prevalence of bronchial asthma (BA) is increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Primary health care (PHC) centers follow the national protocol, which is based on the severity of the disease for the management of asthma. The Saudi initiative for asthma (SINA) management adopted from the global initiative for asthma guidelines, which was recommended by several recent studies, is based on the control level of asthma. Aims: To assess the knowledge of PHC physicians and family medicine (FM) residents in Al-Khobar, about the management of BA. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in all PHC centers and the university FM clinic in Al-Khobar. All PHC physicians and 3rd and 4th year FM residents were included in the study. A self-administered questionnaire developed according to SINA guidelines was used to assess theoretical knowledge of BA, and a predesigned checklist was used to assess the different inhaler techniques. Scoring was established and collected data were analyzed. Results: Only 8% of the sample had good theoretical knowledge of BA; 41% had poor knowledge. The knowledge of the residents was better than that of the PHC physicians. The mean knowledge score was significantly better among those using guidelines compared to the rest. About 23% had good knowledge of inhaler techniques. Knowledge of PHC physicians and FM residents about dry powder inhalers was deficient, and PHC physicians had little knowledge of metered dose inhalers with spacers. Conclusion: The knowledge of physicians about the management of BA was deficient. The national guidelines based on the level of control for asthma management should be updated and physicians given periodic training.

Yousef, Haneen A.; Koura, Manal; Yousef, Abdullah A.

2015-01-01

27

Electrocardiographic findings in heat stroke and exhaustion: A study on Makkah pilgrims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over two million pilgrims perform annual rituals in Makkah region, which when coincides with summer months, exposes them to outdoor temperatures exceeding 45°C and humidity approaching 80%. Accordingly, heat illnesses are common including explicit heat strokes and heat exhaustion. No previous studies elaborated on electrocardiographic changes among this unique cohort.

L. Mimish

28

Population distribution and household conditions in Saudi Arabia: reflections from the 2010 Census.  

PubMed

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the largest nation in the Arabian Peninsula is divided into 13 regions, which are of different development levels in terms of both population and public utility infrastructure. More than the other regions, population is high in Al-Riyadh, Makkah Al-Mokarramah, and the Eastern Region, due to urbanization. The current analysis of census results is aimed at understanding (i) regional variations in population and households and (ii) house ownership, type of housing, and housing infrastructure. Saudi Arabia's population is 26,090,555, living in 4,655,127 households with higher concentration in Al-Riyadh, Makkah Al-Mokarramah, and the Eastern Region. One-fourth of the households are in Makkah Al-Mokarrammah while another one-fourth in Al-Riyadh. Households are small with 6 persons in each. The proportion of households in own houses is less than half - mostly Saudi households. Households in the Kingdom live in apartments, traditional houses, villas or floor in a villa with differing proportions across regions and between Saudi and non-Saudi. While apartments are the major type of housing (major regions), traditional houses (Jazan, Al-Baha, Hail, and Aseer regions) and villas (Al-Riyadh region) still exist that are built by concrete (less than four-fifths), block/brick (less than one-fifth), mud (rare), and stone (rare) with varying regional proportions. Infrastructure - electricity, water, and sewage - vary across regions. The major source of electricity is public station followed by private station and private generators. Water source is mainly the public water inside the pipe unit but catchment tank water and well water are used. Three types of sewage system are prevalent in the Kingdom - public sewage, ditch sewage, and private sewage. An inequitable distribution of population across regions shows urbanization, causing an emergence of the modern housing sector influencing house ownership. Developed regions have less ownership, more rentals and office quarters, thus, presuming that development level and migration status are driving house ownership. The impact of infrastructural variations is difficult to interpret as such variations affect the interest of the public sector and customers. A lesser dependence on the public sector requires caution when assessing the situation and when creating policies and provisions to improve quality of life. PMID:25279321

Abdul Salam, Asharaf; Elsegaey, Ibrahim; Khraif, Rshood; Al-Mutairi, Abdullah

2014-01-01

29

Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development. PMID:12178138

1986-12-01

30

Hepatitis B virus among saudi children in Gizan, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the prevalence rates for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibody to surface antigen (anti-HBs) were studied among 325 school children and those seeking treatment for minor ailments in Gizan City, Saudi Arabia. Tests for hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg), antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe), IgM antibody

C. M. Parande; S. C. Arya; S. J. Ashraf

1986-01-01

31

Saudi Arabia Afghanistan  

E-print Network

India Iran Saudi Arabia Pakistan Yemen Iraq Oman Somalia Afghanistan Ethiopia United Arab Emirates Oman China Turkmenistan Turkey Tajikistan United Arab Emirates Kuwait Qatar Uzbekistan Eritrea Bahrain 02858 00707 #12;Iran Saudi Arabia Oman Pakistan AfghanistanIraq Yemen United Arab Emirates Kuwait Qatar

Russell, Lynn

32

Need for thermal-storage air-conditioning in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Saudi Arabia, the growth of demand for electrical energy in the rapidly expanding towns, cities and industries, far exceeds the growth of the power being made available. Recently the Saudi Consolidated Electric Companies (SCECO) are facing a shortage of electricity during the summer period mainly due to the high consumption of electricity in the air conditioning sector. The incorporation

Syed Mahmood Hasnain; Naif Mohammed Alabbadi

2000-01-01

33

Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

1992-01-01

34

Renewable success : development of good architecture in the case of Arriyadh Development Authority, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

ArRiyadh Development Authority (ADA) is an unusual city development authority within the Saudi Arabian government hierarchy. Part of its responsibilities is coordinating and overseeing the design and building of buildings ...

Alkhabbaz, Mohammed H

2010-01-01

35

Ecology and habitat characterization of mosquitoes in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) contains many of the world's mosquito vectors of parasitic and arboviral diseases. However, few studies addressed their geographic distribution and larval habitat characteristics. We carried out a 14-months mosquito survey in three KSA regions: Makkah and Al-Baha (western) and Jezan (south-western). Larvae were collected by dipping from various water habitats and adults by CDC light and BG sentinel traps. Climatic conditions and physicochemical characteristics of collection sites were recorded. We collected a total of 3331 mosquitoes {larvae (n= 2766, 83%) and adults (n= 565, 17%)} of 21 species from six genera (8 Anopheles, 8 Culex, 1 Aedes and 3 others). Larval water habitats included streams, rocky pits, seepage, leakage and containers (plastic and concrete). Of the total larvae collected, 52% (n= 1439) were Anopheles, 44.3% (n= 1226) were Culex, 0.51% (n= 14) were Aedes aegypti and 3.1% (n= 87) were from four other species. The most abundant species were Culex tritaeniorhynchus (n=1008, ~36.3%) and Anopheles dthali (n= 976, ~35.3%). The medically-important species were Anopheles arabiensis (n= 128) and Anopheles sergenti (n= 58), vectors of malaria and Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus (n= 53) and Ae. aegypti (n= 14), vectors of arboviral diseases. Three species are new records in KSA and all from Jezan: Anopheles superpictus (n= 3), Culex duttoni (n= 1) and Culex mimeticus (n= 1), however the numbers were very low, which requires further investigations. Only two species were collected in the adult stage, Cx. quinquefasciatus (n= 561: 551 females and 10 males) from Makkah and Culex theileri (n= 4, all females) from Al-Baha. Only 3.8% (n= 21) of Cx. quinquefasciatus females were blood-fed. This study provides new information on the bionomics of 21 mosquito species in KSA including six dominant vector species and thus adds to the scarce data available on them. This information is essential to better understand mosquito population dynamics in relation to disease transmission and control. PMID:24189671

Khater, E I; Sowilem, M M; Sallam, M F; Alahmed, A M

2013-09-01

36

Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

1990-01-01

37

NASA Remote Sensing Validation Data: Saudi Arabia  

DOE Data Explorer

Since 1995, the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have co-operated to establish a 12 station network of high quality solar radiation monitoring installations across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. NREL and KACST realized the value of accurate surface solar radiation flux measurements for validation of satellite derived surface and atmospheric solar radiation flux measurements, and is making this data available to support validation of satellite data products related to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth component of the Earth Science Enterprise Earth Observing System (EOS) project to evaluate long term climate trends based on measuements from EOS Terra Platforms. A CIMEL 8 channel sunphotometer for measuring aerosol optical depth at 6 wavelengths and total column water has been deployed at the Solar Village station since February 24, 1999. [Taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/new_data/Saudi_Arabia/

Myers, Daryl R. (NREL); Al-Abbadi,Naif (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Energy Research Institite); Wilcox, Steve (NREL)

38

Creating identity in new communities: case studies from Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community identity is considered a desirable goal for various reasons. This paper traces the impact of rapid and unprecedented urbanization on the structure of Saudi cities by taking the example of a small town, Al-Badai in the Riyadh region. It points out how existing towns are struggling to regain their character through a number of methods including the provision of

Saleh Al-Hathloul; Muhammad Aslam Mughal

1999-01-01

39

Tabanidae (Diptera) of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Samples were collected from southern, central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia using Malaise traps and sweep nets. Nine species of Tabanidae were identified, two for the first time from Saudi Arabia, Hybomitra peculiaris (Szilády) and Atylotus pulchellus (Loew). Therefore, the total number of Tabanidae in Saudi Arabia is 31 species. Remarks of the species recorded in this study were given. A key to the genera of Tabanidae occurring in the Arabian Peninsula is also provided. Available literature for Saudi Arabian Tabanidae is summarized and provided. It is concluded that the tabanid fauna of Saudi Arabia is more similar to that of the Palaearctic region than to the Afrotropical region. PMID:23961046

Al Dhafer, H.M.; Dawah, H.A.; Abdullah, M.A.

2009-01-01

40

Weight management practices and their relationship to knowledge, perception and health status of Saudi females attending diet clinics in Riyadh city.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to identify weight management (WM) practices among women attending diet clinics in Riyadh city, assess their impact on knowledge, perceptions, nutritional and health status and define some predictors for weight reduction among these women. The pretest-posttest research design was used. All female clients attending 8 diet clinics for the first visit within 8 months period and fulfilling the study inclusion criteria (212 out of 263) were included. The results show that out of 170 females who had previously tried to lose weight, only 32.4% reported success in reducing weight, meanwhile 61.7% reported weight regain. The mean total score of dietary practices, physical activity score, self efficacy and satisfaction of self-body image were improved significantly at posttest. Analysis of 24 h. dietary recall revealed that total energy and nutrients intake were significantly reduced at posttest. Dieting related problems increased significantly at posttest. Nutritional knowledge was at moderately fair level at both pretest and posttest; however it showed a significant improvement in the posttest. Perceived severity, perceived barriers and negative modeling effect were significantly decreased at the posttest. Over expectation for weight reduction was clearly evident as posttest body mass index (BMI) revealed a wide discrepancy between the expected and final weights. However, as compared to initial and final BMI, there was an increase in women who attained normal weight and a decrease in the percentage of obese and morbid obese women. All anthropometric indices, blood pressure, biochemical investigation showed significant improvement at posttest. Among the five WM modalities studied, moderate hypo-calorie plan diet modality was the longest (chi = 5.6 month) with the least weight loss (7.8%) and the minimum side effects. Both groups under very low calorie diet and protein diet had the highest weight reduction (13.2% &12.3%), at the same time both diets exhibited the highest number of side effects. The study recommends use of the primary approach for achieving weight loss through therapeutic life style change with banning those modalities accompanied with serious health complications. PMID:18217330

Albassam, Reem Suliman; Abdel Gawwad, Ensaf S; Khanam, Latifa

2007-01-01

41

Awareness and attitude of cancer patients about participation in clinical research (CR) in Saudi Arabia. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Sheblaq NR,Traifi S,Al Sakiani M,Gasmelseed A,Abolfotouh MA,Jazieh AR. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Abdul Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ASCO 2013 Annual Meeting. 2013 May 31. 2013 Jun 04. Chicago, IL.

42

Teaching and evaluation methods of medical ethics in the Saudi public medical colleges: cross-sectional questionnaire study  

PubMed Central

Background Saudi Arabia is considered one of the most influential Muslim countries being as the host of the two most holy places for Muslims, namely Makkah and Madina. This was reflected in the emphasis on teaching medical ethics in a lecture-based format as a part of the subject of Islamic culture taught to medical students. Over the last few years, both teaching and evaluation of medical ethics have been changing as more Saudi academics received specialized training and qualifications in bioethics from western universities. Methods This study aims at studying the current teaching methods and evaluation tools used by the Saudi public medical schools. It is done using a self-administered online questionnaire. Results Out of the 14 medical schools that responded, the majority of the responding schools (6; 42.8%), had no ethics departments; but all schools had a curriculum dedicated to medical ethics. These curricula were mostly developed by the faculty staff (12; 85.7%). The most popular teaching method was lecturing (13; 92.8%). The most popular form of student assessment was a paper-based final examination (6; 42.8%) at the end of the course that was allocated 40% or more of the total grade of the ethics course. Six schools (42.8%) allocated 15-30% of the total grade to research. Conclusion Although there is a growing interest and commitment in teaching ethics to medical students in Saudi schools; there is lack of standardization in teaching and evaluation methods. There is a need for a national body to provide guidance for the medical schools to harmonize the teaching methods, particularly introducing more interactive and students-engaging methods on the account of passive lecturing. PMID:24020917

2013-01-01

43

Occurrence of fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.

Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.

2013-09-01

44

Assessing Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as "harrats." The largest of these, Harrat Rahat (Figure 1), produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 C.E. with lava flows traveling within 20 kilometers of the city Al-Madinah, which currently has a population of 1.5 million plus an additional 3 million pilgrims annually. With more than 950 visible vents and periodic seismic swarms, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital.

Lindsay, Jan Marie; Rashad Moufti, Mohammed

2014-08-01

45

The education of women in Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

and culture. The variables that most directly affect the position of women are the role of Islam in Saudi Arabia, the concept of honor, and the practices of segregation and veiling. THE ISLAMIC EMPIRE OF SAUDI ARABIA Saudi Arabia dominates an area known...- ing the status and role of Saudi women, however. An inter- nal source of resistance is Wahhabism, the Saudi sect of Islam, and the official interpretation of Islam in Saudi Arabia. Wahhabism is an indigenious puritanical religious movement...

Quintanilla, Linda Jean

1985-01-01

46

Spatial autocorrelation of cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran's I and Anselin's local Moran's I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR) were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran's I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin's local Moran's I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin's disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin's disease (r² = 0.49-0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52-0.68 using GWR) and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR) in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations. PMID:24351742

Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

2013-12-01

47

Safar al?Hawali: Saudi Islamist or Saudi nationalist?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safar al?Hawali's name came to prominence during the Gulf War due to the popularity of his taped sermons, which galvanized public debate inside Saudi Arabia on a range of issues of major concern for both the Saudis and the Muslim world. Because most Western writings on the Islamists discourse have depended on second?hand material, Hawaii was presented in the Western

Mamoun Fandy

1998-01-01

48

Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse

Ziad A Memish; S Venkatesh; Qanta A Ahmed

2003-01-01

49

Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

50

Saudi Arabia Today. A Teaching Program on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: (1) Grades 1-3, Our Visit to Saudi Arabia; (2) Grades 4-6, A Modern Kingdom; (3) Junior High School, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; (4) Senior High School, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This package includes materials for students and accompanying teaching guides and posters for teaching about life in contemporary Saudi Arabia for grades 1-8. The student folder for grades 1-3 presents information about the Middle Eastern nation in the form of a boy's letter to a friend back home. In the letter are descriptions of the cities of…

Learning Enrichment, Inc., Williamsburg, VA.

51

Socioeconomic determinants of crowding inside home in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: a comparative analysis.  

PubMed

The study area was the city of Al-Khobar in the Eastern Province, divided into nine areas each with a primary health care center that maintained files with socioeconomic and demographic information on families, the source of data for this study. A random systematic sample of 398 files that had complete information was selected from the total of 10,451 files in three sample centers during the period January to June 1989. The dependent variable, crowding inside home, was measured by the average number of persons per room in the house. The dummy regression technique was employed for data analysis. For husband's occupation, the reference category was low status occupation; for both husband's and wife's education, the reference category was less than elementary (low level) education. Of the total sample of 398 families, 205 were Saudi families, while the remaining 193 were foreign non-Saudi families. 82% of the Saudis and 85% of the non-Saudis averaged between 1 to 3 persons per room, although 32.7% and 22.3%, respectively, had an average of 2 to 3 persons per room, perhaps because the number of living children of Saudis was 5.03 compared to 2.65 of non-Saudis. 64% of the Saudi husbands were engaged in high status occupations compared to 73% of their non-Saudi counterparts. For both Saudis and non-Saudis, the greater the number of living children, the greater was the number of persons per room: an increase of 1 child in the family was associated with increases of 0.11 and 0.22 persons per room for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively. Also for Saudi families, where husbands had high status occupations, the average number of persons per room was significantly fewer (by approximately 0.2 persons) than for families where husbands had low status occupations, while for non-Saudi families the relationship between husband's occupation and the number of persons per room was insignificant. PMID:12289947

Sufian, A J

1994-01-01

52

Migration and its sociological impact in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.  

PubMed

Demographic developments in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait since World War II are reviewed using data from governmental, international, and other published sources. Following an overview of trends in population size and distribution, attention is focused on internal and international migration and the associated social, economic, and political implications. The concentration of immigrants in cities, migrants' occupations, acculturation, and the security concern arising from the volume of immigration flows are briefly discussed. PMID:12268758

Dabla, B

1986-12-01

53

Sucking habits in Saudi children: prevalence, contributing factors and effects on the primary dentition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature on the prevalence of sucking habits shows that it varies from one population to another. The purposes of this study were to: 1) determine the preva- lence of sucking habits among preschool Saudi children liv- ing in Riyadh City, 2) assess the influence of some cultural factors on that prevalence, and 3) to study the

Najat M. A. Farsi; Fouad S. Salama; Cert Pedo

1997-01-01

54

Managing urban growth and development in the Riyadh metropolitan area, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines public sector management of urban growth and development in the Riyadh Metropolitan Area, Saudi Arabia. The focus of the paper is on institutional capacity building and development intervention. The paper traces changes in public sector management structures and development activities over the history of the city with the aim of assessing development impact and identifying forces that

Shaibu Bala Garba

2004-01-01

55

Population migration to south-west of Saudi Arabia: its motives and impacts.  

PubMed

The author examines recent migration to the southwestern area of Saudi Arabia, both from other regions of the country and from outside the country. The growth of towns and cities, the reduction of the rural and bedouin population, and the decline in food production are noted. The need for regional planning for rural development is stressed. PMID:12268106

Al-sharif, A S

1986-06-01

56

Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR) were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR) and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR) in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations. PMID:24351742

Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

2013-01-01

57

Changing attitudes in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

Martiradonna, Luigi

2014-04-01

58

Sudanese emigration to Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A review of migration from Sudan to Saudi Arabia between 1970 and 1980 is presented. The data are from official Sudanese sources and from interviews conducted by the author in 1981 and 1982. Consideration is given to the occupational and age structure of the migrants. Questions related to remittances from migrants are also discussed. (summary in FRE, SPA) PMID:12229851

Mahmoud, M E

1983-01-01

59

The Effect of Temperature and Salinity on the Germination of Calligonum comosum LHer (Polygonaceae) in Two Different Populations in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different degrees of temperature and salinity have been studied to evaluate their effects on the seed germination of Calligonum comosum LHer grown in two different populations in Saudi Arabia. These two sites have been chosen in Saudi Arabian deserts , one in Nefoud El-Shakika south Onyza city on Najd plateau and the second west El-Dahnaa in the way between El-Riyadh

Wafaa K. Taia; Hayfaa A. El-Olyan; Wafaa M. El-Ghanem; Moody O. El-Otaibi

60

[The weight of immigration in Saudi Arabia].  

PubMed

The social, political, and economic implications of the immigrant presence in Saudi Arabia are explored. The author notes that about one-third of the population of the country is made up of working nonnationals. The tensions that exist are examined, with reference to the exclusion of the migrants from Saudi Arabian society and the extreme imbalance in the sex ratio caused by predominately male migration. The author suggests that dependence on migrant labor is likely to increase rather than decrease as Saudi nationals are oriented toward nontechnical studies and Saudi women are excluded from the labor force. PMID:12233432

De Klebnikoff, S

1982-01-01

61

Performance and economics of a solar thermal power generation plant in Jubail, Saudi Arabia: Parabolic trough collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explores the technical and economic feasibility of a thermal solar power generation plant using parabolic trough collectors (Euro Trough) in Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia. Total annual available solar radiation is calculated at 1,970 kWhr. The size of the proposed solar thermal power plant is 50 MW. The designed solar field is composed of 100 loops with a

Adel M. Al-Nasser

2010-01-01

62

Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

Hamdan, Amani

2005-01-01

63

Career Choices Among Saudi Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 253 final-year students at the four Saudi medical schools found the most frequently-chosen specialties were internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology. Over one-fourth were unsure of career choice. Gender differences were found. Most common locations for postgraduate training were Saudi Arabia and Canada, and a…

Al-Faris, Eiad; And Others

1997-01-01

64

Surface Rupture in Northwest Saudi Arabia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault rupture caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...

2010-09-28

65

Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice toward medicines.  

PubMed

The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15-20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines' uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine's efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students' reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ?18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P < 0.014). The study showed that Saudi school students aged 15-20 years old have poor knowledge, misconception and negative attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students' practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406

Eldalo, Ahmed S; Yousif, Mirghani A; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad

2014-07-01

66

Quality assessment of various bottled waters marketed in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available brands of domestic bottled water in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor, and trace elements) is determined and compared with the chemical content labeled on the bottles and with drinking water standards of Saudi Arabian, World Health Organization, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The obtained results indicated that except for fluoride and bromate, the concentrations of dissolved salts, soluble cations and anions, nitrate, and trace elements of most bottled waters on sale were within the permissible limits set by standards used. On the other hand, the comparison between determined and reported label values recorded a substantial variation in some parameter values. Results indicated that more than 18 % of the sampled bottled waters exceeded the allowable limits for drinking water. Generated Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters were sodium chloride-sulfate type; however, the hydrochemical modeling indicated that all water samples were undersaturated for anhydrite, gypsum, and halite. PMID:23232848

Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul M; El-Maghraby, Salem E; Aly, Anwar A; Al-Wabel, Mohammed I; Al-Asmari, Zafer A; Nadeem, Mahmoud E

2013-08-01

67

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

2013-12-01

68

Saudi Aramco Gas Operations Energy Efficiency Program  

E-print Network

Saudi Aramco Gas Operations (GO) created energy efficiency strategies for its 5-year business plan (2011-2015), supported by a unique energy efficiency program, to reduce GO energy intensity by 26% by 2015. The program generated an energy savings...

Al-Dossary, F. S.

2012-01-01

69

Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After September 11, 2001, complaints were voiced around the world, including by the U.S. government, that Saudi Arabian schools demonize the West and the "other." Senior Saudi government spokesmen also acknowledged this as a problem, and have repeatedly pledged that reform is underway or completed. This report was written in response to concerns…

Shea, Nina; Al-Ahmed, Ali

2006-01-01

70

Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

Fitzhugh, William

2006-01-01

71

Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.  

PubMed

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to learn from this unique phenomenon of migration medicine. PMID:12615370

Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

2003-02-01

72

Architecting the Saudi solar manufacturing : using Enterprise Architecture Framework  

E-print Network

The demand for Saudi oil is increasing locally and internationally, and being one of the major oil exporters in the world, the government of Saudi Arabia needs to balance between local consumption and international demand. ...

Alsultan, Bassel F. (Bassel Fahad)

2013-01-01

73

76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi Arabia April...and green building in residential, commercial...consumers--residential, commercial...potential for residential and industrial...the green building and energy...It is also Saudi Arabia's...million; and...

2011-12-15

74

Saudi Arabian National Center for Science and Technology (SANCST) Database.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subject areas covered by publications in database of Saudi Arabian National Center for Science and Technology are enumerated, noting Saudi contribution: total number of publications in individual subject areas, number of publications for each area and year, and publication trends (1960-1982). Scientific and technological activities in Saudi Arabia…

Manzoor, Suhail

1985-01-01

75

Causes and effects of road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Saudi Arabia the motor vehicle is the main means of transportation. Between 1971 and 1997; 564 762 people died or were injured in road traffic accidents, a figure equivalent to 3.5% of the total population in Saudi Arabia. During this period 66 914 people have died on the roads in Saudi Arabia due to road accidents, amounting to one

S Ansari; F Akhdar; M Mandoorah; K Moutaery

2000-01-01

76

Sexual Behavior in Male Adolescents with Autism and Its Relation to Social-Sexual Skills in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to identify common sexual behavior among adolescents with autism, where parents and teachers of sixty-one male adolescents from twelve to twenty-one years of age were recruited from three cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were asked to respond to a sexual behavior questionnaire, and a social-sexual skills…

Huwaidi, Mohamed A.; Daghustani, Wid H.

2013-01-01

77

A cross-cultural comparison of health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents living in urban areas: gender by country analyses.  

PubMed

This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648) and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158). The participants (14-18 year-olds) were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3%) was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%). The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week). Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among Saudi adolescents (64%) compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%). The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively). The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05) gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001) gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. PMID:24300072

Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Duncan, Michael J; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Abahussain, Nada A; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Nevill, Alan

2013-12-01

78

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Health Behaviors between Saudi and British Adolescents Living in Urban Areas: Gender by Country Analyses  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648) and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158). The participants (14–18 year-olds) were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3%) was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%). The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week). Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among Saudi adolescents (64%) compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%). The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively). The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05) gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001) gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. PMID:24300072

Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Abahussain, Nada A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Nevill, Alan

2013-01-01

79

Nutritional disorders in Saudi Arabia: a review.  

PubMed

The article reviews the literature on the problem of nutritional disorders in Saudi Arabia. Most of the studies reveal problems of anaemia and a mild to moderate degree of stunting and wasting among preschool children. The causes are, apparently, ignorance and misconception rather than purely economic. Recently, overnutrition has been observed as a problem among the middle and upper class of urban societies. In general, an improvement in the nutritional status of the Saudis has been observed over the last two decades. This is a repercussion of socioeconomic development and improvement in education, dietary habits, and environmental conditions. The time is ripe to create Saudi standards for health and nutrition. These will be used as yardsticks for planning and evaluation of health and nutritional programmes. PMID:3294076

Sebai, Z A

1988-03-01

80

Demographic perspectives on Saudi Arabia's development.  

PubMed

Demographic movements likely to be taking place in Saudi Arabia were hypothesized on the basis of general knowledge. The discussion reports on population size, general Arab demographic patterns, general determinants of fertility, Arab fertility patterns, Saudi fertility patterns, mortality in general, mortality in the Middle East, mortality in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian population growth, immigration, the changing composition of the work force, and third plan targets. Some doubt exists as to the size of Saudi Arabia's population, but there is little question that the total is growing rapidly. This expansion is taking place through stepped up immigration and a relatively high natural growth of indigenous Saudis, but statistics on population size, structure, and on the number of births and deaths leaves the magnitude of a number of important demographic trends in doubt. Yet, considerable evidence exists that several of the Arab countries in the region with fairly good demographic data are likely to have similar demographic patterns. In depth analysis of the demographic dynamics of these countries, particularly Jordan and Kuwait, identified several common elements bearing on several key parameters. Using what Saudi data is available and making comparisons with these neighboring countries, one can, based on expected levels of birth and death rates, indirectly infer the natural growth of Saudi Arabia's population. With several notable exceptions, Saudi Arabia's demographic patterns show a marked similarity to those experienced in the region as a whole. The average rate of population growth in both Saudi Arabia and the Arab region is about 3% a year and in both instances fertility rates are high. The demographic structure of these countries is characterized by the youthfulness of the population. In most of the Arab countries, the population aged 15 years or under accounts for over 48% of the population. The rate of the economically active population is low, ranging from 22% to 32% of the total population, with the female participation rate varying from 3.5% to 18.5%. In the nonagricultural sector, the average activity rate of women over the age of 15 usually does not exceed 6%. Arab countries are also characterized by their high infant mortality rates. In 1975 these rates ranged from 60 to 200/1000. Illiteracy rates for the group, as a whole, are also high, and they are significantly higher among women than among men. A multipurpose survey conducted in Saudi Arabia during 1976 and 1977 reported a live birthrate of 54.2/1000. This is somewhat above the UN figure of 49.5 for the country and over the average for Arab countries of 46.6 for 1975. The mortality rate for the Saudi population is 14.1/1000. If one accepts the birth and death rates indicated by the multipurpose survey, the population is growing at a national rate of 3% or more per year. PMID:12340437

Looney, R E

1985-06-01

81

Haemoglobin Bart's in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The haemoglobin (Hb) patterns of 345 Shiite Saudi Arab cord bloods were examined by alkaline starch-gel electrophoresis. A fast-moving component, identified by structural analysis as Hb Bart's, was found in 52% of cases, the highest incidence of this variant yet recorded. The levels of Hb Bart's ranged from 0.5 to 16% of the total haemoglobin. The relative rates of synthesis of the alpha, beta and gamma-chains, measured by [3H]leucine incorporation, were estimated in 12 newborn Arab infants. There was an excellent correlation between the amount of Hb Bart's and the alpha/non-alpha-globin-chain production ratio. Furthermore there was a significant correlation between the level of Hb Bart's and morphological abnormalities of the red cells and the mean cell haemoglobin (MCH). These findings indicate that elevated levels of Hb Bart's in this population are due to the presence of alpha thalassaemia. The absence of hydrops fetalis and the rarity of Hb-H disease despite the intense inbreeding in this population, points to an alpha-thalassaemia genotype that is, in terms of phenotypic expression, intermediate between the heterozygous state for alpha-thalassaemia I and Hb-H disease. A possible molecular basis for this genotype is suggested. PMID:1238097

Pembrey, M E; Weatherall, D J; Clegg, J B; Bunch, C; Perrine, R P

1975-02-01

82

Study of Ultraviolet Radiation and Genotoxic Effects of Natural Sunlight in Relation to Skin Cancer in Saudi Arabia1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunlight-related biological effects such as skin cancer, sun- burning, and synthesis of vitamin D in the body have been found to be very low in people in the midregion of Saudi Arabia. The present studies were undertaken to measure the sunburning- carcinogenic ultraviolet light (UV) radiation (UV-B) in natural sun light in the city of Riyadh (25°north latitude). The average

Mohammed A. Hannan; Manik Paul; Magid H. Amer; Farouk H. Al-Watban

83

Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Saudi adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19?years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh). The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400) and females (1506) aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR), screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use), physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire), and dietary habits (intake frequency per week). Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk), but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories) or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories) were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR) and frequency of breakfast (aOR for?Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by promoting active lifestyles and healthy diets should be a national public health priority. PMID:22591544

2012-01-01

84

Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia. Methods Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO) ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51%) were for over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and 71 (38%) were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8%) advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7%) of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%), 58 (31%), and 33 (16.5%) advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64%) provided references for information presented. Conclusions Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists. PMID:24223078

Al-Aqeel, Sinaa AbdulMohsen; Al-Sabhan, Jawza Fahad; Sultan, Noha Yahia

85

Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001). About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively). The greater majority (67%) considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks. PMID:24576364

Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen

2014-03-01

86

Perception on the Relationship between Cancer and Usage of Tobacco and Alcohol in Hail, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Aim: Increasing alcohol consumption in many countries is an important cause of cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of tobacco use and alcohol consumption and its related perception among population of Hail, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey from March to April 2012 covering 451 participants, in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. Results: Out of 451 respondents, 355(78.7%) were male and 96 (21.3%) were female giving a male to female ratio of 3.7:1. The age range of respondents was 11 – 77 years with a mean of 32 years. Prevalence of tobacco use and alcoholic beverages consumption were 30.3% and 7.5%, respectively. Most of the tobacco users and alcohol consumers showed positive knowledge concerning the relation between tobacco use and/or alcohol consumption and cancer. Conclusion: It is evident that the prevalence of tobacco consumption is rising in the Hail region. Female participation in tobacco and alcohol related studies in the Hail – Saudi Arabia represent a major obstacle since it is considered as social stigma due to complete prohibition by law. PMID:24298474

Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed

2013-01-01

87

Population dynamics and tuberculosis: a cross sectional study of an overlooked disease in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: International travel, migration and human population movements facilitate the spread of tuberculosis (TB). Objective: To study the impact of poorly screened expatriates working in Saudi Arabia on the local incidence of TBs. Patients and methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Chest Disease Hospital, Taif. All confirmed cases of TB from June 2009 to May 2010 admitted to the hospital were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were diagnosed cases of TB (pulmonary & extra-pulmonary) in patients between the ages of 14 to 65 years. Patients with HIV and coexistent malignancies were excluded. The age, gender and ethnic group of each patient was recorded, and patients were divided into two groups. Of the two groups, Group A consisted of Taif residents and group B of patients referred from other cities in the country. Results: Of the 686 cases studied, 370 (54%) were Saudi nationals (Group A = 80 & Group B = 290) and 316 (46%) cases were from other countries. Males outnumbered females and most of the patients were aged 20 to 29 years. The number of cases from the areas close to the pilgrimage sites, i.e. Makah (233) and Jeddah (275), outnumbered those in Taif (110). Conclusions: Our study identifies an increased prevalence of TB cases in areas close to the pilgrimage (Group B). The higher proportion of non-Saudi TB patients in group B is most likely explained by the higher number of poorly screened illegal expatriates in the region. PMID:24454274

Al-Bishri, Jamal; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Adnan, Mubarki; Tariq, Malik; Abdullah, Harthi; Abdulgoni, Thubaiti; Bander, Guraibi; Altalhi, Mansoor

2014-01-01

88

A Analysis of Saudi Arabian High School Students' Misconceptions about Physics Concepts.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to explore Saudi high students' misconceptions in selected physics concepts. It also detected the effects of gender, grade level and location of school on Saudi high school students' misconceptions. In addition, a further analysis of students' misconceptions in each question was investigated and a correlation between students' responses, confidence in answers and sensibleness was conducted. There was an investigation of sources of students' answers in this study. Finally, this study included an analysis of students' selection of reasons only in the instrument. The instrument used to detect the students' misconceptions was a modified form of the Misconception Identification in Science Questionnaire (MISQ). This instrument was developed by Franklin (1992) to detected students' misconceptions in selected physics concepts. This test is a two-tier multiple choice test that examines four areas of physics: Force and motion, heat and temperature, light and color and electricity and magnetism. This study included a sample of 1080 Saudi high school students who were randomly selected from six Saudi educational districts. This study also included both genders, the three grade levels of Saudi high schools, six different educational districts, and a city and a town in each educational district. The sample was equally divided between genders, grade levels, and educational districts. The result of this study revealed that Saudi Arabian high school students hold numerous misconceptions about selected physics concepts. It also showed that tenth grade students were significantly different than the other grades. The result also showed that different misconceptions are held by the students for each concept in the MISQ. A positive correlation between students' responses, confidence in answers and sensibleness in many questions was shown. In addition, it showed that guessing was the most dominant source of misconceptions. The result revealed that gender and grade level had an affect on students' choice of decision on the MISQ items. A positive change in the means of gender and grade levels in the multiple choice test and gender differences in selection of reason may be associated with specific concepts. No significant difference in frequencies of the reasons chosen by the student to justify their answers were found in most of the items (10 items).

