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1

Engineering geological mapping of the holy city of Makkah Al Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of the holy city of Makkah demonstrates a unique example among the birth of cities in the world. It flourished in a desert area, having no reliable source of water, food, or any other human culture. With the continuous growth of the city, the area around the Holy Mosque becomes heavily populated and the density of buildings increases.

ABDULAZIZ AL SOLAMI; GABEL AL BARAKATI

2

Hydrologic behavior and flood probability for selected arid basins in Makkah area, western Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arid regions, flash floods often occur as a consequence of excessive rainfall. Occasionally causing major loss of property\\u000a and life, floods are large events of relatively short duration. Makkah area in western Saudi Arabia is characterized by high\\u000a rainfall intensity that leads to flash floods. This study quantifies the hydrological characteristics and flood probability\\u000a of some major wadis in

Ali M. Subyani

2011-01-01

3

Development of GIS-based Wind Potential Map of Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.

Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.

2011-12-01

4

PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO HUMAN PARVOVIRUS B19 IN SAUDI WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE IN MAKKAH  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence rate of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) to parvovirus B19 in pregnant Saudi women in Makkah. Subjects and Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a total of 1200 serum samples were tested for antibodies to parvovirus B19 known to cause a variety of clinical syndromes in women and newborn infants. Results: Parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies detected in 46.6% and IgM antibodies were found in 2.25% of different age groups. Conclusion: The previous exposure to parvovirus B19 was determined, and 560 (46.6%) of 1200 pregnant Saudi women tested at their first antenatal visit were seropositive for specific IgG. The rate of maternal infection in susceptible pregnancies was 2.25%. These results were in accordance with previous studies performed in other countries.

Ghazi, Hani O.

2007-01-01

5

First case report of human myiasis with Sarcophaga species in Makkah city in the wound of a diabetic patient.  

PubMed

We have reported a case of a 40-year-old male diabetic patient, resident of a rural area, who visited the outpatient clinic of the diabetic center in Alnoor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. He came to seek medical advice for a single wound in the back of the shoulder since 1 month. After examination, a larva was eliminated and sent to laboratory for confirmation. It was confirmed as the third-stage larva of Sarcophaga species after macroscopic and microscopic examination. This is the first case of a patient having diabetic wound myiasis with the larva of Sarcophaga species reported in the Makkah region of Saudi Arabia. PMID:23633868

Zaglool, Dina Abdulla Muhammad; Tayeb, Khaled; Khodari, Yousif Abdul Wahid; Farooq, Mian Usman

2013-01-01

6

Study Evaluation Of Groundwater Resources In Wadi Yalamlam and Wadi Adam Basins, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Al-Mukarramah Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The government of Saudi Arabia has given great attention and effort to supply the holy city of Makkah Al-Mukarramah with sufficient amount of high quality water. The search for and the development of new water resources in the Makkah Al-Mukarramah area is considered among the top priorities as the consumption of water is rising with time. This research aims at

Ali M. Subyani

7

Epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of meningococcal meningitis in Makkah (Mecca), Saudi Arabia, 1992.  

PubMed

During March and April of 1992, the health surveillance system began detecting increasing numbers of cases of meningococcal disease (MCD) in the Islamic holy city of Makkah (Mecca). We identified 102 bacteriologically confirmed cases (CC) and 80 suspected cases (SC) of MCD. Neisseria meningitidis was identified as Group A, III-1 clone. The ratio of male:female cases was 2.9:1. All age groups of males were affected. There was only one case among women aged 10-30; 50% of the adult female cases were 55 or older. The case-fatality ratio (CFR) was 14.7% among CC. Pakistanis, who comprised about one-third of the CC, had a CFR of 26.7%. Fifty-nine percent of CC were religious visitors. CC in residents were most common in persons living near the Holy Mosque (Haram), where the carriage rate reached 86%. A mass vaccination program against MCD was instituted, using AC bivalent meningococcal vaccine (MCV). An abrupt drop, from a mean of 15 CC per week to 2 CC per week (only in visitors), coincided with vaccinating 600,000 persons over 2 weeks. Makkah residents who had been vaccinated against MCD were less likely to have contracted MCD (OR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.06-0.50). MCV was of no significant protective value if it had been administered 5 years before the outbreak. The main reason for not being vaccinated as stated by both cases (71%) and controls (45%) was not knowing about the disease. The age and sex differences probably relate to differences in exposures to crowded conditions. Health education should illuminate the seriousness of the disease and the importance of vaccination. PMID:8557071

al-Gahtani, Y M; el Bushra, H E; al-Qarawi, S M; al-Zubaidi, A A; Fontaine, R E

1995-12-01

8

Relationship between desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), infestation, environmental factors and control measures in Gazan and Makkah Regions, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), is one of the most important insect pests in Saudi Arabia. Cultivated crops and the range lands are heavily affected by desert locust in some regions of Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of damage by the Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) to the range lands being used for grazing range animals in Gazan and Makkah regions of Saudi Arabia. However, it is very difficult to estimate accurately the total infested areas, which were sprayed with insecticides to control upsurges, outbreaks and plagues over the last five decades. Records of Desert Locust control are kept in the National Desert Locust Control and Research Center in Jeddah. Meteorological data was obtained from the Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA), Saudi Arabia. The data shows that the Desert Locust infestation was associated partially with the rainfall intensity in Gazan and Makkah regions. There was found a good relationship between Desert Locust infestation (Solitary phase), temperature and the relative humidity. The locust infestation was heavy during 1986-88, 1992-95 and 1997-98 and about 1.8 million ha were treated with insecticides. Out of the total breeding/infested area, 43% was treated in winter months (October-February) and the remaining 57% was treated in spring season (March-June). The infested area was sprayed with Marshall, Carbosulfan (20%), Malathion (96%, Clorpyrifos; (48%) Fipronil (12.5%), Sumithion (100%) and Decis (12.5%). The study showed an excellent potential to determine the active locust infestation period in relation to the environmental factors for its effective control with insecticide sprays to minimize crop damage. The study highlighted the needs for further investigations in other locust infested areas with different environmental factors for planning future desert locust control programs. PMID:19093456

Al-Ajlan, Abdulaziz M

2007-10-15

9

Climate affected by dust aerosol over arid region of Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols play an important role in the global climate balance, and therefore they could be important in climate change. Natural variations of aerosols, especially due to dust storm are recognized as a significant climate forcing, that is, a factor that alters the Earth's radiation balance and thus tends to cause a global temperature change. Aerosol optical depth, ?(?) is the most comprehensive variable to characterize aerosol due to atmospheric pollution. The aerosol optical properties in Makkah observed during dust period (March-May) from 2006 to 2009 had been presented in this study. Aerosol optical depths at all wavelengths showed a sharp increase during major dust outbreak in spring when compared with the average for the season. For example at Makkah, aerosol optical depths increase from the spring average value of 0.43+/-0.02 at 550 nm to values >0.70 during major dust event days in 2006. These tend to increasingly of temperature during this period as results of absorbing aerosol effect. In this paper, we used AOD data from Terra MODIS to evaluate the trend of dust aerosol events in Makkah throughout 4 years dataset with supported data of subtype of aerosol and air temperature from CALIPSO and MERRA respectively. The higher values of AOD are corresponding to the low visibility due to presents of high concentration of dust.

Othman, N.; Matjafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.

2010-10-01

10

Steady improvement of infection control services in six community hospitals in Makkah following annual audits during Hajj for four consecutive years  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of annual review of the infection control practice in all Ministry of Health hospitals in the holy city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the Hajj period of four lunar Islamic years, 1423 to 1426 corresponding to 2003 to 2006. METHODS: audit of infection control service was conducted annually over

Tariq A Madani; Ali M Albarrak; Mohammad A Alhazmi; Tarik A Alazraqi; Abdulahakeem O Althaqafi; Abdulrahman H Ishaq

2006-01-01

11

Average surface albedo measurements in the UV, IR, and TSR on the Holy Mosque and places in Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Average albedo values were measured at three broad wavebands; UV region (295 - 385 nm), Total Solar Radiation, TSR, (305 - 2800 nm), and IR region (3500 - 50000 nm), over different surfaces in the Holy Mosque and Places in Makkah (21°.25 N, 39°.49 E). The Eppley Laboratory Radiometers of TUVR and PIR were used for UV and IR measurements respectively, while Kipp & Zonen Pyranometer of CM3 was adopted for the TSR observations. Measurements were performed during two different periods (summer 28/7-10/8/2004 at Holy Mosque and winter 18-30/1/2005 at Holy Places). Summer measurements showed that the average surface albedos of the Holy Mosque white marbles were 0.45, 0.70 and 1.14 at UV, TSR and IR regions respectively. These values have decreased to 0.12 and 0.18 at UV and TSR regions respectively over the Holy Mosque brown marbles. However, the average albedo value has increased to 1.38 at IR region due to the large Longwave radiation emission from the brown marble surfaces. The albedo values of the Holy Mosque red carpets were determined. The average albedo values were also measured over the Holy Places surfaces (18 m) of pilgrimage, (Muna and Arafat sites) during winter 2005. The observed average surface albedo values over Arafat selected area were 0.00, 0.22 and 1.18 at UV, TSR and IR regions respectively. The average albedo values over Muna selected area and Muna tents were also presented. The effect of clouds and solar zenith angle (SZA) on the measured albedo were investigated in this study.

Seroji, Abdulaziz R.

2005-08-01

12

What is the Significance of Adakitic Granitoids and Zircon Inheritance in Juvenile Arc Rocks of the Neoproterozoic Makkah Batholith, Saudi Arabia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neoproterozoic plutonic rocks of the Makkah batholith along the northern margin of the Jiddah terrane in western Saudi Arabia record >50 Ma of arc magmatism. Results of the first detailed survey using U-Pb zircon geochronology by SHRIMP-RG and trace-element geochemistry by ICP-MS provide important new constraints on subduction-related magmatism in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), but have also illuminated new problems. Samples from several dozen composite plutons ranging in composition from gabbro to granodiorite or granite were analyzed. SHRIMP-RG data for the plutons reveal 3 magmatic pulses at ca. 800, 775, and 750 Ma. Phase I (ca. 800 Ma) produced plutons that yielded U-Pb zircon ages of 803+/-17 Ma (previously reported zircon age of 816+/-3 Ma) and 804+/-5 Ma. The 803-Ma granite is nonconformably overlain by a potentially glacial diamictite at the base of the arc volcanic sequence. Phase II (ca. 775 Ma) plutons yielded ages of 781+/-8 Ma (previously reported zircon age of 760+/-10 Ma), 782+/-7 Ma, 776+/-6 Ma, and 770+/-5 Ma (previously reported zircon age of 769+/-5 Ma). Phase III (ca. 750 Ma) plutons yielded ages of 755+/-5 Ma, 747+/-5 Ma, 750+/-5 Ma, and 747+/-9 Ma. SHRIMP-RG was used to overcome a long-recognized problem of inheritance in the region. Inherited zircons of Mesoproterozoic age occur in one arc suite and in post-tectonic, A-type alkalic granites, and zircons as old as Archean occur in the arc volcanic rocks. The source of the inheritance is enigmatic. Remnants of Archean-Paleoproterozoic continental crust are exposed in the Afif terrane far to the SE. Could arc plutons of the Makkah batholith have interacted with previously unrecognized Pre-Neoproterozoic continental crust beneath the Jiddah terrane? Alternatively, did shallow arc magmas interact with buried glacial deposits and inherit far-traveled detrital zircons? The plutons exhibit geochemical signatures expected for juvenile oceanic arc rocks. They are I-type granitoids of the low- to medium-K series, show strong subduction signatures, and plot as volcanic arc granites on discrimination diagrams. Nearly half the samples show characteristics of adakites (high Sr/Y <130, low Y, steep REE patterns). Adakitic rocks previously recognized in the ANS were attributed to the subduction and melting of young, hot oceanic crust. However, the production of adakites from slab-melting should wane with time. That adakitic rocks occur in all 3 magmatic pulses (>50 Ma) suggests they were produced by a more sustained mechanism, such as melting of thickened eclogitic or garnet-granulitic lower crust. Anatexis in the lower crust is an appealing explanation for the adakitic chemistries, and for the source of the inherited zircons, but is not consistent with the arc characteristics and juvenile isotopic signatures of the Jiddah terrane. Could subduction of young oceanic crust be sustained long enough to produce adakitic magmas for >50 Ma (e.g. by oblique subduction of ridge segments)? If so, could the subduction of ridge segments at ca. 25 Ma intervals have produced the 3 magmatic pulses? Also, could large volumes of juvenile arc magmas melt enough older crust to inherit abundant zircons yet retain their original arc characteristics and isotopic signatures? We are using this opportunity to invite constructive dialogue to help resolve these questions.

Hargrove, U. S.; Stern, R. J.; Kimura, J.; Johnson, P. R.

2004-12-01

13

Smoking behaviour and attitudes among adult Saudi nationals in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To measure the smoking behaviour and attitudes among Saudi adults residing in Riyadh City, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Riyadh City were selected by stratified random sampling. Subjects resident in each PHCC catchment area were selected by systematic sampling from their records in the

A. A. Saeed; T. A. Khoja; S. B. Khan

1996-01-01

14

Lead pollution in urban and rural Saudi Arabian children  

SciTech Connect

In the last two decades, vehicular traffic increased spectacularly in Saudi Arabia, from 243,000 registered motor vehicles in 1973 to over 5 million at present. All these vehicles use leaded gasoline, one of the major sources of lead contamination in the ambient air and dusts in the cities. To evaluate the impact of this high level of environmental lead, scalp hair of 200 school boys, aged 6-8 years, from each of the two cities (Makkah in the western region and Riyadh in the central region) and two Village Groups (one around Makkah city and the other around Riyadh city) were analyzed in this study for lead concentrations. Makkah is one of the oldest and most densely populated cities with congested housing and narrow winding streets. Riyadh on the other hand is the newly developing, planned capital city of Saudi Arabia. The Village Groups were chosen so as to reflect a control environment away from heavy traffic and industrial activity. The usefulness of hair as an important biopsy material for environmental pollution studies has been demonstrated in a large number of studies. Effect of lead on the central nervous system of the children may result in mental retardation and even death in case of acute encephalopathy.

Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, P.; Kutbi, I.I. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

1989-11-01

15

Report: pipeline transport of solid waste in the Grand Holy Mosque in Makkah.  

PubMed

The Grand Holy Mosque, located in the Holy City of Makkah in Saudi Arabia, attracts millions of Muslim visitors from all over the world, especially during the pilgrimage season. The daily amount of refuse generated in the Grand Holy Mosque and surrounding plazas reached a maximum value of 192.8 tons/day in 1998. Collection and transport of the solid waste generated during the peak times present a challenge to the Makkan authorities. The congested streets and high population density in the Holy Mosque and its surrounding plazas make the traditional methods of collecting and transporting solid waste impractical. This paper presents an alternative system for the collection and transport of solid waste generated in and around the Grand Holy Mosque in Makkah. The proposed system is based on a pneumatic transport technique, by which the waste is collected and transported in underground pipelines. A conceptual layout of the proposed system in the Mosque area is presented, and the merits of the suggested system are discussed. PMID:14661895

Al-Ghamdi, Abdullah Saeed; Abu-Rizaiza, Asad Seraj

2003-10-01

16

DIETARY MISCONCEPTIONS AMONG DIABETIC PATIENTS IN MAKKA CITY, SAUDI ARABIA  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of some dietary misconceptions among primary health care center-registered diabetic patients in Makka City, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A sample of 1039 primary health care center- registered diabetic patients was interviewed using a structured questionnaire on diabetic diet -related misconceptions. A scoring system was used to document the frequency of misconceptions. The relationship of the misconceptions to socio-demographic and diabetes-related variables was assessed using chi-squared tests. Results: Most patients (68.7%) had a high diet misconception score. More than half of the sample had the misconception that carbohydrates were to be completely eliminated from the diet, and only dried bread and bitter foods were to be consumed. Data included the belief in the consumption of honey and dates; the omission of snacks; belief in the carcinogenicity of the sugar substitutes; and obesity as a sign of good health. The score was significantly higher among males (p<0.01), patients older than 35 years (p<0.02), and among patients whose level of education was low (p<0.01). Conclusion: It is important to note that the rate of diet-related misconceptions among diabetics in Makka city is high. The study pointed to the target fraction of diabetic patients among whom these misconceptions prevailed. There is a need for constant motivation and appropriate education at frequent intervals to encourage better knowledge of the disease so that there is compliance to treatment.

Al-Saeedi, Mohammed; Elzubier, Ahmed G.; Al-Dawood, Kasim M.; Bahnasi, Ahmed A.

2002-01-01

17

75 FR 43919 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia: Third City Stop Added to the Trade Mission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia: Third City Stop Added to the...trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, December 6-8, 2010. Led by...Commerce official, the mission to Saudi Arabia is intended to include...

2010-07-27

18

Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

2005-01-01

19

GIS-based urban sustainability assessment: The case of Dammam city, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies an integrated approach to assessing urban sustainability in Dammam City, Saudi Arabia. The approach, based on geographic information systems (GIS), involves the evaluation of the planning process, the master plan and the land use activities resulting from planning. It concludes that some aspects of sustainability are not addressed by the planning process and the plan document. The

Habib M. Alshuwaikhat; Yusuf A. Aina

2006-01-01

20

Optically stimulated luminescence dating of the city wall system of ancient Tayma (NW Saudi Arabia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to a series of chronological markers (artefacts, pottery) in the archaeological contexts of ancient Tayma (NW Saudi Arabia), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon dating techniques were applied to generate reliable ages for the city wall system of the oasis. A massive aeolian sand deposit burying the oldest part of the outer wall of Tayma was sampled to

Nicole Klasen; Max Engel; Helmut Brückner; Arnulf Hausleiter; Andrea Intilia; Ricardo Eichmann; Mohammed H. al-Najem; Said F. al-Said

2011-01-01

21

Medication errors in primary care in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Medication errors can cause a variety of adverse drug events but are potentially preventable. This cross-sectional study analysed all medication prescriptions from 5 public and 5 private primary health care clinics in Riyadh city, collected by simple random sampling during 1 working day. Prescriptions for 2463 and 2836 drugs from public and private clinics respectively were examined for errors, which were analysed using Neville et al.'s classification of prescription errors. Prescribing errors were found on 990/5299 (18.7%) prescriptions. Both type B and type C errors (major and minor nuisance) were more often associated with prescriptions from public than private clinics. Type D errors (trivial) were significantly more likely to occur with private health sector prescriptions. Type A errors (potentially serious) were rare (8/5299 drugs; 0.15%) and the rate did not differ significantly between the 2 health sectors. The development of preventive strategies for avoiding prescription errors is crucial. PMID:21735951

Khoja, T; Neyaz, Y; Qureshi, N A; Magzoub, M A; Haycox, A; Walley, T

2011-02-01

22

Defining health catchment areas in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia: an example demonstrating the utility of geographi- cal information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tool, based on a geographical information system (GIS) approach, has been developed for the location and organization of public health care centers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The potential of GIS for visualizing and mod- eling available information on health-care has been utilized to produce a \\

Abdulkader A. Murad

2008-01-01

23

An exploratory study on the role of intermediaries in delivering public services in Madinah City : Case of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of the intermediary in delivering public services from government departments to different stakeholders (business and citizens) and to highlight the challenges that face the development of e-government services in the context of Madinah City, in Saudi Arabia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses a broad literature review to identify

Faris Al-Sobhi; Vishanth Weerakkody; Muhammad Mustafa Kamal

2010-01-01

24

Breast cancer knowledge and related behaviors among women in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,092 women attending urban primary health care centers in Abha City southwestern Saudi Arabia about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and related practices. Only 22.0% heard about mammography, and 41.5% heard about breast self-examination (BSE). More than half of the women in the study identified changes occurring in case of breast cancer and identified risk factors. Only 8.3% were examined by clinical breast examination (CBE), 6.2% were examined by mammography, and 29.7% performed BSE. The study points to the insufficient knowledge of women and the low practice of BSE, CBE, and mammography. Public awareness should be enhanced by all available means including mass media, schools, social gatherings, and waiting areas in primary health care centers. There is an urgent need for continuing medical education programs for health care workers in the region concerning breast cancer. PMID:23797712

Mahfouz, Ahmed A; Hassanein, Mervat H A; Nahar, Shamsun; Farheen, Aesha; Gaballah, Inasse I; Mohamed, Amani; Rabie, Faten M; Aftab, Razia

2013-09-01

25

Steady improvement of infection control services in six community hospitals in Makkah following annual audits during Hajj for four consecutive years  

PubMed Central

Background the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of annual review of the infection control practice in all Ministry of Health hospitals in the holy city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the Hajj period of four lunar Islamic years, 1423 to 1426 corresponding to 2003 to 2006. Methods audit of infection control service was conducted annually over a 10-day period in six community hospitals with bed capacities ranging from 140 to 557 beds. Data were collected on standardized checklists on various infection control service items during surprise visits to the medical, pediatric, surgical, and critical care units, and the kitchens. Percentage scores were calculated for audited items. The results of the audit for hospitals were confidentially sent to them within four weeks after the end of Hajj. Results deficiencies observed in the first audit included lack of infection control committees, infection control units, infection control educational activities, and surveillance system and shortage of staff. These deficiencies were resolved in the subsequent audits. The average (range) scores of hospitals in 11 infection control items increased from 43% (20–67%) in the first audit to 78% (61–93%) in the fourth audit. Conclusion regular hospital infection control audits lead to significant improvement of infection control practice. There is a need to build a rigorous infection control audit into hospitals' ongoing monitoring and reporting to the Ministry of Health and to provide these hospitals with feed back on such audits to continuously strengthen the safety standards for patients, visitors, and employees.

Madani, Tariq A; Albarrak, Ali M; Alhazmi, Mohammad A; Alazraqi, Tarik A; Althaqafi, Abdulahakeem O; Ishaq, Abdulrahman H

2006-01-01

26

Immunologic Hyporesponsiveness to Serogroup C but Not Serogroup A following Repeated Meningococcal A\\/C Polysaccharide Vaccination in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Saudi Arabia, vaccination with the meningococcal A\\/C polysaccharide (MACP) vaccine is advised every 3 years. A clinical outcome study was performed to test the effect of repeat vaccination with the MACP vaccine on the immune responses among Saudi nationals who live in the Makkah and Jeddah areas. Subjects (n 230) aged 10 to 29 years were selected: 113 subjects

Hani Jokhdar; Ray Borrow; Abdulrazaq Sultan; Mousaed Adi; Christine Riley; Emily Fuller; David Baxter

2004-01-01

27

A Fuzzy Cellular Automata Urban Growth Model (FCAUGM) for the City of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Part 2: Scenario Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia has undergone phenomenal urban development over the last six decades. As a result of poor\\u000a planning and management by the authorities, Riyadh has experienced haphazard urban growth. In the companion paper, a fuzzy\\u000a cellular automata model of urban growth was presented (Al-Ahmadi et al. 2008b). This model was shown to be capable of

Khalid Al-Ahmadi; Alison Heppenstall; Jim Hogg; Linda See

2009-01-01

28

Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0+/-14.2 Bq/m3, 83.4+/-6.0 Bq/m3, 61.6+/-6.4 Bq/m3, 63.7+/-5.4 Bq/m3 and 87.5+/-6.Bq/m3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m3, 5.5 Bq/m3, 1.1 Bq/m3, 1.0 Bq/m3 and 24 Bq/m3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm-3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The ``within regions'' (different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region ``1'' (p = 0.783) and versus region ``5'' (P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region ``3'' ( P = 0.0160) and also versus region ``4'' (p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other regions are near to the Al-Thuwayrat sands.

Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

2011-10-01

29

Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0{+-}14.2 Bq/m{sup 3}, 83.4{+-}6.0 Bq/m{sup 3}, 61.6{+-}6.4 Bq/m{sup 3}, 63.7{+-}5.4 Bq/m{sup 3} and 87.5{+-}6.Bq/m{sup 3} and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m{sup 3}, 5.5 Bq/m{sup 3}, 1.1 Bq/m{sup 3}, 1.0 Bq/m{sup 3} and 24 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm{sup -3} set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The ''within regions''(different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region ''1''(p = 0.783) and versus region ''5''(P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region ''3''(P = 0.0160) and also versus region ''4''(p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other regions are near to the Al-Thuwayrat sands.

Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

2011-10-27

30

A microbiological study of Sobia: a fermented beverage in the Western province of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sobia is a traditional fermented beverage prepared from wheat and malt flours in the Western province of Saudi Arabia. Fourteen samples of sobia were collected from Makkah Al-Mukarrmah (Western province) and from Riyadh (Central province). Samples were examined microbiologically for total bacterial counts, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds as well as coliforms. Titratable acidity and pH were also analysed.

Mustafa A. A. Gassem

2002-01-01

31

A Fuzzy Cellular Automata Urban Growth Model (FCAUGM) for the City of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Part 1: Model Structure and Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing and modelling urban growth is a multi-faceted problem. Cities are now recognised as complex systems through which\\u000a non-linear processes, emergence and self-organisation occur. The design of a system that can handle these complexities is\\u000a a challenging prospect. This paper presents an urban planning application for the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. At the core\\u000a of the application is a

Khalid Al-Ahmadi; Alison Heppenstall; Jim Hogg; Linda See

2009-01-01

32

Quantifying temporal trends of atmospheric pollutants in Makkah (1997–2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a high interest in quantifying temporal trends of air pollutant concentrations as they serve to assess the effects of emission control strategies. In this paper temporal trends (1997–2012) in air pollutant concentrations in the City of Makkah, near the Holy Mosque, have been assessed with the help of Theil–Sen approach and changepoint analysis, which are applicable to both normal and non-normal distributed data and are therefore preferred over classic parametric statistics. Trend analysis of nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 10 micron or less (PM10) and ozone (O3) was performed, not only at mean concentrations but also at several selected quantiles (minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile and maximum). Trends were positive in SO2, NO2, PM10 and ozone and negative in CO and NO concentrations. NOx (negative) and NO2 (positive) trends were predominantly non-significant, however other pollutants showed mostly significant trends. Trends vary at various metrics suggesting different behaviour of air pollutants at various quantiles of the distributions. Changepoint analysis was performed, which provides further insight into the temporal trends and highlights the points when the trends have changed significantly. Potential factors responsible for the observed temporal trends are discussed. Further work on source apportionment of various emission sources and spatial variability of air pollutants is required to provide further insight into the causes behind the trends of air pollutants and help better manage air pollutant levels in Makkah and elsewhere in the country.

Munir, Said; Habeebullah, Turki M.; Seroji, Abdulaziz R.; Gabr, Safwat S.; Mohammed, Atif M. F.; Morsy, Essam A.

2013-10-01

33

Prevalence of refractive errors among pre-school children at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Vision disorders are the fourth most common disability of children and the leading cause of handicapping conditions in childhood. The present study was undertaken to identify the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among the school-entrant children at King Abdul Aziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh city – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods The study population consisted of all the school-entrants (n = 1319), who attended the obligatory health examination for kindergarten and primary school entry during the period from March 2008 until October 2008. Every child was subjected to a 10 min – visual acuity test (VAT) and autorefractive test applied by qualified optometrist. Children with a visual acuity of 20/28 or worse in one or both eyes, or with eye disorder (strabismus, nystagmus, ptosis and others) or abnormal ocular movement, were referred for a 45 min complete ophthalmic examination, which consists of: (1) Distance visual acuity (V/A), (2) cover – uncover test, and (3) non-cycloplpegic retinoscopy. Refractive error cut-off point was defined according to their spherical equivalent refractive error (SERE). Results Out of the 1319 children, 60 children were diagnosed as having one or more refractive error, with an over-all prevalence of 4.5% (4.2% in boys and 4.9% in girls) with no sex difference. Prevalence of different refractive errors were as follows; Myopia (2.5%, 95%CI1.7:3.3%), hyperopia (2.1%, 95%CI 1.3:2.9%), astigmatism (2.5%, 95%CI 1.7:3.3%), amblyopia (0.5%, 95%CI 0.1:0.9%) and strabismus (0.5%, 95% CI 0.1:0.9%). Conclusion Our results raise the need for school-based program that provides prescription glasses when needed to students at no cost, through government and non-governmental collaborative fund. However, there is a need for further studies to evaluate the cultural beliefs towards the use of spectacles in Saudi communities.

Al-Rowaily, Mohammad A.

2010-01-01

34

SCHOOL BOYS WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN AL-KHOBAR CITY, SAUDI ARABIA: ARE THEY AT INCREASED RISK OF SCHOOL ABSENTEEISM?  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the mean period of school absenteeism (MPSA) among Questionnaire Diagnosed Asthmatic (QDA) Saudi schoolboys of Al-Khobar city and the factors associated with it. Methods: The methodology of this cross-sectional study included the distribution of a self-administered questionnaire, which was completed by the parents of 1482 schoolboys who satisfied the selection criteria of the study. Results: The prevalence rate of QDA was 9.5% (141/1482). MPSA among Questionnaire Diagnosed Asthmatic Boys (QDAs) was 13.6 ± 3.4 days compared to 3.7 ± 2.2 days among non-QDA boys (non-QDAs). Among QDAs, it was associated significantly and positively with those who were younger, with a decreasing level of socioeconomic class, history of pets at home, presence of a current smoker in the family (father or both parents), visit to a hospital emergency room, and admission to hospital. It was significantly and negatively associated with concomitant use of prophylactic medication(s), including those used appropriately. QDAs from middle and lower socioeconomic classes used less prophylactic medication(s) but had had more visits to an emergency room and had admissions to hospital. The multiple linear regression equation for the total period of school absenteeism (TPSA) during the current academic year was generated. Conclusions: QDAs have higher MPSA compared to their non-asthmatic classmates. The impact of this disease increases particularly among QDAs belonging to lower socioeconomic families.

Al-Dawood, Kasim M.

2001-01-01

35

An assessment of the readiness of King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia, in adopting effective online staff development programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet access has grown in Saudi Arabia between 2000 and 2005 by more than 1000% and many governmental organizations are starting to provide part of their services using the internet. In addition, the Ministry of Higher Education has provided funding to all governmental universities to start developing strategies and guidelines for online education. Healthcare services in Saudi Arabia are funded

Adnan D Alwadie

2011-01-01

36

Saudi Arabia's experience in solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress in solar energy research in Saudi Arabia is discussed with emphasis on the efforts of a government research entity - King Adbulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Three programs currently underway at KACST are considered: the continuation of activities initiated under the Solar Energy Research American\\/Saudi (SOLERAS) program, a Saudi\\/German program, and projects developed and conducted completely

Fahad S. Huraib

1990-01-01

37

Schoolboys with bronchial asthma in Al-Khobar City, Saudi Arabia: are they at increased risk of school absenteeism?  

PubMed

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the mean period of school absenteeism (MPSA) among asthmatic Saudi schoolboys of Al-Khobar City and to determine the factors associated with the absenteeism. The methodology included the distribution of a self-administered questionnaire, which was completed by the parents of 1482 schoolboys who satisfied the selection criteria of the study. The prevalence rate of questionnaire-diagnosed asthma (QDA) was 9.5% (141/1482). The MPSA among questionnaire-diagnosed asthmatic boys (QDAs) was 13.6 +/- 3.4 days compared to 3.7 +/- 2.2 days among non questionnaire-diagnosed asthmatic boys (non QDAs). Among QDAs, the MPSA was associated significantly and positively with those who were younger, and with decreasing levels of socioeconomic class, histories of pets at home, presence of a currently smoking family member (father or both parents), visit to a hospital emergency room, and admission to hospital. It was significantly and negatively associated with concomitant use of prophylactic medication(s), including those used appropriately. The QDAs from middle and lower socioeconomic classes showed less use of prophylactic medication(s) but more histories of visits to an emergency room and of admissions to hospital. The multiple linear regression equation for the total period of school absenteeism (TPSA) during the 1995 academic year was generated. Asthmatic school children have a higher MPSA compared to their non asthmatic classmates. The risk of suffering the impacts of this disease is shown to be particularly increased among QDAs belonging to less socioeconomically advantaged families. PMID:12214895

Al-Dawood, Kasim M

2002-08-01

38

78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, September 28-October...Cyber Security mission to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait City, Kuwait, from...local) and private entities in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The mission will...

2013-01-31

39

Significance of proteinuria in type 2 diabetic patients treated at a primary health care center in Abha City, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to describe the prevalence of proteinuria in a series of type 2 diabetic patients registered and followed up in the diabetes clinic of a primary health care center (PHCC) in Abha city, southern Saudi Arabia and to relate the proteinuria to some clinical manifestations. The study involved the files of 208 diabetic patients (118 females and 90 males). They were chosen from 475 files of diabetic patients receiving care in the PHC center of Shamasan in Abha City. The selection for this study was based on the fulfillment of certain criteria: type 2 diabetic patients, registered for at least 12 months and visited the clinic for at least once during that period. For each patient the age, sex, family history, diabetes duration, body mass index, the last readings of fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were used. Proteinuria was considered whenever the last and any of the preceding 3 urine analysis revealed it by the dipstick test provided the patient was not suffering on the day of the test from fever, urinary tract infections, other renal diseases or congestive heart failure. Further, the last recorded subjective evaluation of the treating physician concerning diet, drug and appointment compliance as poor or good was used. The mean age is 56.2+/-8.8 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 9.6+/-4.7 years, while the fasting blood sugar shows a considerably high mean of 218.0+/-72.0 mg/dl. The total cholesterol level on the other hand showed a slight high average of 233.7+/-55.2 mg/dl. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were within normal ranges (136.4+/-18.9mmHg and 87.5+/-10.8mmHg) respectively. The results of the three different types of compliance as scored by the treating physician. The poor scores dominate with 74%, 82.7% and 78.4% of patients' diet, drug and appointment compliances. Proteinuria is present in more than half of the patients (54.3%). The outcome of the logistic regression model for proteinuria showed that the significant factors were the poor glycemic control with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.13, diabetes duration (OR= 1.08 for every year) and diastolic blood pressure (OR= 6.11). The overall model prediction was 72.12%. Diabetic patients treated in the PHC level should be regularly monitored for microalbuminuria and not gross proteinuria to prevent progression to overt nephropathy which will eventually lead to ESRD. The risk increases with poorly controlled and hypertensive patients. PMID:15587831

Al-Homrany, Mohammed A; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

40

An Assessment of the Readiness of King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia, in Adopting Effective Online Staff Development Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Internet access has grown in Saudi Arabia between 2000 and 2005 by more than 1000% and many governmental organizations are starting to provide part of their services using the internet. In addition, the Ministry of Higher Education has provided funding to all governmental universities to start developing strategies and guidelines for online…

Alwadie, Adnan D.

2011-01-01

41

A Railway ‘Route’ as a Linear Heritage Attraction: The Hijaz Railway in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hijaz Railway was constructed in the early part of the 20th century to link the Levant with Islam's Holy cities of Madinah and Makkah. The railway was never completed beyond Madinah and its operational life was cut short by World War I, never to be revived again. The significance of the railway lies not only in the technical, military

Aylin Orba?li; Simon Woodward

2008-01-01

42

Pilgrims satisfaction with ambulatory health services in Makkah, 2008  

PubMed Central

Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the level and correlates of patients’ satisfaction with ambulatory health services provided for pilgrims during Hajj period in 2008. Materials and Methods: This was a facility-based, cross-sectional study conducted in the Makkah region during the Hajj season in December 2008. A two-stage technique was used to select 500 patients from those who attended the ambulatory health services. One hundred subjects were selected by systematic random sampling (every fifth) from each of the five hospitals included in the study and asked to fill in a pilot-tested self-administered questionnaire. A total of 487 questionnaires were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and t-test, Mann Whitney test and ANOVA, or Kruskal-Wallis test was used as appropriate after checking for normality. Level of significance level was set to be <0.05 throughout the study. Results: From 478 subjects analyzed, 390 (81.6%) were man, 345 (72.2%) were married, 28.9% had either intermediate or high secondary school education, and 2.4% were skilled laborers. The total satisfaction score for health facilities was 20.45 ± 4.03 of 25. The satisfaction scores were 20.15 ± 4.7 of 25 for patient satisfaction with physicians and 21.35 ± 4.5 for patient satisfaction with paramedical personnel. The overall satisfaction score was 61.5 ± 4.5 of 75 points. There were significant relations between total satisfaction of health facilities with education level and with occupation (P = 0.012, 0.001, respectively). The total satisfaction of patients with physicians was significant only with education level. The overall satisfaction score had a significant relation with occupation (P = 0.03), but a borderline relation with the education level (P = 0.056). Conclusion: Satisfaction with ambulatory Hajj health services is acceptable. Some physicians and waiting area services need special attention to improve satisfaction levels with ambulatory health in the subsequent Hajj seasons.

Al-Hoqail, Ibrahim A.; Abdalla, Abdelshakour M.; Saeed, Abdalla A.; Al-Hamdan, Nasir A.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.

2010-01-01

43

Tuberculosis incidence trends in Saudi Arabia over 20 years: 1991-2010  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and trends over a period of 20 years (1991-2010) and assess the impact of the National TB Control Program (NTP) on incidence trends. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of TB surveillance data reported by the Ministry of Health. We evaluated TB incidence data by nationality, age, and region of the country and assessed incidence trends over 20 years of study. Chi-squared test was used to assess trend change and its significance. RESULTS: There were a total of 64,345 reported TB cases over the study period. Of these 48% were Non-Saudis. TB annual incidence rate ranged between 14 and 17/100,000. For Saudis, the rate ranged between 8.6 and 12.2/100,000. Non-Saudis had 2-3 times higher incidence. Disease trend was rising over the first 10 years of the study period then it started to fall slightly. The incidence increased with age, but only people older than 45 years showed a declining trend. Regional variations were observed. Makkah and Jazan regions had the highest incidence rates. Disease trends were rising over the last 10 years in Makkah and Central regions. CONCLUSION: TB control seems to be facing some challenges in several regions of the Kingdom. NTP needs to evaluate and improve TB control strategies in order to reduce disease incidence to elimination levels.

Al-Orainey, Ibrahim; Alhedaithy, Mogbil A.; Alanazi, Awad R.; Barry, Mazin A.; Almajid, Fahad M.

2013-01-01

44

Evaluation of bateriologial and sanitary quality of drinking water stations and water tankers in Makkah Al-Mokarama.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriological and sanitary quality of drinking water produced in Makkah Al-Mokarama during the high season in the month of Ramadan. Water samples were collected both from the drinking water stations and the water tankers (in Arabic language called whitats) used to transport and distribute water in different places in the Holy city. Water samples were analyzed to determine the densities of HPC at 22 and 37 degrees C, total coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus. The bacteriological analysis of drinking water samples at 37 degrees C proved that 6.7-33.3, 20-46.7, 0-20 and 0-6.7% of total water samples contained HPC, total coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, respectively which were higher than the safe limits for drinking water. The bacterial analysis of drinking water varied from one water station to another. On the other hand, drinking water transported by tankers appeared to be in the lowest category of water quality. Because out of total water samples 40-59%, 60-68.8%, 31.2-37.5%, 10-25% contained HPC, total coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, which were higher than the established safe limits of drinking water. One possible reason for poor quality of drinking water could be attributed to the application of inadequate water disinfection treatments and also the absence of sanitary aspects as supported by the bacteriological analysis which holds true especially for water supplied by tankers. In conclusion, it is important to apply proper water disinfection measures and provide sanitary monitoring programs during the production of drinking water as a whole and for the water tanker in particular. PMID:19579978

Mihdhdir, Alaa A

2009-02-15

45

Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The September 11, 2001 attacks fueled criticisms within the United States of alleged Saudi involvement in terrorism or of Saudi laxity in acting against terrorist groups. Of particular concern have been reports that funds may be flowing from Saudi Arabia ...

A. B. Prados C. M. Blanchard

2004-01-01

46

Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The September 11, 2001 attacks fueled criticisms within the United States of alleged Saudi involvement in terrorism or of Saudi laxity in acting against terrorist groups. Of particular concern have been reports that funds may be flowing from Saudi Arabia ...

A. B. Prados C. M. Blanchard

2005-01-01

47

Saudi Arabia's experience in solar energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress in solar energy research in Saudi Arabia is discussed with emphasis on the efforts of a government research entity - King Adbulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Three programs currently underway at KACST are considered: the continuation of activities initiated under the Solar Energy Research American/Saudi (SOLERAS) program, a Saudi/German program, and projects developed and conducted completely by KACST. The objectives, management structure, and program organization of SOLEARS are outlined, and attention is focused on urban, rural/agricultural, and industrial applications as well as resource development activities and accomplishments. Solar-hydrogen projects pursued together with Germany are reviewed, and their objectives, program management, and technical plans are covered. Domestic programs dealing with photovoltaic-powered lightning and hot-water systems are summarized.

Huraib, Fahad S.

48

Improving the level of seismic hazard parameters in Saudi Arabia using earthquake location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia is characterized as largely aseismic; however, the tectonic plate boundaries that surround it are very active.\\u000a To improve characterization of seismicity and ground motion hazard, the Saudi Arabian Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) was\\u000a installed in 1998 and continues to be operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and\\u000a Technology (KACST). This article

Abdullah M. Al-Amri; Arthur J. Rodgers; Tariq A. Al-Khalifah

2008-01-01

49

Maternal knowledge, attitudes, and practices as predictors of diarrboeal disease in Saudi children < 3 years of age.  

PubMed

Diarrhoeal disease continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. This study demonstrates the importance of behavioral risk factors as determinants of diarrhoeal disease. The study design used is incidence-base, case-control design. The cases were obtained from Primary Health Care Centers (PHCC) in Makkah area, Saudi Arabia, during October 1994 to January 1995. The studied sample consisted of 319 cases and 312 controls < 3 years of age. The results showed that mothers of cases were significant inferior knowledge about aetiology and transmission of diarrhoeal disease than did mothers of controls. Poor hygiene was significantly high in households of cases for two items; disposal of faeces in latrine and presence of toilet papers (p < 0.05). Assuming causal association between the risk factors and diarrhoeal disease, up to 60% of diarrhoeal disease in the study population may be attributable to the studied behavioral factors. PMID:17214175

Abalkhail, B; Bahnassy, A A; Al Abasi, H

1995-01-01

50

Occurrence of fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.

Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.

2013-09-01

51

Brucellosis in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the history of brucellosis and the current public health picture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Health protection is made more difficult by several factors: (a) the local custom of drinking raw and warm milk of sheep, goats, and camels, (b) the animal reservior of infection in the country complicated by importation of live animals both for

Frank W. Kiel; M. Yousuf Khan

1989-01-01

52

Analysis of Saudi Arabian maritime transportation industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the past, present and future of the maritime transportation industry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabian seaborne trade and the shipping capacity are analysed for the past 15 years. Relationships between the declining Saudi shipping capacity and other economic measures are identified. Analysis of the Saudi Arabian maritime transportation is performed with respect to the

Mehmet Savsar

1998-01-01

53

Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

54

Final Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources In Saudi Arabia, 1998-2000  

SciTech Connect

The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.

2002-04-01

55

76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi Arabia April 14-18, 2012 AGENCY: International...Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia from April 14-18, 2012. Saudi Arabia...

2011-12-15

56

Saudi National Security. Research report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research paper is to focus on Saudi National Security. The author highlights geographic and historic factors that impact on threats to Saudi Arabia, and the objectives for providing security. He discusses how to achieve these objectives, including military readiness and cooperation with other countries to guarantee Saudi security. This is to ensure interests which are vital to the industrial world as the result of a continued flow of oil with a reasonable price. Given is the author`s opinion about U.S. political strategy in the region to achieve stability in the Gulf Region.

Al-Ayed, I.

1996-05-01

57

Fate of Saudi Arabia: Regime Evolution in the Saudi Monarchy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samuel Huntington described the transformation process from an authoritarian regime to a democratic form of government as a direct transition. This model of transformation was applied to Saudi Arabia to analyze if it is displaying characteristics that led...

C. E. Balka

2008-01-01

58

Saudi Arabia - Energy Situation 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a general survey of the situation in Saudi Arabia with regard to energy economy containing some significant data and paying particular attention to petroleum and natural gas. Further paragraphs deal with the country's energy consumption, its refin...

1983-01-01

59

Country Analysis Briefs: Saudi Arabia, January 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saudi Arabia was the worlds largest producer and exporter of total petroleum liquids in 2010, and the worlds second largest crude oil producer behind Russia. Saudi Arabias economy remains heavily dependent on crude oil. Oil export revenues have accounted ...

2011-01-01

60

Country Analysis Briefs: Saudi Arabia, November 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saudi Arabia is the worlds largest producer and exporter of total petroleum liquids, and the worlds second largest crude oil producer behind Russia. Saudi Arabias economy remains heavily dependent on oil and petroleum-related industries, including petroch...

2009-01-01

61

Country Analysis Briefs: Saudi Arabia, August 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saudi Arabia is the worlds largest producer and exporter of total petroleum liquids and is currently the worlds second largest crude oil producer behind Russia. Saudi Arabias economy remains heavily dependent on oil and petroleum-related industries, inclu...

2008-01-01

62

Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever in humans, Najran, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Alkhurma virus is a flavivirus, discovered in 1994 in a person who died of hemorrhagic fever after slaughtering a sheep from the city of Alkhurma, Saudi Arabia. Since then, several cases of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (ALKHF), with fatality rates up to 25%, have been documented. From January 1, 2006, through April 1, 2009, active disease surveillance and serologic testing of household contacts identified ALKHF in 28 persons in Najran, Saudi Arabia. For epidemiologic comparison, serologic testing of household and neighborhood controls identified 65 serologically negative persons. Among ALKHF patients, 11 were hospitalized and 17 had subclinical infection. Univariate analysis indicated that the following were associated with Alkhurma virus infection: contact with domestic animals, feeding and slaughtering animals, handling raw meat products, drinking unpasteurized milk, and being bitten by a tick. After multivariate modeling, the following associations remained significant: animal contact, neighboring farms, and tick bites. PMID:21122217

Alzahrani, Abdullah G; Al Shaiban, Hassan M; Al Mazroa, Mohammad A; Al-Hayani, Osama; Macneil, Adam; Rollin, Pierre E; Memish, Ziad A

2010-12-01

63

Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

2011-01-01

64

Assessment of patient safety culture in Saudi Arabian hospitals.  

