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1

Household survey of container-breeding mosquitoes and climatic factors influencing the prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence. Methods Monthly visits were performed between April 2008 and March 2009 to randomly selected houses. During each visit, mosquito larvae were collected from indoors and outdoors containers by either dipping or pipetting. Mosquitoes were morphologically identified. Data on temperature, relative humidity, rain/precipitations during the survey period was retrieved from governmental sources and analyzed. Results The city was warmer in dry season (DS) than wet season (WS). No rain occurred at all during DS and even precipitations did fall, wetting events were much greater during WS. Larval survey revealed the co-breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles in a variety of artificial containers in and around homes. 32?109 larvae representing 1st , 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stages were collected from 22?618 container habitats. Culicines was far the commonest and Aedes genus was as numerous as the Culex population. Ae. aegypti larval abundance exhibited marked temporal variations, overall, being usually more abundant during WS. Ten types of artificial containers were found with developing larvae. 70% of these habitats were located indoors. 71.42% of indoor containers were permanent and 28.58% was semi-permanent during WS. Cement tanks was the only container type permanent during DS. Ae. aegypti larval indices (CI, HI, BI) recorded were greater during WS. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate a high risk of dengue transmission in the holy city. PMID:23569860

Aziz, Al Thabiany; Dieng, Hamady; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Mahyoub, Jazem A; Turkistani, Abdulhafis M; Mesed, Hatabbi; Koshike, Salah; Satho, Tomomitsu; Salmah, MR Che; Ahmad, Hamdan; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ramli, Ahmad Saad; Miake, Fumio

2012-01-01

2

Retrospective observational study examining indications for hospitalisation among haemodialysis patients at one of the Ministry of Health Hospitals in Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives To examine the indications for hospitalisations among haemodialysis patients. Design A retrospective observational study. Setting Alnoor Kidney Centre in Al Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah City, Saudi Arabia, which is a Ministry of Health hospital. Participants Participants were prevalent patients with end-stage renal disease on regular haemodialysis in 2011, who had received haemodialysis for more than three months. Each patient was followed up retrospectively, from the first date of initiating haemodialysis to the end of 2011. Main outcome measures (i) The primary reasons for hospital admissions and (ii) risk factors that increase the number of hospital admissions and which increase length of stay in hospital. Results The primary reasons for hospital admissions associated with increases in the length of stay in hospital were diseases of the circulatory system (which increased hospital bed days by 70%; 95% CI: 11–161%; p value?=?0.01 compared to all other reasons). The risk factors that increased the number of hospital admissions per patient-year at risk were increasing age (incidence rate ratio [IRR]?=?1.02 per 1 year of age; 95% CI: 1.01–1.03; p value?=?Saudi Arabia. PMID:25383197

Majeed, Azeem; Watt, Hilary

2014-01-01

3

Atypical Dengue Meningitis in Makkah, Saudi Arabia with Slow Resolving, Prominent Migraine like Headache, Phobia, and Arrhythmia  

PubMed Central

Although dengue meningitis is a rare presentation of dengue infection, our aim is to focus on atypical presentation of dengue meningitis that may appear in dengue endemic area like the Makkah region. We report two cases of clinical meningitis with positive dengue virus (DENV) IgM in cerebrospinal fluid, followed for minimal 3 months for their prominent attacks of migraine like headache, phobia, and arrhythmia. With special consideration to attack time, type, severity, and respond to classical therapy, using regular ECG monitoring, visual analog pain score and neuropsychological assessments were done. Both cases showed resistant migraine like headaches to classic anti-migraine therapy except for strong NSAID and narcotics with tendency to have severe to extreme severe daily migraine like headache on early to late afternoon time, associated with non-fatal arrhythmias and extreme death phobia, that resolve slowly in a minimal 3 month period. In conclusion, dengue meningitis in the endemic area may present atypically. PMID:24672183

Mamdouh, Kalakatawi H; Mroog, Kalakatawi M; Hani, Nasser H; Nabil, Elrefae M

2013-01-01

4

Average surface albedo measurements in the UV, IR, and TSR on the Holy Mosque and places in Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Average albedo values were measured at three broad wavebands; UV region (295 - 385 nm), Total Solar Radiation, TSR, (305 - 2800 nm), and IR region (3500 - 50000 nm), over different surfaces in the Holy Mosque and Places in Makkah (21°.25 N, 39°.49 E). The Eppley Laboratory Radiometers of TUVR and PIR were used for UV and IR measurements respectively, while Kipp & Zonen Pyranometer of CM3 was adopted for the TSR observations. Measurements were performed during two different periods (summer 28/7-10/8/2004 at Holy Mosque and winter 18-30/1/2005 at Holy Places). Summer measurements showed that the average surface albedos of the Holy Mosque white marbles were 0.45, 0.70 and 1.14 at UV, TSR and IR regions respectively. These values have decreased to 0.12 and 0.18 at UV and TSR regions respectively over the Holy Mosque brown marbles. However, the average albedo value has increased to 1.38 at IR region due to the large Longwave radiation emission from the brown marble surfaces. The albedo values of the Holy Mosque red carpets were determined. The average albedo values were also measured over the Holy Places surfaces (18 m) of pilgrimage, (Muna and Arafat sites) during winter 2005. The observed average surface albedo values over Arafat selected area were 0.00, 0.22 and 1.18 at UV, TSR and IR regions respectively. The average albedo values over Muna selected area and Muna tents were also presented. The effect of clouds and solar zenith angle (SZA) on the measured albedo were investigated in this study.

Seroji, Abdulaziz R.

2005-08-01

5

Report: pipeline transport of solid waste in the Grand Holy Mosque in Makkah.  

PubMed

The Grand Holy Mosque, located in the Holy City of Makkah in Saudi Arabia, attracts millions of Muslim visitors from all over the world, especially during the pilgrimage season. The daily amount of refuse generated in the Grand Holy Mosque and surrounding plazas reached a maximum value of 192.8 tons/day in 1998. Collection and transport of the solid waste generated during the peak times present a challenge to the Makkan authorities. The congested streets and high population density in the Holy Mosque and its surrounding plazas make the traditional methods of collecting and transporting solid waste impractical. This paper presents an alternative system for the collection and transport of solid waste generated in and around the Grand Holy Mosque in Makkah. The proposed system is based on a pneumatic transport technique, by which the waste is collected and transported in underground pipelines. A conceptual layout of the proposed system in the Mosque area is presented, and the merits of the suggested system are discussed. PMID:14661895

Al-Ghamdi, Abdullah Saeed; Abu-Rizaiza, Asad Seraj

2003-10-01

6

Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

2005-01-01

7

Steady improvement of infection control services in six community hospitals in Makkah following annual audits during Hajj for four consecutive years  

PubMed Central

Background the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of annual review of the infection control practice in all Ministry of Health hospitals in the holy city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the Hajj period of four lunar Islamic years, 1423 to 1426 corresponding to 2003 to 2006. Methods audit of infection control service was conducted annually over a 10-day period in six community hospitals with bed capacities ranging from 140 to 557 beds. Data were collected on standardized checklists on various infection control service items during surprise visits to the medical, pediatric, surgical, and critical care units, and the kitchens. Percentage scores were calculated for audited items. The results of the audit for hospitals were confidentially sent to them within four weeks after the end of Hajj. Results deficiencies observed in the first audit included lack of infection control committees, infection control units, infection control educational activities, and surveillance system and shortage of staff. These deficiencies were resolved in the subsequent audits. The average (range) scores of hospitals in 11 infection control items increased from 43% (20–67%) in the first audit to 78% (61–93%) in the fourth audit. Conclusion regular hospital infection control audits lead to significant improvement of infection control practice. There is a need to build a rigorous infection control audit into hospitals' ongoing monitoring and reporting to the Ministry of Health and to provide these hospitals with feed back on such audits to continuously strengthen the safety standards for patients, visitors, and employees. PMID:16934152

Madani, Tariq A; Albarrak, Ali M; Alhazmi, Mohammad A; Alazraqi, Tarik A; Althaqafi, Abdulahakeem O; Ishaq, Abdulrahman H

2006-01-01

8

Breast cancer knowledge and related behaviors among women in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,092 women attending urban primary health care centers in Abha City southwestern Saudi Arabia about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and related practices. Only 22.0% heard about mammography, and 41.5% heard about breast self-examination (BSE). More than half of the women in the study identified changes occurring in case of breast cancer and identified risk factors. Only 8.3% were examined by clinical breast examination (CBE), 6.2% were examined by mammography, and 29.7% performed BSE. The study points to the insufficient knowledge of women and the low practice of BSE, CBE, and mammography. Public awareness should be enhanced by all available means including mass media, schools, social gatherings, and waiting areas in primary health care centers. There is an urgent need for continuing medical education programs for health care workers in the region concerning breast cancer. PMID:23797712

Mahfouz, Ahmed A; Hassanein, Mervat H A; Nahar, Shamsun; Farheen, Aesha; Gaballah, Inasse I; Mohamed, Amani; Rabie, Faten M; Aftab, Razia

2013-09-01

9

Simulating and Forecasting Flooding Events in the City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metropolitan cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as Jeddah and Riyadh, are more frequently experiencing flooding events caused by strong convective storms that produce intense precipitation over a short span of time. The flooding in the city of Jeddah in November 2009 was described by civil defense officials as the worst in 27 years. As of January 2010, 150 people were reported killed and more than 350 were missing. Another flooding event, less damaging but comparably spectacular, occurred one year later (Jan 2011) in Jeddah. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimize human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision and rescue plans. We have developed a coupled hydro-meteorological model for simulating and predicting flooding events in the city of Jeddah. We use the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model assimilating all available data in the Jeddah region for simulating the storm events in Jeddah. The resulting rain is then used on 10 minutes intervals to feed up an advanced numerical shallow water model that has been discretized on an unstructured grid using different numerical schemes based on the finite elements or finite volume techniques. The model was integrated on a high-resolution grid size varying between 0.5m within the streets of Jeddah and 500m outside the city. This contribution will present the flooding simulation system and the simulation results, focusing on the comparison of the different numerical schemes on the system performances in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

Ghostine, Rabih; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

2014-05-01

10

Using Filon Fourier Spectral Analysis Technique for Filtering of Aeromagnetic Data and Outlining Subsurface Structures of Helma-Madrakah Area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Helma-Madrakah area lies in the northern part of the Makkah quadrangle located in the southern part of the Hijaz region, western Saudi Arabia. The area is bounded by longitudes 39º30'N and 39º54'E and latitudes 21º45'N and 22º00'N; i.e., north of Makkah Al- Mukarramah and north-east of Jeddah. The present study deals with the interpretation of aeromagnetic data, which conducted

HAMDY I. E. HASSANEIN

2000-01-01

11

A hybrid RFID-LPR system for vehicle access control during Pilgrimage season in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

RFID (radio frequency identification) and license plate recognition (LPR) technologies have proven to be very effective in providing innovative solutions to numerous real world applications. In this paper, we propose an RFID-based system supported by license plate recognition (LPR) technology for monitoring and controlling entry of vehicles to the Holy region of Makkah (Saudi Arabia) during Hajj (Pilgrimage) season. Authorized

M. Deriche; M. Mohandes

2012-01-01

12

Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m3, 83.4±6.0 Bq/m3, 61.6±6.4 Bq/m3, 63.7±5.4 Bq/m3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m3, 5.5 Bq/m3, 1.1 Bq/m3, 1.0 Bq/m3 and 24 Bq/m3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm-3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The "within regions" (different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region "1" (p = 0.783) and versus region "5" (P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region "3" ( P = 0.0160) and also versus region "4" (p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other regions are near to the Al-Thuwayrat sands.

Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

2011-10-01

13

Daily intake of selenium and concentrations in blood of residents of Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Concentrations of selenium (Se) in food from local markets of Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were measured and daily intake calculated based on information from a questionnaire of foods eaten by healthy Saudis. The daily intake of Se was then compared to concentrations of Se in blood serum. Primary sources of Se in the diet of Saudis were as follows: meat and meat products (31%), egg (20.4%), cereals and cereal products (16%), legumes (8.7%), fruits (6.8%), milk and dairy products (2.0%), beverages (2%), sweets (1.8%), pickles (0.2%), and oil (0.02%). Daily intake of Se, estimated to be 93 ?g Se/person/day, was slightly greater than that calculated from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) food balance sheet for KSA, which was approximately 90 ?g Se/person/day. The daily intake of Se by Saudis in Riyadh was greater than that of Australians or Dutch but less that of Canadians and Americans. There was a statistically significant correlation (R = +0.38, P < 0.05) between daily intake of Se and concentrations of Se in blood serum of Saudis in Riyadh. The mean concentration of Se in serum was 1.0 × 10(2) ± 30.5 ?g Se/l. Taken together, the results suggest that the average Se intake and Se serum concentrations are within the known limits and recommendations, making it unlikely that Saudis are on average at risk of deficiency or toxicity. PMID:22270491

Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M; Al-Othman, Zeid A; El-Desoky, Gaber E; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Habila, Mohamed A; Giesy, John P

2012-08-01

14

Spatial and temporal variations of satellite-derived multi-year particulate data of saudi arabia: an exploratory analysis.  

PubMed

The effects of concentrations of fine particulate matter on urban populations have been gaining attention because fine particulate matter exposes the urban populace to health risks such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Satellite-derived data, using aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been adopted to improve the monitoring of fine particulate matter. One of such data sources is the global multi-year PM2.5 data (2001-2010) released by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). This paper explores the satellite-derived PM2.5 data of Saudi Arabia to highlight the trend of PM2.5 concentrations. It also examines the changes in PM2.5 concentrations in some urbanized areas of Saudi Arabia. Concentrations in major cities like Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, Makkah, Madinah and the industrial cities of Yanbu and Jubail are analyzed using cluster analysis. The health risks due to exposure of the populace are highlighted by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and targets. The results show a trend of increasing concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas. Significant clusters of high values are found in the eastern and south-western part of the country. There is a need to explore this topic using images with higher spatial resolution and validate the data with ground observations to improve the analysis. PMID:25350009

Aina, Yusuf A; van der Merwe, Johannes H; Alshuwaikhat, Habib M

2014-01-01

15

NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF) was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2) were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71), weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43), and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33), suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors. PMID:24192792

Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

2013-01-01

16

Microbial Contamination of Date Rutab Collected from the Markets of Al-Hofuf City in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The microbial contamination of 60 samples from six date cultivars in the rutab stage purchased from different retail outlets in AL-Hofuf City, Saudi Arabia was studied. All samples were found contaminated with aerobic mesophilic bacteria at loads in the order 102 to 105?cfu/cm2 with some significant differences among varieties that can be attributed to differences in the weather conditions during rutab season. Also all samples, except only one, were contaminated with molds and yeasts at loads in the order 102 to 103?cfu/cm2. Potentially pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 57 samples and A. flavus/parasiticus in 13 samples, while coliforms were detected in 39 samples. PMID:22619578

Hamad, Siddig H.; Saleh, Farag A.; Al-Otaibi, Mutlag M.

2012-01-01

17

Evaluation of neonatal jaundice in the Makkah region  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to detect the frequency at which the different types of neonatal jaundice occur in Makkah and to estimate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 239 neonates with neonatal jaundice, 20 anemic neonates and 21 healthy neonates. ABO incompatibility was observed in 31.6% of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia, in 14.3% of those with early onset jaundice, in 9.5% of those with persistent jaundice, in 8.5% of those with physiological jaundice, in 5% of anemic neonates and in 12% of all neonates. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was observed in 10.5% of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia, in 3.9% of those with physiological jaundice, in 11.1% of those with direct hyperbilirubinemia, in 12% of those with persistent jaundice, in 10% of anemic neonates and in 6.6% of all neonates. Rh incompatibility and polycythemia were found in 2.6% of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia and in 0.4% of all neonates. In comparison to control group, MDA was significantly higher in all groups except for the anemic group. In conclusion, ABO incompatibility and G6PD deficiency frequently result in neonatal jaundice in Makkah, whereas Rh incompatibility and polycythemia are rare. The MDA level may serve as an indicator of oxidative stress. PMID:24763104

Alkhotani, Abdulaziz; Eldin, Essam Eldin Mohamed Nour; Zaghloul, Amal; Mujahid, Shakil

2014-01-01

18

Prevalence and genotyping of Cryptosporidium in stool samples collected from children in Taif City (Saudi Arabia).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to estimate the frequency of Cryptosporidium infections in Taif (Saudi Arabia). Stool samples from children under 10 years by modified Ziehl-Neelson staining and two PCR techniques were used for genotyping experiments. The microscopic examination showed that, eleven samples were positive for presence of Cryptosporidium. With 11 of 100 samples, DNA extraction and subsequent genotyping was successful. By means of RAPD technique, the genetic similarity among the collected isolates was 55%. The 18S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that all Cryptosporidium-isolates belonged to Cryptosporidium parvum. In comparison with reference strains from different species of Cryptosporidium species from GenBank, all collected isolates belonged to Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum clade. The fact that only human genotypes were detected suggests that cryptosporidiosis must primarily be considered as a non zoonotic disease in Taif region. PMID:25134890

Shalaby, I; Gherbawy, Y; Jamjoom, M; Banaja, A

2014-06-01

19

An assessment of the readiness of King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia, in adopting effective online staff development programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet access has grown in Saudi Arabia between 2000 and 2005 by more than 1000% and many governmental organizations are starting to provide part of their services using the internet. In addition, the Ministry of Higher Education has provided funding to all governmental universities to start developing strategies and guidelines for online education. Healthcare services in Saudi Arabia are funded

Adnan D Alwadie

2011-01-01

20

Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to compare the quality of bottled water with potabilized desalinated tap water. Fourteen brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market and analyzed for physicochemical parameters in the Royal Commission Environmental Laboratory. Results were compared with 5-year continuous monitoring data of tap water from different locations in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah (MYAS) including storage tanks of desalination plant. Results show that there was no significant difference in the quality of tap water and bottled water. Bacteriological test was never found positive in the 5-year data in tap water. Similarly, physicochemical analysis shows the persistent quality of tap water. Based on hardness analysis, bottled and tap water are categorized as soft water. Trihalomethanes (THMs) study also indicates that traces of disinfection by products (DBPs) are present in both tap and bottled water and are much less than the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency maximum permissible limits. It is also important to note that the tap water distribution network in MAYS is a high-pressure recirculation network and there is no chance to grow bacteria in stagnant water in pipe lines or houses. Recently, the Royal Commission has replaced the whole drinking water network, which was made of asbestos-cemented pipes with glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes, to avoid any asbestos contaminations. Based on these results, it is concluded that drinking water distributed in the city is of very good and persistent quality, comparable with bottled water. Continuous monitoring also guarantees the safe drinking water to the community. Hence, it is the responsibility of the Royal Commission to encourage the peoples in the city to drink tap water as it is as good as bottled water even better than some of the brands and is monitored regularly. It is also much cheaper compared to bottled water and is available round the clock. Preference for tap water over bottled water will also reduce the production of bottled water that has flooded the market, the enormous strain on the environment, and the pollution due to used empty plastic bottles in the landfill area and will help to keep the city clean. PMID:19011982

Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S

2009-12-01

21

Water quality of bottled water in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A comparative study with Riyadh municipal and Zamzam water.  

PubMed

Nine domestic and three imported bottled water brands were analyzed in Saudi Arabia for various physicochemical water quality parameters. The results of the analysis were compared with the drinking water standards set by different regulatory agencies. The levels of different physicochemical parameters like pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), Ca, Mg, Na, K, NO(3), Cl, and SO(4) of all local and imported bottled water brands met the standards set by different regulatory agencies. Fifteen (15) trace metals viz. Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr, Pb, and Zn were also analyzed in all the samples. Comparison of analyzed results with the reported label values showed considerable variation for different parameters. Variation was also recorded for the analyzed parameters for 3 bottles of the same bottled water brand, both for local and imported bottled waters. Zamzam water was also collected from Makkah Al Mukarrama from different locations and analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. Bottled waters were also compared with the city municipal water supply and Zamzam water. PMID:21992118

Alfadul, Sulaiman M; Khan, Mujahid A

2011-01-01

22

The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients. PMID:24511244

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

2014-01-01

23

The prevalence of anxiety and depression among end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Abstract Depression commonly overlaps with uremic symptoms, but anxiety is less commonly studied among renal patients. The symptoms of medical illness, along with the psychological and social stresses that often accompany a debilitating chronic disease, are thought to produce deleterious psychological consequences. We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among Saudi dialysis patients in Makkah. A cross-sectional study of anxiety and depression among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in Makkah was conducted in November 2011. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to screen for anxiety and depression. Participants' demographic data, possible stressors and past psychiatric history were obtained. All participants were Saudi ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. According to HADS, 57 (21.1%) patients were probable cases of anxiety and 63 (23.3%) were probable cases of depression. Only 32 (11.3%) were diagnosed with depression or anxiety before ESRD onset. Age was a significant predictor of anxiety and depression diagnoses. Major family problems (p?=?0.001) were also a significant predictor of anxiety. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are prevalent among ESRD patients in Makkah, and anxiety can be predicted by family factors. Early detection, management and family support might improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25154858

Turkistani, Ibrahim; Nuqali, Abdulelah; Badawi, Mohammed; Taibah, Omar; Alserihy, Omar; Morad, Muaid; Kalantan, Emad

2014-11-01

24

A Railway ‘Route’ as a Linear Heritage Attraction: The Hijaz Railway in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hijaz Railway was constructed in the early part of the 20th century to link the Levant with Islam's Holy cities of Madinah and Makkah. The railway was never completed beyond Madinah and its operational life was cut short by World War I, never to be revived again. The significance of the railway lies not only in the technical, military

Aylin Orba?li; Simon Woodward

2008-01-01

25

The 3d Documentation of Projected Wooden Windows (the Roshans) in the Old City of Jeddah (saudi Arabia) Using Image-Based Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Roshan represents one of the most characteristic aspects of traditional architecture in Hejaz (Saudi Arabia) and a frequent feature in most of the Historical Jeddah's heritage buildings. The old city has witnessed continued degradation recently, which has caused the loss its traditional architecture and hundreds of these projected wooden windows. Documentation is a major step towards heritage preservation, whether threatened by man-made or natural factors. However, due to the absence of specialists and experts an architectural database of the Roshans does not exist. Surveying these architectural elements is a very laborious and difficult process when using conventional methodologies including the laser sensors approach mainly due to the onsite limitations. Establishing an architectural database of the Roshans is the main objective in this research paper, based on the continuous development of data capture and modelling methodologies that allows the accurate recording of even the most complex and intricate details and patterns which are typically found in Roshans. Recent advances in image based techniques (digital close-range photogrammetry and computer vision) such as the semi-automated solutions of Dense Stereo Matching (DSM) and 3D modelling software has offered an accurate, inexpensive and practical solution to surveying, documenting and reconstructing these architectural heritage features. In this paper the application of these methods is tested and evaluated on the Roshans in the old city of Jeddah.

Alitany, A.; Rebondo, E.; Adas, A.

2013-07-01

26

Source Apportionment and Elemental Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the first comprehensive investigation of PM2.5 and PM10 composition and sources in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a multi-week multiple sites sampling campaign in Jeddah between June and September, 2011, and analyzed samples by XRF. The overall mean mass concentration was 28.4 ± 25.4 ?g/m3 for PM2.5 and 87.3 ± 47.3 ?g/m3 for PM10, with significant temporal and spatial variability. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.33. Chemical composition data were modeled using factor analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation to determine five and four particle source categories contributing significant amount of for PM2.5 and PM10 mass, respectively. In both PM2.5 and PM10 sources were (1) heavy oil combustion characterized by high Ni and V; (2) resuspended soil characterized by high concentrations of Ca, Fe, Al, and Si; and (3) marine aerosol. The two other sources in PM2.5 were (4) Cu/Zn source; (5) traffic source identified by presence of Pb, Br, and Se; while in PM10 it was a mixed industrial source. To estimate the mass contributions of each individual source category, the CAPs mass concentration was regressed against the factor scores. Cumulatively, resuspended soil and oil combustion contributed 77 and 82% mass of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PMID:24634602

Khodeir, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Zhong, Mianhua; Sun, Hong; Costa, Max; Chen, Lung-Chi; Maciejczyk, Polina

2014-01-01

27

Prevalence and associated factors of cigarette smoking among medical students at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking among medical students at the medical college at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, and assess the association between smoking and socio-demographical factors, smoking contacts, reasons for smoking and attempts to quit. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey in which anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was used to survey the cigarette smoking habits of the first- and second-year medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City in June 2009. Results: Overall 39.8 % of the investigated students (153) had smoked before, and 17.6% were current smokers. The mean age of initiating smoking was 15.8 (±3.3). There were significantly more males than females. The most important reasons for smoking were leisure, imitation of other people and a means of relieving psychological pressure. Reasons for not smoking were mostly health and religion-based. Smokers tended to have friends who smoked. Conclusion: Cigarettes smoking is highly prevalent among medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City. Contact with smokers particularly friends are the major risk factors for the initiation of the habit. Health and religious considerations are important motives for not smoking, quitting or attempting to quit. These findings can be of help in designing future intervention strategies. PMID:21694953

Al-Kaabba, Abdulaziz F.; Saeed, Abdalla A.; Abdalla, Abdelshakour M.; Hassan, Hashim A.; Mustafa, Ali A.

2011-01-01

28

Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR), and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling. Results A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001) in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83), followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82), and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98). The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years) and 1.71 + (0.09× years), respectively. Conclusion We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women. PMID:25028565

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; Dohal, Ahlam A; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

2014-01-01

29

Assessment of patient safety culture in Saudi Arabian hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

ContextHealthcare organisations in Saudi Arabia are striving to improve patient safety and quality of care through implementation of safety systems and creating a culture of safety.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study to evaluate the extent to which the culture supports patient safety at Saudi hospitals.Data CollectionA survey questionnaire was distributed hospital-wide in 13 general hospitals in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, to

H. A. Alahmadi

2010-01-01

30

The role of platelets in the coagulopathy of heatstroke- a study of platelet aggregation in heatstroke patients during the Makkah pilgrimage (Haj) to Makkah.  

PubMed

Platelet aggregation was undertaken in platelet rich plasma in 34 heat-stroke patients during the Muslim pilgrimage (Haj) to Makkah; 18 were males and 16 were females; their ages ranged from 36 to 80 years (mean SD = 58 10). Platelet aggregability, on arrival at the Heatstroke Centres, was markedly inhibited in response to adrenaline, collagen, arachidonic acid and ristocetin but not to ADP. Responses to decreasing ADP doses (20.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5 micromol/l) showed hyperaggregability in 12 patients, inhibited responses in 16 and normal responses in 6 patients. Aggregation responses were not significantly different when comparing patients with bleeding manifestations ( n = 10), with those without bleeding ( n = 24). Haemostatic parameters including plasma fibrinogen, ATIII and platelet count, were markedly reduced in the two patient groups who showed hyperaggrebable and depressed aggregation responses, but not in those with normal responses. These results lead us to conclude that: (1) platelet activation is a frequent feature of heatstroke; (2) in heatstroke altered aggregation responses, whether hyperaggregable or depressed, occur simultaneously with a consumption coagulopathy. PMID:16793631

Al-Mashhadani, S A; Gader, A M; Al Harthi, S

1997-01-01

31

Impact of lead phasedown on the environment with special reference to Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the information available on lead pollution in Saudi Arabia. Comparison with some information from some countries is made. It was found that the atmospheric lead concentration in some cities in Saudi Arabia exceeds the European and American standards. The lead level in the blood of Saudi School children is reported. This is found to be within the

Azhari F. M. Ahmed

1989-01-01

32

Central Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This panoramic view of Central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf (28.0N, 47.0E) dramatically illustrates the stark beauty of the deserts. Riyadh, the capital city, lies in the foreground, with the Persian Gulf in the middle and Iran in the background. The coastal oil terminals of Al Hufuf and Ad Dammam are also visible. Black smudges of soot from the oil fires set during the Gulf War can be seen on the sands to the north and south of Kuwait City.

1992-01-01

33

Saudi Arabia Afghanistan  

E-print Network

India Iran Saudi Arabia Pakistan Yemen Iraq Oman Somalia Afghanistan Ethiopia United Arab Emirates Oman China Turkmenistan Turkey Tajikistan United Arab Emirates Kuwait Qatar Uzbekistan Eritrea Bahrain 02858 00707 #12;Iran Saudi Arabia Oman Pakistan AfghanistanIraq Yemen United Arab Emirates Kuwait Qatar

Russell, Lynn

34

Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

1992-01-01

35

Ecology and habitat characterization of mosquitoes in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) contains many of the world's mosquito vectors of parasitic and arboviral diseases. However, few studies addressed their geographic distribution and larval habitat characteristics. We carried out a 14-months mosquito survey in three KSA regions: Makkah and Al-Baha (western) and Jezan (south-western). Larvae were collected by dipping from various water habitats and adults by CDC light and BG sentinel traps. Climatic conditions and physicochemical characteristics of collection sites were recorded. We collected a total of 3331 mosquitoes {larvae (n= 2766, 83%) and adults (n= 565, 17%)} of 21 species from six genera (8 Anopheles, 8 Culex, 1 Aedes and 3 others). Larval water habitats included streams, rocky pits, seepage, leakage and containers (plastic and concrete). Of the total larvae collected, 52% (n= 1439) were Anopheles, 44.3% (n= 1226) were Culex, 0.51% (n= 14) were Aedes aegypti and 3.1% (n= 87) were from four other species. The most abundant species were Culex tritaeniorhynchus (n=1008, ~36.3%) and Anopheles dthali (n= 976, ~35.3%). The medically-important species were Anopheles arabiensis (n= 128) and Anopheles sergenti (n= 58), vectors of malaria and Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus (n= 53) and Ae. aegypti (n= 14), vectors of arboviral diseases. Three species are new records in KSA and all from Jezan: Anopheles superpictus (n= 3), Culex duttoni (n= 1) and Culex mimeticus (n= 1), however the numbers were very low, which requires further investigations. Only two species were collected in the adult stage, Cx. quinquefasciatus (n= 561: 551 females and 10 males) from Makkah and Culex theileri (n= 4, all females) from Al-Baha. Only 3.8% (n= 21) of Cx. quinquefasciatus females were blood-fed. This study provides new information on the bionomics of 21 mosquito species in KSA including six dominant vector species and thus adds to the scarce data available on them. This information is essential to better understand mosquito population dynamics in relation to disease transmission and control. PMID:24189671

Khater, E I; Sowilem, M M; Sallam, M F; Alahmed, A M

2013-09-01

36

Renewable success : development of good architecture in the case of Arriyadh Development Authority, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

ArRiyadh Development Authority (ADA) is an unusual city development authority within the Saudi Arabian government hierarchy. Part of its responsibilities is coordinating and overseeing the design and building of buildings ...

Alkhabbaz, Mohammed H

2010-01-01

37

Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

1990-01-01

38

NASA Remote Sensing Validation Data: Saudi Arabia  

DOE Data Explorer

Since 1995, the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have co-operated to establish a 12 station network of high quality solar radiation monitoring installations across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. NREL and KACST realized the value of accurate surface solar radiation flux measurements for validation of satellite derived surface and atmospheric solar radiation flux measurements, and is making this data available to support validation of satellite data products related to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth component of the Earth Science Enterprise Earth Observing System (EOS) project to evaluate long term climate trends based on measuements from EOS Terra Platforms. A CIMEL 8 channel sunphotometer for measuring aerosol optical depth at 6 wavelengths and total column water has been deployed at the Solar Village station since February 24, 1999. [Taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/new_data/Saudi_Arabia/

Myers, Daryl R. (NREL); Al-Abbadi,Naif (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Energy Research Institite); Wilcox, Steve (NREL)

39

The coagulopathy of heat stroke: alterations in coagulation and fibrinolysis in heat stroke patients during the pilgrimage (Haj) to Makkah.  

PubMed

Haemostatic measurements were undertaken in 132 patients diagnosed with heat stroke during the pilgrimage to Makkah, in two successive summers of 1989-90. The control group comprised 49 patients, all pilgrims, with a wide range of clinical conditions, but without hyperpyrexia or deranged haemostasis. Heat stroke patients showed (i) significant prolongation of the prothrombin (PT), activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT) and thrombin times (TT) but normal reptilase time (RT); (ii) significant reduction in plasma levels of antithrombin III (AT-III), factor V, proteins C and S, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) and platelet count; (iii) increase in plasma factor VIII, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and serum FDP; (iv) no significant changes in plasma fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha 2-antiplasmin and factors VII and X. Heat stroke patients were then grouped into those with and those without bleeding symptoms. Bleeders showed greater prolongation of the PT, aPTT and TT and significant reductions in fibrinogen, AT-III, factors V, VIII and X, plasminogen, alpha 2-antiplasmin and platelet count. Logistic regression and discriminant analysis showed that AT-III was the parameter associated most with heat stroke and reliable enough to predict its occurrence, whether or not bleeding occurred. The results indicate that activation of the haemostatic mechanism, consumptive in nature, regularly accompanies heat stroke and highlights the physiological role of AT-III in checking this activation process. PMID:7865679

al-Mashhadani, S A; Gader, A G; al Harthi, S S; Kangav, D; Shaheen, F A; Bogus, F

1994-10-01

40

Teaching and evaluation methods of medical ethics in the Saudi public medical colleges: cross-sectional questionnaire study  

PubMed Central

Background Saudi Arabia is considered one of the most influential Muslim countries being as the host of the two most holy places for Muslims, namely Makkah and Madina. This was reflected in the emphasis on teaching medical ethics in a lecture-based format as a part of the subject of Islamic culture taught to medical students. Over the last few years, both teaching and evaluation of medical ethics have been changing as more Saudi academics received specialized training and qualifications in bioethics from western universities. Methods This study aims at studying the current teaching methods and evaluation tools used by the Saudi public medical schools. It is done using a self-administered online questionnaire. Results Out of the 14 medical schools that responded, the majority of the responding schools (6; 42.8%), had no ethics departments; but all schools had a curriculum dedicated to medical ethics. These curricula were mostly developed by the faculty staff (12; 85.7%). The most popular teaching method was lecturing (13; 92.8%). The most popular form of student assessment was a paper-based final examination (6; 42.8%) at the end of the course that was allocated 40% or more of the total grade of the ethics course. Six schools (42.8%) allocated 15-30% of the total grade to research. Conclusion Although there is a growing interest and commitment in teaching ethics to medical students in Saudi schools; there is lack of standardization in teaching and evaluation methods. There is a need for a national body to provide guidance for the medical schools to harmonize the teaching methods, particularly introducing more interactive and students-engaging methods on the account of passive lecturing. PMID:24020917

2013-01-01

41

Occurrence of fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.

Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.

2013-09-01

42

Diagnosis and Differentiation of Entamoeba Infection in Makkah Al Mukarramah Using Microscopy and Stool Antigen Detection Kits  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Entamoeba histolytica infection is one of the significantly common pathogenic protozoa encountered in Saudi Arabia. Previous reports did not distinguish between E. histolytica and E. dispar as differentia l diagnosis is essential both for treatment decision and public health knowledge. Studies suggested that stool antigen assays are more sensitive and specific than microscopy for the diagnosis of E.

Saeed A. Al-Harthi; Manal B. Jamjoom

43

URBAN EXTENTS Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

URBAN EXTENTS Saudi Arabia GRUMPv1 ´ 0 10 20 Km Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Urban grids and thus may appear coarse. Urban extents illustrate the shape and area of urbanized places. Urbanized localities are defined as places with with 5,000 or more inhabitants that are delineated by stable

Columbia University

44

URBAN EXTENTS Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

URBAN EXTENTS Iran Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia GRUMPv1 ´ 0 100 200 Km Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Urban Extent Administrative Units National Boundaries Note: National boundaries are derived from the population grids and thus may appear coarse. Urban extents illustrate the shape and area of urbanized places

Columbia University

45

Update: Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A guide for persons planning on living in or relocating to Saudi Arabia for extended periods of time, this book features information on such topics as entry requirements, transportation, money matters, housing, schools, and insurance. The guide's contents include the following sections: (1) an overview; (2) before leaving; (3) on arrival; (4)…

McGregor, Joy; Nydell, Margaret

46

Saudi Arabia Today. A Teaching Program on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: (1) Grades 1-3, Our Visit to Saudi Arabia; (2) Grades 4-6, A Modern Kingdom; (3) Junior High School, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; (4) Senior High School, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This package includes materials for students and accompanying teaching guides and posters for teaching about life in contemporary Saudi Arabia for grades 1-8. The student folder for grades 1-3 presents information about the Middle Eastern nation in the form of a boy's letter to a friend back home. In the letter are descriptions of the cities of…

Learning Enrichment, Inc., Williamsburg, VA.

47

Rediscovery of Acanthobrama hadiyahensis (Cyprinidae) in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This study documents the rediscovery of Acanthobrama hadiyahensis in Saudi Arabia and the first report since it was described in 1983. One female and one juvenile were collected from Qusaiba'a Dam, in the Al-Thamad area of Khaybar City. Threats facing this species are the same as those facing all other freshwater fishes in Arabia, mainly habitat loss and damming. PMID:24602048

Hamidan, N; Aloufi, A

2014-04-01

48

Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR) were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR) and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR) in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations. PMID:24351742

Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

2013-01-01

49

A study of patient satisfaction with primary health care services in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient satisfaction is of value to primary health care providers. The main objective of this study was to estimate patient satisfaction with respect to primary health care services in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Fourteen primary health care centers were chosen randomly to represent various geographic areas of Riyadh. Information was collected through a pre-tested questionnaire used by thirty well-trained final

M. El Shabrawy Ali; M. Eisa Ali Mahmoud

1993-01-01

50

First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods) with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region. PMID:24386326

Kear, Benjamin P; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Ali, Mohammed A; Al-Mufarreh, Yahya A; Matari, Adel H; Al-Massari, Abdu M; Nasser, Abdulaziz H; Attia, Yousry; Halawani, Mohammed A

2013-01-01

51

Changing attitudes in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

Martiradonna, Luigi

2014-04-01

52

Saudis awaken to their vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Arabia is becoming aware that it is vulnerable to internal and external pressures which threaten its security. The strains of rapid modernization and threats from hostile neighbors are undermining the consensus which has held the widely diverse country together in a system of open communication. Influence by the Bedouin (ruling) and the ulama (religious) groups has predominated a traditional society determined to modernize and still remain conservative. Members of the ruling class are seeking to profit from the modernization process, but the common Saudi resists becoming an industrial laborer. Recent events in Mecca, Afghanistan and elsewhere illustrate how political pressures are affecting the country's leadership in the threat of armed conflicts over its oil supplies. (DCK)

Tinnin, D.B.

1980-03-10

53

Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

Hamdan, Amani

2005-01-01

54

The Saudi Initiative for Asthma  

PubMed Central

The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA) provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system. PMID:19881170

Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Idrees, Majdy M.; Zeitouni, Mohamed O.; Alanezi, Mohammed O.; Al-Jahdal, Hamdan H.; Al Dabbagh, Maha

2009-01-01

55

Surface Rupture in Northwest Saudi Arabia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault rupture caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...

2010-09-28

56

Geotechnical properties of expansive clay shale in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expansive soils prevail in several parts of Saudi Arabia. Tabuk city, in the northwest, is underlain by a shale formation of Ordovician to Devonian age. Arid climate accelerates the development of expansive clays through desiccation and weathering of the shale. The expansion of the city limits extends to potential areas of swelling and urbanization increases the clay moisture content which leads to soil volume change. This causes significant damage to low-rise buildings and pavements. In this paper, the subsurface conditions and geotechnical properties of the expansive soils in Tabuk are presented. The clay type was identified and its degree of expansion was determined. The swelling parameters were measured utilizing the standard oedometer test and modeled by multiple linear regression. The effect of geological and environmental conditions on the swelling behavior of expansive soils in Tabuk were considered. The modeled swelling values are in good agreement with the measured values.

Sabtan, Abdullah A.

2005-08-01

57

Radio wave propagation into sandstorms-system design based on ten-years visibility data in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability analysis for millimetric radio links is presented in this paper. Based on 10-years visibility data for VXyadh City, Saudi Arabia, the expected outage caused by sandstorms is estimated. It is shown that an extended hop length of i0 to 20 km can be achieved with high reliability for dry conditions and small particle size. The present analysis is limited

Mohammed A. Alhaider

1986-01-01

58

Cephalometric norms for saudi adults living in the western region of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

European-American norms are still used in the orthodontic treatment of Saudi patients, despite the different ethnic backgrounds of Saudis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the cephalometric features of a Saudi population and to establish cephalometric norms for Saudis living in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Seventy lateral cephalometric radiographs of Saudis (32 females and 38 males; aged 18-28 years) with acceptable profiles and Class I dental relationships were traced and analyzed. The mean value, standard deviation, and range of 16 angular and linear variables were calculated. The resulting norms for Saudis were compared with European-American norms using an independent t-test. Male and female groups were also compared using the t-test. Saudis tend to have an increased ANB angle because of retrognathic mandibles and bimaxillary protrusion as compared with European-Americans. Males tend to have more prognathic mandibles than females as indicated by the statistically significant increase in facial angle (P < .05) and SNB angle (P < .05). Although the anterior lower face height was similar in males and females, males tend to have a steeper mandibular plane angle when related to the anterior cranial base than females (P < .05). Saudis have distinct cephalometric features, which should be used as a reference in treating Saudi orthodontic patients. PMID:16448278

Hassan, Ali H

2006-01-01

59

The major medical ethical challenges facing the public and healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the relatively high expenditure on healthcare in Saudi Arabia, its health system remains highly centralized in the main cities with its primary focus on secondary and tertiary care rather than primary care. This has led to numerous ethical challenges for the healthcare providers. This article reports the results of a study conducted with a panel of practitioners, and non-clinicians, in Saudi Arabia, in order to identify the top ten ethical challenges for healthcare providers, patients, and their families. Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and qualitative one. The participants were asked the question: “What top ten ethical challenges are Saudis likely to face in health care?” The participants were asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout a modified Delphi process, using a ranking Scale. A consensus was reached after three rounds of questions and an experts’ meeting. Results: The major 10 ethical issues, as perceived by the participants in order of their importance, were: (1) Patients’ Rights, (2) Equity of resources, (3) Confidentiality of the patients, (4) Patient Safety, (5) Conflict of Interests, (6) Ethics of privatization, (7) Informed Consent, (8) Dealing with the opposite sex, (9) Beginning and end of life, and (10) Healthcare team ethics. Conclusion: Although many of the challenges listed by the participants have received significant public and specialized attention worldwide, scant attention has been paid to these top challenges in Saudi Arabia. We propose several possible steps to help address these key challenges. PMID:22518351

Alkabba, Abdulaziz F.; Hussein, Ghaiath M. A.; Albar, Adnan A.; Bahnassy, Ahmad A.; Qadi, Mahdi

2012-01-01

60

Progress Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997  

SciTech Connect

In 1987, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) signed a five-year Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development (R and D), which has been extended to 2000. Tasks include: (1) upgrade solar radiation measurements in Saudi Arabia; (2) assemble a database of concurrent solar radiation, satellite (METEOSAT), and meteorological data; (3) adapt NREL models and other software for Saudi Arabia; (4) develop procedures, algorithms, and software to estimate solar irradiance; and (5) prepare a grid of solar radiation data for preparing maps and atlases and estimating solar radiation resources and solar energy system performances at locations in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Amoudi, Anmed; Alawaji, Saleh H.; Cornwall, Chris; Mahfoodh, Mohammed bin; Marion, Bill; Maxwell, Eugene L.; Wilcox, Stephen M.

1999-08-20

61

Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice toward medicines  

PubMed Central

The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15–20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines’ uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine’s efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students’ reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ?18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P < 0.014). The study showed that Saudi school students aged 15–20 years old have poor knowledge, misconception and negative attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students’ practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406

Eldalo, Ahmed S.; Yousif, Mirghani A.; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad

2013-01-01

62

Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice toward medicines.  

PubMed

The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15-20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines' uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine's efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students' reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ?18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P < 0.014). The study showed that Saudi school students aged 15-20 years old have poor knowledge, misconception and negative attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students' practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406

Eldalo, Ahmed S; Yousif, Mirghani A; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad

2014-07-01

63

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

2013-12-01

64

Saudi Aramco Gas Operations Energy Efficiency Program  

E-print Network

Saudi Aramco Gas Operations (GO) created energy efficiency strategies for its 5-year business plan (2011-2015), supported by a unique energy efficiency program, to reduce GO energy intensity by 26% by 2015. The program generated an energy savings...

Al-Dossary, F. S.

2012-01-01

65

Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal age and fetal, neonatal, and maternal complications where a professional tertiary medical care service is provided. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed between 2005 and 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All primigravid Saudi women ?24 weeks gestation, carrying a singleton pregnancy, aged <35 years, and with no chronic medical problems were eligible. Women were divided into three groups based on their age, ie, group 1 (G1) <16 years, group 2 (G2) ?16 up to 19 years, and group 3 (G3) ?19 up to 35 years. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records. We calculated the association between the different age groups and maternal characteristics, as well as events and complications during the antenatal period, labor, and delivery. Results The rates of adolescent delivery were 20.0 and 16.3 per 1,000 births in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Compared with G1 and G2 women, G3 women tended to have a higher body mass index, a longer first and second stage of labor, more blood loss at delivery, and a longer hospital stay. Compared with G1 and G2 women, respectively, G3 women had a 42% and a 67% increased risk of cesarean section, and had a 52% increased risk of instrumental delivery. G3 women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes or anemia, G2 women had a three-fold increased risk of premature delivery (odds ratio 2.81), and G3 neonates had a 50% increased overall risk of neonatal complications (odds ratio 0.51). Conclusion The adolescent birth rate appears to be low in central Saudi Arabia compared with other parts of the world. Excluding preterm delivery, adolescent delivery cared for in a tertiary health care center is not associated with a significantly increased medical risk to the mother, fetus, or neonate. The psychosocial effect of adolescent pregnancy and delivery needs to be assessed. PMID:24729733

Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Madkhali, Azza; Al-Kadi, Mohammed T; Bakhsh, Hanadi; Alruwaili, Nourah N; Tamim, Hani M

2014-01-01

66

Trajectory analysis of Saudi Arabian dust storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal and spatial characteristics of Saudi Arabian dust storms, with focus on associated air parcel trajectories, are investigated using station and gridded weather observations and remotely-sensed aerosol optical depth (AOD). For 13 focal stations, an extensive pool of 84-h backward trajectories is developed for dust storm days, and the trajectories are grouped into 3-5 representative clusters based on the K-means technique and Silhouette Coefficients. Saudi Arabian dust storms are most prominent during February-June, with a mid-winter peak along the southern coast of the Red Sea, spring peak across northern Saudi Arabia around the An Nafud Desert, and early summer peak in eastern Saudi Arabia around the Ad Dahna Desert. Based on backward trajectories, the primary local dust source is the Rub Al Khali Desert and the primary remote sources are the Saharan Desert, for western Saudi Arabia, and Iraqi Deserts, for northern and eastern Saudi Arabia. During February-April, the Mediterranean storm track is active, with passing cyclones and associated cold fronts carrying Saharan dust to Saudi Arabian stations along the northern coast of the Red Sea. Across Saudi Arabia, the highest AOD is achieved during dust storms that originate from the Rub Al Khali and Iraqi Deserts. Most stations are dominated by local dust sources (primarily Rub Al Khali), are characterized by three dominant trajectory paths, and achieve AOD values exceeding 1. In contrast, for stations receiving predominantly remote dust (particularly Saharan), 3-5 trajectory paths emerge and AOD values only reach approximately 0.6 as dust is lost during transport.

Notaro, Michael; Alkolibi, Fahad; Fadda, Eyad; Bakhrjy, Fawzieh

2013-06-01

67

The education of women in Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

, when the government initiated education for female Saudis. The number of fields available to women is growing. In addition to teaching, women are entering medicine, nursing, pharmacy, journalism, and broadcasting. This does not mean that cultural..., when the government initiated education for female Saudis. The number of fields available to women is growing. In addition to teaching, women are entering medicine, nursing, pharmacy, journalism, and broadcasting. This does not mean that cultural...

Quintanilla, Linda Jean

2012-06-07

68

Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

Fitzhugh, William

2006-01-01

69

Architecting the Saudi solar manufacturing : using Enterprise Architecture Framework  

E-print Network

The demand for Saudi oil is increasing locally and internationally, and being one of the major oil exporters in the world, the government of Saudi Arabia needs to balance between local consumption and international demand. ...

Alsultan, Bassel F. (Bassel Fahad)

2013-01-01

70

Temperature increasing trend due to solar activity at Western Saudi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun influnce on climate has been discussed globaly by many authors and at different latitudes. In this article we will discuss this connection for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which spans a large area, i.e. 16-32 North and 36-50 East. We started our invistigation in this paper by looking into the temperature at the Western coast of the Kingdom, namely Yenbo and Jeddah. In order to find the correlation between temperature and solar variations we employed one of the most relevant solar quentity, i.e. the solar cycle length. From our invistigations we found an increase in the temperature averages reaching up to 1.0 degree Celsius in certain cities since 1970. It is also found that the temperature increase is strongly correlated with the solar Cycle length, reaching up to 0.8 in some sites.

Almleaky, Y. M.; Sharaf, M. A.; Basurah, H. M.; Malawi, A. A.; Al-Mostafa, Z. A.

71

Attitudes of Saudi Arabian secondary preservice teachers toward teaching practices in science: The adequacy of preparation to use teaching strategies in classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Saudi Arabian secondary preservice science teachers (SPSTs) toward a variety of science teaching practices. An ultimate, essential goal of this study was to use generated information and findings to improve the current secondary science education programs in Saudi Arabia and to develop better science teacher practices. The selected practices were posted by the National Research Council in 1999. These indicated that students learn science best through understanding of science rather than memorization of scientific facts and concepts, building new knowledge and understanding on what is already known and believed, formulating new knowledge by modifying and refining current concepts and by adding new concepts to what is already known, taking care of their own learning, social learning environments and interactions, and application of knowledge to novel situations. The study's sample consisted of all (147) SPSTs enrolled in the spring semester of 2003 in four Teachers' Colleges: Riyadh, Makkah, Taif, and Dammam. All participants were performing student teaching in secondary schools. This study used quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. Only three SPSTs were purposefully selected from each college for seven semi-structured interview questions, lasting an hour per interview. They were asked to complete a 58-item questionnaire survey and respond to four open-ended survey questions. To assess their attitudes toward the above science teaching practices, data was analyzed using the Rasch analysis model, other parametric tests (e.g., a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent-samples t-test), and non-parametric tests (e.g., a chi-square of independent test). Furthermore, qualitative procedures were also used to assess SPSTs' views of some specific aspects about science teaching and the current secondary science education programs in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved through a careful analysis of frequent themes, patterns, and phrases mentioned by participants, which were coded and classified under broader categories. Findings of this study revealed that there were some significant differences among SPSTs in different Teachers' colleges with regard to certain demographic variables such as 'Teachers' College location' and 'age.' A broad conclusion was that although SPSTs felt that these six science teaching practices were crucial and effective teaching methods in classrooms, they did not frequently implement them due to several factors: large numbers of students in classrooms, classroom management issues, time demands, and lack of necessary materials and equipment.

Aljabber, Jabber M.

72

Lateral cephalometric norms for Saudi adults: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning require careful evaluation of the patient’s cephalometric values and comparison to known population cephalometric means or norms. Despite the availability of several published studies on Saudi cephalometric norms, Caucasian norms are still referred to when Saudi patients are treated. To reach a consensus between these studies and to establish more accurately cephalometric norms for Saudis,

Abdullah M. Aldrees

2011-01-01

73

Impact of Internet Usage in Saudi Arabia: A Social Perspective  

E-print Network

and influence change. The Internet can change individual behavioral and societal perspectives, often throughImpact of Internet Usage in Saudi Arabia: A Social Perspective Sadiq M. Sait, KFUPM, Dhahran Arabia Mohammed Faheemuddin, KFUPM, Dhahran - Saudi Arabia ABSTRACT Internet in the Kingdom of Saudi

Sait, Sadiq M.

74

Causes and effects of road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Saudi Arabia the motor vehicle is the main means of transportation. Between 1971 and 1997; 564 762 people died or were injured in road traffic accidents, a figure equivalent to 3.5% of the total population in Saudi Arabia. During this period 66 914 people have died on the roads in Saudi Arabia due to road accidents, amounting to one

S Ansari; F Akhdar; M Mandoorah; K Moutaery

2000-01-01

75

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region  

PubMed Central

Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. PMID:22188825

2011-01-01

76

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Health Behaviors between Saudi and British Adolescents Living in Urban Areas: Gender by Country Analyses  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648) and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158). The participants (14–18 year-olds) were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3%) was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%). The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week). Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among Saudi adolescents (64%) compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%). The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively). The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05) gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001) gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. PMID:24300072

Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Abahussain, Nada A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Nevill, Alan

2013-01-01

77

Sexual Behavior in Male Adolescents with Autism and Its Relation to Social-Sexual Skills in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to identify common sexual behavior among adolescents with autism, where parents and teachers of sixty-one male adolescents from twelve to twenty-one years of age were recruited from three cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were asked to respond to a sexual behavior questionnaire, and a social-sexual skills…

Huwaidi, Mohamed A.; Daghustani, Wid H.

2013-01-01

78

Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Saudi and expatriate women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Six of 511 (1.17%) parturient Saudi females were positive for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV), while one of 171 (0.58%) expatriate female nurses tested positive for the antibody. The prevalence of 1.17% in Saudis compares with 1.2% among pregnant women in Spain, while none of the 40 pregnant women screened in England tested positive for anti-HCV. Antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen in the same sample from Saudi women were positive in 24.6%. Judging by the low prevalence of its antibody, HCV is not as highly endemic as hepatitis B virus (HBV) in this population. PMID:17590779

Fakunle, Y M; Al-Mofarreh, M; Al-Ghreimil, M S; Idrees, Y B; El-Drees, A Z; Al-Karamany, W; Ezzat, H O

1991-09-01

79

Coronavirus respiratory illness in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Although viruses that belong to the coronavirus family are known since the 1930s, they only gained public health attention when they were discovered to be the causative agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in China in 2002-2003. On 22 September 2012, the Ministry of Health (MOH) in Saudi Arabia announced the detection of what was described as a "rare pattern" of coronavirus respiratory infection in three individuals, two Saudi citizens and one person from the Gulf Region. Neither Saudi citizen survived the infection. Molecular analysis of the isolates showed that the virus belongs to the genus beta-coronavirus. It is not known if the new isolates are circulating in the population or has recently diverged. The emergence of these novel isolates that resulted in fatal human infection ascertains that health authorities all over the world must be vigilant for the possibility of new global pandemics due to novel viral infection. PMID:23103889

Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed Ali; Rubino, Salvatore

2012-10-01

80

A Analysis of Saudi Arabian High School Students' Misconceptions about Physics Concepts.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to explore Saudi high students' misconceptions in selected physics concepts. It also detected the effects of gender, grade level and location of school on Saudi high school students' misconceptions. In addition, a further analysis of students' misconceptions in each question was investigated and a correlation between students' responses, confidence in answers and sensibleness was conducted. There was an investigation of sources of students' answers in this study. Finally, this study included an analysis of students' selection of reasons only in the instrument. The instrument used to detect the students' misconceptions was a modified form of the Misconception Identification in Science Questionnaire (MISQ). This instrument was developed by Franklin (1992) to detected students' misconceptions in selected physics concepts. This test is a two-tier multiple choice test that examines four areas of physics: Force and motion, heat and temperature, light and color and electricity and magnetism. This study included a sample of 1080 Saudi high school students who were randomly selected from six Saudi educational districts. This study also included both genders, the three grade levels of Saudi high schools, six different educational districts, and a city and a town in each educational district. The sample was equally divided between genders, grade levels, and educational districts. The result of this study revealed that Saudi Arabian high school students hold numerous misconceptions about selected physics concepts. It also showed that tenth grade students were significantly different than the other grades. The result also showed that different misconceptions are held by the students for each concept in the MISQ. A positive correlation between students' responses, confidence in answers and sensibleness in many questions was shown. In addition, it showed that guessing was the most dominant source of misconceptions. The result revealed that gender and grade level had an affect on students' choice of decision on the MISQ items. A positive change in the means of gender and grade levels in the multiple choice test and gender differences in selection of reason may be associated with specific concepts. No significant difference in frequencies of the reasons chosen by the student to justify their answers were found in most of the items (10 items).

Al-Rubayea, Abdullah A. M.

81

Perception on the Relationship between Cancer and Usage of Tobacco and Alcohol in Hail, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Aim: Increasing alcohol consumption in many countries is an important cause of cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of tobacco use and alcohol consumption and its related perception among population of Hail, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey from March to April 2012 covering 451 participants, in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. Results: Out of 451 respondents, 355(78.7%) were male and 96 (21.3%) were female giving a male to female ratio of 3.7:1. The age range of respondents was 11 – 77 years with a mean of 32 years. Prevalence of tobacco use and alcoholic beverages consumption were 30.3% and 7.5%, respectively. Most of the tobacco users and alcohol consumers showed positive knowledge concerning the relation between tobacco use and/or alcohol consumption and cancer. Conclusion: It is evident that the prevalence of tobacco consumption is rising in the Hail region. Female participation in tobacco and alcohol related studies in the Hail – Saudi Arabia represent a major obstacle since it is considered as social stigma due to complete prohibition by law. PMID:24298474

Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed

2013-01-01

82

Clonal diversity of Acinetobacter baumannii from diabetic patients in Saudi Arabian hospitals.  

PubMed

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB) represents a major health-care problem, causing high rates of morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the clonality of CR-AB isolated from diabetic patients from different regions in Saudi Arabia, as well as the relatedness of the ?-lactamase genes. A total of 64 non-repetitive CR-AB clinical isolates were collected from 16 different regions in Saudi Arabia from intensive care patients. Isolates were identified phenotypically by the Vitek 2 compact system and genotypically by amplification of the blaOXA-51-like gene. The target sequences were amplified by PCR and the clonal diversity of the isolates was explored by PFGE. Resistance studies revealed that the prevalence of imipenem and meropenem resistance was 92?% and 96?%, respectively, while the vast majority of the isolates were susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. In addition, blaVIM and blaOXA-23 were the most prevalent genes in the isolates under investigation, while ISAba1 was the most dominant insertion sequence. PFGE results showed 13 clusters; clone H was dominant, comprising 20 isolates from four hospitals, followed by clones C and F, comprising 11 isolates each from three and six hospitals, respectively. Moreover, the current study signified the clonal diversity of CR-AB in Saudi Arabia and showed the ability of some clones to infect patients in many different cities. PMID:25106863

Alsultan, Abdulrahman A; Aboulmagd, Elsayed; Evans, Benjamin A; Amyes, Sebastian G B

2014-11-01

83

Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001). About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively). The greater majority (67%) considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks. PMID:24576364

Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen

2014-03-01

84

Population dynamics and tuberculosis: a cross sectional study of an overlooked disease in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: International travel, migration and human population movements facilitate the spread of tuberculosis (TB). Objective: To study the impact of poorly screened expatriates working in Saudi Arabia on the local incidence of TBs. Patients and methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Chest Disease Hospital, Taif. All confirmed cases of TB from June 2009 to May 2010 admitted to the hospital were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were diagnosed cases of TB (pulmonary & extra-pulmonary) in patients between the ages of 14 to 65 years. Patients with HIV and coexistent malignancies were excluded. The age, gender and ethnic group of each patient was recorded, and patients were divided into two groups. Of the two groups, Group A consisted of Taif residents and group B of patients referred from other cities in the country. Results: Of the 686 cases studied, 370 (54%) were Saudi nationals (Group A = 80 & Group B = 290) and 316 (46%) cases were from other countries. Males outnumbered females and most of the patients were aged 20 to 29 years. The number of cases from the areas close to the pilgrimage sites, i.e. Makah (233) and Jeddah (275), outnumbered those in Taif (110). Conclusions: Our study identifies an increased prevalence of TB cases in areas close to the pilgrimage (Group B). The higher proportion of non-Saudi TB patients in group B is most likely explained by the higher number of poorly screened illegal expatriates in the region. PMID:24454274

Al-Bishri, Jamal; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Adnan, Mubarki; Tariq, Malik; Abdullah, Harthi; Abdulgoni, Thubaiti; Bander, Guraibi; Altalhi, Mansoor

2014-01-01

85

Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia. Methods Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO) ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51%) were for over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and 71 (38%) were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8%) advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7%) of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%), 58 (31%), and 33 (16.5%) advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64%) provided references for information presented. Conclusions Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists. PMID:24223078

Al-Aqeel, Sinaa AbdulMohsen; Al-Sabhan, Jawza Fahad; Sultan, Noha Yahia

86

Teachers' Online Discussion Forums in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia has special online discussion forums for teachers as part of its internet website. The study surveys those teachers' online forums and reports the number of participants, number of threads and responses, topics with the highest and lowest posts and the forums role in teachers' professional development and…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2006-01-01

87

Saudi Arabian License Plate Recognition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A license plate recognition (LPR) system is one kind of intelligent transport systems and is of considerable interest because of its potential applications to areas such as highway electronic toll collection, traffic monitoring system and so on. This paper proposes an automatic license plate recognition system for Saudi Arabian license plates. The system captures the images of the vehicles with

Muhammad Sarfraz; Mohammed Jameel Ahmed; Syed A. Ghazi

2003-01-01

88

Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

Alwadie, Adnan D.

2013-01-01

89

Saudi Arabic, Urban Hijazi Dialect: Basic Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three major dialect groups of Saudi Arabia are Hijazi, Najdi and Shargi. Hijazi is used for government and commercial purposes and is the most widely understood. This basic course uses the Hijazi dialect of Jidda, which is designated "urban" to distinguish it from Bedouin varieties. The book will provide students with the basic grammatical…

Omar, Margaret K.

90

English Language Teaching Profile: Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role and status of English in Saudi Arabia are examined, with attention directed to: (1) English within the education system; (2) teachers of English; (3) English outside the education system; (4) materials support; (5) British support for the teaching of English; and (6) English syllabi at intermediate, secondary, and higher education levels.…

British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

91

Cephalometric norms for the Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia: a research report  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have established specific cephalometric norms for children with different ethnic backgrounds, showing different facial features for each group. Up till now, there is a paucity of information about the cephalometric features of Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia, who have distinct social and climatic characteristics. The aim of the present study was to establish cephalometric norms for children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Methods A total of 62 lateral cephalometric radiographs of Saudis (33 females and 29 males; aged 9–12 years) having good facial proportions and Class I dental occlusion, were traced and analyzed. Using the t-test, the mean value, standard deviation and the range of 20 angular and linear variables were calculated and compared to norms of adult Saudis living in the Western region of Saudi Arabia using the t-test. Male and female groups were also compared using the t- test. Results Saudi children tend to have a significantly shorter and lower face height, a larger angle of convexity, and more proclined and protruded incisors when compared with adult Saudis (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between male and female groups. Conclusion Saudi children have distinct cephalometric features, which should be used as a reference in the orthodontic treatment of young Saudi patients. PMID:16270926

Hassan, Ali H

2005-01-01

92

Creating and Mapping Flash Flood Social and Physical Vulnerability Index of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past couple of years, the frequency and magnitude of flash floods are increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For effective planning and mitigation purposes, it is necessary to identify and visualize areas that are vulnerable to the flooding. In this paper, we will first create a flash flood social and physical vulnerability index for the city of Riyadh based on physical and social-economic data. Building upon the index, the areas of Riyadh that are highly vulnerable to flash floods will be identified and mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Finally, possible mitigation measures that can be used to reduce the impacts of flooding will be discussed in details.

Tauhidur Rahman, Muhammad; Aldosary, Adel S.; Nahiduzzaman, Khondokar Mohammad

2014-05-01

93

A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.  

PubMed

Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially unnecessary desalination infrastructure that is likely to become more energy and cost efficient in future. PMID:22504624

Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

2012-07-15

94

CONSERVATION OF DOMESTIC WATER USE FOR JEDDAH CITY USING SIMULATION MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jeddah is one of the principal cities of Western Region of Saudi Arabia. The population of Jeddah increased along with a concurrent expansion of the city. Rapid growth has reflected the increasing scale of the city. About 1,475,990 people resided in Jeddah as of year 1990, and the population is increased to 2.5 millions in the year of 2000. This

S. Awadalla; M. AbdulRazzak

2004-01-01

95

Quality of primary health care in Saudi Arabia: a comprehensive review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Little is known about the quality of primary care in Saudi Arabia, despite the central role of primary care centers in Saudi health strategy. This study presents an overview of quality of primary care in Saudi Arabia, and identifies factors impeding the achievement of quality, with the aim of determining how the quality of Saudi primary care could be

HANAN AL-AHMADI; MARTIN ROLAND

2005-01-01

96

Motives for cosmetic procedures in Saudi women.  

PubMed

The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered. PMID:25134311

Al-Natour, Sahar H

2014-01-01

97

Saudi Arabia: where the oil is. Pt. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sometime next year, Saudi Arabia should capture from the U.S. the title of ''largest producer of crude oil in the world.'' When the production expansion program now under way is completed in late 1975 or early 1976, Saudi output will be near 11 million bpd. If additional expansion is conducted as now expected, production could reach 20 million bpd by

1974-01-01

98

A cytological study of flowering plants from Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al-Turki, T. A., Filfilan, S. A. & Mehmood, S. F.: A cytological study of flowering plants from Saudi Arabia. - Willdenowia 30: 339-358. 2000. - ISSN 000-000. The chromosome numbers of 31 taxa belonging to 14 families of angiosperms collected from dif- ferent regions of Saudi Arabia are reported. These include first chromosome number reports for six species: Anabasis setifera

TURKI A. AL-TURKI; SHAFIK A. FILFILAN; SYED F. MEHMOOD

99

The rise of consumerism in Saudi Arabian society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The emergence of consumer-oriented societies has become the central trait of our era. Saudi Arabia gained entrée to consumerism via its oil wealth. Numerous studies demonstrate that consumer lifestyle and consumerist attitudes are spreading in the country. The purpose of this study is to explain how Saudi Arabia came to be a consumer society, to present evidence of

Soraya W. Assad

2007-01-01

100

Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi

Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

2011-01-01

101

Blended Learning in Saudi Universities: Challenges and Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended…

Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah

2010-01-01

102

Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

2014-01-01

103

Social responsibility of the multinational corporations operating in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation explores the social responsibility of MNCs operating in Saudi Arabia (SA) and their social impact on Saudi society through survey research using both primary and secondary data. To furnish the reader with a better understanding of this subject, to develop the hypothesis to be tested, and to define NMCs and social responsibility, this author reviewed literature related to MNCs and social responsibility with specific reference to developing countries, particularly SA; described briefly the Saudi environment in which MNCs operate; and determined the number and type of MNCs and their activities in SA as reported in Saudi government records. The author examined the social responsibility of MNCs toward Saudi society by comparing the perception of MNCs' non-Saudi managers with Saudis (managers, government officials, and elite) regarding some specific issues (e.g., MNCs' concerns for profit versus public good); regarding some suggested programs (e.g., training); and through looking at the actual programs undertaken by MNCs (e.g., medical care). The study helped to understand better the nature of MNCs. It indicated that MNCs seem to be attracted to SA, that their number is greater than government records indicate, and that a large number of MNCs have Saudi nationality.

Kurashi, M.F.Y.

1984-01-01

104

Saudi Arabian educational history: impacts on English language teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the history of education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and its impact on modern teaching practices. It explores the relationship between traditional practices, teacher identity and English language teaching within an increasingly complex context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors undertake a critical review of education in Saudi Arabia utilising

Tariq Elyas; Michelle Picard

2010-01-01

105

Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

Alquraini, Turki

2010-01-01

106

Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

Alquraini, Turki

2011-01-01

107

Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples  

PubMed Central

Introduction Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1) to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2) to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic. Methods and materials We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results A generally poor level of knowledge (59%) and a neutral attitude (76%) toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%), black magic (67.5%), intrauterine devices (71.3%), and contraceptive pills (42.9%). The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001) or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001), if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003) and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001). Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6%) and fertile outpatients (71.5%). Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%), using alternative medicine (42%), engaging in physical exercise (39%), eating certain foods (22%), and quitting smoking (12%). Conclusion These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. PMID:23874117

Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Alabdrabalnabi, Abdullah A; Albacker, Rehab B; Al-Jughaiman, Umar A; Hassan, Samar N

2013-01-01

108

Post-treatment of desalinated water and water quality characteristics in Yanbu Industrial City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yanbu Industrial City (YIC) in Saudi Arabia depends on seawater desalination for its entire fresh water supply. The fresh water is supplied by a desalination plant that consists of nine multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation units and seven reverse osmosis (RO) desalination trains. The product water from the MSF and RO desalination processes requires post-treatment to prepare it for potable use.