Al-Rubayea, Abdullah A. M.

89

Saudi Arabian License Plate Recognition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A license plate recognition (LPR) system is one kind of intelligent transport systems and is of considerable interest because of its potential applications to areas such as highway electronic toll collection, traffic monitoring system and so on. This paper proposes an automatic license plate recognition system for Saudi Arabian license plates. The system captures the images of the vehicles with

Muhammad Sarfraz; Mohammed Jameel Ahmed; Syed A. Ghazi

2003-01-01

90

Teachers' Online Discussion Forums in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia has special online discussion forums for teachers as part of its internet website. The study surveys those teachers' online forums and reports the number of participants, number of threads and responses, topics with the highest and lowest posts and the forums role in teachers' professional development and…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2006-01-01

91

Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…

Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

2008-01-01

92

Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

Alwadie, Adnan D.

2013-01-01

93

The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

1991-01-01

94

Print Media Planning in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost three-quarters of advertising spending in Saudi Arabia goes to print media. This condition stems from the fact that some important media for developing countries including cinema, radio, and rental video are not available for placing advertisements. Despite being an important channel for advertising, the print medium has serious problems. These problems include limited circulation, inefficient distribution, lack of readership

Secil Tuncalp

1994-01-01

95

Cinder Cones in Northwest Saudi Arabia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Harrat Lunayyir basalt cinder cones and lava flows in Saudi Arabia seen from an aerial perspective. Deposits from the cinder cones cover nearby ridges and form fans at the base of the older non-volcanic ridge in the background. These well-preserved geomorphic forms indicate the relative youth of thi...

2010-09-28

96

Creating and Mapping Flash Flood Social and Physical Vulnerability Index of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past couple of years, the frequency and magnitude of flash floods are increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For effective planning and mitigation purposes, it is necessary to identify and visualize areas that are vulnerable to the flooding. In this paper, we will first create a flash flood social and physical vulnerability index for the city of Riyadh based on physical and social-economic data. Building upon the index, the areas of Riyadh that are highly vulnerable to flash floods will be identified and mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Finally, possible mitigation measures that can be used to reduce the impacts of flooding will be discussed in details.

Tauhidur Rahman, Muhammad; Aldosary, Adel S.; Nahiduzzaman, Khondokar Mohammad

2014-05-01

97

Regional and urban population size weights in Saudi Arabia, 1962-1974.  

PubMed

"The aim of this paper is to study the development of population weights for regions and urban centres in Saudi Arabia through the period 1962-1974. In order to achieve this aim some non-parametric statistical rules have been used such as rank-size rule and the four-city index. The results show non-balanced distribution of population on both regional and urban scales. The concentration of people in urban centres is more pronounced than the concentration in regions. This is due to internal and external movement of population towards large-sized urban centres." PMID:12314602

Makki, M S

1986-09-01

98

The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One -hundred twenty (60 Saudi and 60 non-Saudi) sexually active female health care professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were anonymously surveyed using the English version of the female sexual function index questionnaire. The individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain, and overall score for the Saudi and non-Saudi women were calculated and compared. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics. No statistically significant differences were found between Saudi and non-Saudi women in desire (P = .22) and arousal scores (P = .47). However, non-Saudi women had significantly higher lubrication (P < .001), orgasm (P = .015), satisfaction (P = .004), and pain scores (P = .015). The overall scores in Saudi and non-Saudi women were low (23.40 ± 4.50 compared with 26.18 ± 5.97), but non-Saudi women had a significantly higher overall score (P = .005). Taken together, sexual dysfunction is prevalent among Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers, with Saudi women demonstrating lower scores in four sexual function domains and the overall score. PMID:25601160

Rouzi, Abdulrahim A.; Sahly, Nora; Sawan, Dana; Kafy, Souzan; Alzaban, Faten

2015-01-01

99

The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One -hundred twenty (60 Saudi and 60 non-Saudi) sexually active female health care professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were anonymously surveyed using the English version of the female sexual function index questionnaire. The individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain, and overall score for the Saudi and non-Saudi women were calculated and compared. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics. No statistically significant differences were found between Saudi and non-Saudi women in desire (P = .22) and arousal scores (P = .47). However, non-Saudi women had significantly higher lubrication (P < .001), orgasm (P = .015), satisfaction (P = .004), and pain scores (P = .015). The overall scores in Saudi and non-Saudi women were low (23.40 ± 4.50 compared with 26.18 ± 5.97), but non-Saudi women had a significantly higher overall score (P = .005). Taken together, sexual dysfunction is prevalent among Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers, with Saudi women demonstrating lower scores in four sexual function domains and the overall score. PMID:25601160

Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Sahly, Nora; Sawan, Dana; Kafy, Souzan; Alzaban, Faten

2015-01-01

100

Saudi Aramco describes crisis oil flow hike  

SciTech Connect

On Aug. 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait and triggered one of the most severe crises in the world's oil supplies since World War II. Within a few days of the invasion, Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports were embargoed, and almost 4.6 million b/d oil of production was removed from world markets. This shortfall amounted to about 20% of total Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production at the time and could have proven disastrous to the world's industrial and financial well-being. However, there was no disruption to the major economies of the world. This paper reports that the primary reason for the cushioning of this impact was the massive expansion in production undertaken by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco).

Not Available

1991-12-02

101

Health beliefs and behaviors of Saudi women.  

PubMed

This paper describes perceptions of familiarity with symptoms and beliefs about illnesses based on interviews with 50 Saudi women. The sample was young, with 82% under the age of 40, and not well educated by Western standards, with one-third being illiterate and 80% having no more than a primary school education. More than half lived in households of six or more. Although there was greater awareness of germs as causative factors in illness than previous studies in Saudi Arabia had demonstrated, beliefs in multiple causes, including religious beliefs about disease causation, persisted. There was an apparent lack of understanding of specific causes of various illnesses or of the rationale for preventive measures. This lack of understanding may be related to the low education levels and/or deeply ingrained cultural beliefs. PMID:1475998

Ide, B A; Sanli, T

1992-01-01

102

Aedes mosquito species in western Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The Aedes Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito species populations in the western region of Saudi Arabia, especially in and around Jeddah, are increasing, therefore increasing susceptibility of humans to the dengue virus. An extensive survey was carried out for one year, and four species were identified with the help of different pictorial keys available. The identification was based on morphological characteristics of adult female Aedes mosquitoes. PMID:25373216

Alikhan, Masroor; Al Ghamdi, Khalid; Mahyoub, Jazem Abdullah

2014-01-01

103

Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. PMID:25460975

Alghamdi, Mansour A; Alam, Mohammed S; Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa; Harrison, Roy M; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I

2015-02-15

104

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycle City contains an interactive city map that demonstrates how residents of every section of the city, formerly Dumptown, have recycled, reduced, and reused waste to turn their town around. There is a Dumptown Game with a Control Center to monitor displays while Dumptown changes as waste reduction programs are put in place. Students can create their own Recycle City scavenger hunt or go to the Activities area and see other ways to put Recycle City to use to help protect the environment.

1997-01-01

105

Nutritional knowledge and desire to change of food preferences among Saudi women in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Effective nutritional education programs are based on a proper understanding of many factors, including a population's nutritional knowledge, behavior, food preferences, and a desire to change these preferences. Our study examined these variables through a convenience sample (N = 151) of adult Saudi women living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Results indicated a gap between perceived and actual knowledge (p < .05) and the desire to increase intake of fruits, vegetables, and dairy products and reduce fat consumption. Taste was the main barrier for not to change. Future nutritional education programs should target women with low-education background, and the best time may be in primary school curricula. PMID:22794129

Bakhotmah, Balkees Abed

2012-01-01

106

Tobacco use among adolescents in Riyadh Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Initiation of smoking behavior during adolescence is associated with negative health outcomes. Understanding initiation of smoking behavior in adolescents in relation to other behavioral, health, and environmental factors is essential for effective behavioral modification. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe tobacco use behaviors among adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and related demographic and social factors. Subjects: A total of 1430 students aged 14-19 from high schools across the city of Riyadh participated in the study. Methods: A comprehensive adolescent health survey was administered to students in high school classrooms across Riyadh. Data were analyzed primarily via contingency tables with ?2-tests. Results: One in five students reported having ever smoked cigarettes, with a significantly higher proportion of boys than girls reporting tobacco use. Students who smoked had significantly lower school connectedness compared with those who never smoked. Tobacco use by family members was common, and students with at least one family member who smoked were significantly more likely to use tobacco themselves. Conclusions: Improving school connectedness among students by fostering supportive and safe school environments could be a potential strategy for reducing adolescent smoking. Reducing smoking in the general population and educating families about being better role models for youth are also critical. PMID:25153556

Al-Makadma, AbdulKarim S; Moynihan, Melissa; Dobson, Sarah; Saewyc, Elizabeth

2014-08-15

107

Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Lung Function of Saudi Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the association between cigarette smoking and state of lung function among Saudi male students.A cross sectional study was conducted on a group of 680 male Saudi students. Detailed personal questionnaire, British Medical Research Council questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and smoking habit, were administered and forced spirometry and anthropometric measurements were conducted on them.

Waleed A. Milaat; Fathim M. EI-Ganai

1998-01-01

108

Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

2014-01-01

109

Stratigraphic and paleogeographical significance of Silurian acritarchs from Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant and well-preserved acritarchs of Early Silurian and late Middle to Late Silurian age have been obtained from marine subsurface sequences in seven exploratory wells drilled by the Saudi Arabian Oil Company in central and northwestern parts of Saudi Arabia. Preliminary results on their stratigraphic distribution allow an informal zonation of 9 regional acritarch assemblages zones to be proposed. Correlations

Alain Le Hérisse; Haytham Al-Tayyar; Hans van der Eem

1995-01-01

110

Blended Learning in Saudi Universities: Challenges and Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended…

Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah

2010-01-01

111

Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi

Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

2011-01-01

112

Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

Alquraini, Turki

2011-01-01

113

Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

Alquraini, Turki

2010-01-01

114

Gender-Segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms and the Saudi Labor Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of…

Baki, Roula

2004-01-01

115

Cities Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From The Economist, their Cities Guide offers practical information ranging from accommodations to insider tips on getting around various US and world cities. A very nice touch are areas like the City Briefing section (top news stories, history pieces, and other tidbits) and the Being There area (subtopics include how to kill an hour and gifts to take home). City Guide also contains sections on cultural events, shopping, history, facts, and much more. [REB].

2001-01-01

116

Tensile city  

E-print Network

Tensile City is a story that provides the answer to the following question: II If we were to leap forward in time and visit a city of the future, what would learn about our contemporary city ? II The story unfolds when ...

Chakkour, Mario Henri

1987-01-01

117

Corneal spherical aberration in Saudi population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To find out the mean corneal spherical aberration and its changes with age in Saudi population. Setting AlHokama Eye Specialist Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods Three hundred (300) eyes of 185 Saudi subjects (97 men and 88 women), whose age ranged from 15 to 85 years old, with matched refractive errors, were divided into three groups according to their age, 100 for each. All the subjects were included in measuring the spherical aberration (SA) using pentacam HR (OCULUS, Germany) at the 6-mm optical zone. Results The mean corneal spherical aberration (CSA) of the fourth order (Z40) of the whole groups was 0.252 ± 0.1154 ?m. Patients from 15 to 35 years old have root mean square (RMS) of CSA of 0.2068 ± 0.07151 ?m, 0.2370 ± 0.08023 ?m was the RMS of CSA of the patients from 35 to 50 years old, while those from 50 to 85 years old have a CSA-RMS of 0.31511 ± 0.1503 ?m (P < 0.0001). A positive correlation was found between the spherical aberration (Z40) and the progress of age (r = 0.3429, P < 0.0001). The high order aberration (HOA) presented 28.1% of the total corneal aberrations. While the fourth order corneal spherical aberration constituted 57% of the HOA and 16% of the total aberration. The pupil diameter shows a negative correlation with the increase in age (P = 0.0012). Conclusion Our results showed a CSA (Z40) that is varied among the population, comparable to other studies, and significantly correlates to the progress of age. PMID:25278799

Al-Sayyari, Tarfah M.; Fawzy, Samah M.; Al-Saleh, Ahmed A.

2014-01-01

118

The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

2014-05-01

119

Breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia: a review  

PubMed Central

Background Breastfeeding is viewed as the optimal method of infant feeding that provides many benefits to both the infant and the mother. The monitoring and reporting of breastfeeding indicators are essential for any country to plan and implement effective promotion programs for sustainable breastfeeding. The aim of this review is to examine the available studies and data on breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia, and determine the potential factors that affect breastfeeding practices and duration in this country. Methods The databases of Web of Knowledge, Science Direct and PubMed were searched using the relevant key words. Only studies that reported breastfeeding practices, rates and indicators in Saudi Arabia were included. Standard WHO definitions for breastfeeding categories were used in this review. Results Seventeen cross-sectional studies were identified and reviewed and five stated they used standard definitions. The self-administered questionnaire as a measurement tool was the predominant method of data collection. Infants' ages range from less than six months up to five years. Initiation rates were high (mostly above 90%), but a few studies reported low rates of timely initiation (within the first hour). The exclusive breastfeeding rate could not be accurately determined as rates range from 0.8% to 43.9% among studies due to the lack of clear definitions and the nature of study design. The partial (mixed) feeding method was common and the category of 'any breastfeeding' has generally high rates. The mean duration of breastfeeding has showed a progressive decline over time from 13.4 months in 1987 to 8.5 months in 2010. Factors associated with a high prevalence of breastfeeding and longer duration include increased maternal age, low educational levels, rural residence, low income, multiparity and avoiding contraceptives. The most common reason for breastfeeding cessation was insufficient breast milk. Other reasons include sickness, new pregnancy and breastfeeding problems. Conclusions Breastfeeding indicators in Saudi Arabia could not be monitored or compared relying on the available data because no longitudinal studies have been conducted in this country. A cohort study design would be the most appropriate procedure to rigorously assess and report valid results on breastfeeding practices and patterns in the Saudi society. PMID:24422991

2014-01-01

120

Socioeconomic characteristics and fertility of labour migrants in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This study examines selected socioeconomic characteristics and their influence on the fertility of labor migrants in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected from health centers in the city of Al-Khobar, with the multivariate dummy regression technique used to subsequently analyze the relationship between the dependent variable, the number of living children, and explanatory variables. Wife's age, the husband-wide age difference, and wife's education were found to be significantly associated with the number of living children. Wife's education has the largest influence upon fertility, with fertility decreasing as education level increases. Fertility also varies directly with husband-wife age differences, with increasing numbers of living children observed for greater age differences. Neither husband's education, family income, nor occupation were significantly related to the number of living children. The paper qualifies its results in noting the study's sample selection bias. Since all migrants who did not bring their families with them to Saudi Arabia were excluded from the study, results are based upon better-educated and comparatively well-off economically migrants. PMID:12284317

Sufian, A J

1990-07-01

121

Historic Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly sponsored by the Historic Cities Center within the Department of Geography at Hebrew University and the Jewish National and University Library, the Historic Cities Web site is intended to contain maps, literature, documents, books, and other relevant material concerning the past, present, and future of historic cities While some of these documents and ephemera are still forthcoming to the site, visitors will find a wide array of historic city maps and views dating from 1486 to 1720. The scanned maps are searchable alphabetically, by date, and by individual cartographer. Additionally, a bit of information is provided about each cartographer. Overall, the site contains close to two hundred individual city maps and renderings, ranging from medieval Heidelberg to Casablanca. For persons with an interest in urban morphology and the history of cartography, the Historic Cities site will be a good place to start.

122

City Mayors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on the expertise of a team of editors who reside in Britain, Germany, Spain, Mexico, France, and a number of other countries, the City Mayors organization is an "international network of professionals working to promote strong cities and good local government." Their website takes on all of the important urban issues of the day, including governance, affordable housing, sustainable development, transportation, and a number of other pressing issues. On their homepage, visitors will find links to recent news stories from cities around the world and direct links to thematic sections such as business, finance, environment, and development. One section that should not be missed is the "City Rankings" area, which includes helpful lists of the largest cities in the world by land area, population and density, along with a list of the most expensive cities in the world.

123

Uncertainty of Mitigation Measures to Floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an aspect of the changing climatic conditions and anthropogenic impact; however, floods and torrents have been recently existed in Jeddah, the coastal Saudi city along the Red Sea. Distributed over 28 surface water basins, totaling an area of more than 2500km2, floods cover more than 15% of the area. This is well pronounced in 2009 and 2011, and it was attributed mainly to the torrential rainfall peaks the area witnesses lately. In addition, there is a chaotic urban distribution from the coastal zone to the adjacent mountain chains to the east, where torrential water runs towards the coast. A detailed assessment has been obtained using advanced space tools (e.g. high-resolution satellite images), and the application was carried out on several aspects of these images and at different dates. This was accomplished in combination the applications of geo-spatial systems to induce the mechanism of water flow regime and to identify the major reasons behind the high risk magnitude. Consequently, the geomorphologic and hydrologic parameters for flood occurrence were recognized. In the light of this catastrophic status; however, mitigation measures are rare enough to protect the area under risk. Recently, and after the 2009 and the recurrent 2011 disasters, which were resulted from floods, some mitigation measures have been undertaken and others were proposed. However, there is still uncertainty for an integrated flood control system. This can be viewed from the unsuitability of the selected sites and erroneous applications for flood controls. Besides, there is a lack to: 1) a giant channeling system for the risk area, 2) check dams, 3) ponds for water collection, 4) sediments-fixing controls, 5) traced watercourses. This is in addition to absence of proper legislation to prevent chaotic urban activities along valleys' pathways.

Al Saud, M.

2011-12-01

124

Support for court-yard houses : Riyad, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

The objective of this report is to explore the application of the support concept in the Saudi Arabian context, as a result of the author's interest in the concept of user participation. To do so, the following steps were ...

Akbar, Jamel A

1981-01-01

125

Weather data and heating-degree days for Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present monthly-average maximum, minimum and mean temperatures and the medians of extreme temperatures for 24 weather stations in Saudi Arabia. Heating-degree days are also given for these locations.

M. A. I. El-Shaarawi; N. Al-Masri

1996-01-01

126

EFL Teacher Preparation Programs in Saudi Arabia. Trends and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher education programs in Saudi Arabia and argues that available program options are in adequate for EFL teacher preparation. Recommendations are offered for improving EFL teacher education programs. (Author/VWL)

Al-Hazmi, Sultan

2003-01-01

127

Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the Kingdom for future scientists in Saudi Arabia as they explore the impact of global warming on animal species. PMID:23961171

Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

2012-04-01

128

Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (Ta) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in Ta as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because Tas are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3–5 °C in Ta over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher Ta, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high Ta. This report examines how increases in Ta might affect body temperature (Tb) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which Ta often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When Ta exceeds Tb, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their Tb; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases Tb is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their Tb to increase as Ta increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in Ta. The data presented should serve as base-line information on Tb of animals in the Kingdom for future scientists in Saudi Arabia as they explore the impact of global warming on animal species. PMID:23961171

Williams, Joseph B.; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Haseeb A.

2011-01-01

129

Breast Cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy of women worldwide. It is the leading cause of female cancer related disability and mortality. In Saudi Arabia breast cancer ranks first among cancerous diseases in females. In the Gulf region, and especially in Saudi Arabia, few studies have been conducted to address breast cancer awareness. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the level of breast cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah, focusing on knowledge of breast cancer warning signs, risk factors, screening programs and breast self-examination (BSE). The design of this study was an exploratory correlational analysis. The sample comprised 200 Saudi females aged 20 and older living in Jeddah. Data were collected using face-to- face interviews. Breast cancer awareness was measured using a modified Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (Breast CAM) version 2. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's Product Moment correlation coefficients and ANOVA test were used to answer study questions. Out of 200 participants, 50.5% were aware of breast lump as a warning sign of breast cancer, 57.5% claimed that family history was risk factor, 20.5% had undergone breast screening, 79% heard about BSE, and 47.5% knew how to perform BSE. Findings indicated that Saudi females level of awareness of breast cancer is very inadequate. Public awareness interventions are needed in order to overcome an ever-increasing burden of this disease among Saudi females. PMID:23991994

Radi, Sahar Mahmoud

2013-01-01

130

Individualized medicine enabled by genomics in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The biomedical research sector in Saudi Arabia has recently received special attention from the government, which is currently supporting research aimed at improving the understanding and treatment of common diseases afflicting Saudi Arabian society. To build capacity for research and training, a number of centres of excellence were established in different areas of the country. Among these, is the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, with its internationally ranked and highly productive team performing translational research in the area of individualized medicine. Here, we present a panorama of the recent trends in different areas of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia drawing from our vision of where genomics will have maximal impact in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe advances in a number of research areas including; congenital malformations, infertility, consanguinity and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer and genomic classifications in Saudi Arabia, epigenetic explanations of idiopathic disease, and pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. We conclude that CEGMR will continue to play a pivotal role in advances in the field of genomics and research in this area is facing a number of challenges including generating high quality control data from Saudi population and policies for using these data need to comply with the international set up.

2015-01-01

131

Caryospora biarmicusis sp.n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting falcons from the genus Falco in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The oocysts of Caryospora biarmicusis sp.n. is described from the feces of the lanner falcon, Falco biarmicus, from the falcon market in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Sporulated oocysts are ovoid in shape, measuring 40.2 x 34.7 (37.5-42.4 x 32.9-35.7) microm; shape index (L/W) is 1.16 (1.08-1.31) microm. The oocyst wall is smooth and bi-layered. Micropyle and polar granule are absent, but an oocyst residuum is present. Sporocysts are spheroid, 20.1 (18.6-21.3) microm; with a smooth single-layered wall, lacking Stieda body. Sporocyst residuum is present as numerous small granules. Sporozoites are stout with a large single refractile body. PMID:21634236

Alyousif, M S; Alfaleh, F A; Al-Shawa, Y R

2011-04-01

132

Mexico City  

... Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of ... as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are ...

2013-04-18

133

Endemic nonvenereal treponematosis (bejel) in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A total of 2,515 individuals attending a large military hospital in Saudi Arabia who had appropriate radiologic evidence of treponematosis were studied clinically and serologically. The indications are that nonvenereal treponematosis (bejel) exists in considerable numbers among the nomadic communities living in rural areas. In contrast, venereal syphilis is less common in this population and is found almost exclusively in urban populations. Some of the high-risk regions for bejel have been identified. Many individuals from nomadic communities complained of persistent pain in the lower limbs, which was often associated with radiologic evidence of osteoperiostitis of the long bones. It also appears that within the last 30 years bejel has become clinically attenuated, with the majority of seropositive individuals having latent disease. A hypothesis is put forward that persistent lesions are sustained by superinfection and that improvements in hygiene have resulted in a decrease in the incidence of reexposure. Measures to control the infection are outlined. PMID:4012169

Csonka, G; Pace, J

1985-01-01

134

Maximum Mouth Opening in Saudi Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the maximum mouth opening (MMO) in a representative sample of the Saudi adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 1825 Saudi adolescents (1007 males and 818 females) aged 12-16 years were randomly selected. The subjects were asked to open their mouth maximally till no further opening was possible and then the distance from the incisal edge of the maxillary incisors to incisal edge of the mandibular incisors was recorded. All data were analyzed using SPSS program and simple descriptive statistics of MMO with regard to gender and age groups were reported. The Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to examine differences in mouth opening relative to gender and age groups. Results: The mean maximal mouth opening for males was 43.5 ± 4.23 mm (range 29-59 mm). The mean maximal mouth opening for females was 35.5 ± 4.4 mm (range 20-45 mm). There was a significant difference between the mouth opening of males and females in all the age group (P = 0.000). The mouth opening, regardless of gender, increases significantly with age from the age of 12 years to the age of 14 years (P = 0.000), then remained unchanged till the age of 16 years. Conclusion: The mouth opening of males is significantly higher than that of females in all the age group. There was a significant increase in MMO with age up to the age of 14 years regardless of gender.

Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H; Asiry, Moshabab A

2014-01-01

135

Role of physics in Saudi engineering education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years some engineering schools in the Middle East have proposed reducing the amount of basic science courses in their curricula. A conference on engineering education in the Arabian Gulf countries held in Kuwait in 1980 suggested that the number of courses in physics and chemistry should be reduced from the present level (Jamjoom 1980). The arguments often put forward can be summarised as follows. First, engineering students are at present overburdened with too many basic science courses which puts a strain on the average student. This in turn leads to a high drop-out as is witnessed in many engineering colleges in this region. This drop-out, as high as 20% in some Saudi universities, is a cause of great concern among the university authorities. Secondly, it is argued that the number of credit hours allocated to departmental requirements is not sufficient to give a student enough breadth and depth of knowledge in his specialisation in particular engineering branches. Universities in Saudi Arabia follow the American credit-hour system in which courses are given certain credit hours, ranging from two to four, depending on the number of lectures per week as well as laboratory and tutorial requirements. Engineering students have to complete about 150 credit hours to graduate, which they normally do in four to five years. Out of these credit hours, about two-thirds are allocated to core courses (including physics) common to all branches of engineering. The remaining one-third are reserved for departmental specialisation. Since there is no possibility of increasing the overall credit hours necessary for graduation, it is suggested that the extra credit hours demanded for increasing the number of departmental courses should be obtained by correspondingly curtailing those for the basic sciences. When carefully scrutinised the arguments do not appear to be well founded. The reasons for high drop-out can be traced to more deep-rooted factors.

Ahmed, M.

1984-05-01

136

78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby report the waiver of this...

2013-04-19

137

75 FR 56506 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International...Natalia.Susak@trade.gov. U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts: Mr. Habeeb Saeed, U.S. Commercial...

2010-09-16

138

76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International...Natalia.Susak@trade.gov. U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts Ahmed Khayyat, Phone:...

2011-02-09

139

75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department...1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

2010-09-28

140

78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This...

2013-09-13

141

78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam: Determinations...Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil...subsidized by the Governments of India and...

2013-08-22

142

78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution...Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil...subsidized by the Governments of India and Turkey. Unless the Department of Commerce...

2013-07-10

143

The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

2014-09-01

144

Adsorption of cobalt ions from waste water on activated Saudi clays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to remove the Cobalt ions from wastewater by three types of Saudi clay. These were collected from Tabbuk city (Tabbuk clay), Khiber city (Khiber clay), and Bahhah city (Bahhah clay). The paper also examined the effect of different activators on the enhancement of adsorption capacity of clays for cobalt ions. The results showed minor enhancement in the adsorption capacities of cobalt ions on three types of clays activated by acid treatment. The adsorption capacity of clays improved particularly for Tabbuk clay when treated with hydrogen peroxide as an activator. The adsorption capacity increased from 3.94 to 12.9 mg/g for the untreated and treated Tabbuk clay, respectively. Also, the adsorption capacity of Bahhah clay increased by activating with sodium chloride from 3.44 to 12.55 mg/g for untreated and treated sample, respectively. The equilibrium adsorption data were correlated using five equilibrium equations, namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, Langmuir-Freundlich, BET, and Toth isotherm equations. Langmuir isotherm agreed well with the experimental data of Khiber and Bahhah clay, while Freundlich model and Langmuir-Freundlich model fitted well with the experimental data of Tabbuk and Bahhah clay activated by NaCl. The results showed that Freundlich model fitted well with the experimental data of Tabbuk clay when activated by H2O2 and H2SO4. Finally, the BET model did not describe the experimental data well for the three types of clay after activation.

Al-Jlil, Saad A.

2014-11-01

145

Characterictics and Sources of Organic Tracers in Atmospheric Particulate Matter from the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and sources of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) can affect air quality of metropolitan areas as well as climate change. Their chemical components can be toxic to humans and hazardous to the environment. Saudi Arabia is witnessing new development and industrial activities, which are expected to contribute to natural, regional and anthropogenic PM inputs of organic tracers. This work investigates the characteristics and sources of the extractable organic matter (EOM) in atmospheric suspended PM from the city of Dhahran in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia. The major compounds were an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons (12-70% of EOM), plasticizers (7-30% of EOM for aryl phosphates and 4-18% of EOM for phthalates), n-alkanes (3-15% of EOM), hopane biomarkers (0.1-4.2% of EOM), n-alkanones (0.3-1.7% of EOM), PAHs (0.1-0.6% of EOM), sterane biomarkers (0.0-0.1% of EOM), and sterols (0.0-0.1% of EOM). Plasticizers are evidently major compounds (11- 48% of EOM) in the suspended PM of Dhahran, which likely have serious public health effects and environmental consequences. The major sources of these organic tracers are emissions from industrial factories north of the city, plastics and biomass burning, and petroleum product combustion.

Rushdi, A. I.; El-Mubarak, A. H.; Luis, L.; Mubarak, A. T.; Qurban, M.; Al-Mutlaq, K. F.; Simoneit, B. R.

2013-12-01

146

The VORISA Project: An Integrated Approach to Assessing Volcanic Hazard and Risk in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as 'Harrat'. The largest of these, Harrat Rahat, produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 AD with lava flows travelling within 20 km of the Islamic holy city Al-Madinah. With over 900 visible basaltic and trachytic vents and periodic seismic swarms indicating stalled eruptions, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital. To systematically address this need we developed the Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia (VORISA) Project, a 3-year, multi-disciplinary international research collaboration that integrates geological, geophysical, hazard and risk studies. Detailed mapping and geochemical studies are being combined with new and existing age determinations to determine the style and sequence of events during past basaltic and trachytic eruptions. Data from gravity and magnetotelluric surveys are being integrated with microearthquake data from an 8-station borehole seismic research array to geophysically characterise the structure and nature of the crust, and thus constrain possible physical controls on magma propagation. All available data are being synthesised in hazard models to determine patterns in eruption frequency, magnitude, and style of past activity, as well as the probable location and style of a future event. Combined with geospatial vulnerability data, these hazard models, which include a reconstruction of the 1256 AD eruption, enable us to calculate and communicate volcanic risk to the city of Al-Madinah.

Lindsay, J. M.; Moufti, R.

2013-12-01

147

EFL Teachers' Perceptions, Evaluations and Expectations about English Language Courses as EFL in Saudi Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers' perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit…

Liton, Hussain Ahmed

2013-01-01

148

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

149

Virtual City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In conjunction with Rice Design Alliance's Virtual City lecture series held earlier this year, home pages have been put up for two of the speakers, Howard Rheingold and Bruce Sterling, with access to online writings included.

1994-01-01

150

Open City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you interested in improving civic culture and knowledge with apps? If so, you will be delighted to learn about the Open City site. The Open City folks are a group of programmers, citizen activists, and policy types that create apps with open data in order "to improve transparency and understanding of our government." Chicagoans can stop by the Merchandise Mart to meet up and work with Open City in person. Everyone else can check out the Projects page to view apps like "Chicago Councilmatic," "How's Business?" and "Crime in Chicago." Each of these apps takes open source data from the city of Chicago and other organizations to create tools designed to help decision makers, journalists, and scholars with their various projects. The site also contains information about the people behind the organization and press releases about their work.

151

Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 kin2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic. The initial phase of rifting of the Arabian Plate from the African Plate began as a wide zone of continental-crust extension manifested by basin and range topography. Freshwater lakes, northwest-trending marine gulfs, and alkali olivine basalt flows occupied these basins. Extensive dike swarms intruded parallel to the proto-Red Sea and marked the first phase of new mafic crust formed by volcanic processes. After a hiatus in volcanic activity, counterclockwise rotation of the Arabian Plate during middle Miocene time changed the stress pattern in the plate and a second phase of extrusion of alkali olivine basalt commenced along north-trending fractures. This stress pattern continues to influence Holocene volcanism. The earliest (pre-uplift) basalts to erupt on the Arabian Plate were predominantly under saturated picrite and ankaramite, whereas those to erupt near the axis of the proto-Red Sea rift zone were tholeiite. The within-plate volcanic rocks evolved from picrite-ankaramite to alkali olivine basalt with minor volumes of fractionated, under-saturated felsic rocks. Continued crustal thinning and dike intrusion along the proto-Red Sea were accompanied by melting of the continental crust to produce silicic magma as part of a bimodal volcanic suite (tholeiite-rhyolite). These magmas were emplaced as dikes, sills, layered bodies, and flows that mark the early construction of the Red Sea crust. Second-phase lavas are predominantly fractionated hawaiites and alkali olivine basalts. Because under saturated and oversaturated silicic magmas represent the second phase of activity, both fractional crystallization of the basaltic magma and melting of the crust are believed to have occurred. The historical record of volcanic activity in Saudi Arabia suggests that volcanism is dormant. The harrats should be evaluated for their potential as volcanic hazards and as sources of geothermal energy. The volcanic rocks are natural traps for groundwater ; thus water resources for agriculture may be significant and should be investigated.

Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

1983-01-01

152

Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1-5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804

Darwish, Magdy A; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A

2014-01-01

153

Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804

Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A.

2014-01-01

154

Contraception: attitudes and experiences of Saudi Arabian women.  

PubMed

We carried out a survey to find the contraception practices and experiences of Saudi Arabian females. A preset questionnaire was developed, and married Saudi females were asked to answer the questionnaire. Between July and December 2008, 215 women completed the questionnaire. The average age was 37.6 ± 9.1 years. One hundred and sixty one of the women said they were using contraception. Fifty-nine (36.6%) said they were using oral contraception pills (OCP) and 32 (19.9%) said they were using intra-uterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). One hundred and twenty-seven (78.8%) of the women were satisfied with the contraception they were using. We found that a majority of Saudi women are using contraception methods but without medical advice. PMID:21229428

Al-Turki, Haifa Abdulaziz

2011-02-01

155

Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome in a Saudi Arabian family.  

PubMed

In the course of applying to become a soldier, a 23-year-old Saudi Arabian man was found to have no fingerprints. Further medical examination has been carried out for the young man and for the rest of family members including two sisters, mother, and brothers except the father who had died sometime previously. Subsequent medical investigations suggested that he and his two brothers displayed most of the features of the Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn (NFJ) syndrome. These features included skin changes with hypo- and hyperpigmentation, hypohidrosis, dystrophy of the nails, diffuse thickening of the palms and feet, a lack of fingerprints (dermatoglyphics), and atrophic changes in the skin of the face; there were also dental anomalies. A typical feature of the Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome was found in a Saudi Arabian family. The aim of this study was to present this rare condition affecting a Saudi Arabian family and review the current literature on the subject. PMID:24261749

Tubaigy, Salah M; Hassan, H M

2014-03-01

156

Vatican City.  

PubMed

Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues. PMID:12178097

1984-11-01

157

Aerosols and water vapor dynamics over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia contains a vast desert area and the home of some of the largest deserts worldwide. This nature subjects the area to numerous dust storms. This is in addition to local emissions transported from industrial activities. The Arabian Peninsula dust storms have a major impact on air quality and affects dust cycle around the world. The nature of dust also affects air, ground traffics, and human health. Aerosols play a pivotal role in global climate change through their effects on the hydrological cycle and solar energy budget. Recently there have been some trials to study the nature of dust over the kingdom using satellite remote sensing and modeling to investigate the impact of aerosols of natural and anthropogenic origins from both local emissions and long-range transport on the air quality and atmospheric composition, yet a lot more needs to be done. In this study, data obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board of Terra and Aqua satellites are used to analyze aerosols properties over the thirteen provinces of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from April 2003 to January 2012. This analysis will help to characterize aerosol and cloud properties, and the seasonal hydrological factors to establish the relative contributions of aerosols derived from different regions to the different Saudi provinces and their impacts on local atmospheric composition and air quality. During this period, we have examined possible nature and anthropogenic/natural aerosols/dust sources. The analysis is based on important parameters including the aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine mode fraction (FMF), cloud properties including cloud top temperature (CTT), cloud top pressure (CTP) and the water vapor column. Correlation between water vapor and AOD was observed over three provinces which could be a result of pollution aerosols rather than dust and is, hence, acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Increasing anomalous aerosols pattern over 2010-2012 is also observed. Acknowledgement The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by the King Abdel Aziz City for Science & Technology (KACST) for funding this work under grant No. (MT-110-010). The support provided by the Deanship of Research at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) is gratefully acknowledged.

Farahat, Ashraf; El-Askary, Hesham; Al-Shaibani, Abdulaziz; Dogan, Umran

2014-05-01

158

City 2020+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to several public transport units running all across the city. This is accompanied by an analysis of probability density functions (PDF) for heat waves based on recent climate data and climate projections. A dense net of 40 PM measurement sites is operated in order to obtain the spatial pattern of PM concentration as depending on meteorological condition and location. It is lined out how this climate related sub-projects interact with investigations on social networks, governance issues, buildings structure development and health outcome. Related to the later the chemical composition of PM is analyzed in more detail and related to the spatial patterns of health deficiencies. At a later stage City2020+ will propose new strategies based on cooperation from the fields of medicine, geography, sociology, history, civil engineering, and architecture for adapting the city for future needs. The Project CITY 2020+ is part of the interdisciplinary Project House HumTec (Human Sciences and Technology) at RWTH Aachen University funded by the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments through the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG).

Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

2010-09-01

159

Brief Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire: An investigation into craving and heavy smoking in Saudi Arabian males  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Research in the United States has shown that craving tobacco is associated with smoking, yet no investigation has been done into the relationship between craving and the use of tobacco in Saudi Arabian smokers. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the craving of tobacco by Saudi males and its influence on daily smoking. Subjects were recruited under the auspices of the Tobacco Control Program in Jeddah City and Riyadh. Methods: The American English version of the tobacco craving questionnaire (TCQ-12) is a valid measure of four distinct aspects (factors) of tobacco craving. The TCQ-12 was translated into Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire (ATCQ-12) and administered to a sample of 322 male smokers. Predictive validity was determined by examining the relationship between the factors and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Results: In a general linear multivariate analysis of variance model, CPD increased significantly as either ATCQ-12 Factor 1 (emotionality) or Factor 3 (compulsiveness) increased. A significant Factor 1 by Factor 3 interaction indicated that Factor 1 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 3 was low. Factor 3 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 1 was low. Conclusions: The ATCQ-12 is a rapid measure of craving and valid predictor of CPD and heavy smoking. Craving in anticipation of smoking as relief from a negative mood (emotionality) is an indicator of psychological withdrawal symptoms, while craving in anticipation of the inability to control tobacco use (compulsiveness) is an indicator of physical dependence.

Albrithen, Abdulaziz A.; Singleton, Edward G.

2015-01-01

160

Medication prescribing errors in a pediatric inpatient tertiary care setting in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Medication errors (MEs) are among the most common types of medical errors and one of the most common and preventable causes of iatrogenic injuries. The aims of the present study were; (i) to determine the incidence and types of medication prescribing errors (MPEs), and (ii) to identify some potential risk factors in a pediatric inpatient tertiary care setting in Saudi Arabia. Findings A five-week retrospective cohort study identified medication errors in the general pediatric ward and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) through the physical inspection of physician medication orders and reviews of patients' files. Out of the 2,380 orders examined, the overall error rate was 56 per 100 medication orders (95% CI: 54.2%, 57.8%). Dose errors were the most prevalent (22.1%). These were followed by route errors (12.0%), errors in clarity (11.4%) and frequency errors (5.4%). Other types of errors were incompatibility (1.9%), incorrect drug selection (1.7%) and duplicate therapy (1%). The majority of orders (81.8%) had one or more abbreviations. Error rates were highest in prescriptions for electrolytes (17.17%), antibiotics (13.72%) and bronchodilators (12.97%). Medication prescription errors occurred more frequently in males (64.5%), infants (44.5%) and for medications with an intravenous route of administration (50.2%). Approximately one third of the errors occurred in the PICU (33.9%). Conclusions The incidence of MPEs was significantly high. Large-scale prospective studies are recommended to determine the extent and outcome of medication errors in pediatric hospitals in Saudi Arabia. PMID:21838929

2011-01-01

161

Drug-resistant ventilator associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: There is a wide geographic and temporal variability of bacterial resistance among microbial causes of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The contribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens to the VAP etiology in Saudi Arabia was never studied. We sought to examine the extent of multiple-drug resistance among common microbial causes of VAP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective susceptibility study in the adult intensive care unit (ICU) of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Susceptibility results of isolates from patients diagnosed with VAP between October 2004 and June 2009 were examined. The US National Healthcare Safety Network definition of MDR was adopted. RESULTS: A total of 248 isolates including 9 different pathogens were included. Acinetobacter spp. was highly (60-89%) resistant to all tested antimicrobials, including carbapenems (three- and four-class MDR prevalence were 86% and 69%, respectively). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was moderately (13-31%) resistant to all tested antimicrobials, including antipseudomonal penicillins (three- and four-class MDR prevalence were 13% and 10%, respectively). With an exception of ampicillin (fully resistant), Klebsiella spp. had low (0-13%) resistance to other tested antimicrobials with no detected MDR. Staphylococcus aureus was fully susceptible to vancomycin with 42% resistance to oxacillin. There were significant increasing trends of MDR Acinetobacter spp. however not P. aeruginosa during the study. Resistant pathogens were associated with worse profile of ICU patients but not patients’ outcomes. CONCLUSION: Acinetobacter in the current study was an increasingly resistant VAP-associated pathogen more than seen in many parts of the world. The current finding may impact local choice of initial empiric antibiotics. PMID:24791174

Balkhy, Hanan H.; El-Saed, Aiman; Maghraby, Rana; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Khan, Raymond; Rishu, Asgar H.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

2014-01-01

162

Knowledge and Attitudes of Pharmacists Regarding Oral Healthcare and Oral Hygiene Products in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists regarding oral healthcare and oral hygiene products in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey among a sample of the community pharmacies in Riyadh city was done. The survey comprised of 23 closed-ended questions divided into five basic sections. Results: A total of 141 pharmacists participated in this survey. About half of the respondents had not met the dentists practicing close to their pharmacies, nor were they aware of the opening times of the practice. Most of the pharmacists stocked oral health-related products, which comprised of 10-15% of their total stock. Toothpaste was the most common among the oral healthcare products stocked, followed by toothbrushes and mouth rinses. A total of 93% pharmacists expressed an interest in further developing their oral healthcare knowledge through course attendance or oral health programs. Toothache or mouth ulcers were the most common dental problem for which patients approached the pharmacists for advice. Pharmacists advised patients complaining of dental pain to consult a dentist in 43% of cases, dispensed painkiller in 44% of cases, and in 13% of cases dispensed an antibiotic. Conclusions: The community pharmacists in Riyadh are under-used in the promotion of oral health. There is a need for training of pharmacists and providing them with access to information on available dental service and oral health products.

Bawazir, Omar A

2014-01-01

163

Numerical simulation diagnostics of a flash flood event in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 26 January 2011, a severe storm hit the city of Jeddah, the second largest city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The storm resulted in heavy rainfall, which produced a flash flood in a short period of time. This event caused at least eleven fatalities and more than 114 injuries. Unfortunately, the observed rainfall data are limited to the weather station at King Abdul Aziz International airport, which is north of the city, while the most extreme precipitation occurred over the southern part of the city. This observation was useful to compare simulation result even though it does not reflect the severity of the event. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) developed at Colorado State University was used to study this storm event. RAMS simulations indicted that a quasi-stationary Mesoscale convective system developed over the city of Jeddah and lasted for several hours. It was the source of the huge amount of rainfall. The model computed a total rainfall of more than 110 mm in the southern part of the city, where the flash flood occurred. This precipitation estimation was confirmed by the actual observation of the weather radar. While the annual rainfall in Jeddah during the winter varies from 50 to 100 mm, the amount of the rainfall resulting from this storm event exceeded the climatological total annual rainfall. The simulation of this event showed that warm sea surface temperature, combined with high humidity in the lower atmosphere and a large amount of convective available potential energy (CAPE) provided a favorable environment for convection. It also showed the presence of a cyclonic system over the north and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, and a subtropical anti-cyclone over Northeastern Africa that contributed to cold air advection bringing cold air to the Jeddah area. In addition, an anti-cyclone (blocking) centered over east and southeastern parts of the Arabian Peninsula and the Arabian Sea produced a low level jet over the southern part of the Red Sea, which transported large water vapor amounts over Jeddah. The simulation results showed that the main driver behind the storm was the interaction between these systems over the city of Jeddah (an urban heat island) that produced strong low-level convergence. Several sensitivity experiments were carried out showed that other variables could have contributed to storm severity as well. Those sensitivity experiments included several simulations in which the following variables were changed: physiographic properties were altered by removing the water surfaces, removing the urban heat island environment from the model, and changing the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei. The results of these sensitivity experiments showed that these properties have significant effects on the storm formation and severity.

Samman, Ahmad

164

The Cities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past two decades, direct payments from the Federal Government to local governments has increased more than sixfold as a percentage of the revenues local governments raise on their own. Both the Ford budget and the Carter budget revisions for 1977 and 1978 contain policy changes with important implications for cities. In this document…

Nathan, Richard P.; Dommel, Paul R.

165

National Immunization Coverage Survey Saudi Arabia, 1991.  

PubMed

A nationwide survey was carried-out aiming at determination of immunization coverage level against the six killer diseases of childhood (tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles). Variations between geographical zones, urban-rural settings, age, education and mother's employment, father's education, and child's birth order were studied. The standard WHO cluster technique was used. The sample (1102 children) was restricted to Saudi children 1-2 years old. Interviewers were exposed to training and methods of calibration, and involved in a pilot survey. Nationally, the survey showed very high coverage levels, BCG was the highest (99 per cent), measles was the lowest (90 per cent), whereas the three doses of DPT (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) and TOPV (trivalent oral polio vaccine) were in between (98, 96 and 94 per cent, respectively). There was no marked differences between urban-rural settings. The western zone showed the lowest coverage by all vaccines. The national coverage by the six vaccines reached 86 per cent correctly immunized (according to WHO standards), 14 per cent partially immunized and 1 per cent non-immunized. Immunization coverage was higher for children to younger mothers. The non-immunized group belonged exclusively to illiterate mothers (1 per cent). Children to mothers with basic education showed the highest coverage (88 per cent). Birth order had negative effect on coverage. Nationally, 88 per cent of children had immunization certificate while 12 per cent had not. The eastern and central zones had the highest percentages of children with certificates (92 and 91 per cent, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8568952

Farag, M K; al-Mazrou, Y Y; al-Jefry, M; al-Shehri, S N; Baldo, M H; Farghali, M

1995-01-01

166

Skin lipids from Saudi Arabian birds  

PubMed Central

Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge, and laughing dove. The lipids were separated and detected on Silica gel G coated TLC plates and quantified by using densitometric image analysis. Rf values of the non-polar lipids were as follows: cholesterol (0.29), free fatty acids (0.58), triacylglycerol (0.69), fatty acids methyl esters (0.84) and cholesterol ester (0.97). Rf values for the polar lipids were: cerebroside (0.42), ceramide (0.55) and cholesterol (0.73). The results showed the abundance of fatty acids methyl esters (47.75–60.46%) followed by triacylglycerol (12.69–24.14%). The remaining lipid compositions were as follows: cholesterol (4.09–13.18%), ceramide (2.18–13.27%), and cerebroside (2.53–12.81%). In conclusion, our findings showed that TLC is a simple and sensitive method for the separation and quantification of skin lipids. We also reported a new protocol for lipid extraction using the zirconia beads for efficient disruption of skin tissues. This study will help us better understand the role of skin lipids in adaptive physiology towards adverse climatic conditions. PMID:24600311

Khan, Haseeb A.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Williams, Joseph B.; Champagne, Alex M.; Shobrak, Mohammad

2013-01-01

167

Skin lipids from Saudi Arabian birds.  

PubMed

Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge, and laughing dove. The lipids were separated and detected on Silica gel G coated TLC plates and quantified by using densitometric image analysis. Rf values of the non-polar lipids were as follows: cholesterol (0.29), free fatty acids (0.58), triacylglycerol (0.69), fatty acids methyl esters (0.84) and cholesterol ester (0.97). Rf values for the polar lipids were: cerebroside (0.42), ceramide (0.55) and cholesterol (0.73). The results showed the abundance of fatty acids methyl esters (47.75-60.46%) followed by triacylglycerol (12.69-24.14%). The remaining lipid compositions were as follows: cholesterol (4.09-13.18%), ceramide (2.18-13.27%), and cerebroside (2.53-12.81%). In conclusion, our findings showed that TLC is a simple and sensitive method for the separation and quantification of skin lipids. We also reported a new protocol for lipid extraction using the zirconia beads for efficient disruption of skin tissues. This study will help us better understand the role of skin lipids in adaptive physiology towards adverse climatic conditions. PMID:24600311

Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Williams, Joseph B; Champagne, Alex M; Shobrak, Mohammad

2014-04-01

168

Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

2012-01-01

169

On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

2012-01-01

170

Saudi Aramco details 1990 surge in oil production  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on Saudi Arabian Oil Co. that has jumped its crude oil production 29% to an average 6,257,600 b/d last year. That was Saudi Arabia's response to Iraq's Aug. 2, 1990, invasion of Kuwait and the ensuing Persian Gulf crisis with its United Nations embargo on Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports. It was Saudi Aramco's biggest average crude oil volume since the 6,327,220 b/d gauged in 1982, according to the company's 1990 annual report. By the end of 1990 Saudi Aramco's maximum sustained production capability was 8.5 million b/d of crude. To meet long term demand, it decided to advance the timetable and increase the scope of a crude oil expansion program adopted in 1989. Reserves at the end of the year were 257.9 billion bbl of crude and 180.5 tcf of dissolved, associated, and non-associated natural gas, compared with 257.5 billion bbl and 180.355 tcf at yearend 1989.

Not Available

1991-08-12

171

Epilogue: regional development of travel medicine—the Saudi challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

To outline a plan for the expansion of travel medicine programmes and discipline in the mid eastern region, a panel of travel medicine experts convened at the First International Conference on Travel Medicine in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to present and discuss the risks, prevention stragegies, and treatment methods for the myriad of travel-related health issues. During some formal and informal

Ziad A Memish; Gwen Cunningham

2003-01-01

172

Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

2012-01-01

173

Health Care Worker Contact with MERS Patient, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25418612

Hall, Aron J; Tokars, Jerome I; Badreddine, Samar A; Saad, Ziad Bin; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Masri, Malak; Haynes, Lia M; Gerber, Susan I; Kuhar, David T; Miao, Congrong; Trivedi, Suvang U; Pallansch, Mark A; Hajjeh, Rana; Memish, Ziad A

2014-12-01

174

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bats, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The source of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus remains unknown. Molecular investigation indicated that bats in Saudi Arabia are infected with several alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Virus from 1 bat showed 100% nucleotide identity to virus from the human index case-patient. Bats might play a role in human infection. PMID:24206838

Memish, Ziad A.; Mishra, Nischay; Olival, Kevin J.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Kapoor, Vishal; Epstein, Jonathan H.; AlHakeem, Rafat; Durosinloun, Abdulkareem; Al Asmari, Mushabab; Islam, Ariful; Kapoor, Amit; Briese, Thomas; Daszak, Peter; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

2013-01-01

175

Personal Transformation: A Group Therapy Program for Saudi Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A personal transformation group therapy program was designed to help Saudi women function more effectively in their daily lives. The major cognitive idea of these groups was to enable women to better understand their thinking patterns so that they could learn techniques to change. Personal transformation group topics included: Self-Esteem;…

Pharaon, Nora Alarifi

176

Developing a Career Resource for College Students in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the development of Career Oasis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM ) has pioneered the use of computer-based career guidance in Saudi Arabia. KFUPM contracted with Verbal Media, LLC, an American consulting company, to create a resource that would be available in both Arabic and English, in both online and paper-and-pencil…

Shatkin, Laurence; Atiyeh, Naim

177

Crude Oil Price Fluctuations and Saudi Arabian Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study seeks to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. In contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output

Roberto A. De Santis

2000-01-01

178

Crude oil price fluctuations and Saudi Arabia's behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output

Roberto A. De Santis

2003-01-01

179

Education and the Satellite: Possibilities for Saudi Arabia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of developments in satellite communications and educational applications focuses on the possibilities of adapting satellite technology for instruction in developing countries. Topics include satellite use in Australia and the United States; and recommendations for the adoption of satellite technology in Saudi Arabia. (Author/LRW)

Al-Sharhan, Jamal

2000-01-01

180

Ordovician acritarch assemblages from central and northwestern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary account of acritarch populations derived from three oil exploration boreholes in central and northwestern Saudi Arabia ranging in age from Tremadoc to early Ashgill is given. Comparisons are made with assemblages of similar age in North Africa and northwest Europe.

Monika Jachowicz

1995-01-01

181

Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

2014-04-13

182

University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

2012-01-01

183

Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

2009-01-01

184

A Survey of Technical and Skills Training in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most important task of development in Saudi Arabia is the cultivation of indigenous manpower to operate the equipment and run the factories. The Kingdom has recognized the importance of education and established a modern curriculum (elementary, junior, senior high) starting in the 1950s. Although there is some resistance to technical training…

Campbell, Clifton P.

185

Female Islamic Studies Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study highlights on describing the experiences of Saudi Arabian female Islamic Studies teachers by exploring what is means to be an Islamic Studies teacher teaching in the current unprecedented vibrant and complex tapestry of social, religious and political debates occurring in the larger context of the country. The study draws on…

Jamjoom, Mounira I.

2010-01-01

186

Health Care Worker Contact with MERS Patient, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25418612

Tokars, Jerome I.; Badreddine, Samar A.; Saad, Ziad Bin; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Masri, Malak; Haynes, Lia M.; Gerber, Susan I.; Kuhar, David T.; Miao, Congrong; Trivedi, Suvang U.; Pallansch, Mark A.; Hajjeh, Rana; Memish, Ziad A.

2014-01-01

187

Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

Al-Hariri, Rafeda

1987-01-01

188

Immunophenotyping of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes in Saudi Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow cytometry is an important tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of immunodeficiency patients, as well as for pateints with leukemia and lymphoma. Lymphocytes and their subsets show variations with race. The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for lymphocytes and their subsets in an Saudi adult population by using flow cytometry. Blood samples obtained from 209

A. Al Qouzi; A. Al Salamah; R. Al Rasheed; A. Al Musalam; K. Al Khairy; O. Kheir; S. Al Ajaji; A. H. Hajeer

2002-01-01

189

Religious Fundamentalism among Young Muslims in Egypt and Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18 25, reveal that respondents with higher levels of fundamentalism are more likely

Mansoor Moaddel; Stuart A. Karabenick

2008-01-01

190

Religious Fundamentalism among Young Muslims in Egypt and Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18-25, reveal that…

Moaddel, Mansoor; Karabenick, Stuart A.

2008-01-01

191

The pattern for common anaemia among Saudi children.  

PubMed

Anaemia is of frequent occurrence in children in different parts of the world and poses a significant health problem. A few isolated reports indicate that anaemia occurs at a high prevalence rate in Saudi Arabia though the actual prevalence in several regions is not known. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different types of anaemias in Saudi children in different areas of the country. Blood samples were collected from 5381 children less than 14 years of age, and haematological analysis and red cell indices were determined. The results of haematological parameters were used to group the children as anaemic (Hb < 11.2 g/dl) and non-anaemic (Hb > 11.2 g/dl) and the red cell indices were used to classify the anaemia as hypochromic-microcytic, normochromic-normocytic, and normochromic-macrocytic. The overall prevalence of anaemia in Saudi children was 24.8 per cent. The prevalence was highest in the children from the Eastern province (41.3 per cent) and lowest in the central province (16.5 per cent). Within each province differences were obvious in the prevalence of anaemias in the different areas. The majority of the anaemia in the eastern and south-western provinces was hypochromic-microcytic, while in the north-western and central provinces normochromic-normocytic anaemia occurred most frequently. Macrocytic anaemia was not encountered in any of the screened areas of the central province and many areas of the eastern province. However, in north-western and south-western provinces it occurred at a frequency of 0.15-3.4 per cent. The data show that anaemia is a frequent problem in Saudi children living in different parts of Saudi Arabia and emphasizes the need for nutritional and genetic assessment to determine the nutritional contributions to anaemias and hence the correction of nutritional anaemias by proper dietary intervention. PMID:10467833

el-Hazmi, M A; Warsy, A S

1999-08-01

192

Mineral deposits in western Saudi Arabia; a preliminary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mineral deposits in Saudi Arabia include a variety of deposits which were formed in many geologic environments. These include magmatic and late magmatic deposits in igneous masses, contact metamorphic deposits along the margins of igneous bodies, and stratiform sulfide deposits and veins. Notable deposits of sedimentary origin include deposits of iron oxides and phosphate. Strata-bound massive sulfide deposits containing copper, zinc, and nickel sulfides associated with pyrite and pyrrhotite in complexly deformed volcanic rocks in Saudi Arabia have been the subject of controversy. They are considered by some geologists to be of syngenetic or volcanogenic origin, and by others to be epigenetic. The principal mineral deposits in western Saudi Arabia are localized in mineral belts within tectonic zones that trend northerly, northeasterly, and northwesterly. These belts contain the exploration target areas most promising for future exploration. Noteworthy among these are: 1) the northerly-trending Bidah copper-zinc belt; 2) the Sayid copper-zinc zone; 3) the northwest-trending Nuqrah copper zinc-silver belt; and 4) the north-northwesterly-trending Al Amar belt. Gold and silver deposits are mainly localized in north-trending structural features of the Hijaz geotectonic cycle and northwest Najd trends. Saudi Arabian metal deposits known thus far contain reserves in the 2 billion dollar range. Further exploration should result in discoveries that could significantly increase this amount; Saudi Arabia may well have workable metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources for industrial developments in many parts of the Kingdom. In order to effectively carry on a search for new mineral deposits, the belts should be mapped in detail, with emphasis on the delineation of stratigraphic and structural features that control metallization. In addition, geochemical and geophysical studies should be made of promising areas to outline exploration targets. These targets could then be systematically explored.

Roberts, Ralph Jackson; Greenwood, W.R.; Worl, R.G.; Dodge, F.C.; Kiilsgaard, T.H.

1975-01-01

193

Curious City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chicago, what are you curious about? That might serve as the tagline for the WBEZ radio program "Curious City," as it's an inquisitive program that asks its listeners that exact question. The public submits queries about Chicago here on the show's site, visitors vote for the questions they like the best, and then the crack team at Curious City investigates and reports back, complete with help from locals who want to be part of the whole recursive process. On the site, visitors can look over the Up For Voting area, which includes questions that cover everything from Cook County Hospital to the design of Wrigley Field. For complete audio and written answers to questions that are wrapped up, click on over to the Answered & Investigating area. Here visitors can look over questions such as "Will the Pullman neighborhood ever be revitalized?" and "What is the origin of Chicago's distinctive wooden fire escapes?"

194

A first hazard analysis of the Quaternary Harrat Al-Madinah volcanic field, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern portion of the 20,000 km2 Harrat Rahat basaltic field in NW Saudi Arabia (Harrat Al-Madinah) has hosted some of the most recent volcanic eruptions in the country. Rapid growth of the city of Al-Madinah has spread out onto the lava flows and scoria cones of the Harrat, increasing exposure to any potential renewed volcanism. We present here a first-order probabilistic hazard analysis related to new vent formation and subsequent lava flow from this volcanic field. The 501 visible eruption vent sites were integrated with aeromagnetic survey data (as representative of potential regions of buried volcanic vents) to develop a probability density function for new eruption sites using Gaussian kernel smoothing. This revealed a NNW striking zone of high spatial hazard terminating < 10 km south of the city. Using the properties of the AD1256 eruption lava flows and the spatial PDF, an analysis of lava hazard was carried out. Assuming a future lava-producing eruption, around 25% of the city of Al-Madinah is exposed to a probability of 0.001 to 0.005 of lava inundation. The temporal eruption recurrence rate is estimated at approximately one vent per 3300 years, but the temporal record of the field is so poorly constrained that the lower and upper bounds for the recurrence interval are 13,300 yrs and 70 yrs, respectively. Applying a Poisson temporal model, this results in a worst-case lava inundation recurrence interval of approximately 14,300 years.

El Difrawy, M. A.; Runge, M. G.; Moufti, M. R.; Cronin, S. J.; Bebbington, M.

2013-11-01

195

From barriers to bridges: An investigation on Saudi student mobility (2006-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by increasing funding for higher education through grants and scholarships, enabled Saudi students to study at overseas universities. A number of non-Saudi students are also enrolled at Saudi Arabian universities. After a brief introduction to the cultural and educational history of the Arab region and Saudi identity, this article turns to contemporary higher education in Saudi Arabia. It introduces the King Abdullah Scholarship Programme and then goes on to present detailed enrolment data for 2006-2009, demonstrating trends and policy changes and identifying patterns in student mobility.

Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

2011-08-01

196

Cesarean section in a high-parity community in Saudi Arabia: clinical indications and obstetric outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The study of the indications for cesarean section (CS) and its outcomes are useful for hospitals, clinicians, and researchers in determining strategies to lower the primary and repeat CS rate. The aim of this study was to identify the indications for CS and the incidence of adverse maternal/fetal outcomes in a tertiary care setting. Methods A retrospective cohort study of women (n?=?4305) who gave birth by CS at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (June 2008 to February 2011), was performed. All of the women’s medical records were reviewed by two consulting physicians to obtain the primary indications for CS and determine the maternal characteristics, type of CS (emergency or elective), and birth weight. All adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded. The point and interval estimates of the odds ratios were calculated using a logistic regression model to identify the significant predictors of adverse maternal and/or fetal outcomes. Results Of a total of 22,595 deliveries from 2008 to 2011, 4,305 deliveries were CS deliveries (19.05%). Two-thirds (67%) of all CS deliveries were emergency CSs, and the remaining deliveries were elective CSs (33%). Difficult labor (35.9%), fetal distress (21.9%) and breech presentation (11.6%) were the most frequent indications of emergency CS, while previous CS (54.3%), breech presentation (20.4%) and maternal request (10.1%) ranked first for elective CS. Adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were diagnosed in 5.09% and 5.06% of deliveries, respectively, with a significantly higher incidence in the emergency (6.06% & 5.51% respectively) than in elective CS (3.10 & 4.16% respectively). Blood transfusion was the most frequent adverse maternal outcome (3.72%), followed by ICU admission (0.63%), HELLP (0.51%), and hysterectomy (0.30%), while IUGR (3.25%) was the most frequent adverse fetal outcome, followed by IUFD and the need for ICU admission (0.58% each). Adverse maternal outcomes were significantly predicted by high gravidity (OR?=?2.84, 95% CI:1.26-6.39, p?=?0.011) and preeclampsia (OR?=?2.84, 95%CI:1.83-4.39, p?Saudi Arabia. High gravidity was a significant predictor of adverse maternal outcomes. Encouraging Saudi women to consider embarking on fewer pregnancies could act as a safeguard against mandatory CSs for subsequent births in multigravida and grand-multigravida Saudi females. Future prospective study that addresses women with repeat CSs and their association with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes is recommended. PMID:24575731

2014-01-01

197

City of Anaheim City Manager's Office  

E-print Network

City of Anaheim City Manager's Office Volunteer Web Design Intern Job Description 1 The City of Anaheim seeks an intern to assist the City Manager's Office in graphic design with an emphasis on web design. This internship will give the intern valuable real-world experience in web design, as well

de Lijser, Peter

198

Antenatal care in primary health care centres in Medina, Saudi Arabia, 2009: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

This study evaluated antenatal care (ANC) services for pregnant women attending primary health care centres in Medina city, Saudi Arabia in 2009. A cross-sectional survey collected data on ANC tasks performed at visits by 394 pregnant women attending 7 clinics. ANC was assessed in 3 domains: clinical assessment (at the initial visit and return visit), health promotion and care provision. The mean duration of initial visits was 10.3 (SD 2.3) minutes and of return visits was 9.1 (SD 1.1) minutes. Overall performance on ANC tasks was fair. The significant predictors of ANC performance of tasks were: size of population served per centre; presence of more than 1 physician carrying out ANC at the centre; physician's age, mother tongue, nationality and qualifications; and woman's education and employment status. Having more physicians available for ANC in primary care centres could improve the standard of care. PMID:21735959

Habib, F; Hanafi, M I; El-Sagheer, A

2011-03-01

199

78 FR 39712 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait Clarification and Amendment AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce....

2013-07-02

200

Information Assurance in Saudi Organizations - An Empirical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents selective results of a survey conducted to find out the much needed insight into the status of information security in Saudi Arabian organizations. The purpose of this research is to give the state of information assurance in the Kingdom and to better understand the prevalent ground realities. The survey covered technical aspects of information security, risk management and information assurance management. The results provide deep insights in to the existing level of information assurance in various sectors that can be helpful in better understanding the intricate details of the prevalent information security in the Kingdom. Also, the results can be very useful for information assurance policy makers in the government as well as private sector organizations. There are few empirical studies on information assurance governance available in literature, especially about the Middle East and Saudi Arabia, therefore, the results are invaluable for information security researchers in improving the understanding of information assurance in this region and the Kingdom.

Nabi, Syed Irfan; Mirza, Abdulrahman A.; Alghathbar, Khaled

201

A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25587347

Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-Elaiwi, Abdulrahman M.; Athar, Md Tanwir; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Eid, Ahmed; Al-Asmary, Saeed M.