PubMed

Context Healthcare organisations in Saudi Arabia are striving to improve patient safety and quality of care through implementation of safety systems and creating a culture of safety. Objective The purpose of this study to evaluate the extent to which the culture supports patient safety at Saudi hospitals. Data Collection A survey questionnaire was distributed hospital-wide in 13 general hospitals in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, to 223 health professionals including nurses, technicians, managers and medical staff. Measurement The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to identify dimensions of patient safety culture. Results Overall Patient Safety Grade was rated as excellent or very good by 60% of respondents, acceptable by 33% and failing or poor by 7%. More than half of respondents thought that managers overlook safety problems that happen over and over. Areas of strength for most hospitals were organisational learning/continuous improvement, teamwork within units, feedback and communication about errors. Areas with potential for improvement for most hospitals were under-reporting of events, non-punitive response to error, staffing, teamwork across hospital units. Conclusion Leadership is a critical element to the effectiveness of patient safety initiatives. Response to errors is an important determinant of safety culture in healthcare organisations. In order for healthcare organisations to create a culture of safety and improvement, they must eliminate fear of blame and create a climate of open communication and continuous learning. PMID:20430929

Alahmadi, H A

2010-04-29

65

FUTURE SPECIALTY AND PRACTICE INTENTIONS AMONG SAUDI MEDICAL STUDENTS  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the study is the identification of the specialty intentions, the reason behind that choice and the preferred practice location of the study population. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted using a self administered questionnaire distributed at the end of the academic year 1994. One hundred and forty nine (149) male and 104 female graduating medical students representing the four medical colleges in Saudi Arabia were included Results: The four major clinical specialties were selected by more than half of the students; Internal Medicine (17%), Surgery(16%), Paediatrics (14%) and Obstetrics (11%). Twenty seven percent were not sure of their future career choice. Primary health care was chosen by only 1.6% of the students. More men chose Surgery but more women chose Obstetrics and Ophthalmology. Discussion: “Financial incentives”, “no night duties”, “social reasons” and “less responsibilities” were the less frequently mentioned reasons for career choice. The qualifications in view were mostly Canadian Board for 49% of the students and Arab Board for 48% of them. The most frequently preferred locations for postgraduate training were Saudi Arabia (56%) and Canada (40%). The majority intended to practice in hospitals (90%) and in cities (85%). Conclusion: The current drastic deficiency of trained Saudi Family Physicians will continue unless targeted strategies to produce more generalists are undertaken.

AI-Faris, Eiad A.; Kalantan, Khalid; Al-Nour, Mohammed B.; AI-Umran, Khalid; AI-Rowais, Norah; Jarallah, Jamal S.; Kabraah, Mohammed T.; Badwi, Ibrahim

1996-01-01

66

75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia AGENCY: International Trade Administration...trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, December 6-8, 2010. Led by...Commerce official, the mission to Saudi Arabia is intended to include...

2010-04-26

67

Sports injuries in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia has now a wealth of sporting facilities of which the youth of the country is making full use. A prospective study of sports related injuries was conducted during the twelve months of 1983. We present an analysis of 846 such injuries seen at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar. These injuries formed 8.36% of those who attended

M Sadat-Ali; M Sankaran-Kutty

1985-01-01

68

Fungal keratitis in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied a total of 27 cases of fungal keratitis is Saudi Arabia. History of trauma was found in 9 patients, and previous use of topical steroids in 6 patients. In the majority of patients the onset of the disease was in fall and spring. The most frequent cause of fungal keratitis was found to be Aspergillus spp., and these

Samir H. Khairallah; Kathleen A. Byrne; Khalid F. Tabbara

1992-01-01

69

Saudis’ Attitudes toward Chemical Pollution of the Environment, Al-Baha Region, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a public opinion survey were used to assess the variation in attitudes toward the chemical pollution of the environment among Saudi residents of the Al-Baha region, Saudi Arabia. A total of 17 statements were given to respondents, addressing general opinions about health risks from chemical pollution. The main findings of this study are: (1) Most Saudis consider

Sami A. Zabin

2010-01-01

70

Campylobacter enteritis in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed Central

A 12-month survey on the incidence of campylobacter infection in 1217 patients with diarrhoea was carried out in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Campylobacters were isolated from 55 (4.5%) patients, second in prevalence to salmonellas (6.2%). Shigellas were isolated from 4.2% of patients. Campylobacter isolation rates were high in children of all ages, as well as in young adults (36.5% of all isolates were from adults aged 20-39 years). Isolation rates peaked in September and November. Analysis of the results showed that 69% were Campylobacter jejuni (mostly biotype IV) and 31% C. coli. Serogroups 5 and 23 (Penner scheme) and phage type 125 (Preston scheme) were most frequently isolated. Resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was observed in 7.3 and 32.7% of the isolates. Campylobacters are an important cause of bacterial enteritis in Saudi Arabia, both in adults and in children, and should be sought routinely.

Zaman, R.

1992-01-01

71

Geotechnical properties of expansive clay shale in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expansive soils prevail in several parts of Saudi Arabia. Tabuk city, in the northwest, is underlain by a shale formation of Ordovician to Devonian age. Arid climate accelerates the development of expansive clays through desiccation and weathering of the shale. The expansion of the city limits extends to potential areas of swelling and urbanization increases the clay moisture content which leads to soil volume change. This causes significant damage to low-rise buildings and pavements. In this paper, the subsurface conditions and geotechnical properties of the expansive soils in Tabuk are presented. The clay type was identified and its degree of expansion was determined. The swelling parameters were measured utilizing the standard oedometer test and modeled by multiple linear regression. The effect of geological and environmental conditions on the swelling behavior of expansive soils in Tabuk were considered. The modeled swelling values are in good agreement with the measured values.

Sabtan, Abdullah A.

2005-08-01

72

Performance and economics of a solar thermal power generation plant in Jubail, Saudi Arabia: Parabolic trough collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explores the technical and economic feasibility of a thermal solar power generation plant using parabolic trough collectors (Euro Trough) in Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia. Total annual available solar radiation is calculated at 1,970 kWhr. The size of the proposed solar thermal power plant is 50 MW. The designed solar field is composed of 100 loops with a

Adel M. Al-Nasser

2010-01-01

73

Saudis focus on boosting output  

SciTech Connect

Following a period in Saudi Arabia when the emphasis has been on gas refining and petrochemical projects onshore, attention has now turned to expanding offshore oil production capacity and harnessing offshore associated gas that is currently being flared. A four billion dollar project to expand medium and heavy crude production on the offshore Zuluf and Marjan fields is to be completed in 1984/85.

Not Available

1983-10-05

74

Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

Hamdan, Amani

2005-01-01

75

Saudi Governmental Structure and Foreign Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The future of Saudi Arabia, which occupies the greatest part of the Arabian peninsula, is rooted in its history and culture since the emergence of Islam in the seventh century. The leadership authority in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia follows Islamic Law, t...

A. M. Naif J. J. Coyle

1993-01-01

76

Career Choices Among Saudi Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 253 final-year students at the four Saudi medical schools found the most frequently-chosen specialties were internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology. Over one-fourth were unsure of career choice. Gender differences were found. Most common locations for postgraduate training were Saudi Arabia and Canada, and a…

Al-Faris, Eiad; And Others

1997-01-01

77

Internet adoption by Saudi public relations professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of individual, organizational, and social contexts on internet adoption by Saudi public relations professionals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using the diffusion of innovations model, this study investigates the responses of 354 Saudi public relations professionals to a survey about internet adoption in public relations-related tasks. Findings – The paper finds

Khalid Al-Shohaib; Ali A. J. Al-Kandari; Masaud A. Abdulrahim

2009-01-01

78

Career Choices Among Saudi Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of 253 final-year students at the four Saudi medical schools found the most frequently-chosen specialties were internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology. Over one-fourth were unsure of career choice. Gender differences were found. Most common locations for postgraduate training were Saudi Arabia and Canada, and a…

Al-Faris, Eiad; And Others

1997-01-01

79

Knowledge and management of traumatic dental injuries in a group of Saudi primary schools teachers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge level of a group of Saudi primary school teachers in the management of dental trauma. A three-part questionnaire on demographic data and knowledge was distributed to the teachers in Riyadh city. Twenty-four selected schools were visited and 277 teachers participated in the study of which 5 of them had formal education in dental injuries. Concerning knowledge, 124 teachers (44.8%) believed dental trauma emergency should be dealt with immediately. This study showed that majority of teachers were not aware of the most favorable storage media for avulsed permanent teeth. It was concluded that the majority of Saudi primary school teachers in Riyadh city do not know how to handle a child who sustains dental injury. PMID:20662887

Al-Obaida, Mohammad

2010-08-01

80

The Madinah eruption, Saudi Arabia: Magma mixing and simultaneous extrusion of three basaltic chemical types  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 52-day eruption in 1256 A.D., 0.5 km3 of alkali-olivine basalt was extruded from a 2.25-km-long fissure at the north end of the Harrat Rahat lava field, Saudi Arabia. The eruption produced 6 scoria cones and a lava flow 23 km long that approached the ancient and holy city of Madinah to within 8 km. Three chemical types of

Victor E. Camp; Peter R. Hooper; M. John Roobol; D. L. White

1987-01-01

81

Progress Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997  

SciTech Connect

In 1987, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) signed a five-year Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development (R and D), which has been extended to 2000. Tasks include: (1) upgrade solar radiation measurements in Saudi Arabia; (2) assemble a database of concurrent solar radiation, satellite (METEOSAT), and meteorological data; (3) adapt NREL models and other software for Saudi Arabia; (4) develop procedures, algorithms, and software to estimate solar irradiance; and (5) prepare a grid of solar radiation data for preparing maps and atlases and estimating solar radiation resources and solar energy system performances at locations in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Amoudi, Anmed; Alawaji, Saleh H.; Cornwall, Chris; Mahfoodh, Mohammed bin; Marion, Bill; Maxwell, Eugene L.; Wilcox, Stephen M.

1999-08-20

82

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

2013-06-01

83

An aerobiological survey of allergens in al Khobar, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A nationwide aerobiologic study is in progress in Saudi Arabia using Burkard 7-day volumetric spore traps to determine the major airborne allergens and their seasonal patterns. Eights months readings have been completed at Al-Khobar, an important coastal city on the Arabian Gulf. Pollen levels showed a double season. An autumnal peak reached its maximum in October rising sharply from the low summer values before falling during the short winter then rising again in springtime. Both local and imported flora were represented with chenopodiaceae, grasses and Ambrosia as the most common botanical groups, identification of the most significant individual species is still in progress. Fungal spores also show distinctive seasonal patterns. In descending rank order from the most common genera were Cladosporium, Ustilago, Alternaria, with Chaetomium and Ulocladium as consistent but minor components. Basiodiospores and Ascospores represented less than 10% of the total spore population, indicative of the dry nature of the climate. Desert dust added an important irritant to the Saudi atmosphere but a major contaminating factor to the aerobiological material being analysed. PMID:2789674

al-Nahdi, M; al-Frayh, R; Hasnain, S M

1989-09-01

84

The Impact of Foreign Cultures through the Video (VCR\\/ DVD\\/ VCD) and Television (TV) on Saudi Society as Perceived by Saudi Undergraduate Students in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to examine the perceptions of Saudi undergraduate students regarding the effect of the movies and programs of the Video (VCR\\/ DVD\\/ VCD) and television (TV) on Saudi culture. A survey method using a questionnaire was employed to collect the data for this study. A total of 83 Saudi undergraduate students of whom 58 (or 69.9%) were males

Hassan Omar Basfar

2007-01-01

85

Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail.

Not Available

1991-11-18

86

Dietary habits in a Suburban Saudi Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to determine the dietary-related habits among adults in a Saudi suburban population. A cross-sectional study was conducted during June and July 2002 in Khashm Al-aan area (a suburban community west of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). Out of the ten satellite clinics in this area, five were selected randomly. All consecutive attendees older than 18

Bader F. Al-Khateeb; Khalid S. AL-Gelban

87

Trajectory analysis of Saudi Arabian dust storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal and spatial characteristics of Saudi Arabian dust storms, with focus on associated air parcel trajectories, are investigated using station and gridded weather observations and remotely-sensed aerosol optical depth (AOD). For 13 focal stations, an extensive pool of 84-h backward trajectories is developed for dust storm days, and the trajectories are grouped into 3-5 representative clusters based on the K-means technique and Silhouette Coefficients. Saudi Arabian dust storms are most prominent during February-June, with a mid-winter peak along the southern coast of the Red Sea, spring peak across northern Saudi Arabia around the An Nafud Desert, and early summer peak in eastern Saudi Arabia around the Ad Dahna Desert. Based on backward trajectories, the primary local dust source is the Rub Al Khali Desert and the primary remote sources are the Saharan Desert, for western Saudi Arabia, and Iraqi Deserts, for northern and eastern Saudi Arabia. During February-April, the Mediterranean storm track is active, with passing cyclones and associated cold fronts carrying Saharan dust to Saudi Arabian stations along the northern coast of the Red Sea. Across Saudi Arabia, the highest AOD is achieved during dust storms that originate from the Rub Al Khali and Iraqi Deserts. Most stations are dominated by local dust sources (primarily Rub Al Khali), are characterized by three dominant trajectory paths, and achieve AOD values exceeding 1. In contrast, for stations receiving predominantly remote dust (particularly Saharan), 3-5 trajectory paths emerge and AOD values only reach approximately 0.6 as dust is lost during transport.

Notaro, Michael; Alkolibi, Fahad; Fadda, Eyad; Bakhrjy, Fawzieh

2013-06-01

88

Saudi decree encourages MTBE, Chevron aromatics plant  

SciTech Connect

Chevron Chemical (Houston), encouraged by a new Saudi royal decree that establishes extremely low feedstock prices, is in final negotiations to build a novel aromatics plant in Saudi Arabia. Chevron says it plans to close the deal and announce details the first week of March. The unit will be based on Chevron's Aromax reforming process, which uses a zeolite catalyst to convert light naphtha into benzene and toluene. No existing plant is using the technology, but Chevron is building a $250-million, 150-million gal/year Aromax unit at its refinery site in Pascagoula, MS, and Idemitsu has licensed the process for a plant in Chiba, Japan. The Saudi decree, issued late last year, pegs domestic feedstocks - propane, butane, and naphthas - at 30% below the lowest price of the prior quarter in major non-domestic markets. That clarifies and guarantees the Saudi feedstock price, which has always been nebulous, and thus allows project feasibility to be more clearly assessed. The decree is designed to encourage further private petrochemical investment in the country. In particular, the Saudi government hopes guaranteed low prices for butane will encourage more methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects. Arabian American Chemical, a 50/50 joint venture between Mobile and Arabian Chemical Investments, said in October of last year that its 830,000-m.t./year MTBE project at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, would go ahead if feedstock questions could be resolved. The decree apparently resolves those questions.

Roberts, M.

1993-02-24

89

Nutritional Knowledge and Desire to Change of Food Preferences among Saudi Women in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective nutritional education programs are based on a proper understanding of many factors, including a population's nutritional knowledge, behavior, food preferences, and a desire to change these preferences. Our study examined these variables through a convenience sample (N = 151) of adult Saudi women living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Results indicated a gap between perceived and actual knowledge (p <

Balkees Abed Bakhotmah

2012-01-01

90

Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After September 11, 2001, complaints were voiced around the world, including by the U.S. government, that Saudi Arabian schools demonize the West and the "other." Senior Saudi government spokesmen also acknowledged this as a problem, and have repeatedly pledged that reform is underway or completed. This report was written in response to concerns…

Shea, Nina; Al-Ahmed, Ali

2006-01-01

91

Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

Fitzhugh, William

2006-01-01

92

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saud dynasty, enjoys special importance in much of the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. The United States and Saudi Arabia have longstanding econo...

A. B. Prados C. M. Blanchard

2007-01-01

93

Paleocene Vertebrates from Jabal Umm Himar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The Umm Himar Formation (Paleocene) of Saudi Arabia and Associated Strata: Stratigraphy, Vertebrate Fauna, and Paleoenvironment; A Paleocene Percoid Fish, Tentatively Referred to the Family Serranidae, from Jabal Umm Himar, Kingdom of Saudi Arab...

F. C. Whitmore C. T. Madden

1995-01-01

94

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saud dynasty, enjoys special importance in much of the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. The United States and Saudi Arabia have longstanding econo...

A. B. Prados C. M. Blanchard

2006-01-01

95

Saudi sands, SCUDS, and survival.  

PubMed

SCUD attacks were one of many challenges this pediatric nurse practitioner (NP) and Air Force Reserve flight nurse faced daily during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Providing nursing care to sick and injured patients on board a C141 transport plane en route from Saudi Arabia to Germany was her primary responsibility. Additionally, many hours were spent filling sandbags, attending in-service classes, and practicing putting on a gas mask and protective suit. Although the war has been over for almost 3 years, the effects are long lasting. The author was able to use her wartime experience positively to gain insight into survival in today's violent society. As violence increases, NPs must reshape their focus and educate their clients about survival. PMID:8297671

Glendon, M P

96

Lateral cephalometric norms for Saudi adults: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning require careful evaluation of the patient’s cephalometric values and comparison to known population cephalometric means or norms. Despite the availability of several published studies on Saudi cephalometric norms, Caucasian norms are still referred to when Saudi patients are treated. To reach a consensus between these studies and to establish more accurately cephalometric norms for Saudis,

Abdullah M. Aldrees

2011-01-01

97

Causes and effects of road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Saudi Arabia the motor vehicle is the main means of transportation. Between 1971 and 1997; 564 762 people died or were injured in road traffic accidents, a figure equivalent to 3.5% of the total population in Saudi Arabia. During this period 66 914 people have died on the roads in Saudi Arabia due to road accidents, amounting to one

S Ansari; F Akhdar; M Mandoorah; K Moutaery

2000-01-01

98

Oil Policy of Saudi Arabia and World Oil Market.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to clarify the future trends of Saudi oil policy and its implications for the world oil market based on the features of Saudi oil business and development of the oil policy, the framework of Saudi oil industry after nationalization in 1978 and th...

Y. Hatsukade

1988-01-01

99

Upper Mantle and Transition Zone Structure beneath Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigate upper mantle structure under western Saudi Arabia using broadband teleseismic data recorded by the Saudi Arabia PASSCAL experiment. From previous studies, there is evidence for anomalously slow seismic velocities in the upper mantle beneath regions of Cenozoic volcanism and uplift in western Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea. However, the shape of the low velocity

M. H. Benoit; J. Vandecar; A. A. Nyblade

2002-01-01

100

“Liberation” vs. “Purity”: Representations of Saudi Women in the American Press and American Women in the Saudi Press  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzed representations of Saudi women in the American press after September 11, 2001. Using feminist criticism, the critique of Orientalism, and postcolonial discourses as theoretical frameworks, it also compared the representations of Saudi women in The Washington Post with those of American women in the Arab News. While The Washington Post overwhelmingly portrayed Saudi women as oppressed victims

Smeeta Mishra

2007-01-01

101

The implications for employment conditions of foreign direct investment in Saudi Arabia: lessons from the Saudi Arabian Basic Industries Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlines the role of the Saudi Arabian Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) in Saudi economy policy: chiefly industralisation through joint ventures with foreign multinationals. Reports a 1993 survey of 312 SABIC employees divided into Saudi nationals, expatriates from developed countries and those from developing countries. Compares their educational and employment levels, family attitudes towards their jobs and the provision and take-up

Abdullah Al-Salamah; Rodney Wilson

2001-01-01

102

Everything depends on the Saudis  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that oil markets are at their lowest level in 18 months, since before the Persian Gulf crisis. What is remarkable is that the world oil industry is producing essentially at capacity, yet OPEC shows no sign of taking advantage of this situation to drive up prices. Rather, commodity market forces are quickly exploiting any short-term surplus or shortage, and the oil market is exposed to continuing price volatility. Oil market uncertainties - the return of Iraqi and Kuwaiti production, prospects for exports from former Soviet republics, and the fragility of economic recovery - appear bigger than normal and threaten to oversupply markets in the spring when oil demand declines seasonally. The downward trend in world oil prices that began in November may continue into the second quarter of 1992. However, by the second half an economic recovery may be underway. If that happens, demand should grow and the market firm. At any rate, prices in 1992 may be more stable than commonly expected, because Saudi Arabia does not seem to want prices much above or below 1991 levels. That would be a range of $20 - $21 for WTI.

Sauer, J.W. (Conoco Inc., Houston, TX (US))

1992-02-01

103

Genetic variability of PXR in Saudi Arabians.  

PubMed

Polymorphisms in the PXR gene play important roles in influencing the efficacy and toxicity of a large number of endogenous and exogenous substrates. Because of ethnic specificity, several studies have been directed toward the determination of PXR polymorphisms in various populations. In the current study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of 19 coding and regulatory polymorphisms in the PXR gene in Saudi Arabians by direct sequencing. Our results show that the frequencies of the regulatory PXR SNPs in Saudi Arabians differ from those in other ethnic groups, and the results endorse the commonly seen ethnic pattern of a paucity of the PXR coding SNPs. PMID:23576071

Al-Dosari, Mohammed S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Alghamdi, Amal M; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Halwani, Rabih; Khalid Parvez, M

2013-04-12

104

Unconventional therapy use among asthma patients in a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Unconventional therapy (UT) is a therapeutic practice of alternative and complementary medicine that is not currently considered an integral part of modern medical practice. The aim of this article is to investigate the experience of Saudi patients with UT modalities in the treatment of asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study of asthma patients referred to King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2004. Information was collected using a pre-designed questionnaire administered through interviews. RESULTS: Two hundred consecutive patients with a mean age of 52.3 years (±18.7) were included in this study. Sixty-nine (34.5%) of those patients used some form of UT in the previous year. There was a tendency to use UT among the older age group (P = 0.029) and among those with longer duration of disease (P = 0.009). However, there was no significant correlation observed between the use of UT and gender, FEV1, or disease control. The most commonly used form of UT was recitation of Holy Quran (9%), honey (24.5%), herbs (23.5%), cautery (12%), and blackseed (10%). There was no significant correlation between disease control and the use of modalities. CONCLUSION: Unconventional therapy is frequently practiced by asthma patients in Saudi Arabia, who commonly believe that UT will lead to improvement. The lack of evidence necessitates the fostering of a national project to address the practice of UT.