Ahmed S. Bajahlan; Jong-Mihn Wie

2012-01-01

109

Lateral cephalometric norms for Saudi adults: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning require careful evaluation of the patient’s cephalometric values and comparison to known population cephalometric means or norms. Despite the availability of several published studies on Saudi cephalometric norms, Caucasian norms are still referred to when Saudi patients are treated. To reach a consensus between these studies and to establish more accurately cephalometric norms for Saudis, a meta-analysis of the relevant literature was performed. Electronic database (PubMed), Saudi Dental Journal and Master theses were searched for studies reporting cephalometric values of normal male and female Saudi adults with numerical data and 8 studies with a total sample size of 485 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis with results from these studies was completed. The combined mean estimates and SD of common cephalometric measurements were calculated. The data included in this comprehensive meta-analysis were compared with Caucasian norms and results indicated that Saudis have distinct cephalometric features. Saudis tend to have slightly more convex profiles and more proclined incisors than the Caucasians. These findings confirm the previously published results and should serve as more accurate reference values that were drawn from a large sample size. PMID:24151411

Aldrees, Abdullah M.

2010-01-01

110

Corneal spherical aberration in Saudi population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To find out the mean corneal spherical aberration and its changes with age in Saudi population. Setting AlHokama Eye Specialist Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods Three hundred (300) eyes of 185 Saudi subjects (97 men and 88 women), whose age ranged from 15 to 85 years old, with matched refractive errors, were divided into three groups according to their age, 100 for each. All the subjects were included in measuring the spherical aberration (SA) using pentacam HR (OCULUS, Germany) at the 6-mm optical zone. Results The mean corneal spherical aberration (CSA) of the fourth order (Z40) of the whole groups was 0.252 ± 0.1154 ?m. Patients from 15 to 35 years old have root mean square (RMS) of CSA of 0.2068 ± 0.07151 ?m, 0.2370 ± 0.08023 ?m was the RMS of CSA of the patients from 35 to 50 years old, while those from 50 to 85 years old have a CSA-RMS of 0.31511 ± 0.1503 ?m (P < 0.0001). A positive correlation was found between the spherical aberration (Z40) and the progress of age (r = 0.3429, P < 0.0001). The high order aberration (HOA) presented 28.1% of the total corneal aberrations. While the fourth order corneal spherical aberration constituted 57% of the HOA and 16% of the total aberration. The pupil diameter shows a negative correlation with the increase in age (P = 0.0012). Conclusion Our results showed a CSA (Z40) that is varied among the population, comparable to other studies, and significantly correlates to the progress of age.

Al-Sayyari, Tarfah M.; Fawzy, Samah M.; Al-Saleh, Ahmed A.

2014-01-01

111

Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

1985-06-01

112

Liver Size in Saudi Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: To examine the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. Methods: A large sample of children was selected from the general population by multistage random probability sampling for the assessment of physical growth. A random subsample of children–newborns to 18 years old–was taken from this larger sample for this study. Liver size below the costal margin and liver span along the midclavicular line were determined by physicians. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and medians and standard deviations were calculated. Results: Between 2004 and 2005, 18 112 healthy children up to 18 years of age were examined. All were term and appropriate for gestational age. There were 9 130 boys and 8 982 girls, yielding a nearly 1:1 male to female ratio. The maximum palpable liver size below the costal margin was 2.4 cm. The median and + 2 SD liver span at birth were 4 and 6.9 cm, respectively. There was no difference in the liver span between boys and girls of up to 60 months of age. Thereafter, a difference could be seen increasing with age, with girls having smaller liver spans than boys. Conclusion: This manuscript reports the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. The data should help physicians in the interpretation of liver size determined by physical examination of children and adolescents. PMID:19568553

El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al Salloum, Abdulla A.; Al Herbish, Abdulla S.; Qurachi, Mansour M.; Al Omar, Ahmad A.

2009-01-01

113

Potential for the International Spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in Association with Mass Gatherings in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: A novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causing severe, life-threatening respiratory disease has emerged in the Middle East at a time when two international mass gatherings in Saudi Arabia are imminent. While MERS-CoV has already spread to and within other countries, these mass gatherings could further amplify and/or accelerate its international dissemination, especially since the origins and geographic source of the virus remain poorly understood. Methods: We analyzed 2012 worldwide flight itinerary data and historic Hajj pilgrim data to predict population movements out of Saudi Arabia and the broader Middle East to help cities and countries assess their potential for MERS-CoV importation. We compared the magnitude of travel to countries with their World Bank economic status and per capita healthcare expenditures as surrogate markers of their capacity for timely detection of imported MERS-CoV and their ability to mount an effective public health response. Results: 16.8 million travelers flew on commercial flights out of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates between June and November 2012, of which 51.6% were destined for India (16.3%), Egypt (10.4%), Pakistan (7.8%), the United Kingdom (4.3%), Kuwait (3.6%), Bangladesh (3.1%), Iran (3.1%) and Bahrain (2.9%). Among the 1.74 million foreign pilgrims who performed the Hajj last year, an estimated 65.1% originated from low and lower-middle income countries. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is an emerging pathogen with pandemic potential with its apparent epicenter in Saudi Arabia, where millions of pilgrims will imminently congregate for two international mass gatherings. Understanding global population movements out of the Middle East through the end of this year's Hajj could help direct anticipatory MERS-CoV surveillance and public health preparedness to mitigate its potential global health and economic impacts. PMID:23884087

Khan, Kamran; Sears, Jennifer; Hu, Vivian Wei; Brownstein, John S; Hay, Simon; Kossowsky, David; Eckhardt, Rose; Chim, Tina; Berry, Isha; Bogoch, Isaac; Cetron, Martin

2013-01-01

114

Saudi guidelines for testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a common disease in Saudi Arabia. As most cases of tuberculosis are due to reactivation of latent infection, identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) who are at increased risk of progression to active disease, is a key element of tuberculosis control programs. Whereas general screening of individuals for LTBI is not cost-effective, targeted testing of individuals at high risk of disease progression is the right approach. Treatment of those patients with LTBI can diminish the risk of progression to active tuberculosis disease in the majority of treated patients. This statement is the first Saudi guideline for testing and treatment of LTBI and is a result of the cooperative efforts of four local Saudi scientific societies. This Guideline is intended to provide physicians and allied health workers in Saudi Arabia with the standard of care for testing and treatment of LTBI. PMID:20103957

Al Jahdali, Hamdan H.; Baharoon, Salim; Abba, Abdullah A.; Memish, Ziad A.; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.; AlBarrak, Ali; Haddad, Qais A.; Al Hajjaj, Mohammad; Pai, Madhukar; Menzies, Dick

2010-01-01

115

Support for court-yard houses : Riyad, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

The objective of this report is to explore the application of the support concept in the Saudi Arabian context, as a result of the author's interest in the concept of user participation. To do so, the following steps were ...

Akbar, Jamel A

1981-01-01

116

HLA-B50 polymorphism in the Saudi population.  

PubMed

The HLA-B50 serologic family is very frequent in people of Arabic origin. In Saudi Arabia, HLA-B50 is the most frequent HLA-B allele. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of HLA-B50 alleles in healthy Saudi individuals. A total of 162 healthy Saudi individuals were selected based on low-resolution HLA typing. DNA samples were typed by sequence-based typing method for exons 2, 3 and 4 of the HLA-B locus (Genome Diagnostics B.V.). The HLA-B*50 alleles were analysed using SBT engine software. HLA-B*50:01:01 was found in 161 of 162 individuals (99.4%), while HLA-B*50:09 was found in one individual (0.6%). HLA-B*50:01:01 is the most common HLA-B50 allele in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24256064

Jawdat, D; Al-Hamad, B; Al-Jumah, M; Hajeer, A

2014-04-01

117

The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written) which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate. PMID:19032779

Bajammal, Sohail; Zaini, Rania; Abuznadah, Wesam; Al-Rukban, Mohammad; Aly, Syed Moyn; Boker, Abdulaziz; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Al-Omran, Mohammad; Al-Habib, Amro; Al-Sheikh, Mona; Al-Sultan, Mohammad; Fida, Nadia; Alzahrani, Khalid; Hamad, Bashir; Al Shehri, Mohammad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Al-Damegh, Saleh; Al-Nozha, Mansour M; Donnon, Tyrone

2008-01-01

118

Trends in fatal substance overdose in eastern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and forty-nine deaths owing to substance overdose were reported to the Medico-Legal Centre, Dammam, Saudi Arabia in the 8 year period from 1990 to 1997. All cases were subject to a full forensic autopsy with toxicological and histological studies. The overall male:female ratio was 7.9:1 and males predominated in all age groups. Saudis outnumbered other nationalities and accounted

M. A Elfawal

1999-01-01

119

Chemical Composition of Bottled Water in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen domestic and seven imported bottled water brands were analysed in Saudi Arabia for various physico-chemical water quality parameters. The results of the analysis were compared with the drinking water standards set by Saudi Arabia and World Health Organization. The levels of different physico-chemical parameters like TDS, Ca, Mg, Na, K, NO3, Cl and SO4 of all local and imported

Abdulrahman I. Alabdula'aly; Mujahid A. Khan

1999-01-01

120

Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Arabia has been indirectly affected by the Chernobyl accident. Large amounts of food or products that may enter the food chain are daily imported from European countries. After April 27, the Saudi government assigned the responsibilities of radiation monitoring of imported food to some universities and governmental sectors. The nuclear engineering department at King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) has undertaken the monitoring duties for products coming to western and southern provinces of the country. The sampling and monitoring procedures and results are described.

Abulfaraj, W.H.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F.

1987-01-01

121

The prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss among Saudi children  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiological survey was carried out to identify the magnitude of the problem of hearing impairment (H.I.) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A random sample survey of 10,000 Saudi children below the age of 15 from four main provinces of the country was carried out by a team comprising an audiologist, ENT physician, a nurse and a social worker.A

Khayria A Al-Abduljawad; Siraj M Zakzouk

2003-01-01

122

Tensile city  

E-print Network

Tensile City is a story that provides the answer to the following question: II If we were to leap forward in time and visit a city of the future, what would learn about our contemporary city ? II The story unfolds when ...

Chakkour, Mario Henri

1987-01-01

123

Health services and the political culture of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Health services occupy a high priority in the development agenda of Saudi Arabia, Saudi culture--devotion to Islam, extended-family values, the segregated status of females and the Al Saud monarchic hegemony--is being formulated in an increasingly deliberate fashion, constituting a new 'political culture' which acts as a screen to insure that technological and human progress remain within acceptable bounds. There is a general disposition on the part of the Saudi populace to use modern health services as these become available, largely under governmental auspice. The role of the government in providing health care for pilgrims during the hajj to Mecca is of particular culture importance. Cultural sensitivities concerning male physicians and female patients will be minimized by the training of a substantial number of Saudi female physicians, whose efforts will be directed toward female patients. At present, most health care in the Kingdom is delivered by male expatriate physicians, as part of the general massive reliance upon expatriate workers: although the expatriates will eventually be replaced by Saudi physicians, this dependency, which is felt to threaten Saudi culture, will continue for a decade or more. Private medicine is rapidly increasing though not on the same scale as government medicine. The provision of government health services is a source of legitimation for the Al Saud regime. In general, health services appear to constitute a form of modernization which meets the test of cultural compatibility. PMID:4035414

Gallagher, E B; Searle, C M

1985-01-01

124

Breast Cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy of women worldwide. It is the leading cause of female cancer related disability and mortality. In Saudi Arabia breast cancer ranks first among cancerous diseases in females. In the Gulf region, and especially in Saudi Arabia, few studies have been conducted to address breast cancer awareness. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the level of breast cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah, focusing on knowledge of breast cancer warning signs, risk factors, screening programs and breast self-examination (BSE). The design of this study was an exploratory correlational analysis. The sample comprised 200 Saudi females aged 20 and older living in Jeddah. Data were collected using face-to- face interviews. Breast cancer awareness was measured using a modified Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (Breast CAM) version 2. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's Product Moment correlation coefficients and ANOVA test were used to answer study questions. Out of 200 participants, 50.5% were aware of breast lump as a warning sign of breast cancer, 57.5% claimed that family history was risk factor, 20.5% had undergone breast screening, 79% heard about BSE, and 47.5% knew how to perform BSE. Findings indicated that Saudi females level of awareness of breast cancer is very inadequate. Public awareness interventions are needed in order to overcome an ever-increasing burden of this disease among Saudi females. PMID:23991994

Radi, Sahar Mahmoud

2013-01-01

125

76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMERCE International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International...Natalia.Susak@trade.gov. U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts Ahmed Khayyat, Phone:...

2011-02-09

126

75 FR 56506 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International...Natalia.Susak@trade.gov. U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts: Mr. Habeeb Saeed, U.S. Commercial...

2010-09-16

127

Impact of a Regime Change in Saudi Arabia-- An Operational Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saudi Arabia enjoys great strategic importance on the world stage and a particularly significant role as the centerpiece of the United States operational endeavors in the Persian Gulf. Our understandings with Saudi Arabia are primarily unwritten, lending ...

C. K. King

1998-01-01

128

Role of solar energy research in transferring of technology to Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is blessed with abundant solar energy, which is renewable, clean, and freely available. This paper describes the status of the major research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities and achievements at the Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, in the field of solar energy. RD and D activities in the Kingdom have confirmed that solar energy has a multitude of practical uses. These include lighting, cooling, cooking, water heating, crop/fruit drying, water desalination, operating irrigation pumps, and meteorological stations, and providing road and tunnel lighting. Furthermore, these solar energy RD and D activities and achievements played a significant role in transferring technology and manpower development in the Kingdom.

Alawaji, S.H.; Hasnain, S.M.

1999-12-01

129

Assisted reproductive technology in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This paper aims at presenting details of the application of assisted reproductive technology and the impact of the Islamic law (Sharia) on its practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Analysis of the data sourced from manual searches of bibliographies from key articles showed that this technology in KSA is practiced in a strictly religious manner and certain aspects of the technology are completely forbidden. It further showed that lack of an official government in-vitro fertilization (IVF) registry to gather information on the activities of IVF clinics has limited the data available for international comparisons. Sharing information internationally could allow religiously concerned infertile couples to have access to the reproductive services in the Kingdom. It would further improve the quality of care, enhance certain techniques like in-vitro maturation and experimentation on embryos, by providing resources that are currently unavailable, keeping in view the religious beliefs and avoiding conflicts. PMID:19370268

Abduljabbar, Hassan S; Amin, Rubina

2009-04-01

130

FAUNA or SAUDI ARABIA 10, 1989 225 New Species of Chironominae  

E-print Network

to science: Polypedilum biforcatum (from Oman, Saudi Arabia and Kenya), P. buettikefi (from Saudi Arabia), P, Iraq and Afghanistan), CladotanytarsHS omanensis (from Oman and Saudi Arabia), Neozavrelia saudiarabica water, the immature stages are often the most obvious manifestations of the abundance of these insects

Cranston, Peter S.

131

EFL Teachers' Perceptions, Evaluations and Expectations about English Language Courses as EFL in Saudi Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers' perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit…

Liton, Hussain Ahmed

2013-01-01

132

Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia. Second, the policymakers in Saudi Arabia should be more concerned with increasing productivity through adopting new technologies that increase economic prosperity. Therefore, the policymakers should continue diversifying economic resources and reduce their reliance on oil.

Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

133

Historic Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly sponsored by the Historic Cities Center within the Department of Geography at Hebrew University and the Jewish National and University Library, the Historic Cities Web site is intended to contain maps, literature, documents, books, and other relevant material concerning the past, present, and future of historic cities While some of these documents and ephemera are still forthcoming to the site, visitors will find a wide array of historic city maps and views dating from 1486 to 1720. The scanned maps are searchable alphabetically, by date, and by individual cartographer. Additionally, a bit of information is provided about each cartographer. Overall, the site contains close to two hundred individual city maps and renderings, ranging from medieval Heidelberg to Casablanca. For persons with an interest in urban morphology and the history of cartography, the Historic Cities site will be a good place to start.

134

City Mayors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on the expertise of a team of editors who reside in Britain, Germany, Spain, Mexico, France, and a number of other countries, the City Mayors organization is an "international network of professionals working to promote strong cities and good local government." Their website takes on all of the important urban issues of the day, including governance, affordable housing, sustainable development, transportation, and a number of other pressing issues. On their homepage, visitors will find links to recent news stories from cities around the world and direct links to thematic sections such as business, finance, environment, and development. One section that should not be missed is the "City Rankings" area, which includes helpful lists of the largest cities in the world by land area, population and density, along with a list of the most expensive cities in the world.

135

Characterictics and Sources of Organic Tracers in Atmospheric Particulate Matter from the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and sources of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) can affect air quality of metropolitan areas as well as climate change. Their chemical components can be toxic to humans and hazardous to the environment. Saudi Arabia is witnessing new development and industrial activities, which are expected to contribute to natural, regional and anthropogenic PM inputs of organic tracers. This work investigates the characteristics and sources of the extractable organic matter (EOM) in atmospheric suspended PM from the city of Dhahran in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia. The major compounds were an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons (12-70% of EOM), plasticizers (7-30% of EOM for aryl phosphates and 4-18% of EOM for phthalates), n-alkanes (3-15% of EOM), hopane biomarkers (0.1-4.2% of EOM), n-alkanones (0.3-1.7% of EOM), PAHs (0.1-0.6% of EOM), sterane biomarkers (0.0-0.1% of EOM), and sterols (0.0-0.1% of EOM). Plasticizers are evidently major compounds (11- 48% of EOM) in the suspended PM of Dhahran, which likely have serious public health effects and environmental consequences. The major sources of these organic tracers are emissions from industrial factories north of the city, plastics and biomass burning, and petroleum product combustion.

Rushdi, A. I.; El-Mubarak, A. H.; Luis, L.; Mubarak, A. T.; Qurban, M.; Al-Mutlaq, K. F.; Simoneit, B. R.

2013-12-01

136

The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

2014-09-01

137

The response of solar radiation in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, to smoke from oil field fires in Kuwait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative monthly solar radiation in Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia (300 km southeast of Kuwait City) was reduced to 75% of the recent 10-year mean value by the torching of the first 50 of many oil wells and production facilities in Kuwait in mid-January 1991. The value was reduced further when an additional 600 wells were ignited in late February. Solar radiation continued at 55 65% of normal levels during March to August, when 341 oil wells were still burning. Recovery was rapid as the fires in oil fields located directly upwind of Jubail were extinguished, with the solar radiation reaching 95% of the long-term mean in October.

Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

1992-09-01

138

Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait  

PubMed Central

The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students’ attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector. PMID:17136159

Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

2006-01-01

139

Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.  

PubMed

In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended. PMID:20214168

Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

2010-01-01

140

City limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

City limits are to be seen not only as geographical and temporal boundaries but also as perceived and effective horizons imposed by social arrangements. Making use of both philosophical and fictional resources, Gail Weiss develops an inter?corporeal cartography of the city that explores how these horizons impinge on people's lives. Drawing on the work of Merleau?Ponty and Elizabeth Grosz, this

Gail Weiss

2005-01-01

141

Softening cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S. we stand somewhere about the halfway point in a major shift in the way we view city building, both the process and the product that results. We have been used to seeing urbanization as a production process. (This, in itself, replaced an earlier view of the city as a necessary condition of industrial production.) More and more

R. Montgomery

1977-01-01

142

City profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a metropolitan population of more than 20 million and rising, Jakarta is one of the world's largest cities, the biggest city by a wide margin in Southeast Asia, and the commanding urban center of Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous country. It is also an outstanding example of an overburdened Third World metropolis struggling with problems of overpopulation and

Roman Cybriwsky; Larry R. Ford

2001-01-01

143

City Beautiful  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city beautiful movement, which in the early 20th Century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theory and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly

Gerald A. Carlino; Albert Saiz

2008-01-01

144

Mexico City  

... Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but ... very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is ...

2013-04-18

145

Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 kin2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic. The initial phase of rifting of the Arabian Plate from the African Plate began as a wide zone of continental-crust extension manifested by basin and range topography. Freshwater lakes, northwest-trending marine gulfs, and alkali olivine basalt flows occupied these basins. Extensive dike swarms intruded parallel to the proto-Red Sea and marked the first phase of new mafic crust formed by volcanic processes. After a hiatus in volcanic activity, counterclockwise rotation of the Arabian Plate during middle Miocene time changed the stress pattern in the plate and a second phase of extrusion of alkali olivine basalt commenced along north-trending fractures. This stress pattern continues to influence Holocene volcanism. The earliest (pre-uplift) basalts to erupt on the Arabian Plate were predominantly under saturated picrite and ankaramite, whereas those to erupt near the axis of the proto-Red Sea rift zone were tholeiite. The within-plate volcanic rocks evolved from picrite-ankaramite to alkali olivine basalt with minor volumes of fractionated, under-saturated felsic rocks. Continued crustal thinning and dike intrusion along the proto-Red Sea were accompanied by melting of the continental crust to produce silicic magma as part of a bimodal volcanic suite (tholeiite-rhyolite). These magmas were emplaced as dikes, sills, layered bodies, and flows that mark the early construction of the Red Sea crust. Second-phase lavas are predominantly fractionated hawaiites and alkali olivine basalts. Because under saturated and oversaturated silicic magmas represent the second phase of activity, both fractional crystallization of the basaltic magma and melting of the crust are believed to have occurred. The historical record of volcanic activity in Saudi Arabia suggests that volcanism is dormant. The harrats should be evaluated for their potential as volcanic hazards and as sources of geothermal energy. The volcanic rocks are natural traps for groundwater ; thus water resources for agriculture may be significant and should be investigated.

Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

1983-01-01

146

Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome in a Saudi Arabian family.  

PubMed

In the course of applying to become a soldier, a 23-year-old Saudi Arabian man was found to have no fingerprints. Further medical examination has been carried out for the young man and for the rest of family members including two sisters, mother, and brothers except the father who had died sometime previously. Subsequent medical investigations suggested that he and his two brothers displayed most of the features of the Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn (NFJ) syndrome. These features included skin changes with hypo- and hyperpigmentation, hypohidrosis, dystrophy of the nails, diffuse thickening of the palms and feet, a lack of fingerprints (dermatoglyphics), and atrophic changes in the skin of the face; there were also dental anomalies. A typical feature of the Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome was found in a Saudi Arabian family. The aim of this study was to present this rare condition affecting a Saudi Arabian family and review the current literature on the subject. PMID:24261749

Tubaigy, Salah M; Hassan, H M

2014-03-01

147

Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804

Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A.

2014-01-01

148

Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1-5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804

Darwish, Magdy A; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A

2014-01-01

149

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

1997-01-01

150

Open City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you interested in improving civic culture and knowledge with apps? If so, you will be delighted to learn about the Open City site. The Open City folks are a group of programmers, citizen activists, and policy types that create apps with open data in order "to improve transparency and understanding of our government." Chicagoans can stop by the Merchandise Mart to meet up and work with Open City in person. Everyone else can check out the Projects page to view apps like "Chicago Councilmatic," "How's Business?" and "Crime in Chicago." Each of these apps takes open source data from the city of Chicago and other organizations to create tools designed to help decision makers, journalists, and scholars with their various projects. The site also contains information about the people behind the organization and press releases about their work.

151

Invincible Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Throughout history, cities have risen and fallen from prominence, and in recent times more attention has been paid to why this ebb and flow persists across the centuries. Documenting this process has increasingly been the province of historians, archaeologists, city planners, sociologists, and of course, photographers. Many photographers have been very interested in the world of post-industrial urban decay, and Camilo Jose Vergara is one of the best. With financial support from the Ford Foundation, this website brings together VergaraâÂÂs photographic record of the cities of Camden, New Jersey and Richmond, California in exquisite geographic and visual detail. First-time visitors will want to read through the introduction to the project offered by Vergara, and then perhaps click on the question mark on the homepage for a brief primer on how to use the user interface for each city. At that point, visitors shouldnâÂÂt be afraid to look over both cities, as they can zoom in and out around a number of interesting locales, including abandoned factories, old piers, and gated communities. Short of wandering through these cities in a peripatetic fashion, this website serves as an interesting introduction to some overlooked aspects of urbanity.

Vergara, Camilo J.

2006-01-01

152

Risk factors and co-morbidity of skin disorders among female schoolchildren in Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of skin disorders among female schoolchildren in primary and intermediate schools in Al-khobar city, Eastern Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Al-Khobar city during the period of January to March 2003. It involved 2239 female schoolchildren randomly selected from 30 regular public and private primary and preparatory schools. A multi-stage stratified random sampling technique with proportional allocation was used. Data was collected using a pre-designed structured questionnaire and clinical examination. Dandruff was negatively associated with private schools and positively associated with age, body mass index and overcrowding. The association of atopic dermatitis with family history of atopy and bronchial asthma was documented in this study. Those who were at high risk of getting acne were schoolchildren who had more baths per week and lived in villas with a high number of rooms (in other words the high socioeconomic class). Pediculosis had a negative association with a high level of father education and high socioeconomic status and a positive association with living in a flat and the number of siblings. It was concluded that sex, socioeconomic status, family history, parents' education, home type, and overcrowding were found to be risk factors for some skin disorders. Accordingly, it is recommended that a preventive health education program for schoolchildren with different levels of skin diseases be started considering the predictive variables that increase the prevalence of these diseases. PMID:17598643

Al-Saeed, Wafa Y; Al-Dawood, Kasim M; Bukhari, Igbal A; Bahnassy, Ahmed A

2007-06-01

153

Medical liability litigation in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: The author analyzed the anesthesia medical malpractice closed claims that were referred to the Legal Health Organization (LHO) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Annual reports covering the period from 1420H–1429H (1999–2008) were statistically analyzed to give mean figures and percentages in each annual report, and then demonstrated all together to run the differential analysis together with the trend along the studied period. Results: Data analysis showed an escalating trend for the total number of claims over the study period being started with 440 cases on 1420H and ended with 1356 cases by the year 1429H. The annual percentage of the final verdicts of accusation to the total number of claims presented to all committees ranges between 45.5%–60.2% with a mean value of 49.9%. Distribution of final verdicts among different clinical specialities showed that obstetrics takes the lead with a mean percentage of 25.5% along the studied period (1420H–1429H), followed by the practice of general surgery with a mean percentage of 13.8%. The sector of health care service showed a significant variation in relation to the mean number of final verdicts with accusation along the studied period, being the highest in the Ministry of Health sector with a mean number of 216.8 claims, followed by the private sector with a mean number of 197.3 claims. Conclusion: Adherence to the standards of medical practice is by far to the best approach to avoid and reduce the incidence of litigation. PMID:21189845

Al-Saeed, Abdulhamid Hassan

2010-01-01

154

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA  

E-print Network

, Companies Act's provisions which describe the function, effect, scope and what they fall short of by themselves and/or within other rules forming the system of corporate governance in Saudi Arabia. In addition, there has been little to no treatment...

AL-ZAID, AHMAD ABDULAZIZ

2012-12-31

155

Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

2009-01-01

156

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also

A. M. Ageel; N. S. Parmar; J. S. Mossa; M. A. Al-Yahya; M. S. Al-Said; M. Tariq

1986-01-01

157

Saudi ArabiaSteps Toward Democratization or Reconfiguration of Authoritarianism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia has since the beginning of the 1990s, despite the autocratic character of the regime, witnessed political activities that, while not directly questioning the Islamic base of the country's identity, have called for changes in the manner in which the state is governed. The study analyses petitions to the King and other actions undertaken by the opposition demanding reforms

Andrzej Kapiszewski

2006-01-01

158

Courts, Law, Justice, and Criminal Trials in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criminal Justice in Saudi Arabia cannot be separated from Islam. The general and particular rules of Islamic corpus juris form the Sharia which is the law.Crimes fall into three categories Hudud, Tazir, and Qisas. The courts established in 1928 are divided into three levels—Ordinary Courts, High Courts of Sharia Law, and Court of Causation or Appeals. The trial courts have

RICHTER H. MOORE JR

1987-01-01

159

Environmental and Economic Aspects of Wastewater Reuse in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual rainfall in Saudi Arabia is less than 100 mm\\/year and there are no rivers or lakes. Therefore, the renewable surface and groundwater resources are not sufficient to meet increasing demand in the domestic, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. To supplement the deficit in water balance there is a growing interest in reuse of reclaimed wastewater. This article discusses

T. Husain; A. H. Ahmed

1997-01-01

160

Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

2012-01-01

161

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Basic Properties of Reservoir Rocks By Dr. Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin Professor, Department of Petroleum Engineering © Copyright by Dr in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

162

Developing a Career Resource for College Students in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the development of Career Oasis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM ) has pioneered the use of computer-based career guidance in Saudi Arabia. KFUPM contracted with Verbal Media, LLC, an American consulting company, to create a resource that would be available in both Arabic and English, in both online and paper-and-pencil…

Shatkin, Laurence; Atiyeh, Naim

163

Developing Reading and Literacy Skills in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the Saudi national reading curriculum for Grades 1-6; defines the word identification, reading comprehension and teaching approaches; describes the reading lesson design, reading themes, the word identification and reading comprehension skills developed; and reports the strengths and weaknesses of the reading curriculum.…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2007-01-01

164

The Use of the Mother Tongue in Saudi EFL Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of including or excluding the learner's mother tongue in the EFL classroom has been the subject of ongoing discussion and controversy for a long time. This paper attempts to investigate the use of native Arabic in English classes at two Saudi technical colleges. The main objectives were to examine the purpose of L1 use and the attitudes…

Alshammari, Marzook M.

2011-01-01

165

University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

2012-01-01

166

Religious Fundamentalism among Young Muslims in Egypt and Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18-25, reveal that…

Moaddel, Mansoor; Karabenick, Stuart A.

2008-01-01

167

On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

2012-01-01

168

Aetiology of Neonatal Septicaemia in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the 1,797 babies admitted to a hospital in Saudi Arabia over a 3-year period, 8% were documented as having NNS. Identified several gram-positive bacteria, several gram-negative bacteria, and candida albicans as etiological agents in the cases of NNS. Determined the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria. (BC)

Elbashier, Ali M.; And Others

1994-01-01

169

Divided We Survive: A Landscape of Fragmentation in Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

the state was created, and its political system has failed to accommodate the need to change and evolve. Yet K. Hassenfeld Professor of Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies Kanan Makiya, PhD Lecturer on the Myra transformation of Saudi socioeconomic and political life along Islamic lines, together with the imposition

Fraden, Seth

170

Ocular findings in Saudi Arabian patients with sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM--This study was set up to determine whether or not retinal changes occur in sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabian subjects with either the Benin, which exists in the south western part of the kingdom, or Asian haplotypes in the east, and to compare the findings with those in sickle cell disease in Jamaica. METHODS--Retinal examination and fluorescein angiography were

S al-Hazzaa; A C Bird; A Kulozik; B E Serjeant; G R Serjeant; P Thomas; A Padmos

1995-01-01

171

Changing pattern of childhood blindness in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 187 patients attending special educational institutions in Saudi Arabia who were blind before the age of 14. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological evaluation. The visual acuity in 31% of the patients was no light perception and in 58% light perception to counting fingers at 3 feet (1 m). 70% were blind before age 2. Prior to 1962 acquired

K. F. Tabbara; I. A. Badr

1985-01-01

172

Pre-Vocational Preparation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with few exceptions, occupational specialization programs for male students first become available at the secondary level (grades 10-12). Education is not compulsory, and substantial numbers drop out at all levels. Adolescents who leave school at the primary (elementary) or intermediate (grades 7-9) level must wait…

Campbell, Clifton P.

173

Cooperative Cataloging: Prospects and Problems for Libraries in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the current state of bibliographic cooperation in Saudi Arabia, discusses prospects for further cooperation, and highlights difficulties. Concludes with recommendations that King Fahd National Library develop a national cooperative cataloging program and prepare rules and procedures for participating libraries to contribute in various…

Khurshid, Zahiruddin

1997-01-01

174

Epidemiology of domestic chemical burns in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors reviewed the domestic chemical injury experience in two major government hospitals in Saudi Arabia to determine the most common causative agents and the circumstances of the injury in order to give recommendations for their prevention and reduction of their morbidity. A total of 59 cases were included. The mean age was 25 years and the male to female

J Pitkanen; M. M Al-Qattan

2001-01-01

175

Fisheries status and management plan for Saudi Arabian sea cucumbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea cucumber resources in Saudi Arabia have long been exploited by an open access fishery with no man - agement in place. The lack of information on the fishery makes it difficult to ascertain its characteristics, as well as determine sea cucumber stocks. Seven sea cucumber species are exploited mainly for the export market. Signs of stock reduction have become

Mohamed Hamza Hasan

2008-01-01

176

Recommendations for Future Research in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

to operational cloud seeding. Modelling #12;· What is the distribution of the change of cloud droplet size in Saudi Arabia clouds? · How much more effective is AgI seed at producing ice that natural conditions modify the precipitation process. Possible Methods #12; Advantages Quantifies an amount of a seeding

Delene, David J.

177

A Survey of Technical and Skills Training in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most important task of development in Saudi Arabia is the cultivation of indigenous manpower to operate the equipment and run the factories. The Kingdom has recognized the importance of education and established a modern curriculum (elementary, junior, senior high) starting in the 1950s. Although there is some resistance to technical training…

Campbell, Clifton P.

178

Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

2014-04-13

179

Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

2012-01-01

180

Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school  

PubMed Central

Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0%) of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied. PMID:22748074

2012-01-01

181

Cathodic protection for Saudi Arabia's Ghazlan power generating plant  

SciTech Connect

Design and construction of a retrofitted, impressed current distributed deep groundbed cathodic protection system for Saudi Arabia's newest electric power generating station are presented. Details of construction, precommissioning and post-commissioning findings are discussed. Several problems associated with simultaneously protecting large amounts of bare and coated surfaces in conjunction with an extensive copper ground grid are resolved.

Leavenworth, J.M.