2014-01-01

202

Maastrichtian species of the coral genus Cunnolites from Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight species of the genus Cunnolites Barrére (1746) from the Maastrichtian of Central Saudi Arabia are described and illustrated in this paper. These consist of Cunnolites (Cunnolites) macrostoma (Reuss, 1854), C. (C.) tenuiradiata (Fromentel, 1870), C. (C.) elliptica (Lamarck, 1816), C. (Paracunnolites) orbignyi (Fromentel, 1864), C. (P.) undulata (Goldfuss, 1826) var. plana (Oppenheim, 1930), C. (P.) humilis (Quenstedt, 1880), C. (P.) minima (Fromentel, 1863) and C. (Plesiocunnolites) reussi (Fromentel, 1862). Species of the genus Cunnolites from Saudi Arabia are distinguished by their septa of different cycles being highly perforate at the lower, axial and upper parts of the corallum; their granules and pennulae on the lateral sides of septa are numerous but become fewer in the lower part of corallum and by some of their septa being anastomosed.

Ghalib El-Asa'ad, M. A.

203

Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

Kearns, Peter

2012-01-01

204

Geological mapping in northwestern Saudi Arabia using LANDSAT multispectral techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various computer enhancement and data extraction systems using LANDSAT data were assessed and used to complement a continuing geologic mapping program. Interactive digital classification techniques using both the parallel-piped and maximum-likelihood statistical approaches achieve very limited success in areas of highly dissected terrain. Computer enhanced imagery developed by color compositing stretched MSS ratio data was constructed for a test site in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Initial results indicate that several igneous and sedimentary rock types can be discriminated.

Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.; Moik, J. G.

1975-01-01

205

An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

2013-01-01

206

Pulmonary hypertension in Saudi Arabia: A single center experience  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT: Several international studies have described the epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, information about the incidence and prevalence of PH in Saudi Arabia is unknown. AIMS: To report cases of PH and compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of PH due to various causes in a Saudi population. METHODS: Newly diagnosed cases of PH [defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mmHg at right heart cauterization (RHC)] were prospectively collected at a single tertiary care hospital from January 2009 and June 2012. Detailed demographic and clinical data were collected at the time of diagnosis, along with hemodynamic parameters. RESULTS: Of the total 264 patients who underwent RHC, 112 were identified as having PH. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.8 ± 15.8 years, and there was a female preponderance of 72.3%. About 88 (78.6%) of the PH patients were native Saudis and 24 (21.4%) had other origins. Twelve PH patients (10.7%) were classified in group 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 7 (6.2%) in group 2 (PH due to left heart disease), 73 (65.2%) in group 3 (PH due to lung disease), 4 (3.6%) in group 4 (chronic thromboembolic PH), and 16 (14.3%) in group 5 (PH due to multifactorial mechanisms). PH associated with diastolic dysfunction was noted in 28.6% of group 2 patients, 31.5% of group 3 patients, and 25% of group 5 patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results offer the first report of incident cases of PH across five groups in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23741268

Alhamad, Esam H.; Cal, Joseph G.; Alfaleh, Hussam F.; Alshamiri, Mostafa Q.; AlBoukai, Ahmad A.; AlHomida, Suliman A.

2013-01-01

207

TNF-? and TNF-? Gene Polymorphism in Saudi Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and -? are cytokines with a wide range of inflammatory, apoptotic and immunomodulatory activities. TNF-? promoter ?308 G < A polymorphism has been reported to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with inconsistent results. Objective: The aim of this study is to elucidate a possible association of TNF-? (G–308A) and TNF-? (A+252G) polymorphisms with the susceptibility of RA in Saudi patients. Patients and methods: This case control study consisted of 232 Saudi subjects including 106 RA patients and 126 matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted using QIAampR DNA mini kit (Qiagen CA, USA). TNF-? and TNF-? genes were amplified using Arms primers. Results: The frequencies of TNF-? (?308) allele G and genotype GG were significantly higher in RA patients as compared to controls while allele A and genotype AA were predominant in control group. On the other hand the frequency of TNF-? (+252) GG and AA genotypes were significantly higher in RA patients as compared to controls while GA genotype was predominant in controls. It was inferred that genotype GG positive individuals at position ?308 of TNF-? were susceptible to RA while genotype AA might has a protective effect on RA susceptibility in Saudis. Whereas GG and AA genotype of TNF-? at +252 position might exert additive susceptibility to RA and GA might be refractory. However, there was no significant association between duration of morning stiffness, RF positivity and number of joints involved and distribution of alleles/genotypes of TNF-? (–308) or TNF-? (+252) polymorphism. It may be concluded that the TNF-? (–308) and TNF-? (+252) polymorphisms might influence the susceptibility to RA in Saudi population. These results might have prognostic value for future clinical observations. PMID:21792343

Al-Rayes, Hannan; Al-Swailem, Ramiz; Albelawi, Maysson; Arfin, Misbahul; Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman; Tariq, Mohammad

2011-01-01

208

Box City Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

209

Are Saudi female college students prepared for successful breastfeeding?  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 285 female students from the Science and Arts tracks of the Dammam College for Girls in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was answered by the girls to determine whether Saudi female college students were prepared for successful breastfeeding, and to assess their knowledge about relevant aspects of breastfeeding. The questionnaire contained questions about time of first feed, frequency of breastfeeding, duration of a feed and duration of breastfeeding. Correct answers were made by 38%, 33%, 35% and 59% of the students respectively. Those with a high knowledge score who would breastfeed in the future were significantly more than those with a lower knowledge score (p < 0.001). When the knowledge score and seven other variables were entered into a logistic regression model, knowledge was found to be the only significant predicting factor for the decision to breastfeed in the future. The study showed that the attitude of young Saudi women is favourable towards breastfeeding. However, they do not seem to be prepared to breastfeed so successfully. Knowledge was the only predictory factor for the decision to breastfeed in the future. An educational programme may increase the prevalence of breastfeeding in this community. PMID:9519677

Bella, H

1997-12-01

210

The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population  

PubMed Central

Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop® software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the “gummy” smile picture (P-value =0.003), diastema picture (P-value =0.000) and the “Reverse” smile picture (P-value =0.004). As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009). Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. “Dental background” participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the “nondental” group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. PMID:25653558

Mokhtar, Hadeel A; Abuljadayel, Layla W; Al-Ali, Reem M; Yousef, Mohammed

2015-01-01

211

Standardization of nasalance scores in normal Saudi speakers.  

PubMed

Objective. The aims of this study were to obtain normative nasalance scores for a normal Saudi population with different ages and genders, to develop nasometric Arabic speech materials, and to make cross-linguistic comparison. Subjects. Participants included 219 normal Saudi native monolingual Arabic speakers of different ages. Subjects were classified into four groups according to age and gender. Subjects did not have any history of oral, nasal, or velopharyngeal abnormality. Methods. Arabic speech samples were developed to evaluate nasalance scores, which included syllables repetition, three oral sentences, three oro-nasal sentences, and three nasal sentences. Nasalance data were obtained using Nasometer II-6400. Results. Normative nasalance values were determined. Significant differences between the male and female children groups were noticed in many parameters. Nasalance scores were higher in adults, with significant differences between all groups. Conclusion. Normative nasalance scores for Saudi Arabic speakers have been developed for both adults and children. The Arabic speech materials developed in this study appear to be easy to use and applicable for different age groups. PMID:24854781

El-Kassabi, Rasha M; Hassan, Sabah; Mesallam, Tamer A; Malki, Khalid H; Farahat, Mohamed; Alfaris, Abdullah

2014-05-22

212

Obesity and Associated Factors — Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013  

PubMed Central

Introduction Data on obesity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are nonexistent, making it impossible to determine whether the efforts of the Saudi Ministry of Health are having an effect on obesity trends. To determine obesity prevalence and associated factors in the KSA, we conducted a national survey on chronic diseases and their risk factors. Methods We interviewed 10,735 Saudis aged 15 years or older (51.1% women) through a multistage survey. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health-related habits and behaviors, diet, physical activity, chronic diseases, access to and use of health care, and anthropometric measurements were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews. We first compared sociodemographic factors and body mass index between men and women. Next, we conducted a sex-specific analysis for obesity and its associated factors using backward elimination multivariate logistic regression models. We used SAS 9.3 for the statistical analyses and to account for the complex sampling design. Results Of the 10,735 participants evaluated, 28.7% were obese (body mass index ?30 kg/m2). Prevalence of obesity was higher among women (33.5% vs 24.1%). Among men, obesity was associated with marital status, diet, physical activity, diagnoses of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Among women, obesity was associated with marital status, education, history of chronic conditions, and hypertension. Conclusion Obesity remains strongly associated with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension in the KSA, although the epidemic’s characteristics differ between men and women. PMID:25299980

El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Robinson, Margaret; Daoud, Farah; Jaber, Sara; Mikhitarian, Sarah; Al Saeedi, Mohammed; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

2014-01-01

213

Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.

214

Stroke in Saudi Arabia: a review of the recent literature  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a major cerebrovascular disease resulting in high mortality and persistent disability in adults across the world. Besides coronary heart disease and cancer, stroke is the commonest cause of death in most industrialized countries. Survivors of stroke are often left with severe mental and physical disabilities, which create a major social and economic burden, ranking as the second most common cause of death worldwide and a major source of morbidity. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the largest country in the Middle East occupying approximately four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula supporting a population of more than 28 million. Stroke is becoming a rapidly increasing problem and an important cause of illness and deaths in Saudi Arabia. However, compared with the developed countries, research regarding the incidence, prevalence and their socio-demographic properties of stroke is still insufficient due to lack of appropriate studies being conducted in these specified areas. This review aims to discuss the range of the aspect of stroke in Saudi Arabia from the literature published. PMID:24932325

Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Zamzami, Marwan Mohamed

2014-01-01

215

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.

2010-07-01

216

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9{+-}5 to 163{+-}32 Bqm{sup -3} and an average of 49{+-}2 Bqm{sup -3}. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm{sup -3} set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

Alyami, S. H. [Saudi School in KualaLumpur, Ministry of Education, 55000 KualaLumpur (Malaysia); Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M.S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2010-07-07

217

Web-based Health Educational Program in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this exploratory study is to provide an overview of a web-based health educational site created by the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Sources of data included two interviews with Saudi IT personnel, three health educators, and two medical consultants working at KFSH&RC. The interviews ranged between 45 minutes and 120 minutes. The KFSH&RC website was also searched for the type of health information content posted. Results show that the KFSH&RC web-based health educational site provides health information through a medical encyclopedia, a social networking platform, health educational links, and targeted health information for children, which includes tools such as games and coloring books. Further research is needed on the effectiveness of the KFSH&RC web-based health education site in terms of improving knowledge and changing behavior of Saudi patients. The study recommends that targeted web-based health education strategies should be developed to reach large rural populations which have inadequate computer skills and limited access to the internet. PMID:25000016

Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Alsaleh, Mahassen; Elmetwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa

2014-01-01

218

The Saudi Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of COPD  

PubMed Central

The Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) launched the Saudi Initiative for Chronic Airway Diseases (SICAD) to develop a guideline for the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This guideline is primarily aimed for internists and general practitioners. Though there is scanty epidemiological data related to COPD, the SICAD panel believes that COPD prevalence is increasing in Saudi Arabia due to increasing prevalence of tobacco smoking among men and women. To overcome the issue of underutilization of spirometry for diagnosing COPD, handheld spirometry is recommended to screen individuals at risk for COPD. A unique feature about this guideline is the simplified practical approach to classify COPD into three classes based on the symptoms as per COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the risk of exacerbations and hospitalization. Those patients with low risk of exacerbation (<2 in the past year) can be classified as either Class I when they have less symptoms (CAT < 10) or Class II when they have more symptoms (CAT ? 10). High-risk COPD patients, as manifested with ?2 exacerbation or hospitalization in the past year irrespective of the baseline symptoms, are classified as Class III. Class I and II patients require bronchodilators for symptom relief, while Class III patients are recommended to use medications that reduce the risks of exacerbations. The guideline recommends screening for co-morbidities and suggests a comprehensive management approach including pulmonary rehabilitation for those with a CAT score ?10. The article also discusses the diagnosis and management of acute exacerbations in COPD. PMID:24791168

Khan, Javed H.; Lababidi, Hani M. S.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Zeitouni, Mohammed O.; AL-Jahdali, Hamdan H.; Al-Amoudi, Omar S.; Wali, Siraj O.; Idrees, Majdy M.; Al-Shimemri, Abdullah A.; Al Ghobain, Mohammed O.; Alorainy, Hassan S.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.

2014-01-01

219

The Saudi Arabian International Student Experience: From a Gender-Segregated Society to Studying in a Mixed-Gender Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Saudi Arabia gender segregation is a cultural practice that occurs across all public and private domains. This segregation has shaped the lives of Saudi citizens and is driven socially through cultural and religious discourses and politically through regulation and policy. For Saudi students undertaking their education in western countries, the…

Alhazmi, Ahmed; Nyland, Berenice

2013-01-01

220

Using Language Learning Strategies to Improve the Writing Skills of Saudi EFL Students: Will It Really Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the use of language learning strategies (LLSs) by Saudi EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students inside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study determines if gender and academic major have any effect on that use and reveals the potential benefits for Saudi students in the area of strategy instruction. Data was collected…

McMullen, Maram George

2009-01-01

221

Sprawl City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by environmental authors Leon Kolankiewicz and Roy Beck, Sprawl City is a site dedicated to informing and assisting the general public about the issues of sprawl and rural land lost in the United States. With oversight from a variety of academic and practicing planners, the site contains a host of information about the growing rate of sprawl among urbanized and urbanizing areas across the country. Most helpful are a series of studies by Kolankiewicz and Beck investigating sprawl in several different states and regions, including California, Florida, Minnesota, and the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Along with all of their reports and studies, a section of definitions offers a more concrete explanation of how "sprawl" and other terms are technically defined.

222

Tapeworms of rock dove and domestic chicken in Taif area, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to identify the tapeworms that parasitize the rock dove Columba livia palastinae and domestic chicken Gallus gallus domesticus in Taif governorate, Saudi Arabia. A total of 115 rock doves and 105 domestic chicken have been examined. Birds were brought in from the wells and farms inside and outside the city of Taif. In rock doves, the percentage of infection was recorded as Cotugnia digonopora 5.21%, Hymenolepis carioca 10.43%, Raillietina echinobothrida 27.82%, Raillietina tetragona 22.6%. The prevalence of infection recorded in Municipal chicken with different types of tapeworms was Cotugnia digonopora 7.61%, Choanotaenia infundibulum 12.38%, Amoebotaenia sphenoides 7.61%, Raillietina echinobothrida 11.42%, Raillietina tetragona 8.57%, Raillietina (Paroniella) kashiwarensis 4.76%. The overall percentage of infected rock pigeons Columba livia palastinae with tapeworms was 66.1% while the percentage of infected chicken Gallus gallus domestica was 52.3%. The study defined and described this species as classification keys in place. PMID:23469626

Zahrani, Mohammad R; Ashour, Ameen A; Shobrak, M Y

2012-12-01

223

Residential Saudi load forecasting using analytical model and Artificial Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, load forecasting has become one of the main fields of study and research. Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) is an important part of electrical power system operation and planning. This work investigates the applicability of different approaches; Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and hybrid analytical models to forecast residential load in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). These two techniques are based on model human modes behavior formulation. These human modes represent social, religious, official occasions and environmental parameters impact. The analysis is carried out on residential areas for three regions in two countries exposed to distinct people activities and weather conditions. The collected data are for Al-Khubar and Yanbu industrial city in KSA, in addition to Seattle, USA to show the validity of the proposed models applied on residential load. For each region, two models are proposed. First model is next hour load forecasting while second model is next day load forecasting. Both models are analyzed using the two techniques. The obtained results for ANN next hour models yield very accurate results for all areas while relatively reasonable results are achieved when using hybrid analytical model. For next day load forecasting, the two approaches yield satisfactory results. Comparative studies were conducted to prove the effectiveness of the models proposed.

Al-Harbi, Ahmad Abdulaziz

224

Air quality in Mecca and surrounding holy places in Saudi Arabia during Hajj: initial survey.  

PubMed

The Arabian Peninsula experiences severe air pollution, the extent and sources of which are poorly documented. Each year in Saudi Arabia this situation is intensified during Hajj, the Holy Pilgrimage of Islam that draws millions of pilgrims to Mecca. An initial study of air quality in Mecca and surrounding holy sites during the 2012 Hajj (October 24-27) revealed strongly elevated levels of the combustion tracer carbon monoxide (CO, up to 57 ppmv) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) along the pilgrimage route-especially in the tunnels of Mecca-that are a concern for human health. The most abundant VOC was the gasoline evaporation tracer i-pentane, which exceeded 1200 ppbv in the tunnels. Even though VOC concentrations were generally lower during a follow-up non-Hajj sampling period (April 2013), many were still comparable to other large cities suffering from poor air quality. Major VOC sources during the 2012 Hajj study included vehicular exhaust, gasoline evaporation, liquefied petroleum gas, and air conditioners. Of the measured compounds, reactive alkenes and CO showed the strongest potential to form ground-level ozone. Because the number of pilgrims is expected to increase in the future, we present emission reduction strategies to target both combustive and evaporative fossil fuel sources. PMID:24983190

Simpson, Isobel J; Aburizaiza, Omar S; Siddique, Azhar; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Nicola J; Gartner, Aaron; Khwaja, Haider; Meinardi, Simone; Zeb, Jahan; Blake, Donald R

2014-08-01

225

Eimeria biarmicus sp.n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting falcons from the genus Falco in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The oocysts of Eimeria biarmicus sp. n. were described from the feces of the lanner falcon, Falco biarmicus, collected from the falcon market in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of infection was 5% (2/40). The majority of the oocysts examined had completed sporulation within 84 h at 24 ± 2°C. Sporulated oocysts are ovoid in shape, measuring 22.4 × 17.9 (20.5-24.7 × 15.8-18.5) ?m; shape index (L/W) is 1.25 (1.14-1.36) ?m. The oocyst wall is smooth and bi-layered. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. A polar granule is present, consisting of 2-4 globules. Sporocysts are ovoid, 10.1 × 6.1 (9.4-11.2 × 5.4-6.8) ?m; with a smooth single-layered wall and a minute Stieda body, but there is no substieda body. The sporocyst residuum consists of numerous small granules. Sporozoites are comma shaped, each contains two refractile bodies. E. biarmicus sp. n. is the second eimerian species described from F. biarmicus. PMID:21997853

Alfaleh, F A; Alyousif, M S; Al-Quraishy, S; Al-Shawa, Y R

2012-05-01

226

Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies: Arabic with English Translation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This appendix is a companion document to "Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies." The appendix includes selected excerpts in Arabic with English translations for currently-used textbooks in grades 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. These excerpts support the report…

Center for Religious Freedom, 2006

2006-01-01

227

Current status of renal transplantation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reported annual incidence of end-stage renal disease in Saudi Arabia is 100 to 120 patients per million population. The first dialysis unit in Saudi Arabia was established in 1971; thereafter, rapid advances have been made in the field of renal replacement therapy. At the end of 2002, there were 144 centers offering dialysis to about 7390 patients. A National

F. A. M Shaheen; M. Z Souqiyyeh

2004-01-01

228

Saudi Arabic Language and Culture Familiarization Course: Arab Cultural Assimilator, Books 1-5. Reprint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-book programed course in Arab culture is offered for professionals who are about to be stationed in the Middle East. This material is designed to supplement the Defense Language Institute's course in Saudi Arabic. In order to impart awareness of Saudi cultural characteristics, 66 hypothetical situations that might be encountered in…

Fiedler, Fred E.; And Others

229

Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality in Offsprings of Diabetic Mothers in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of diabetic mothers and their offspring in Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Suggests diabetes mellitus in pregnancy may be a common problem in Saudi Arabia, as poor maternal diabetic control results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results suggest that health education and improved coverage of…

Al-Dabbous, Ibrahim A. Al-; And Others

1995-01-01

230

Evaluating EFL Intermediate Teachers' Performance in the Light of Quality Standards in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research aimed at four points: First, Identifying the most appropriate standards of EFL Saudi teachers' performance in the light of quality standards. Second, designing an objective and comprehensive evaluation rubric based on quality standards to evaluate EFL Saudi intermediate teachers' performance. Third, determining to what extent…

Al-Thumali, Amani Dakheel Allah

2011-01-01

231

Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Health Informatics Masters Program at KSAU-HS University, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Saudi health sector has witnessed a significant progress in recent decades with some Saudi hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this progress has not been accompanied by the same advancement in the health informatics field whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals in order to achieve important objectives such…

Majid, Altuwaijri

2007-01-01

232

Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

233

Tirbyi in the Muslim World, with a Focus on Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational systems of Muslim societies, particularly that of Saudi Arabia, have been under scrutiny, especially after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. The Saudi educational system is mostly based on Islamic precepts. Nonetheless, the United States government and other…

Bangura, Abdul Karim

2004-01-01

234

The Effects of Using Peer and Teacher Feedback into Saudi Writing Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to investigate the efficacy of two commonly used techniques of feedback in teaching writing: teachers' feedback and peers' feedback in the Saudi educational context. The study was comprised of 132 Saudi EFL students enrolled at the Department of English in the University of Hai'l. The data collection was carried out…

Alhaisoni, Eid; Alzuoud, Khalid

2012-01-01

235

Growing Up under Pressure: The Cultural and Religious Context of the Saudi System of Gifted Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay presents an overview of the system of gifted education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To highlight the characteristics of this system, however, its presentation is preceded by a discussion of particular aspects of Saudi society and its general system of education. These aspects distinctly differentiate the general and gifted systems of…

Aljughaiman, Abdullah M.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2013-01-01

236

Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi

Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

2009-01-01

237

Developing EFL Teaching and Learning Practices in Saudi Colleges: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Saudi Ministry of education is highly concerned with the pursuit of excellence in effective EFL teaching-learning in the arena of education but it experiences tardy progress especially in college level. This is a common scenario in almost every stage of learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Behind this backdrop, this paper explores the new…

Liton, Hussain Ahmed

2012-01-01

238

Factors Influencing Jordanian and Saudi Arabian Teacher Decisions to Pursue the Principalship: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was carried out to gain a better understanding of how teachers in Jordan and Saudi Arabia view the principalship and identify factors that influence teachers' candidacy to pursue a position as principal. Study participants comprised 800 teachers who worked in public schools in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Participants rated 2…

Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Wuzynani, Muhammad M.

2013-01-01

239

Wind power energy potential at the northeastern region of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the energy potential of wind for the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia is investigated. A suitable Weibull distribution is generated based on the data obtained for a duration of one complete year at a costal location in northeastern Saudi Arabia. Comparison of this model is made with the Rayleigh distribution of wind power densities. Two horizontal-axis

Ahmet Z. ?ahin; Ahmet Aksakal

1998-01-01

240

The Perception of Organizational Issues of Social Work Practitioners in Saudi Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care has evolved rapidly in Saudi Arabia, based upon a Western model of service that incorporates multidisciplinary professional teams. Social work practice forms part of patient care. This study explores how Saudi social workers perceive their role and how they describe their practice within the hospital context. A quantitative methodology was employed using a self-administered questionnaire. Analysis revealed that

Abdulaziz Albrithen; Nadir Yalli

2012-01-01

241

Knowledge and Practice of Pulp Therapy in Deciduous Teeth among General Dental Practitioners in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been observed that the general dentists and pedodontists differ in their treatment recommendations for pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Aim: To determine the knowledge and practice of pulp therapy in deciduous teeth by general dental practitioners (GDP) in two cities of southern Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: Fifty GDP selected at random from government and private dental clinics were questioned about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth in Abha and Najran cities using a 10-item questionnaire. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 11.0 and descriptive statistics were obtained. Results: All 50 participants responded to the survey. Pulpotomy was suggested as the first line of treatment for pulp-exposed primary tooth by 32 respondents with 44 using Buckley's formocresol and 32 applying it on the pulp for 5 minutes. 43 respondents squeeze dried the cotton pellet before application on the pulp. In pulpectomy procedure 44 respondents preferred zinc oxide eugenol as obturation material with 22 using handheld reamers and 15 using slow-speed lentilospirals for obturation. 12 respondents used obturation techniques which had no scientific relevance. In order of preference Glass ionomer cement (GIC), silver amalgam, and stainless steel crowns were the materials of choice for final restoration of endodontically treated deciduous teeth. All 50 answered in the affirmative when asked if they would like to have additional information about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Conclusion: The study concluded that general dentists were regularly performing pulp therapy in decidous teeth and therefore need to be frequently updated about these procedures. PMID:23440030

Togoo, RA; Nasim, VS; Zakirulla, M; Yaseen, SM

2012-01-01

242

Clean Cities Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

Not Available

2004-01-01

243

Urban dwelling environments in rapidly growing cities : case study, Unayzah, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

The study is concerned with two critical issues: a) the housing situation of middle income groups; b) the use of land in new developments. A tentative planning model for urban land development and a survey of existing ...

Alohali, Yousef Nasser

1983-01-01

244

Health impacts on workers in wastewater treatment plants in jeddah city, saudi arabia.  

PubMed

Wastewater workers are exposed to various job-related hazards. This work was carried out in the period from November, 2004 to January, 2005. All workers (one hundred and ninety two workers) in the Jeddah Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (MWTP) were interviewed. They were asked to answer a precoded questionnaire that included personal data and complete medical (present, past, and family) history. They were also asked about history of previous medical examinations in details. Psychological problems were the most common health problems as they formed 84.4% followed by mucous membranes' irritation which constituted 42.2%. The percentage of workers following the safety precautions: wearing anti-slide shoes; the use of personal protective tools for the protection of the skin and eyes; the use of safety precautions in mixing chemicals; the safe storage, transfer, and circulation of chemicals; and ensuring the safety of electrical appliances were 14.6%, 75%, 13.5%, 91.7%, and 95.8%, respectively. The T-test was carried out between those having mucous membrane irritation and those who didn't have mucous membrane irritation as regards the duration of work and it was found to be statistically significant (p=0.000). Those who suffered from mucous membrane irritation have mean work duration of 5.04 years whereas those without irritation have a mean of 6.75 years. Finally, t-test was carried out between those having psychological problems and those who didn't have psychological problems and it was found to be significant (p=0.007). The mean work duration for those suffering from psychological problems was 6.2 years whereas those who didn't suffer from psychological problems had a mean work duration of 5.1 years. PMID:18706296

Abdou, Mamdouh H

2007-01-01

245

Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to compare the quality of bottled water with potabilized desalinated tap water. Fourteen brands of\\u000a local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market and analyzed for physicochemical parameters\\u000a in the Royal Commission Environmental Laboratory. Results were compared with 5-year continuous monitoring data of tap water\\u000a from different locations in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah

Maqbool Ahmad; Ahmad S. Bajahlan

2009-01-01

246

Epidemiology of Antituberculosis Drug Resistance in Saudi Arabia: Findings of the First National Survey  

PubMed Central

The real magnitude of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drug resistance in Saudi Arabia is still unknown because the available data are based on retrospective laboratory studies that were limited to hospitals or cities. A representative national survey was therefore conducted to investigate the levels and patterns of anti-TB drug resistance and explore risk factors. Between August 2009 and July 2010, all culture-positive TB patients diagnosed in any of the tuberculosis reference laboratories of the country were enrolled. Isolates obtained from each patient were tested for susceptibility to first-line anti-TB drugs by the automated Bactec MGIT 960 method. Of the 2,235 patients enrolled, 75 cases (3.4%) were lost due to culture contamination and 256 (11.5%) yielded nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Finally, 1,904 patients (85.2% of those enrolled) had available drug susceptibility testing results. Monoresistance to streptomycin (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 9.1), isoniazid (5.4%; 95% CI, 4.7 to 6.2), rifampin (1%; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.3) and ethambutol (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.2) were observed. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) was found in 1.8% (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.4) and 15.9% (95% CI, 15.4 to 16.5) of new and previously treated TB cases, respectively. A treatment history of active TB, being foreign-born, having pulmonary TB, and living in the Western part of the country were the strongest independent predictors of MDR-TB. Results from the first representative national anti-TB drug resistance survey in Saudi Arabia suggest that the proportion of MDR-TB is relatively low, though there is a higher primary drug resistance. A strengthened continuous surveillance system to monitor trends over time and second-line anti-TB drug resistance as well as implementation of innovative control measures, particularly among immigrants, is warranted. PMID:23459478

Varghese, Bright; Shoukri, Mohammed M.; Al-Omari, Ruba; Al-Herbwai, Mais; AlRabiah, Fahad; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.; Abuljadayel, Naila; Al-Thawadi, Sahar; Zumla, Alimuddin; Zignol, Matteo; Raviglione, Mario C.; Memish, Ziad

2013-01-01

247

Luminescence dating of the Wabar meteorite craters, Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Luminescence dating has been used to find the age of meteorite impact craters at Wabar (Al Hadida) in Saudi Arabia. The luminescence characteristics of the shocked material were determined. Using a variety of luminescence dating techniques applied to impactite formed by the meteorite, and to the underlying sand, the age is found to be 290 ?? 38 years. A comparison is made with two possible historically recorded ages. An impact as young as this has implications for the assessment of hazards from the impact on Earth of small meteorites. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.; Shoemaker, C.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Wynn, J.

2004-01-01

248

Hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome in Saudi Arabian patients.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether hypnotherapy provides a significant therapeutic effect in Saudi Arabian patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Patients (n=26) were consecutively recruited at a psychiatry outpatient clinic after diagnosis by a gastroenterologist and a medical evaluation for irritable bowel syndrome. Each patient had 12 sessions of hypnotherapy over a period of 12 weeks (1 session per week). Patients completed a scale measuring symptom severity before and 3 months after the trial. Hypnotherapy significantly enhanced a feeling of better quality of life more in male than in female patients, and bowel habit dissatisfaction was reduced more in female than in male patients. PMID:17684852

Al Sughayir, M A

2007-01-01

249

[Indonesians in Saudi Arabia for worship and work].  

PubMed

"This article is intended to make a first assessment of the consequences of Indonesian immigration in Saudi Arabia, in particular during the first half of the 20th century, and to describe the evolution over time of certain striking aspects of the close relation between the pilgrimage to Mecca and Indonesian migrants looking for work.... This paper considers the methods of hiring labour, the networks involved in recruiting it, the organization of travel, as well as the increasing indebtedness of the migrants through intermediaries who, more and more professionally, arrange these attempts to live abroad...." (EXCERPT) PMID:12348180

Husson, L

1997-01-01

250

Hypertension and Its Associated Risk Factors in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013: A National Survey  

PubMed Central

Current data on hypertension in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are lacking. We conducted a national survey to inform decision-makers on the current magnitude of the epidemic. We measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 10,735 Saudis aged 15 years or older and interviewed them through a national multistage survey. We used multivariate logistic regressions to describe sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors of hypertensive, borderline hypertensive, and undiagnosed hypertensive Saudis. We found that 15.2% and 40.6% of Saudis were hypertensive or borderline hypertensive, respectively. Risk of hypertension increased among men, with age, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. 57.8% of hypertensive Saudis were undiagnosed. These were more likely to be male, older, and diagnosed with diabetes. Among participants diagnosed with hypertension, 78.9% reported taking medication for their condition. About 45% of participants on medication for hypertension had their blood pressure controlled. The prevalence of hypertension and borderline hypertension is very high in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, control of hypertension is poor. With the majority of hypertensive Saudis being unaware of their condition, a national plan is needed to increase utilization of freely available screening, preventive, and medical services. PMID:25170423

El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Memish, Ziad A.; Tuffaha, Marwa; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

2014-01-01

251

Evaluating the role of health informatics professionals in saudi arabia: the need for collaboration.  

PubMed

Saudi health authorities have acknowledged the role of health informatics professionals in improving the quality of medical services in Saudi Arabia. Different academic programs have been launched by different universities and medical colleges to produce qualified Saudi health informatics professionals. To date, there are no studies that have explained the role of health informaticians and their contribution towards the development of the Saudi health information infrastructure. In this study, the authors clarify health informatics practices and the different skills and job activities accomplished by health informaticians. With the growth in the number of Health Informatics programs within the country, there is a need to identify the current and future of HI professionals and to specify and clearly define the type of job titles describing health informatics roles. The Saudi HI educational programs need to work on linking their program objectives with a Saudi Health Informatics Career Framework (SHICF) and labor market needs. Ignoring such an important issue may result in unemployed Saudi HI graduates or HI graduates working in related fields other than HI. PMID:25000031

Alkraiji, Abdullah I; Househ, Mowafa

2014-01-01

252

Saudi demand for Filipino workers: labor migration issues in the Middle East.  