Al Moamary, Mohamed S

2008-01-01

105

Predicting attitudes toward women working in mixed settings with men: The case of Saudi women working in hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate Saudi people's attitudes toward (1) Saudi women working with men in hospitals regardless of their occupational prestige, (2) Saudi female administrative personnel, (3) Saudi female physicians, (4) Saudi female nurses and (5) admitting Saudi females into medical and nursing schools. The predictor variables were: age, gender, marital status, level of education, area

Kasib D Al-Rashidi

2000-01-01

106

Compliance with DNR policy in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Do not resuscitate (DNR) is an important aspect of medical practice, although few studies from Arab Muslim countries address\\u000a this issue. King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Saudi Arabia has a policy addressing all aspects of patient care at end of\\u000a life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To assess compliance of physicians with the current DNR policy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cohort study of data prospectively collected from 15\\/10\\/2008

Alaa Gouda; Ahmad Al-Jabbary; Lian Fong

2010-01-01

107

Are Saudi banks productive and efficient?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to estimate the data envelopment analysis (DEA) efficiency scores and Malmquist productivity indices of banks in Saudi Arabia, an economy that is heavily dependant on the hydrocarbon sector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper adopts the intermediation approach of banking services where financial institutions like banks are perceived to be manufacturing units, employing inputs

Mohammad Hanif Akhtar

2010-01-01

108

The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)|

Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

1991-01-01

109

Harmonic signals in Saudi Arabia industrial plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a preliminary survey of harmonic levels within the Saudi Arabian power network and industrial facilities are presented. The major industries are petrochemical related and a number of arc furnaces. The voltage and current harmonic levels are within the IEEE 519-1992 standard. The results indicate a growing level of harmonics as more and more petrochemical industries are connected to

Ibrahim El-Amin; A. Al-Shehri

1999-01-01

110

Saudi Arabia: fuel prices coming of age  

SciTech Connect

Of the three oil-exporting, developing countries traditionally with the cheapest domestic fuel prices, only Saudi Arabia remained with deep subsidies intact after Mexico, and then Venezuela, raised prices to consumers. Now Saudi Arabia has doubled petroleum-product prices to consumers, and also increased internal crude oil prices. With domestic consumption of gasoline up 315%, diesel consumption up 626%, and crude oil consumption up 195%, since 1975, economic-development engineers say their deliberate plan for using oil to rapidly build infrastructure and local manufacturing capacities has succeeded. However, the Third Development Plan for the period 1980-1985 was designed with higher oil exports in mind than have been possible in the past three years. Lost revenues had to be at least partially restored by charging more to Saudi consumers, to maintain economic development near expected levels. Nevertheless, higher consumer prices - still the lowest in the world - are just a drop in the bucket for government budgeting. Development of its human resources, its petrochemical industry, and returns from safe investment havens abroad, continue to be the long-term solutions for the most valuable use of Saudi Arabia's crude oil and petrodollars. This issue contains the fuel price/tax series and the industrial fuel prices for May 1984 for countries of the Western Hamisphere.

Not Available

1984-05-30

111

Saudis adjusting to lower production levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article points out that development work in Saudi Arabia reflects the realities of the oil industry in the second half of the 1980s. Gone are the multibillion investments in refineries, basic petrochemicals, associated gas gathering systems, and other production facilities. This article reviews alternatives that have sprung up in their place: an extensive program to mothball surplus offshore and

Vielvoye

1987-01-01

112

Trends in maternal mortality in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify trends and factors related to maternal death, and areas that need improvement. Methods: A prospective national survey, a multistage sample of the hospitals of Saudi Arabia. The setting was a maternal mortality survey committee in Riyadh with field\\/area coordinators in different areas of the Kingdom. The subjects were women who died or who were dead on arrival

A. Al-Meshari; S. K. Chattopadhyay; B. Younes; M. Hassonah

1996-01-01

113

Advertising agency scene in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looks at advertising agencies in Saudi Arabia and describes their strengths and the facilities they can offer. Focuses on five major advertising agencies – Tihama for Advertising, Public Relations and Marketing; United Outdoor Advertising Company Ltd.; Raed Marketing and Advertising; Narwah Public Relations, Advertising and Marketing; and Transworld Publicity Limited – and mentions five others. Explores the history of advertising

Orham Erdem; Secil Tuncalp

1998-01-01

114

Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

Alwadie, Adnan D.

2013-01-01

115

Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…

Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

2008-01-01

116

Teachers' Online Discussion Forums in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia has special online discussion forums for teachers as part of its internet website. The study surveys those teachers' online forums and reports the number of participants, number of threads and responses, topics with the highest and lowest posts and the forums role in teachers' professional development and…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2006-01-01

117

Cinder Cones in Northwest Saudi Arabia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Harrat Lunayyir basalt cinder cones and lava flows in Saudi Arabia seen from an aerial perspective. Deposits from the cinder cones cover nearby ridges and form fans at the base of the older non-volcanic ridge in the background. These well-preserved geomorphic forms indicate the relative youth of thi...

2010-09-28

118

California and Saudi Arabia: geologic contrasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing hydrocarbon futures in unexplored basins involves geology by analogy. Through 1978, approximately 265 fields were discovered in California containing 22 billion bbl of oil, 53% being in the 10 largest fields, ranging in size from 0.6 to 2.4 billion bbl. Through 1978, about 50 fields were found in Saudi Arabia containing 206 billion bbl of oil, 78% in the

R. G. Jr

1984-01-01

119

A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.  

PubMed

Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially unnecessary desalination infrastructure that is likely to become more energy and cost efficient in future. PMID:22504624

Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

2012-04-12

120

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycle City contains an interactive city map that demonstrates how residents of every section of the city, formerly Dumptown, have recycled, reduced, and reused waste to turn their town around. There is a Dumptown Game with a Control Center to monitor displays while Dumptown changes as waste reduction programs are put in place. Students can create their own Recycle City scavenger hunt or go to the Activities area and see other ways to put Recycle City to use to help protect the environment.

1997-01-01

121

Health beliefs and behaviors of Saudi women.  

PubMed

This paper describes perceptions of familiarity with symptoms and beliefs about illnesses based on interviews with 50 Saudi women. The sample was young, with 82% under the age of 40, and not well educated by Western standards, with one-third being illiterate and 80% having no more than a primary school education. More than half lived in households of six or more. Although there was greater awareness of germs as causative factors in illness than previous studies in Saudi Arabia had demonstrated, beliefs in multiple causes, including religious beliefs about disease causation, persisted. There was an apparent lack of understanding of specific causes of various illnesses or of the rationale for preventive measures. This lack of understanding may be related to the low education levels and/or deeply ingrained cultural beliefs. PMID:1475998

Ide, B A; Sanli, T

1992-01-01

122

Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island.

Not Available

1992-05-04

123

Two important Saudi crude assays updated  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on updating two important Saudi Arabian crude oils-Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) and Arabian Light-which is part of a continuing series on world export crudes. Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) was reassayed in early 1990; Arabian Light in May 1990. These assays, therefore, replace those that appeared previously. However, as is frequently the case with crudes from major, single reservoirs, there is little, if any, change in their characteristics.

Rhodes, A.K.

1991-12-02

124

Ultraviolet solar radiation at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of ultraviolet solar radiation for the period January 1985 to December 1987 at Dhahran (26°32'N, 50°13'E), Saudi Arabia, are analyzed. Dependence of ultraviolet radiation on the atmospheric clearness index is investigated. For a clearness index above 0.65, the ratio of ultraviolet radiation to total horizontal radiation is a constant value of 3.45%. For a clearness index below 0.65, the

M. A. Elhadidy; D. Y. Abdel-Nabi; P. D. Kruss

1990-01-01

125

Urban poverty and its connection to internal migration: a sociological study of some of the inner?city neighbourhoods of Riyadh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with an important sociological aspect of the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. It analyses urban poverty in the old, slum (sha?b?) neighbourhoods in the centre of the city, such as those affiliated to the municipality of ‘al?Ba????’ where families in these areas have witnessed an increase in numbers along with a decrease in income and an

Aziza A. Alnuaim

2010-01-01

126

Tobacco Use among Health Care Workers in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The present study targeted health care workers (HCWs) in Governmental Hospitals and Primary Health Care Centers in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was used to assess tobacco use and the reasons for smoking. The present study included 736 HCWs. The overall prevalence of tobacco use amounted to 26.3% (14.8% current and 11.5% former users). In a binary logistic regression analysis, males were found significantly more prone to smoke compared to females (aOR = 3.081, 95% CI: 2.004–4.739). Similarly, parental history of tobacco use was found to be a significant risk factor (aOR = 1.540, 95% CI: 1.040–2.278). Among current users, 89.9% were interested in quitting and 66.1% tried before to quit. The prevalence of smoking among HCWs in the present study, besides being a public health problem, represents a potential barrier in involving this group as a first line for tobacco control. There is a need for a national intervention programme in the country in a tailored manner for HCWs to control tobacco use parallel to the running national program for public. These interventions should begin early in basic medical education and to be applied continually during one's medical career.

Mahfouz, Ahmed A.; Shatoor, Abdullah S.; Al-Ghamdi, Badr R.; Hassanein, Mervat A.; Nahar, Shamsun; Farheen, Aesha; Gaballah, Inasse I.; Mohamed, Amani; Rabie, Faten M.

2013-01-01

127

Cities Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From The Economist, their Cities Guide offers practical information ranging from accommodations to insider tips on getting around various US and world cities. A very nice touch are areas like the City Briefing section (top news stories, history pieces, and other tidbits) and the Being There area (subtopics include how to kill an hour and gifts to take home). City Guide also contains sections on cultural events, shopping, history, facts, and much more. [REB].

2001-01-01

128

Facing the Challenges of Consumerism in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Saudi Arabia seeks sustainable development progress through reducing reliance on petroleum, a service-based economy and a subsidized welfare state, it is also important that the nation adopts and implements policy and strategies to curb consumerism. The Saudi government sets an objective of the Seventh Development Plan (2000-2004) to rationalize consumption. Some public actions have been taken to curb consumerism,

Soraya W. Assad

129

Risk factors for spontaneous abortion among Saudi women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify important risk factors for spontaneous abortion (SA) among Saudi women. It was a casecontrol study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The cases were 226 consecutive women hospitalized for SA between October 1992 and January 1993. The controls were 226 consecutive women who had normal delivery in the same

Lubna A. Al-Ansary; Gbolahan Oni; Zainab A. Babay

1995-01-01

130

Saudi ethylene plants move toward more feed flexibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for basic petrochemicals, such as propylene, butenes, and aromatics, is increasing in Saudi Arabia. This paper discusses how increased demand for these materials will require a change to heavier feedstocks, such as butanes, naphtha, and gas oil, for the next generation of Saudi Arabian ethylene plants. Changing to heavier ethylene plant feedstocks would also take pressure off of limited

A. K. K. Lee; A. M. Aitani

1990-01-01

131

A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the

J. B. Kirven; C. R. Swenson

1986-01-01

132

An economic analysis of the Saudi Arabian gas utilization system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saudi Arabian natural gas industry and its down stream activity, particularly petrochemicals, is characterized by its dependence on the country's crude oil production. This is because the main input into these industries is associated natural gas. Most of the Saudi gas-based petrochemical products are sold in international markets where their cost advantage over naphtha-based products is directly proportional to

Fetyani

1988-01-01

133

Reliable maps of lightning thunderstorms for Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research is to develop reliable maps of isokeraunic level (thunderdays\\/year, TD) for the country on annual and seasonal bases. New annual thunder day maps for Saudi Arabia are presented. The results in this paper are based on data and records of thunderstorm incidences in Saudi Arabia recorded by the Presidency of Metrology and Environment. These

M. H. Shwehdi

2006-01-01

134

Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi

Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

2011-01-01

135

Misyar Marriage as Human Trafficking in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severity and scope of human trafficking for sexual and labor exploitation has been grossly understudied until this past decade. Reliable information on how and why trafficking in persons occurs is scarce, especially for the Middle East. Saudi Arabia’s notorious policies of discrimination against women serve as the starting point. In Saudi Arabia, the monarchy has co-opted the traditional roles

Stephanie Doe

2008-01-01

136

Contraception: Attitudes and Experiences of Saudi Arabian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out a survey to find the contraception practices and experiences of Saudi Arabian females. A preset questionnaire was developed, and married Saudi females were asked to answer the questionnaire. Between July and December 2008, 215 women completed the questionnaire. The average age was 37.6 ± 9.1 years. One hundred and sixty one of the women said they were

Haifa Abdulaziz Al-Turki

2011-01-01

137

Organizational Culture Impact on Knowledge Exchange: Saudi Telecom Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of some organizational culture attributes, including: openness to change, innovation, trust, teamwork, morale, information flow, employees' involvement, supervision, customer service and reward orientation on the knowledge exchange (KE) process within the context of the Saudi Telecom Company (STC) as a representation of the Saudi context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A

Raid Moh'd Al-adaileh; Muawad S. Al-Atawi

2011-01-01

138

Insomnia in chronic renal patients on dialysis in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that insomnia is a common sleep disorder among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of insomnia in Saudi patients with ESRD who are on maintenance dialysis. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study carried out over a period of five months in two hemodialysis centers in Saudi Arabia. To

Hamdan H Al-Jahdali; Haithm A Khogeer; Waleed A Al-Qadhi; Salim Baharoon; Hani Tamim; Fayez F Al-Hejaili; Saeed M Al-Ghamdi; Abdullah A Al-Sayyari

2010-01-01

139

The rise of consumerism in Saudi Arabian society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The emergence of consumer-oriented societies has become the central trait of our era. Saudi Arabia gained entrée to consumerism via its oil wealth. Numerous studies demonstrate that consumer lifestyle and consumerist attitudes are spreading in the country. The purpose of this study is to explain how Saudi Arabia came to be a consumer society, to present evidence of

Soraya W. Assad

2007-01-01

140

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saud dynasty, enjoys special importance in much of the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. Since the establishment of the modern Saudi kingdom in 193...

A. B. Prados

2005-01-01

141

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saud dynasty, enjoys special importance in much of the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. Since the establishment of the modern Saudi kingdom in 193...

A. B. Prados

2003-01-01

142

Visual outcome and complications after cataract extraction in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in Saudi Arabia. The author studied 1383 patients who had undergone cataract extraction (total of 1520 procedures) from October 1985 to March 1986 at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All patients were observed for at least two months. Of 1520 eyes 555 (37%) achieved a visual acuity of 20\\/40

M F al Faran

1990-01-01

143

Blended Learning in Saudi Universities: Challenges and Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended…

Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah

2010-01-01

144

Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

Alquraini, Turki

2010-01-01

145

Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

Alquraini, Turki

2011-01-01

146

Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi

Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

2011-01-01

147

Religious correlates of fear of death among Saudi Arabians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the relationship of several measures of religiosity to a multidimensional fear of death scale using respondents from Saudi Arabia. Questionnaire data for 84 Saudi Arabians temporarily living in the United States were analyzed. Our results showed that current church (mosque) attendance has a significant negative correlation with fear of premature death, and self-perceived religiosity has a significant

Dennis D. Long; Salma Elghanemi

1987-01-01

148

An investigation of ISO 9000 adoption in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results from a survey on ISO 9000 certified manufacturing companies in Saudi Arabia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An empirical survey of 175 certified manufacturing firms in Saudi Arabia. This study is focused on the benefits achieved from ISO 9000 implementation, level of satisfaction with the standard, the anticipated steps after ISO

Hesham A. E. Magd

2006-01-01

149

Princes, Priests, and People: Is Saudi Arabia the Next Iran.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Renewed violent attacks in Saudi Arabia against the monarchy, combined with growing concern over royal corruption has led some analysts to predict that Saudi Arabia is likely to be 'the next Iran' - that Islamist revolutionaries will come to power in Riya...

B. J. Waltermire

2005-01-01

150

Cephalometric norms for the Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia: a research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have established specific cephalometric norms for children with different ethnic backgrounds, showing different facial features for each group. Up till now, there is a paucity of information about the cephalometric features of Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia, who have distinct social and climatic characteristics. The aim of the present study was to

Ali H Hassan

2005-01-01

151

Gender-Segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms and the Saudi Labor Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of…

Baki, Roula

2004-01-01

152

City Mayors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on the expertise of a team of editors who reside in Britain, Germany, Spain, Mexico, France, and a number of other countries, the City Mayors organization is an "international network of professionals working to promote strong cities and good local government." Their website takes on all of the important urban issues of the day, including governance, affordable housing, sustainable development, transportation, and a number of other pressing issues. On their homepage, visitors will find links to recent news stories from cities around the world and direct links to thematic sections such as business, finance, environment, and development. One section that should not be missed is the "City Rankings" area, which includes helpful lists of the largest cities in the world by land area, population and density, along with a list of the most expensive cities in the world.

153

DETERMINANTS OF BIRTH SPACING AMONG SAUDI WOMEN  

PubMed Central

Background: High fertility levels are of major concern to planners and policy makers in most countries in the developing world. In Saudi Arabia, the rate of population growth is the third highest of the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Objectives: This study aimed at identifying determinants of birth spacing and attitudes toward family planning among Saudi women. Methods: A cross sectional survey of all women who have been married before, aged 15-49 years attending Al Hada armed forces hospital (primary health care and antenatal care clinics), was conducted between 1st February 2005 and 31st January 2006. Data was collected on socio-demographic, biological characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, and utilization of family planning services, pregnancy intervals and medical history Results: For the 786 women included in the study, the mean duration of interbirth interval was 2.38±1.24 years. The multivariate Cox regression revealed that a woman's education, work status, husband's work status, a woman's history of chronic diseases, and husband's encouragement of interbirth spacing were the only significant predictors of longer interbirth intervals. Shorter interbirth intervals were independently predicted by lower family income, and presence of female offspring only or equal number of male and female offspring as opposed to presence of more males. The great majority of participating women (98%) had a positive opinion of the effect of birth spacing on the family. Conclusion: This study showed that certain factors were significant predictors of interbirth spacing for the Saudi women. This should lead to the encouragement of longer intervals between births. However, further studies are needed to ascertain a cause-effect association.

Abdel-Fattah, Moataz; Hifnawy, Tamer; El Said, Tarek I.; Moharam, Maha M.; Mahmoud, Mahmoud A.

2007-01-01

154

Public Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is well established worldwide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive household survey study of the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from 1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM. Results Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70% Saudi and 30% non-Saudis. About 89% of the participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g. (T.V., newspapers and radio) and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5% and 46.3% respectively). Nearly 85% of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write), as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89%), prayer (54%), honey and bee products (54%), hijama (35.71%) and cauterization or medical massage therapy (22%) were the commonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8%), regulations for CAM (94.9%), health education (96.6%), specialized centers (94.8%) and CAM clinics (92.7%). While only 8.3% of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians. Conclusion There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positive attitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.

Elolemy, Ahmed Tawfik; AlBedah, Abdullah M.N.

2012-01-01

155

Home intravenous antibiotics in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Home intravenous (IV) antibiotic programs are becoming increasingly popular worldwide because of their efficacy and safety. However, in Saudi Arabia these programs have not yet become an integrated part of the health care system. We present our experience with a home IV antibiotic program, as one of the major health care providers in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective chart review of patients enrolled in the King Abdulaziz Medical City Home Health Care IV Antibiotic Program from 1 May 2005 (the start of the program) until 30 December 2007. METHODS: In addition to demographic characteristics, we collected data on the site of infection, the clinical diagnosis, the isolated microorganisms, and the type of antibiotics given. Outcome measures evaluated included the relapse rate, failure rate, the safety of the program, and readmission rates. RESULTS: Of the 155 patients enrolled, 152 patients completed the program. Those who completed the program had a mean (SD) age of 52.8 (23.9) years. The mean (SD) duration of the IV antibiotic treatment was 20.6 (17) days. Three patients refused to complete the intended duration of therapy. Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) lines were utilized in 130 patients (86%). One-hundred and thirty-one patients completed the intended duration of therapy, although the therapy was changed from the initial plan for 21 (13.8%) patients. Readmission to the hospital during therapy was required for 13 patients (8.5%). Osteomyelitis was the most frequently encountered diagnosis (65 patients, 42.8%), followed by urinary tract infection (36 patients, 23.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The home health care-based IV antibiotic program was an effective and safe alternative for in-patient management of patients with non-life-threatening infections, and was associated with a very low complication rate. Home IV antibiotic programs should be used more frequently as part of the health care system in Saudi Arabia.

Baharoon, Salim; Almodaimeg, Hind; Al Watban, Haifa; Al Jahdali, Hamdan; Alenazi, Thamer; Al Sayyari, Abdullah; Al Dawood, Abdulaziz; Al-Sultan, Mohammed; Al Safi, Eiman

2011-01-01

156

Assays of two Saudi crudes updated  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that updated assays are now available for two crudes form Saudi Arabia: Arabian Medium-Offshore, Zuluf/Marjan and Arabian Medium-Khursaniyah/Abu Safah. The new assays show lower API gravities than previously published. Both crudes have decreased in gravity by 2.3[degrees] API: the Zuluf/Marjan variety from 31.1 to 28.8, and Khursaniyah/Abu Safah, form 30.8 to 28.5. In addition, the sulfur content of Khursaniyah/Abu Safah has increased form 2.40 wt % to 2.85 wt %, while that of the offshore crude has remained essentially unchanged.

Rhodes, A.K.

1992-09-28

157

Bacillus stearothermophilus from Saudi Arabian Soils.  

PubMed

Ten thermophilic Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from various soils of Saudi Arabia. The strains are spore-forming rods belonging to the species Bacillus stearothermophilus. The cells are motile, strictly aerobic, catalase and oxidase positive. The sporangia appear to be swollen and their position varies from terminal in some to sub-terminal in others. The thermal stability of some enzymes of these bacteria was investigated; extracellular alpha-amylase appears to be very sensitive to pH and temperature. The ultrastructure of these bacteria shows specific changes in the cell wall when grown at the maximum, minimum and optimum growth temperatures, respectively. PMID:7319400

Abu-Zinada, A H; Hossain, A; Yonis, H I; Elwan, S H

1981-01-01

158

Feedstock limitations in Saudi Arabian petrochemical plants dictate products  

SciTech Connect

Few changes in the petrochemical industry in the Saudi Arabia are likely through the early 1990s. Although the country produces substantial quantities of petrochemicals, products are limited to those that can be most economically produced from natural gas-based feedstocks. Heavy reliance on natural gas-based feeds means that the Saudi industry produces mainly olefins and olefins derivatives. Thus, other important products, in particular aromatics derivatives, cannot be economically produced. The author gives an overview of the petrochemical industry in the Persian Gulf, with a specific look at the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia.

AlMutaz, I.S. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (SA))

1989-09-04

159

Saudi ethylene plants move toward more feed flexibility  

SciTech Connect

Demand for basic petrochemicals, such as propylene, butenes, and aromatics, is increasing in Saudi Arabia. This paper discusses how increased demand for these materials will require a change to heavier feedstocks, such as butanes, naphtha, and gas oil, for the next generation of Saudi Arabian ethylene plants. Changing to heavier ethylene plant feedstocks would also take pressure off of limited ethane supplies in the region. Ethylene production in Saudi Arabia currently has the advantages of low-cost feedstock, cheap energy, and low-cost capital loans. The existing ethylene plants are designed to crack ethane and produce, primarily, ethylene.