1984-09-01

182

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is limited information on overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to establish the national prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. METHODS: The 2005 Saudi reference data set was used to calculate the body mass index (BMI) for children aged 5 to 18 years. Using the 2007 WHO reference, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity were defined as the proportion of children with a BMI standard deviation score more than +1, +2 and +3, respectively. The 2000 CDC reference was also used for comparison. RESULTS: There were 19 317 healthy children and adolescents from 5 to 18 years of age, 50.8% of whom were boys. The overall prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity in all age groups was 23.1%, 9.3% and 2%, respectively. A significantly lower prevalence of overweight (23.8 vs 20.4; P<.001) and obesity (9.5 vs 5.7; P<.001) was found when the CDC reference was used. CONCLUSIONS: This report establishes baseline national prevalence rates for overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Saudi children and adolescents, indicating intermediate levels between developing and industrialized countries. Measures should be implemented to prevent further increases in the numbers of overweight school-age children and adolescents and the associated health hazards. PMID:20427936

El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Foster, Peter J.; Al Herbish, Abdullah S.; Al Salloum, Abdullah A.; Al Omer, Ahmad A.; Qurachi, Mansour M.; Kecojevic, Tatjana

2010-01-01

183

Personal Transformation: A Group Therapy Program for Saudi Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A personal transformation group therapy program was designed to help Saudi women function more effectively in their daily lives. The major cognitive idea of these groups was to enable women to better understand their thinking patterns so that they could learn techniques to change. Personal transformation group topics included: Self-Esteem;…

Pharaon, Nora Alarifi

184

Numerical simulation diagnostics of a flash flood event in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 26 January 2011, a severe storm hit the city of Jeddah, the second largest city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The storm resulted in heavy rainfall, which produced a flash flood in a short period of time. This event caused at least eleven fatalities and more than 114 injuries. Unfortunately, the observed rainfall data are limited to the weather station at King Abdul Aziz International airport, which is north of the city, while the most extreme precipitation occurred over the southern part of the city. This observation was useful to compare simulation result even though it does not reflect the severity of the event. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) developed at Colorado State University was used to study this storm event. RAMS simulations indicted that a quasi-stationary Mesoscale convective system developed over the city of Jeddah and lasted for several hours. It was the source of the huge amount of rainfall. The model computed a total rainfall of more than 110 mm in the southern part of the city, where the flash flood occurred. This precipitation estimation was confirmed by the actual observation of the weather radar. While the annual rainfall in Jeddah during the winter varies from 50 to 100 mm, the amount of the rainfall resulting from this storm event exceeded the climatological total annual rainfall. The simulation of this event showed that warm sea surface temperature, combined with high humidity in the lower atmosphere and a large amount of convective available potential energy (CAPE) provided a favorable environment for convection. It also showed the presence of a cyclonic system over the north and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, and a subtropical anti-cyclone over Northeastern Africa that contributed to cold air advection bringing cold air to the Jeddah area. In addition, an anti-cyclone (blocking) centered over east and southeastern parts of the Arabian Peninsula and the Arabian Sea produced a low level jet over the southern part of the Red Sea, which transported large water vapor amounts over Jeddah. The simulation results showed that the main driver behind the storm was the interaction between these systems over the city of Jeddah (an urban heat island) that produced strong low-level convergence. Several sensitivity experiments were carried out showed that other variables could have contributed to storm severity as well. Those sensitivity experiments included several simulations in which the following variables were changed: physiographic properties were altered by removing the water surfaces, removing the urban heat island environment from the model, and changing the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei. The results of these sensitivity experiments showed that these properties have significant effects on the storm formation and severity.

Samman, Ahmad

185

Prevalence of short stature in Saudi children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Data on stature in Saudi children and adolescents are limited. The objective of this report was to establish the national prevalence of short stature in Saudi children and adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Community-based, cross-sectional study conducted over 2 years (2004, 2005) PATIENTS AND METHODS: The national data set of the Saudi reference was used to calculate the stature for age for children and adolescents 5 to 18 years of age. Using the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) reference, the prevalence of moderate and severe short stature was defined as the proportion of children whose standard deviation score for stature for age was less than -2 and -3, respectively. In addition, the 2000 Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the older 1978 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO references were used for comparison. RESULTS: Using the 2007 WHO reference, sample size in the Saudi reference was 19 372 healthy children and adolescents 5 to 17 years of age, with 50.8% being boys. The overall prevalence of moderate and severe short stature in boys was 11.3% and 1.8%, respectively; and in girls, 10.5% and 1.2%, respectively. The prevalence of moderate short stature was 12.1%, 11% and 11.3% in boys and 10.9%, 11.3% and 10.5% in girls when the 1978 WHO, the 2000 CDC and the 2007 WHO references were used, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The national prevalence of short stature in Saudi children and adolescents is intermediate compared with the international level. Improvement in the socioeconomic and health status of children and adolescents should lead to a reduction in the prevalence of short stature. PMID:21911988

El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al Herbish, Abdullah S.; Al Salloum, Abdullah A.; Foster, Peter J.; Al Omer, Ahmad A.; Qurachi, Mansour M.

2011-01-01

186

Distribution of naturally occurring radioactivity and ¹³?Cs in the marine sediment of Farasan Island, southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The present work is a part of a project dedicated to measure the marine radioactivity near the Saudi Arabian coasts of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf for establishing a marine radioactivity database, which includes necessary information on the background levels of both naturally occurring and man-made radionuclides in the marine environment. Farasan Islands is a group of 84 islands (archipelago), under the administration of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in the Red Sea with its main island of Farasan, which is 50 km off the coast of Jazan City. The levels of natural radioactivity of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and man-made radionuclides such as (137)Cs in the grab sediment and water samples around Farasan Island have been measured using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the sediment samples were found to be 35.46, 1.75, 3.31, 0.92, 34.34 and 0.14 Bq kg(-1), respectively. PMID:22923246

Al-Zahrany, A A; Farouk, M A; Al-Yousef, A A

2012-11-01

187

Attitudes and Practices of Primary Care Physicians in the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a global world-wide health problem in both developing and developed countries. In Saudi Arabia, this problem becomes an alarming disease both during childhood and adulthood among males and females. Primary health care physicians are identified as the first line of defense and contributor to cost-effective for the management and prevention of the disease; they are expected to normalize the weights in the community. Objective The aim of this study was to determine attitudes and practice by physician working in primary health care centers regarding management of obesity in the cities of Dammam and Al-Khobar in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study that took place from December 2009 to March 2010. A specially made questionnaire with a Cronbach alpha reliability of 0.86 and content validity by 5 experts was used to measure the attitudes and practices from several different aspects of care provided at primary health care centers to obesity were distributed and collected from 76 physicians working in primary health centers in Dammam and 73 in Al-Khobar in Saudi Arabia. One hundred thirty physicians responded (12.8% non-response rate) and became the sample. Results Eighty-three per cent of physicians has negative attitude toward the concept of obesity, and more than two-thirds of primary care physicians see themselves play a key role in the management of obesity; The mean attitude scores of studied nurses was ranged from 2.95±1.06 to 4.34 ±0.82 with an agreement that obesity is considered as a disease and the role of the primary health care physician is not only to refer obese patients to other specialized care as well as difficulties in counseling for weight reduction. However, the majority of physicians gave their obese patients advice on dietary habits and physical activities and also they are sometimes referred obese people to dieticians. Moreover, half of physicians provide educational materials as part of the management and above two third of the studied physicians never use medications in weight reduction. Only one third of them believe that they are well prepared for the treatment of obesity. Conclusion There exist gaps in attitudes contradictory for the management of obesity which indicates Physicians in Eastern Saudi Arabia showed a reasonable level of interest in participating in obesity prevention and management. Accordingly, they need for more education and training in management and prevention of obesity, and should continue education from medical school till post-graduate.

Alshammari (Al-Shammari YF), Yousef Fadhel Fahad

2014-01-01

188

Cesarean section in a high-parity community in Saudi Arabia: clinical indications and obstetric outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The study of the indications for cesarean section (CS) and its outcomes are useful for hospitals, clinicians, and researchers in determining strategies to lower the primary and repeat CS rate. The aim of this study was to identify the indications for CS and the incidence of adverse maternal/fetal outcomes in a tertiary care setting. Methods A retrospective cohort study of women (n?=?4305) who gave birth by CS at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (June 2008 to February 2011), was performed. All of the women’s medical records were reviewed by two consulting physicians to obtain the primary indications for CS and determine the maternal characteristics, type of CS (emergency or elective), and birth weight. All adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded. The point and interval estimates of the odds ratios were calculated using a logistic regression model to identify the significant predictors of adverse maternal and/or fetal outcomes. Results Of a total of 22,595 deliveries from 2008 to 2011, 4,305 deliveries were CS deliveries (19.05%). Two-thirds (67%) of all CS deliveries were emergency CSs, and the remaining deliveries were elective CSs (33%). Difficult labor (35.9%), fetal distress (21.9%) and breech presentation (11.6%) were the most frequent indications of emergency CS, while previous CS (54.3%), breech presentation (20.4%) and maternal request (10.1%) ranked first for elective CS. Adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were diagnosed in 5.09% and 5.06% of deliveries, respectively, with a significantly higher incidence in the emergency (6.06% & 5.51% respectively) than in elective CS (3.10 & 4.16% respectively). Blood transfusion was the most frequent adverse maternal outcome (3.72%), followed by ICU admission (0.63%), HELLP (0.51%), and hysterectomy (0.30%), while IUGR (3.25%) was the most frequent adverse fetal outcome, followed by IUFD and the need for ICU admission (0.58% each). Adverse maternal outcomes were significantly predicted by high gravidity (OR?=?2.84, 95% CI:1.26-6.39, p?=?0.011) and preeclampsia (OR?=?2.84, 95%CI:1.83-4.39, p?Saudi Arabia. High gravidity was a significant predictor of adverse maternal outcomes. Encouraging Saudi women to consider embarking on fewer pregnancies could act as a safeguard against mandatory CSs for subsequent births in multigravida and grand-multigravida Saudi females. Future prospective study that addresses women with repeat CSs and their association with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes is recommended. PMID:24575731

2014-01-01

189

A first hazard analysis of the Quaternary Harrat Al-Madinah volcanic field, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern portion of the 20,000 km2 Harrat Rahat basaltic field in NW Saudi Arabia (Harrat Al-Madinah) has hosted some of the most recent volcanic eruptions in the country. Rapid growth of the city of Al-Madinah has spread out onto the lava flows and scoria cones of the Harrat, increasing exposure to any potential renewed volcanism. We present here a first-order probabilistic hazard analysis related to new vent formation and subsequent lava flow from this volcanic field. The 501 visible eruption vent sites were integrated with aeromagnetic survey data (as representative of potential regions of buried volcanic vents) to develop a probability density function for new eruption sites using Gaussian kernel smoothing. This revealed a NNW striking zone of high spatial hazard terminating < 10 km south of the city. Using the properties of the AD1256 eruption lava flows and the spatial PDF, an analysis of lava hazard was carried out. Assuming a future lava-producing eruption, around 25% of the city of Al-Madinah is exposed to a probability of 0.001 to 0.005 of lava inundation. The temporal eruption recurrence rate is estimated at approximately one vent per 3300 years, but the temporal record of the field is so poorly constrained that the lower and upper bounds for the recurrence interval are 13,300 yrs and 70 yrs, respectively. Applying a Poisson temporal model, this results in a worst-case lava inundation recurrence interval of approximately 14,300 years.

El Difrawy, M. A.; Runge, M. G.; Moufti, M. R.; Cronin, S. J.; Bebbington, M.

2013-11-01

190

Bibliometric analysis of the volume and visibility of Saudi publications in leading anesthesia journals  

PubMed Central

Context: The quantity and quality of publications by a country indicates its contribution towards scientific development. Aims: To examine the volume and impact of the Saudi anesthesia publications in leading anesthesia journals. Settings and Design: Fifteen leading anesthesia journals were identified. Saudi publications in these journals from 1991 to 2011 were searched in the databases of Pubmed and Web of Knowledge. Methods: For each article, the journal and time of publication, the type of the article and the affiliation of the first author were analysed. The visibility of the publications was related to the number of citations and was analysed for the years 2000 to 2008. Data were compared with selected Arab countries. Statistical Analysis: Two visibility indices were used. The first relates the average citations per Saudi articles in the years following publication to the average global citations. The second relates the average citations per Saudi article in the two years following publication to the impact factor of the journal of publication. The h-index was used as a measure of both volume and visibility. Results: Anesthesiologists from Saudi affiliations published 173 documents in leading 15 anesthesia journals betweent the years 1991-2011, with a marked increase in the last 6 years. Anesthesia and Analgesia journal published 24% of Saudi articles. Saudi universities contributed to 55% of Saudi publications. The visibility of the Saudi articles was 0.7 of the international figures. Conclusions: Saudi anesthesia publications are increasing in recent years. Although the visibility of Saudi publications is below international figures, it compares favourably to Arab countries. PMID:23494080

Mowafi, Hany A.

2012-01-01

191

The Saudi Arabian International Student Experience: From a Gender-Segregated Society to Studying in a Mixed-Gender Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Saudi Arabia gender segregation is a cultural practice that occurs across all public and private domains. This segregation has shaped the lives of Saudi citizens and is driven socially through cultural and religious discourses and politically through regulation and policy. For Saudi students undertaking their education in western countries, the…

Alhazmi, Ahmed; Nyland, Berenice

2013-01-01

192

Using Language Learning Strategies to Improve the Writing Skills of Saudi EFL Students: Will It Really Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the use of language learning strategies (LLSs) by Saudi EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students inside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study determines if gender and academic major have any effect on that use and reveals the potential benefits for Saudi students in the area of strategy instruction. Data was collected…

McMullen, Maram George

2009-01-01

193

Emotional abuse among children: a study in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Emotional abuse is the most hidden and underestimated form of child maltreatment. We report an exploratory study in Saudi Arabia of the rate and types of emotional abuse among children and its association with selected variables. A convenience sample of 60 children aged 12-18 years was recruited from 3 malls in Jeddah. A specially designed, self-administered questionnaire was completed in confidence by the children with the consent of parents. Overall 90% of participants reported at least 1 form of rejecting emotional abuse and 61.7% at least 1 form of ignoring or terrorizing types of abuse. Chronic illness among parents was significantly positively correlated with terrorizing emotional abuse. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mothers' relationship with the child and ignoring and terrorizing types of emotional abuse. Further research is needed about the community prevalence, correlates and consequences of child emotional abuse in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24313151

Elarousy, W; Al-Jadaani, M

2013-10-01

194

Class III malocclusion: a cephalometric study of Saudi Arabians.  

PubMed

The records of 500 consecutive Saudi Arabian patients referred for orthodontic treatment were examined clinically and cephalometrically for Class III malocclusion. A control group was drawn at random from the same sample. The incidence of Class III was 9.4 per cent, with mandibular prognathism being the commonest presentation of the malocclusion. The upper and lower incisors exhibited a marked degree of dentoalveolar compensation, on dental bases having mean values of SNA--78.77 degrees and SNB--81.17 degrees. The maxillary length was reduced, as were the saddle and maxillary-mandibular plane angles. The gonial angle (ArGoMe), anterior and posterior facial heights, and mandibular lengths (ArGo, ArPo) were all significantly larger than the control group. The cephalometric values of the control group showed the increased tendency to bimaxillary protrusion in the Saudi Arabian sample. PMID:2765469

Toms, A P

1989-08-01

195

Prevalence of current smoking in Eastern province, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

All Saudi Arabian residents of the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30+ years completed a structured interview questionnaire about smoking. The prevalence of current smoking (smoked > 100 cigarettes or any tobacco products including waterpipe in lifetime and still smoking daily or occasionally for 1 month or more) among 196 268 respondents was 16.9% (28.7% among men and 4.5% among women). There was a significantly higher prevalence of smoking at younger ages in men and older ages in women. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that factors independently associated with smoking were lower socioeconomic tatus, lower education, being divorced and occupations such as the military and self-employed. PMID:20799597

Al-Turki, K A; Al-Baghli, N A; Al-Ghamdi, A J; El-Zubaier, A G; Al-Ghamdi, R; Alameer, M M

2010-06-01

196

Maastrichtian species of the coral genus Cunnolites from Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight species of the genus Cunnolites Barrére (1746) from the Maastrichtian of Central Saudi Arabia are described and illustrated in this paper. These consist of Cunnolites (Cunnolites) macrostoma (Reuss, 1854), C. (C.) tenuiradiata (Fromentel, 1870), C. (C.) elliptica (Lamarck, 1816), C. (Paracunnolites) orbignyi (Fromentel, 1864), C. (P.) undulata (Goldfuss, 1826) var. plana (Oppenheim, 1930), C. (P.) humilis (Quenstedt, 1880), C. (P.) minima (Fromentel, 1863) and C. (Plesiocunnolites) reussi (Fromentel, 1862). Species of the genus Cunnolites from Saudi Arabia are distinguished by their septa of different cycles being highly perforate at the lower, axial and upper parts of the corallum; their granules and pennulae on the lateral sides of septa are numerous but become fewer in the lower part of corallum and by some of their septa being anastomosed.

Ghalib El-Asa'ad, M. A.

197

Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms and primary glaucoma in Saudis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The frequencies of apolipoprotein E (APOE) alleles and genotypes were examined in 230 Saudi subjects including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; n=60) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG; n=40) patients as well as 130 control subjects. Methods: The presence of glaucoma in patients was based on clinical examination and\\/or ophthalmic records. The APOE allele frequency (?2, ?3, and ?4) was studied

Najwa Mohammed Al-Dabbagh; Nourah Al-Dohayan; Misbahul Arfin; Mohammad Tariq

2009-01-01

198

Geological mapping in northwestern Saudi Arabia using LANDSAT multispectral techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various computer enhancement and data extraction systems using LANDSAT data were assessed and used to complement a continuing geologic mapping program. Interactive digital classification techniques using both the parallel-piped and maximum-likelihood statistical approaches achieve very limited success in areas of highly dissected terrain. Computer enhanced imagery developed by color compositing stretched MSS ratio data was constructed for a test site in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Initial results indicate that several igneous and sedimentary rock types can be discriminated.

Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.; Moik, J. G.

1975-01-01

199

Gender Representation in Television Advertisements in Britain and Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study conducted a content analysis of TV adverts from Channel One in Saudi Arabia and ITV1 in the United Kingdom in 2000–2001.\\u000a A total of 164 adverts were analyzed from each country. The analysis compared the representation of men and women. Results\\u000a showed that men and women were equally visually represented as lead characters in advertisements in both countries,

Atif Nassif; Barrie Gunter

2008-01-01

200

Molecular epidemiology of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis is a major cause of ocular morbidity and may lead to visual loss. Adenovirus types 8, 19, and 37 may cause epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. The main objective of this study was to determine the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia. Methods We conducted a non-interventional observational clinical study. Seventy three eyes from 65 patients who presented to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with clinical features of acute adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis were included. Each patient underwent complete clinical examination and features such as membranous reaction, conjunctival hemorrhage, subepithelial corneal infiltrates, and preauricular lymph node enlargement were recorded. Conjunctival swabs were obtained from patients with presumed acute viral conjunctivitis. Immunochromatography (IC) and restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) were performed on the conjunctival swabs obtained from each eye. Serotype identification was performed using direct sequencing technique. Results Forty-nine (67.1%) were adenovirus type 8, 8 (11.0%) were adenovirus type 3, 6 (8.2%) type 37, 5 (6.8%) were adenovirus type 4, and 2 (2.3%) type 19. The remaining 5 were types 14, 19, and 22. The prevalence of membranous conjunctivitis was highest (83%) among eyes with adenovirus type 37 while subepithelial corneal opacities were most commonly seen among eyes with adenovirus type 8 (47%). Immunochromatography tests were positive for adenovirus in 48 (65.7%) out of 73 eyes. Conclusions This study determined the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis at one center in Saudi Arabia. Direct sequencing techniques is an efficient, accurate, and rapid means of diagnosing adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. The most common causes of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia were adenovirus types 8, 3, and 37. Membranous conjunctivitis and subepithelial opacities had the highest frequency of adenovirus types 37 and 8, respectively. Lymph nodes enlargement was least likely in adenovirus type 4. PMID:21139691

Omar, Nazri; Hammouda, Ehab; Akanuma, Masataka; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Ariga, Toshihide; Tagawa, Yoshitsugu; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Susumu; Aoki, Koki; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Ohno, Shigeaki

2010-01-01

201

Collapsing loess-like soil in western Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth fissures have developed at Wadi Al-Yutamah, western Saudi Arabia. The fissues are associated with land subsidence which is considered to be due to both rapid draw down of the ground-water level and hydrocompaction of the wadi soil after flooding. This phenomenon is relatively recent in the area.The wadi soil was investigated and classified in the field, and disturbed and

Abbas A. Al-Harthi; Khalid A. Bankher

1999-01-01

202

Fog Water Collection Evaluation in Asir Region–Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the fact that water can be collected from fog under favorable topographical and atmospheric conditions. The small\\u000a water droplets present in the fog precipitate when they come in contact with solid objects. The frequent fogs that occur in\\u000a the southwestern region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have the potential to provide an alternative source of freshwater in this

Ghassan A. Al-hassan

2009-01-01

203

Blood parasites of livestock in certain Regions in Saudi Arabia?  

PubMed Central

Blood samples from camels, sheep, goats and cattle from six Regions in Saudi Arabia were examined for blood parasites. Asir Region camels were disinfected while those of the Eastern, Jazan, Northern Frontiers, Riyadh and Tabouk Regions were infected with Trypanosoma evansi (5–40%), those of Riyadh and the Eastern Regions were infected with Dipetalonema evansi (1–6%) and those of the Eastern, Jazan and Riyadh Regions were infected with Eperythrozoon species (8–20%). Sheep and goats of all tested regions were infected with Theilaria hirci (4–20% and 6–14%, respectively), Theilaria ovis (5–19% and 6–24%, respectively) and Eperthrozoon ovis (2–9% and 2–8%, respectively). Sheep of the Eastern and Northern Frontiers Regions were also infected with Anaplasma ovis (2%) and also those of the Eastern Region were infected with Babesia motasi (4%) as well. Cattle of Asir and Eastern Regions were infected with Anaplasma marginale (1–3.4%) and those of the Eastern, Jazan and Riyadh Regions were infected with Theileria annulata (11.3–25%) and Eperthrozoon wenyoni (1–4%). Moreover, Jazan cattle were infected with Babesia bigemina (6%) and a benign Theileria species (27%). Some of these parasites are recorded in new localities indicating that they are spreading in the country. Also, this is the first report in Saudi Arabia of D. evansi in camels, A. ovis and B. motasi in sheep and A. marginale and B. bigemina in cattle. These parasites may be introduced into the country with infected livestock infested with the vectors of these parasites. The suspected vectors of the detected parasites in Saudi Arabia is discussed. Follow up surveys of blood parasites are recommended to assess their distribution and infection rates in the livestock of all Regions of Saudi Arabia, to make plans for control measures against their vectors. PMID:23961044

Al-Khalifa, M.S.; Hussein, H.S.; Diab, F.M.; Khalil, G.M.

2009-01-01

204

Trends in fatal substance overdose in eastern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Two hundred and forty-nine deaths owing to substance overdose were reported to the Medico-Legal Centre, Dammam, Saudi Arabia in the 8 year period from 1990 to 1997. All cases were subject to a full forensic autopsy with toxicological and histological studies. The overall male:female ratio was 7.9:1 and males predominated in all age groups. Saudis outnumbered other nationalities and accounted for 191 (77%) of the cases. Four main categories of overdose fatalities were identified: opiates, prescribed medication, alcohol and carbon monoxide. Opiates accounted for 116 (47%) of all overdose deaths, although such fatal overdoses have been decreasing since 1993. Medically-prescribed drugs accounted for 50 (20%) of the fatalities (21 deaths from antidepressants, 19 from tranquillisers, five from hypnotics, three from paracetamol and two from amphetamines). Ethyl alcohol accounted for 27 deaths (11%) and carbon monoxide for 26 deaths (10.5%). This study shows a sharp fall in overdose fatalities in eastern Saudi Arabia during the last 5 years, which probably reflects the influence of a combined policy of strict legislations against drug trafficking and tight control over prescription of drugs. PMID:15335507

Elfawal, M A

1999-03-01

205

Web-based Health Educational Program in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this exploratory study is to provide an overview of a web-based health educational site created by the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Sources of data included two interviews with Saudi IT personnel, three health educators, and two medical consultants working at KFSH&RC. The interviews ranged between 45 minutes and 120 minutes. The KFSH&RC website was also searched for the type of health information content posted. Results show that the KFSH&RC web-based health educational site provides health information through a medical encyclopedia, a social networking platform, health educational links, and targeted health information for children, which includes tools such as games and coloring books. Further research is needed on the effectiveness of the KFSH&RC web-based health education site in terms of improving knowledge and changing behavior of Saudi patients. The study recommends that targeted web-based health education strategies should be developed to reach large rural populations which have inadequate computer skills and limited access to the internet. PMID:25000016

Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Alsaleh, Mahassen; Elmetwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa

2014-01-01

206

Vitamin D status among population of Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objectives of this study were to assess serum 25OHD level among healthy Saudi population of Qassim region, besides socio-demographic characters, dietary habits, sun exposure and common symptoms of vitamin D deficiency were also evaluated. Subjects and Methods One hundred and eighty healthy males and females subjects above the age of 18 years were randomly selected from five primary health care centers of Qassim region. A predesigned structured questionnaire was administered by the doctor working in Primary Health Care Center and blood sample was obtained for measuring vitamin D (serum 25 OHD) level. Vitamin D sufficiency was defined as serum level of 25 OHD 30ng/ml or above. A level ranging 20 to 29 ng/ml was considered as vitamin D insufficiency, whereas below 20ng/ml as vitamin D deficiency. Results Out of 180 study participants, 51(28.3%) subjects were vitamin D deficient, 71 (39.4%) were vitamin insufficient and 58 (32.2%) had normal vitamin D level. Commonest symptom of vitamin D deficiency was bone pain (20%) and fatigue (11.1%). Conclusion Vitamin D inadequacy is a major public health problem in Saudi population. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency among healthy Saudi population residing in Qassim region is 67.8%. If the issue is not urgently addressed it could lead to serious health consequences. PMID:23267289

Naeem, Zahid; AlMohaimeed, AbdulRahman; Sharaf, Fawzy Khalil; Ismail, Hisham; Shaukat, Faiza; Inam, SN Bazmi

2011-01-01

207

Stroke in Saudi Arabia: a review of the recent literature  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a major cerebrovascular disease resulting in high mortality and persistent disability in adults across the world. Besides coronary heart disease and cancer, stroke is the commonest cause of death in most industrialized countries. Survivors of stroke are often left with severe mental and physical disabilities, which create a major social and economic burden, ranking as the second most common cause of death worldwide and a major source of morbidity. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the largest country in the Middle East occupying approximately four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula supporting a population of more than 28 million. Stroke is becoming a rapidly increasing problem and an important cause of illness and deaths in Saudi Arabia. However, compared with the developed countries, research regarding the incidence, prevalence and their socio-demographic properties of stroke is still insufficient due to lack of appropriate studies being conducted in these specified areas. This review aims to discuss the range of the aspect of stroke in Saudi Arabia from the literature published. PMID:24932325

Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Zamzami, Marwan Mohamed

2014-01-01

208

The Saudi Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of COPD  

PubMed Central

The Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) launched the Saudi Initiative for Chronic Airway Diseases (SICAD) to develop a guideline for the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This guideline is primarily aimed for internists and general practitioners. Though there is scanty epidemiological data related to COPD, the SICAD panel believes that COPD prevalence is increasing in Saudi Arabia due to increasing prevalence of tobacco smoking among men and women. To overcome the issue of underutilization of spirometry for diagnosing COPD, handheld spirometry is recommended to screen individuals at risk for COPD. A unique feature about this guideline is the simplified practical approach to classify COPD into three classes based on the symptoms as per COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the risk of exacerbations and hospitalization. Those patients with low risk of exacerbation (<2 in the past year) can be classified as either Class I when they have less symptoms (CAT < 10) or Class II when they have more symptoms (CAT ? 10). High-risk COPD patients, as manifested with ?2 exacerbation or hospitalization in the past year irrespective of the baseline symptoms, are classified as Class III. Class I and II patients require bronchodilators for symptom relief, while Class III patients are recommended to use medications that reduce the risks of exacerbations. The guideline recommends screening for co-morbidities and suggests a comprehensive management approach including pulmonary rehabilitation for those with a CAT score ?10. The article also discusses the diagnosis and management of acute exacerbations in COPD. PMID:24791168

Khan, Javed H.; Lababidi, Hani M. S.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Zeitouni, Mohammed O.; AL-Jahdali, Hamdan H.; Al-Amoudi, Omar S.; Wali, Siraj O.; Idrees, Majdy M.; Al-Shimemri, Abdullah A.; Al Ghobain, Mohammed O.; Alorainy, Hassan S.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.

2014-01-01

209

Obesity and Associated Factors -- Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013  

PubMed Central

Introduction Data on obesity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are nonexistent, making it impossible to determine whether the efforts of the Saudi Ministry of Health are having an effect on obesity trends. To determine obesity prevalence and associated factors in the KSA, we conducted a national survey on chronic diseases and their risk factors. Methods We interviewed 10,735 Saudis aged 15 years or older (51.1% women) through a multistage survey. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health-related habits and behaviors, diet, physical activity, chronic diseases, access to and use of health care, and anthropometric measurements were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews. We first compared sociodemographic factors and body mass index between men and women. Next, we conducted a sex-specific analysis for obesity and its associated factors using backward elimination multivariate logistic regression models. We used SAS 9.3 for the statistical analyses and to account for the complex sampling design. Results Of the 10,735 participants evaluated, 28.7% were obese (body mass index ?30 kg/m2). Prevalence of obesity was higher among women (33.5% vs 24.1%). Among men, obesity was associated with marital status, diet, physical activity, diagnoses of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Among women, obesity was associated with marital status, education, history of chronic conditions, and hypertension. Conclusion Obesity remains strongly associated with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension in the KSA, although the epidemic’s characteristics differ between men and women. PMID:25299980

El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Robinson, Margaret; Daoud, Farah; Jaber, Sara; Mikhitarian, Sarah; Al Saeedi, Mohammed; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

2014-01-01

210

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.

2010-07-01

211

Mutation analysis in Saudi Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients using multiplex PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn:: In Saudi Arabia, only limited work has been reported on the mutation patterns of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). This study looks at the spectrum of deletions in the 'hot spot' regions of the DMD gene in Saudi DMD\\/BMD patients using an enhanced multiplex PCR technique. M Maatteerriiaall aanndd mmeetthhooddss:: Twenty-six exons of the DMD

Adeel G. Chaudhary; Mohammed H. Alqahtani; Adel Abuzenadah; Mamdooh Gari; Abeer A. Al-Sofyani; Jumana Y. Al-Aama; Sahira A. Lary; Aisha H. Elaimi

2008-01-01

212

Feasibility study of establishing a wind farm to generate electricity in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind farms have been built all over the world, and successfully proven as one of the important substitutes of alternative energy. Nowadays, there have been some series ideas in Saudi Arabia to find out energy solutions. This research aims to study the feasibility of design and construction of wind farms in Saudi Arabia from the geographic, economic and technical view.

Essam Al-Ammar; Badr Al-Yousef

2010-01-01

213

Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human origins and migration models proposing the Horn of Africa as a prehistoric exit route to Asia have stimulated molecular genetic studies in the region using uniparental loci. However, from a Y-chromosome perspective, Saudi Arabia, the largest country of the region, has not yet been surveyed. To address this gap, a sample of 157 Saudi males was analyzed at

Khaled K Abu-Amero; Ali Hellani; Ana M González; Jose M Larruga; Vicente M Cabrera; Peter A Underhill

2009-01-01

214

Biofouling problems in membrane processes for water desalination and reuse in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia is a fast growing country with limited drinking water supplies. Its water consumption is expected to reach 20 billion m3 annually by the year 2000. Most of this water is required for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes. In order to meet these large water demands, about one-third of the world capacity of water desalination is produced in Saudi

F. A. Abd El Aleem; K. A. Al-Sugair; M. I. Alahmad

1998-01-01

215

Bin-Jaliah Elected as Secretary General of Saudi Society for Medical Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. "Ismaeel M. Bin-Jaliah, a Regular Member of APS, has been elected as the Secretary General of Saudi Society for Medical Education (SSME) in November 2007. Dr Bin-Jaliah is an Assistant Professor of Neurophysiology and the Director of Medical Education Center at King Khalid University in Abha, Aseer, Saudi Arabia."

2008-02-01

216

Developing EFL Teaching and Learning Practices in Saudi Colleges: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Saudi Ministry of education is highly concerned with the pursuit of excellence in effective EFL teaching-learning in the arena of education but it experiences tardy progress especially in college level. This is a common scenario in almost every stage of learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Behind this backdrop, this paper explores the new…

Liton, Hussain Ahmed

2012-01-01

217

National Culture-Management Practices: United States and Saudi Arabia Contrasted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful conduct of business in Saudi Arabia requires attitudes and skills significantly different from those needed in the United States. Distinct societal differences can turn winning practices in one culture into failures in another. Despite Saudi Arabia's recent emergence as a wealthy marketplace, traditional values and a unique lifestyle…

Hashmi, Mahmud S.

218

Smoking in Saudi Arabia and its relation to coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe health hazards related to smoking are well known. Smoking is a recognized risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite rejection of smoking by the Saudi community, we are still seeing smokers in our population. This study is designed to determine the prevalence of smoking in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and to find out its relation to

Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Mohammed R. Arafah; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Mohamed Z. Khalil; Nazeer B. Khan; Akram Al-Khadra; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Moheeb Abdullah; Maie S. Al-Shahid; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek; Mohmmed S. Nouh

2009-01-01

219

78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia...Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security mission to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...partnerships with local, safety and security firms, and government agencies...Individual transfer to the hotel. Sunday, September 29,...

2013-01-31

220

Evaluating EFL Intermediate Teachers' Performance in the Light of Quality Standards in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research aimed at four points: First, Identifying the most appropriate standards of EFL Saudi teachers' performance in the light of quality standards. Second, designing an objective and comprehensive evaluation rubric based on quality standards to evaluate EFL Saudi intermediate teachers' performance. Third, determining to what extent…

Al-Thumali, Amani Dakheel Allah

2011-01-01

221

Saudi Elementary School Science Teachers' Beliefs: Teaching Science in the New Millennium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored Saudi elementary school science teachers' beliefs about the process of teaching and learning science. This involved the exploration of their views about the new Saudi science curriculum, which emphasizes critical thinking and problem solving. Comprehensive interviews were held in 8 schools with 4 male and 6 female--2 of whom…

Alghamdi, Amani K. Hamdan; Al-Salouli, Misfer Saud

2013-01-01

222

Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Health Informatics Masters Program at KSAU-HS University, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Saudi health sector has witnessed a significant progress in recent decades with some Saudi hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this progress has not been accompanied by the same advancement in the health informatics field whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals in order to achieve important objectives such…

Majid, Altuwaijri

2007-01-01

223

Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi

Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

2009-01-01

224

78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This...