PubMed

The increased demand for Filipino workers in Saudi Arabia over the past decade is analyzed. The role of the Philippines in the supply of foreign labor is briefly considered. An overview of manpower needs in the Middle East is presented, and the effects of various social, political, and economic features of Saudi Arabian development on the demand for Filipino workers are examined. Issues discussed include the long-term American presence in Saudi Arabia, sensitivity to the impact of foreigners on the work force and on life-style, investment in the welfare of temporary workers, skill requirements, wages and productivity, and political influence. PMID:12279357

Smart, J E

1982-08-01

253

A perspective on road fatalities in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to study an epidemiological aspect of fatalities from motor vehicle accidents in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. All fatal accidents that occur in Jeddah between 1 January and 31 December 1987 are analyzed. The death rates per hundred million vehicle kilometers of travel, per 100,000 registered motor vehicles, and per 100,000 resident population in 1987 were about 1.87, 19.7, and 26.5, respectively. An attempt is made to use international death rates to compare Jeddah with other countries. The figures reveal higher death rates per vehicle travel and per resident population but lower rate per registered vehicle than in some industrialized countries. An additional attempt was made to estimate the cost of road traffic fatalities in Jeddah, which is an extremely difficult task due to lack of reliable data. This study shows that the cost of 1987 road fatalities in Jeddah is estimated to be 648.7 million Saudi Riyals (US$172.5 million). PMID:1558621

Bener, A; Jadaan, K S

1992-04-01

254

Religious Involvement and Health in Dialysis Patients in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Patients on hemodialysis experience considerable psychological and physical stress due to the changes brought on by chronic kidney disease. Religion is often turned to in order to cope with illness and may buffer some of these stresses associated with illness. We describe here the religious activities of dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia and determined demographic, psychosocial, and physical health correlates. We administered an in-person questionnaire to 310 dialysis patients (99.4 % Muslim) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that included the Muslim Religiosity Scale, Structured Clinical Interview for Depression, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and other established measures of psychosocial and physical health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified characteristics of patients who were more religiously involved. Religious practices and intrinsic religious beliefs were widespread. Religious involvement was more common among those who were older, better educated, had higher incomes, and were married. Overall psychological functioning was better and social support higher among those who were more religious. The religious also had better physical functioning, better cognitive functioning, and were less likely to smoke, despite having more severe overall illness and being on dialysis for longer than less religious patients. Religious involvement is correlated with better overall psychological functioning, greater social support, better physical and cognitive functioning, better health behavior, and longer duration of dialysis. Whether religion leads to or is a result of better mental and physical health will need to be determined by future longitudinal studies and clinical trials. PMID:25316206

Al Zaben, Faten; Khalifa, Doaa Ahmed; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal; Al Shohaib, Saad; Binzaqr, Salma Awad; Badreg, Alae Magdi; Alsaadi, Rawan Ali; Koenig, Harold G

2014-10-15

255

Risk factors associated with postpartum depression in the Saudi population  

PubMed Central

Introduction Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the major psychological disorders worldwide that affects both mother and child. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk of PPD with obstetric and demographic variables in Saudi females. Materials and methods Data were collected by interviewing females 8–12 weeks postpartum. PPD symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or higher. Variables included in this study were age, education, occupation, parity, baby’s sex, pregnancy period, delivery type, hemoglobin level, anemia, and iron pills taken during pregnancy. Results Of the 352 postpartum females, the prevalence of PPD symptom risk was 117 (33.2%). Among the PPD symptomatic females, 66 (39.8%) had low hemoglobin levels, and 45 (40.5%) females were anemic during pregnancy (P?0.05). These results suggest that early postpartum anemia, indicated by low hemoglobin level, is a significant risk factor for PPD (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.74; P=0.03). Other variables, including age, parity, education, occupation, and delivery type, were not significantly correlated (P=0.15–0.95), but marginally indicative of the risk of depressive symptoms. Conclusion Low hemoglobin level and anemia during pregnancy were risk factors for PPD in Saudi females. Many other factors may be considered risk factors, such as age, occupation, and parity. Anemic women need more attention and to be checked regarding their PPD, and treated if necessary. PMID:24570584

Alharbi, Abeer A; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad

2014-01-01

256

Timing of uplift peripheral to the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A Prominent escarpment is found along the western margin of the Arabian Shield. Elevations along this escarpment are up to 3200 m above the Red Sea. Between the Red Sea and the crest of the escarpment is a relatively featureless coastal plane that is ??? 50 km across. The coastal plane abruptly gives way to the steep mountainous terrain, the elevation of which increases abruptly towards the high crest. The elevation slowly decreases to the east of the high crest. Forty-four apatite fission-track ages have been determined on rocks from the Proterozoic Arabian Shield in southwestern Saudi Arabia. These ages range from 13.8 to 568 Ma. In general, the youngest ages are found at low elevations along the base of the escarpment near the eastern edge of the coastal plane. The oldest ages are from along and to the east of the crest. The fission-track data from Saudi Arabia show that there was a period of minor uplift and cooling during the Cretaceous. This was followed by a relatively stable period which lasted until the Mid to Upper Miocene. The latest uplift and erosion began slightly younger than 13.8 Ma. This latest episode resulted in a minimum uplift of 3 km and is related to the Red Sea Rift. Samples totally annealed prior to this latest episode of uplift and cooling have not yet reached the surface.

Naeser, C.W.; Zimmermann, R.A.; Bohannon, R.G.; Schmidt, D.L.

1990-01-01

257

Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges  

PubMed Central

Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor. PMID:21264164

BaHammam, Ahmed S.

2011-01-01

258

Consanguinity pattern and heritability of Vitiligo in Arar, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Context: Epidemiological studies have shown that vitiligo is a complex trait, involving combinations of pathogenic effects of multiple susceptibility genes as well as environmental risk factors. Aim: To observe whether consanguinity increased the incidence of vitiligo in Saudi patients from Arar. Patients and Methods: This study included 69 Saudi patients with vitiligo and their families. These patients, selected from the experience specialist dermatology center in Arar, from April 2011 to 2012, were interviewed by a dermatologist to confirm the diagnosis and complete a questionnaire. Results: A total of 69 patients, 40 males and 29 females were selected. Their mean age was 34.5 ± 11.8 years with the median age of 23 years. The mean age at onset of disease was 27.9 ± 12.9 years. The mean duration of the disease was 9.7 ± 5.3 years. The frequency of focal, vulgaris, universal, and acrofacial subtypes was 22 (31.9%), 21 (30.4%), 8 (11.6%), and 18 (26.1%), respectively. A positive family history of vitiligo was obtained in 45 (65.2%) cases. A comparison of the frequency of vitiligo among siblings in relation to the general population was more in accord with the multifactorial model. Conclusion: Consanguinity in marriage increases the incidence of the disease. Therefore, genetic counseling and premarital examination would be important contributions to lower the prevalence of vitiligo. PMID:24696629

Alenizi, Dhaifallah A.

2014-01-01

259

Work-Related Health Disorders among Saudi Computer Users  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and eye and vision complaints among the computer users of King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabian Airlines (SAUDIA), and Saudi Telecom Company (STC). Stratified random samples of the work stations and operators at each of the studied institutions were selected and the ergonomics of the work stations were assessed and the operators' health complaints were investigated. The average ergonomic score of the studied work station at STC, KAU, and SAUDIA was 81.5%, 73.3%, and 70.3, respectively. Most of the examined operators use computers daily for ? 7 hours, yet they had some average incidences of general complaints (e.g., headache, body fatigue, and lack of concentration) and relatively high level of incidences of eye and vision complaints and musculoskeletal complaints. The incidences of the complaints have been found to increase with the (a) decrease in work station ergonomic score, (b) progress of age and duration of employment, (c) smoking, (d) use of computers, (e) lack of work satisfaction, and (f) history of operators' previous ailments. It has been recommended to improve the ergonomics of the work stations, set up training programs, and conduct preplacement and periodical examinations for operators. PMID:25383379

Jomoah, Ibrahim M.

2014-01-01

260

Knowledge and attitudes of Saudi dental undergraduates on oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory. PMID:24699922

Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama

2014-12-01

261

Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

Ricks, Thomas

2011-01-01

262

Students’ attitude toward use of over the counter medicines during exams in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To explore the use of over the counter (OTC) medicines among students during exams in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Method A cross-sectional study was designed; using a self-administered twenty-two item online questionnaire for the students’ convenience and easy response disclosure. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13®. Results A total of N = 1596 students participated in this survey, of whom 829 (51.9%) were university students and 767 (48.1%) were high school students. Overall, 80.0% of the respondents disclosed the use of OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for headache and pain relief. In addition, other substances used during the exams were Energy Drinks (5.0%), Flu Medication (5.0%), Vitamins (5.0%) and Antibiotics (5.0%). Female students were found to be more knowledgeable about safety issues concerning the use of OTC medicines (5.11 ± 1.27, p = <0.001) than male students. Ease in access to OTC medicine, availability of pharmacist consultation and advertisement in print and electronic media were the main factors disclosed by the respondents that may result in an increase in the use of OTC products. The use of OTC medicines was generally higher among female students (p = 0.001). Conclusion The use of OTC medication during exams was more among high school and university students. Gender, age and educational institution were found significantly affecting the use of OTC medicines during exams. PMID:24648821

Almalak, Haya; Albluwi, Ala’a Ibrahim; Alkhelb, Dalal Ahmed; Alsaleh, Hajar Mohmmed; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Aljadhey, Hisham

2013-01-01

263

Indoor air quality levels in a University Hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Aim of the Study: The complex hospital environment requires special attention to ensure a healthy indoor air quality (IAQ) to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections and occupational diseases. Poor hospital IAQ may cause outbreaks of building-related illness such as headaches, fatigue, eye, and skin irritations, and other symptoms. The general objective for this study was to assess IAQ inside a large University hospital at Al-Khobar City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Different locations representing areas where most activities and tasks are performed were selected as sampling points for air pollutants in the selected hospital. In addition, several factors were studied to determine those that were most likely to affect the IAQ levels. The temperature and relative percent humidity of different air pollutants were measured simultaneously at each location. Results: The outdoor levels of all air pollutant levels, except volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were higher than the indoor levels which meant that the IAQ inside healthcare facilities (HCFs) were greatly affected by outdoor sources, particularly traffic. The highest levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and those less than 10 microns (PM10) inside the selected hospital were found at locations that are characterized with m4ore human activity. Conclusions: Levels of particulate matter (both PM10 and TSP) were higher than the Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs). The highest concentrations of the fungal species recorded were Cladosporium and Penicillium. Education of occupants of HCF on IAQ is critical. They must be informed about the sources and effects of contaminants and the proper operation of the ventilation system. PMID:24696632

El-Sharkawy, Mahmoud F.; Noweir, Mohamed E. H.

2014-01-01

264

Wooden Bay Window (Rowshan) Conservation in Saudi-Hejazi Heritage Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prominent feature of the architectural style of heritage buildings in western Saudi Arabia (Hijaz) cities such as Jeddah is the extensive use in their facades of projected intricately carved wooden bay window (Rowshan sl, Rawasheen pl). Throughout Balad or the old town in Jeddah, the element of Rowshan can be found made from many different types of woods such as teak, Javan, mahogany, other types of african and middle eastern woods and with different sizes, proportions, and varied intricate ornamentations and motifs. Besides its aesthetic value, the rawasheen and their many components and parts provide other functions such as ventilation, lighting, and spatial and visual privacy for building interiors from the outside. The profound degradation of Rawasheen is impacting the authenticity and heritage value of old buildings in historical Jeddah because of many factors that include: extensive moisture damage, using improper repair methods and joinery techniques to maintain rawasheen, using unsuitable cleaning products and wood paints, and replacing damaged parts with unkown types of wood. In order to prevent any further deterioration of Rawasheen, documentation of rawasheen and its components using recent digital methodologies and the utilization of proper repair techniques must be followed when working with these elements to ensure longevity of conservation, and preservation of value and authenticity.Through the disucssion of Rowshan repair methodology that was developed that include the digital documentation of all intricate details of rowshan panels and wood engraving which allowed replicating damaged elements beyond repair and applied to a listed building in old Jeddah, the paper provides Rowshan repair guidelines which relate to documentation, diagnostic methods, investigations and tests, repair methodology and reinforcement.

Adas, A. A.

2013-07-01

265

Stakeholder value network analysis for the energy system of Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

Saudi Arabia is experiencing a considerable escalation in its consumption of electricity, provoked by economic progress and population increase. Such an escalation threatens the economic output of the Kingdom: more oil and ...

Alonso, Francisco J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

266

Phytophagous and predaceous mites associated with vegetable crops from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate phytophagous and predatory mites associated with vegetable plants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eight phytophagous and 10 predacious mites were collected from 14 species of vegetable crops covering five major production localities. Out of these 18 mite species, 13 species are new to the mite fauna of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the two species, Tenuipalpus punicae and Agistemus exsertus, are reported for the first time on vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. For each mite species found, notes on host plant association and occurrence period are given. An illustrated key for the identification of the 18 mite species reported in this study is provided and this can be used to improve the IPM programs by applying the local natural predatory mites in controlling mite pests in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23961130

Al-Atawi, Fahad J.

2011-01-01

267

75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7220] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations...

2010-11-02

268

Analysis of Shuttle Multispecral Infrared Radiometer measurements of the western Saudi Arabian shield.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the November 12-14, 1981 mission of the space shuttle Columbia, the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) recorded radiances in 10 channels along a 100m wide groundtrack across the western Saudi Arabian shield.-from Authors

Rowan, L.C.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Abbott, E.

1987-01-01

269

Confidentiality, informed consent and children's participation in the Saudi biobank governance: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The growth of research biobanks has created many new ethical challenges worldwide. This article outlines and discusses key issues in the governance of Saudi Biobank, a newly established national biobank in Saudi Arabia launched in 2014. The Saudi Biobank project includes human biological samples from participants aged 10-70 years and aims to conduct an extensive study on the influence of genes, environment and lifestyle in common diseases. We examined the strengths and weaknesses of Saudi Biobank's governance as well as the similarities and differences with 4 other biobanks (in the United Kingdom, Iceland, Estonia and Canada). Three different ethical issues are discussed in detail: confidentiality, informed consent and children's participation in research. We evaluated these issues in relation to international ethical guidelines and Islamic law. The insights gained may be useful in developing national biobanking regulations in other Islamic countries, particularly in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. PMID:25601806

Alahmad, G H; Dierickx, K

2014-11-01

270

Bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

The bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were studied for two successive years (January 1996-December 1997) at 12 collecting stations representing six sectors of the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia. The predominant species...

Doha, Said Abdallah; Samy, Abdallah Mohammed

2010-11-01

271

Aggregate model and analysis of the energy dynamics in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is facing a crisis in the near future centered on increasing energy consumption. Today, the kingdom consumes approximately 1/3 of its oil production. If no action is taken and the kingdom continues ...

Al-Ahmed, Khalid A. (Khalid Abdulrahim)

2012-01-01

272

A comparison of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in Riyadh, Medina, and Oklahoma City.  

PubMed

Many bacteria are known to develop resistance to anti-microbial agents following their clinical use. The resistance pattern varies from one geographic location to another depending upon the patient population and local history of antibiotic use. The bacterial resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents in Oklahoma City was found to be different from two cities in Saudi Arabia, especially amongst Gram-negative bacilli. A total of 13,575 fresh clinical isolates from the Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH), Riyadh; and the King Fahad Hospital (KFH), Medina, Saudi Arabia; were used. There were 6,270 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, 2,799 pseudomonads and Acinetobacter, and 4,506 Gram positive strains of staphylococcus bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria from KFH were considerably more resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than at KFSH and VAMC. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus isolated from VAMC exhibited a significantly higher degree of resistance to oxacillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than those at KFSH and KFH. PMID:1744780

Qadri, S M; Ali, S I; Flournoy, D J; Miskeen, A K; Tharwat, J D; Miller, J

1991-10-01

273

What Is Clean Cities?  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

Not Available

2007-08-01

274

Cities and Sustainable Development  

E-print Network

of cities in today's world economy is unprecedented. Until the Industrial Revolution, human history. The information and communications revolution has spawned the idea of the "smart city," which places the relevant

275

Origin and migration of hydrocarbons in the Paleozoic system of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a progress report on geochemical studies of the sub-Khuff Paleozoic rocks in Saudi Arabia, summarizing current laboratory results from both Saudi Aramco and American companies and their preliminary interpretations. From oil\\/oil and oil\\/rock correlations as well as maturity modeling, it may be concluded that sweet sub-Khuff oils, condensates, and gases are closely related to each other, and

1991-01-01

276

Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Dicronychus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Examination of specimens of Dicronychus Brullé in the King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia revealed the presence of two new species, D. latifae n. sp. and D. bushrae n. sp. In addition, the descriptions of D. talhouki Platia and Schimmel and D. brancuccii Platia and Schimmel are augmented after examination of both type material and recently collected specimens from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:25277891

Al Dhafer, Hathal M; Platia, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

277

Reservoir characteristics of the Devonian Jauf Formation in Shedgum area, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

the study area (*), some of the Paleozoic oil and gas fields and main tectonic elements of the Arabian basin. The newly discoverd fields are located inside the cross-hatched block. Modified from Husieni (I990). the Paleozoic section in Saudi Arabia...RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEVONIAN JAUF FORMATION IN SHEDGUM AREA, SAUDI ARABIA A Thesis by ABDULAZIZ ABDULLAH AL-DUAIJI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirments...

Al-Duaiji, Abdulaziz Abdullah

1991-01-01

278

Examining Art Education in Boys' Middle Schools in Saudi Arabia in Riyadh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to examine art education in boys’ middle schools in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The study specifically investigated characteristics of art education teachers, teaching methods and guidelines, school attitudes toward art education, evaluation, and the ways to develop teaching art education.\\u000aParticipants in this study were 273 Saudi art education teachers in boys’

Abdullah A. Alheezan

2009-01-01

279

Assimilation in Multilingual Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Censuses, we study the determinants of the assimilation of language minorities into the city majority language. We show that official minority members (i.e. francophones in English-speaking cities and anglophones in French-speaking cities) assimilate less than the \\

Javier Ortega; Gregory Verdugo

2011-01-01

280

Cities and Homeowners Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his recent article, The City as a Legal Concept, Professor Gerald Frug compared the city and the business corporation as possible vehicles for the exercise of decentralized power. In the course of his analysis, Frug asserted that American law is deeply biased against the emergence of powerful cities and, by implication, is less restrictive on corporate power. Joining the

Robert C. Ellickson

1982-01-01

281

INEQUALITY IN CITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the inequality literature has focused on national inequality, but local inequality is also important. Crime rates are higher in more unequal cities; people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is a negative association between local inequality and the growth of city-level income and population, once we control for the initial distribution

Edward L. Glaeser; Matt Resseger; Kristina Tobio

2009-01-01

282

INEQUALITY IN CITIES &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.?Much of the inequality literature has focused on national inequality, but local inequality is also important. Crime rates are higher in more unequal cities; people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is a negative association between local inequality and the growth of city-level income and population, once we control for the initial distribution

Edward L. Glaeser; Matt Resseger; Kristina Tobio

2009-01-01

283

Creating a GIS application for retail centers in Jeddah city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to identify the role of geographical information systems (GIS) in supporting retail planners in monitoring and analyzing retail development and growth. At first, a review about retail planning and its relevant issues is made. Second, GIS is defined together with its applications in retail planning. The third part discusses the created GIS application that is designed for two retail centers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. This application is created to help planners in defining the distribution of retail demand, describing customers profile, analyzing trade areas and modeling retail flows. Two useful models have been produced by this study. One is called market penetration and the other is based on spatial interaction technique. The former is created to examine retail center catchment area, while the latter is used to model the interaction between demand areas and retail centers.

Murad, AbdulKader A.

2003-11-01

284

Initial results from the Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia project: Microearthquakes in the northern Harrat Rahat monogenetic volcanic field, Madinah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 8-station borehole seismic research array is recording microearthquake data in northern Harrat Rahat. This recently active monogenetic volcanic field lies southeast of the Islamic holy city of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The VORiSA seismographs are operated in collaboration between King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah and the Institute of Earth Science and Engineering, University of Auckland, in New Zealand. The goal of the VORiSA project is to evaluate the seismic and volcanic hazard around Madinah. To this end, we will evaluate the local earthquake activity including the extent to which local earthquakes are tectonic or volcanic. We also will use seismicity to understand the subsurface structure. The analytical goals of the seismic research array are the following: (1) Calculate a new seismic velocity model, (2) Map subsurface structures using seismic tomography, and (3) Explore for fracture zones using shear wave splitting analysis. As compared to seismographs installed on the surface, borehole seismometers detect smaller and more numerous microearthquake signals. The sensitivity and location of the borehole sensors in the VORiSA array are designed to detect these weak signals. The array has a total aperture of 17 km with station spacing at 5 - 10 km. The seismometers are housed in IESE model S21g-2.0, two Hz, 3-component borehole sondes. Sensor depths range from 107 - 121 m. The data acquisition system at each stand-alone station consists of a Reftek 130-01, 6-channel, 24 bit data logger which records at 250 samples per second. The power source is a deep cycle battery with solar recharge. Local temperatures reach extremes of 0° to 50°C, so the battery and recorder are contained in a specially designed underground vault. The vault also provides security in the remote and sparsely populated volcanic field. Recording began on 31 March 2012. An average of one earthquake every three days suggests that currently this is not a highly seismic area. However, seismic swarms, likely related to magmatic intrusion, have occurred in 1999 in Harrat Rahat (~145 earthquakes, M1.4 to 2.3) (Moufti et al., 2010) and in 2009 in Harrat Lunayyir (~30,000 earthquakes up to M5.4) (Pallister et al., 2010). We can locate microearthquakes of Mm = -1 within the array, a significant advantage over the previous surface network. We have characterized instrument noise using power spectrum probability density functions (McNamara and Buland, 2004). All stations show a very high signal to noise ratio; for a near-source M-1 event S/N is ~5. The available data are still too sparse for advanced analysis and currently appear as a cloud of seismicity.

Kenedi, C. L.; Alvarez, M. G.; Abdelwahed, M. F.; Aboud, E.; Lindsay, J. M.; Mokhtar, T. A.; Moufti, M. R.

2012-12-01

285

Practice and methods of contraception among Saudi women in Riyadh.  

PubMed

The use of contraceptives can have an impact on better spacing between children, better child care, improvement of children's health and preservation of the mother's health. In this study 2675 Saudi women attending a gynaecology out-patient clinic were interviewed about their contraceptive practices. The majority of the women (56.0%) were using or had used some form of contraceptive. Oral contraceptives were the most common method; 94.8% of the 1497 women who practised contraception were using or had used this form of contraception. Sterilization accounted for 0.9% of contraceptive practices, while the intrauterine device was a more common form of contraceptive among the more educated women. PMID:3391353

Jabbar, F A; Wong, S S; Al-Meshari, A A

1988-06-01

286

Endemic non-venereal syphilis (bejel) in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A total of 2515 people attending a large military hospital in Saudi Arabia was studied clinically, serologically, and (when appropriate) radiologically for evidence of treponematosis. The indications are that non-venereal endemic syphilis (bejel) is prevalent among the nomadic communities living in rural areas. In contrast, venereal syphilis is much less common, and is found almost exclusively in urban populations. Some of the high risk regions for bejel have been identified, and many people from these locations complained of persistent pain in the legs, which was often associated with radiological evidence of osteoperiostitis of the long bones. Bejel also seems to have become clinically "attenuated" within the last 30 years, with the majority of seroreactors having latent disease. A hypothesis suggesting a reason for this change is put forward, and ways of controlling the infection are outlined. PMID:6487985

Pace, J L; Csonka, G W

1984-10-01

287

Measuring Students' Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

Alhadlaq, H.; Alshaya, F.; Alabdulkareem, S.; Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Wieman, C. E.

2009-11-01

288

Characterization of familial breast cancer in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of genetic factors to the development of breast cancer in the admixed and consanguineous population of the western region of Saudi Arabia is thought to be significant as the disease is early onset. The current protocols of continuous clinical follow-up of relatives of such patients are costly and cause a burden on the usually over-stretched medical resources. Discovering the significant contribution of BRCA1/2 mutations to breast cancer susceptibility allowed for the design of genetic tests that allows the medical practitioner to focus the care for those who need it most. However, BRCA1/2 mutations do not account for all breast cancer susceptibility genes and there are other genetic factors, known and unknown that may play a role in the development of such disease. The advent of whole-exome sequencing is offering a unique opportunity to identify the breast cancer susceptibility genes in each family of sufferers. The polymorphisms/mutations identified will then allow for personalizing the genetic screening tests accordingly. To this end, we have performed whole-exome sequencing of seven breast cancer patients with positive family history of the disease using the Agilent SureSelect™ Whole-Exome Enrichment kit and sequencing on the SOLiD™ platform. Results We have identified several coding single nucleotide variations that were either novel or rare affecting genes controlling DNA repair in the BRCA1/2 pathway. Conclusion The disruption of DNA repair pathways is very likely to contribute to breast cancer susceptibility in the Saudi population.

2015-01-01

289

Periodontal health and diabetes awareness among Saudi diabetes patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed to examine diabetic patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, regarding their general diabetic and oral health-related awareness and practices, their awareness of the association of diabetes with periodontal disease, and their sources of diabetes-related information. Methods Diabetic patients (n=454) who were receiving care at the diabetes clinic in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to May 2014, completed a six-part questionnaire assessing their sociodemographic characteristics, general and oral health awareness and practices, and sources of diabetes-related information. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. Results The responses indicated inadequate health-related practices in the surveyed group: 22.2% brushed their teeth twice daily, 73.6% never flossed their teeth, and while 80.2% visited a physician in the past year, only 12.6% visited a dentist during the same year. Of the respondents, 94.8% reported that they had never received advice on oral hygiene tasks in relation to diabetes from a health professional. Awareness about the diabetes and periodontal disease association was limited: 46.7% knew that diabetics have gum problems more often if their blood sugar stays very high, and only 21.8% knew that gum disease makes it harder to control blood sugar in diabetic patients. A significant association (P<0.05) was found between a higher level of education and greater general and oral awareness, as well as a significant association (P<0.05) between longer duration of disease, regular exercise, and regular visits to the physician and awareness about diabetes mellitus. Additionally, a significant association (P<0.05) was found between regular dental visits and both periodontal disease and diabetes awareness. Family and friends were the main source of diabetes-related information, and the Internet was the least likely source. Conclusion Customized educational programs should be planned for diabetic patients according to community needs. PMID:25673974

Bahammam, Maha A

2015-01-01

290

Unusual Features of Rosacea in Saudi Females with Dark Skin  

PubMed Central

Background Data on the clinical presentation of rosacea among darker-skinned ethnic groups is scarce. This article presents the clinical spectrum of rosacea in Saudi female patients with differences highlighted according to skin types. Methods Female patients diagnosed with rosacea at the dermatology clinic in King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between February 2010 and May 2011 were studied prospectively. Data collected included demographics, duration of the disease, personal history of any atopic disorder, aggravating factors, cutaneous and ocular symptoms, the presence of migraine, Helicobacter pylori infection, skin phototypes, and the clinical types and severity of rosacea. Results Fifty patients consented to join the study: 20 (40%) were patients with skin type 4, 9 (18%) had skin type 5, and 21 (42%) had skin type 6. The cheeks, glabella, and chin were involved in 26 (52%) patients. Extrafacial lesions affecting chest, back, and ears were identified in 7 patients (14%). Severe erythematotelangiectatic rosacea was diagnosed in 21 patients (42%): skin type 4 comprised 50%, higher than the incidences for skin type 5 (22%) and skin type 6 (42.9%). The severe papulopustular subtype of rosacea was noted in 7 patients (14.0%), affecting 20% with skin type 4 and 14% with skin type 6. Severity of the erythematotelangiectatic or papulopustular subtypes of rosacea was not significantly associated with skin type (P=0.5691 and P=0.7740, respectively). Conclusion This study addresses the growing interest in skin diseases in dark-skinned individuals. Rosacea is one of the skin disorders that had always been described for fair-skinned populations, but our results indicate that darker-skinned individuals also can be affected by rosacea and the clinical presentation is similar to that seen in patients with fair skin. PMID:25249796

Al Balbeesi, Amal Omar; Halawani, Mona R.

2014-01-01

291

Carbonic Anhydrase II Deficiency in a Saudi Woman  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Carbonic anhydrase (CA) II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the CA II gene that leads to osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis (RTA), and cerebral calcification. Our aim is to present a patient with the classic triad of CA II deficiency syndrome to enhance the awareness about this rare syndrome. METHODS We describe the clinical and radiological findings of a Saudi woman patient with CA II deficiency syndrome. RESULTS A Saudi woman in her 20s presented to our hospital for evaluation of increased bone density. She was known to have delayed developmental milestone with growth retardation and poor scholastic performance. She had multiple fragile fractures started at the age of 15 involving the lower extremities. A physical examination revealed dysmorphic features and intellectual disability with intelligence quotient (IQ) of 36. The initial blood workup showed a picture of distal RTA with hypokalemia, and the radiological imaging confirmed the presence of osteopetrosis and multiple kidney stones. The combination of osteopetrosis with RTA raised the possibility of CA II deficiency. Therefore, computed tomography (CT) of the brain was done and showed intracranial calcification involving the basal ganglia. She was started on potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate. In addition, she underwent right-sided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy. Her DNA analysis came to show a sequence variant c.232+1G>A, which was detected in both of the CA II genes (homozygous). CONCLUSION Early recognition of the disease is a key, as an early appropriate treatment institution is essential in order to prevent further complications. PMID:25674028

Alhuzaim, Omar N; Almohareb, Ohoud M; Sherbeeni, Safiya M

2015-01-01

292

Prevailing Misconceptions of Vitiligo among Saudi School Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify the prevailing myths and misconception about vitiligo among the school students in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in 18 schools of Qassim Regions in Saudi Arabia, Data was collected by 486 pre-tested, self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires included a section on social-demographic information (age, sex, education of parents) besides prevailing myths on vitiligo. Data was analyzed by using SPSS (version 17 for Windows). Results The response rate: Males 46.3%, and females 53.3%. With vitiligo disease: 24.1% and non-diseased 75.9%, with positive family history: Males 9.3%, female 13.8%. Myths among students compared with gender: Vitiligo with; Fish/milk food (P= 0.374), calcium deficiency (P= 0.001), iron deficiency (P= <0.001), Vit C deficiency (P= 0.225), infectious (P= <0.001), Chicken pox like disease (P= <0.001), precancerous (P= 0.212) and not curable (P= <0.001). Myths among students compared with diseased/not diseased, namely that relation of vitiligo with: Fish/milk food (P= 0.006), calcium deficiency (P= <0.001), iron deficiency (P= 0.022), Vit C deficiency (P= <0.001), infectious (P= 0.228), Chicken pox like disease (P= <0.001), precancerous (P= 0.051) and not curable (P= 0.231). Conclusion The prevailing myths and conceptions delay seeking medical advice and should be addressed by focused health education programs through school health services. PMID:24899877

Sharaf, Fawzy Khalil

2014-01-01

293

Victory City: The City of the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the past 40-odd years, Orville Simpson II has been pursuing a dream, his vision of a city of the future, a Victory City based on reason and efficiency. Victory Cities would be entirely self-contained under one roof, ideally consisting of seven linked buildings -- each 102 stories -- containing residences, offices, industry, and retail space. Although the idea of snap-out modular walls, furniture bolted to the floors, and no kitchens (residents will be transported to the cafeterias by Ferris wheels) does not appeal to everyone, Simpson must be given credit for the depth and breadth of his vision. Users reading the Residents Guide will find that few details have been overlooked. Simpson addresses issues such as the money and food systems, education, postal service, transportation, security, recreation, pets, healthcare, ecological issues, and so on. Users can view numerous floor plans and conceptual drawings in the Victory City tour, review his arguments for the city in the Purpose/Benefits section, and read a collection of newspaper and magazine features on the man and his city in the Media Coverage section. Simpson is, by the way, still seeking investors.

294

Prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among saudi medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3%. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7%. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1% of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8% of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7% of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9% reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum. PMID:24903238

Almutairi, Khalid M

2014-08-01

295

Key role players in health care quality: who are they and what do they think? An experience from Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study in Medina city in 2009 was to identify key role players who influence the healthcare system and to assess their views regarding the improvement of the quality of health care in Saudi Arabia. In a qualitative, cross-sectional study data were collected from focus group discussions and analysed using a content analysis approach. Key role players were chosen based on their previous experience in providing feedback in health care-related areas: representatives from organizations, interest groups, departments, the media, other governmental organizations and members of the public who actively worked with the Department of Health. The topics discussed were: health and community; health and media; planning for health; female staff views; role of the private health sector; and the role of other governmental agencies. The discussions highlighted the importance of improvement of health facility infrastructure, the implementation of staff training and education, the initiation of quality assurance and safety standards and the extension of the scope of primary care and community health educational programmes. PMID:24313040

Mahrous, M S

2013-09-01

296

Evaluation of the best fit distribution for partial duration series of daily rainfall in Madinah, western Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall frequency analysis is an essential tool for the design of water related infrastructure. It can be used to predict future flood magnitudes for a given magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events. This study analyses the application of rainfall partial duration series (PDS) in the vast growing urban Madinah city located in the western part of Saudi Arabia. Different statistical distributions were applied (i.e. Normal, Log Normal, Extreme Value type I, Generalized Extreme Value, Pearson Type III, Log Pearson Type III) and their distribution parameters were estimated using L-moments methods. Also, different selection criteria models are applied, e.g. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and Anderson-Darling Criterion (ADC). The analysis indicated the advantage of Generalized Extreme Value as the best fit statistical distribution for Madinah partial duration daily rainfall series. The outcome of such an evaluation can contribute toward better design criteria for flood management, especially flood protection measures.

Alahmadi, F.; Rahman, N. A.; Abdulrazzak, M.

2014-09-01

297

Time distribution of the precipitable water vapor in central Saudi Arabia and its relationship to solar activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas. It plays a major role in the dynamics of atmospheric circulation, radiation exchange within the atmosphere, and climate variability. Knowledge of the distribution of water vapor is important for understanding climate change and global warming. In this study, radiosonde data from 1985 to 2012 were used to examine the monthly, interannual, and annual variations and trends of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in central Saudi Arabia in the city of Riyadh (24° 43?N; 46° 40?E, 764 m a.s.l.). The results revealed a clear seasonal cycle of PWV with a maximum during the summer months (June-August) and a minimum during the winter (December-February). This variation follows the mean monthly variation of air temperature. The PWV displays considerable variability at the interannual scale. We could not attribute the variations to the air temperature because no relationship was found between the two variables when the interannual variations were examined. Study of the annual variations of the PWV showed cyclic variations with a period of approximately 10-11 years. The two maximums and minimums were in 1996 and 2007 and 1989 and 2000, respectively. The results showed that the annual PWV values are anticorrelated with solar activity, represented by sunspot number, during solar cycles 22 and 23. The physical mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This finding is preliminary, and future investigations are recommended.

Maghrabi, A. H.; Al Dajani, H. M.