Lee, A.K.K.; Aitani, A.M. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleumand Minerals, Dhahran (SA))

1990-09-10

160

Improving fractionation lowers butane sulfur level at Saudi gas plant  

SciTech Connect

Increasing the debutanizer reflux/feed ratio to improve fractionation at an eastern Saudi Arabian NGL plant reduced high sulfur in the butane product. The sulfur resulted from dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contamination in the feed stream from an offshore crude-oil reservoir in the northern Arabian Gulf. The contamination is limited to two northeastern offshore gas-oil separation plants operated by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) and, therefore, cannot be transported to facilities outside the Eastern Province. Two technically acceptable solutions for removing this contaminant were investigated: 13X molecular-sieve adsorption of the DMS and increased fractionation efficiency. The latter would force DMS into the debutanizer bottoms.

Harruff, L.G.; Martinie, G.D.; Rahman, A. [Saudi Arabian Oil Co., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1998-10-12

161

Isotope geochemistry of the Miocene and Quaternary carbonate rocks in Rabigh area, Red Sea coast, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rabigh area, a coastal region north of Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia contains raised Quaternary coral reefal terraces and reworked coral fragments mixed with sand and gravel. This area has a thin exposure Lower Miocene shallow marine carbonate rocks that laterally pass into evaporites. The Miocene carbonate and evaporite rocks conformably overly the Lower Miocene siliciclastic sequence, are in turn capped by the Harrat basaltic boulders. The Miocene carbonates are made up of dolomitic packstone, wackestone and mudstone, whereas the overlying Quaternary reefal terraces are composed of coral boundstone and grainstones.

Dawood, Yehia H.; Aref, Mahmoud A.; Mandurah, Mohammed H.; Hakami, Ahmed; Gameil, Mohammed

2013-11-01

162

Outline of sport injuries in the V World Youth Championship for FIFA Cup in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The V World Youth Championship for FIFA Cup was held for the first time in Saudi Arabia from 16-2-89 till 3-3-89. Sports injuries at this competitions was reported from the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia with eight matches taking place at different days. Out of 176 soccer players from group C (Brazil, Germany DR, Mali and USA) who participated in this competition, only six were injured and 7 injuries were noted with an incidence of 3.98% (n = 7/176). Lower limb injuries predominated (ankle sprain: 28.57%; tibia fracture: 14.29%), whereas head, facial, radius and rib injuries had equal rates (14.29%). Also, fractures predominated (42.86%) due to the aggressive attitudes. Concussion (14.29%) and cut wound (14.29%) were less common. High skills, good physical fitness, compliance of rules and regulations, strict surveillance of violence and misbehaviour by the FIFA cup organizing team and allied offices led to the well performance, safer environment and low incidence of sports injuries. PMID:10085609

Juma, A H

1998-10-01

163

Beautiful city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In

Gerald Carlino

2009-01-01

164

Social Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans are social animals: relationships are critical to our wellbeing. Indeed, a lack of face-to-face contact can put our health at risk. This report looks at ways to make cities better places to live by increasing our opportunities to connect with other people. It examines how the design and functioning of a city – from transport networks to the availability

Jane-Frances Kelly; Peter Breadon; Caitrin Davis; Amelie Hunter; Peter Mares; Daniel Mullerworth; Tom Quinn; Ben Weidmann

2012-01-01

165

Potential for the International Spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in Association with Mass Gatherings in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: A novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causing severe, life-threatening respiratory disease has emerged in the Middle East at a time when two international mass gatherings in Saudi Arabia are imminent. While MERS-CoV has already spread to and within other countries, these mass gatherings could further amplify and/or accelerate its international dissemination, especially since the origins and geographic source of the virus remain poorly understood. Methods: We analyzed 2012 worldwide flight itinerary data and historic Hajj pilgrim data to predict population movements out of Saudi Arabia and the broader Middle East to help cities and countries assess their potential for MERS-CoV importation. We compared the magnitude of travel to countries with their World Bank economic status and per capita healthcare expenditures as surrogate markers of their capacity for timely detection of imported MERS-CoV and their ability to mount an effective public health response. Results: 16.8 million travelers flew on commercial flights out of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates between June and November 2012, of which 51.6% were destined for India (16.3%), Egypt (10.4%), Pakistan (7.8%), the United Kingdom (4.3%), Kuwait (3.6%), Bangladesh (3.1%), Iran (3.1%) and Bahrain (2.9%). Among the 1.74 million foreign pilgrims who performed the Hajj last year, an estimated 65.1% originated from low and lower-middle income countries. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is an emerging pathogen with pandemic potential with its apparent epicenter in Saudi Arabia, where millions of pilgrims will imminently congregate for two international mass gatherings. Understanding global population movements out of the Middle East through the end of this year's Hajj could help direct anticipatory MERS-CoV surveillance and public health preparedness to mitigate its potential global health and economic impacts.

Khan, Kamran; Sears, Jennifer; Hu, Vivian Wei; Brownstein, John S; Hay, Simon; Kossowsky, David; Eckhardt, Rose; Chim, Tina; Berry, Isha; Bogoch, Isaac; Cetron, Martin

2013-01-01

166

RISK FACTORS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN BAHRAH, SAUDI ARABIA  

PubMed Central

Background: Asthma is a common health problem whose prevalence in Saudi Arabia has risen over the last few decades. Brick factories in the city of Bahrah have exacerbated the problem, and increasing numbers of asthma cases are attending local primary health care centers. Objective: Determine the risk factors of asthma in Bahrah. Materials and Methods: The study was comprised of 110 cases of bronchial asthma resident in Bahrah who were diagnosed by the treating physicians and 110 healthy controls matched in age and sex. A questionnaire was completed from cases and controls, consisting of data regarding personal, familial, indoor and outdoor environmental factors that may be potential risk factors to asthma. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to assess risk factors. Results: The mean ages of cases and controls were 22.4 (± 16.7) and 22.8 (± 16.1) years, respectively. Each group consisted of 64 males (58%) and 46 (42%) females. There was a significant association between distance from houses to brick factories and bronchial asthma (Chi square for linear trend = 26.6, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that living within one kilometer of a brick factory (OR=5.1, CI=2.33-11.16), family history (OR=4.6, CI=2.16-9.78), allergic rhinitis (OR=3.39, CI=1.49-7.69), skin atopy (OR=4.6, CI=1.53-13.87) and recurrent respiratory tract infections (OR=4.1, CI=1.79-9.22) were independent risk factors for asthma in Bahrah. Conclusions and recommendations: Brick factories, family history and history of rhinitis, skin atopy, or recurrent respiratory tract infections are risk factors of bronchial asthma. An in-depth study to asses air pollution in Bahrah is recom-mended. People are advised not to live near brick factories.

Al-Mazam, Abdulaziz; Mohamed, Ashry G.

2001-01-01

167

Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in wadi Sayyah, Western Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an essential and vital component of our life support system where it is used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Wadi Sayyah is one of the most important wadis in the western part of Saudi Arabia to the northeast of Jeddah city. A total of 42 groundwater samples are collected from hand dug wells in this area and they are analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. The sequence of the abundance of the major ion is in the following order: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > SO4 2- > HCO3 - > NO3 -. The dominated hydrochemical facieses of groundwater are: CaCl, and mixed CaMgCl, and the alkaline earths(Ca2+, Mg2+) and strong acids (SO4 2-, Cl-) are dominating over alkalis (Na+, K+) and weak acids (HCO3 -, CO{3/-}). Statistical analysis indicates positive correlation among most of the chemical parameters. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the study area is generally hard to very hard, fresh to brackish and alkaline in nature. The rock weathering and evaporation are among the most dominant processes in controlling water quality. The chloro-alkali indices illustrate that 80 % of the water samples have positive indicating exchange of Na+ and K+ from water with Mg2+ and Ca2+ from the rock. The suitability of water for drinking and irrigation is determined using WHO standards for drinking; some indices for irrigation purposes and it indicate that the groundwater in the study area can be used for drinking purposes in most of the locations (31 wells), while it is suitable for irrigation uses.

Al-Ahmadi, Masoud Eid

2013-07-01

168

Uncertainty of Mitigation Measures to Floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an aspect of the changing climatic conditions and anthropogenic impact; however, floods and torrents have been recently existed in Jeddah, the coastal Saudi city along the Red Sea. Distributed over 28 surface water basins, totaling an area of more than 2500km2, floods cover more than 15% of the area. This is well pronounced in 2009 and 2011, and it was attributed mainly to the torrential rainfall peaks the area witnesses lately. In addition, there is a chaotic urban distribution from the coastal zone to the adjacent mountain chains to the east, where torrential water runs towards the coast. A detailed assessment has been obtained using advanced space tools (e.g. high-resolution satellite images), and the application was carried out on several aspects of these images and at different dates. This was accomplished in combination the applications of geo-spatial systems to induce the mechanism of water flow regime and to identify the major reasons behind the high risk magnitude. Consequently, the geomorphologic and hydrologic parameters for flood occurrence were recognized. In the light of this catastrophic status; however, mitigation measures are rare enough to protect the area under risk. Recently, and after the 2009 and the recurrent 2011 disasters, which were resulted from floods, some mitigation measures have been undertaken and others were proposed. However, there is still uncertainty for an integrated flood control system. This can be viewed from the unsuitability of the selected sites and erroneous applications for flood controls. Besides, there is a lack to: 1) a giant channeling system for the risk area, 2) check dams, 3) ponds for water collection, 4) sediments-fixing controls, 5) traced watercourses. This is in addition to absence of proper legislation to prevent chaotic urban activities along valleys' pathways.

Al Saud, M.

2011-12-01

169

Saudi Arabia: The Compatibility of Islam and Democracy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Islam continues to be an important ideological political force in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Middle East. The growth of Islamic resurgence in recent years has developed to combat popular and western influence for liberalization, democratization, ...

M. N. Hawrylak

1995-01-01

170

EFL Teacher Preparation Programs in Saudi Arabia. Trends and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher education programs in Saudi Arabia and argues that available program options are in adequate for EFL teacher preparation. Recommendations are offered for improving EFL teacher education programs. (Author/VWL)

Al-Hazmi, Sultan

2003-01-01

171

CHALLENGES TO SAUDI MEDICAL EDUCATION IN THE THIRD MILLENNIUM  

PubMed Central

Medical education began in Saudi Arabia in 1969 when King Saud University, the first medical school was established. Since then globalization has brought numerous challenges. In this paper, we review the status of medical education and its expected future projects.

Al-Muhanna, Fahad A.

2009-01-01

172

EFL Teacher Preparation Programs in Saudi Arabia. Trends and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher education programs in Saudi Arabia and argues that available program options are in adequate for EFL teacher preparation. Recommendations are offered for improving EFL teacher education programs. (Author/VWL)|

Al-Hazmi, Sultan

2003-01-01

173

Sickle beta 0 thalassemia in Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed Central

The sickle cell (beta s) gene occurs at a high frequency in the oasis populations of Eastern Saudi Arabia. However, as compared with the disorder in Africans, sickle cell anemia runs an unusually benign clinical course in this populations; this has been attributed in part to the relatively high levels of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) which characterize Saudi Arabians with this condition [1, 2]. As yet, there is no satisfactory explanation for this remarkable phenomenon. To learn more about the expression of the beta s gene in Eastern Saudi Arabia, we examined its interaction with beta 0 thalassemia. We found that remarkably high levels of Hb F in this population are not restricted to individuals with sickle cell anemia but also occur in compound heterozygotes for the beta s and beta 0 thalassemia (beta 0 thal) genes. Additionally, this study has characterized sickle cell-beta 0 thalassemia (S-beta 0 thal) in Eastern Saudi Arabia for the first time.

Pembrey, M E; Perrine, R P; Wood, W G; Weatherall, D J

1980-01-01

174

Standards and Measurement Capabilities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a series of visits and conferences with U.S. Embassy officials, Saudi Arabian Government and standards officials, industries, testing and control laboratories, building and construction operations etc. It discusses and analyzes exist...

A. A. Bates

1975-01-01

175

Feedstock limitations in Saudi Arabian petrochemical plants dictate products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few changes in the petrochemical industry in the Saudi Arabia are likely through the early 1990s. Although the country produces substantial quantities of petrochemicals, products are limited to those that can be most economically produced from natural gas-based feedstocks. Heavy reliance on natural gas-based feeds means that the Saudi industry produces mainly olefins and olefins derivatives. Thus, other important products,

AlMutaz

1989-01-01

176

Prevalence of Obesity in a Saudi Obstetric Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryObjective: To estimate the prevalence of obesity and its determinants during the first month of gestation in Saudi women. Methods: Retrospective chart review of measured BMI in Al-Hassa, the largest province in Saudi Arabia, in 2007. Data were collected from records of 791 (72.6% of 1,089) pregnant women registered for prenatal care. Results: Height shows a normal Gaussian distribution, whereas

Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Adel El-Wehady

2009-01-01

177

Trends in fatal substance overdose in eastern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and forty-nine deaths owing to substance overdose were reported to the Medico-Legal Centre, Dammam, Saudi Arabia in the 8 year period from 1990 to 1997. All cases were subject to a full forensic autopsy with toxicological and histological studies. The overall male:female ratio was 7.9:1 and males predominated in all age groups. Saudis outnumbered other nationalities and accounted

M. A Elfawal

1999-01-01

178

A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project  

SciTech Connect

The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.

Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.

1986-01-01

179

Asthma and respiratory symptoms in urban and rural Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to contrast the prevalence of allergic symptoms in children living in urban and rural areas of Saudi Arabia and to investigate factors associated with any differences found. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted of a social class-stratified sample of 1,020 urban and 424 rural 12 yr old children, recording symptoms of current and past allergic disease and doctors' diagnoses, together with nationality and the fathers' educational level and occupations. A significantly greater prevalence of allergic symptoms was found in urban than in rural children and in Saudi than in non-Saudi Arab children. Males were more likely to have some respiratory symptoms and females had more eye and skin symptoms. Educational level and occupation of the father did not influence the likelihood of having symptoms. Logistic regression analyses showed that urban residence and Saudi nationality were the two main risk factors associated with asthmatic symptoms. There is likely to have been a recent increase in the prevalence of allergic disease in Saudi children associated with increased affluence, which has not affected non-Saudi migrants moving into the same environment to the same extent. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the environment, possibly through changes in lifestyle and patterns of infection, influences the expression of allergic disease. PMID:9701412

Hijazi, N; Abalkhail, B; Seaton, A

1998-07-01

180

Breast Cancer Awareness among Saudi Females in Jeddah.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy of women worldwide. It is the leading cause of female cancer related disability and mortality. In Saudi Arabia breast cancer ranks first among cancerous diseases in females. In the Gulf region, and especially in Saudi Arabia, few studies have been conducted to address breast cancer awareness. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the level of breast cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah, focusing on knowledge of breast cancer warning signs, risk factors, screening programs and breast self-examination (BSE). The design of this study was an exploratory correlational analysis. The sample comprised 200 Saudi females aged 20 and older living in Jeddah. Data were collected using face-to- face interviews. Breast cancer awareness was measured using a modified Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (Breast CAM) version 2. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's Product Moment correlation coefficients and ANOVA test were used to answer study questions. Out of 200 participants, 50.5% were aware of breast lump as a warning sign of breast cancer, 57.5% claimed that family history was risk factor, 20.5% had undergone breast screening, 79% heard about BSE, and 47.5% knew how to perform BSE. Findings indicated that Saudi females level of awareness of breast cancer is very inadequate. Public awareness interventions are needed in order to overcome an ever-increasing burden of this disease among Saudi females. PMID:23991994

Radi, Sahar Mahmoud

2013-01-01

181

Analysis of rocks around capital of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic studies of variety of rock samples around capital of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The samples were collected from East, West, North, and South about 20 km from city centre. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) in conjunction with MS257 Spectrograph (Oriel instrument) equipped with ICCD camera is used to record the LIBS data. The emission spectra of these samples have been recorded as functions of laser irradiance. The elemental composition and the relative abundance in each sample are found to be quite different. Quantities of Iron, Calcium, Carbon, Silicon, Aluminum, and Oxygen are detected in these samples. In samples from East, West and South, Iron and Silicon dominates. Dominant elements from North are Calcium and Silicon. Presence of Oxygen proves the existence of oxides in all samples. The color of the samples indicates the presence of Goethite and Hematite, oxides of Iron.

Farooq, W. A.; Al-Mutairi, F. N.; Alahmed, Z. A.

2013-08-01

182

Role of solar energy research in transferring of technology to Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is blessed with abundant solar energy, which is renewable, clean, and freely available. This paper describes the status of the major research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities and achievements at the Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, in the field of solar energy. RD and D activities in the Kingdom have confirmed that solar energy has a multitude of practical uses. These include lighting, cooling, cooking, water heating, crop/fruit drying, water desalination, operating irrigation pumps, and meteorological stations, and providing road and tunnel lighting. Furthermore, these solar energy RD and D activities and achievements played a significant role in transferring technology and manpower development in the Kingdom.

Alawaji, S.H.; Hasnain, S.M.

1999-12-01

183

Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (Ta) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in Ta as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because Tas are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3–5 °C in Ta over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher Ta, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high Ta. This report examines how increases in Ta might affect body temperature (Tb) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which Ta often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When Ta exceeds Tb, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their Tb; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases Tb is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their Tb to increase as Ta increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in Ta. The data presented should serve as base-line information on Tb of animals in the Kingdom for future scientists in Saudi Arabia as they explore the impact of global warming on animal species.

Williams, Joseph B.; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Haseeb A.

2011-01-01

184

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

1997-01-01

185

Virtual City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In conjunction with Rice Design Alliance's Virtual City lecture series held earlier this year, home pages have been put up for two of the speakers, Howard Rheingold and Bruce Sterling, with access to online writings included.

1994-01-01

186

78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular goods,...

2013-07-10

187

75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department...1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

2010-09-28

188

76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International...Natalia.Susak@trade.gov. U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts Ahmed Khayyat, Phone:...

2011-02-09

189

75 FR 56506 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International...Natalia.Susak@trade.gov. U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts: Mr. Habeeb Saeed, U.S. Commercial...

2010-09-16

190

78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This...

2013-09-13

191

78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby report the waiver of this...

2013-04-19

192

Climate Prediction of Rainfall over Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being located within the dry belt of the northern hemisphere subtropics, Saudi Arabia has a very poor water resources. Excluding the mountainous of the south west and a limited area of the central regions of the country, the average annual rainfall is less than 100 mm every where. Accordingly, the country is very vulnerable to any natural or human-induced climate change which will impact its fragile environmental and social systems. The government of Saudi Arabia is currently conducting an ambitious long term national program on rain enhancement by seeding and the associated cloud physics research. An important component of the program is the provision of climate predictions of rainfall to help identifying its future trend and distribution. The program hence, could reorient its activities towards regions having a significant future rainfall reduction. GCMs were first used to project the rainfall over the kingdom. Out of seventeen, three GCM models were found to simulate very closely the climatic trend characteristics of Saudi Arabia.. Results obtained from running the combination of these three models, for the reference (P50)and the policy (WRE-350) emission scenarios, indicated that the spatial distribution of rainfall in the year 2041 is generally resemble that of the year 1991. The highest increase in precipitation occurs in summer in all regions. Obviously, this is trivial for areas having no summer rain., but in southern and southwestern regions, where precipitation regime is characterized by two peaks(one in summer and another in spring), such an increase has an important implication. However, scenarios of climate change derived directly from GCM output are of insufficient spatial resolution., with a consequent loss of some of the regional climate characteristics which may have important impacts on the socio-economy of the local community. One of particular importance to the kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the lack of representation of the Assir mountains in GCMs, and the inherent indiscrimination between seas, shore stripes, mountain ridges and desert land within a single grid square. From the many "downscaling" techniques to overcome this deficiency, Regional Climate Model (RCM) rather than (GCM) is applied, next, to obtain high resolution information of climate fields. PRECIS (Providing Regional Climates for Impact Studies) of Hadley centre has been selected as an appropriate RCM for that purpose. Boundary conditions are required at the limits of the model's domain, which were obtained from three, most frequently used, sources. Preliminary results for the period 1972-2001 show that , PRÉCIS has simulated well the broad features of the actual regional climate and been able to capture the observed extreme events in the climate record over the recent past. Hence, the model can be used with some confidence to produce the main characteristics and trends of the future rainfall over the kingdom. The aim of the present work is to study the performance of the model for future period and to correlate the predicted rainfall pattern and trend to the objectives of the national program on rain enhancement by seeding .

Sakkal, Marwan

2010-05-01

193

Saudis adjusting to lower production levels  

SciTech Connect

This article points out that development work in Saudi Arabia reflects the realities of the oil industry in the second half of the 1980s. Gone are the multibillion investments in refineries, basic petrochemicals, associated gas gathering systems, and other production facilities. This article reviews alternatives that have sprung up in their place: an extensive program to mothball surplus offshore and onshore production facilities; new non-associated gas production facilities to offset the shortfall in associated gas supplies from declining crude oil production; additional investment in trunk pipelines to reduce national dependence on export terminals in the trouble-plagued Persian Gulf. Production last year averaged 4.689 million b/d. Output during the first half of this year fell to under 4 million b/d under new quotas established by the Organisation of Petroleeum Exporting Countries (OPEC). For the rest of 1987, production is not expected to exceed 4.2 million b/d.

Vielvoye, R.