2013-09-13

225

The Effects of Using Peer and Teacher Feedback into Saudi Writing Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to investigate the efficacy of two commonly used techniques of feedback in teaching writing: teachers' feedback and peers' feedback in the Saudi educational context. The study was comprised of 132 Saudi EFL students enrolled at the Department of English in the University of Hai'l. The data collection was carried out…

Alhaisoni, Eid; Alzuoud, Khalid

2012-01-01

226

78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby report the waiver of this...

2013-04-19

227

75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department...7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

2010-09-28

228

Application of Surrogate Reservoir Model (SRM) to an Onshore Green Field in Saudi Arabia; Case Study  

E-print Network

; Case Study Shahab D. Mohaghegh, Intelligent Solutions, Inc. & West Virginia University, Jim Liu, Saudi Aramco, Razi Gaskari and Mohammad Maysami, Intelligent Solutions, Inc. and Olugbenga A. Olukoko, Saudi model with very low computational cost and low turnaround period and allows for extended study

Mohaghegh, Shahab

229

Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality in Offsprings of Diabetic Mothers in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of diabetic mothers and their offspring in Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Suggests diabetes mellitus in pregnancy may be a common problem in Saudi Arabia, as poor maternal diabetic control results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results suggest that health education and improved coverage of…

Al-Dabbous, Ibrahim A. Al-; And Others

1995-01-01

230

The Effect of Online Community on Offline Community in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a radical transformation taking place in Saudi Arabia. The Saudis are poised on the edge of a significant new social landscape. Called the Internet, this new frontier includes not only the creation of new forms of private communication, like electronic mail and chat, but also online public discussion areas, which for the first time enable communication between males

Yeslam Al-Saggaf

2004-01-01

231

Residential Saudi load forecasting using analytical model and Artificial Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, load forecasting has become one of the main fields of study and research. Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) is an important part of electrical power system operation and planning. This work investigates the applicability of different approaches; Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and hybrid analytical models to forecast residential load in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). These two techniques are based on model human modes behavior formulation. These human modes represent social, religious, official occasions and environmental parameters impact. The analysis is carried out on residential areas for three regions in two countries exposed to distinct people activities and weather conditions. The collected data are for Al-Khubar and Yanbu industrial city in KSA, in addition to Seattle, USA to show the validity of the proposed models applied on residential load. For each region, two models are proposed. First model is next hour load forecasting while second model is next day load forecasting. Both models are analyzed using the two techniques. The obtained results for ANN next hour models yield very accurate results for all areas while relatively reasonable results are achieved when using hybrid analytical model. For next day load forecasting, the two approaches yield satisfactory results. Comparative studies were conducted to prove the effectiveness of the models proposed.

Al-Harbi, Ahmad Abdulaziz

232

Coping strategies for stress used by adolescent girls in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Secondary school girls, ages 15 – 19 yrs were surveyed to find out the coping strategies they used when stressed. Adolescents, who are affected with stress and depression early in life, suffer from depression throughout their lives especially if they are utilizing improper ways to cope with it. Methods: A cross sectional school based survey among 1028 adolescent girls was conducted among the secondary schools in Riyadh city,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: About 25% stated that they cry, 19% listen to music, 15% start eating a lot, 12% sit alone/isolate themselves, 11% pray/read the Quran, 10% get into a verbal argument or a fight. Only a few, 3% exercise, and 2% stated that they find someone to discuss and talk to. Conclusion: Majority of the adolescent girls in our survey, rely on emotion related coping mechanisms rather than problem solving mechanisms. This can cause long term implications in these adolescents as there is an increased probability to develop depression later on in life. Policy makers need to implement strategies for early identification of stress and depression. Talking to friends and family can serve as an effective way to cope with stress.

Raheel, Hafsa

2014-01-01

233

Gender inequities in health: an exploratory qualitative study of Saudi women's perceptions.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore Saudi Arabian women's perceptions of how gendered social structures affect their health by understanding their perceptions of these influences on their health relative to those on men's health. Qualitative methods, including focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth individual interviews (IDIs) were conducted with 66 married women in Riyadh, the capital city. Participants were purposively sampled for maximum variation, including consideration of socio-economic status, age, educational level, health status and the use of healthcare. The majority of women perceived their health to be worse than men's and attributed this to their childbearing, domestic and care-giving roles, restrictions on their mobility, poverty and psychological stress related to their responsibilities for children, and marital conflict. A minority of participants felt that men's health was worse than women's and related this to their gendered roles as "breadwinners," greater mobility and masculine norms and identities. Gender equity should be a health policy priority to improve women's health. PMID:24093453

Alyaemni, Asmaa; Theobald, Sally; Faragher, Brian; Jehan, Kate; Tolhurst, Rachel

2013-01-01

234

City of Anaheim City Manager's Office  

E-print Network

City of Anaheim City Manager's Office Volunteer Web Design Intern Job Description 1 The City of Anaheim seeks an intern to assist the City Manager's Office in graphic design with an emphasis on web design. This internship will give the intern valuable real-world experience in web design, as well

de Lijser, Peter

235

Heavy Thunderstorm Synoptic Climatology and Forcing Mechanisms in Saudi Arabia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects. These forecasts become possible when the movement and the development of the mid-latitude disturbances are known very well. To further increase our understanding of the inter-annual variability of thunderstorms in semi-arid areas such as Saudi Arabia, it is necessary to consider the relationship between this variability and the large-scale atmospheric parameters in addition to the geographical features. Moreover, better insight into the monthly variations of the synoptic situations in Saudi Arabia is considered to be important for understanding the broad mechanisms responsible for thunderstorm occurrences in this geographical area. This information is highly important for aviation and other sectors in Saudi Arabia - both public and private. This paper aims to investigate the favourable synoptic environments for heavy thunderstorm initiation and development in Saudi Arabia. The importance of the monthly synoptic analysis of all days (1998-2003), heavy thunderstorm days, and dry days was intended to be demonstrated. Therefore, the monthly mean charts and deviations from the mean (anomalies) of specific meteorological parameters for heavy thunderstorm days and dry days for the months of January-December for the period 1998-2003, was illustrated to examine the synoptic conditions leading to heavy thunderstorm events in Saudi Arabia.

Ghulam, Ayman S.

2010-05-01

236

Knowledge and Practice of Pulp Therapy in Deciduous Teeth among General Dental Practitioners in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been observed that the general dentists and pedodontists differ in their treatment recommendations for pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Aim: To determine the knowledge and practice of pulp therapy in deciduous teeth by general dental practitioners (GDP) in two cities of southern Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: Fifty GDP selected at random from government and private dental clinics were questioned about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth in Abha and Najran cities using a 10-item questionnaire. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 11.0 and descriptive statistics were obtained. Results: All 50 participants responded to the survey. Pulpotomy was suggested as the first line of treatment for pulp-exposed primary tooth by 32 respondents with 44 using Buckley's formocresol and 32 applying it on the pulp for 5 minutes. 43 respondents squeeze dried the cotton pellet before application on the pulp. In pulpectomy procedure 44 respondents preferred zinc oxide eugenol as obturation material with 22 using handheld reamers and 15 using slow-speed lentilospirals for obturation. 12 respondents used obturation techniques which had no scientific relevance. In order of preference Glass ionomer cement (GIC), silver amalgam, and stainless steel crowns were the materials of choice for final restoration of endodontically treated deciduous teeth. All 50 answered in the affirmative when asked if they would like to have additional information about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Conclusion: The study concluded that general dentists were regularly performing pulp therapy in decidous teeth and therefore need to be frequently updated about these procedures. PMID:23440030

Togoo, RA; Nasim, VS; Zakirulla, M; Yaseen, SM

2012-01-01

237

Susceptibility of Saudi Bulinus truncatus to infection with Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium with observations on protein electrophoretic pattern of the snails.  

PubMed

A laboratory-based susceptibility study was carried out on snails Bulinus truncatus collected from highland Abha, Asser, Saudi Arabia to Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium to investigate the potential role of Saudi B. truncatus in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium and to know the possibility that the parasite might be able to spread into Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that, compared to Egyptian snails, survival of snails at day 25 post-exposure was significantly higher in Saudi B. truncatus ones. The infection rate was higher in Saudi snails as compared to Egyptian ones. The incubation period was shorter in Saudi snails but the duration of cercarial shedding was longer in the Egyptian than in the Saudi snails. The production of S. haematobium cercariae per snail was higher in Egyptian snails than in Saudi ones. These results suggest that Saudi B. truncatus can play a role in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium in Saudi Arabia and therefore this parasite might be able to spread into the Kingdom. In addition, electrophoretic analysis of tissue soluble proteins was done to determine the effects of the parasite on both the Egyptian and Saudi snails. The electrophoretic analysis revealed the occasional presence or absence of certain bands in infected snails in comparison with non-infected one. PMID:19329256

Mostafa, Osama M S; Bin Dajem, Saad M; Abu El Einin, Hanaa M

2009-05-12

238

Rodents and their ectoparasites in Wadi Hanifah, Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted on commercial and wild rodents from different locations in Wadi Hanifah in Riyadh. Six species of rodents were collected with wire net traps baited with fresh cucumber or fatty cheese. The trapped rodents in descending order of numbers were Rattus rattus rattus, Acomys dimidiatus, Meriones libycus, R. r. frugivorus, R. r. alexandrinus and Mus musculus. The ectoparasites were a flea, Xenopsyllus sp. on R. r. frugivorus and a tick, Rhipicephalus turanicus on each of A. dimidiatus and R. r. alexandrinus. In general, rodents and ectoparasites were low in Wadi Hanifah, probably due to the severe hot and very dry weather mainly in the summer season. PMID:11775100

Alahmed, A M; Al-Dawood, A S

2001-12-01

239

Urban dwelling environments in rapidly growing cities : case study, Unayzah, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

The study is concerned with two critical issues: a) the housing situation of middle income groups; b) the use of land in new developments. A tentative planning model for urban land development and a survey of existing ...

Alohali, Yousef Nasser

1983-01-01

240

Box City Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

241

Orthognathic surgical norms for a sample of Saudi adults: Hard tissue measurements  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the study is to establish hard tissue cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery for a sample of Saudi adults. Materials and methods Sixty-two lateral cephalometric radiographs for 31 females and 31 males, age range of 22–24 years, were analysed. The mean values of the hard and dental measurements were compared with those of European-American adults using Burstone analysis, as well as comparison between Saudi males and females. Results Saudi males had an increased cranial base length, the mandible lied more posterior to maxilla, increased mandibular plane angle and backward rotation of the mandible with less prominent chin, shorter maxillary length, and also less proclination of lower incisors compared to those of European Americans. Saudi females had similar cranial base length and shorter maxillary length than European Americans. In both gender; lower anterior and posterior dental heights were smaller when compared with the European-Americans’ values. A significant difference between Saudi males and females was found. Saudi males showed longer cranial base length, larger vertical skeletal proportion, increased dental values, longer maxillary and mandibular length than the female group. Conclusion This study may be useful in providing racially specific cephalometric norms for diagnosis and treatment planning for orthognathic surgery for a sample of Saudi adults. PMID:23960489

AlBarakati, Sahar F.; Baidas, Laila F.

2010-01-01

242

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity. PMID:3485894

Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Mossa, J S; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Said, M S; Tariq, M

1986-01-01

243

Oral injuries in children attending a hospital in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims  To determine the occurrence, causes, types and severity of oral trauma and the time elapsed until seeking dental care in children\\u000a seen in a hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Data included all cases of oro-facial trauma for children aged 17 years and younger who presented at the emergency and dental\\u000a departments of the hospital during a 12-month period.

Manal Al-Malik

2009-01-01

244

Hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome in Saudi Arabian patients.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether hypnotherapy provides a significant therapeutic effect in Saudi Arabian patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Patients (n=26) were consecutively recruited at a psychiatry outpatient clinic after diagnosis by a gastroenterologist and a medical evaluation for irritable bowel syndrome. Each patient had 12 sessions of hypnotherapy over a period of 12 weeks (1 session per week). Patients completed a scale measuring symptom severity before and 3 months after the trial. Hypnotherapy significantly enhanced a feeling of better quality of life more in male than in female patients, and bowel habit dissatisfaction was reduced more in female than in male patients. PMID:17684852

Al Sughayir, M A

2007-01-01

245

Luminescence dating of the Wabar meteorite craters, Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Luminescence dating has been used to find the age of meteorite impact craters at Wabar (Al Hadida) in Saudi Arabia. The luminescence characteristics of the shocked material were determined. Using a variety of luminescence dating techniques applied to impactite formed by the meteorite, and to the underlying sand, the age is found to be 290 ?? 38 years. A comparison is made with two possible historically recorded ages. An impact as young as this has implications for the assessment of hazards from the impact on Earth of small meteorites. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.; Shoemaker, C.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Wynn, J.

2004-01-01

246

Clean Cities Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

Not Available

2004-01-01

247

A study on bovine ephemeral fever involving sentinel herds and serosurveillance in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A nationwide study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to determine if bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) was present in cattle between 1993 and 1995. The study had two components: the first was establishment of sentinel herds of cattle in some localities, the second was to conduct a nationwide serological survey. The results indicated that Saudi Arabia was free of BEF during the period of study and that the cattle population was susceptible to the disease, which may have contributed to the fulminating epidemic of 1996. The epidemiological situation of the disease in Saudi Arabia is discussed in relation to the likelihood of introduction of the disease into the country. PMID:17361778

Abu-Elzein, E M E; Al-Afaleq, A I; Housawi, F M T; Al-Basheir, A M

2006-12-01

248

Pubertal characteristics among schoolgirls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Puberty is the gradual transition period between childhood and adulthood. Many factors may contribute to the onset of puberty. The objective of the study was to determine the age of onset of secondary pubertal characteristics among Saudi Arabian girls. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a cluster sample design. Seven hundred and twenty-five schoolgirls between the ages of 6 and 16 years from diverse socioeconomic levels were included. During physical examinations, the height and weight of the girls were recorded, and the stages of breast and pubic hair development were determined according to Tanner stages; axillary hair development was determined according to modified stages. The median age at Tanner stage 2 for breast and pubic hair development was 10 years. The median age at stage 2 in modified scales for axillary hair development was 12 years. In conclusion, the median age of the onset of breast development at Tanner stage 2 for Saudi girls in Riyadh is lower than what has been reported in some countries in Europe, South Africa, Turkey and India but similar to girls in Hong Kong, China and white girls in the USA, which may support secular trends of an earlier onset of puberty. PMID:23640021

Felimban, Naila; Jawdat, Dunia; Al-Twaijri, Yasmin; Al-Mutair, Angham; Tamimi, Waleed; Shoukri, Mohamed; Tamim, Hani; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim

2013-07-01

249

"Outbreak" of hand injuries during Hajj festivities in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Pediatric hand surgeons in Europe and North America are aware of the yearly "outbreak" of pediatric hand injuries on Halloween from carving pumpkins. This study reports another yearly "outbreak" of hand injuries--in Saudi Arabia from slaughtering sheep. During the 3 days of festivities following the Hajj ceremony, hundreds of thousands of sheep are slaughtered. Over 4 consecutive years, 298 patients attended the emergency room of Riyadh Central Hospital with injuries related to the slaughtering of animals sustained during the 3 days of festivity. Almost three quarters of patients (73%) were injured on the first day of festivity. The majority (92%) were nonprofessionals. Children accounted for 6.7% of patients. In adults, the female-to-male ratio was 1:7. The most common mechanism of injury was a knife cut (80.9%). Almost three quarters of injuries (73.5%) affected the hands, with more involvement of the left than the right hand. Only 7.7% of patients with hand injuries were admitted to the hospital for treatment. It was concluded that implementing safety measures while slaughtering, and educating the general population would be important in the prevention of these hand injuries in Saudi Arabia. PMID:10454321

Rahman, M M; Al-Zahrani, S; Al-Qattan, M M

1999-08-01

250

Work-Related Health Disorders among Saudi Computer Users  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and eye and vision complaints among the computer users of King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabian Airlines (SAUDIA), and Saudi Telecom Company (STC). Stratified random samples of the work stations and operators at each of the studied institutions were selected and the ergonomics of the work stations were assessed and the operators' health complaints were investigated. The average ergonomic score of the studied work station at STC, KAU, and SAUDIA was 81.5%, 73.3%, and 70.3, respectively. Most of the examined operators use computers daily for ? 7 hours, yet they had some average incidences of general complaints (e.g., headache, body fatigue, and lack of concentration) and relatively high level of incidences of eye and vision complaints and musculoskeletal complaints. The incidences of the complaints have been found to increase with the (a) decrease in work station ergonomic score, (b) progress of age and duration of employment, (c) smoking, (d) use of computers, (e) lack of work satisfaction, and (f) history of operators' previous ailments. It has been recommended to improve the ergonomics of the work stations, set up training programs, and conduct preplacement and periodical examinations for operators. PMID:25383379

Jomoah, Ibrahim M.

2014-01-01

251

Knowledge and attitudes of saudi dental undergraduates on oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory. PMID:24699922

Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama

2014-12-01

252

Timing of uplift peripheral to the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A Prominent escarpment is found along the western margin of the Arabian Shield. Elevations along this escarpment are up to 3200 m above the Red Sea. Between the Red Sea and the crest of the escarpment is a relatively featureless coastal plane that is ??? 50 km across. The coastal plane abruptly gives way to the steep mountainous terrain, the elevation of which increases abruptly towards the high crest. The elevation slowly decreases to the east of the high crest. Forty-four apatite fission-track ages have been determined on rocks from the Proterozoic Arabian Shield in southwestern Saudi Arabia. These ages range from 13.8 to 568 Ma. In general, the youngest ages are found at low elevations along the base of the escarpment near the eastern edge of the coastal plane. The oldest ages are from along and to the east of the crest. The fission-track data from Saudi Arabia show that there was a period of minor uplift and cooling during the Cretaceous. This was followed by a relatively stable period which lasted until the Mid to Upper Miocene. The latest uplift and erosion began slightly younger than 13.8 Ma. This latest episode resulted in a minimum uplift of 3 km and is related to the Red Sea Rift. Samples totally annealed prior to this latest episode of uplift and cooling have not yet reached the surface.

Naeser, C.W.; Zimmermann, R.A.; Bohannon, R.G.; Schmidt, D.L.

1990-01-01

253

Consanguinity pattern and heritability of Vitiligo in Arar, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Context: Epidemiological studies have shown that vitiligo is a complex trait, involving combinations of pathogenic effects of multiple susceptibility genes as well as environmental risk factors. Aim: To observe whether consanguinity increased the incidence of vitiligo in Saudi patients from Arar. Patients and Methods: This study included 69 Saudi patients with vitiligo and their families. These patients, selected from the experience specialist dermatology center in Arar, from April 2011 to 2012, were interviewed by a dermatologist to confirm the diagnosis and complete a questionnaire. Results: A total of 69 patients, 40 males and 29 females were selected. Their mean age was 34.5 ± 11.8 years with the median age of 23 years. The mean age at onset of disease was 27.9 ± 12.9 years. The mean duration of the disease was 9.7 ± 5.3 years. The frequency of focal, vulgaris, universal, and acrofacial subtypes was 22 (31.9%), 21 (30.4%), 8 (11.6%), and 18 (26.1%), respectively. A positive family history of vitiligo was obtained in 45 (65.2%) cases. A comparison of the frequency of vitiligo among siblings in relation to the general population was more in accord with the multifactorial model. Conclusion: Consanguinity in marriage increases the incidence of the disease. Therefore, genetic counseling and premarital examination would be important contributions to lower the prevalence of vitiligo. PMID:24696629

Alenizi, Dhaifallah A.

2014-01-01

254

Water contamination and esophageal cancer at Gassim Region, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Between January 1980 and December 1982, 183 patients with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the esophagus who were referred to a tertiary referral hospital were studied. Thirty-two (17%) patients were referred from Gassim Region at the north central part of Saudi Arabia. In contrast, only 5% of total cancer patient referrals were from this area. A case-control study showed a significant regional difference within Saudi Arabia and the most referrals from Gassim area. A prospective case-control study showed persistently high numbers of referrals from that region during 1983-1987. When patients from Gassim Region were compared with those referred from other locations, no statistical differences were noted between the two groups except for the source of drinking water. Water analysis from Gassim area showed a high solid content with elevated levels of calcium, magnesium, and to a lesser extent, chromium iron, cadmium, and cobalt. Traces of petroleum oil were found in five of six water samples from Gassim during 1983, compared with 3 of 49 samples from other areas. Mutagenicity tests on water specimens form Gassim Region indicated the presence of possible carcinogens. It is being suggested that the high prevalence of esophageal cancer in this region may be related to contamination of water by impurities such as petroleum oils. Malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency, as well as other factors may have promoted such malignancies.

Amer, M.H.; El-Yazigi, A.; Hannan, M.A.; Mohamed, M.E. (King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

1990-05-01

255

In vitro cytotoxic screening of selected Saudi medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity. PMID:21953271

Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

2012-04-01

256

Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ=-0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r=0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t=2.898; df=18; p<0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. PMID:22353176

Alharbi, O A; Phillips, M R; Williams, A T; Gheith, A M; Bantan, R A; Rasul, N M

2012-04-01

257

The Saudi health care system: a view from the minaret.  

PubMed

This review article provides information about the origins, history, evolution and current status of the Saudi healthcare system, which is currently being transformed from a publicly financed and managed welfare system to a market-oriented, employment-based, insurance-driven system. Since its inception in the 1920s, the system has provided free healthcare to all Saudi nationals at publicly owned facilities run by government-employed administrators and healthcare providers. For millions of foreign workers in the country, healthcare at privately owned for-profit facilities has been paid for either by the employer or by the individual. At the completion of the three-stage transition, everyone in the country, whether employed in the public or private sector, is expected to have insurance coverage provided by the employer. All Ministry of Health-owned hospitals will be divested to the private sector, whereas primary health centres are likely to be retained by the government. Many of the operational details of the transition are unclear at this stage and will be worked out in the coming years. This paper provides a context for these changes and highlights some of the existing issues and weaknesses. The article also points to some of the future challenges and cautions against pitfalls involved in the complete transformation of the system. PMID:22555119

Khaliq, Amir A

2012-01-01

258

78 FR 39712 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait Clarification...participants is selected, all interested U.S. IT and cyber-security firms and trade organizations which have not...

2013-07-02

259

Geochemical, UPb zircon, and Nd isotope investigations of the Neoproterozoic Ghawjah Metavolcanic rocks, Northwestern Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

from Egypt south to Sudan, Eritrea, and Ethiopia on the western flank of the Red Sea and on the eastern flank from Jordan and Israel south through Saudi Arabia and Yemen (Fig. 1a). The ANS is a collage

Stern, Robert J.

260

Eurasian and Sub-Saharan African mitochondrial DNA haplogroup influences pseudoexfoliation glaucoma development in Saudi patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have a role on the development of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEG) in the Saudi Arab population. Methods The mtDNA regulatory region and coding regions comprising mtDNA haplogroup diagnostic polymorphisms were sequenced in patients with PEG (n=94), healthy matched controls (free of PEG; n=112) and a healthy Saudi Arab population group (n=810). Results The Eurasian haplogroup T and the Sub-Saharan African Haplogroup L2 confer susceptibility to PEG, whereas the Eurasian haplogroup N1 was associated with reduced risk to develop PEG in the Saudi Arab population. Conclusions Mitochondrial haplogroups T and L2 may play a role in the development of PEG in the Saudi Arabian population. PMID:21364909

Cabrera, Vicente M.; Larruga, Jose M.; Osman, Essam A.; Gonzalez, Ana M.; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A.

2011-01-01

261

Saudi Students' Perspectives on their Teachers' Transmission of Negative Messages: A Hidden Curriculum  

E-print Network

This study sought to explore students' perspectives on the extent to which the female and male Islamic education teachers transmitted negative messages as a hidden curriculum while teaching their 12th grade students in secondary schools in Saudi...

Abdulsalam, Abdulkhaliq G.

2009-10-29

262

Using Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) to Resolve the Major Construction Project Delay Causes in Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) has gained attention in the United States and Europe as an effective delivery method for construction projects. The aim of this research paper is to determine the major causes of delay in projects in Saudi Arabia...

Alkhalid, Khalid Abdullah

2011-12-16

263

Stakeholder value network analysis for the energy system of Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

Saudi Arabia is experiencing a considerable escalation in its consumption of electricity, provoked by economic progress and population increase. Such an escalation threatens the economic output of the Kingdom: more oil and ...

Alonso, Francisco J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

264

75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7220] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations...

2010-11-02

265

Mega-Project Construction Management: The Corps of Engineers and Bechtel Group in Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis seeks to develop empirical hypotheses for successful construction management of international mega-projects through a multiple exploratory case study methodology. The case study involves two construction programs recently completed in Saudi Ar...

1991-01-01

266

Aggregate model and analysis of the energy dynamics in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is facing a crisis in the near future centered on increasing energy consumption. Today, the kingdom consumes approximately 1/3 of its oil production. If no action is taken and the kingdom continues ...

Al-Ahmed, Khalid A. (Khalid Abdulrahim)

2012-01-01

267

Are Cities Dying?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper organizes a discussion of the costs and benefits of cities around the question: Are cities becoming obsolete? While minimizing transport costs for manufactured goods no longer justifies the existence of cities, they still facilitate the division of labor and the flow of ideas. Cities' higher housing, commuting, and pollution costs seem stable over time. Only the costs associated

Edward L. Glaeser

1998-01-01

268

Analyzing the competitive advantages of Saudi Arabia with Porter’s model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia is one of the world’s wealthiest nations per capita and, through possession of a large share of the world’s oil resources, an economic power. However, oil continues to dominate exports, but industrialization efforts of the 1980s have led to a considerable diversification, with a range of manufactured goods being produced. The economic success of Saudi Arabia is built

Sajjad M. Jasimuddin

2001-01-01

269

Legal Issues in End-of-life Care: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia and United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This paper provides different perspectives on end-of-life legal issues in Saudi Arabia, and contrasts those perspectives with current legal practice in the United States. Background: Islamic law governs end-of-life legal issues in Saudi Arabia which applies to end-of-life legal issues. There is a specific legal terminology, derived from the Qura'an, that is used to settle conflicts in end-of-life care.

Amani Babgi

2009-01-01

270

Fortification with vitamin D: Comparative study in the Saudi Arabian and US markets  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi Arabian population. To evaluate the current status of vitamin D fortification and calcium content of commonly consumed food items by the Saudi population and to compare it to US data. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional market survey at markets of Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and State of Illinois, USA. Methods: A dietary survey was carried out for the content of calcium and vitamin D on the most commonly consumed food products by the Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D. The survey included different brands of fresh milk, yoghurt, powdered milk, cheese, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and orange juice. Vitamin D content in the products studied from the Saudi marketplace was compared with the suggested vitamin D content in the same products according to US Code of Federal Regulations recommendations. Results: The overall calcium content in the processed dairy products is generally higher than the content in fresh dairy products. Vitamin D content in the fresh dairy products varied from 40 IU/L to 400 IU/L. None of the cereals or orange juice in Saudi Arabia contain vitamin D supplement. The vitamin D content in the food items from the Saudi marketplace is mostly lower than recommended by the US Code of Federal Regulations. Conclusion: Most commonly consumed food products by Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D either not fortified or contain an amount less than recommended by guidelines set for US marketplace. PMID:23723731

Sadat-Ali, Mir; Al Elq, Abdulmohsen; Al-Farhan, Mohammed; Sadat, Nazia A.

2013-01-01

271

Isolation and identification of microbes associated with mobile phones in Dammam in eastern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was conducted to determine microbial contamination of mobile phones in the city of Dammam, in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia, and identify the most important microbial species associated with these phones in order to take the necessary remedial measures. Materials and Methods: The analysis of a total of 202 samples was done to identify fungal and pathogenic bacteria isolates. Sterile swabs were firmly passed on the handset, the buttons and the screens of mobile phones, then inoculated into media of bacteria and fungi. Frequency distribution of isolates were calculated. Results: There were 737 isolated of the following bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria sicca, Micrococcus luteus, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterobacter aerogenes at the rate of 56.58, 13.57, 8.01, 7.73, 6.51, 3.66, 2.85 and 1.09% respectively. There were fungal isolates as follows: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus ochraceus at the rate of 29.07, 26.74, 20.93, 10.47, 6.98, 2.33, 2.33, 1.16%, respectively. Conclusions: The study showed that all mobile phones under consideration were infected by several microbes, most of which belonged to the natural flora of the human body as well as airborne fungi and soil. This means that it is necessary to sterilize hands after contact with a phone since it is a source of disease transmission. PMID:22022665

Al-Abdalall, Amira H. A.

2010-01-01

272

Impact of software and hardware technologies on occupational health and safety policies in Saudi Arabian oil refineries.  

PubMed

This article seeks to examine the impact of technology importation on occupational health and safety in both Saudi Arabian and U.S. oil refining industries. Technologies imported to the Saudi oil industry take two forms: hardware (sophisticated equipment to run oil facilities) and software (policies and regulations pertaining to workers' health and safety, and employment rights installed by Aramco's founding multinational companies). This study utilizes qualitative, historically oriented, cross-national case studies to compare and assess workers' health, safety, and rights in Saudi Aramco with its U.S. counterpart, Motiva Enterprises. Two facilities were chosen to conduct field research: the Saudi Aramco oil refinery at Jeddah and Motiva's refinery at Port Arthur, Texas. The Jeddah refinery is fully owned by Saudi Aramco, thus, representing Aramco's health and safety policies and regulations. The Port Arthur refinery serves as a reference case study for U.S. oil refining facilities. The aspects of occupational health and safety in Saudi Aramco--ExxonMobil's joint ventures SAMREF and LUBREF--also are discussed to examine workers' health policies in both companies. The American oil industry made a significant contribution in establishing the Saudi oil industry, with the cooperation of the Saudi government. Despite having outstanding employment benefits schemes in Saudi Aramco, the presence of an organized work force better serves employee participation in Motiva than in Aramco. Safety systems such as Process Safety Management (PSM)--applied in Motiva--partially exist in Aramco to operate hardware technologies safely. Motiva training systems are better through PACE's Triangle of Prevention (TOP). Both companies follow the same pattern of handling occupational injuries and diseases; however, Saudi government agencies (GOSI) are responsible for compensating and treating injured workers. Saudi workers expressed conditional support for the worker committee program proposed by the Ministry of Labor. American and Saudi workers are concerned about the quality and sufficiency of health and safety training, employment promotion, work pressure, and job uncertainty due to continuous downsizing. This article recommends that Saudi social actors increase safety and health awareness in the work environment by providing intensive occupational safety training to the employees (as demanded by Saudi and American workers), improve labor-management relations through establishing strong cooperative contacts with regional and international trade unions, and establish uniform and standard occupational health and safety regulations for Saudi Aramco and its subsidiaries in order to provide an equal level of protection for Saudi workers. PMID:16943139

Idreis, Hany M; Siqueira, Carlos E; Levenstein, Charles C

2006-01-01

273

Improving the care of sepsis: Between system redesign and professional responsibility: A roundtable discussion in the world sepsis day, September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion in September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as part of the World Sepsis Day held in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to (1) review the chasm between the current management of sepsis and best practice, (2) discuss system redesign and role of the microsystem in sepsis management, (3) emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of the care of sepsis and that improvement of the care of sepsis is the responsibility of all, (4) discuss the bundle concept in sepsis management, and (5) reflect on the individual responsibility of the health care team toward sepsis with a focus on accountability and the moral agent. PMID:24987470

Arabi, Yaseen; Alamry, Ahmed; Levy, Mitchell M.; Taher, Saadi; Marini, Abdellatif M.

2014-01-01

274

Brucellosis in a farming community in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This communication describes a study of the prevalence of brucellosis in a farming community of Saudi Arabia. Standard agglutination tests of sera from 21 patients were tested for Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis. The results show that 8 (38%) were positive with titres of 160 or over 20 480 and with titre of complement fixation tests ranging from 8 to 64. Agglutination titres of 20 to 40 were present in only 3 cases. Those patients with positive agglutination titre of 160 or higher admitted histories of consumption of raw milk. All 8 patients presented typical symptoms of brucellosis and responded to appropriate antibiotic therapy. This study suggests that farm workers and those who drink raw milk are more likely to contract brucellosis than are the general population. PMID:6436116

Talukder, M A; Abomelha, M S; Higham, R H

1984-01-01

275

Measuring Students' Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

Alhadlaq, H.; Alshaya, F.; Alabdulkareem, S.; Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Wieman, C. E.

2009-11-01

276

Measuring Studentsâ Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

Alhadlaq, Hisham; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Perkins, Katherine K.; Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-10-02

277

The occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis. PMID:4014781

Sørensen, H; Gravesen, S; Lind, P; Schwartz, B; Ashoor, A A; Maglad, S

1985-06-01

278

Saudi Arabia to build another world-scale plant  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Methanol Co. (AR-RAZI), a 50-50 joint venture of Sabic and a consortium of Japanese companies led by Mitsubishi Gas Chemical (MGC), says it will invest more than $200 million in a new 850,000-m.5./year chemical-grade methanol plant at Al Jubail. The plant, Ar-Razi`s fourth methanol unit, is scheduled for completion in May 1999. The jv will bring its third methanol plant onstream in July. This unit, also 850,000 m.t./year, will raise Ar-Razi`s total capacity to 2.25 million m.t./year. Its complex at Al Jubail is already the largest single producer of chemical-grade methanol in the world. When the fourth unit comes onstream in 1999 the jv will have 3.1 million m.t./year of methanol capacity.

Alperowicz, N.