2014-04-01

298

Mexico City, Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this rare clear view of Mexico City, Mexico (19.5N, 99.0W), the network of broad avenues and plazas of the capital city are very evident. The city, built on the remnants of a lake in the caldera of a tremendous extinct volcano, is home to over twenty million people and is slowly sinking as subsidence takes it's toll on the lakebed.

1989-01-01

299

Male Saudi Arabian Freshman Science Majors at Jazan University: Their Perceptions of Parental Educational Practices on Their Science Achievements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of…

Alrehaly, Essa D.

2012-01-01

300

Intercultural Conflicts between Close Friends: A Case Study of Power Relations in Continuing Education in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…

Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie

2008-01-01

301

Teacher Knowledge That Supports Student Processes in Learning Mathematics: A Study at All-Female Middle Schools in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers in Saudi Arabia are attempting to advance their teaching in mathematics to address specific reforms by the Ministry of Education. Saudi teachers must improve their students' thinking through engagement in problem solving. This qualitative study investigated how teachers use knowledge of student mathematical learning and how they…

Alsaeed, Maha Saad

2012-01-01

302

Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

2011-01-01

303

SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study  

SciTech Connect

Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

304

A systematic review of population-based dental caries studies among children in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective Dental caries critically impacts the health and development of children. Understanding caries experience is an important task for Saudi Arabian policymakers to identify intervention targets and improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to analyze current data to assess the nationwide prevalence and severity of caries in children, to identify gaps in baseline information, and to determine areas for future research. Methods A search of published and unpublished studies in PubMed, Google, and local Saudi medical and dental journals was conducted for the three keywords “dental,” “caries,” and “Saudi Arabia.” The inclusion criteria required that the articles were population-based studies that assessed the prevalence of dental caries in healthy children attending regular schools using a cross-sectional study design of a random sample. Results/discussion The review was comprised of one unpublished thesis and 27 published surveys of childhood caries in Saudi Arabia. The earliest study was published in 1988 and the most recent was published in 2010. There is a lack of representative data on the prevalence of dental caries among the whole Saudi Arabian population. The national prevalence of dental caries and its severity in children in Saudi Arabia was estimated to be approximately 80% for the primary dentition with a mean dmft of 5.0 and approximately 70% for children’s permanent dentition with a mean DMFT score of 3.5. The current estimates indicate that the World Health Organization (WHO) 2000 goals are still unmet for Saudi Arabian children. Conclusion Childhood dental caries is a serious dental public health problem that warrants the immediate attention of the government and the dental profession officials in Saudi Arabia. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate oral health goals. Without the ability to describe the current situation, it is not possible to identify whether progress is being made toward these goals. A roadmap with a clear starting point, destination, and pathway is a desperately needed tool to improve the oral health of Saudi Arabian children. PMID:23960549

Al Agili, Dania Ebrahim

2012-01-01

305

Stalled eruption or dike intrusion at Harrat Lunayyir, Saudi Arabia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2007 there have been periodic small earthquake swarms recorded at seismic stations located around Harrat Lunayyir in northwest Saudi Arabia. In response to a longer-lived and larger seismic swarm, in early May 2009 the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) installed a network of broadband seismometers surrounding the Harrat, with real-time data transmitted by VSAT back to its Earthquake and Volcano Center in Jeddah. The new network captured data from the swarm, which culminated with a M5.4 earthquake on 19 May that caused very minor structural damage in the town of Al Ays, 40 km to the southeast. Because of the strength of ground-shaking and resulting structural damage, the Saudi government evacuated more than 30,000 people from a 40 km radius surrounding Harrat Lunayyir, including the town of Al Ays. At the request of the SGS and the U.S. Consulate in Jeddah, the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (a partnership program of the USGS and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance) sent two advisers to work with the SGS to determine if the unrest was volcanic in origin and to assess hazards associated with the unrest. The SGS-USGS team collected geologic, geodetic and seismic data that confirmed the volcanic nature of the activity. 1) A 3-km-long NW-trending surface rupture appeared in the central part of the Harrat before 19 May, during a time when maximum earthquake magnitudes exceeded M4. 2) The length of this rupture extended to 8 km with the M5.4 earthquake on 19 May. 3) The rupture opened 0.5 m and had an absolute motion of 0.9 m to N35W with a 63 degree plunge to the NE- a tensional offset consistent with that expected from an M5.4 earthquake in a rift-shoulder setting. 4) InSAR data showed about a meter of extension and uplift (as of July 2009) with the majority of deformation associated with the 19 May M5.4 earthquake. The InSAR-derived deformation field is best modeled by intrusion of a narrow (~2 m wide), 8-km-long dike to shallow crustal levels. 5) Finally seismic data showed features similar to other volcanic swarms, including high rates of occurrence of small events, shallow event locations that clustered beneath the lava field and were coincident with the area of maximum deformation, RSAM values that peaked during periods of increased InSAR inflation, and a mixture of event types- high frequency, low frequency, possible very low frequency, and tremor. Based on our analysis of similar active volcanic systems worldwide and associated earthquakes in rift settings, we determined that for the three month period following 19 May 2009 there was a moderate probability that the activity could culminate in an eruption, and a very low probability of additional large earthquakes of M6 or greater. Subsequent to this hazard assessment and once the stability of structures in Al Ays was adequately addressed, the evacuees were allowed to return to their homes and daily lives.

Zahran, H. M.; McCausland, W. A.; Pallister, J. S.; Lu, Z.; El-Hadidy, S.; Aburukba, A.; Schawali, J.; Kadi, K.; Youssef, A.; Ewert, J. W.; White, R. A.; Lundgren, P.; Mufti, M.; Stewart, I. C.

2009-12-01

306

Ethnic differences in the severity of varicella in adults in northern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The severity of varicella infection in 124 expatriates from the Asian continent was compared to that in 120 Saudi nationals, seen in Arar Central Hospital, Arar, Saudi Arabia, between January 1992 and December 1994. Persistent fever (defined as a raised body temperature more than 37.4 degrees C lasting more than 5 days), extensive skin eruptions (defined as extensive, when more than 50% of the body surface was affected) and transient elevation of hepatic enzymes (aspartate transaminases > 37 U/L and alanine transaminases > 40 U/L) after excluding other possible causes, occurred significantly more in expatriates than in Saudis. The mean duration of the illness in expatriates was 15.9 +/- 3.41 days as compared to a mean duration of 13.1 +/- 3.52 days in Saudis. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01 Student's t-test). The findings in this study suggest that varicella infection runs a more severe course in expatriates from the Asian continent as compared to the Saudis. Treatment with the antiviral agent acyclovir may be indicated in this group of expatriates with varicella infection. PMID:9557447

Kubeyinje, E P; Belagavi, C S; Desai, S

1997-11-01

307

City of Cambridge: CityViewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the best way to experience the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts? You could read a history of Harvard University, take a walking tour, or perhaps browse a topical website. But why not look at the Cambridge CityViewer for edification? This unique tool "allows the public to view, query, mark up, and print custom maps using only a web browser." Notedly, the viewer works best with Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. Visitors can check out ten different topical overlays, including those dealing with city parks, construction projects, land parcels, sewers, zoning, and traffic. There are many ways to get started, such as performing a simple search, an advanced search, or even just by typing in a street name and number. For anyone with an interest in urban history, planning, and land use, this site is a rare treat.

308

Barriers to integrating information technology in Saudi Arabia science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined current level of information technology integration in science education in the Yanbu school district in Saudi Arabia, and barriers to use. Sub-domains investigated included: infrastructure and resources, policy and support, science teachers' personal beliefs, and staff development. Survey determined demographic data and level of technology implementation, personal computer use, and current instructional practice. Mean frequency of information technology use was 1--2 times during a semester. Science teachers rated barriers limiting use of technology in teaching with a scale ranging from 0 (does not limit) to 3 (greatly limits). Results found all four factors were significant barriers: infrastructure and resources (M = 2.06; p < .001), staff development (M = 2.02; p <.001), policy and support (M = 1.84; p < .041) and science teachers' personal beliefs regarding technology (M = 1.15; p < .001). Regression analysis found that locations, level of training, teaching experience, and gender predicted frequency of use (F(3,168) = 3.63, R2 = .10, p < .014). Teachers who received in-service training programs used IT significantly more frequently than those who did not receive any training (t = 2.41, p = 0.017). Teachers who received both pre-service and in-service training used IT significantly more frequently than those who did not receive any training (t = 2.61, p = 0.01). Low technology users perceived that there was no support or incentives for using technology, while high technology users did not perceive these barriers (r = -0.18, p = .01). High technology users had positive personal beliefs about how information technology benefits learning, while low technology users held negative beliefs about technology use (r = -0.20, p = .003). The more barriers science teachers experienced, the less likely they were to be information technology users (r = -0.16, p = .02). There is a need for more computers in school, more teacher training, more time for teachers to learn to use technology, and more readily-available, technical support staff. Further studies are needed to represent all science teachers in Saudi Arabia, assess technology capacity of all schools, and assess in-service staff development strategies.

Al-Alwani, Abdulkareem Eid Salamah

309

Connecting the Fractal City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living cities have intrinsically fractal properties, in common with all living systems. The pressure to accommodate both the automobile and increased population growth led twentieth-century urbanists to impose anti-fractal geometrical typologies. The fractal properties of the traditional city were erased, with disastrous consequences for the urban fabric. To undo this damage, it is necessary to understand several things in some

Nikos A. Salingaros

310

The Plains City Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City

van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

2006-01-01

311

Utah: Salt Lake City  

... for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, ... view. The Uinta Mountains contain the highest peaks in Utah and are notable as the most prominent east-west trending range in the ...

2014-05-15

312

Lost City News Release  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This press release from the National Science Foundation provides an overview of the 2003 expedition to the Lost City Hydrothermal Field at the Atlantis Massif. It briefly describes the expedition, features of the Lost City, research results and implications for future discoveries. Photos and images accompany the text.

Affairs, Office O.; Foundation, National S.

313

Norms for hand grip strength in children aged 6-12 years in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives: There were two main objectives of this study: to establish normative values of hand grip strengths for 6-12-year-old children in Saudi Arabia and to compare results with existing Western data. Methods: Five-hundred twenty-five children from the central area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were recruited. Hand grip strength was measured using a standard adjustable electronic hand dynamometer. Results: The grip strength increased with advancing age in both genders, but grip strength for boys was significantly stronger than that of girls. There was no significant difference in hand grip strength according to the type of hand dominance. The hand strength of the Saudi children appeared to be lower than that of Western children. Conclusion: The reported values of hand grip strength will allow therapists to compare scores from typical and atypical children according to the age, gender, and body measures. PMID:25325246

Omar, Mohammed Taher Ahmed; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al Baker, Shaheerah

2014-10-17

314

Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

2014-09-01

315

Sinkhole detection using electrical resistivity tomography in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst phenomena exist in different areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, causing serious environmental problems that affect urban development and infrastructure (buildings, roads and highways). One of the most important problems are sinkholes, which most of the time consist of unfilled voids. These sinkholes are formed as a result of the chemical leaching of carbonate and evaporite formations by percolating water. Field investigations show that there are many surface expressions of sinkholes in the area; some appear on the ground surface and others are hidden in the subsurface. Geophysical data were collected at the study area using two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with different electrode spacings to delineate buried sinkholes and associated subsurface cavities. Our findings indicated that the dipole-dipole method using an electrode spacing of 1 m was successful in detecting a known subsurface sinkhole. According to the ERT method the detected sinkhole depth ranges from 2 to 4 m, its height ranges from 2 to 4 m, and its width ranges from 5 to 7 m. Field observation has verified the geophysical data, especially along the profile A-A\\. Finally, closely spaced ERT profiles were successful in determining the three-dimensional volume of the subsurface sinkhole.

Youssef, Ahmed M.; El-Kaliouby, Hesham; Zabramawi, Yasser A.

2012-12-01

316

Occurrence of radon in groundwater of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Samples were collected from 1025 wells supplying drinking water to the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia and analyzed for radon concentrations. The weighted radon median value for the entire country was found to be 4.62 Bq L(-1) with a range of 0.01-67.4 Bq L(-1). The percentage of samples with radon concentration equal to or greater than 11.1 Bq L(-1) (US EPA proposed MCL) was found to be 19.22%. The range of radon in shallow wells varied between 0.06 and 67.4 Bq L(-1) (median value 5.1 Bq L(-1)) and between 0.06 and 40.9 Bq L(-1) (median value 5.34 Bq L(-1)) for deep wells. However, 50% of the samples had radon concentrations equal to or greater than 4.0 and 2.87 Bq L(-1) for the shallow and deep wells, respectively. Correlation of well depth with radon levels revealed that wells drilled in Saq aquifer consisting of predominantly sandstone with significant shale layers in the upper parts, gave higher median radon levels than in Manjur aquifer which consists of predominantly limestone and sandstone. PMID:25244698

Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I

2014-12-01

317

Metamorphic evolution of the Qazaz metamorphic complex, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precambrian accretionary orogens largely contributed to continental growth, owing to their high production rates of juvenile crust compared to Phanerozoic accretionary orogens. The Pan-African orogeny is responsible for the evolution and growth of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Qazaz metamorphic complex in Saudi Arabia is one of the metamorphic complexes that were exhumed due to the activity of the largest Proterozoic shear zone system on the Earth - the Najd Fault System. The Qazaz complex is an example of an unusual new type of core-complex associated with crustal scale strike-slip faulting. Petrography and thermodynamic modelling were used to study the metamorphic evolution of the complex. The core of the complex records peak metamorphic conditions of 560 - 640 oC and 7-8 kbar. The bounding strike-slip shear zones operated at a temperature range of 400-600 oC while the pressure range varied from 5 to 0.5 kbar over a very short distance within the shear zone. The complex shows exhumation of about 25 km due to the activity of the Najd Fault System.

Hassan, Mahmoud; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt; Meyer, Sven; Passchier, Cees

2014-05-01

318

HIV Transmission at a Saudi Arabia Hemodialysis Unit  

PubMed Central

Background.?Hemodialysis is associated with increased risk of healthcare-associated infections but considered a low-risk setting for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. We investigated 3 hemodialysis unit (HDU) patients with new HIV infections to determine whether transmission was hemodialysis-associated and to correct factors that contributed to transmission. Methods.?Each patient was evaluated for HIV risk factors. Blood samples were tested to determine relatedness of HIV strains. Clinical data (gathered over 18 months) was reviewed to identify seroconversions at 12 HDUs. Infection prevention and control practices were evaluated at 14 HDUs. Findings.?No other HIV seroconversions were identified during the study. HIV gag, pol, and env gene sequences were consistent with a clonal relationship. HIV and hepatitis C virus prevalence rates at one HDU 1 (5.7% and 6.5%, respectively) were higher than for 11 other HDUs (0% and 0.15%, respectively). Conclusions.?Sequencing supports either patient-to-patient or common-source transmission. Infections occurred despite Saudi Arabia's low HIV prevalence and national dialysis policies that emphasize stringent infection prevention and control practices. PMID:24846636

Mashragi, Faisal; Bernstein, Robert S.; Al-Mazroa, Mohammad; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.; Filemban, Sanaa; Assiri, Abdullah; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Hazmi, Mohammad; Alzahrani, Abdullah; Stephens, Gwen; Memish, Ziad A.

2014-01-01

319

Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance. PMID:23762541

Aljaloud, Sulaiman O; Ibrahim, Salam A

2013-01-01

320

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in expatriates in northern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a protozoal disease transmitted by sandflies. It is endemic across the desert of the Middle East to Afghanistan and Africa. This paper reviews the findings in 148 expatriates with cutaneous leishmaniasis seen in Arar, northern Saudi Arabia, during a five year period. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was seen in all age groups. Farm workers, labourers and military personnel stationed in the region during the Gulf war were most affected. There was a seasonal variation with maximum incidence between November and January. The lesions were commonly multiple, the number of lesions per patient ranged from one to twelve. 18% of the lesions were located on the face, 34% on the upper extremity, 42% on the lower extremity and six per cent on other sites. The average duration of the lesions before diagnosis was two months. The most common complications were secondary bacterial skin infection (pyoderma and cellulitis) and residual scarring. The response to sodium stibogluconate was good. There has been a gradual reduction in the number of cases from a peak of 64 in 1991 to twelve in 1995. As compared to studies in the indigenous population, cutaneous leishmaniasis tends to be more frequent and server in expatriates from non endemic areas. There is a need for increased awareness of this disorder, especially in the home countries of these expatriates. PMID:9299828

Kubeyinje, E P; Belagavi, C S; Jamil, Y A

1997-04-01

321

Western Saudi adolescent age estimation utilising third molar development  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to establish reference data on third molar morphology/development for age estimation in Western Saudi adolescents, between ages 14 and 23 years of old. Materials and Methods: The orthopantomograms of 130 individuals (males and females), were examined, and the stage of third molar development were evaluated. Results: Mean ages, standard deviations, and percentile distributions are presented for each stage of development. The mean estimated age for all participants (n = 130) was 219.7 months, and this differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the mean chronological age (226.5 months). Deviations of predicted age from real age showed 28.5% of all participants had their age estimated within 1 year (±12 months) of their chronological age. Most (43%) had their age underestimated by more than 12 months and the remaining 28.5% had their age overestimated by more than 12 months of their chronological age. Differences in left-right symmetry information of third molars were detected and were higher in the maxilla (92%) than in the mandible (82%). For all molars reaching stage “H” most individuals (males and females) were over the age 18 years of old. Males reach the developmental stages earlier than females. Conclusion: Third molar tooth development can be reliably used to generate mean age and the estimated age range for an individual of unknown chronological age. Further studies with large populations are needed for better statistical results. PMID:25202206

Alshihri, Amin M.; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

2014-01-01

322

Human fascioliasis among immigrant workers in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Animal fascioliasis has been reported in Saudi Arabia among imported and local sheep. The paper demonstrated the parasitological and clinical features of human fascioliasis in nine out of ten male immigrant manual workers with manifestations suggesting fascioliasis. The sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques proved effect in diagnosing Fasciola species eggs in human stool. The common clinical features were abdominal distension, flatulence, tender right-upper quadrant and easy fatigability and the least was the tinge of jaundice. Others as right upper quadrant pains, colicky abdominal pains & vomiting, epi-gastric pain and mild fever, and tympanitic abdomen were encountered. Anaemia and eosinophlia were also encountered in the ten patients. Fascioliasis patients (nine) were successfully treated with Mirazid as two capsules (600 mg) on an empty stomach an hour before breakfast for six consecutive days. Follow-up clinically and parasitologically was available in only seven fascioliasis patients who were completely cured. Follow-up for the other two fascioliasis patients was out in hand. Other parasites recovered in the stained (eosin, iodine and Zeihl-Nelson stains) smear stool samples was Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Besides, three were free from intestinal protozoan. The results were discussed on the light of the other work carried out regionally. PMID:16363294

El-Mathal, Ebtesam M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H

2005-12-01

323

Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom. PMID:23961067

El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

2010-01-01

324

Viral respiratory infections at the Hajj: comparison between UK and Saudi pilgrims.  

PubMed

A high incidence of respiratory infection, including influenza, has been reported at the Hajj in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Reported rates of influenza have been higher among UK than among domestic pilgrims, but this could be explained by methodological differences among studies. Accordingly, the present study compared the frequencies of respiratory viruses among UK and Saudi pilgrims using the same study design. Pilgrims with upper respiratory tract symptoms were recruited from Mecca and the neighbouring valley Mina during the Hajj 2006. Nasal swabs were used for point-of-care influenza testing and real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) tests for influenza virus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. Of 260 pilgrims investigated, 150 were from the UK and 110 were Saudi; of these, 38 (25%) UK pilgrims and 14 (13%) Saudi pilgrims had respiratory infections detectable by rtRT-PCR (p 0.01). In the UK group, there were 19 (13%) cases of rhinovirus infection, 15 (10%) cases of influenza virus infection, two (1%) cases of dual infections with influenza virus and rhinovirus, one (3%) case of parainfluenza virus infection, and one (1%) case of respiratory syncytial virus infection. Fifty-six (37%) UK pilgrims had been vaccinated against influenza virus, with the rates of influenza in the vaccinated and unvaccinated group being 7% and 14%, respectively (p 0.19). In the Saudi group, there were three (3%) cases of rhinovirus infection and 11 (10%) cases of influenza. Only four (4%) Saudi pilgrims had been vaccinated against influenza virus, and none of these was infected with influenza virus. Overall, a significantly higher proportion of the UK pilgrims had detectable respiratory infections (25% vs. 13%, p 0.01). Influenza rates were similar in both groups, but the reported rates of influenza vaccination differed. PMID:18373688

Rashid, H; Shafi, S; Haworth, E; El Bashir, H; Memish, Z A; Sudhanva, M; Smith, M; Auburn, H; Booy, R

2008-06-01

325

Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4 ± 1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8 ± 0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0 ± 1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1 ± 1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. PMID:24926920

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

2014-08-01

326

A new species of Chalicodoma from Saudi Arabia with modified facial setae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia with such morphological adaptations, Chalicodoma riyadhense sp. n., is described and figured. The species was captured visiting flowers of Blepharis ciliaris (L.) (Acanthaceae). The occurrence of modified facial setae is documented and discussed for the first time in eight other species of Pseudomegachile, and a key to the genera and subgenera of Megachilini currently confirmed for Saudi Arabia is provided. PMID:22787421

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

2012-01-01

327

First records of the chewing lice (Phthiraptera) associated with European bee eater (Merops apiaster) in Saudi.  

PubMed

The European bee-eater (Merops apiaster) migrates through Saudi Arabia annually. A total of 25 individuals of this species were captured from three localities in Riyadh and Ta'if. Three species of chewing lice were identified from these birds and newly added to list of Saudi Arabia parasitic lice fauna from 160 lice individuals, Meromenopon meropis of suborder Amblycera, Brueelia apiastri and Meropoecus meropis of suborder Ischnocera. The characteristic feature, identification keys, data on the material examined, synonyms, photo, type and type locality are provide to each species. PMID:23469628

El-Ahmed, Azzam; Gamal, El-Den Nasser Mohammed; Shobrak, Mohamed; Dik, Bilal

2012-12-01

328

New generic and species records for the flora of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations. PMID:25313281

Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M; Al-Ansari, A M; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A A

2014-11-01

329

New generic and species records for the flora of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations. PMID:25313281

Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M.; Al-Ansari, A.M.; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A.A.

2014-01-01

330

A study of hospital and medical libraries in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The study reported examined the status of hospital libraries, their sponsoring organizations, their staff, the academic qualifications of the head of the library, collection size, available space, buildings, and services. The study was limited to the hospitals with libraries for staff in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The data were collected through questionnaires sent to a sample of fifteen hospitals with medical libraries. Twelve libraries responded. This is the first study of its kind in Saudi Arabia, and it is hoped that similar surveys will be done covering the whole kingdom. PMID:9549013

al-Ogla, S

1998-01-01

331

Ultra-high CPV system development and deployment in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.

Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor

2013-09-01

332

Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.  PMID:25544092

El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al

2014-01-01

333

Inequality and City Size*  

PubMed Central

Between 1979 and 2007 a strong positive monotonic relationship between wage inequality and city size has developed. This paper investigates the links between this emergent city size inequality premium and the contemporaneous nationwide increase in wage inequality. After controlling for the skill composition of the workforce across cities of different sizes, we show that at least 23 percent of the overall increase in the variance of log hourly wages in the United States from 1979 to 2007 is explained by the more rapid growth in the variance of log wages in larger locations relative to smaller locations. This influence occurred throughout the wage distribution and was most prevalent during the 1990s. More rapid growth in within skill group inequality in larger cities has been by far the most important force driving these city size specific patterns in the data. Differences in the industrial composition of cities of different sizes explain up to one-third of this city size effect. These results suggest an important role for agglomeration economies in generating changes in the wage structure during the study period. PMID:24954958

Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Pavan, Ronni

2013-01-01

334

Assessment of impact of mass movements on the upper Tayyah valley's bridge along Shear escarpment highway, Asir region (Saudi Arabia) using remote sensing data and field investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Escarpment highways, roads and mountainous areas in Saudi Arabia are facing landslide hazards that are frequently occurring from time to time causing considerable damage to these areas. Shear escarpment highway is located in the north of the Abha city. It is the most important escarpment highway in the area, where all the light and heavy trucks and vehicle used it as the only corridor that connects the coastal areas in the western part of the Saudi Arabia with the Asir and Najran Regions. More than 10 000 heavy trucks and vehicles use this highway every day. In the upper portion of Tayyah valley of Shear escarpment highway, there are several landslide and erosion potential zones that affect the bridges between tunnel 7 and 8 along the Shear escarpment Highway. In this study, different types of landslides and erosion problems were considered to access their impacts on the upper Tayyah valley's bridge along Shear escarpment highway using remote sensing data and field investigation. These landslides and erosion problems have a negative impact on this section of the highway. Results indicate that the areas above the highway and bridge level between bridge 7 and 8 have different landslides including planar, circular, rockfall failures and debris flows. In addition, running water through the gullies cause different erosional (scour) features between and surrounding the bridge piles and culverts. A detailed landslides and erosion features map was created based on intensive field investigation (geological, geomorphological, and structural analysis), and interpretation of Landsat image 15 m and high resolution satellite image (QuickBird 0.61 m), shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM 90 m), geological and topographic maps. The landslides and erosion problems could exhibit serious problems that affect the stability of the bridge. Different mitigation and remediation strategies have been suggested to these critical sites to minimize and/or avoid these problems in the future.

Youssef, A. M.; Al-Kathery, M.; Pradhan, B.

2015-01-01

335

The intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a lead sink for its rat host in the industrial areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The present study sought to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a bioindicator for lead accumulation in two industrial areas of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Rats (Meriones libycus) were collected from two sites (industrial area II and Salbukh) in Riyadh. In the industrial area II, the mean levels of lead concentrations were found to be 1.96, 1.92, 1.4 and 30.72 ?g/g in the rats’ liver, kidney and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In Salbukh, meanwhile, the lead concentrations were 1.63, 1.52, 1.20 and 21.31 ?g/g in the rats’ liver, kidney, and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In addition, in industrial area II, compared with the liver, kidney and intestine of their host, the bioconcentration factors of lead were found to be, respectively, 15.6, 16 and 21.9 times higher in H. diminuta, and were 7.5, 8, and 10.2 times higher in the same organs compared to H. diminuta in Salbukh. The present study, therefore, proved that H. diminuta could be used as a bioindicator for heavy metal contamination in the industrial areas of the city of Riyadh. PMID:25183950

Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Gewik, Mohamed M.; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S.

2013-01-01

336

Testing international dental maturation scoring system and population-specific Demirjian versions on Saudi sub-population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the Demirjian method and revised versions for estimating chronological age (CA) from dental age (DA) in a sample of children. Study Design: A sample of 252 individuals of known age (4 to 14 yrs), sex (males: 125, females: 127), and ethnicity (Saudi) was collected. Each individual was aged using the original Demirjian method and revised versions, including Saudi, Kuwaiti, Belgian, and revised international curves. The differences between dental age and chronological age were analyzed using paired sample t-tests with Bonferroni corrections and multinomial regression tests at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: The results indicated an over-aging of the sample as a whole by about 10 months using Demirjian tables, 5.5 months using Kuwaiti tables, 24.7 months using Belgian tables, and 5 months using revised international tables. The sample was under-aged by 0.6 month using Saudi tables. The overall discrepancies between CA and DA were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) for all methods with the exception of Saudi curves. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the Saudi population method is most accurate on a Saudi population. Key words:Age estimation, juvenile, forensic dentistry, Saudi Arabia. PMID:24790713

2014-01-01

337

Light in the city  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on enhancing the awareness of light for the pedestrian,and using light as a way of revealing the structure of the city and its relation to the cosmos. It proposes that aesthetic qualities of light inform ...

Srinivasan, Kavita, 1976-

2002-01-01

338

Sister Cities International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People from around the world have sought to establish links with other individuals from different nations, and since 1956, cities have sought to also establish meaningful relationships with other urban areas through the Sister Cities International organization. Currently, the organization represents more than 2,500 communities in 126 countries. Visitors to the site can learn which cities are currently seeking partnerships with other cities, read about the organization's annual conference, and also read about the programs they administer. Also, its calendar of events is quite full with programs designed for the general public, such as those dealing with relationships with countries in the Middle East and the question of local government. Finally, the material on the site is available in a number of different languages, including French, German, Spanish, and Japanese.

339

On Wearing the City  

Microsoft Academic Search

What would be the possible connection between dressing through the body and walking through the city? How could the space of architecture\\/ architexture be interwoven with literary narratives? This paper attempts to think through the \\

Hsiao-hung Chang

2006-01-01

340

Transforming Cities With Transit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are cities transformed by the creation of new transit lines? How can existing transit lines be modified to create new land use opportunities for housing and commercial properties? These subjects are covered by a 172-page conference edition of a forthcoming paper from the World Bank. The paper was authored by Hiroaki Suzuki, Robert Cervero, and Kanako Iuchi. Visitors will note that the work focuses on "identifying barriers to and opportunities for effective coordination of transport infrastructure and urban development." The work takes on a number of global best practices of transit-oriented metropolises that have direct relevance to cities in developing countries and offers both analysis and suggestions for future projects. Sections here include "Lessons from Sustainable Transit-Oriented Cities," "Integrating Transit and Urban Development in Cities in the Developing World," and "Toward Sustainable Urban Futures."

Cervero, Robert.; Iuchi, Kanako; Suzuki, Hiroaki

341

Between house and city  

E-print Network

In an attempt to understand the relationships between a residential building type and the city, this thesis explores the quality of the urban context resulting from the assemblage of these buildings. The investigation takes ...

Kallus, Rachel Admati

1982-01-01

342

Exploring The Underground City.  

E-print Network

??The inception of Montreal’s underground displayed significant inventiveness in striving for a multi-level city, however today the urban network has developed into an overly-commercialized, perfunctory… (more)

Shaddick, Daniel

2010-01-01

343

Pattern of Corrosive Ingestion in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. Results: The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 ± 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Conclusion: Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. PMID:19568549

Al-Binali, Ali M.; Al-Shehri, Mohammmed A.; Abdelmoneim, Ismail; Shomrani, Ali S.; Al-Fifi, Suliman H.

2009-01-01

344

Exploring medication use by blind patients in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the characteristics of medication use and challenges experienced by the blind patients. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study included blind persons living in Saudi Arabia who were at least 18 years of age. Participants were recruited through a number of nongovernmental blind associations (in the central, western, eastern regions), universities, social networks, and specialized websites for the blind. A questionnaire was designed and administered via face-to-face meetings with participants and made available online through Google Docs. Results There were a total of 121 respondents of which 26 were excluded based on their ability to visually identify their medications or being <18 years old. The majority of the respondents were 18–29 years old (68%), 49% were male and 51% were female. Around 57% had a college degree while 27% had a high school degree. Diagnosis with a chronic disease was reported by 71 participants (79%, 5 missing). The most common diseases were diabetes and asthma (22%) followed by hypertension (17%). Most blind patients (75%) believed that physicians were the most reliable source of medication information. The medication information and services provided by pharmacists were viewed as inadequate by 46%. The most common challenges encountered by blind patients were linked to drug identification (75%), dose recognition (82%), and identification of expiration date (92%). A large number of patients had to rely on persons with normal vision for dispensing and administering the medications. Conclusions Pharmacists can no longer ignore the medication use problems encountered by the blind people. This study may serve as an initial step for planning improvements in pharmaceutical services provided to blind patients. The government, pharmaceutical companies and pharmacists must work in collaboration to address the special needs of the blind.

Kentab, Basma Y.; Al-Rowiali, Kholuod Z.; Al-Harbi, Rehab A.; Al-Shammari, Nouf H.; Balhareth, Wiam M.; Al-Yazeed, Huda F.

2014-01-01

345

Ash Shutbah: A possible impact structure in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the Ash Shutbah circular structure in central Saudi Arabia (21°37'N 45°39'E) using satellite imagery, field mapping, thin-section petrography, and X-ray diffraction of collected samples. The approximately 2.1 km sized structure located in flat-lying Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone has been nearly peneplained by erosional processes. Satellite and structural data show a central area consisting of Dhruma Formation sandstones with steep bedding and tight folds plunging radially outward. Open folding occurs in displaced, younger Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation blocks surrounding the central area, but is absent outside the circular structure. An approximately 60 cm thick, unique folded and disrupted orthoquartzitic sandstone marker bed occurring in the central area of the structure is found 140 m deeper in undisturbed escarpment outcrops located a few hundred meters west of the structure. With exception of a possible concave shatter cone found in the orthoquartzite of the central area, other diagnostic shock features are lacking. Some quartz-rich sandstones from the central area show pervasive fracturing of quartz grains with common concussion fractures. This deformation was followed by an event of quartz dissolution and calcite precipitation consistent with local sea- or groundwater heating. The combination of central stratigraphic uplift of 140 m, concussion features in discolored sandstone, outward-dipping concentric folds in the central area, deformation restricted to the rocks of the ring structure, a complex circular structure of 2.1 km diameter that appears broadly consistent with what one would expect from an impact structure in sedimentary targets, and a possible shatter cone all point to an impact origin of the Ash Shutbah structure. In fact, the Ash Shutbah structure appears to be a textbook example of an eroded, complex impact crater located in flat-lying sedimentary rocks, where the undisturbed stratigraphic section can be studied in escarpment outcrops in the vicinity of the structure.