1987-08-24

194

Firearm fatalities in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This paper provides a database representing injury mortality in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, with the aim of establishing a system which will record information about the incidence of such deaths, identify new trends and give priority to violence prevention. The retrospective study was carried out on 64 fatalities from gunfire injuries at the Forensic Medicine Centre in Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 - December 2006. The deaths included 55 cases of homicide, seven cases of suicide and two accidental shootings. Twenty-six victims were aged between 16-30 years and 24 victims were between 31-45 years. Fifty-nine of the cases were male. A handgun was the weapon used in 49 cases. The most common sites for the firearm entrance wounds were the head (45 cases) and the chest (35 cases). In the majority of cases (56.3%) a single shot was fired while in 15.6% of cases there were two shots. In 51.5% of cases no bullet was recovered from the body while a single bullet was recovered in 31.5% and two bullets in 6.2% of the cases. Distant range fire was observed in 65.6% of cases. Exit wounds were found on the head in 36.7% and on the chest in 28.7% of cases. The majority of victims were young males living in urban areas. This result should help in forming a strategy to improve the livelihoods of this group. The low incidence of alcohol abuse (one case, 1.56%) and only three cases (4.68%) of amphetamine abuse is significant. PMID:18754211

Al Madni, Osama; Kharosha, Magdy Abdel Azim; Shotar, Ali M

2008-07-01

195

Trachoma in eastern province of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Trachoma is one of the main cause of curable/preventable blindness in Saudi Arabia. First survey by NICHOL and al. 1955-65 in Eastern Province revealed prevalence rate of trachoma as 100% in Al Hasa, 98.0% in Qatif Oasis and 93.0% in Qatif town dwellers. Preliminary study by Ministry of Health, Eastern Province in 1986 revealed 3.74% of the population blind showing 10.1% due to trachoma. In 1986, Ministry of Health established Regional Prevention of Blindness & Ophthalmic Medical Education Committee, Eastern Province with six sub-divisions in Al Hasa, Qatif, Dammam, Al Khobar/Dhahran, Jubail and Hafr Al Batin. The whole health care divided in primary, secondary and tertiary level in 1987 and incorporated primary eye health care with primary health care. The Trachoma Center as a part of P.H.C. in Al Hasa was started in 1987 and a mass trachoma eradication programme by Trachoma Center was launched in 1988 along with improvement in socio-economic status/health facilities within last 10 years including development of structured P.H.C. system, leading to public awareness, prevention, treatment of bulk of active trachomas in this region particularly Al Hasa. This reduced the rate of prevalence of active trachoma to 1.5% in Al Hasa. Maximum active/inactive trachomas among the age above 55 years is 98.0% in Qatif region. Ministry of Health is in process of developing the Trachoma Center in Qatif region as well as comprehensive eye care by completing preliminary tertiary level care Eye Hospital in Dhahran to reduce the incidence of active trachoma below 0.5% within the next five years; thus achieve the goal of Prevention of Blindness in Saudi Arabia. PMID:1344965

Chandra, G

1992-01-01

196

Human resource development in Gulf countries: an analysis of the trends and challenges facing Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to highlight the challenges of human capital development in the Gulf Arab countries in general and in Saudi Arabia in particular. A literature review and an analysis of the Saudi government's formal documents show that Saudi Arabia is facing several challenges in its economy system and human resource development (HRD) programmes. The main challenges

Mustapha M. Achoui

2009-01-01

197

An Integrated Approach to Combat Unemployment in the Saudi Labor Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is accelerating its development in both public and private sectors. Unfortunately, those development processes fall short of solving the distressing problem of high Saudi unemployment. This paper introduces and critically reviews Saudi unemployment and identifies the deep-rooted causes behind it. It deals with special issues regarding unemployment that are not common in other countries. Apparently,

Adel S. Al-Dosary; Syed Masiur Rahman; Mir Shahid

2005-01-01

198

Sustaining trade with Saudi Arabia: an analysis of exporting as an alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, world trade has almost doubled from $7 trillion to more than $13 trillion, and Saudi Arabia is by far the largest trading country in the Middle Eastern region, with total trade volume in excess of $102 billion. This paper reviews the economic structure of Saudi Arabia. While Saudi Arabia has been one of the fastest growing

M. Sadiq Sohail; Mohammed A. Burney

2005-01-01

199

Promoting Cultural Understanding: The Case of the Saudi Arabian Social Studies Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated the role of the Saudi Arabian social studies curriculum in helping Saudi students to understand other cultures. Analysis of the content of social studies textbooks revealed that they cover a wide range of cultural information related to countries from around the world. Saudi students start their cultural education in grade 5…

Alaklobi, Fahad

200

Saudi Arabia: Post-War Issues and U.S. Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saudi dynasty, enjoys special importance in the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. Since the establishment of the modern Saudi kingdom in 1932, it h...

A. B. Prados

2001-01-01

201

An Empirical Examination of Market Orientation in Saudi Arabian Manufacturing Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the applicability of Kohli and Jaworski (1990) and Jaworski and Kohli’s (1993) market orientation model in Saudi Arabia, a developing country market. To this end, a sample of 115 Saudi Arabian manufacturing companies have been investigated. The properties of the scales pertaining to the constructs in the market orientation model have been reexamined in Saudi Arabia. Further,

Shahid N. Bhuian

1998-01-01

202

EFL Teachers' Perceptions, Evaluations and Expectations about English Language Courses as EFL in Saudi Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers' perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer…

Liton, Hussain Ahmed

2013-01-01

203

Modifying and Integrating Critical Thinking into the Traditional Pedagogy of Saudi Girls' Elementary School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is motivated by the current national problem of poor and inadequate teacher preparation and teaching quality in Saudi elementary schools. This thesis focuses on Saudi girls' elementary schools. To date, not a single scholarly effort has been made in Saudi Arabia to study if teachers facilitate children's thinking skills and to determine why thinking strategies and effective study

Mashail H. AlShabeeb

1997-01-01

204

The development process and its relation to oil revenues and dependence on imported labor market in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes and analyzes the process of development in Saudi Arabia in relation to oil revenues and Saudi Arabian dependence on imported foreign labor. Modern development and societal change in Saudi Arabia began with the commercial exploitation of oil in 1939, therefore Saudi economy must be viewed from a dual perspective: a highly capital-intensive oil sector and a labor-intensive

Almtairi

1991-01-01

205

Attitude of Saudi families affected with hemoglobinopathies towards prenatal screening and abortion and the influence of religious ruling (Fatwa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemoglobinopathies are common inherited disorders in Saudi Arabia. Prenatal diagnosis for such diseases is specific and sensitive but not yet implemented in Saudi Arabia. Saudis are Muslims with a very high rate of consanguinity and inherited genetic disorders. To examine the attitude of Saudi families affected with hemoglobinopathies towards prenatal diagnosis and abortion, and to evaluate the effect of education

Fowzan S. Alkuraya; Ramzi A. Kilani

2001-01-01

206

City Lore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York, the City Lore organization is a nonprofit organization devoted to promoting the cultural heritage of the city through a variety of programs and events. Two online exhibits dealing with the Puerto Rican Day parade and the making of lace highlight some of their more recent work. A resources link on the site leads to several helpful articles that highlight the study of urban culture and folklore, along with a list of related links. One of the best parts of the site is an area dealing with New York Favorites, which is essentially a list of places and sights that local New Yorkers have submitted to the site. Finally, the site contains City Lore's online People's Hall of Fame, which recognizes the life-long contributions of persons who have dedicated themselves to the maintenance and practice of a number of folkways and traditions.

207

City 2020+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to several public transport units running all across the city. This is accompanied by an analysis of probability density functions (PDF) for heat waves based on recent climate data and climate projections. A dense net of 40 PM measurement sites is operated in order to obtain the spatial pattern of PM concentration as depending on meteorological condition and location. It is lined out how this climate related sub-projects interact with investigations on social networks, governance issues, buildings structure development and health outcome. Related to the later the chemical composition of PM is analyzed in more detail and related to the spatial patterns of health deficiencies. At a later stage City2020+ will propose new strategies based on cooperation from the fields of medicine, geography, sociology, history, civil engineering, and architecture for adapting the city for future needs. The Project CITY 2020+ is part of the interdisciplinary Project House HumTec (Human Sciences and Technology) at RWTH Aachen University funded by the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments through the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG).

Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

2010-09-01

208

Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.  

PubMed

In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended. PMID:20214168

Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

2010-01-01

209

Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 kin2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic. The initial phase of rifting of the Arabian Plate from the African Plate began as a wide zone of continental-crust extension manifested by basin and range topography. Freshwater lakes, northwest-trending marine gulfs, and alkali olivine basalt flows occupied these basins. Extensive dike swarms intruded parallel to the proto-Red Sea and marked the first phase of new mafic crust formed by volcanic processes. After a hiatus in volcanic activity, counterclockwise rotation of the Arabian Plate during middle Miocene time changed the stress pattern in the plate and a second phase of extrusion of alkali olivine basalt commenced along north-trending fractures. This stress pattern continues to influence Holocene volcanism. The earliest (pre-uplift) basalts to erupt on the Arabian Plate were predominantly under saturated picrite and ankaramite, whereas those to erupt near the axis of the proto-Red Sea rift zone were tholeiite. The within-plate volcanic rocks evolved from picrite-ankaramite to alkali olivine basalt with minor volumes of fractionated, under-saturated felsic rocks. Continued crustal thinning and dike intrusion along the proto-Red Sea were accompanied by melting of the continental crust to produce silicic magma as part of a bimodal volcanic suite (tholeiite-rhyolite). These magmas were emplaced as dikes, sills, layered bodies, and flows that mark the early construction of the Red Sea crust. Second-phase lavas are predominantly fractionated hawaiites and alkali olivine basalts. Because under saturated and oversaturated silicic magmas represent the second phase of activity, both fractional crystallization of the basaltic magma and melting of the crust are believed to have occurred. The historical record of volcanic activity in Saudi Arabia suggests that volcanism is dormant. The harrats should be evaluated for their potential as volcanic hazards and as sources of geothermal energy. The volcanic rocks are natural traps for groundwater ; thus water resources for agriculture may be significant and should be investigated.

Coleman, R. G.; Gregory, R. T.; Brown, G. F.

1983-01-01

210

Ghost City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghost City is a collection of poetry about Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It travels through the history, landscape, and family of the writer’s hometown. The poems take up themes of love, loss, food, hope, and family. The author seeks to emulate many characteristics of other poems such as the rich images and details of Elizabeth Bishop and the storytelling genius of Philip

Amanda J. Reynolds

2009-01-01

211

The Cities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past two decades, direct payments from the Federal Government to local governments has increased more than sixfold as a percentage of the revenues local governments raise on their own. Both the Ford budget and the Carter budget revisions for 1977 and 1978 contain policy changes with important implications for cities. In this document…

Nathan, Richard P.; Dommel, Paul R.

212

Impact of Obesity on Fetomaternal Outcome in Pregnant Saudi Females  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is rapidly increasing in most populations of the world including Saudi community. Maternal obesity adversely impacts pregnancy outcome through increased rates of hypertensive disease, diabetes, cesarean section and infections. Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine frequency of obesity and its adverse effects on reproductive outcome in pregnant Saudi females. Methods: Prospective Cohort study. Eight months (Nov 2008 to June 2009), Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH) Buraida, Saudi Arabia Sample included a group of 1000 randomly recruited pregnant Saudi females. Patients were admitted through Outpatient and Emergency Departments. Height was recorded once and weight twice; at the beginning (prepregnancy weight) and end of pregnancy. The difference between the two weights was taken as net weight gain in pregnancy. Prepregnancy weight was used to calculate Body mass index (BMI) using formula; Weight in Kg/Height in (m). 2 The sample was divided into 5 groups depending upon their BMI ;< 18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25–29.9, 30–39.9 &>40, classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese & morbidly obese respectively. The normal weight group was used as control group. Data were collected regarding complications of obesity in pregnancy and labor and recorded on a Performa. Results were calculated by using computer programme SPSS Version 13 for windows. A p-value of< 0.05 is used to calculate statistical significance. Results: The frequency of weight distribution in pregnant Saudi female calculated to be 2% (lean), 31% (normal weight), 33%(overweight), 30%(obese) and 4%(morbidly obese). Compared with normal weight women, both overweight and obese women had a significantly increased risk (p-value-<0.05) for gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, and delivery of a macrocosmic infant. Conclusion: Overweight & obesity is a growing problem in pregnant Saudi females associated with increased risks of fetomaternal complications like preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, and delivery of a macrocosmic infant.

Meher-un-nisa; Aslam, Muhammad; Ahmed, Salah Rosdy; Rajab, Maamon; Kattea, Lina

2009-01-01

213

A study of road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

In Saudi Arabia, with its rapid expansion of road construction and increase in the number of vehicles, road traffic accidents are becoming a serious public health problem. The object of this paper is to discuss the magnitude of this problem and to compare the situation with that of other rich, developing countries which have also had rapid expansion of road construction and increase in the number of vehicles. It appears that Saudi Arabia has lower accident rates but higher casualty and fatality rates than Kuwait. PMID:3358837

Ofosu, J B; Abouammoh, A M; Bener, A

1988-04-01

214

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency in two unrelated Saudi patients  

PubMed Central

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in combined immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction and autoimmunity. PNP deficiency has never been reported from Saudi Arabia or in patients with an Arabic ethnic background. We report on two Saudi girls with PNP deficiency. Both showed severe lymphopenia and neurological involvement. Sequencing of the PNP gene of one girl revealed a novel missense mutation Pro146>Leu in exon 4 due to a change in the codon from CCT>CTT. Expression of PNP (146L) cDNA in E coli indicated that the mutation greatly reduced, but did not completely eliminate PNP activity.

Alangari, Abdullah; Al-Harbi, Abdullah; Al-Ghonaium, Abdulaziz; Santisteban, Ines; Hershfield, Michael

2009-01-01

215

Quality of informed consent for invasive procedures in central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Informed consent is considered the most important step in clinical interventions. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the quality of informed consent for invasive procedures with regard to consent process and information given about risks and alternative treatments, and (2) to determine patients’ attitude toward informed consent at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 162 adult patients in different wards after undergoing surgery or invasive procedures within 1–2 days of signing the informed consent, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Data on patients’ characteristics, type of invasive procedure, and some informed consent-related issues were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of the percentage mean score of quality of informed consent, and significance was considered at P ? 0.05. Results The quality of informed consent was generally poor (% mean score = 50.98 ± 17.49). About two-thirds of patients were told during the informed consent process that they have to sign merely as routine, 48% thought that if they refused the treatment plan they would lose the interest of the treating physician to help them, 42% thought that by saying no they would lose the good relationship with their physician, and 42.6% were not interested in having a copy of the informed consent document. Significantly higher quality was predicted when the physicians were the ones who explained the informed consent (t = 4.15, P < 0.001) and when informed consent was explained to younger patients (t = 2.754, P = 0.007). The overall attitude of the patients toward the process of informed consent was satisfactory (% mean score = 76.31 ± 7.63). Conclusion The results suggest either that patients are not aware of their rights or that physician paternalism is practiced in Saudi Arabia. Cultural barriers should not be an argument to diminish the role of informed consent. Further studies should focus on how the value of autonomy can be appreciated in the Saudi culture.

Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Adlan, Abdallah A

2012-01-01

216

Risk factors and co-morbidity of skin disorders among female schoolchildren in Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of skin disorders among female schoolchildren in primary and intermediate schools in Al-khobar city, Eastern Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Al-Khobar city during the period of January to March 2003. It involved 2239 female schoolchildren randomly selected from 30 regular public and private primary and preparatory schools. A multi-stage stratified random sampling technique with proportional allocation was used. Data was collected using a pre-designed structured questionnaire and clinical examination. Dandruff was negatively associated with private schools and positively associated with age, body mass index and overcrowding. The association of atopic dermatitis with family history of atopy and bronchial asthma was documented in this study. Those who were at high risk of getting acne were schoolchildren who had more baths per week and lived in villas with a high number of rooms (in other words the high socioeconomic class). Pediculosis had a negative association with a high level of father education and high socioeconomic status and a positive association with living in a flat and the number of siblings. It was concluded that sex, socioeconomic status, family history, parents' education, home type, and overcrowding were found to be risk factors for some skin disorders. Accordingly, it is recommended that a preventive health education program for schoolchildren with different levels of skin diseases be started considering the predictive variables that increase the prevalence of these diseases. PMID:17598643

Al-Saeed, Wafa Y; Al-Dawood, Kasim M; Bukhari, Igbal A; Bahnassy, Ahmed A

2007-06-01

217

Lifestyle correlates of self-reported sleep duration among Saudi adolescents: a multicentre school-based cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are important determinants of adequate sleep among adolescents. However, findings on sleep duration relative to lifestyle factors are conflicting. Therefore, this study examined the association of self-reported sleep duration with physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents. METHODS: A multicentre school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in three major cities in Saudi Arabia. The sample included 2868 secondary-school students (51.9% girls) aged 15-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. In addition to anthropometric measurements, sleep duration, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits were assessed using self-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: Several lifestyle factors were associated with sleep duration in adolescents. While controlling for some potential confounders, the findings showed that high screen time [>5?h/day; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.505, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.180-1.920, P = 0.001] and low (aOR = 1.290, 95% CI = 1.064-1.566, P = 0.010) to medium (aOR = 1.316, 95% CI = 1.075-1.611, P = 0.008) physical activity levels were significantly related to daily sleep of 8?h or longer. Furthermore, having low intake of breakfast (<3 day/week compared with 5 days or more per week) decreased the odd of having adequate sleep duration by a factor of 0.795 (95% CI = 0.667-0.947, P < 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Short sleep duration (<8?h/day) among Saudi adolescents 15-19 year olds was significantly associated with several lifestyle factors. Intervention programs aiming for improving sleeping habits among adolescents need to consider such potential association of lifestyle variables with sleep duration. PMID:23521148

Al-Hazzaa, H M; Musaiger, A O; Abahussain, N A; Al-Sobayel, H I; Qahwaji, D M

2013-03-22

218

The human city beneath the social city  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Atlanta Symposium (Hillier, 2001, 2003a) a theory of the social construction of the city was presented. In this paper it is proposed that underlying the various kinds of social city there is a deeper, more generic human city, which arises from the pervasive intervention of the human cognitive subject in the shaping and working of the city. This

Bill Hillier

219

Infection control in Saudi Arabia: Meeting the challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospital-acquired infection poses significant clinical and economic burden worldwide. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, infection control is a young, rapidly growing specialty. An infrastructure to expedite the growth of this important discipline is fast being established. The kingdom faces unique challenges when addressing infection control, which are the subject of this review. Much of the policy-making in domestic infection

Ziad A. Memish

2002-01-01

220

Islamic Law And Crime: The Case Of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penal policy in Saudi Arabia (governed by Islamic Law) is based largely on deterrence and retribution in concept and is characterized by certainty and speed in practice while in the United States the penal philosophy (governed by positive law) is based mainly on offender rehabilitation and the administration of justice is rather slow and uncertain. Recent crime rates differ

BADR-EL-DIN ALI

1985-01-01

221

Saudi Mothers’ Expected Intentions and Attitudes Toward Breast-Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the findings of a study that explored pregnant mothers’ attitudes toward infant feeding using an adaptation of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS). A longitudinal study was conducted to examine the attitudes of Saudi pregnant women toward breast-feeding, conducted in 2 stages: during pregnancy and after delivery. When asked during pregnancy, 90% (N = 160) of

Maha Al-Madani; Vasso Vydelingum; Judy Lawrence

2010-01-01

222

Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)|

Al-Hariri, Rafeda

1987-01-01

223

Sickle cell hemoglobin C disease in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Sickle cell hemoglobin C (HbSC) is a disease confined to people of West African ancestry and it has not been reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We are reporting 2 patients with HbSC disease from the western province of KSA (Madinah); one patient presented with severe form of the disease which include transient hypertension. PMID:12682691

Al-Hawsawi, Zakaria M; Islam, Mohammed S; Shehata, Nabil S

2003-02-01

224

Technology transfer to Saudi Arabia petrochemical industry experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia sought transferring petrochemical technology. The transfer aims to reduce the country's dependence on oil and to utilize national resources more efficiently. To investigate the factors affecting the transfer, conditions related to the technology in question and the receiving entity are analyzed. Multinational corporations play a major role in the transfer process. The research shows that joint venture transfers

A. A. K

1987-01-01

225

Prioritization of corporate goals in Saudi Arabia: An exploratory investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tries to fill partially the informational gap in the area of organizational goals. Data provided by four Saudi Arabian industries-namely: petrochemicals, packaging, electric & electronics, and food processing, indicate that goal-setting processes may be influenced by several factors. Profitability, growth, and social responsibility were ranked among the top four goals in all four industries. The nature of the

Mohammad I. At-Twaijri; Salem M. Al-Ghamdi; Mushtaq Luqmani

1996-01-01

226

Saudi Arabia and the Use of Soft Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present day events in the Middle East and North Africa have confronted Saudi Arabia with some of its greatest challenges as a nation. The political landscape has been transformed by popular movements for democratization (Arab Spring). The serious economic and political turbulence that confronts the region does not promise to ameliorate anytime soon. And in the greater sphere of global

Giulio M Gallarotti; Essam Elfalily; Osama Tayyeb

2012-01-01

227

The Arab Spring and the Saudi-Led Counterrevolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author contends that the Arab Spring has provided an opening for the Gulf Cooperation Council as a group and for Saudi Arabia as a long-time aspiring leader of the Arab world to try to expand their regional influence and global profile. An already weakened Arab state system, he argues, has been once again weakened by the sweeping wave of

Mehran Kamrava

228

On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

2012-01-01

229

Cross-Cultural Communication: Saudi, Ukrainian, and Russian Students Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a cross-cultural online writing project in which three English-as-a foreign language (EFL) college instructors in Ukraine, Russia and Saudi Arabia and their undergraduate students participated. The aim of the project was to develop students' writing skills in EFL, to develop their awareness of local and global cultural issues…

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

2004-01-01

230

Pre-Vocational Preparation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with few exceptions, occupational specialization programs for male students first become available at the secondary level (grades 10-12). Education is not compulsory, and substantial numbers drop out at all levels. Adolescents who leave school at the primary (elementary) or intermediate (grades 7-9) level must wait…

Campbell, Clifton P.

231

The Joint Saudi Arabian-United States Solar Energy Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October, 1977, Saudi Arabia and the United States signed a project agreement for cooperation in the field of solar energy (SOLERAS). The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has been designated as the Operating Agent for the SOLERAS Program. This paper discusses the objectives and scope of the program and the benefits anticipated by both countries. Program organization is outlined

M. Z. Lowenstein; I. C. Smith

1979-01-01

232

Pre-Vocational Preparation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with few exceptions, occupational specialization programs for male students first become available at the secondary level (grades 10-12). Education is not compulsory, and substantial numbers drop out at all levels. Adolescents who leave school at the primary (elementary) or intermediate (grades 7-9) level must wait…

Campbell, Clifton P.

233

The Use of the Mother Tongue in Saudi EFL Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The issue of including or excluding the learner's mother tongue in the EFL classroom has been the subject of ongoing discussion and controversy for a long time. This paper attempts to investigate the use of native Arabic in English classes at two Saudi technical colleges. The main objectives were to examine the purpose of L1 use and the attitudes…

Alshammari, Marzook M.

2011-01-01

234

Education and the Satellite: Possibilities for Saudi Arabia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of developments in satellite communications and educational applications focuses on the possibilities of adapting satellite technology for instruction in developing countries. Topics include satellite use in Australia and the United States; and recommendations for the adoption of satellite technology in Saudi Arabia. (Author/LRW)

Al-Sharhan, Jamal

2000-01-01

235

Caries risk assessment in preschool children in saudi arabia.  