1997-05-07

279

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Immigrant Saudi Worker: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), an uncommon disorder in South-East Asia, including Bangladesh, often presents as granulomatous plaque on the exposed areas, with a high index of suspicion required for diagnosis. Here we report the first imported case of CL caused by Leishmania tropica in a migrant Bangladeshi worker in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The case, initially suspected as a case of cutaneous tuberculosis, arrived at specimens reception unit (SRU) of diagnostic labs of icddr,b being referred by the physician for ALS testing for tuberculosis. At his arrival in the SRU, one of the health personnel of the unit who used to work in KSA suspected him as a case of CL. The diagnosis was confirmed by smear microscopy which revealed plenty of amastigotes within macrophages. PCR was performed to confirm the species. He was treated with sodium stibogluconate at Shahid Suhrawardy Medical College Hospital, Dhaka. PMID:25076674

Razzak, Mohammad A.; Chanda, Bikash C.; Bhaskar, Khondaker R.H.; Mondal, Dinesh

2014-01-01

280

Unusual Features of Rosacea in Saudi Females with Dark Skin  

PubMed Central

Background Data on the clinical presentation of rosacea among darker-skinned ethnic groups is scarce. This article presents the clinical spectrum of rosacea in Saudi female patients with differences highlighted according to skin types. Methods Female patients diagnosed with rosacea at the dermatology clinic in King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between February 2010 and May 2011 were studied prospectively. Data collected included demographics, duration of the disease, personal history of any atopic disorder, aggravating factors, cutaneous and ocular symptoms, the presence of migraine, Helicobacter pylori infection, skin phototypes, and the clinical types and severity of rosacea. Results Fifty patients consented to join the study: 20 (40%) were patients with skin type 4, 9 (18%) had skin type 5, and 21 (42%) had skin type 6. The cheeks, glabella, and chin were involved in 26 (52%) patients. Extrafacial lesions affecting chest, back, and ears were identified in 7 patients (14%). Severe erythematotelangiectatic rosacea was diagnosed in 21 patients (42%): skin type 4 comprised 50%, higher than the incidences for skin type 5 (22%) and skin type 6 (42.9%). The severe papulopustular subtype of rosacea was noted in 7 patients (14.0%), affecting 20% with skin type 4 and 14% with skin type 6. Severity of the erythematotelangiectatic or papulopustular subtypes of rosacea was not significantly associated with skin type (P=0.5691 and P=0.7740, respectively). Conclusion This study addresses the growing interest in skin diseases in dark-skinned individuals. Rosacea is one of the skin disorders that had always been described for fair-skinned populations, but our results indicate that darker-skinned individuals also can be affected by rosacea and the clinical presentation is similar to that seen in patients with fair skin.

Al Balbeesi, Amal Omar; Halawani, Mona R.

2014-01-01

281

Hanging deaths in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A retrospective study was carried out on 133 suicidal hanging cases autopsied at Forensic Medicine Center in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (from 2003 to 2007). Of these cases, 115 (86.46%) were males and 18 females (13.54%), with an average male:female ratio of 6.38. There was an increasing trend of hanging among ages between 21 and 50 years (88.7%), and the fourth decade had the highest number of victims (about 36%) between all age groups. Local Saudi nationals comprised a small proportion of cases (21 persons, 15.8%), while the others were foreigners working in the Kingdom with an Indian precedence (63 persons, 47.4%), followed by other 11 different nationalities representing 36.8% of the cases. The peak of these suicidal acts was in June and the least was in February and December. Postmortem blood alcohol was found in 6.76% of cases, amphetamine in 3% (4 cases), and cannabinoids in 2.25% (3 cases). About 75% of the deceased persons were male laborers (100 cases), 11.27% were female housemaids (15 cases), and only 13 persons were unemployed (9.77%). Previous history of psychological illnesses was documented in 19 cases (14.28%) and stressful family problems in 6% of cases. There were previous suicidal attempts in only one case. Suicidal note was found in only seven cases. In conclusion, there was a decreasing trend of suicide by hanging in Dammam from 39 cases in 2003 to 17 cases in 2007, with a rate of 0.85/100,000 population in the last year. This was inconsistent with the overall increase in suicide rate in Dammam when compared to the previous decade. PMID:20569953

Al Madni, Osama Mohammed; Kharoshah, Magdy Abdel Azim; Zaki, Mamdouh Kamal; Ghaleb, Sherien Salah

2010-07-01

282

Differences in prostate cancer detection between Canadian and Saudi populations.  

PubMed

Few studies have addressed racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) detection between Western and Arabian countries, although PCa has a significantly lower prevalence in Arabic populations compared to Western populations. Therefore, an explanation of this difference is lacking. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable marker used to select patients who should undergo prostate biopsies, although the manner in which it is used may require adjustments based on the ethnic population in question. We investigated racial differences in the PCa detection rate between Canadian and Saudi populations. A retrospective analysis was performed of data collected prospectively over 5 consecutive years in urology clinics at the McGill University Health Center (MUHC) and King Saud University Hospital (KSUH). Men who had high (>4'ng/mL) or rising PSA levels and a negative digital rectal examination were eligible. A total of 1403 Canadian and 414 Saudi patients were evaluated for the study; 717 and 158 men, median age 64 and 68 years, were included in the MUHC and KSUH cohorts, respectively, P<0.0001). Median serum PSA, prostate volume, and PSA density values were 6.1'ng/mL, 47.3 g, and 0.12'ng · mL(-1) · g(-1), respectively, for MUHC patients and 5.2'ng/mL, 64.5'g, and 0.08'ng · mL(-1) · g(-1), respectively, for KSUH patients (P<0.0001, t-test followed by one-way ANOVA). In addition, the KSUH group had a significantly lower PCa detection rate among patients younger than 60 years of age and with PSA values <10'ng/mL. PMID:23802226

Al-Abdin, O Z; Rabah, D M; Badr, G; Kotb, A; Aprikian, A

2013-06-01

283

Prevalence of physical activity and inactivity among Saudis aged 30-70 years A population-based cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess physical activity levels among Saudi adults, and to examine the relationships of physical activity with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and obesity prevalence. Methods: Data taken from the Coronary Artery Disease in Saudis Study which is a National Epidemiological Health Survey carried out between 1995 and 2000. Participants included 17395 Saudi males and females aged

Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa; Mohammed R. Arafah; Akram Al-Khadra; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Nazeer B. Khan; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Moheeb Abdullah; Maie S. Al-Shahid

2007-01-01

284

Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

Ricks, Thomas

2011-01-01

285

City Review Our 2016 Vision for City  

E-print Network

for the quality of our education, research and enterprise. City is a special place in the world of higher are proud of the quality of our education, research and enterprise and are ranked within the top 2 of Law and Saint Bartholomew's College of Nursing. Our links with the City of London are strong, through

Martin, Ralph R.

286

Smart CitieS Postdoctoral work  

E-print Network

Future oF Smart CitieS Postdoctoral work leverages predictive models P.5 enhanCing eduCation DMWA and control of dynamical flow phenomena to prevent damage to large-scale infrastructure systems, sustainable persistent monitoring of infrastructure systems using mobile autonomous platforms. Dr. Ketan Savla, Assistant

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

287

Smoking in Saudi Arabia and its relation to coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives The health hazards related to smoking are well known. Smoking is a recognized risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite rejection of smoking by the Saudi community, we are still seeing smokers in our population. This study is designed to determine the prevalence of smoking in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and to find out its relation to CAD. This study is part of the Coronary Artery Disease In Saudis (CADIS) study. Methods This health survey was conducted by collecting data regarding smoking status among adult Saudis aged between 30 and 70 years of both sexes in KSA over a five year period from 1995 up to 2000. The study sample was of normal distribution and representative of all regions of KSA. The data were analyzed to provide the prevalence of smoking and its relation with CAD. Results The total number of subjects was 17,350, and current smokers were 2217; accordingly the overall prevalence of smoking among Saudis was 12.8%. Males (1555) were significantly smoking more than females (662) with a prevalence of 18.7% and 7.3%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Smoking is more prevalent among Saudis living in urban, northern, western, and eastern regions compared to other regions of KSA. Smokers are more likely to develop CAD compared to non-smokers (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Smoking is a prevalent health problem among Saudis that requires intervention for eradication. We found clear association between cigarettes smoking and CAD particularly among males. Persistent education of the health hazards related to smoking is recommended particularly at early age in-order to prevent initiation of smoking. PMID:23960568

Al-Nozha, Mansour M.; Al-Mazrou, Yaqoub Y.; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Al-Maatouq, Mohammed A.; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Khan, Nazeer B.; Al-Khadra, Akram; Al-Marzouki, Khalid; Al-Harthi, Saad S.; Abdullah, Moheeb; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Al-Mobeireek, Abdulellah; Nouh, Mohmmed S.

2009-01-01

288

Gender differences in health education needs and preferences of Saudis attending Riyadh Military Hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Health reforms that tend to increase the participation of clients in decision-making requires them to be health-literate; hence, the importance of health education. However, not much research has been done to investigate the differences in health education needs according to demographic characteristics of the clients. The aim of this study was to find out any possible gender differences there may be in health education needs and preferences. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Riyadh Military Hospital, Saudi Arabia, on a convenience sample of adult Saudis attending its clinics. Data was collected from April 2009 to May 2010 using a self-administered questionnaire covering demographic data, history and needs of health education, methods, and preferred educator. Results: Of the 1300 forms distributed, 977 were returned completed (75.2% response). Most men (74.0%) and women (77.9%) had had health education, but more women reported that it had been helpful (P = 0.014). More men mentioned health education needs relating to primary prevention (P = 0.027), and unhealthy practices (P = 0.003), and considered the different language a barrier (P = 0.002) even after adjustment for age and education. The one-to-one method was the most preferred health education method for men (72.7%) and women (67.9%). More women preferred group health education (P = 0.02) after adjustment for age and education. Significantly more men preferred pharmacists and dietitians as health educators. Conclusion: The results point to a few significant differences between men and women regarding their health education needs, barriers, and preferences. These must be taken into consideration when planning health education programs. PMID:23230383

Al-Khashan, Hesham I.; Almulla, Naseem A.; Galil, Siddig A. A.; Rabbulnabi, Ashraf A.; Mishriky, Adel M.

2012-01-01

289

Prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among saudi medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3%. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7%. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1% of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8% of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7% of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9% reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum. PMID:24903238

Almutairi, Khalid M

2014-08-01

290

Detroit : open city  

E-print Network

Detroit is often regarded as America's largest city in decline, a metropolis that has failed to recover from an insidious cycle of deindustrialization, racism, suburban flight and laggard politics. This image of the city ...

Berry, Daniel (Daniel Kevin)

2006-01-01

291

Utah: Salt Lake City  

... Snow-Covered Peaks of the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains     View Larger Image ... Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, powdery snow ...

2014-05-15

292

SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study  

SciTech Connect

Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

293

Susceptibility to primary angle closure glaucoma in Saudi Arabia: the possible role of mitochondrial DNA ancestry informative haplogroups  

PubMed Central

Purpose In a previous preliminary analysis we reported that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup R0a was significantly more frequent in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) Saudi patients than in healthy Saudi controls. This result prompted us to extend our work using a significant larger Saudi PACG cohort and more healthy controls. Methods We sequenced the mtDNA regulatory hypervariable region-I (HVS-I) and coding regions, comprising haplogroup diagnostic polymorphisms, in 227 PACG Saudi patients and compared their haplogroup frequencies with those obtained from 186 matched healthy controls (free of PACG by examination) and from a large sample of 810 healthy Saudi Arabs representing the general Saudi population. Results MtDNA Haplogroups R0a and J, the most abundant lineages in Saudi Arabia, were in significant higher frequencies in the PACG patients than in controls, while the widespread western Eurasian haplogroup U was associated with reduced risk to developing PACG. Conclusions Haplogroups R0a and J could be ancestry informative markers for PACG in the Saudi Arabian population. In addition, the western Eurasian haplogroup U may play a mild protective effect to this illness. PMID:21850192

Gonzalez, Ana M.; Osman, Essam A.; Larruga, Jose M.; Cabrera, Vicente M.; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A.

2011-01-01

294

Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

2011-01-01

295

Teacher Knowledge That Supports Student Processes in Learning Mathematics: A Study at All-Female Middle Schools in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers in Saudi Arabia are attempting to advance their teaching in mathematics to address specific reforms by the Ministry of Education. Saudi teachers must improve their students' thinking through engagement in problem solving. This qualitative study investigated how teachers use knowledge of student mathematical learning and how they…

Alsaeed, Maha Saad

2012-01-01

296

Intercultural Conflicts between Close Friends: A Case Study of Power Relations in Continuing Education in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…

Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie

2008-01-01

297

City of God  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well over a millennium and a half ago, Augustine distinguished between two cities: the Heavenly City and the Earthly City. While one was the site of all that was holy and spiritual, the place of faith, the other was foul and wicked, the realm of the flesh. Such dichotomies, expanded into a full?fledged binary logic, persist in the way that

Bülent Diken

2005-01-01

298

Anthropology 310 ANCIENT CITIES  

E-print Network

Anthropology 310 ANCIENT CITIES Dr. Daphne Gallagher Office: 253 Condon Hall Email: daphne Location: 207 Chapman Course Description: Cities are common throughout the world today, with most people living in these dynamic social environments. However, cities are a relatively new phenomenon in human

299

Cities and Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers in cities earn 33% more than their nonurban counterparts. A large amount of evidence suggests that this premium is not just the result of higher ability workers living in cities, which means that cities make workers more productive. Evidence on migrants and the cross effect between urban status and experience implies that a significant fraction of the urban wage

2001-01-01

300

Cities and Homeowners Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his recent article, The City as a Legal Concept, Professor Gerald Frug compared the city and the business corporation as possible vehicles for the exercise of decentralized power. In the course of his analysis, Frug asserted that American law is deeply biased against the emergence of powerful cities and, by implication, is less restrictive on corporate power. Joining the

Robert C. Ellickson

1982-01-01

301

Smart cities in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban performance currently depends not only on the city’s endowment of hard infrastructure (‘physical capital’), but also, and increasingly so, on the availability and quality of knowledge communication and social infrastructure (‘human and social capital’). The latter form of capital is decisive for urban competitiveness. Against this background, the concept of the ‘smart city’ has recently been introduced as a

A. Caragliu; C. Del Bo; P. Nijkamp

2009-01-01

302

CITY III: Small Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game in which participants make decisions affecting the economic, governmental, and social conditions of a simulated urban area. In one of its five city options (called Lothian) the CITY III simulation model focuses on a micro-view of an urban area by reducing the level of aggregation. The population is…

Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

303

Evaluation of the best fit distribution for partial duration series of daily rainfall in Madinah, western Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall frequency analysis is an essential tool for the design of water related infrastructure. It can be used to predict future flood magnitudes for a given magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events. This study analyses the application of rainfall partial duration series (PDS) in the vast growing urban Madinah city located in the western part of Saudi Arabia. Different statistical distributions were applied (i.e. Normal, Log Normal, Extreme Value type I, Generalized Extreme Value, Pearson Type III, Log Pearson Type III) and their distribution parameters were estimated using L-moments methods. Also, different selection criteria models are applied, e.g. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and Anderson-Darling Criterion (ADC). The analysis indicated the advantage of Generalized Extreme Value as the best fit statistical distribution for Madinah partial duration daily rainfall series. The outcome of such an evaluation can contribute toward better design criteria for flood management, especially flood protection measures.

Alahmadi, F.; Rahman, N. A.; Abdulrazzak, M.

2014-09-01

304

Portfolio approach to the oil surplus problem: Saudi Arabia as a study case  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation investigated the different strategies that Saudi Arabia could have followed in the deployment of surplus oil funds, namely low risk, high risk strategy. The static mean variance portfolio selection model is used to derive the set of efficient portfolios. The optimum portfolios for Saudi Arabia as well as the efficient frontiers, under different constraints, were explored. To find the optimum portfolios, it is necessary to determine the real rate of return of the assets; we must adjust the nominal yield by the following factors; taxes imposed on nonresidents, exchange rate fluctuations, and the inflation rate. The results tend to support the conclusion that low risk strategy is successful through all periods studied while high-risk strategy was not always successful. In addition, the Saudi's strategy of avoiding the United States stock market was not costly, but the US stock market did not perform well during the period of the study. This suggests that if the Saudis want to continue their low risk strategy in the future, they must consider including US private stocks and bonds in their portfolio selection. The success of the high risk strategy seems to require the ability to predict exchange rates. It is observed that if the Saudis follow high risk strategy and fail to predict the exchange rates they might lose. The loss in terms of real rate of return could be greater than the real return if a low risk strategy were followed.

Gazali, M.N.

1985-01-01

305

Dental maturity of Saudi children: Role of ethnicity in age determination  

PubMed Central

Purpose Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. Materials and Methods A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffé's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). Results The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. Conclusion We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one. PMID:24380066

2013-01-01

306

Distribution of chronotypes in a large sample of young adult Saudis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are no published data on the chronotypes of young Saudi adults. This study assessed the distribution of chronotypes in college-aged Saudis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey of college students PATIENTS AND METHODS: A validated abridged version of the original Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQr) was used to assess the chronotype of 759 subjects. RESULTS: Of 540 (71.1%) males and 219 (28.9%) females participated in this study ( age range, 18-32 years), 138 (18.2%) were “morning-types” 417 (54.9%) were “neither-types” and 204 (26.9%) were “evening-types”. There was no significant gender difference in MEQr typology. In Saudis, particularly males, the frequency of morning typology was somewhat higher than that reported for individuals in similar age groups in some Western countries. CONCLUSION: Most Saudi college students had no preference for morningness or eveningness and were classified as “intermediate-type”. Morningness appears to be slightly more common in Saudis, especially males, than in individuals of some Western societies. PMID:21422657

BaHammam, Ahmed S.; Almestehi, Wael; Albatli, Abdurrahman; AlShaya, Shaya

2011-01-01

307

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). Conclusion The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. PMID:23785247

Kamel, Remah M

2013-01-01

308

Stalled eruption or dike intrusion at Harrat Lunayyir, Saudi Arabia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2007 there have been periodic small earthquake swarms recorded at seismic stations located around Harrat Lunayyir in northwest Saudi Arabia. In response to a longer-lived and larger seismic swarm, in early May 2009 the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) installed a network of broadband seismometers surrounding the Harrat, with real-time data transmitted by VSAT back to its Earthquake and Volcano Center in Jeddah. The new network captured data from the swarm, which culminated with a M5.4 earthquake on 19 May that caused very minor structural damage in the town of Al Ays, 40 km to the southeast. Because of the strength of ground-shaking and resulting structural damage, the Saudi government evacuated more than 30,000 people from a 40 km radius surrounding Harrat Lunayyir, including the town of Al Ays. At the request of the SGS and the U.S. Consulate in Jeddah, the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (a partnership program of the USGS and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance) sent two advisers to work with the SGS to determine if the unrest was volcanic in origin and to assess hazards associated with the unrest. The SGS-USGS team collected geologic, geodetic and seismic data that confirmed the volcanic nature of the activity. 1) A 3-km-long NW-trending surface rupture appeared in the central part of the Harrat before 19 May, during a time when maximum earthquake magnitudes exceeded M4. 2) The length of this rupture extended to 8 km with the M5.4 earthquake on 19 May. 3) The rupture opened 0.5 m and had an absolute motion of 0.9 m to N35W with a 63 degree plunge to the NE- a tensional offset consistent with that expected from an M5.4 earthquake in a rift-shoulder setting. 4) InSAR data showed about a meter of extension and uplift (as of July 2009) with the majority of deformation associated with the 19 May M5.4 earthquake. The InSAR-derived deformation field is best modeled by intrusion of a narrow (~2 m wide), 8-km-long dike to shallow crustal levels. 5) Finally seismic data showed features similar to other volcanic swarms, including high rates of occurrence of small events, shallow event locations that clustered beneath the lava field and were coincident with the area of maximum deformation, RSAM values that peaked during periods of increased InSAR inflation, and a mixture of event types- high frequency, low frequency, possible very low frequency, and tremor. Based on our analysis of similar active volcanic systems worldwide and associated earthquakes in rift settings, we determined that for the three month period following 19 May 2009 there was a moderate probability that the activity could culminate in an eruption, and a very low probability of additional large earthquakes of M6 or greater. Subsequent to this hazard assessment and once the stability of structures in Al Ays was adequately addressed, the evacuees were allowed to return to their homes and daily lives.

Zahran, H. M.; McCausland, W. A.; Pallister, J. S.; Lu, Z.; El-Hadidy, S.; Aburukba, A.; Schawali, J.; Kadi, K.; Youssef, A.; Ewert, J. W.; White, R. A.; Lundgren, P.; Mufti, M.; Stewart, I. C.

2009-12-01

309

Victory City: The City of the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the past 40-odd years, Orville Simpson II has been pursuing a dream, his vision of a city of the future, a Victory City based on reason and efficiency. Victory Cities would be entirely self-contained under one roof, ideally consisting of seven linked buildings -- each 102 stories -- containing residences, offices, industry, and retail space. Although the idea of snap-out modular walls, furniture bolted to the floors, and no kitchens (residents will be transported to the cafeterias by Ferris wheels) does not appeal to everyone, Simpson must be given credit for the depth and breadth of his vision. Users reading the Residents Guide will find that few details have been overlooked. Simpson addresses issues such as the money and food systems, education, postal service, transportation, security, recreation, pets, healthcare, ecological issues, and so on. Users can view numerous floor plans and conceptual drawings in the Victory City tour, review his arguments for the city in the Purpose/Benefits section, and read a collection of newspaper and magazine features on the man and his city in the Media Coverage section. Simpson is, by the way, still seeking investors.

310

Are we providing modern anesthetics services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia?  

PubMed Central

This illustrated detailed article will describe history of over forty years struggle, of hardship and discrimination to the specialty. I have with my colleagues faced obstacles and disappointments during the development of modern anaesthesia services with its subspecialties in Saudi Arabia. I have all support and encouragement from the top authorities of the university. I have managed to establish a top class anaesthesia department, Saudi Anaesthetic Association and the King Saud Fellowship in anaesthesia and intensive care within one decade. The next decade was assigned for expansion to create the Arab Board of anaesthesia and Intensive Care followed by the Saudi Specialty of anaesthesia and intensive care and its fellowship in different Subspecialties. I always wonder within myself, have I and my colleagues achieved our goal and did we do well.

Seraj, Mohamed Abdullah

2012-01-01

311

State of health economic evaluation research in Saudi Arabia: a review  

PubMed Central

Background If evaluation of economic evidence is to be used increasingly in Saudi Arabia, a review of the published literature would be useful to inform policy decision-makers of the current state of research and plan future research agendas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the state of health economic evaluation research within the Saudi context with regard to the number, characteristics, and quality of published articles. Methods A literature search was conducted on May 8, 2011 to identify health economic articles pertaining to Saudi Arabia in the PubMed, Embase, and EconLit databases, using the following terms alone or in combination: “cost*”, “economics”, “health economics”, “cost-effectiveness”, “cost-benefit”, “cost minimization”, “cost utility analysis”, and “Saudi”. Reference lists of the articles identified were also searched for further articles. The tables of contents of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal and the Saudi Medical Journal were reviewed for the previous 5 years. Results The search identified 535 citations. Based on a reading of abstracts and titles, 477 papers were excluded. Upon reviewing the full text of the remaining 58 papers, 43 were excluded. Fifteen papers were included. Ten were categorized as full economic evaluations and five as partial economic evaluations. These articles were published between 1997 and 2010. The majority of the studies identified did not clearly state the perspective of their evaluation. There are many concerns about the methods used to collect outcome and costs data. Only one study used some sort of sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of uncertainty on the robustness of its conclusions. Conclusion This review highlights major flaws in the design, analysis, and reporting of the identified economic analyses. Such deficiencies mean that the local economic evidence available to decision-makers is not very useful. Thus, building research capability in health economics is warranted. PMID:22826634

Al-Aqeel, Sinaa A

2012-01-01

312

Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4 ± 1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8 ± 0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0 ± 1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1 ± 1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. PMID:24926920

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

2014-08-01

313

"Diagnosing" Saudi health reforms: is NHIS the right "prescription"?  

PubMed

This paper outlines the health context of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). It reviews health systems development in the KSA from 1925 through to contemporary New Health Insurance System (NHIS). It also examines the consistency of NHIS in view of the emerging challenges. This paper identifies the determinants and scope of contextual consistency. First, it indicates the need to evolve an indigenous, integrated, and comprehensive insurance system. Second, it highlights the access and equity gaps in service delivery across the rural and remote regions and suggests how to bring these under insurance coverage. Third, it suggests how inputs from both the public and private sectors should be harmonized - the "quality" of services in the private healthcare industry to be regulated by the state and international standards, its scope to be determined primarily by open-market dynamics and the public sector welfare-model to ensure "access" of all to essential health services. Fourth, it states the need to implement an evidence-based public health policy and bridge inherent gaps in policy design and personal-level lifestyles. Fifth, it points out the need to produce a viable infrastructure for health insurance. Because social research and critical reviews in the KSA health scenario are rare, this paper offers insights into the mainstream challenges of NHIS implementation and identifies the inherent weaknesses that need attention. It guides health policy makers, economists, planners, healthcare service managers, and even the insurance businesses, and points to key directions for similar research in future. PMID:23047768

Al-Sharqi, Omar Zayan; Abdullah, Muhammad Tanweer

2013-01-01

314

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in expatriates in northern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a protozoal disease transmitted by sandflies. It is endemic across the desert of the Middle East to Afghanistan and Africa. This paper reviews the findings in 148 expatriates with cutaneous leishmaniasis seen in Arar, northern Saudi Arabia, during a five year period. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was seen in all age groups. Farm workers, labourers and military personnel stationed in the region during the Gulf war were most affected. There was a seasonal variation with maximum incidence between November and January. The lesions were commonly multiple, the number of lesions per patient ranged from one to twelve. 18% of the lesions were located on the face, 34% on the upper extremity, 42% on the lower extremity and six per cent on other sites. The average duration of the lesions before diagnosis was two months. The most common complications were secondary bacterial skin infection (pyoderma and cellulitis) and residual scarring. The response to sodium stibogluconate was good. There has been a gradual reduction in the number of cases from a peak of 64 in 1991 to twelve in 1995. As compared to studies in the indigenous population, cutaneous leishmaniasis tends to be more frequent and server in expatriates from non endemic areas. There is a need for increased awareness of this disorder, especially in the home countries of these expatriates. PMID:9299828

Kubeyinje, E P; Belagavi, C S; Jamil, Y A

1997-04-01

315

Compliance of Saudi dental students with infection control guidelines.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate compliance of dental students in a Saudi dental school with recommended infection control protocols. A pilot-tested questionnaire concerning various aspects of infection control practices was distributed to 330 dental students. The response rate was 93.9% (n = 311). About 99% of students recorded the medical history of their patients and 80% were vaccinated against hepatitis B. The highest compliance (100%) with recommended guidelines was reported for wearing gloves and use of a new saliva ejector for each patient. Over 90% of the respondents changed gloves between patients, wore face masks, changed hand instruments, burs and handpieces between patients, used a rubber dam in restorative procedures and discarded sharp objects in special containers. A lower usage rate was reported for changing face masks between patients (81%), disinfecting impression materials (87%) and dental prosthesis (74%) and wearing gowns (57%). Eye glasses and face shield were used by less than one-third of the sample. The majority of students were found to be in compliance with most of the investigated infection control measures. Nevertheless, further education is needed to improve some infection control measures including vaccination for Hepatitis B virus (HBV), wearing eye glasses, gowns and face shields and disinfecting impression materials and dental prostheses. PMID:23879255

Ahmad, Ibrahim Ali; Rehan, Elaf Ali; Pani, Sharat Chandra

2013-08-01

316

Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

2014-09-01

317

Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition. PMID:12656385

Abdou, Adel A

2003-03-01

318

Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

Abdou, Adel A.

2003-03-01

319

Pattern of cancer deaths in a saudi tertiary care hospital.  

PubMed

The medical records of deceased patients were reviewed to describe the pattern of cancer deaths in a newly established Saudi tertiary care hospital. During eleven months, 87 patients died of cancer. The majority (80 patients, 92%) died of incurable cancer; among which 53% did not receive any systemic anti-cancer therapy (SAT) and 43% received SAT with palliative intent. Younger age (< 65 years), relatively chemosensitive tumours and initial presentation in a potentially curable stage were associated with higher prevalence of palliative SAT administration (p = 0.009, 0.019 and 0.001, respectively). The last palliative SAT was administered during the last two months of life in 66% and during the last two weeks in 14%. During the last admission, 54% of patients were admitted through emergency room, 50% stayed >14 days and 14% died in intensive care unit or emergency room. The results demonstrate that palliative care is a realistic treatment for the majority of patients in our setting and that a significant proportion of these patients receive aggressive care at the end-of-life. There is a need to establish an integrative palliative care program to improve the quality-of-life of dying cancer patients in our region and to minimize the aggressiveness of end-of-life care. PMID:22378940

Al-Zahrani, Abdullah S; El-Kashif, Amr T; Haggag, Rasha M; Alsirafy, Samy A

2013-02-01

320

Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance. PMID:23762541

Aljaloud, Sulaiman O; Ibrahim, Salam A

2013-01-01

321

Metamorphic evolution of the Qazaz metamorphic complex, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precambrian accretionary orogens largely contributed to continental growth, owing to their high production rates of juvenile crust compared to Phanerozoic accretionary orogens. The Pan-African orogeny is responsible for the evolution and growth of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Qazaz metamorphic complex in Saudi Arabia is one of the metamorphic complexes that were exhumed due to the activity of the largest Proterozoic shear zone system on the Earth - the Najd Fault System. The Qazaz complex is an example of an unusual new type of core-complex associated with crustal scale strike-slip faulting. Petrography and thermodynamic modelling were used to study the metamorphic evolution of the complex. The core of the complex records peak metamorphic conditions of 560 - 640 oC and 7-8 kbar. The bounding strike-slip shear zones operated at a temperature range of 400-600 oC while the pressure range varied from 5 to 0.5 kbar over a very short distance within the shear zone. The complex shows exhumation of about 25 km due to the activity of the Najd Fault System.

Hassan, Mahmoud; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt; Meyer, Sven; Passchier, Cees

2014-05-01

322

The syphilis problem in Asir province, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

A combined national and international venereal disease team began activities in Saudi Arabia in November 1952, moving from Mecca to Asir province in May 1953, where it remained for two months examining and treating various groups of the population. A total of 309 cases of syphilis among a population of approximately 3,000 at Abha was given complete clinical and serological examination and treatment with PAM, in doses varying from 2.4 to 6.0 million units. Serological tests were made on 2,359 blood samples. Only one primary lesion was found; but secondary lesions were quite common, amounting to 5.8% of all cases treated, while tertiary lesions represented 12.6% of all cases treated and 67.2% of all clinical cases. Considerable variations in the prevalence of syphilis were noted among the different quarters of the town of Abha and among different tribes and villages. All the age-groups were more or less equally affected, but the females generally showed a higher positivity-rate than the males. All these features—together with the low social, economic, and sanitary standards of the population and many prevalent social habits, such as the use of common eating and drinking implements — would seem to indicate that the syphilis met in Asir, and locally known as “shadjar”, “balash”, “fringi”, “mabrouk”, or “wardi”, should be included with the endemic treponematoses met with elsewhere in the world. PMID:13182591

El Ghoroury, A. A.

1954-01-01

323

Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia. PMID:22134079

Khater, Ashraf E M

2012-01-01

324

Trends in Ectopic Pregnancies in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in ectopic pregnancies (EP) in a tertiary care center of Eastern Saudi Arabia. Method. Information about patients with ectopic pregnancies who had been admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, between January 2000 and 31 December 2011 was collected from a computerized hospital registry. Age-specific ectopic pregnancy incidence was calculated. The data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences), version 14.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). Results. There were 274 EPs during the study period; the yearly incidence in terms of 24,098 deliveries was 1.19%. The average age was 28.99?Å 5.62 years. During a three-year period (2000–2002), the incidence was 0.92%; from 2003 to 2005, the incidence was 1.01%; from 2006 to 2008, the incidence was 1.51%; and from 2009 to 2011, the incidence was 1.35%. Age-adjusted ectopic pregnancy incidence rates steadily increased from 92.23 per 10,000 women years during the period 2000–2002 to 149.408 during the 2006–2008 period; since then, it has declined to 110.313 per 10,000 women years. Conclusions. Our study reveals that the incidence of EP has decreased from what it had been during the mid-2000s but has remained significantly elevated when compared to the early 2000s. PMID:23533797

Abdulaziz Al-Turki, Haifa

2013-01-01

325

New generic and species records for the flora of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations. PMID:25313281

Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M.; Al-Ansari, A.M.; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A.A.

2014-01-01

326

New generic and species records for the flora of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations. PMID:25313281

Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M; Al-Ansari, A M; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A A

2014-11-01

327

Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom. PMID:23961067

El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

2010-01-01

328

Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom. PMID:23961067

El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

2010-04-01

329

Evaluation of the orthopedic residency training program in Saudi Arabia and comparison with a selected Canadian residency program  

PubMed Central

Objective The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002). The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (P<0.0001). Most residents preferred studying multiple-choice questions before examinations. Saudi and Canadian participants considered their programs to be overcrowded. Unlike Canadian participants, Saudi trainees reported an inadequate level of training (P<0.0001). Conclusion Educational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents’ progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers. PMID:25278788

Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Alrabai, Hamza M; Alrehaili, Osama A; Aljurayyan, Abdulaziz N; Alsaif, Ranyah M; Algarni, Nizar; Al-Khawashki, Hazem M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D

2014-01-01

330

Testing international dental maturation scoring system and population-specific Demirjian versions on Saudi sub-population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the Demirjian method and revised versions for estimating chronological age (CA) from dental age (DA) in a sample of children. Study Design: A sample of 252 individuals of known age (4 to 14 yrs), sex (males: 125, females: 127), and ethnicity (Saudi) was collected. Each individual was aged using the original Demirjian method and revised versions, including Saudi, Kuwaiti, Belgian, and revised international curves. The differences between dental age and chronological age were analyzed using paired sample t-tests with Bonferroni corrections and multinomial regression tests at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: The results indicated an over-aging of the sample as a whole by about 10 months using Demirjian tables, 5.5 months using Kuwaiti tables, 24.7 months using Belgian tables, and 5 months using revised international tables. The sample was under-aged by 0.6 month using Saudi tables. The overall discrepancies between CA and DA were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) for all methods with the exception of Saudi curves. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the Saudi population method is most accurate on a Saudi population. Key words:Age estimation, juvenile, forensic dentistry, Saudi Arabia. PMID:24790713

2014-01-01

331

City of Cambridge: CityViewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the best way to experience the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts? You could read a history of Harvard University, take a walking tour, or perhaps browse a topical website. But why not look at the Cambridge CityViewer for edification? This unique tool "allows the public to view, query, mark up, and print custom maps using only a web browser." Notedly, the viewer works best with Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. Visitors can check out ten different topical overlays, including those dealing with city parks, construction projects, land parcels, sewers, zoning, and traffic. There are many ways to get started, such as performing a simple search, an advanced search, or even just by typing in a street name and number. For anyone with an interest in urban history, planning, and land use, this site is a rare treat.