Gnos, Edwin; Hofmann, Beda A.; Schmieder, Martin; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.; Matter, Albert; Alwmark, Carl

2014-10-01

346

Pirfenidone treatment in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A Saudi experience  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Recent trials involving pirfenidone suggest a beneficial effect in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). OBJECTIVE: To report on the efficacy and safety of pirfenidone in the treatment of patients with IPF, at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The study included 58 patients with IPF who were evaluated from March 2012 to March 2013. During the study period, 33 patients received pirfenidone, and the remaining patients (n = 25) served as a control group. Baseline clinical characteristics, physiological parameters and the results of a 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were compared between the groups. Furthermore, we compared changes in forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLco), six-minute walk distance (6MWD) and SF-36 for both groups during follow-up. The last follow-up period ended in January 2014. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in baseline clinical characteristics between the groups. Furthermore, we found no differences in FVC, DLco and SF-36 during follow-up (median, 12 months). However, patients receiving pirfenidone treatment were less likely to experience reductions in 6MWD compared with the control group (13% vs. 52%, respectively; P = 0.001). Although adverse events were more frequently reported by the pirfenidone group compared with the control group (85 vs. 56%, respectively; P = 0.015), these patients did not require discontinuation of treatment. CONCLUSION: Pirfenidone treatment preserves functional capacity, as reflected by the 6MWD. Adverse events associated with pirfenidone treatment were generally well tolerated by the patients.

Alhamad, Esam H.

2015-01-01

347

The pattern of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Ministry of Health  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study describes the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods Epidemiological analysis was performed on data from all MERS-CoV cases recorded by the Saudi Ministry of Health between June 6, 2013 and May 14, 2014. The frequency of cases and deaths was calculated and adjusted by month, sex, age group, and region. The average monthly temperature and humidity of infected regions throughout the year was also calculated. Results A total of 425 cases were recorded over the study period. The highest number of cases and deaths occurred between April and May 2014. Disease occurrence among men (260 cases [62%]) was higher than in women (162 cases [38%]), and the case fatality rate was higher for men (52%) than for women (23%). In addition, those in the 45–59 years and ?60 years age groups were most likely to be infected, and the case fatality rate for these people was higher than for other groups. The highest number of cases and deaths were reported in Riyadh (169 cases; 43 deaths), followed by Jeddah (156 cases; 36 deaths) and the Eastern Region (24 cases; 22 deaths). The highest case fatality rate was in the Eastern Region (92%), followed by Medinah (36%) and Najran (33%). MERS-CoV infection actively causes disease in environments with low relative humidity (<20%) and high temperature (15°C–35°C). Conclusion MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The frequency of cases and deaths is higher among men than women, and those above 45 years of age are most affected. Low relative humidity and high temperature can enhance the spread of this disease in the entire population. Further analytical studies are required to determine the source and mode of infection in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25187734

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Almalki, Shaia S; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

2014-01-01

348

The Cities Alliance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the World Bank and other organizations, the Cities Alliance is "a global coalition of cities and their development partners committed to scaling up successful approaches to poverty reduction." The "News" area is front and center on their homepage and it provides a fine overview of their work, which ranges from concerted efforts to upgrade slums in the developing world, developing strategies to help cities with their financial situation, and also working on cohesive and comprehensive development strategies. Visitors can click on the right-hand side of the page to learn more about each of these thematic areas in the "Cities Alliance Activities" section. Moving on, the "Publications" area with its annual reports, fact sheets, and archived e-newsletters is a place worth visiting as well. The site is rounded out by the "City Development Strategies" area, which offers a rigorous explanation of the ways in which cities can assess their existing strengths and what the key aspects of a meaningful development strategy might be.

349

First record of Chiasmognathus from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae)  

E-print Network

in primary map at top. Abdulaziz S. Alqarni et al. / Journal of Hymenoptera Research 35: 83–89 (2013)86 Figures 1–3. Female of Chiasmognathus nearchus Engel from Amariah, Saudi Arabia. 1 Lateral habitus 2 Facial view 3 Dorsal habitus. Riyadh, Honeybee...

Alqarni, Abdulaziz; Hannan, Mohammed; Hinojosa-Dí az, Ismael; Engel, Michael S.

2013-10-25

350

Mineral and Microbial Contents of Bottled and Tap Water in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is essential to health however its purity, potability and the mineral content is important for consumption by humans. This study aim to determine the clinically important levels of minerals in bottled water and to determine the microbiological content of commercially available bottled waters and tap water from 5 regions of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Commercially available bottled mineral waters were

Kawther F. Abed; Suaad S. Alwakeel

351

Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water). These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. RESULTS: A total of 95 water

Eed L Sh AlOtaibi

2009-01-01

352

Evaluation of the contribution of smoking to total blood polonium-210 in Saudi population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study of 210Po concentrations in the blood of some smokers and nonsmokers is presented in order to evaluate the contribution of smoking to total blood 210Po in Saudi population. Blood samples were collected from 30 volunteers and analyzed by high resolution ?-spectrometry using a radiochemical technique. The technique is based on the separation of polonium from other components

E. I Shabana; M. A. Abd Elaziz; M. N Al-Arifi; A. A Al-Dhawailie; M. M-A Al-Bokari

2000-01-01

353

Eastern Margin of the Red Sea and the Coastal Structures in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of many investigations since 1950 show that the eastern margin of the Red Sea and associated coastal structures in Saudi Arabia have a long geologic history, starting with the deposition of Precambrian eugeosynclinal sedimentary and volcanic rocks before 1000 Ma ago and extending to recent geologic time. The northeastern flank of the Red Sea rift valley is in a

G. F. Brown

1970-01-01

354

Molecular phylogeny of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars from Saudi Arabia by DNA fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity among 13 different cultivars of date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) of Saudi Arabia was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The screening of 140 RAPD primers allowed selection of 37 primers which revealed polymorphism, and the results were reproducible. All 13 genotypes were distinguishable by their unique banding patterns produced by 37 selected primers. Cluster

N. S. Al-Khalifah; E. Askari

2003-01-01

355

From Barriers to Bridges: An Investigation on Saudi Student Mobility (2006-2009)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by…

Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

2011-01-01

356

PATTERNS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG SAUDI CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, AND ADULTS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HEALTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two decades, Saudi Arabia has witnessed a tremendous development and urbanization at astounding rate. The standard of living rises and mechanization has been apparent in all aspects of people 's life. And as industrializa tion and modernization progressed, substantial changes in physical activity patterns and eating habits are likely to have occurred. Indeed, physical inactivity and sedentary

Hazzaa M. AL-Hazzaa

357

Cytological pattern of cervical Papanicolaou smear in eastern region of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: Cancer of the cervix has been considered as one of the preventable cancers. This study is the first published research addressing the screening of cancer of the cervix in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Aim: This study aims to detect the prevalence of abnormal epithelial changes and its types in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Settings and Study Design: A retrospective study was designed to evaluate all previously conducted cervical smears examined at a secondary care maternity hospital in Saudi Arabia, during the period from 2003 to 2010. During this period, a total of 1171 smears were reported. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the records of all patients who had undergone Papanicolaou (Pap) smear during this period. After data collection, all cases were recorded as per Bethesda nomenclature. Results: A total of 624 (53.3%) abnormal Pap smears were found, with only 58 cases reported to have epithelial pathological diagnosis (SIL). They represented 4.95% of total taken smears. A majority of the SIL diagnoses in our population were ASCUS, representing 60% of SIL cases. The prevalence of squamous cervical carcinoma was 0.34%. Conclusion: The study has shown a relatively high prevalence of epithelial abnormalities in cervical smears in the studied population. The squamous cell carcinoma represented a higher than the overall prevalence compared to World Health Organization (WHO) factsheets about Saudi Arabia. The mean age of epithelial abnormalities and squamous cell carcinoma was in the reproductive years. PMID:22090690

Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Moghannum, Mohammed Saleh; Al Ghowinem, Naema; Al Omran, Souad

2011-01-01

358

Survey of trace elements in household and bottled drinking water samples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total dissolved beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the drinking water of 101 households and 21 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to ascertain the water quality for human consumption. The Inductively

I Al-Saleh; I Al-Doush

1998-01-01

359

Learning Preferences of Saudi University Students with Native English Speaking Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many countries building up human and technological resources, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has embarked on the goal of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) to its citizens. One goal for the KSA Ministry of Education is increasing acceptance rates at teacher colleges for both genders specializing in English, in addition to…

Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Yahya, Noorchaya; Unzueta, Caridad H.

2009-01-01

360

Coral reefs in Saudi Arabia: 3.5 years after the Gulf War oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of the 1991 Gulf War, 6–8 million barrels of oil were released into the marine environment and a total of 1.12 billion barrels were burned in the Kuwaiti oil fields. In order to detect delayed effects of the Gulf War pollution, six permanent transect lines were placed on Saudi Arabian offshore and inshore reefs. A comparison of

I. P. Vogt; Klagenfurter Strasse GEO

1995-01-01

361

Venomous snakes of Saudi Arabia and the Middle East: a keynote for travellers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographically Saudi Arabia and the Middle East include Asian Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestine, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Iran and the previous Southern Asiatic Soviet Republics. The snake fauna contains species in common with northern Africa, Europe and central Asia and towards the east there is infiltration of species characteristic of tropical Asia. A classification of the venomous snakes

M. Ismail; Z. A. Memish

2003-01-01

362

The Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…

Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung

2012-01-01

363

The status of Rift Valley fever in animals in Saudi Arabia: a mini review.  

PubMed

In August-September 2000, an overwhelming outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) struck the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia and adjoining Yemeni territories. During the outbreak, which was the first ever to be recorded outside Africa, around 40,000 animals, mostly sheep and goats, died or aborted and 883 cases, with 124 deaths, were recorded among humans in Saudi Arabia. An additional 1328 human cases, with 166 deaths, were concurrently recorded in northwestern Yemen. Vector studies in Saudi Arabia established Aedes vexans arabiensis and Culex (culex) triteniorynchus as the biological vectors of RVF virus in the region. Both of these species and several others, which could be potential vectors of the virus, occur throughout the Kingdom. Rigorous control measures were implemented, which succeeded in curtailing the infection and preventing its spread to other parts of the country. However, the virus persisted in a cryptic form in the original area of the epizootic, resulting in intermittent diagnosis of few cases throughout the past 10 years. To date, however, no evidence was found of virus activity outside that area. This review provides, from a veterinary perspective, a brief account of the events surrounding the epizootic and its present status in Saudi Arabia and emphasizes the need for vigilance, preparedness, and regular monitoring of the disease by serosurveillance methods. PMID:21923257

Al-Afaleq, Adel I; Hussein, Mansour F

2011-12-01

364

Technological Leadership Behavior of High School Headteachers in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the technological leadership behaviors of Saudi Arabian high school regarding the supply and use of educational technologies based on the educational technology standards developed and approved for school headteachers in many countries. The study was carried out with 135 high school headteachers. In the…

Alkrdem, Mofareh

2014-01-01

365

Mandibular cephalometric characteristics of a Saudi sample of patients having impacted third molars  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the cephalometric characteristics of mandibles of Saudi patients having impacted third molars and to compare them to those of patients having normally erupted third molars. Material and methods One hundred and twenty-one Saudi adult subjects (59 females and 62 males; age: 20–40 years) were divided into two groups based on the status of the mandibular third molars: (1) impaction group and (2) normal group. Means and standard deviations of 21 cephalometric measurements related to mandibular geometry were measured and compared between the two groups using the unpaired t-test. Males and females in the impaction group were also compared with their equivalent subgroups in the normal group using the unpaired t-test. Results Anteroposteriorly, space distal to second molar, ramal width and mandibular body length were significantly less in the impaction group than in the control group. In addition, posterior teeth were more upright in the impaction group. Vertically, posterior alveolar height was significantly less in the impaction group. The Y-axis was significantly increased in the impaction group. The significance of these measurements was variable between males and females. Conclusions Third-molar impactions in the Saudis living in the Western region of Saudi Arabia were more likely to occur when inadequate retromolar space is present. This can be attributed to certain mandibular skeletal and dental features, among which the increased width of mandibular ramus and backward inclination of posterior teeth seem to be the most influencing factors in both sexes. PMID:23960502

Hassan, Ali H.

2010-01-01

366

Erythraeid mites (Prostigmata, Erythraeidae) from Saudi Arabia, description of three new species and a new record  

PubMed Central

Abstract Three erythraeid genera Balaustium von Heyden, Charletonia Oudemans, and Erythraeus Latreille (Trombidiformes: Prostigmata) are reported for first time from Saudi Arabia based on three new larval species, Balaustium yousifi sp. n., Charletonia bahaensis sp. n., and Erythraeus (Erythraeus) uhadi sp. n. and one new record Erythraeus (Zaracarus) lancifer Southcott. All the three new species are described and illustrated from larvae. PMID:25349508

Kamran, Muhammad; Alatawi, Fahad J.

2014-01-01

367

Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric…

Amr, Mostafa Abdel-Monhem; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Hablas, Hatem Refaat

2010-01-01

368

Energy and exergy use in public and private sector of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then

I. Dincer; M. M. Hussain; I. Al-Zaharnah

2004-01-01

369

Evolution of a water and power demand projection model for Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a demand projection effort that evolved over the course of a larger consulting project. The description will focus on the development of a computer simulation model which projects water and power demands for the different regions of Saudi Arabia. It will also be concerned with the development of the proper client\\/consultant relationship necessary to make the best

Alan Mc K. Shorb; Anthony C. Picardi

1978-01-01

370

Franchising and small medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in industrializing economies : A Saudi Arabian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of interest in franchising among small medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to identify attitudes towards the mode of operation's success held by practitioners. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review is presented to explain franchising and the reasons for its adoption by SMEs. Secondary

Muhammad Asad Sadi; Joan C. Henderson

2011-01-01

371

The social value effect on individual characteristics of Saudi women's purchase intention towards luxury fashion brand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to examine the effect of social value to individual characteristic (need for uniqueness and attitude toward luxury fashion brands). Other than that, it also aims to examine the effect of social value on the cognitive-affective model (perceived quality and emotional value) through individual characteristic of Saudi women's purchase intention towards luxury fashion brand. The researcher will study

Amani Aqeel

2012-01-01

372

Making E-Learning Invisible: Experience at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe progress at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in developing and implementing a user-centered road map for teaching and learning, with pervasive e-learning as a core element. They named the approach "Invisible" e-learning. As part of it, they are investigating ways to capture and share expertise, as in…

Alwalidi, Abdullah; Lefrere, Paul

2010-01-01

373

The Academic Profession in a Rentier State: The Professoriate in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the academic profession in Saudi Arabia, a state dependent upon oil exports, and explores how different social groups are accommodated within the higher education system. The discussion examines the relationship between political power and academic labour, and seeks to explain how local policies and practices are negotiating…

Mazawi, Andre Elias

2005-01-01

374

Prevalence of the Emotional (Emo) Subculture among University Students in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research aimed to identify the prevalence of the emotional (emo) subculture among students at Princess Noura bint Abdulrahman University (PNU), Saudi Arabia, and to detect differences in emo behavior and orientation among university departments and academic levels. A questionnaire assessing emo behavior/orientation was developed and…

Ashaalan, Latifah; Alsukah, Aljawharh; Algadheeb, Nourah Abdulrhman

2013-01-01

375

Saudi Arabia Puts Its Billions behind Western-Style Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Saudi Arabia has been developing at breakneck speed since the end of World War II, when oil production transformed this country of Bedouins into one of the richest polities in the world. Its higher-education system, however, has not kept pace. The Ministry of Higher Education was not established until 1975, and its task was to educate a population…

Krieger, Zvika

2007-01-01

376

Despite Doubts, 3 Prominent Universities Sign Deals with a Saudi University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, the ambitious $10-billion research institution that Saudi Arabia plans to open in 2009, has signed agreements with three leading universities to help it design a curriculum and hire faculty members. The agreements, with Stanford University, the University of California at Berkeley, and the…

Fischer, Karin

2008-01-01

377

Special Education Teacher Transition-Related Competencies and Preparation in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…

Alnahdi, Ghaleb

2014-01-01

378

Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

2010-01-01

379

Website Interface Design: Similarity and Differences between Saudi Arabian and United States University Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expansion of the Internet and online learning around the globe makes it more important to understand the differences in website design among cultures. Furthermore, the members of educational institutions around the world rely on the Internet more than ever before in a variety of aspects. Also, web design differs from culture to culture. Saudi

Alyahya, Dalia Mohammed

2011-01-01

380

Transition Services for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward transition services for students with mild intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia, and also examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes regarding transition services for students with mild intellectual disability and teachers' gender and educational…

Alnahdi, Ghaleb

2013-01-01

381

Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

2010-01-01

382

Teachers' Continuing Professional Development Programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to review the historical development of continuing professional development programmes (CPDPs) for teachers, as well as the policies and objectives of such programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from the inception of these programmes until now. Styles of CPDPs that the Education Training Centres (ETCs) offer are…

Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

2011-01-01

383

Characteristics of the Home Context for the Nurturing of Gifted Children in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates factors in the home environment and their influence on children's analytical, creative, and practical skills. A sample of 294 gifted children (195 male) was recruited from grades 4-7 in Saudi Arabia, where the family context is highly influenced by the principles of Islam. Results did not confirm the effect of birth…

Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2014-01-01

384

Bringing the Field into the Classroom: A Field Methods Course on Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The methodology used in one graduate-level linguistics field methods classroom is examined through the lens of the students' experiences. Four male Deaf individuals from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia served as the consultants for the course. After a brief background information about their country and its practices surrounding deaf education, both…

Stephen, Anika; Mathur, Gaurav

2012-01-01

385

Teaching Arabic and the Preparation of Its Teachers before Service in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…

Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

2012-01-01

386

Health Data Standards and Adoption Process: Preliminary Findings of a Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for,…

Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

2011-01-01

387

Forming an Institutional Culture with Multinational Administrators and Teachers at Effat College, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the teaching and learning culture of a newly established women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The academic culture at Effat College in 2002 included administrators and teachers from many nations, which created unique challenges in cross-cultural communication. These challenges, in turn, affected the development and…

Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Treff, Marjorie

2011-01-01

388

Saudi Arabia and Canada Lead in Pay for Faculty Members, Study Finds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starting salaries for newly minted professors are highest in Canada, but for the best prospects of raising earnings over an academic career, one should look to Saudi Arabian universities. These are some of the findings of a new study that looks at faculty pay across international borders, examining salary data in 15 countries, among them the…

Fischer, Karin

2008-01-01

389

Molluscicidal activity of some Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales against the snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative susceptibility of the snail vector of intestinal schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria pfeifferi to the action of extracts from Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales has been determined. Methanol and chloroform extracts of the plants tested (Jatropha glauca, Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia schimperiana) were the most promising from the molluscicidal point of view with LD50 values in the range 10–100 ppm.

Najia A Al-Zanbagi; Abdul-Elah A Banaja; John Barrett

2000-01-01

390

Molluscicidal activity of some Saudi Arabian euphorbiales against the snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi.  

PubMed

The comparative susceptibility of the snail vector of intestinal schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria pfeifferi to the action of extracts from Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales has been determined. Methanol and chloroform extracts of the plants tested (Jatropha glauca, Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia schimperiana) were the most promising from the molluscicidal point of view with LD(50) values in the range 10-100 ppm. PMID:10771201

Al-Zanbagi, N A; Banaja, A A; Barrett, J

2000-05-01

391

Combined true and pseudoexfoliation in a Saudi patient with co-existing cataract and glaucoma  

PubMed Central

True exfoliation and pseudoexfoliation of the anterior lens capsule are different conditions, their coexistence is rare. We report a case with clinical findings of unilateral combined true exfoliation and pseudoexfoliation in a Saudi Bedouin that was confirmed histologically. We suggest that high levels of infrared radiation in the desert may have contributed to the capsular delamination. PMID:25473356

Alodhayb, Sami; Edward, Deepak P.

2014-01-01

392

A Cross-Cultural Examination of Fears of Death among Saudi Arabians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined factor structure of Hoelter's Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, which was translated into Arabic and administered to 84 Saudi Arabian students temporarily living in the United States. The factor structure obtained partially supports the factor structure first obtained for a United States sample, and later replicated for a New Zealand…

Long, Dennis D.

1986-01-01

393

The Effects of Using WebQuests on Reading Comprehension Performance of Saudi EFL Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a report on the effects of using WebQuest on Saudi male EFL students reading comprehension performance. WebQuests expose students to several online resources and require them to gather information about a specific topic. The experimental group received traditional teaching plus WebQuests as supplementary activities. The control group…

Alshumaimeri, Yousif A.; Almasri, Meshail M.

2012-01-01

394

Evaluation of formation damage due to frac stimulation of a Saudi Arabian clastic reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several wells in a Central Saudi Arabian reservoir were selected as candidates for frac stimulation to mitigate near-wellbore formation damage induced during drilling. The reservoir is a meander to braided stream complex with reservoir quality controlled by grain size, total clay content, and quartz cementation. Mineralogical findings included the identification of pore filling vermicular and finely crystalline kaolinite that were

Jack D. Lynn; Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din

1998-01-01

395

Metal levels in indoor and outdoor dust in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb, and Zn of outdoor and indoor dusts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have been investigated in relation to particle sizes 0.04–0.08 mm using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Although the results showed relatively low contamination in general, the old industrial area had appreciably high levels of toxic metals and there were relatively high Pb

A. S. Al-Aamer; M. R. D. Seaward

1996-01-01

396

Assessment of wind energy potential for coastal locations of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the wind data analysis for five coastal locations of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, namely Dhahran, Yanbo, Al-Wajh, Jeddah, and Gizan. The data analysis utilized hourly mean values of wind speed and wind direction covering a period of almost 14 years between 1970 and 1983. The data were validated in terms of completeness, continuity, erroneous values, etc.

Shafiqur Rehman; Aftab Ahmad

2004-01-01

397

Ecology and some desert plant communities of the eastern province of saudi arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of plant communities in a desert area in Saudi Arabia was conducted to obtain information for the implementation of revegetation efforts. An area, 3525 km, northwest of Safwa, was selected. Forty?five quadrats were randomly selected in the study area. The size of each quadrat was 25 m. These quadrats represented different geomorphological settings in the study area. Each

Maqbool H. Khan; Muhammad Sadiq

1990-01-01

398

Introduction Apis mellifera L. is native to Europe, Africa, and Asia (including Saudi  

E-print Network

Introduction Apis mellifera L. is native to Europe, Africa, and Asia (including Saudi Arabia, Iran migrations and introductions (Ruttner, 1988). Apis mellifera includes about two dozen subspecies bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations from the USA Allen L Szalanski1* and Roxane M Magnus1 1 Social

Szalanski, Allen L.

399

The profile form of rock-cut pediments in western Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes theodolite surveys of 37 pediments in western Saudi Arabia. Pediment profile form was assessed using both regression and profile curvature methods. It is shown that pediment curvature is related to pediment length. From this finding, we develop a model of pediment slope development that is both simple and fits the observable facts. We believe that the data

Peter Vincent; Ahmad Sadah

1996-01-01

400

Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

2011-01-01

401

The Acquisition of Temporal Conjunctions by Saudi Arabian Learners of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study with 80 Saudi English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students found that EFL learners performed better on temporal clauses that occurred initially in the sentence than those that occurred finally. The EFL learners faced problems similar to those of first-language learners. (29 references) (Author/LB)

Noor, Hashim H.

1993-01-01

402

Combined true and pseudoexfoliation in a Saudi patient with co-existing cataract and glaucoma.  

PubMed

True exfoliation and pseudoexfoliation of the anterior lens capsule are different conditions, their coexistence is rare. We report a case with clinical findings of unilateral combined true exfoliation and pseudoexfoliation in a Saudi Bedouin that was confirmed histologically. We suggest that high levels of infrared radiation in the desert may have contributed to the capsular delamination. PMID:25473356

Alodhayb, Sami; Edward, Deepak P

2014-10-01

403

Reintroduction of Arabian sand gazelle Gazella subgutturosa marica in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of sand gazelles Gazella subgutturosa marica in Saudi Arabia has declined dramatically during recent decades, apparently due to excessive hunting and habitat degradation. Today, sand gazelles survive only in small numbers in a few isolated parts of their former range. The National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development has instituted a conservation programme for sand gazelles that includes

Mohammad Nayerul Haque; Tommy R. Smith

1996-01-01

404

The Right to the City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identity and character of cities in America have been profoundly influenced by race. In the past, laws mandating the segregation of African American and white urban residents through racially discriminatory housing and lending policies created racial geographic boundaries within cities and between cities and suburbs. The impact of this racial segregation in cities can be seen in the creation

Ngai Pindell

2008-01-01

405

Saudi mothers' preferences about breaking bad news concerning newborns: a structured verbal questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background Breaking bad news (BBN) to parents whose newborn has a major disease is an ethical dilemma. In Saudi Arabia, BBN about newborns is performed according to the parental preferences that have been reported from non-Arabic/non-Islamic countries. Saudi mothers' preferences about BBN have not yet been studied. Therefore, we aimed to elicit the preferences of Saudi mothers about BBN concerning newborns. Methods We selected a convenience sample of 402 Saudi mothers, aged 18-50 years, who had no previous experience with BBN. We selected them via a simple number-randomization scheme from the premises of a level III Saudi hospital between October of 2009 and January of 2011. We used a hypothetical situation (BBN about trisomy 21) to elicit their preferences about BBN concerning newborns via a structured verbal questionnaire composed of 12 multiple-choice questions. We expressed their preferences as percentages (95% confidence interval), and we used the Kendall's W test (W) to assess the degree of agreement in preferences. Results The Saudi mothers preferred that BBN be conducted with both parents together (64% [60-69]), albeit with weak levels of agreement (W = 0.29). They showed moderate agreement in their preferences that BBN should be conducted early (79% [75-83], W = 0.48), in detail (81% [77-85], W = 0.52), in person (88% [85-91], W = 0.58), and in a quiet setting (86% [83-90], W = 0.53). With extremely weak agreement, they preferred to have a known person present for support during BBN (56% [51-61], W = 0.01), to have close bodily contact with their babies (66% [61-70], W = 0.10), and to have no another patients present (64% [59-68], W = 0.08). They showed moderate levels of agreement in their desires to detail, in advance, their preferences about process of BBN by giving a reversible, written informed consent that could be utilized for guidance, if needed (80% [76-84], W = 0.36). Conclusions In our experience, Saudi mothers' preferences about BBN concerning newborns are varied, suggesting that a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. A reversible, written informed consent detailing their preferences about BBN that would be kept in their medical records and utilized for guidance, if needed, may be the best solution, given this level of diversity. These findings merit further study. PMID:21861876

2011-01-01

406

Antibiotic Attack (Kinetic City)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game is a part of the Tau Pack of the Kinetic City site (see description below). In this simulation, the patient's bodies are filled with bacteria. The object is to cure as many patients as possible. Learning concepts enforced here are that antibiotics are specific for the type of bacteria they treat, their strength, and that the bacteria may also become resistant to the bacteria by mutations.KINETIC CITY DESCRIPTION: "Kinetic City" (www.kineticcity.com) is a fun, Web-based after-school science club for kids, ages 8 through 11. It combines exciting online animations and activities with boxes of hands-on science experiments. Children earn "Kinetic City" power points and collect stickers as they complete missions and learn standards-based science content. Here's how it works: The "Kinetic City" super crew (Keisha, Curtis, Megan and Max) needs the help of Earth kids to save their planet Vearth, from the science-distorting computer virus Deep Delete. Each of Deep Delete's 60 hideous strains attacks a different area of science with disastrous consequences. After each attack, teams of Earth kids fight back by viewing a short online animation describing the situation on Vearth; performing a series of activities to re-learn the lost science and going on a mission to Vearth during which they answer science questions and gobble up Deep Delete viruses. Their scores appear on their own Kinetic City Club Web page. "Kinetic City" is produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), with a grant from the National Science Foundation. AAAS writes the "Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy," which forms the basis of most state science standards.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-01-01

407

Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon. PMID:25437521

Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

2015-01-01

408

Vents to events: determining an eruption event record from volcanic vent structures for the Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed "monogenetic" volcanic eruptions commonly occur in continental settings without obvious structural alignments or rifting/extensional structures. Nevertheless, these may develop as fissures, representing the surface expression of dykes with a range of orientations, especially when stress regimes vary over time and/or older crustal features and faults are exploited by rising magmas. Dykes reaching the surface as fissures can last hours to months and produce groups of closely aligned vents, hiding the true extent of the source fissure. Grouped or aligned vents in a distributed volcanic environment add complexity to hazard modelling where the majority of eruptions are single-vent, point-source features, represented by cones, craters or domes; i.e. vent groups may represent fissure events, or single eruptions coincidently located but erupted hundreds to tens of thousands of years apart. It is common practice in hazard estimation for intraplate monogenetic volcanism to assume that a single eruption cone or crater represents an individual eruptive event, but this could lead to a significant overestimate of temporal recurrence rates if multiple-site and fissure eruptions were common. For accurate recurrence rate estimates and hazard-event scenarios, a fissure eruption, with its multiple cones, must be considered as a single multi-dimensional eruptive event alongside the single-vent eruptions. We present a statistical method to objectively determine eruptive events from visible vents, and illustrate this using the 968 vents of the 10 Ma to 0.6 ka volcanic field of Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia. A further method is presented to estimate the number of hidden vents in a thick volcanic pile. By combining these two methods for Harrat Rahat, we determined an updated spatial recurrence rate estimate, and an average temporal recurrence rate of 7.5 × 10-5 events/year. This new analysis highlights more concentrated regions of higher temporal hazard in parts of Harrat Rahat, which has significant implications for the city of Al-Madinah and surroundings.

Runge, Melody G.; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Kenedi, Catherine L.; Moufti, Mohammed Rashad H.

2014-03-01

409

Isotope geochemistry of the Miocene and Quaternary carbonate rocks in Rabigh area, Red Sea coast, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rabigh area, a coastal region north of Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia contains raised Quaternary coral reefal terraces and reworked coral fragments mixed with sand and gravel. This area has a thin exposure Lower Miocene shallow marine carbonate rocks that laterally pass into evaporites. The Miocene carbonate and evaporite rocks conformably overly the Lower Miocene siliciclastic sequence, are in turn capped by the Harrat basaltic boulders. The Miocene carbonates are made up of dolomitic packstone, wackestone and mudstone, whereas the overlying Quaternary reefal terraces are composed of coral boundstone and grainstones. The Quaternary reefal terraces of Rabigh area have been dated using the uranium-series dating method to obtain precise dates for these corals. The calculated ages (128, 212 and 235 ka) indicate that deposition took place during high sea level stands associated with interglacial times during Oxygen Isotope Stages (OIS) 5 and 7. The youngest age (128 ka) clearly corresponds to stage 5e of the last interglacial period. The obtained ages correlate well with those of the emerged reefs on the Sudanese and Egyptian coasts at the western side of the Red Sea. The broad distribution of wet climate, pluvial deposits on the continents and high sea level stands indicate a wide geographical range of the interglacial events of the Oxygen Isotope Stages (OIS) 5 and 7. The oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of the Miocene and Quaternary carbonate rocks in Rabigh area show a broad range of ?13C and ?18O. The Quaternary carbonate rocks have significantly higher ?13C than the Miocene ones, but low ?13C values of the Miocene samples likely indicate a high contribution of carbon from organic sources at the time of deposition. Linear trends are evident in both groups of samples supporting the likelihood of secondary alteration.

Dawood, Yehia H.; Aref, Mahmoud A.; Mandurah, Mohammed H.; Hakami, Ahmed; Gameil, Mohammed

2013-11-01

410

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping  

PubMed Central

Abstract Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

2011-01-01

411

The large carpenter bees of central Saudi Arabia, with notes on the biology of Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae)  

E-print Network

The large carpenter bees (Xylocopinae, Xylocopa Latreille) occurring in central Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Two species are recognized in the fauna, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma) aestuans (Linnaeus) and X. (Ctenoxylocopa) sulcatipes Maa. Diagnoses...

Hannan, Mohammed A.; Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

2012-06-14

412

Earth's City Lights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

2002-01-01

413

Identification and Molecular Characterization of a Phytoplasma Associated with Al-Wijam Disease of Date Palm in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alhudaib, K., Y. Arocha, M. Wilson and P. Jones. 2007. Identification and Molecular Characterization of a Phytoplasma Associated with Al-Wijam Disease of Date Palm in Saudi Arabia. Arab J. Pl. Prot. 25: 116-122. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) has been affected by a disease called Al-Wijam in Saudi Arabia. Main symptoms are leaf stunting, yellow streaking and a marked reduction

K. Alhudaib; Y. Arocha; M. Wilson; P. Jones

414

The Atlantic Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What will the future of cities be like? It's a riveting question and one that excites the passions of the folks at The Atlantic Cities website. Their work here "explores the most innovative ideas and pressing issues facing today's global cities and neighborhoods." Visitors should browse through their newest articles, which might include "Why Our Kids Need Play" and "How Poverty Taxes the Brain." The site also has some neat features, including the Charts, Photos, and Urban Wonk areas. Geographers and artists will love the Maps section, which includes both scholarly and humorous offerings. First-time visitors should pay special attention here to "A Block-by-Block Map of Brooklyn, in Garbage" and "One Map, A World of Temperatures." Additionally, visitors can also sign up to receive their e-newsletter and other updates, including information about upcoming conferences and lectures sponsored by The Atlantic.

2013-09-23

415

The Guardian Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Guardian newspaper has crafted this wonderful site to bring curious urbanologists news from Seoul to San Francisco. Supported in part by the Rockefeller Foundation, the site offers "a forum for debate and the sharing of ideas about the future of cities around the world.â Articles on the homepage might include pieces on investment in Detroit by Chinese corporations or the shifting public art scene in Glasgow. New visitors may wish to start with "An urbanist's tour of South Korea,â which features the musings of Colin Marshall on this dynamic Asian country. Moving along, the Global voices section features an interactive map of the best city blogs around the world. The site also contains the visually stimulating In pictures area and the up-to-the-moment Latest on cities newsfeed.