PubMed

Purpose: Caries is a prevalent condition in Saudi Arabia. At present, knowledge regarding caries risk factors in Saudi Arabia is limited. The present study aimed to identify characteristic features of Saudi preschoolers at high risk for caries, using the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry caries risk assessment tool (CAT ) and to report the most significant caries risk predictors. Materials and Methods: A sample of 407 children aged 4 and 5 years was selected randomly from private and public nursery schools. Their parents answered a questionnaire prepared using the CAT . Each child was examined for the presence of caries and his/her oral hygiene status. Results: According to the CAT , almost all children (89%) were considered to be at high risk. Caries was significantly more prevalent among children attending public than private schools. All CAT variables were significantly related to the presence of caries except general health condition and water fluoridation. Logistic regression analysis showed previous caries experience, enamel demineralisation, and socio-economic status to be the most significant caries risk factors. Conclusion: Most of the Saudi children are considered to be at high risk for caries. Previous caries experience, enamel demineralisation and socioeconomic status are the most significant caries risk predictors. These groups should be targeted for inclusion in caries prevention programmes. PMID:23957045

Farsi, Najat; Merdad, Leena; Mirdad, Soleman

2013-01-01

236

Community acquired acute bacterial and atypical pneumonia in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rational treatment of pneumonia requires knowledge of the likely aetiological diagnosis in any community. Little is known about the pattern and outcome of pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A total of 567 pneumonic episodes in adult patients from the Al-Qassim area were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Patients had a mean age of 42.7 years, with 103 patients (18%) aged 13

N Y Kurashi; A al-Hamdan; E M Ibrahim; H Y al-Idrissi; T H al-Bayari

1992-01-01

237

Developing a Career Resource for College Students in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the development of Career Oasis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM ) has pioneered the use of computer-based career guidance in Saudi Arabia. KFUPM contracted with Verbal Media, LLC, an American consulting company, to create a resource that would be available in both Arabic and English, in both online and paper-and-pencil…

Shatkin, Laurence; Atiyeh, Naim

238

Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

2009-01-01

239

Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

2011-10-11

240

Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990–2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector

I. Dincer; M. M. Hussain; I. Al-Zaharnah

2004-01-01

241

Wind energy resources assessment for Yanbo, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents long term wind data analysis in terms of annual, seasonal and diurnal variations at Yanbo, which is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia. The wind speed and wind direction hourly data for a period of 14 years between 1970 and 1983 is used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the seasonal and diurnal pattern

Shafiqur Rehman

2004-01-01

242

Silurian and Lower Emsian spores in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silurian cryptospores and Silurian to Lower Devonian miospores are identified in cuttings from three wells situated in Saudi Arabia between longitudes 42 and 51°E and latitudes 23 and 29°N. All samples are contaminated by caved younger spores and pollen. The biostratigraphic scheme defined in western Europe is tentatively applied. The identical succession of first occurences of the key-species approximately dates

P. Steemans

1995-01-01

243

Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples

Mohammed Al-Jarallah

2001-01-01

244

Higher Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Solutions, and Opportunities Missed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Higher education faces common worldwide challenges imposed by social and economic factors. Yet, each system has its own challenges and demands that need to be looked at within its own context. Higher education in Saudi Arabia faces three challenges: limitation of places, depletion of resources, and quality measures. Some measures have been…

Alkhazim, Mohammad A.

2003-01-01

245

University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their…

Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

2012-01-01

246

Candida dubliniensis at a University Hospital in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida dubliniensis is a newly described yeast species that is a close phylogenetic relative of C. albicans. Although it has been reported from different parts of the world, no detailed investigation of this species has been done in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the present study was to identify C. dubliniensis isolates recovered from clinical specimens at a tertiary-care hospital

R. Fotedar; S. S. A. Al Hedaithy

2003-01-01

247

Barriers to integrating information technology in Saudi Arabia science education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined current level of information technology integration in science education in the Yanbu school district in Saudi Arabia, and barriers to use. Sub-domains investigated included: infrastructure and resources, policy and support, science teachers' personal beliefs, and staff development. Survey determined demographic data and level of technology implementation, personal computer use, and current instructional practice. Mean frequency of information

Abdulkareem Eid Salamah Al-Alwani

2005-01-01

248

C.N.S. Tumors in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Saudi Arabia, there were no attempts previously to describe a population based frequency or incidence, particularly so the age adjusted incidence of various CNS tumors. This paper presents the primary CNS tumors from a population based tumor registry over two years period, from January 1987 till December 1988. There was a total of 85 cases representing 5.4% of the

Abdel Wahab M. Ibrahim

1992-01-01

249

Crude Oil Price Fluctuations and Saudi Arabian Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study seeks to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. In contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output

Roberto A. De Santis

2000-01-01

250

Developing Reading and Literacy Skills in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study examines the Saudi national reading curriculum for Grades 1-6; defines the word identification, reading comprehension and teaching approaches; describes the reading lesson design, reading themes, the word identification and reading comprehension skills developed; and reports the strengths and weaknesses of the reading curriculum.…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2007-01-01

251

Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

2009-01-01

252

Job Satisfaction of Saudi Female Employees: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is intended to investigate the job satisfaction among women employees in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was designed for this study and distributed in the three main regions in the Kingdom in private companies as well as governmental agencies in three different sectors: health, education and banking. Overall, women workers were found satisfied with their jobs.

Mourad Mansour; Mustafa Achoui

253

Saudi guidelines for testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection Joint Statement of the Saudi Thoracic Society, the Saudi Society of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the Saudi Association of Public Health, and the Society of Family and Community Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a common disease in Saudi Arabia. As most cases of tuberculosis are due to reactivation of latent infection, identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) who are at increased risk of progression to active disease, is a key element of tuberculosis control programs. Whereas general screening of individuals for LTBI is not cost-effective, targeted testing of

Hamdan H. Al Jahdali; Salim Baharoon; Abdullah A. Abba; Ziad A. Memish; Abdulrahman A. Alrajhi; Ali AlBarrak; Qais A. Haddad; Mohammad Al Hajjaj; Madhukar Pai; Dick Menzies

2010-01-01

254

Female Islamic Studies Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study highlights on describing the experiences of Saudi Arabian female Islamic Studies teachers by exploring what is means to be an Islamic Studies teacher teaching in the current unprecedented vibrant and complex tapestry of social, religious and political debates occurring in the larger context of the country. The study draws on…

Jamjoom, Mounira I.

2010-01-01

255

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also

A. M. Ageel; N. S. Parmar; J. S. Mossa; M. A. Al-Yahya; M. S. Al-Said; M. Tariq

1986-01-01

256

An Interlibrary Loan Network Among Academic Libraries of Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A literature review reveals that there is little interlibrary loan (ILL) cooperation among the academic libraries of Saudi Arabia, and this article proposes a model ILL Network to counter budgetary constraints and increasing amounts of information by sharing resources. Describes the model's organizational structure, governance, and operational…

Siddiqui, Moid Ahmad

1996-01-01

257

Analysis of regional travel time data from the November 1999 dead sea explosions observed in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Two large chemical explosions were detonated in the Dead Sea in order to calibrate seismic travel times and improve location accuracy for the International Monitoring System (IMS) to monitor a Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These explosions provided calibration data for regional seismic networks in the Middle East. In this paper we report analysis of seismic data from these shots as recorded by two seismic networks run by King Saud University (KSU) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Saudi Arabia. The shots were well observed in the distance range 180-480 km mostly to the south of the Dead Sea in the Gulf of Aqaba region of northwestern Saudi Arabia. An average one-dimensional velocity model for the paths was inferred from the travel times of the regional phases Pn, Pg and Sg. Short-period Sn phases were not observed. The velocity model features a thin crust (crustal thickness 26-30 km) and low velocities (average P-wave velocity 5.8-6.0 km/s), consistent with the extensional tectonics of the region and previous studies.

Rodgers, A; Abdullah, M S; Ar-Rajehi, A; Al-Khalifah, T; Al-Amri, M S; Al-Haddad, M S; Al-Arifi, N

2000-04-19

258

Exploring the Mismatch between Skills and Jobs for Women in Saudi Arabia in Technical and Vocational Areas: The Views of Saudi Arabian Private Sector Business Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gives an overview of women in both general and technical-vocational education and employment in Saudi Arabia. Reports on a survey of 220 private business managers: 83% indicated that Saudi women had limited participation in technical jobs; 63% suggested that vocational-technical education did not promote women's participation. (Contains 51…

Calvert, John R.; Al-Shetaiwi, A. S.

2002-01-01

259

Saudi Arabia as an actor in world affairs: a study in the political role of oil and wealth in Saudi Arabian foreign relations behavior, 1965-1984  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this study is to analyze the way in which Saudi Arabian foreign-policy interacts with its oil policy. It examines the role and significant oil and financial power use as influence by Saudi Arabia - its only source of major international leverage - to achieve foreign policy objectives. It focuses on the political economy of Saudi Arabian foreign policy and the implications of this interaction in terms of world policy, and also the effectiveness of the Saudi Arabian use of political oil in international relationships. This study analyzes the relationship between political economy of oil and international politics through an examination of so-called oil power and examines the role of power that oil and wealth play in shaping international relationships between Saudi Arabia and other countries.

Mehros, S.s.

1985-01-01

260

Oil and diplomacy: the evolution of American foreign policy in Saudi Arabia, 1933-1945  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the transformation of American foreign policy in Saudi Arabia between the years 1933 and 1945. At the beginning of this period American-Saudi relations were negligible. However, by the end of World War II in 1945, American policy-makers had concluded that the Saudi Kingdom was a nation vital to America's long-term economic and strategic interests. This remarkable official

Casillas

1983-01-01

261

Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

Kearns, Peter

2012-01-01

262

Antenatal care in primary health care centres in Medina, Saudi Arabia, 2009: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

This study evaluated antenatal care (ANC) services for pregnant women attending primary health care centres in Medina city, Saudi Arabia in 2009. A cross-sectional survey collected data on ANC tasks performed at visits by 394 pregnant women attending 7 clinics. ANC was assessed in 3 domains: clinical assessment (at the initial visit and return visit), health promotion and care provision. The mean duration of initial visits was 10.3 (SD 2.3) minutes and of return visits was 9.1 (SD 1.1) minutes. Overall performance on ANC tasks was fair. The significant predictors of ANC performance of tasks were: size of population served per centre; presence of more than 1 physician carrying out ANC at the centre; physician's age, mother tongue, nationality and qualifications; and woman's education and employment status. Having more physicians available for ANC in primary care centres could improve the standard of care. PMID:21735959

Habib, F; Hanafi, M I; El-Sagheer, A

2011-03-01

263

78 FR 39712 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait Clarification and Amendment AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce....

2013-07-02

264

Clean Cities Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

Not Available

2004-01-01

265

Saudi Arabian connection: with Western security - and even survival  

SciTech Connect

Instability in the Persian Gulf, which supplies eight percent of US energy consumed (32 percent to Western Europe and 53 percent to Japan), is seen as the key to US economic, political, and military survival. Saudi Arabia's potential for large-scale and sustained production increases and its willingness to have a moderating voice in oil-price negotiations have made it crucial to US interests and receptive to policies which have injected Saudi Arabia into international finance. The opportunities for oil supply to be disrupted by domestic instabilities within individual Persian Gulf countries, within the Persian Gulf region as a whole, or from external interference from the Soviet Union are examined. The opportunity for an effective US military defense of the area is not encouraging for a number of strategic and diplomatic reasons. (DCK)

Adelman, K.L.

1980-02-01

266

Analysis of G6PD enzyme deficiency in Saudi population  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary conservation of a housekeeping gene such as G6PD is greater than that of tissue-specific genes, presumably because the latter may require more specific adaptation to the physiology of individual organisms. The abundance of distinct mutation sites and their clinical manifestations make G6PD ideal for structure-function analysis. Therefore, it is of interest to screen of G6PD deficiency in the blood donors in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report the mean and variation of enzyme activity in a huge set of Suadi to non-Saudi population with reference to the entire population. The sequence level conservation of G6PD among distant species is demonstrated using phylogenetic trees. These observations have implications in the sequence-structure-function understanding of G6PD with reference to its association to several human diseases.

Alharbi, Khalid K; Abed, Alaa Salem; Syed, Rabbani; khan, Imran Ali; Mustafa, Sabeena Muhammed

2012-01-01

267

SAUDI MEDICAL EDUCATION: CHALLENGES IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM  

PubMed Central

Medical education has been and continues to be a priority in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia since the establishment of the first medical school more than 30 years ago. As the kingdom moves into the new millennium through its 100th birthday, several issues pertaining to medical education are noted. These include selection and admission criteria to medical schools, suitability concerns, and the need for reform of the current undergraduate curriculum as well as allocation and utilization of available resources. The postgraduate medical training programs, particularly the university-based, need re-evaluation, and definition of their future role in graduate medical education. Medical educators must make sure that research in medical education should not only survive but also thrive. In this article, some suggestions for Saudi medical education in n the new millennium are put forth.

Al-Sulaiman, Abdulsalam A.

2000-01-01

268

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

A previous survey for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among the Saudi Arab population residing along the Persian Gulf perimeter revealed a high frequency of the enzyme defect among subjects from oasis areas. The investigation reported was undertaken to supplement the previous study using a screening test with the same reliability as the conventional Motulsky brilliant cresyl blue procedure, to measure enzyme activity with a colorimetric assay among a small group of Saudis, and to study the distribution of the sickling trait among the same population. The findings substantiated the earlier study, indicated a close correlation between the distribution of the sickling trait and the enzyme defect, revealed a striking association between the sickling trait and G6PD deficiency among oasis subjects, and revealed a broad range of enzyme activity among enzyme-deficient males.

Gelpi, A. P.

1967-01-01

269

Saudi Arabia joins world market in commodity petrochemicals: utilizes joint-venture approach to promote rapid industrial growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi industry is emphasizing a program of efficiency and cost reduction. Assured of a supply of feedstock, the growth of private sector secondary industries along with the planned development of human resources can be expected to highlight the continuing industrialization of Saudi Arabia. This article focuses on the development and expansion of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia.

Hodel

1985-01-01

270

Saudi Arabia joins world market in commodity petrochemicals: utilizes joint-venture approach to promote rapid industrial growth  

SciTech Connect

Saudi industry is emphasizing a program of efficiency and cost reduction. Assured of a supply of feedstock, the growth of private sector secondary industries along with the planned development of human resources can be expected to highlight the continuing industrialization of Saudi Arabia. This article focuses on the development and expansion of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia.

Hodel, A.E.

1985-03-01

271

Using Language Learning Strategies to Improve the Writing Skills of Saudi EFL Students: Will It Really Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the use of language learning strategies (LLSs) by Saudi EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students inside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study determines if gender and academic major have any effect on that use and reveals the potential benefits for Saudi students in the area of strategy instruction. Data was collected…

McMullen, Maram George

2009-01-01

272

Introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia - A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Policies for the introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia are examined. Differentiation is made between areas of low density (nomadic) and high density (urban) population. Five strategies are considered which encompass the evolution from overall dependence on fossil fuel to a total energy system solely based on solar energy. Use is made of the multiattribute utility theory in the decision analysis of the various strategies.

El-Sharkawy, A. I.; Husseiny, A. A.; Kenarangui, R.

273

Cosleeping and its correlates in Saudi school-aged children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are cross-cultural variations in sleep habits among children. No previous study has assessed the prevalence of cosleeping\\u000a in school-aged children in Middle Eastern countries.Purpose: To assess the prevalence of, and the factors associated with, cosleeping in Saudi school-aged children.Methods: Questionnaires were distributed according to a specified sampling procedure, and parents were asked to rate each item that\\u000a described

Ahmed BaHammam; Hatem Alameri; Ahmad Hersi

2008-01-01

274

An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)|

Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

2013-01-01

275

Asthma and respiratory symptoms in urban and rural Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to contrast the prevalence of allergic symp- toms in children living in urban and rural areas of Saudi Arabia and to investigate factors associated with any differences found. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted of a social class-stratified sample of 1,020 urban and 424 rural 12 yr old children, recording symptoms of cur- rent

N. Hijazi; B. Abalkhail; A. Seaton

1998-01-01

276

Comparison of simulated solar cooling systems in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar-powered space cooling of buildings in the Gulf region of Saudi Arabia is simulated by digital computer. The cooling is achieved by a lithium bromide-water absorption air conditioner powered by hot water supplied by flat-plate solar collectors. The Gulf region has a cooling season which combines high temperature and high relative humidity. This extreme climate provides a rigorous test of

R. L. Jenks; A. Kremheller; R. W. Jones

1978-01-01

277

Impotence of oil companies. [Situation in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lacking direction from U.S. economic policy, American oil companies may already have an irreversible stake in Saudi Arabia. U.S. policy decisions must determine who is to represent national interests if the oil companies are no longer susceptible to American foreign policy. The U.S. began using oil companies to influence Middle East supplies in 1947 in the formation of the Arabian

2009-01-01

278

Magnetically inferred basement structure in central Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compilation of magnetic data acquired during the past three decades for a region in central Saudi Arabia where Precambrian basement is partly exposed on the Arabian shield and partly concealed by overlying Phanerozoic strata, shows a central sector of conspicuous N-S-trending anomalies, a heterogeneous western sector of short-wavelength, high-intensity anomalies, and an eastern sector of low- to moderate-intensity broad-wavelength

Peter R. Johnson; Ian C. F. Stewart

1995-01-01

279

Molecular epidemiology of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis is a major cause of ocular morbidity and may lead to visual loss. Adenovirus types 8, 19, and 37 may cause epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. The main objective of this study was to determine the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia. Methods We conducted a non-interventional observational clinical study. Seventy three eyes from 65 patients who presented to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with clinical features of acute adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis were included. Each patient underwent complete clinical examination and features such as membranous reaction, conjunctival hemorrhage, subepithelial corneal infiltrates, and preauricular lymph node enlargement were recorded. Conjunctival swabs were obtained from patients with presumed acute viral conjunctivitis. Immunochromatography (IC) and restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) were performed on the conjunctival swabs obtained from each eye. Serotype identification was performed using direct sequencing technique. Results Forty-nine (67.1%) were adenovirus type 8, 8 (11.0%) were adenovirus type 3, 6 (8.2%) type 37, 5 (6.8%) were adenovirus type 4, and 2 (2.3%) type 19. The remaining 5 were types 14, 19, and 22. The prevalence of membranous conjunctivitis was highest (83%) among eyes with adenovirus type 37 while subepithelial corneal opacities were most commonly seen among eyes with adenovirus type 8 (47%). Immunochromatography tests were positive for adenovirus in 48 (65.7%) out of 73 eyes. Conclusions This study determined the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis at one center in Saudi Arabia. Direct sequencing techniques is an efficient, accurate, and rapid means of diagnosing adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. The most common causes of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia were adenovirus types 8, 3, and 37. Membranous conjunctivitis and subepithelial opacities had the highest frequency of adenovirus types 37 and 8, respectively. Lymph nodes enlargement was least likely in adenovirus type 4.

Omar, Nazri; Hammouda, Ehab; Akanuma, Masataka; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Ariga, Toshihide; Tagawa, Yoshitsugu; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Susumu; Aoki, Koki; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Ohno, Shigeaki

2010-01-01

280

Gender Representation in Television Advertisements in Britain and Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study conducted a content analysis of TV adverts from Channel One in Saudi Arabia and ITV1 in the United Kingdom in 2000–2001.\\u000a A total of 164 adverts were analyzed from each country. The analysis compared the representation of men and women. Results\\u000a showed that men and women were equally visually represented as lead characters in advertisements in both countries,

Atif Nassif; Barrie Gunter

2008-01-01

281

An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

2013-01-01

282

Thicker Than Oil: America's Uneasy Partnership with Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

For fifty-five years, the United States and Saudi Arabia were solid partners. Then came the 9\\/11 attacks, which sorely tested that relationship. In Thicker than Oil, Rachel Bronson reveals why the partnership became so intimate and how the countries' shared interests sowed the seeds of today's most pressing problem-Islamic radicalism. Drawing on a wide range of archival material, declassified documents,

Rachel Bronson

283

Technology transfer to Saudi Arabia petrochemical industry experience  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Arabia sought transferring petrochemical technology. The transfer aims to reduce the country's dependence on oil and to utilize national resources more efficiently. To investigate the factors affecting the transfer, conditions related to the technology in question and the receiving entity are analyzed. Multinational corporations play a major role in the transfer process. The research shows that joint venture transfers more technology than direct foreign investment. Various economic models of transferring technology are discussed. Using regression analysis, two models are tested. Four variables are involved: investment resources involved in the process, labor, material, and transfer arrangement. Material advantage is the most significant factor in the Saudi case followed by transfer arrangement. Labor shortage slows the transfer. Four major policies are concluded from the study. (1) Additional effort is needed to recruit national workers; the number of expatriate is still large. (2) Carefully planned and implemented R and D program is essential for the transfer to be successful. (3) Starting some final products is due currently. It maximizes value added and it has better marketing conditions. (4) The stage of establishing industrial projects independent of foreign partner is set. The Saudis should have acquired sufficient technical experience to do so.

Al-Ghamdi, A.A.K.

1987-01-01

284

An economic analysis of the Saudi Arabian gas utilization system  

SciTech Connect

The Saudi Arabian natural gas industry and its down stream activity, particularly petrochemicals, is characterized by its dependence on the country's crude oil production. This is because the main input into these industries is associated natural gas. Most of the Saudi gas-based petrochemical products are sold in international markets where their cost advantage over naphtha-based products is directly proportional to the crude oil price. The profits from Saudi natural gas and its dependent industries are influenced by two countervailing factors. The first is that of the level of crude oil production which determines the utilization level of the gas industry. The second is the international crude oil price on which the returns from petrochemicals, liquefied petroleum gases and natural gasoline are directly proportional. This creates a tradeoff situation and necessitates finding a crude oil production level subject to optimizing the country's gas-utilization system. A linear programming model is constructed to establish this level and to investigate possible ways to satisfy the country's future gas requirement. Results indicate that the associated gas produced in conjunction with 6.78 million barrels of crude oil per day is needed to operate the gas utilization system at capacity.

Fetyani, A.A.

1988-01-01

285

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9{+-}5 to 163{+-}32 Bqm{sup -3} and an average of 49{+-}2 Bqm{sup -3}. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm{sup -3} set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

Alyami, S. H. [Saudi School in KualaLumpur, Ministry of Education, 55000 KualaLumpur (Malaysia); Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M.S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2010-07-07

286

Epidemiology of sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by production of abnormal hemoglobin S and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Information about the prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia is patchy and probably underestimated, but studies have reported that SCD is a relatively common genetic disorder in this part of the world. The prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia varies significantly in different parts of the country, with the highest prevalence is in the Eastern province, followed by the southwestern provinces. The reported prevalence for sickle-cell trait ranges from 2% to 27%, and up to 2.6% will have SCD in some areas. Clinical and hematological variability exists in SCD in Saudi Arabia with two major phenotypes: a mild phenotype and a severe phenotype. Further studies on the prevalence, molecular and clinical epidemiology of SCD may help predict disease severity and risk stratification of patients to determine whether to receive early intensive care or continued symptomatic care.

Jastaniah, Wasil

2011-01-01

287

Residential Saudi load forecasting using analytical model and Artificial Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, load forecasting has become one of the main fields of study and research. Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) is an important part of electrical power system operation and planning. This work investigates the applicability of different approaches; Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and hybrid analytical models to forecast residential load in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). These two techniques are based on model human modes behavior formulation. These human modes represent social, religious, official occasions and environmental parameters impact. The analysis is carried out on residential areas for three regions in two countries exposed to distinct people activities and weather conditions. The collected data are for Al-Khubar and Yanbu industrial city in KSA, in addition to Seattle, USA to show the validity of the proposed models applied on residential load. For each region, two models are proposed. First model is next hour load forecasting while second model is next day load forecasting. Both models are analyzed using the two techniques. The obtained results for ANN next hour models yield very accurate results for all areas while relatively reasonable results are achieved when using hybrid analytical model. For next day load forecasting, the two approaches yield satisfactory results. Comparative studies were conducted to prove the effectiveness of the models proposed.