332

300 Cities -An Exploration in Characterizing US Cities  

E-print Network

300 Cities - An Exploration in Characterizing US Cities Michael K. Martin, Kathleen M. Carley Grouping Analyses. #12;iii Abstract The goal of the 300-Cities Project is to support IRS policy decisions by finding a small number of city clusters, where the cities within each cluster will respond similarly

Sadeh, Norman M.

333

GroWinG CitieS NJIT's Enterprise Development  

E-print Network

at thE EDgE GroWinG CitieS NJIT's Enterprise Development Center ­ the EDC ­ is home to some 90 companies at the entre- preneurial leading edge. Among them is City-Hydroponics (www. city. City-Hydroponics is advancing their agenda through the use of a multi-tier hydroponic growing system

Gary, Dale E.

334

Theme city or gated community - images of future cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of the cities has been under discussion since the first city. It has been typical in every civilisation and era to hope for a better city. Creek philosopher Platon created image of future city where all men were equal and the city was ruled by philosophers minds. Many philosopher or later social scientist have ended up to similar

Leena Helenius-Mäki

2002-01-01

335

The intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a lead sink for its rat host in the industrial areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The present study sought to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a bioindicator for lead accumulation in two industrial areas of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Rats (Meriones libycus) were collected from two sites (industrial area II and Salbukh) in Riyadh. In the industrial area II, the mean levels of lead concentrations were found to be 1.96, 1.92, 1.4 and 30.72 ?g/g in the rats’ liver, kidney and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In Salbukh, meanwhile, the lead concentrations were 1.63, 1.52, 1.20 and 21.31 ?g/g in the rats’ liver, kidney, and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In addition, in industrial area II, compared with the liver, kidney and intestine of their host, the bioconcentration factors of lead were found to be, respectively, 15.6, 16 and 21.9 times higher in H. diminuta, and were 7.5, 8, and 10.2 times higher in the same organs compared to H. diminuta in Salbukh. The present study, therefore, proved that H. diminuta could be used as a bioindicator for heavy metal contamination in the industrial areas of the city of Riyadh.

Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Gewik, Mohamed M.; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S.

2013-01-01

336

Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action  

PubMed Central

Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution. PMID:20103958

Al-Naami, Mohammed Y.; Arafah, Maria A.; Al-Ibrahim, Fatimah S.

2010-01-01

337

Pattern of Corrosive Ingestion in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. Results: The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 ± 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Conclusion: Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. PMID:19568549

Al-Binali, Ali M.; Al-Shehri, Mohammmed A.; Abdelmoneim, Ismail; Shomrani, Ali S.; Al-Fifi, Suliman H.

2009-01-01

338

Ash Shutbah: A possible impact structure in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the Ash Shutbah circular structure in central Saudi Arabia (21°37'N 45°39'E) using satellite imagery, field mapping, thin-section petrography, and X-ray diffraction of collected samples. The approximately 2.1 km sized structure located in flat-lying Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone has been nearly peneplained by erosional processes. Satellite and structural data show a central area consisting of Dhruma Formation sandstones with steep bedding and tight folds plunging radially outward. Open folding occurs in displaced, younger Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation blocks surrounding the central area, but is absent outside the circular structure. An approximately 60 cm thick, unique folded and disrupted orthoquartzitic sandstone marker bed occurring in the central area of the structure is found 140 m deeper in undisturbed escarpment outcrops located a few hundred meters west of the structure. With exception of a possible concave shatter cone found in the orthoquartzite of the central area, other diagnostic shock features are lacking. Some quartz-rich sandstones from the central area show pervasive fracturing of quartz grains with common concussion fractures. This deformation was followed by an event of quartz dissolution and calcite precipitation consistent with local sea- or groundwater heating. The combination of central stratigraphic uplift of 140 m, concussion features in discolored sandstone, outward-dipping concentric folds in the central area, deformation restricted to the rocks of the ring structure, a complex circular structure of 2.1 km diameter that appears broadly consistent with what one would expect from an impact structure in sedimentary targets, and a possible shatter cone all point to an impact origin of the Ash Shutbah structure. In fact, the Ash Shutbah structure appears to be a textbook example of an eroded, complex impact crater located in flat-lying sedimentary rocks, where the undisturbed stratigraphic section can be studied in escarpment outcrops in the vicinity of the structure.

Gnos, Edwin; Hofmann, Beda A.; Schmieder, Martin; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.; Matter, Albert; Alwmark, Carl

2014-10-01

339

CITY of DAVIS INNOVATION CENTER  

E-print Network

03 STUDIO CITY of DAVIS INNOVATION CENTER STUDY STUDIO 30 UC Davis Extension 2012 #12;#12;03 STUDIO CITY of DAVIS INNOVATION CENTER STUDY Prepared by STUDIO 30 UC Davis Extension for the City of Davis Innovation Task Force July 2012 #12;i City of Davis Innovation Park Task Force Established by the City

California at Davis, University of

340

Procedural modeling of cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling a city poses a number of problems to computer graphics. Every urban area has a transportation network that follows population and environmental influences, and often a superimposed pattern plan. The buildings appearances follow historical, aesthetic and statutory rules. To create a virtual city, a roadmap has to be designed and a large number of buildings need to be generated.

Yoav I. H. Parish; Pascal Müller

2001-01-01

341

Growth in Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theories of economic growth, including those of Romer, Porter, and Jacobs, have stressed the role of technological spillovers in generating growth. Because such knowledge spillovers are particularly effective in cities, where communication between people is more extensive, data on the growth of industries in different cities allow us to test some of these theories. Using a new data set

Edward Ludwig Glaeser; Hedi D. Kallal; Jose A. Scheinkman; Andrei Shleifer

1992-01-01

342

Big City School Bankruptcy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three big-city school systems nearly went bankrupt in the 1970s. New York City, including its schools, ran out of money; Cleveland closed its schools for long periods to conserve funds; and Chicago's schools ran out of credit. This paper narrates these crises, examines the responses of state governments and teacher and custodian unions, and looks…

Cronin, Joseph M.

343

The Emerging Generic Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities everywhere have experienced dramatic changes in their size, density, demography and economy in recent decades. With rapid urbanization and globalization of trade and employment, the impact of these changes is all the more apparent in many of the fast growing South Asian and non-western cities. While the likely impact of 9\\/11 on the design of large and tall buildings

Malik A

344

The Plains City Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City

van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

2006-01-01

345

Reproducing in Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European birth rates began to plummet. Fertility decline in Africa only

Ruth Mace

2008-01-01

346

Lost City News Release  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This press release from the National Science Foundation provides an overview of the 2003 expedition to the Lost City Hydrothermal Field at the Atlantis Massif. It briefly describes the expedition, features of the Lost City, research results and implications for future discoveries. Photos and images accompany the text.

Affairs, Office O.; Foundation, National S.

347

Writing British Asian cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports in brief on an Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) Diasporas, Migrations and Identities (DMI) programme funded network, ‘Writing British-Asian Cities’, which ran between 2006 and 2009. It contends that the diverse local configuration of Asian Britain has to a large extent remained unexamined in the literature. Having organised community-based events in five English cities, an indication

Seán McLoughlin

2009-01-01

348

City Signs and Lights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Signs/Lights/Boston, a project investigating environmental information systems in urban areas, was undertaken as the first step in a process of planning and controlling signs and lights for purposes of improving the flow of information in the city. This resulting report takes the city as it is and develops explicit means for revealing its form,…

Carr, Stephen

349

Walkout in Crystal City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

Barrios, Greg

2009-01-01

350

Cities and Sustainable Development  

E-print Network

are paralyzed by partisan politics, city governments foster action and innovation. In the United States, helping to slash extreme poverty. Cities are also the innovation hubs for public policy. Every day, #12, Bill de Blasio, is championing a bold program of educational innovations to narrow the vast gaps

351

Smart City Components Architicture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research is essentially to modularize the structure of utilities and develop a system for following up the activities electronically on the city scale. The GIS operational platform will be the base for managing the infrastructure development components with the systems interoperability for the available city infrastructure related systems. The concentration will be on the available utility networks in order

Mahmoud Al-Hader; A. Rodzi; A. R. Sharif; N. Ahmad

2009-01-01

352

Smart networked cities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to critically assess the lack of a global inter-urban perspective in the smart city policy framework from a conceptual standpoint. We argue here that the smart city policy agenda should be informed by and address the structure of transnational urban networks as this can affect the efficiency of such local policies. The significance of this global network

Emmanouil Tranos; Drew Gertner

2012-01-01

353

Saudi Secondary School Teachers Attitudes' towards Using Interactive Whiteboard in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research aims at investigating the Saudi Secondary school Teachers' Attitudes towards using Interactive Whiteboard in the classrooms. The research uses the Quasi- Experimental approach, with one group (100) teachers, and limited to the Secondary school Teachers that enrolled in the first semester of (2011/2012) academic year. The research uses…

Isman, Aytekin; Abanmy, Fahad AbdulAziz; Hussein, Hisham Barakat; Al Saadany, Mohammed Abdelrahman

2012-01-01

354

Relationship of Streptococcus mutans Biotypes to Dental Caries Prevalence in Saudi Arabian Naval Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 217 Saudi Arabian naval recruits were examined clinically, radiographically, and microbiologically for the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans. Caries experience was considerably lower than in US recruits of comparable age and showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence of S mutans in dental plaque samples. The distribution of S mutans biotypes and their relationship to dental caries

Harris J. Keene; Irving L. Shklair; Dale M. Anderson; Gerald J. Mickel

1977-01-01

355

Transition Services for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward transition services for students with mild intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia, and also examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes regarding transition services for students with mild intellectual disability and teachers' gender and educational…

Alnahdi, Ghaleb

2013-01-01

356

In vitro and in vivo isolation of Leishmania tropica from Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro and in vivo cultivation of Leishmania parasites is a research priority both for better understanding of the parasite-host relationship and for routine laboratory diagnosis. Isolation of Leishmania parasites from infected individuals has always been a difficult poblem since different Leishmania strains require different media (Marin et al. 1982). Leishmaniasis is endemic in many parts of Saudi Arabia (Hussein

A. A. Mahmoud; A. Al-Tuwaijri; I. Al-Mofleh; S. A. Al-Khuwaitir

1985-01-01

357

Introduction Apis mellifera L. is native to Europe, Africa, and Asia (including Saudi  

E-print Network

Introduction Apis mellifera L. is native to Europe, Africa, and Asia (including Saudi Arabia, Iran migrations and introductions (Ruttner, 1988). Apis mellifera includes about two dozen subspecies bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations from the USA Allen L Szalanski1* and Roxane M Magnus1 1 Social

Szalanski, Allen L.

358

Satellite imaging coral reef resilience at regional scale. A case-study from Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

Satellite imaging coral reef resilience at regional scale. A case-study from Saudi Arabia Gwilym a National Coral Reef Institute, Nova Southeastern University, Dania Beach, FL 33004, USA b Living Oceans estimating a proxy for coral reef resilience using remote sensing. Data spanning large areas of coral reef

Purkis, Sam

359

Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetables marketed in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 23 pesticides from different chemical groups in 160 different domestic vegetables collected from four major big supermarkets located in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia, were identified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Residues were found in 89 of the 160 samples and 53 samples were above the maximum residue levels (MRLs). The most frequently found pesticides were

K. A. Osman; A. M. Al-Humaid; S. M. Al-Rehiayani; K. N. Al-Redhaiman

2010-01-01

360

Factors affecting the climate of hospital patient safety : A study of hospitals in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe three organizational dimensions that influence hospital patient safety climate, also showing and discussing differences between organizational types. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Surveys were conducted in four types of Saudi Arabian hospitals. Resultant information was analyzed using factor analysis and multiple-regression. Findings – Management support, a proper reporting system and adequate resources were

Stephen L. Walston; Badran A. Al-Omar; Faisal A. Al-Mutari

2010-01-01

361

Management of Groundwater Resources in a Coastal Belt Aquifer System of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective management of groundwater is an important tool for long-term sustainability of its productivity and quality. Numerical simulation techniques have been proven effective in defining the groundwater conditions under different management alternatives. A groundwater flow model of a multi-aquifer system in the coastal belt of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia has been developed using numerical simulation techniques. The simulated

Walid A. Abderrahman; Mohammed Rasheeduddin

2001-01-01

362

Measurement of Perceived Parenting Style Influence on Academic Achievement among Saudi College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between academic achievement and parenting styles among Saudi college students. The participants in this study consisted of 349 male and 219 female college students, whose age ranged from 18-25 years. The instruments for the current study were: (a) an Arabic translation of the Revised Parental…

Alanizi, Faris Mayoof Mokheimer

2010-01-01

363

Sharia on domestic workers: legal pluralism and strategic maneuvering in Saudi Arabia and the Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sharia barely influences conflicts between domestic workers and their employers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Analyzed from the perspective of legal pluralism, Sharia constitutes a reservoir of normative tools that can be used by either party in a conflict. The outcome does not depend on Islam, but on power relations. As such, the position

Antoinette Vlieger

2010-01-01

364

Oral cancer prevention and early detection : Knowledge and practice among Saudi Arabian healthcare practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Despite the crucial role that healthcare practitioners (HCPs) have in preventing and detecting oral cancer (OC), studies suggest that dentists and physicians do not adequately detect early stage OC which is attributed to their attitude and knowledge. This Saudi Arabian study aims to assess HCP's knowledge and practice vis-à-vis OC's risk factors and patient evaluation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A

Louay Jaber; Sami Shaban; Deema Hariri

2012-01-01

365

Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI\\/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny

Khaled K Abu-Amero; Ana M González; Jose M Larruga; Thomas M Bosley; Vicente M Cabrera

2007-01-01

366

ASSESSMENT OF ANATOMY CURRICULUM FOR FUTURE CLINICIANS AT COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, KING SAUD UNIVERSITY, SAUDI ARABIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Curriculum development in medical education should be a methodical and scholarly, yet practical process that addresses the needs of future clinicians, trainees in surgery in general and Anatomy in particular. Continuous developments in undergraduate preclinical medical education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have produced advancement in the content and delivery of basic medical sciences including human anatomy. Keeping

Muhammad Mujahid Khan

367

Health Data Standards and Adoption Process: Preliminary Findings of a Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for,…

Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

2011-01-01

368

Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the first report in 1961, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has progressively become a leading cause of nosocomial infections. MRSA infection may have a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality. Limited number of studies in Saudi Arabia has attempted to investigate infection and risk factors associated with nosocomial acquired MRSA. This study was designed to estimate the hidden prevalence

Awadh R. Al-Anazi

369

Despite Doubts, 3 Prominent Universities Sign Deals with a Saudi University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, the ambitious $10-billion research institution that Saudi Arabia plans to open in 2009, has signed agreements with three leading universities to help it design a curriculum and hire faculty members. The agreements, with Stanford University, the University of California at Berkeley, and the…

Fischer, Karin

2008-01-01

370

Association of Interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphisms in Saudi patients with vitiligo.  

PubMed

The promoter region of human Interleukin -10 gene is highly polymorphic and has been associated with numerous autoimmune diseases. Recent studies have linked vitiligo with defective autoimmune system. This study is aimed to explore a possible association between IL-10 gene polymorphism and vitiligo in Saudi population. This case control study consisted of 184 Saudi subjects including 83 vitiligo patients (40 males, 43 females mean age 27.85 +/- 12.43 years) and 101 matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples of healthy controls and Vitiligo patients visiting out patient clinic of Department of Dermatology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, using QIA ampR DNA mini kit (Qiagen CA, USA). Interleukin-10 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Arms primers to detect any polymorphism involved at positions -592, -819 and -1082. The frequencies of GG genotype at -1082, and CC genotype at positions -592 and 819 were significantly higher in vitiligo patients compared to healthy subjects suggesting that GG and CC genotypes might be susceptible to vitiligo in Saudis. On the other hand genotypes -1082 GA, -819 CT, and -592 CA of IL-10 were more prevalent in healthy controls suggesting protective effects of GA, CT and CA genotypes against vitiligo. This study indicates that the IL-10 gene may play a significant role in the etiology of vitiligo among Saudis. PMID:18057536

Abanmi, Abdullah; Al Harthi, Fahad; Zouman, Abdulrahman; Kudwah, Aida; Jamal, Mohammed Al; Arfin, Misbahul; Tariq, Mohammad

2008-01-01

371

Geohazard assessment of sand dunes between Jeddah and Al-Lith, western Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious hazards have taken place in urban areas and road construction in Saudi Arabia because of the presence of accumulations of drifting sand dunes. Several researches, which carried out investigative work to solve this problem, were reviewed. Three locations of dune fields along the area between Jeddah and Al-Lith were investigated. The dune forms was identified. Detailed field investigations showed

Abbas Aifan Al-Harthi

2002-01-01

372

The porosity and engineering properties of vesicular basalt in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of non-connected vesicles in extensive basalt flows in western Saudi Arabia greatly affects their engineering properties such as compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio and sonic velocities. In order to evaluate some of these properties, the density and\\/or the porosity of the material must be known. Using conventional methods to determine the porosity or the density of

A. A. Al-Harthi; R. M. Al-Amri; W. M. Shehata

1999-01-01

373

Association of Interleukin-10 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms in Saudi Patients with Vitiligo  

PubMed Central

The promoter region of human Interleukin ?10 gene is highly polymorphic and has been associated with numerous autoimmune diseases. Recent studies have linked vitiligo with defective autoimmune system. This study is aimed to explore a possible association between IL-10 gene polymorphism and vitiligo in Saudi population. This case control study consisted of 184 Saudi subjects including 83 vitiligo patients (40 males, 43 females mean age 27.85 ± 12.43 years) and 101 matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples of healthy controls and Vitiligo patients visiting out patient clinic of Department of Dermatology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, using QIA ampR DNA mini kit (Qiagen CA, USA). Interleukin-10 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Arms primers to detect any polymorphism involved at positions ?592, ?819 and ?1082. The frequencies of GG genotype at ?1082, and CC genotype at positions ?592 and 819 were significantly higher in vitiligo patients compared to healthy subjects suggesting that GG and CC genotypes might be susceptible to vitiligo in Saudis. On the other hand genotypes ?1082 GA, ?819 CT, and ?592 CA of IL-10 were more prevalent in healthy controls suggesting protective effects of GA, CT and CA genotypes against vitiligo. This study indicates that the IL-10 gene may play a significant role in the etiology of vitiligo among Saudis. PMID:18057536

Abanmi, Abdullah; Al Harthi, Fahad; Zouman, Abdulrahman; Kudwah, Aida; Jamal, Mohammed Al; Arfin, Misbahul; Tariq, Mohammad

2008-01-01

374

INNOVATIVE SATELLITE IMAGE MAP OF R.ALKHABRTA AREA, SAUDI ARABIA USING HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Satellite remote sensing can provide a variety of useful data for various type of research. Satellite image map,is one of the products that aim to promote remote sensing. In this study, a high resolution satellite image was used to create a high resolution satellite image map over AlKhabra, Saudi Arabia. The objective of this project is to produce a

Sultan AlSultan; K. Abdullah; N. Mohd

2002-01-01

375

Information technology and its implications for internal auditing : An empirical study of Saudi organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate empirically the impact of emerging information technology (IT) on internal auditors' (IA) activities, and to examine whether the IT evaluations performed in Saudi organizations vary, based on evaluation objectives and organizational characteristics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, is used to achieve these objectives. About 700 questionnaires were

Ahmad A. Abu-Musa

2008-01-01

376

Molluscicidal activity of some Saudi Arabian euphorbiales against the snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi.  

PubMed

The comparative susceptibility of the snail vector of intestinal schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria pfeifferi to the action of extracts from Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales has been determined. Methanol and chloroform extracts of the plants tested (Jatropha glauca, Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia schimperiana) were the most promising from the molluscicidal point of view with LD(50) values in the range 10-100 ppm. PMID:10771201

Al-Zanbagi, N A; Banaja, A A; Barrett, J

2000-05-01

377

Molluscicidal activity of some Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales against the snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative susceptibility of the snail vector of intestinal schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria pfeifferi to the action of extracts from Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales has been determined. Methanol and chloroform extracts of the plants tested (Jatropha glauca, Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia schimperiana) were the most promising from the molluscicidal point of view with LD50 values in the range 10–100 ppm.

Najia A Al-Zanbagi; Abdul-Elah A Banaja; John Barrett

2000-01-01

378

The Academic Profession in a Rentier State: The Professoriate in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the academic profession in Saudi Arabia, a state dependent upon oil exports, and explores how different social groups are accommodated within the higher education system. The discussion examines the relationship between political power and academic labour, and seeks to explain how local policies and practices are negotiating…

Mazawi, Andre Elias

2005-01-01

379

Erythraeid mites (Prostigmata, Erythraeidae) from Saudi Arabia, description of three new species and a new record  

PubMed Central

Abstract Three erythraeid genera Balaustium von Heyden, Charletonia Oudemans, and Erythraeus Latreille (Trombidiformes: Prostigmata) are reported for first time from Saudi Arabia based on three new larval species, Balaustium yousifi sp. n., Charletonia bahaensis sp. n., and Erythraeus (Erythraeus) uhadi sp. n. and one new record Erythraeus (Zaracarus) lancifer Southcott. All the three new species are described and illustrated from larvae. PMID:25349508

Kamran, Muhammad; Alatawi, Fahad J.

2014-01-01

380

Teaching Arabic and the Preparation of Its Teachers before Service in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…

Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

2012-01-01

381

A Think-Aloud Protocols Investigation of Dictionary Processing Strategies among Saudi EFL Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to examine qualitatively how Saudi EFL female students look-up word meanings in their dictionaries while reading. We aimed to identify and describe the look-up strategies used by these students. The subjects of the study were ten third-year English major students. A think-aloud protocol was used in order to gain insights into the…

Alhaysony, Maha

2012-01-01

382

Learning Preferences of Saudi University Students with Native English Speaking Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many countries building up human and technological resources, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has embarked on the goal of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) to its citizens. One goal for the KSA Ministry of Education is increasing acceptance rates at teacher colleges for both genders specializing in English, in addition to…

Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Yahya, Noorchaya; Unzueta, Caridad H.

2009-01-01

383

Technological Leadership Behavior of High School Headteachers in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the technological leadership behaviors of Saudi Arabian high school regarding the supply and use of educational technologies based on the educational technology standards developed and approved for school headteachers in many countries. The study was carried out with 135 high school headteachers. In the…

Alkrdem, Mofareh

2014-01-01

384

Special Education Teacher Transition-Related Competencies and Preparation in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…

Alnahdi, Ghaleb

2014-01-01

385

Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

2011-01-01

386

Making E-Learning Invisible: Experience at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe progress at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in developing and implementing a user-centered road map for teaching and learning, with pervasive e-learning as a core element. They named the approach "Invisible" e-learning. As part of it, they are investigating ways to capture and share expertise, as in…

Alwalidi, Abdullah; Lefrere, Paul

2010-01-01

387

Website Interface Design: Similarity and Differences between Saudi Arabian and United States University Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expansion of the Internet and online learning around the globe makes it more important to understand the differences in website design among cultures. Furthermore, the members of educational institutions around the world rely on the Internet more than ever before in a variety of aspects. Also, web design differs from culture to culture. Saudi

Alyahya, Dalia Mohammed

2011-01-01

388

Bringing the Field into the Classroom: A Field Methods Course on Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The methodology used in one graduate-level linguistics field methods classroom is examined through the lens of the students' experiences. Four male Deaf individuals from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia served as the consultants for the course. After a brief background information about their country and its practices surrounding deaf education, both…

Stephen, Anika; Mathur, Gaurav

2012-01-01

389

Teachers' Continuing Professional Development Programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to review the historical development of continuing professional development programmes (CPDPs) for teachers, as well as the policies and objectives of such programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from the inception of these programmes until now. Styles of CPDPs that the Education Training Centres (ETCs) offer are…

Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

2011-01-01

390

Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, America and the World: September 11th from Another Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper employs an autobiographical method using biographical elements from narrated experiences from Cyprus, Saudi Arabia, and the United States, where she has come to study. The paper offers perspectives on the September 11, 2001 tragedy and other acts of terrorism, violence, and mass destruction. It describes how the author's Cyprus…

Christodoulou, Niki

391

The Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…

Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung

2012-01-01

392

Survey of trace elements in household and bottled drinking water samples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total dissolved beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the drinking water of 101 households and 21 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to ascertain the water quality for human consumption. The Inductively

I Al-Saleh; I Al-Doush

1998-01-01

393

Prioritizing barriers to successful business process re-engineering (BPR) efforts in Saudi Arabian construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engaging in business process re-engineering (BPR) efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for construction companies in Saudi Arabia. However, BPR is risky and could be disastrous if not properly approached. To enable sound BPR efforts and increase success chances, thorough investigation of barriers is essential. This study presents 29 barriers, with their influence (strength) on the success of BPR

Nader Abdul-Hadi; Abdulsalam Al-Sudairi; Saleh Alqahtani

2005-01-01

394

Energy and exergy use in public and private sector of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then

I. Dincer; M. M. Hussain; I. Al-Zaharnah

2004-01-01

395

Saudi Arabia Puts Its Billions behind Western-Style Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Saudi Arabia has been developing at breakneck speed since the end of World War II, when oil production transformed this country of Bedouins into one of the richest polities in the world. Its higher-education system, however, has not kept pace. The Ministry of Higher Education was not established until 1975, and its task was to educate a population…

Krieger, Zvika

2007-01-01

396

Feasibility of hybrid (wind + solar) power systems for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hourly mean wind-speed and solar radiation data for the period 1986–1993 [except the years 1989 (some data is missing) and 1991 (Gulf War)] recorded at the solar radiation and meteorological monitoring station, Dhahran (26° 32? N, 50° 13? E), Saudi Arabia, have been analyzed to report the monthly variation of wind speed and solar radiation, probability distribution of wind speed

M. A. Elhadidy; S. M. Shaahid

1999-01-01

397

How employees learn about corporate strategy : An empirical analysis of a Saudi manufacturing company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess which communication channels are most frequently used by employees to gain corporate strategic information and the impact of seniority on communication channel chosen. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A Saudi Arabian manufacturing company employing a wide range of both professionals and rank and file workers was used as the source of data. A

Salem M. Al-Ghamdi; Matthew H. Roy; Zafar U. Ahmed

2007-01-01

398

Extent of phytate degradation in breads and various foods consumed in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of phytate degradation in breads and various foods consumed in Saudi Arabia was followed after baking or cooking. Phytate phosphorus content in raw and baked or cooked food was determined by ion-exchange and colorimeteric methods. White bread containing soda, namely Tamees, had a lower degree of phytate degradation followed by pita brown bread, namely Burr, in comparison to

Hassan A. Almana

2000-01-01

399

PV-powered water pumping and desalination plant for remote areas in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to supply sufficient good quality water to remote areas to satisfy various needs. Due to the high insolation intensities in Saudi Arabia, solar energy was selected to supply electric power to the equipment used in the desalination plant, i.e. submersible pump, reverse osmosis unit, storage batteries, etc. The plant is now under continuous operation (24 h per

Byron Stafford; Mohammed Salah Smiai; Shah Rafique

1995-01-01

400

PATTERNS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG SAUDI CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, AND ADULTS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HEALTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two decades, Saudi Arabia has witnessed a tremendous development and urbanization at astounding rate. The standard of living rises and mechanization has been apparent in all aspects of people 's life. And as industrializa tion and modernization progressed, substantial changes in physical activity patterns and eating habits are likely to have occurred. Indeed, physical inactivity and sedentary

Hazzaa M. AL-Hazzaa

401

Effect of physical activity and sun exposure on vitamin D status of Saudi children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating evidence suggests an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East. In this context, we aimed to determine whether the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is related to degree of physical activity and sun exposure among apparently healthy Saudi children and adolescents, a little studied population. Methods A total of 331 Saudi children aged 6–17?years (153 boys and 178 girls) were included in this cross sectional study. Levels of physical activity and sun exposure were determined using a standard questionnaire. Anthropometry, serum calcium and 25-(OH) vitamin D were analyzed. Results All subjects were vitamin D deficient, the majority being moderately deficient (71.6%). Age was the single most significant predictor affecting 25 (OH) Vitamin D levels, explaining 21% of the variance perceived (p?=?1.68 x 10-14). Age-matched comparisons revealed that for groups having the same amount of sun exposure, those with moderate or are physically active will have higher levels of vitamin D status, though levels in across groups remained deficient. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi children and adolescents, and is influenced by both sun exposure and physical activity. Promotion of an active outdoor lifestyle among Saudi children in both homes and schools may counteract the vitamin D deficiency epidemic in this vulnerable population. Vitamin D supplementation is suggested in all groups, including those with the highest sun exposure and physical activity. PMID:22759399

2012-01-01

402

Aircraft maintenance budgetary and costing systems at the Saudi Arabian Airlines : An integrated business approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provides a description and analysis of the Saudi Arabian Airlines’ (SAUDIA) existing budgetary and costing systems from the perspective of aircraft maintenance as a core business activity. Views aircraft maintenance as an integral component of the airlines’ value chain. Highlights deficiencies of the existing systems and makes prescriptions so that aircraft maintenance will contribute positively to SAUDIA’s mission statement. Prescriptions

Mohamed Ali Mirghani

1996-01-01

403

Genetic Influence of Candidate Osteoporosis Genes in Saudi Arabian Population: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives. The purpose of the present study is to find the genes and SNP that influence BMD and postmenopausal Saudi women. Material and Methods. Two-hundred ethnic Saudi Arabian women with a diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis were the subjects of this study. Baseline blood hematology, biochemistry, and bone panel were done. Blood was collected, and three TaqMan-MGB probes were used to analyze SNP variants in ALOX15 (rs7220870), LRP5 (C 25752205 10), and TNFRSF11B (C 11869235 10). Results. The variant of ALOX15 17p13 showed that the BMD of the spine was lower in the AA allele (P value <0.002) and fractures were highest at 50% compared to CC allele. In the TNFRSF11B gene, BMD of the hip and spine was significantly higher in the GG allele and the history of fractures was significantly higher in GG group. With regard to the LRP5 (C 25752205 10) gene, there was no significant difference between allele groups. Conclusion(s). This study shows that the genetic influence of osteoporosis in the Caucasian and Saudi Arabians population is similar. We believe that the same genetic markers that influence osteoporosis in the Caucasian race could be used for further studies in the Saudi Arabian population. PMID:22545221

Sadat-Ali, Mir; Al-Turki, Haifa A.

2012-01-01

404

Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

2010-01-01

405

A study of satisfaction among primary health care patients in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary Health Care is essential health care based on delivering integrated health services (curative and preventive). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia adopted this approach in 1980, and by the year 1987 the Ministry of Health had established 1477 Primary Health Care centers. The expansion in Primary Health Care created a need for various types of evaluation. Theorists recommended the study

Ahlam A. Mansour; Muneera H. Al-Osimy

1993-01-01

406

Trends in infant nutrition in Saudi Arabia: compliance with WHO recommendations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. Our objective was to evaluate trends in infant nutrition in Saudi Arabia and the degree of compliance with WHO recommendations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A nationwide nutritional survey of a sample of Saudi households was selected by the multistage probability sampling procedure. A validated questionnaire was administered to mothers of children less than 3 years of age. RESULTS: Of 5339 children in the sample, 4889 received breast milk at birth indicating a prevalence of initiation of 91.6%. Initiation of breastfeeding was delayed beyond 6 hours after birth in 28.1% of the infants. Bottle feeding was introduced by 1 month of age to 2174/4260 (51.4%) and to 3831/4260 (90%) by 6 months of age. The majority of infants 3870/4787 (80.8%) were introduced to “solid foods” between 4 to 6 months of age and whole milk feedings were given to 40% of children younger than 12 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: The current practice of feeding of Saudi infants is very far from compliance with even the most conservative WHO recommendations of exclusive breastfeeding for 4 to 6 months. The high prevalence of breastfeeding initiation at birth indicates the willingness of Saudi mothers to breastfeed. However, early introduction of complementary feedings reduced the period of exclusive breastfeeding. Research in infant nutrition should be a public health priority to improve the rate of breastfeeding and to minimize other inappropriate practices. PMID:19139623

El Mouzan, Mohammed I.; Al Omar, Ahmad A.; Al Salloum, Abdulla A.; Al Herbish, Abdulla S.; Qurachi, Mansour M.

2009-01-01

407

Injection safety at primary health care level in south-western Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of injection safety in Abha health district, Saudi Arabia, data were collected from 47 physicians and 85 nurses at 24 primary health care centres, using an observation checklist and an interview questionnaire. All centres used individually packed disposable syringes and puncture-proof containers to collect used needles. Needlestick injury in the previous year was reported by 14.9% of

A. A. Mahfouz; I. Abdelmoneim; M. Y. Khan; A. A. Daffalla; M. M. Diab; H. Shaban; H. S. Al Amri

408

City of Tacoma City Manager's Office  

E-print Network

and cover letter (addressed to Nadia Chandler Hardy, Assistant to the City Manager) describing personal goals and interest in this position by August 30, 2013. Contact: Email or call Julia Smith (jbsmith of appointment. Physical Requirements and Working Conditions This position is located in an office setting

Kaminsky, Werner

409

Saudi mothers' preferences about breaking bad news concerning newborns: a structured verbal questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background Breaking bad news (BBN) to parents whose newborn has a major disease is an ethical dilemma. In Saudi Arabia, BBN about newborns is performed according to the parental preferences that have been reported from non-Arabic/non-Islamic countries. Saudi mothers' preferences about BBN have not yet been studied. Therefore, we aimed to elicit the preferences of Saudi mothers about BBN concerning newborns. Methods We selected a convenience sample of 402 Saudi mothers, aged 18-50 years, who had no previous experience with BBN. We selected them via a simple number-randomization scheme from the premises of a level III Saudi hospital between October of 2009 and January of 2011. We used a hypothetical situation (BBN about trisomy 21) to elicit their preferences about BBN concerning newborns via a structured verbal questionnaire composed of 12 multiple-choice questions. We expressed their preferences as percentages (95% confidence interval), and we used the Kendall's W test (W) to assess the degree of agreement in preferences. Results The Saudi mothers preferred that BBN be conducted with both parents together (64% [60-69]), albeit with weak levels of agreement (W = 0.29). They showed moderate agreement in their preferences that BBN should be conducted early (79% [75-83], W = 0.48), in detail (81% [77-85], W = 0.52), in person (88% [85-91], W = 0.58), and in a quiet setting (86% [83-90], W = 0.53). With extremely weak agreement, they preferred to have a known person present for support during BBN (56% [51-61], W = 0.01), to have close bodily contact with their babies (66% [61-70], W = 0.10), and to have no another patients present (64% [59-68], W = 0.08). They showed moderate levels of agreement in their desires to detail, in advance, their preferences about process of BBN by giving a reversible, written informed consent that could be utilized for guidance, if needed (80% [76-84], W = 0.36). Conclusions In our experience, Saudi mothers' preferences about BBN concerning newborns are varied, suggesting that a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. A reversible, written informed consent detailing their preferences about BBN that would be kept in their medical records and utilized for guidance, if needed, may be the best solution, given this level of diversity. These findings merit further study. PMID:21861876

2011-01-01

410

Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

411

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping  

PubMed Central

Abstract Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

2011-01-01

412

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping  

E-print Network

investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies....