416

Engineers Week: Future City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Engineers Week Future City Competition provides âÂÂa fun and exciting educational engineering program for seventh- and eighth-grade students that combines a stimulating engineering challenge with a âÂÂhands-onâ application to present their vision of a city of the future.â The competition is intended to foster engineering skills, such as teamwork, communication and problem solving skills, as well as to inspire students to explore future careers in engineering. Using the commercial software SIMCITY to design their ideal city, students interact with each other, and with teachers and engineer mentors and also learn about the multi-disciplines within the engineering profession. The website has more information about the competition, as well as a handbook providing helpful tips and techniques. Examples of accomplishments from previous competitions are posted and CD-ROM video is available from regional coordinators to give more background on the competition.

417

Ultrafine particles in cities.  

PubMed

Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

2014-05-01

418

Finding the Lost City  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nicholas Clapp, a filmmaker and archeology enthusiast, had accumulated extensive information concerning Ubar, the fabled lost city of ancient Arabia. When he was unable to identify its exact location, however, he turned to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for assistance in applying orbital remote sensing techniques. JPL scientists searched NASA's shuttle imaging radar, as well as Landsat and SPOT images and discovered ancient caravan tracks. This enabled them to prepare a map of the trails, which converged at a place known as Ash Shisr. An expedition was formed, which found structures and artifacts from a city that predates previous area civilization by a thousand years. Although it will take time to validate the city as Ubar, the discovery is a monumental archeological triumph.

1993-01-01

419

100 Resilient Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The future of cities is the subject of much hand-wringing in urban policy circles. As of late, a popular topic has been the concept of urban "resilience" and the Rockefeller Foundation has taken this matter on with its 100 Resilient Cities initiative. On its website, first-time visitors should first explore the "What is Resilience?" area. Here, the topic is explained in detail and an infographic links to a number of helpful resources. Moving on, visitors can explore the foundation's blog and some of the Most Read entries, such as "The Five Fastest Growing Cities" and "Slumdog Urbanism." Each entry features a comments section that allows visitors to chime in with their own thoughts on resilience in the 21st century. The site is rounded out with a nice subscription feature, allowing readers the opportunity to receive email updates once new material is published on the site.

420

Inner city asthma.  

PubMed

The inner city has long been recognized as an area of high asthma morbidity and mortality. A wide range of factors interact to create this environment. These factors include well-recognized asthma risk factors that are not specific to the inner city, the structure and delivery of health care, the location and function of the urban environment, and social inequities. In this article, these facets are reviewed, and successful and unsuccessful interventions are discussed, to understand what is needed to solve this problem. PMID:25459579

Gergen, Peter J; Togias, Alkis

2015-02-01

421

State of the Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The report finds that while "the booming national economy and the growth of high-tech jobs have helped reverse decades of decline in America's cities," the "digital divide" continues to make itself felt as the number of high-tech jobs is growing 30 percent faster in the suburbs than urban areas. In addition, housing prices have risen at twice the rate of inflation, worsening an affordable housing shortage. See also the New Data section in this report for a review of the State of the Cities Data System, 2000.

2000-01-01

422

75 FR 43919 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia: Third City Stop Added to the Trade Mission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...projects, 17 medium-sized projects, and 80 small schemes. Petrochemicals Industry sources...680 for large firms and $2,925 for a small or medium-sized enterprise (SME)\\1\\ or small organization, which will cover one...

2010-07-27

423

First Insight into the Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia? †  

PubMed Central

This study constitutes a first attempt to describe the genetic population structure and drug resistance of the tubercle bacilli circulating in Saudi Arabia. A total of 1,505 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis, isolated between 2002 and 2005 from seven regions of Saudi Arabia, were studied. The sample studied showed a male-to-female sex ratio of 1.27, with half of the cases among foreign-born individuals and 47% within the 21- to 40-year-old age group; a total resistance rate of 19.7%; and multiple drug resistance of 4.5%. Upon spoligotyping, a total of 387 individual patterns were obtained (clustering rate, 86.4%; 182 clusters containing between 2 and 130 isolates per cluster). A total of 94% of the strains matched the spoligotype patterns in an international database. Nearly 81% of the isolates in this study belonged to established phylogeographic clades: Central Asian (CAS), 22.5%; ill-defined T clade, 19.5%; East African-Indian (EAI), 13.5%; Haarlem, 7.5%; Latin American-Mediterranean, 7.2%; Beijing, 4.4%; Manu, 2.7%; X, 0.9%; and Bovis, 0.9%. Two clonal complexes with unique spoligotyping signatures (octal codes 703777707770371 and 467777377413771) specific to Saudi Arabia were identified. These belonged to the CAS and EAI clades, respectively, as confirmed upon secondary typing using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs). The results obtained underline the predominance of historic clones of principal genetic group 1, which are responsible for roughly 45% of all tuberculosis cases in Saudi Arabia. The high rate of clustering observed might be an indication of rapid ongoing transmission within certain communities and/or subpopulations in Saudi Arabia; nonetheless, spoligotyping is known to overestimate clustering, and only a systematic second-line typing, such as MIRUs, coupled with a better tuberculosis registry and epidemiological investigations would allow us to know the exact rate of ongoing transmission and associated risk factors in Saudi Arabia. PMID:17507515

Al-Hajoj, Sahal A. M.; Zozio, Thierry; Al-Rabiah, Fahad; Mohammad, Viquar; Al-Nasser, Maryam; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin

2007-01-01

424

Clean Cities Natural Gas  

E-print Network

2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide Clean Cities Natural Gas Propane Biodiesel Electric Hybrid Ethanol Flex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Plug-In Hybrid Electric . . . . . . . . . . 18 Hybrid Electric vehicles, and hybrid luxury cars are now in the marketplace. Early in the 2013 calendar year the number

425

TELECOM-CITIES  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TELECOM-CITIES, a discussion list sponsored by the Taub Urban Research Center at New York University, focuses on practical and theoretical aspects of the impacts of advanced telecommunications and telematics on urban centers. A web-based subscription form is available.

1997-01-01

426

Industrial Development in Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses data for eight manufacturing industries to test for and characterize dynamic production externalities in cities. The authors find evidence of both Marshall-Arrow-Romer (MAR) externalities, which are associated with past own industry employment concentration, and Jacobs externalities, which are associated with past diversity of local total employment. For mature capital goods industries, there is evidence of MAR externalities

Vernon Henderson; Ari Kuncoro; Matt Turner

1995-01-01

427

Hazards in the City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the National Library of Medicine, explore the environmental hazards that might be found at various locations within cities and towns, including construction sites, factories, homes, hospitals, offices and stores, parks, restaurants, rivers and lakes, schools, and vehicles. A background essay, discussion questions, and standards correlations are also provided.

2010-10-04

428

Arthur Heights Baldwin City  

E-print Network

Aulory Badger Bala Baldwin City Barber Bartlett Basehor Bassett Bateham Batesville Baxter Springs Holcomb Holliday Hopkins Switch Hoxie Hughes Humboldt Hutchinson Independence Indian Ridge Indian Village Lafontaine Lake of the Forest Lake Quivira Lake Ridge Lake Shore Lake View Lakeland Estates Lakeside Acres

429

Nature in the City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

Ferbert, Mary Lou

1981-01-01

430

New City, New Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After eight years at the helm of the City College of New York, where Dr. Gregory Williams grew enrollment at the minority-serving institution by 60 percent, instituted more rigorous admissions standards and launched the college's first capital campaign that raised more than $300 million, last fall he became the 27th president of the University of…

Matthews, Frank

2010-01-01

431

Visit Cell City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, students search the Web in order to learn about human body cells. After collecting their research, they make an analogy between the structure of a human liver cell and a real city. Included are activity pages, team pages, teacher pages, and a list of electronic resources that students will need to complete the activity.

Glass, Sue

2007-12-12

432

Small city waterfront restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redesign and reuse of waterfronts are a common experience today. Small cities presented with a deteriorating waterfront are faced with formidable economic and institutional impediments to their efforts to reverse the decline. This paper presents some design principles that if followed provide a framework for developing restoration plans. It also describes the efforts of the California State Coastal Conservancy to

Joseph Petrillo

1987-01-01

433

Sinking coastal cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent threat of subsidence. As subsidence is spatially different and can be caused by multi processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues), where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

2014-05-01

434

Bushehr as an Energic City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bushehr city is one of the famous city in the south of Iran which is situated in the coastal part of Persian Gulf. This paper try to discuss one of the most important theme which threat the sustainability and comfortability of tomorrow`s life. Changing Bushehr into an Energic city is one of the effective ways to solve the cities problem. For this purpose, we try to answer these questions: what is called as an energic city?; What are its main characteristics?; What are the aims of changing a city into an energic city? And what should be done to obtain the aims? For these purposes we offer a model which responds to the sustainability of Bushehr. This model uses 3 levels of activity that each level should respond to 5 significant characteristics of an energic city. For this purpose we present some applied ways in each category to obtain those characteristics.

Sabatsani, Nasser

435

Status of breeding seabirds on the Northern Islands of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder's Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is postulated that food availability is an important factor influencing the breeding of seabirds in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Several species laid eggs earlier in northern parts of the Red Sea than in southern parts. The predicted increases in temperatures (Ta ) could have a negative effect on species survival in the future, especially on those whose nests that are in the open. Finally, disturbance, predation and egg collection were probably the main immediate threats affecting the breeding seabird species in the northern Red Sea. PMID:24955009

Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Aloufi, Abdulhadi A

2014-07-01

436

Fertility attitudes and behavior of Saudi Arabian students enrolled in U.S. universities.  

PubMed

Although fertility declines have taken place in several Arab countries, the Arab nations are growing rapidly. In Saudi Arabia, the total fertility rate (TFR) is 7.1, and the growth rate is 3.5 per cent per year, among the highest in the world. This research examines the structural determinants (indirect indicators) of fertility attitudes and behavior among Saudi Arabian students studying in American universities. Specifically, this study examined the relationship between fertility attitudes and behavior, and background characteristics which included age, religiosity, education, income, length of stay in the U.S., and wife's age and wife's education. Results indicate a highly significant effect of religiosity as a major positive determinant of fertility attitudes. However, the major determinant of fertility behavior, the number of children respondents had, was wife's education which was negatively related with family size. PMID:7761910

al-Mubarak, K A; Adamchak, D J

1994-01-01

437

New records of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya) and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea), fig (Ficus carica), grapes (Vitis vinifera), apple (Malus domestica), citrus (Citrus spp.), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and pear (Pyrus communis). Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah), Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad), Rhynchaphytoptusficifolia (Keifer) and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer)), belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites. PMID:21916261

Al-Atawi, Fahad J; Halawa, Alaa M

2011-01-15

438

Human infections by Heterophyes heterophyes and H. dispar imported from Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Two human cases of Heterophyes heterophyes and H. dispar infections were proven by the recovery of their adult worms. The cases were 38-year and 40-year old Korean workers who had been in Saudi Arabia for 4-6 years and returned home in 1983 or 1984 with gastrointestinal troubles. In Saudi Arabia they had eaten raw brackish water fishes such as the mullet. After the treatment with 10 mg/kg praziquantel and purgation with magnesium salt, a total of 19 specimens of H.heterophyes and 140 of H. dispar were collected. It is of interest that the worms persisted in a patient although he had been back in Korea for 14 months. This is the first report on imported heterophyiasis in Korea. Human infection by H. dispar is the first record in the literature. PMID:12886112

Chai, Jong Yil; Seo, Byong Seol; Lee, Soon Hyung; Hong, Sung Jong; Sohn, Woon Mok

1986-06-01

439

Continuing medical education as a national strategy to improve access to primary care in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of an educational program in family medicine for general practitioners in Saudi Arabia from 2009 to 2011. A continuing medical education program called Family Medicine Education (FAME) was developed with 7 modules each consisting of 12-14 hours of teaching to be delivered in 3 day blocks, over 45 days. Twenty percent (2,761) of all general practitioners participated in the FAME program. Initial assessment of the program showed significant improvement of knowledge from scores of 49% on a pre-test to 89% on post-tests. FAME program in Saudi Arabia facilitated primary care physicians' knowledge. PMID:24250833

Alshammary, Sami Ayed; Ratnapalan, Savithiri; Akturk, Zekeriya

2013-01-01

440

Continuing medical education as a national strategy to improve access to primary care in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of an educational program in family medicine for general practitioners in Saudi Arabia from 2009 to 2011. A continuing medical education program called Family Medicine Education (FAME) was developed with 7 modules each consisting of 12-14 hours of teaching to be delivered in 3 day blocks, over 45 days. Twenty percent (2,761) of all general practitioners participated in the FAME program. Initial assessment of the program showed significant improvement of knowledge from scores of 49% on a pre-test to 89% on post-tests. FAME program in Saudi Arabia facilitated primary care physicians’ knowledge. PMID:24250833

2013-01-01

441

STS-65 Earth observation of center-pivot irrigation in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of center-pivot irrigation in North Central Saudi Arabia. This 250mm color photograph shows a small section of desert land where center-pivot irrigation is used for crop production. This particular area is representative of a much larger area within Saudi Arabia where this agricultural practice is being applied. The water is being extracted from subsurface reserves that infiltrated deep aquifers over the Central Arabian Arch during previous geological periods, when the climate was much wetter than present. This view is an example of the use of abundant fossil water to achieve self sufficiency in food production. Note OV-102's vertical stabilizer and tail cap are visible in the view.

1994-01-01

442

Gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region of Saudi schoolchildren aged 10-15 years.  

PubMed

Incidence of gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region was examined in a sample of 1336 male and female Saudi schoolchildren aged from 10-15 yr. Gingival recession was found in 9.88% with no significant difference in the affected teeth by age (p greater than 0.8361). There was a significant difference in the mean clinical crown length between the affected and adjacent teeth (p less than 0.0001). The highest significant association of gingival recession was found with inflammation (p less than 0.0001), anterior crowding (p less than 0.0009) and frenal involvement (p less than 0.0001). The results of this investigation suggest that future studies should be made to evaluate the effect of miswak as a cleansing agent for the gingival tissues among the Saudi population. PMID:6576884

Younes, S A; El Angbawi, M F

1983-08-01

443

PROCLAMATION FLORIDA CITY GOVERNMENT WEEK  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHEREAS, city government is the government closest to most citizens, and the one with the most direct daily impact upon its residents; and WHEREAS, city government is administered for and by its citizens, and is dependent upon public commitment to and understanding of its many responsibilities; and WHEREAS, city government officials and employees share the responsibility to pass along their

Arthur C. Johnson; William G. Graham; Chairman Monroe Benaim; Sandra S. Richmond; L. Robinson

444

Dublin City University Educational Trust  

E-print Network

Dublin City University Educational Trust 2007 & 2008 RepoRt Established in 1988 by a group of business people, the mission of the Dublin City University Educational Trust is to build philanthropic relationships to advance the vision of Dublin City University. The DCU Educational Trust engages with friends

Humphrys, Mark

445

Rapid City, SD Showcase Streamgage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A USGS South Dakota Water Science Center streamgage was dedicated by Congressional and city officials on September 3 in Rapid City. This showcase streamgage is located on Rapid Creek at Rapid City in Founders Park and provides visitors with critical information about how streamflow is meas...

446

Genetic Services in Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the year 2002, the population of Mexico was approaching 103 million inhabitants. Approximately 74% of them live in the cities with a continuous migration from rural to urban areas. Genetic departments are concentrated in the capital and other big cities. In this paper we review the current status of genetic departments in Mexico City, emphasizing the main areas of

Susana Kofman-Alfaro; Juan Carlos Zenteno

2004-01-01

447

Bromate pollutant in ozonated bottled Zamzam water from Saudi Arabia determined by LC\\/ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromate (BrO3 ) as a human carcinogenic pollutant in bottled drinking Zamzam water from Mecca, Saudi Arabia has been determined using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC\\/ICP-MS). For analysis, samples were injected directly without any further pretreatment, using only 50 ?L injection volume. The method showed: 0.5 ?g\\/L detection limit, 1.0 ?g\\/L limit of quantification and 1.0–200.0 ?g\\/L

Seham A. Al-Ansi; Ahmed A. Othman; Mohammed A. Al-Tufail

2011-01-01

448

Draft Genome Sequence of Coxiella burnetii Strain Cb196, an Agent of Endocarditis in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Coxiella burnetii Cb196, with a 2,006,415-bp genome, is a strain isolated from a 45-year-old man in Saudi Arabia with endocarditis. It belongs to the genotype MST51, which was detected for the first time only in this country. Cb196 shows more similarity to C. burnetii CbuK_Q154, belonging to genotype 8, which was phylogenetically close to MST51. PMID:25428964

D’Amato, Felicetta; Robert, Catherine; Azhar, E. I.; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

2014-01-01

449

Nd, Pb, Sr, and O isotopic characterization of Saudi Arabian Shield terranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New Nd, Sr and O isotopic data for granitoid rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield are presented together with published Nd, Pb, Sr and O isotopic data and all available geologic and geochronologic information to re-evaluate the terranes defined for the Saudi Arabian part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Three groups of terranes are identified: 1) the western arc terranes, 2) the eastern arc terranes, and 3) the Khida terrane. The Khida terrane is the only terrane composed of pre-Neoproterozoic continental crust. The western arc terranes are of oceanic arc affinity, and have the least radiogenic Pb and Sr and most radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions and some of the lowest ??18O values of any rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield. Although some previous studies have characterized the eastern arc terranes as of continental affinity, this study shows that they too are composed of Neoproterozoic oceanic arcs, although their sources have slightly elevated 208Pb/204Pb, Nd, Sri, and ??18O values compared to the western arc terranes. These data suggest that either the isotopic composition of the mantle source for the western arc terranes is more depleted than that of the eastern arc terranes or the eastern arc terranes have been mixed with a small amount of cratonic source material, or both. We further elaborate on the Hulayfah-Ad Dafinah fault zone as a major boundary within the Saudi Arabian portion of the East African Orogen. With further study, its northern extension may be shown to pass through what has been defined as the Hail terrane, and its southern extension appears to lie under cover east of the Tathlith-Malahah terrane and extend into Yemen. It may represent the collision zone between East and West Gondwana, and at the very least it is an important suture between groups of arc terranes of contrasting isotopic composition caught between two converging continents.

Stoeser, D.B.; Frost, C.D.

2006-01-01

450

The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain & its associated factors among female Saudi school teachers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To quantify the prevalence and identify the associated factors of musculoskeletal pain among Saudi female school teachers. Methods: An observational quantitative cross-sectional survey of female Saudi school teachers in five different areas of Saudi Arabia was carried out between August and October 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used in which the items related to participants’ demographic information and pain information were included. A numeric pain rating scale was used for patient self-reporting of pain. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS Pc+ version 21.0 statistical software. Results: Four hundred and eighty six female school teachers responded to the survey. Severe Low back pain was reported by 38.1% of teacher, followed by knee pain (26.3%), heel (24.1%), shoulder (20.6%), upper back (17.7%), hip joint (16.5%),ankle (12.3%), neck (11.3%). Sever pain of elbow (5.6%) and wrist (7.4%) was the least reported. Pain affected work at school in 46.1% of school teachers. A combination of variables: body mass index, Vitamin D deficiency, teaching level, presence of chronic illness, were found to be significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain. Conclusion: The results of self-reported prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among female Saudi school teachers is useful to educate the school teachers for adequate care so as to prevent these pains. There is a need for the higher authorities to address this issue and implement intervention programs to alleviate the pain and suffering of these school teachers.

Abdulmonem, Alsiddiky; Hanan, Algethami; Elaf, Ahmed; Haneen, Tokhtah; Jenan, Aldouhan

2014-01-01

451

Cigarette smoking behavior among male secondary school students in the Central region of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Qassim region, KSA during March 2003. Randomly selected was 14 out of 110 government male secondary schools. In the sample section, care

Saleh A. Al-Damegh; Mahmoud A. Saleh; Mohammed A. Al-Alfi

2004-01-01

452

Challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored. Objectives We explored the perspectives of healthcare practitioners on current issues about medication safety in hospitals and community settings in Saudi Arabia in order to identify challenges to improving it and explore the future of medication safety practice. Methods A total of 65 physicians, pharmacists, academics and nurses attended a one-day meeting in March 2010, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into nine round-table discussion sessions. Three major themes were explored in these sessions, including: major factors contributing to medication safety problems, challenges to improving medication safety practice, and participants’ suggestions for improving medication safety. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results The round-table discussions revealed that major factors contributing to medication safety problems included unrestricted public access to medications from various hospitals and community pharmacies, communication gaps between healthcare institutions, limited use of important technologies such as computerized provider order entry, and the lack of medication safety programs in hospitals. Challenges to current medication safety practice identified by participants included underreporting of medication errors and adverse drug reactions, multilingualism and differing backgrounds of healthcare professionals, lack of communication between healthcare providers and patients, and high workloads. Suggestions for improving medication safety practices in Saudi Arabia included continuous education for healthcare professionals and competency assessment focusing on medication safety, development of a culture that encourages medication error and adverse drug reactions reporting, use of technology proven to decrease medication errors, and promotion and implementation of national patient safety initiatives. Conclusions Healthcare professionals have identified major challenges and opportunities for medication safety in Saudi Arabia. Policy makers and practitioners should consider these factors when designing future programs aimed at improving the safe use of medications. PMID:25161376

Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Alrasheedy, Alian; Alahmad, Amjad; Saleem, Fahad; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Michael; Bates, David W.

2013-01-01

453

Factors influencing the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating dromedary camels in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the\\u000a factors influencing its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu’l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples

Faris F. Almutairi; Moez Ayadi; Mohammad A. Alshaikh; Ali M. Aljumaah; Mansour F. Hussein

454

PHACES syndrome in association with airway hemangioma: First report from Saudi Arabia and literature review  

PubMed Central

“PHACES” is a neurocutaneous syndrome that refers to the following associations: Posterior fossa malformations, Hemangiomas, Arterial malformations, Coarctation of the aorta/Cardiac defects, Eye abnormalities, and Sternal defects. Herein, we report the association of PHACES syndrome with airway hemangioma, a serious association that should not be overlooked. The findings of such an association presented here are the first to be reported from Saudi Arabia. PMID:22347351

Alsuwaidan, Sami N.

2012-01-01

455

Cardiac involvement in geleophysic dysplasia in three siblings of a Saudi family.  

PubMed

Geleophysic dysplasia is an extremely rare acromelic skeletal dysplasia resembling lysosomal storage disease. It is characterised by characteristic facial phenotype, short stature, micromelia, joint contracture, and early cardiac valvular involvement. It has been described worldwide in <40 patients. Herein, we describe the cardiac features in three Saudi sisters with proved autosomal recessive geleophysic dysplasia who showed different levels of severity of their cardiac involvement. PMID:24192049

Elhoury, Motea E; Faqeih, Eissa; Almoukirish, Abdulrahman S; Galal, Mohammed O

2015-01-01

456

Prevalence of different types of lysosomal storage diseases in saudi arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The frequency of different types of lysosomal storage diseases in 125 referred cases, collected over three years, was compared to the occurrence elsewhere. The data suggest that mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IVA (Morquio disease), multiple sulphatase deficiency, Niemann-Pick disease type B, GM2 gangliosidosis type ‘0’ (Sandhoff disease), and ceroid lipofuscinosis (Jansky-Bielschowsky and Batten-Spielmeyer-Vogt syndromes) are encountered frequently in Saudi Arabia,

P. T. Ozand; G. Gascon; A. Al Aqeel; G. Roberts; M. Dhalla; S. B. SUBRAMANYAlVl

1990-01-01

457

Growth Standards for Urban Infants in a High Altitude Area of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to establish up-to-date growth standards for use in assessing the adequacy of children's growth in every population, especially those with peculiar environmental chal- lenges. The purpose of this study is to update growth reference values for the normal population of urban infants (0-24 months) from the high altitude area of Southwestern Saudi Arabia, and to compare

Mohammed A. Al-Shehri; Mostafa A. Abolfotouh; Mohammed Yunis Khan; Luke O. Nwoye

2005-01-01

458

Exploring the Sociodemographic and Clinical Features of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Saudi Arabia annually reports a relatively higher proportion (28–32%) of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases in comparison to other global regions. However, there were few studies conducted so far to determine the sociodemographic factors and clinical manifestations associated with EPTB at a nationwide level. Methodology A retrospective analysis on culture positive EPTB isolates collected from all the provinces of the country were conducted for a period of 12 months to determine the spectrum of diversity in EPTB infection sites and the confounding factors. A detailed clinical and demographical data analysis was carried out along with first line drug susceptibility testing. Principal Findings Intra-thoracic and extra-thoracic lymph nodes (44.6%) were the most common sites of infection followed by gastrointestinal (17.3%) and central nervous systems (11.8%). Male patients were mostly infected (58.8%), in contrary to the global trend. Any drug resistance was observed in 23.1% isolates with a 2.1% of multi-drug resistance. HIV reactivity was found only in 2.2% cases. A higher proportion of Saudi nationals (58.8%) were infected compared to the immigrants, descending mostly from South Asia (34.4%) and South East Asia (31.2%). The Saudi population predominated with all forms of EPTB while immigrants showed no significant variations. Conclusions Saudi Arabia faces a serious threat from EPTB, particularly to the central nervous system and gastrointestinal systems. More effective diagnostic strategies and control measures must be implemented to reduce the high rate of EPTB in the country. In addition, these findings warrant further detailed research to explore all related comorbid conditions of EPTB development, particularly the host-related factors. PMID:25647300

Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Shoukri, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad; AlHakeem, Raafat; AlRabiah, Fahad; Varghese, Bright

2015-01-01

459

Cytogenetic investigations in three cell types of a Saudi family with ataxia telangiectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal analyses were performed on lymphocytes, fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from a Saudi family with ataxia telangiectasia (AT). The three siblings of a consanguineous marriage were all affected. The lymphocytes of the AT homozygotes (probands) showed an increase of 2- to 6-fold and 4- to 8-fold respectively, in the frequency of spontaneous and X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations compared with

Manjula Waghray; Generoso G. Gascon; Sultan Al-Sedairy; Mohammed A. Hannan

1991-01-01

460

Determining the causal relationships among balanced scorecard perspectives on school safety performance: case of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

In the public schools of many developing countries, numerous accidents and incidents occur because of poor safety regulations and management systems. To improve the educational environment in Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Education seeks novel approaches to measure school safety performance in order to decrease incidents and accidents. The main objective of this research was to develop a systematic approach for measuring Saudi school safety performance using the balanced scorecard framework philosophy. The evolved third generation balanced scorecard framework is considered to be a suitable and robust framework that captures the system-wide leading and lagging indicators of business performance. The balanced scorecard architecture is ideal for adaptation to complex areas such as safety management where a holistic system evaluation is more effective than traditional compartmentalised approaches. In developing the safety performance balanced scorecard for Saudi schools, the conceptual framework was first developed and peer-reviewed by eighteen Saudi education experts. Next, 200 participants, including teachers, school executives, and Ministry of Education officers, were recruited to rate both the importance and the performance of 79 measurement items used in the framework. Exploratory factor analysis, followed by the confirmatory partial least squares method, was then conducted in order to operationalise the safety performance balanced scorecard, which encapsulates the following five salient perspectives: safety management and leadership; safety learning and training; safety policy, procedures and processes; workforce safety culture; and safety performance. Partial least squares based structural equation modelling was then conducted to reveal five significant relationships between perspectives, namely, safety management and leadership had a significant effect on safety learning and training and safety policy, procedures and processes, both safety learning and training and safety policy, procedures and processes had significant effects on workforce safety culture, and workforce safety culture had a significant effect on safety performance. PMID:24589246

Alolah, Turki; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Mohamed, Sherif

2014-07-01

461

A need for One Health approach – lessons learned from outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Sudan  

PubMed Central

Introduction Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging viral zoonosis that impacts human and animal health. It is transmitted from animals to humans directly through exposure to blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals or via mosquito bites. The disease is endemic to Africa but has recently spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Our aim was to compare two major outbreaks of RVF in Saudi Arabia (2000) and Sudan (2007) from a One Health perspective. Methods Using the terms ‘Saudi Arabia’, ‘Sudan’, and ‘RVF’, articles were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and web pages of international organizations as well as local sources in Saudi Arabia and Sudan. Results The outbreak in Saudi Arabia caused 883 human cases, with a case fatality rate of 14% and more than 40,000 dead sheep and goats. In Sudan, 698 human cases of RVF were recognized (case fatality, 31.5%), but no records of affected animals were available. The ecology and environment of the affected areas were similar with irrigation canals and excessive rains providing an attractive habitat for mosquito vectors to multiply. The outbreaks resulted in livestock trade bans leading to a vast economic impact on the animal market in the two countries. The surveillance system in Sudan showed a lack of data management and communication between the regional and federal health authorities, while in Saudi Arabia which is the stronger economy, better capacity and contingency plans resulted in efficient countermeasures. Studies of the epidemiology and vectors were also performed in Saudi Arabia, while in Sudan these issues were only partly studied. Conclusion We conclude that a One Health approach is the best option to mitigate outbreaks of RVF. Collaboration between veterinary, health, and environmental authorities both on national and regional levels is needed. PMID:24505511

Hassan, Osama Ahmed; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

2014-01-01

462

Oral hygiene, dietary pattern and smoking habits of Bedouin (nomadic Arabs) population in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The estimated population of the Bedouins are up to two million in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, but relatively little information is available about them. The aim of the study was to assess the oral hygiene dietary pattern and smoking habits of Saudi Bedouins population around Medina, Qaseen and Khamis Moshayte areas. Five hundred and twenty five Bedouins (296 male, 229 female) with the age range 2-90 years were interviewed and examined clinically over a period of four months (July to October 1998). It was found that 25% of the subjects were miswak users, 30% used miswak and tooth brush, while 26% never cleaned their teeth. Almost 50% of the subjects were regular in their oral hygiene habits. Seventy percent were rice eaters while meat and dates were second and third preference. Tea was the most common drink with 2-3 teaspoons of sugar per cup. Only ten percent were cigarette smokers and less than 5% used shisha (traditional smoking pipe). It is concluded from the study that within the surveyed Bedouin population one fourth of them never cleaned their teeth while almost the same number used miswak (Chewing stick) to clean their teeth. Rice was the most common food item, while tea with refined sugar was the most common drink. Only 15% were smoker. Further research is needed with a larger and a more representative sample of Bedouins from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:14705374

Almas, K; al-Amri, M; al-Eid, A; al-Shahrani, S

2003-09-01

463

Analyzing privacy requirements: a case study of healthcare in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Developing legally compliant systems is a challenging software engineering problem, especially in systems that are governed by law, such as healthcare information systems. This challenge comes from the ambiguities and domain-specific definitions that are found in governmental rules. Therefore, there is a significant business need to automatically analyze privacy texts, extract rules and subsequently enforce them throughout the supply chain. The existing works that analyze health regulations use the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act as a case study. In this article, we applied the Breaux and Antón approach to the text of the Saudi Arabian healthcare privacy regulations; in Saudi Arabia, privacy is among the top dilemmas for public and private healthcare practitioners. As a result, we extracted and analyzed 2 rights, 4 obligations, 22 constraints and 6 rules. Our analysis can assist requirements engineers, standards organizations, compliance officers and stakeholders by ensuring that their systems conform to Saudi policy. In addition, this article discusses the threats to the study validity and suggests open problems for future research. PMID:25325796

Ebad, Shouki A; Jaha, Emad S; Al-Qadhi, Mohammed A

2014-10-17

464

Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in south western, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia and to find out the possible risk factors that may lead to infection. This cross sectional hospital based study was carried out at three hospitals in the south western region of Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to August 2010. Blood samples from 487 pregnant women were collected and used to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies IgM and IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire interview was carried out to ask about some risk factors of infection. Among the 487 studied pregnant women, 38.8 % were seropositive for anti T. gondii IgG while 6.2 % were positive for anti T. gondii IgM and 3.3 % were positive for both anti T. gondii IgG & IgM. The only risk factor associated with seropositive anti T. gondii IgM was the history of the intake of immunosuppressive drugs. Regarding anti T. gondii IgG seropositivity, it was found to increase significantly with increased age, number of gravida and parities, and previous history of toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG & IgM by ELISA among pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia is considerable with few identifiable significant risk factors reported. PMID:24505169

Almushait, Mona A; Dajem, Saad M Bin; Elsherbiny, Nahla M; Eskandar, Mamdoh A; Al Azraqi, Tarik A; Makhlouf, Laila M

2014-03-01

465

Metabolic syndrome: Risk factors among adults in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of established cardiovascular risk factors that collectively increase predisposition to major chronic diseases, including heart diseases and diabetes mellitus. Citizens of developing countries such as Saudi Arabia are at risk for MetS as a result of industrialization and accessibility to fast foods. In this epidemiologic study, the kingdom-wide prevalence of MetS is determined. Materials and Methods: A total of 4578 Saudis aged 15-64 was randomly selected from 20 regions in Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics were collected, and fasting blood samples collected to ascertain fasting blood glucose and lipid profile. Components of full MetS as defined by the International Diabetes Federation were used for screening. Results: The overall prevalence of MetS is 28.3%. Prevalence was significantly higher in males than in females (31.4 vs. 25.2%; P = 0.001). Prevalence of MetS was the highest in the northern and central region, and showed a parallel increase with age, and inversely with educational status. Region was also a significant contributor to MetS. Conclusion: Despite accumulating evidence of an epidemic, MetS remains largely unresolved in the kingdom. Aggressive public campaign should be launched, and policies implemented to control any future damage of MetS in the kingdom. PMID:25374468

Aljohani, Naji J.

2014-01-01