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

2012-06-14

413

The large carpenter bees of central Saudi Arabia, with notes on the biology of Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae)  

E-print Network

The large carpenter bees (Xylocopinae, Xylocopa Latreille) occurring in central Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Two species are recognized in the fauna, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma) aestuans (Linnaeus) and X. (Ctenoxylocopa) sulcatipes Maa. Diagnoses...

Hannan, Mohammed A.; Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

2012-06-14

414

Vents to events: determining an eruption event record from volcanic vent structures for the Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed "monogenetic" volcanic eruptions commonly occur in continental settings without obvious structural alignments or rifting/extensional structures. Nevertheless, these may develop as fissures, representing the surface expression of dykes with a range of orientations, especially when stress regimes vary over time and/or older crustal features and faults are exploited by rising magmas. Dykes reaching the surface as fissures can last hours to months and produce groups of closely aligned vents, hiding the true extent of the source fissure. Grouped or aligned vents in a distributed volcanic environment add complexity to hazard modelling where the majority of eruptions are single-vent, point-source features, represented by cones, craters or domes; i.e. vent groups may represent fissure events, or single eruptions coincidently located but erupted hundreds to tens of thousands of years apart. It is common practice in hazard estimation for intraplate monogenetic volcanism to assume that a single eruption cone or crater represents an individual eruptive event, but this could lead to a significant overestimate of temporal recurrence rates if multiple-site and fissure eruptions were common. For accurate recurrence rate estimates and hazard-event scenarios, a fissure eruption, with its multiple cones, must be considered as a single multi-dimensional eruptive event alongside the single-vent eruptions. We present a statistical method to objectively determine eruptive events from visible vents, and illustrate this using the 968 vents of the 10 Ma to 0.6 ka volcanic field of Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia. A further method is presented to estimate the number of hidden vents in a thick volcanic pile. By combining these two methods for Harrat Rahat, we determined an updated spatial recurrence rate estimate, and an average temporal recurrence rate of 7.5 × 10-5 events/year. This new analysis highlights more concentrated regions of higher temporal hazard in parts of Harrat Rahat, which has significant implications for the city of Al-Madinah and surroundings.

Runge, Melody G.; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Kenedi, Catherine L.; Moufti, Mohammed Rashad H.

2014-03-01

415

Comparison of the Anthropometry of Saudi Arabian Male Children Aged 6–11 Years with the NCHS\\/CDC Reference Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the nutritional status of children based on anthropometric indicators and to develop a standard growth chart for schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 4,154 male Saudi primary schoolchildren aged 6–11 years were randomly selected, using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure that covered all regions of Saudi Arabia. Weight and height were measured and used

Abdul Rahman Al-Nuaim; Elijah A. Bamgboye

1998-01-01

416

Predictors of success for Saudi Arabian students enrolled in an accelerated baccalaureate degree program in nursing in the United States.  

PubMed

In the mid 1980s, a professional nursing education program was initiated between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. Based on a perceived and documented need, a collaborative education and research program was established with George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia, to begin building a community of new scholars to assist in the advancement of professional nursing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four cohorts of Saudi citizens from three institutions (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Saudi Arabia National Guard Hospital, and Ministry of Aviation and Defense Hospital), who held a degree in science or a related field, were enrolled in an accelerated baccalaureate program leading to a bachelor of science in nursing degree. This project was funded by Saudi Arabian sources. A descriptive research study was conducted to identify predictors of success in the program. Results indicated a rate of program completion that was higher than expected. Some of the first graduates went on for a doctor of philosophy degree, but not all enrolled completed the program. Many countries around the world are seeking ways to upgrade and increase the supply of qualified nurses within their own borders. This study identified those factors that were predictors of success for Saudi Arabian students who completed a baccalaureate degree in nursing program in the United States. PMID:17903789

Carty, Rita M; Moss, Margaret M; Al-Zayyer, Wael; Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Arietti, Lesley

2007-01-01

417

Transforming Cities With Transit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are cities transformed by the creation of new transit lines? How can existing transit lines be modified to create new land use opportunities for housing and commercial properties? These subjects are covered by a 172-page conference edition of a forthcoming paper from the World Bank. The paper was authored by Hiroaki Suzuki, Robert Cervero, and Kanako Iuchi. Visitors will note that the work focuses on "identifying barriers to and opportunities for effective coordination of transport infrastructure and urban development." The work takes on a number of global best practices of transit-oriented metropolises that have direct relevance to cities in developing countries and offers both analysis and suggestions for future projects. Sections here include "Lessons from Sustainable Transit-Oriented Cities," "Integrating Transit and Urban Development in Cities in the Developing World," and "Toward Sustainable Urban Futures."

Cervero, Robert.; Iuchi, Kanako; Suzuki, Hiroaki

418

City sewer collectors biocorrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

Ksia¸?ek, Mariusz

2014-12-01

419

Light in the city  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on enhancing the awareness of light for the pedestrian,and using light as a way of revealing the structure of the city and its relation to the cosmos. It proposes that aesthetic qualities of light inform ...

Srinivasan, Kavita, 1976-

2002-01-01

420

Between house and city  

E-print Network

In an attempt to understand the relationships between a residential building type and the city, this thesis explores the quality of the urban context resulting from the assemblage of these buildings. The investigation takes ...

Kallus, Rachel Admati

1982-01-01

421

Sister Cities International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People from around the world have sought to establish links with other individuals from different nations, and since 1956, cities have sought to also establish meaningful relationships with other urban areas through the Sister Cities International organization. Currently, the organization represents more than 2,500 communities in 126 countries. Visitors to the site can learn which cities are currently seeking partnerships with other cities, read about the organization's annual conference, and also read about the programs they administer. Also, its calendar of events is quite full with programs designed for the general public, such as those dealing with relationships with countries in the Middle East and the question of local government. Finally, the material on the site is available in a number of different languages, including French, German, Spanish, and Japanese.

422

The 3Cities Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the Universities of Nottingham and Birmingham, the 3Cities Project is "an inter- and multi-disciplinary study of the iconography, spatial forms and literary and visual cultures of New York City, Chicago and Los Angeles in the period 1870s to 1930s." At present, the site hosts a collection of essays on the three cities, information on the project as a whole, and links and information for related conferences and seminars. The Project has also posted on a different site the City Sites electronic book, a collection of ten multimedia essays on New York and Chicago. Visitors can access these essays via interactive maps, a list, or by following theme-based "pathways." A lengthy bibliography rounds out the site.

1997-01-01

423

The sustainable city  

SciTech Connect

Natural marshes are replacing expensive man-made sewage treatment plants. Leaves that once wound up in landfills are now enhancing soils. Ecological landscaping is cooling entire communities and reducing energy use. In coming to view our cities as ecosystems, we are learning to apply the concepts and principles that have sustained rural forests and farms for generations. The question now is, how can those concepts be applied to cities, and how can individual citizens - as well as community leaders - act to improve the sustainability of the places they call home. This article discusses the following topics in reference to developing cities which can sustain themselves: energy efficiency; pollution and waste reduction; capturing natural processes (taking advantage of species that thrive in and benefit the city); merging ecological, economic, and social factors. 6 figs.

Gangloff, D.

1995-05-01

424

Adrift in the City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life style of homeless children in two South American cities is reported in this chapter. The chapter describes a society within a society complete with mores, sanctions and values. The author's use of the term \\

Mark Connolly

1990-01-01

425

The Sustainable City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)

Gangloff, Deborah

1995-01-01

426

Development of a comprehensive city assessment tool: CASBEE-City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducting city assessments and disclosing those results to the public is important for supporting citizens' understanding of the actual condition of their city. Such assessment and disclosure could introduce a market mechanism that can be expected to provide city governments with strong incentives to improve their city conditions and also recognizes that local policy and strategy can be the most

Shuzo Murakami; Shun Kawakubo; Yasushi Asami; Toshiharu Ikaga; Nobuhaya Yamaguchi; Shinichi Kaburagi

2011-01-01

427

City of Palo Alto (ID # 4168) City Council Staff Report  

E-print Network

: Recommendation that the City Council Adopt a Resolution Amending the City's Renewable Energy Resources (Attachment A) amending the City of Palo Alto Electric Utility's Renewable Energy Resources Procurement Plan renewable energy resources by 2015. The City's goal exceeds California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS

428

Switching cities off  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this follow?up to a piece originally published in City 8(2), Stephen Graham offers a detailed portrait of the tactics and techniques of contemporary urban warfare. As cities have become more reliant than ever on networks, and as their infrastructures have become more fragile due to the vagaries of neoliberal privatization, urban?based warfare, which targets the systems—informational, medical, agricultural, and

Stephen Graham

2005-01-01

429

The Cities Alliance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the World Bank and other organizations, the Cities Alliance is "a global coalition of cities and their development partners committed to scaling up successful approaches to poverty reduction." The "News" area is front and center on their homepage and it provides a fine overview of their work, which ranges from concerted efforts to upgrade slums in the developing world, developing strategies to help cities with their financial situation, and also working on cohesive and comprehensive development strategies. Visitors can click on the right-hand side of the page to learn more about each of these thematic areas in the "Cities Alliance Activities" section. Moving on, the "Publications" area with its annual reports, fact sheets, and archived e-newsletters is a place worth visiting as well. The site is rounded out by the "City Development Strategies" area, which offers a rigorous explanation of the ways in which cities can assess their existing strengths and what the key aspects of a meaningful development strategy might be.

430

First Insight into the Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia? †  

PubMed Central

This study constitutes a first attempt to describe the genetic population structure and drug resistance of the tubercle bacilli circulating in Saudi Arabia. A total of 1,505 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis, isolated between 2002 and 2005 from seven regions of Saudi Arabia, were studied. The sample studied showed a male-to-female sex ratio of 1.27, with half of the cases among foreign-born individuals and 47% within the 21- to 40-year-old age group; a total resistance rate of 19.7%; and multiple drug resistance of 4.5%. Upon spoligotyping, a total of 387 individual patterns were obtained (clustering rate, 86.4%; 182 clusters containing between 2 and 130 isolates per cluster). A total of 94% of the strains matched the spoligotype patterns in an international database. Nearly 81% of the isolates in this study belonged to established phylogeographic clades: Central Asian (CAS), 22.5%; ill-defined T clade, 19.5%; East African-Indian (EAI), 13.5%; Haarlem, 7.5%; Latin American-Mediterranean, 7.2%; Beijing, 4.4%; Manu, 2.7%; X, 0.9%; and Bovis, 0.9%. Two clonal complexes with unique spoligotyping signatures (octal codes 703777707770371 and 467777377413771) specific to Saudi Arabia were identified. These belonged to the CAS and EAI clades, respectively, as confirmed upon secondary typing using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs). The results obtained underline the predominance of historic clones of principal genetic group 1, which are responsible for roughly 45% of all tuberculosis cases in Saudi Arabia. The high rate of clustering observed might be an indication of rapid ongoing transmission within certain communities and/or subpopulations in Saudi Arabia; nonetheless, spoligotyping is known to overestimate clustering, and only a systematic second-line typing, such as MIRUs, coupled with a better tuberculosis registry and epidemiological investigations would allow us to know the exact rate of ongoing transmission and associated risk factors in Saudi Arabia. PMID:17507515

Al-Hajoj, Sahal A. M.; Zozio, Thierry; Al-Rabiah, Fahad; Mohammad, Viquar; Al-Nasser, Maryam; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin

2007-01-01

431

Cities Centre University of Toronto  

E-print Network

Cities Centre University of Toronto On the Mandate of the new University of Toronto Cities Centre selections from the Proposal for the Establishment of a Cities Centre at the University of Toronto December and Director, Global Cities Program); Eric Miller (Civil Engineering and Director, Joint Program

Sokolowski, Marla

432

From intelligent to smart cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking Hollands' previous statement on the transition from intelligent to smart cities as its point of departure (‘Will the real smart city stand up?’ City 12(3), 302–320), this article reflects upon the anxieties currently surrounding such developments. In particular, it considers the suggestion that such developments have more to do with cities meeting the corporate needs of marketing campaigns than

Mark Deakin; Husam Al Waer

2011-01-01

433

Inner City Revitalization in Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the neo liberal market philosophy of the 1990s, the city is considered a growth engine. City planning and development emphasizes on making the cities productive and as a result, market based revitalization initiatives including real estate, retail and entertainment has become important. Unlike in the past, city revitalization is not limited to the development of the blighted or declining

Shrawan Kumar Acharya

434

A sporadic case of unilateral acrokeratoelastoidosis in Saudi Arabia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acrokeratoelastoidosis is a rare condition characterized by bilateral multiple hyperkeratotic papules on the palms, soles, and dorsum of the hands and feet. To the best of our knowledge, only around 40 cases of acrokeratoelastoidosis have been reported worldwide, which are mostly familial. Case presentation We report the first case from Saudi Arabia in a 5-year-old Saudi girl of Arabian origin, who presented symptoms of acrokeratoelastoidosis with unilateral sporadic keratosis on her left hand and left foot. We also review the clinical and histopathologic features, etiology, differential diagnosis and its treatment. Conclusions Given the rarity of acrokeratoelastoidosis, little is known about the disease. Further studies are required to understand the pathogenesis of the disease for better treatment options. Additional case reports of acrokeratoelastoidosis will help in recognizing risk factors, patient characteristics, environmental influences and possibly new etiological factors. PMID:24885157

2014-01-01

435

STS-65 Earth observation of center-pivot irrigation in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of center-pivot irrigation in North Central Saudi Arabia. This 250mm color photograph shows a small section of desert land where center-pivot irrigation is used for crop production. This particular area is representative of a much larger area within Saudi Arabia where this agricultural practice is being applied. The water is being extracted from subsurface reserves that infiltrated deep aquifers over the Central Arabian Arch during previous geological periods, when the climate was much wetter than present. This view is an example of the use of abundant fossil water to achieve self sufficiency in food production. Note OV-102's vertical stabilizer and tail cap are visible in the view.

1994-01-01

436

Status of breeding seabirds on the Northern Islands of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder’s Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is postulated that food availability is an important factor influencing the breeding of seabirds in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Several species laid eggs earlier in northern parts of the Red Sea than in southern parts. The predicted increases in temperatures (Ta) could have a negative effect on species survival in the future, especially on those whose nests that are in the open. Finally, disturbance, predation and egg collection were probably the main immediate threats affecting the breeding seabird species in the northern Red Sea. PMID:24955009

Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Aloufi, Abdulhadi A.

2013-01-01

437

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready?  

PubMed Central

Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed as a global healthcare priority with an emphasis on evidence-based interventions. In addition, this paper will assess Saudi Arabia's readiness to prevent CAN and the challenges that will be faced by the professionals in implementing evidence-based CAN prevention programs. PMID:22048511

Almuneef, Maha; Al-Eissa, Majid

2011-01-01

438

Regional Prevalence of Short Stature in Saudi School-Age Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the magnitude of regional difference in prevalence of short stature in Saudi children and adolescents. Subjects and Methods. A representative sample from three different regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (North, Southwest, and Center) was used to calculate the prevalence of short stature (standard deviation score less than ?2) in children 5 to 17 years of age. Results. There were 9018 children and adolescents from 5 to 17 years of age (3366, 2825, and 2827 in the Northern, Southwestern and Central regions, resp.) and 51% were boys. In both school-age children and adolescents, there was a significantly higher prevalence of short stature in the Southwestern than in the Northern or the Central region (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. The finding of significant regional variation between regions helps in planning priorities for research and preventive measures. PMID:22606050

El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al Herbish, Abdullah S.; Al Salloum, Abdullah A.; Al Omer, Ahmad A.; Qurachi, Mansour M.

2012-01-01

439

Universities Scale Like Cities  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the ‘gross university income’ in terms of total number of citations over ‘size’ in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities -the top-100 European universities- we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment. PMID:23544062

van Raan, Anthony F. J.

2013-01-01

440

Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction profiles; final project report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat-Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used: five on land, with most charges placed below the water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and detonated from a ship. Slightly more than 61 metric tons of explosives were used in 19 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by 100 newly-developed portable seismic stations deployed in approximately 200 km-long arrays for each firing. Each station consisted of a standard 2-Hz vertical component geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. In this final report, we fully document the field and data-processing procedures and present the final seismogram data set as both a digital magnetic tape and as record sections for each shot point. Record sections include a normalized set of seismograms, reduced at 6 km/s, and a true-amplitude set, reduced at 8 km/s, which have been adjusted for amplifier gain, individual shot size, and distance from the shot point. Appendices give recorder station and shot information, digital data set descriptions, computer program listings, arrival times used in the interpretation, and a bibliography of reports published as a result of this project. We used two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques in the data analysis, and our interpretation is based primarily on horizontally layered models. The Arabian Shield is composed, to first-order, of two layers, each about 20 km thick, with average velocities of 6.3 km/s and 7.0 km/s, respectively. At the western shield margin the crust thins to less than 20 km total thickness, beyond which the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain are interpreted to be underlain by oceanic crust. A major crustal lateral velocity inhomogeneity northeast of Sabhah in the Shammar Tectonic Province is interpreted as the suture zone of two crustal blocks of different composition. Several high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust correlate with mapped gneissic dome structures. Two intra-crustal reflectors at13 km depth are interpreted as the tops of mafic intrusives. The Mohorovicic discontinuity beneath the shield varies from 43 km depth in the northeast with 8.2 km/s mantle velocity to 38 km depth in the southwest with 8.0 km/s mantle velocity. Two velocity discontinuities are identified in the upper mantle, at 59 and 70 km depth. We suggest further work, including refined analyses of the data employing filtering and synthetic seismogram techniques, as well as consideration of attenuation properties. Extension of the seismic refraction profile to the Arabian Gulf and some short profiles perpendicular to the existing profile would be fruitful areas for future field work.

Healy, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Blank, H.R.; Gettings, M.E.; Kohler, W.M.; Lamson, R.J.; Leone, L.E.

1983-01-01

441

Community pharmacists’ attitudes toward dispensing errors at community pharmacy setting in Central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Purpose The main objective of this study was to survey pharmacists’ attitudes toward dispensing errors in community pharmacy settings in Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia was conducted over a period of 6 months from March through September 2012. A stratified random sample of eight hundred registered pharmacy practitioners was collected all over Riyadh region. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version19.0 for windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). Results The response rate was almost 82%. The majority of the respondents are young adults (90.2%). The median for years of registration of respondent pharmacists was 9 years (range 1–37 years). About 62% (407) of the respondents have a positive response while only 37.8% (n = 248) have a negative response in this respect. The major factors identified were pharmacist assistant (82.2%) and high workload (72.5%). The most appreciated factors that help reducing dispensing errors are improving doctors’ hand writing and reducing work load of the pharmacist (82.9% and 82.8% respectively), having drug names that are distinctive (76.1%) and having more than one pharmacist in duty (75.5%). Conclusion In conclusion, majority of community pharmacists indicated that the risk of dispensing errors was increasing and most of them were aware of dispensing errors. It is obvious from the study results that dispensing errors is a big concern for community pharmacy practice in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the professional organizations and Pharmacy Boards in Saudi Arabia to determine standards for the profession. PMID:25061403

Al-Arifi, Mohamed N.

2013-01-01

442

MERCURY CONTENT IN SKIN-LIGHTENING CREAMS AND POTENTIAL HAZARDS TO THE HEALTH OF SAUDI WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

It seems evident from a wealth of scientific research that mercury is toxic. Because of the nature of the Saudi markets, different brands of skin-lightening creams are widely avail able. In this study, 38 skin-lightening cream samples were collected and analyzed for mer cury by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry after an acid digestion procedure. About 45% of the tested skin-lightening

Iman Al-Saleh; Inaam Al-Doush

1997-01-01

443

Nd, Pb, Sr, and O isotopic characterization of Saudi Arabian Shield terranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New Nd, Sr and O isotopic data for granitoid rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield are presented together with published Nd, Pb, Sr and O isotopic data and all available geologic and geochronologic information to re-evaluate the terranes defined for the Saudi Arabian part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Three groups of terranes are identified: 1) the western arc terranes, 2) the eastern arc terranes, and 3) the Khida terrane. The Khida terrane is the only terrane composed of pre-Neoproterozoic continental crust. The western arc terranes are of oceanic arc affinity, and have the least radiogenic Pb and Sr and most radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions and some of the lowest ??18O values of any rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield. Although some previous studies have characterized the eastern arc terranes as of continental affinity, this study shows that they too are composed of Neoproterozoic oceanic arcs, although their sources have slightly elevated 208Pb/204Pb, Nd, Sri, and ??18O values compared to the western arc terranes. These data suggest that either the isotopic composition of the mantle source for the western arc terranes is more depleted than that of the eastern arc terranes or the eastern arc terranes have been mixed with a small amount of cratonic source material, or both. We further elaborate on the Hulayfah-Ad Dafinah fault zone as a major boundary within the Saudi Arabian portion of the East African Orogen. With further study, its northern extension may be shown to pass through what has been defined as the Hail terrane, and its southern extension appears to lie under cover east of the Tathlith-Malahah terrane and extend into Yemen. It may represent the collision zone between East and West Gondwana, and at the very least it is an important suture between groups of arc terranes of contrasting isotopic composition caught between two converging continents.

Stoeser, D.B.; Frost, C.D.

2006-01-01

444

Detailed Analysis of a 550MW Installed Capacity Wind Farm in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presents the wind speed data, frequency distribution, local wind shear exponent, energy yield, air density, and turbulence intensity analysis for a site located in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Overall mean wind speed values at 20, 30, and 40 m above ground level were 4.72, 5.34, and 5.74 m\\/s respectively. The mean local wind shear exponent and

Shafiqur Rehman; Aftab Ahmad; Luai M. Al-Hadhrami

2010-01-01

445

Science misconceptions and working memory capacity among Saudi adolescents: A neo-Piagetian investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to investigate the relationships between science misconceptions and working memory capacity in Saudi adolescent students. The participants in this study were from eleventh and twelfth grades; both male and female students and natural and social science Saudi comprised the sample. Also investigated in this study were the conceptions and misconceptions of gravity in a non-European culture, that is Saudi culture, and the variables that differentiated those individuals who could overcome their misconceptions from those who could not and the gender differences in science misconceptions in the context of Saudi culture. Another important focus of this study was to investigate the participants' responses and explanations on the science misconceptions tasks (WLT and EGT). As would be expected, there was a strong correlation between WLT and EGT in the responses of students and their explanations. The most successful students on the WLT and EGT were natural science students rather than social science students, and there were no gender differences between male and female participants. Also investigated were the correlations between the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT; the measures of science misconceptions) and the independent variables, which were the visual working memory capacity tasks (i.e., FIT and VPS), the field independence/dependence (FASP), students' grade point average (GPA), age, academic major, gender, and grade level. It was found that both of the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT) correlated significantly with the same independent variables, the FIT, VPS, FASP, academic major, and students' grade point average (GPA).

Al-Jubaili, Ahmad Yahya

446

Exploring Fog Water Harvesting Potential and Quality in the Asir Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, the exploitation of the existing water resources in the Asir region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia\\u000a has considerably increased due to both the decrease in annual precipitation and the added population pressures from the growing\\u000a tourist industry. To face the conventional water shortage, attention has been mainly focused on desalination of water. To\\u000a save the

P. Gandhidasan; H. I. Abualhamayel

2011-01-01

447

Precambrian basement character of Yemen and correlations with Saudi Arabia and Somalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Precambrian basement of Yemen occupies a key location in the Pan-African orogen of Gondwana. This paper reviews geological, isotopic and geochronological data and presents new Pb- and Nd-isotope data which help define distinct gneiss terranes within this basement, constraining correlations of these terranes with neighbouring regions of Saudi Arabia and Somalia. Existing whole-rock Pb- and Nd-isotopic data are also

Martin J Whitehouse; Brian F Windley; Douglas B Stoeser; Salah Al-Khirbash; Mahfood A. O Ba-Bttat; Abdullah Haider

2001-01-01

448

Lower Silurian-Upper Ordovician subsurface glacial outwash deposits, northern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently acquired seismic data reinterpreted well information in northwest Saudi Arabia extends outcropping Lower Silurian to Upper Ordovician Zarqa\\/Sarah glacial and periglacial deposits into the subsurface. These deposits range from northeast-trending outwash-filled channels deeply incised into the underlying Ordovician Qasim and the Cambrian-Ordovician Saq Formation in the east. A southwest source for these sediments is implied by this new data.

1991-01-01

449

Analysis of LOXL1 polymorphisms in a Saudi Arabian population with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene are associated with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEG) in the Saudi Arabian population. Methods The coding regions of LOXL1 were fully sequenced in 93 clinically diagnosed PEG patients and 101 healthy controls. Both groups were Saudi Arabs. Previously reported and newly identified SNPs were evaluated for possible association with PEG and their pathological consequences on the gene were assessed. Results The “G” allele frequencies of both rs1048661 and rs3825942 SNPs differed between PEG patients and control subjects from Saudi Arabia (p=0.0056 and p=0.000005, respectively). This significance remained after applying the Bonferroni correction. Two non-synonymous novel SNPs in LOXL1 were detected in the PEG patients and not in the controls. One of these SNPs was in exon 4 (g.25722 C>G; codon change D484E) of LOXL1 and was predicted to be non-pathological; the other was in exon 6 of LOXL1 (g.28084 T>G; codon change Y559D) and was predicted to be probably damaging. All alleles of SNPs (rs28706550, rs35203737, rs41429348, rs12906373, rs41435250, and rs13329473) were monoallelic in this population. No allele frequency difference for rs8818 and rs3522 SNP between patients and controls (p values were 0.126 and 0.994 respectively). Conclusions Similar to almost all non-African populations tested thus far, the “G” allele of both rs1048661 and rs3825942 SNPs were associated with the risk of PEG in the Saudi Arab population. PMID:21197115

Osman, Essam A.; Dewedar, Ahmed S.; Schmidt, Silke; Allingham, R. Rand; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A.

2010-01-01

450

Utilization of wind\\/solar energy in generating electricity in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar and wind data averages gathered for five years and plans for a 1.2-1.4 kW solar wind energy plant at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia are presented. Wind speeds were gathered at 2 m height averaging 3.9 m\\/sec, and extrapolated to 22 m and 5.45 m\\/sec; average solar intensity was found to be 600 W\\/sq m between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m.

A. E. M. Nasser; A. E. M

1981-01-01

451

Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal.  

PubMed

We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% (42-47 mmol/mol) and in individuals with HbA(1c) >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%. PMID:24485346

Almdal, T P; Handlos, L N; Valerius, M; Juul, E; Nielsen, K E; Vistisen, D; Nielsen, L B; Sheikh, A; Belhadj, M; Nadir, D; Zinai, S; Raposo, J; Lund-Andersen, H; Witte, D R

2014-03-01

452

A new species of Chalicodoma from Saudi Arabia with modified facial setae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)  

E-print Network

. angonica (Cockerell)1 + + + Zambia [N.E. Rhodesia] C. cinnamomeum (Alfken) + – – Morocco, United Arab Emirates C. farinosa (Smith) + + – Greece C. kigonserana (Friese) + – – Tanganyika, Democratic Republic of Congo [Belgian Congo], Zambia [N. Rhodesia...], Malawi C. lualabae (Cockerell)2 + + + Zambia [N.E. Rhodesia] C. marshalli (Friese) + + + Tanganyika, Zambia [N. Rhodesia] C. riyadhense sp. n. + + + Saudi Arabia C. seraxense (Radoszkowski) + + + S. India C. transgrediens (Rebmann) + +* – Turkey 1 Note...

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

2012-06-25

453

Seasonal Variation of Bacterial Flora in Ponds in Saudi Arabia Used for Tilapia Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal bacterial flora of fish ponds were quantitatively and qualitatively examined at quarterly intervals for one year from April 2001 to March 2002 for the first time in Saudi Arabia and the isolates were identified on the species level. Total viable count of bacteria in pond water ranged from 7.8±0.9 × 10 to 1.3+1.1 × 10 cfu\\/mL in Spring

M. Naim Uddin; Ahmed H. Al-Harbi

2004-01-01

454

Written in Stone: Inscriptions from the National Museum of Saudi Arabia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the National Museum of Natural History, this exhibit highlights some ancient stone inscriptions from the collection of the National Museum of Saudi Arabia. The site features 54 museum objects that bear examples of ancient epigraphy, a small sample from the museum's 9,000 cataloged epigraphic objects. These are organized in two chronological sections: pre-Islamic and Islamic. The objects are presented as thumbnails which link to larger images as well as transcriptions and translations.

455

Muscle Function in Saudi Children and Adolescents: Relationship to Anthropometric Characteristics During Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of the present study was to determine isokinetic strength and endurance, isometric strength, and anaerobic power for untrained healthy Saudi children and adolescents. The secondary purpose was to evaluate the effects of age in relation to anthropometric characteristics on strength and anaerobic perfor- mances. Forty-four (untrained) 11- to 19-year-old boys were grouped by age: 11-13 years, 14-16

Khalid S. Almuzaini

456

Challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored. Objectives We explored the perspectives of healthcare practitioners on current issues about medication safety in hospitals and community settings in Saudi Arabia in order to identify challenges to improving it and explore the future of medication safety practice. Methods A total of 65 physicians, pharmacists, academics and nurses attended a one-day meeting in March 2010, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into nine round-table discussion sessions. Three major themes were explored in these sessions, including: major factors contributing to medication safety problems, challenges to improving medication safety practice, and participants’ suggestions for improving medication safety. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results The round-table discussions revealed that major factors contributing to medication safety problems included unrestricted public access to medications from various hospitals and community pharmacies, communication gaps between healthcare institutions, limited use of important technologies such as computerized provider order entry, and the lack of medication safety programs in hospitals. Challenges to current medication safety practice identified by participants included underreporting of medication errors and adverse drug reactions, multilingualism and differing backgrounds of healthcare professionals, lack of communication between healthcare providers and patients, and high workloads. Suggestions for improving medication safety practices in Saudi Arabia included continuous education for healthcare professionals and competency assessment focusing on medication safety, development of a culture that encourages medication error and adverse drug reactions reporting, use of technology proven to decrease medication errors, and promotion and implementation of national patient safety initiatives. Conclusions Healthcare professionals have identified major challenges and opportunities for medication safety in Saudi Arabia. Policy makers and practitioners should consider these factors when designing future programs aimed at improving the safe use of medications. PMID:25161376

Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Alrasheedy, Alian; Alahmad, Amjad; Saleem, Fahad; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Michael; Bates, David W.

2013-01-01

457

Determining the causal relationships among balanced scorecard perspectives on school safety performance: case of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

In the public schools of many developing countries, numerous accidents and incidents occur because of poor safety regulations and management systems. To improve the educational environment in Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Education seeks novel approaches to measure school safety performance in order to decrease incidents and accidents. The main objective of this research was to develop a systematic approach for measuring Saudi school safety performance using the balanced scorecard framework philosophy. The evolved third generation balanced scorecard framework is considered to be a suitable and robust framework that captures the system-wide leading and lagging indicators of business performance. The balanced scorecard architecture is ideal for adaptation to complex areas such as safety management where a holistic system evaluation is more effective than traditional compartmentalised approaches. In developing the safety performance balanced scorecard for Saudi schools, the conceptual framework was first developed and peer-reviewed by eighteen Saudi education experts. Next, 200 participants, including teachers, school executives, and Ministry of Education officers, were recruited to rate both the importance and the performance of 79 measurement items used in the framework. Exploratory factor analysis, followed by the confirmatory partial least squares method, was then conducted in order to operationalise the safety performance balanced scorecard, which encapsulates the following five salient perspectives: safety management and leadership; safety learning and training; safety policy, procedures and processes; workforce safety culture; and safety performance. Partial least squares based structural equation modelling was then conducted to reveal five significant relationships between perspectives, namely, safety management and leadership had a significant effect on safety learning and training and safety policy, procedures and processes, both safety learning and training and safety policy, procedures and processes had significant effects on workforce safety culture, and workforce safety culture had a significant effect on safety performance. PMID:24589246

Alolah, Turki; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Mohamed, Sherif

2014-07-01

458

Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and\\u000a disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents\\u000a with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric assessment was based a double test\\u000a strategy through

Mostafa Abdel-Monhem Amr; Tarek Tawfik Amin; Hatem Refaat Hablas

2010-01-01

459

Fracture flow modelling based on satellite images of the Wajid Sandstone, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale geological features have been identified by satellite imagery and global positioning system data in the Wajid\\u000a Sandstone in Saudi Arabia. The main objective is to evaluate the importance of fractures for the overall flow behaviour in\\u000a this fractured rock aquifer and to estimate in-situ hydraulic apertures. Data on fractures and lineaments were available for\\u000a three outcrops. By applying a

Conny Zeeb; Daniel Göckus; Paul Bons; Hussain Al Ajmi; Randolf Rausch; Philipp Blum

2010-01-01

460

Heavy metals concentrations and usability of groundwater at Mahd Adh Dhahab gold mine, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental and social impact and operational water quality in the Mahd Adh\\u000a Dhahab gold mine area and its surroundings in the central part of the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates\\u000a the distribution of heavy metals in the groundwater from the Mahd Adh Dhahab gold mine area and its surroundings

Abdullah S. Al-Hobaib; Q. Kh. Al-Jaseem; Hassan M. Baioumy; Ahmed H. Ahmed