Al-Harbi, Ahmad Abdulaziz

288

Isolation and identification of microbes associated with mobile phones in Dammam in eastern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was conducted to determine microbial contamination of mobile phones in the city of Dammam, in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia, and identify the most important microbial species associated with these phones in order to take the necessary remedial measures. Materials and Methods: The analysis of a total of 202 samples was done to identify fungal and pathogenic bacteria isolates. Sterile swabs were firmly passed on the handset, the buttons and the screens of mobile phones, then inoculated into media of bacteria and fungi. Frequency distribution of isolates were calculated. Results: There were 737 isolated of the following bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria sicca, Micrococcus luteus, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterobacter aerogenes at the rate of 56.58, 13.57, 8.01, 7.73, 6.51, 3.66, 2.85 and 1.09% respectively. There were fungal isolates as follows: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus ochraceus at the rate of 29.07, 26.74, 20.93, 10.47, 6.98, 2.33, 2.33, 1.16%, respectively. Conclusions: The study showed that all mobile phones under consideration were infected by several microbes, most of which belonged to the natural flora of the human body as well as airborne fungi and soil. This means that it is necessary to sterilize hands after contact with a phone since it is a source of disease transmission.

Al-Abdalall, Amira H. A.

2010-01-01

289

Health services utilization patterns of two urban communities in Abha, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A 20% random sample of 146 families including 942 individuals was selected from two urban communities in Abha City in Saudi Arabia in order to assess the pattern of health services utilization. The information was obtained from the heads of families through interviews using a structured questionnaire. Health "wants" of the people to improve health services were also determined. Of all the health problems encountered in the sample, 84% received health services from the Primary Health Care Center (PHCC) and from the hospital out-patient department. Seventy percent of the deliveries were conducted at the hospital, and the average hospital stay for a delivery was 2.9 days. The overall annual hospitalization rate for the population under study was 89 per 1,000 population, with an average hospitalization period of 7.5 days per case. Deliveries constituted the leading cause for hospitalization. Only 52% of the deliveries received postnatal care, mostly in the hospital, whereas 88 per cent of the pregnancies received antenatal care, mainly in the PHCC. The outreach services of the PHCC were very deficient and lacked the basic elements of preventive services. The role of the hospital and PHCC should be adjusted to meet the health needs of the people, and the people's health "wants" which reflect their sociocultural background should be given attention in health planning. PMID:2745742

Abu-Zeid, H A

1989-01-01

290

Saudi views on consenting for research on medical records and leftover tissue samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Consenting for retrospective medical records-based research (MR) and leftover tissue-based research (TR) continues to be controversial. Our objective was to survey Saudis attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital on their personal preference and perceptions of norm and current practice in relation to consenting for MR and TR. METHODS: We surveyed 528 Saudis attending clinics at a tertiary

Mohammad M Al-Qadire; Muhammad M Hammami; Hunida M Abdulhameed; Eman A Al Gaai

2010-01-01

291

Barriers to organizational creativity : The marketing executives' perspective in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of some barriers in Saudi organizations from the perspectives of marketing executives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A range of contemporary literature is presented to help define the term “organizational creativity,” and describe “barriers to creativity” from the marketing executives' perspective within the organizational culture of Saudi Arabia. Findings – Self-confidence

Muhammad Asad Sadi; Ali H. Al-Dubaisi

2008-01-01

292

Workforce Localization Policies in Saudi Arabia: The Determinants of Successful Implementation in Multi-National Enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Job Localization policy in Saudi Arabia (commonly known as ‘Saudization’) has passed its fourteenth year aiming at replacing foreign employees in the private sector with local employees. This research attempts to identify the determinants of localization success within Multi-National Enterprises (MNEs) in Saudi Arabia. From institutional perspective, the research evaluates the impacts of Institutional determinants, HR practices, role of HR

Abdullah Alanezi

293

SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF LIGHT NAPHTHA AS POTENTIAL PETROCHEMICAL FEEDSTOCK IN SAUDI ARABIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia is a major crude oil producer and exporter. Additionally, with the completion of its master gas gathering and treatment system petrochemical industries became the Kingdom's second major industrial sector. Currently, the Saudi petrochemical industry depends mainly on (C1) methane and (C2) ethane components of associated gas (AG) and natural gas (NG) as feedstocks. A variety of basic petrochemicals

Dawoud S. Redwan; Mohammed M. Abu-Shbak; Khalid A. Bubshait

1999-01-01

294

Outages Investigation and Characterization of Saudi Electrical Cables using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi electric Company (SEC), and Petrochemical industries in Saudi Arabia and other plants provide the utilizing location and testing, and also some of the raw insulation materials for cable industries. Major petrochemical producers are striving to improve the quality of the plastic raw materials. On the other hand, cable industry has also made noticeable progress in the production of distribution

M. H. Shwehdi; M. A. Gondal

2008-01-01

295

Metal concentrations in the sediments from the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

In Saudi Arabia, trace metal enrichment of marine environment may result from a number of anthropogenic activities, especially from petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes. The objective of this study was to determine metal concentrations in the sediments from the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. This study may serve as baseline information for future evaluation of metal pollution in this region.

Sadiq, M.; Zaidi, T.H.

1985-04-01

296

Attitudes to Prenatal Testing and Termination of Pregnancy in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the attitudes of Saudi parents towards prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy for a range of different genetic disorders. Methods: Two hundred Saudi parents (100 fathers and 100 mothers) completed a structured questionnaire which sought their views about each of 30 different conditions. Results: The great majority of people would consider a termination of pregnancy for at

Ayman Alsulaiman; J. Hewison

2007-01-01

297

Sustainability and carbon management practices in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable and carbon management practices are becoming prominent considerations in international business, particularly in developing economies that are still forming their economic foundations. Saudi Arabia is one such an economy and is pivotal because of its key position in international petroleum production. This study analysed secondary and primary data pertaining to sustainability and carbon management practices in Saudi Arabia and

M. Anaam Hashmi; Mohammed Al-Habib

2012-01-01

298

Saudi Influence on Islamic Institutions in Turkey Beginning in the 1970s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the influence of Saudi Arabia on aspects of Islamic social, political, and economic life in Turkey. Since the 1970s, long before the rise of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) of today, Turkish-Saudi Arabian relations have been characterized by an increasing degree of cooperation, solidarity, and partnership centered on certain economic, diplomatic, social, and cultural activities with

Hakan Köni

2012-01-01

299

Fertility attitudes and behavior of Saudi Arabian students enrolled in U.S. universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fertility declines have taken place in several Arab countries, the Arab nations are growing rapidly. In Saudi Arabia, the total fertility rate (TFR) is 7.1, and the growth rate is 3.5 per cent per year, among the highest in the world. This research examines the structural determinants (indirect indicators) of fertility attitudes and behavior among Saudi Arabian students studying

Donald J. Adamchak

1994-01-01

300

Evaluating EFL Intermediate Teachers' Performance in the Light of Quality Standards in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present research aimed at four points: First, Identifying the most appropriate standards of EFL Saudi teachers' performance in the light of quality standards. Second, designing an objective and comprehensive evaluation rubric based on quality standards to evaluate EFL Saudi intermediate teachers' performance. Third, determining to what extent…

Al-Thumali, Amani Dakheel Allah

2011-01-01

301

Tirbyi in the Muslim World, with a Focus on Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational systems of Muslim societies, particularly that of Saudi Arabia, have been under scrutiny, especially after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. The Saudi educational system is mostly based on Islamic precepts. Nonetheless, the United States government and other…

Bangura, Abdul Karim

2004-01-01

302

Saudi Arabia in the 1980s: foreign policy, security, and oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This assessment of Saudi Arabia's foreign policy acknowledges the strengths and the weaknesses of the Saudi system that have been influential in the past and that are likely to remain influential in the future. It portrays a rich but weak country whose oil has involved it in an intricate web of international issues for which its previous experience has provided

Quandt

1982-01-01

303

Health status of Saudi women, the case of Yanbu al-Sinaiya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed data on the health status of Saudi women are lacking. This cross sectional study attempts to provide a comprehensive description of the health status of Saudi females between the ages of 15-45 residing in Yanbu Al-Siniyah. The purpose is to assess women's needs for health services. The health status indicators are chronic tracer conditions, reported symptoms and multidimensional functioning

Neda Abdelsalam Ali Jambi

1994-01-01

304

Environmental benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy in Saudi Arabia's electric sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of electric system expansion in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Environmental concerns are important to consider because they represent costs to society that are not typically reflected in the price that consumers pay for electricity. In past analyses of electric expansion options in Saudi Arabia, the tendency has been to

Othman Alnatheer

2006-01-01

305

Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality in Offsprings of Diabetic Mothers in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studied perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of diabetic mothers and their offspring in Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Suggests diabetes mellitus in pregnancy may be a common problem in Saudi Arabia, as poor maternal diabetic control results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results suggest that health education and improved coverage of…

Al-Dabbous, Ibrahim A. Al-; And Others

1995-01-01

306

Biostratigraphy and palaeogeographic affinities of Early Silurian chitinozoans from central Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palynological investigations carried out on subsurface material have demonstrated the occurrence of rich and well diversified Llandovery chitinozoan assemblages in the Qusaiba and Sharawra members of the Qalibah Formation in Saudi Arabia. Both core and cuttings samples from wells located in the central part of Saudi Arabia have been investigated. The biozonation and stratigraphic correlations proposed here are exclusively based

Florentin Paris; Jacques Verniers; Said Al-Hajri; Haytham Al-Tayyar

1995-01-01

307

Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi

Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

2009-01-01

308

Tirbyi in the Muslim World, with a Focus on Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The educational systems of Muslim societies, particularly that of Saudi Arabia, have been under scrutiny, especially after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. The Saudi educational system is mostly based on Islamic precepts. Nonetheless, the United States government and other…

Bangura, Abdul Karim

2004-01-01

309

Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Health Informatics Masters Program at KSAU-HS University, Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Saudi health sector has witnessed a significant progress in recent decades with some Saudi hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this progress has not been accompanied by the same advancement in the health informatics field whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals in order to achieve important objectives such…

Majid, Altuwaijri

2007-01-01

310

Bin-Jaliah Elected as Secretary General of Saudi Society for Medical Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. "Ismaeel M. Bin-Jaliah, a Regular Member of APS, has been elected as the Secretary General of Saudi Society for Medical Education (SSME) in November 2007. Dr Bin-Jaliah is an Assistant Professor of Neurophysiology and the Director of Medical Education Center at King Khalid University in Abha, Aseer, Saudi Arabia."

2008-02-01

311

Developing EFL Teaching and Learning Practices in Saudi Colleges: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Saudi Ministry of education is highly concerned with the pursuit of excellence in effective EFL teaching-learning in the arena of education but it experiences tardy progress especially in college level. This is a common scenario in almost every stage of learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Behind this backdrop, this paper explores the new…

Liton, Hussain Ahmed

2012-01-01

312

Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies: Arabic with English Translation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This appendix is a companion document to "Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies." The appendix includes selected excerpts in Arabic with English translations for currently-used textbooks in grades 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. These excerpts support the report…

Center for Religious Freedom, 2006

2006-01-01

313

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, an outbreak of suspected viral haemorrhagic fever involving 7 individuals occurred in Mecca in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), not previously known to be present in Saudi Arabia, was incriminated. A study of the epidemiology of this virus was therefore carried out in Mecca, and in nearby Jeddah and Taif in 1991–1993; 13

O. M. E. El-Azazy; E. M. Scrimgeour

1997-01-01

314

Mutation analysis in Saudi Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients using multiplex PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn:: In Saudi Arabia, only limited work has been reported on the mutation patterns of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). This study looks at the spectrum of deletions in the 'hot spot' regions of the DMD gene in Saudi DMD\\/BMD patients using an enhanced multiplex PCR technique. M Maatteerriiaall aanndd mmeetthhooddss:: Twenty-six exons of the DMD

Adeel G. Chaudhary; Mohammed H. Alqahtani; Adel Abuzenadah; Mamdooh Gari; Abeer A. Al-Sofyani; Jumana Y. Al-Aama; Sahira A. Lary; Aisha H. Elaimi

2008-01-01

315

Investigating bank structure of an open petroleum economy: the case of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates concentration, efficiency, and profitability of commercial banks operating in Saudi Arabia, which is considering acceding to the World Trade Organisation whose rules on financial services liberalisation could pose a competitive challenge to local banks. We use regression analysis to investigate the underlying determinants of Saudi bank concentration, efficiency, and profitability. The significance of the study stems from

Musa Essayyad; Haider Madani

2003-01-01

316

Soft Power as an Alternative to Hard Power in Counterterrorism in Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hard power has globally been the main strategy in countering terrorism for a long time. Saudi Arabia tried this strategy and found it ineffective. In its quest to find an effective alternative, the Saudi Arabian government decided to try soft power. One m...

A. Alshehri

2010-01-01

317

Saudi Elementary School Science Teachers' Beliefs: Teaching Science in the New Millennium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored Saudi elementary school science teachers' beliefs about the process of teaching and learning science. This involved the exploration of their views about the new Saudi science curriculum, which emphasizes critical thinking and problem solving. Comprehensive interviews were held in 8 schools with 4 male and 6 female--2 of whom…

Alghamdi, Amani K. Hamdan; Al-Salouli, Misfer Saud

2013-01-01

318

Serologic Responses to ACYW135 Polysaccharide Meningococcal Vaccine in Saudi Children under 5 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunization campaign with meningococcal ACYW135 polysaccharide vaccine was conducted in 2003 by the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health and included a study to evaluate the immune responses in children under 5 years of age in the Al Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Children who were >24 months old were given one dose of tetravalent polysaccharide vaccine, while younger children

Y. Al-Mazrou; M. Khalil; R. Borrow; P. Balmer; J. Bramwell; G. Lal; N. Andrews; M. Al-Jeffri

2005-01-01

319

Population-based epidemiological study on characteristics of risk factors of hypercholesterolemia in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To study the characteristics of risk factors for hypercholesterolemia among the Saudi population. Design: Population-based cross-sectional national epidemiological randomized household survey. Subject: 4548 Saudi subjects, aged 15 years and above. Sample was representative and in accordance with the national population distribution with respect to age, gender, regional and residency, urban vs. rural, population distribution. Measurement: Height and weight with

Abdul Rahman Al-Nuaim; Soleman Mirdad; Khalid Al-Rubeaan; Yagob Al-Mazrou; Omer Al-Attas; Nasser Al-Daghari; Tawfik Khoja

1997-01-01

320

Communicating corporate image into existence: the case of the Saudi banking industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to explore the factors that would make an impact on the corporate image of large commercial banks in Saudi Arabia through the perceptions of direct customers. It proposes an appropriate way of measuring corporate image in the Saudi banking industry through the development of a questionnaire. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire, presented in English and Arabic,

Roland K. Yeo; Mohamed A. Youssef

2010-01-01

321

Effect of overweight and obesity on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in Saudi Arabia, epidemiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to study the effect of overweight and obesity on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional national epidemiological randomized household survey of 2059 Saudi subjects, aged 30–64 years was carried out. The sample was representative and was in accordance with the national population distribution with respect to age, gender, regional and residency,

Abdul Rahman Al-Nuaim

1997-01-01

322

Molecular analysis of the SMN and NAIP genes in Saudi spinal muscular atrophy patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the deletion of the SMN and NAIP genes in 14 Saudi families (16 patients and 38 relatives of the patients, including parents and siblings) and six healthy Saudi volunteers. The homozygous deletions of exons 7 and 8 of the telomeric SMN gene and exon 5 of the NAIP gene were found in seven out of

Saad Al Rajeh; Ramanath Majumdar; Adnan Awada; Adetunji Adeyokunnu; Mohammed Al Jumah; Muneera Al Bunyan; Anna Snellen

1998-01-01

323

Morphological patterns of lip prints in Saudi Arabia at Almadinah Almonawarah province  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decades, lip-print studies (cheiloscopy) attracted the attention of many scientists as a new tool for human identification in both civil and criminal issues. The present work aimed to study in depth the lip prints of Saudi individuals (males and females) in Almadinah Almonawarah province. It is the first chieloscopic study done on Saudi individuals. A total of

Magda Ahmed El Domiaty; Sami Awda Al-gaidi; Ahmed Abdelmoneim Elayat; Maha Diaa Eldein Safwat; Sherief Ahmed Galal

2010-01-01

324

Knowledge and Practice of Pulp Therapy in Deciduous Teeth among General Dental Practitioners in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been observed that the general dentists and pedodontists differ in their treatment recommendations for pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Aim: To determine the knowledge and practice of pulp therapy in deciduous teeth by general dental practitioners (GDP) in two cities of southern Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: Fifty GDP selected at random from government and private dental clinics were questioned about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth in Abha and Najran cities using a 10-item questionnaire. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 11.0 and descriptive statistics were obtained. Results: All 50 participants responded to the survey. Pulpotomy was suggested as the first line of treatment for pulp-exposed primary tooth by 32 respondents with 44 using Buckley's formocresol and 32 applying it on the pulp for 5 minutes. 43 respondents squeeze dried the cotton pellet before application on the pulp. In pulpectomy procedure 44 respondents preferred zinc oxide eugenol as obturation material with 22 using handheld reamers and 15 using slow-speed lentilospirals for obturation. 12 respondents used obturation techniques which had no scientific relevance. In order of preference Glass ionomer cement (GIC), silver amalgam, and stainless steel crowns were the materials of choice for final restoration of endodontically treated deciduous teeth. All 50 answered in the affirmative when asked if they would like to have additional information about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Conclusion: The study concluded that general dentists were regularly performing pulp therapy in decidous teeth and therefore need to be frequently updated about these procedures.

Togoo, RA; Nasim, VS; Zakirulla, M; Yaseen, SM

2012-01-01

325

Utilization of hospital resources: a survey-based study of Saudi hospitals in Riyadh City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to show that there is inappropriate utilization of resources in hospitals in all three health care sectors (whether Ministry of Health, military or private). Such misuses can be tracked down by understanding the factors associated with such utilization. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The results were based on the assessment of some of the health staff and it

Badran Al-Omar; Saad Al-Ghanim

2010-01-01

326

Health impacts on workers in landfill in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

All workers (twenty nine workers) in the Jeddah landfill were interviewed. They were asked to answer a precoded questionnaire. Jeddah landfill lies in Breman region on the east of the highway. It was constructed on the year 1982. Its total area is about 1.5 square kilometers. The daily solid waste weight disposed off in the landfill is from three to four thousands tons. There is a network of pipes and wells to collect gases which are burnt. There is no network for the disposal of the leachate. The personnel are 29 they work in shifts. The majority (62.1%) are from Bangladesh. This can be explained by the fact that they are poor, ignorant and work in any job regardless the hazards that my result from such work. It was found that 17.9% had accidents. Errors in dealing with instruments and falls each constitutes 20% of accidents' causes. Other causes represent 60%. The major four health problems are respiratory infections and/or allergy, eye infections, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) infections, and musculoskeletal injuries representing 65.5%, 48.3%, 20.7%, and 17.2%, respectively. It is recommended for landfill workers to wear protective clothes and equipment, have work-related training courses, and be medically supervised. PMID:18410715

Abdou, Mamdouh H M

2007-01-01

327

The City as Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author gives a rationale for utilizing the city as a place to learn. The city has many problems and although logistics require that we conduct most education in the school building, the author argues for putting out best brains to the task of bringing the city to the classroom and to exploiting the city as a classroom when appropriate.…

Bailey, Stephen K.

328

Evolution of City Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the ancient times, cities have attracted visitors in large numbers for a variety of reasons. In modern times, once again, large cities are competing among themselves for attracting tourists. Although, large cities have always attracted visitors but until recently, with the exception in cities like London, Paris, New York, and few others, tourist industry has not been perceived as

Niko Koncul

2005-01-01

329

Epidemiology of antituberculosis drug resistance in Saudi Arabia: findings of the first national survey.  

PubMed

The real magnitude of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drug resistance in Saudi Arabia is still unknown because the available data are based on retrospective laboratory studies that were limited to hospitals or cities. A representative national survey was therefore conducted to investigate the levels and patterns of anti-TB drug resistance and explore risk factors. Between August 2009 and July 2010, all culture-positive TB patients diagnosed in any of the tuberculosis reference laboratories of the country were enrolled. Isolates obtained from each patient were tested for susceptibility to first-line anti-TB drugs by the automated Bactec MGIT 960 method. Of the 2,235 patients enrolled, 75 cases (3.4%) were lost due to culture contamination and 256 (11.5%) yielded nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Finally, 1,904 patients (85.2% of those enrolled) had available drug susceptibility testing results. Monoresistance to streptomycin (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 9.1), isoniazid (5.4%; 95% CI, 4.7 to 6.2), rifampin (1%; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.3) and ethambutol (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.2) were observed. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) was found in 1.8% (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.4) and 15.9% (95% CI, 15.4 to 16.5) of new and previously treated TB cases, respectively. A treatment history of active TB, being foreign-born, having pulmonary TB, and living in the Western part of the country were the strongest independent predictors of MDR-TB. Results from the first representative national anti-TB drug resistance survey in Saudi Arabia suggest that the proportion of MDR-TB is relatively low, though there is a higher primary drug resistance. A strengthened continuous surveillance system to monitor trends over time and second-line anti-TB drug resistance as well as implementation of innovative control measures, particularly among immigrants, is warranted. PMID:23459478

Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Varghese, Bright; Shoukri, Mohammed M; Al-Omari, Ruba; Al-Herbwai, Mais; Alrabiah, Fahad; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A; Abuljadayel, Naila; Al-Thawadi, Sahar; Zumla, Alimuddin; Zignol, Matteo; Raviglione, Mario C; Memish, Ziad

2013-03-04

330

Epidemiology of Antituberculosis Drug Resistance in Saudi Arabia: Findings of the First National Survey  

PubMed Central

The real magnitude of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drug resistance in Saudi Arabia is still unknown because the available data are based on retrospective laboratory studies that were limited to hospitals or cities. A representative national survey was therefore conducted to investigate the levels and patterns of anti-TB drug resistance and explore risk factors. Between August 2009 and July 2010, all culture-positive TB patients diagnosed in any of the tuberculosis reference laboratories of the country were enrolled. Isolates obtained from each patient were tested for susceptibility to first-line anti-TB drugs by the automated Bactec MGIT 960 method. Of the 2,235 patients enrolled, 75 cases (3.4%) were lost due to culture contamination and 256 (11.5%) yielded nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Finally, 1,904 patients (85.2% of those enrolled) had available drug susceptibility testing results. Monoresistance to streptomycin (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 9.1), isoniazid (5.4%; 95% CI, 4.7 to 6.2), rifampin (1%; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.3) and ethambutol (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.2) were observed. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) was found in 1.8% (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.4) and 15.9% (95% CI, 15.4 to 16.5) of new and previously treated TB cases, respectively. A treatment history of active TB, being foreign-born, having pulmonary TB, and living in the Western part of the country were the strongest independent predictors of MDR-TB. Results from the first representative national anti-TB drug resistance survey in Saudi Arabia suggest that the proportion of MDR-TB is relatively low, though there is a higher primary drug resistance. A strengthened continuous surveillance system to monitor trends over time and second-line anti-TB drug resistance as well as implementation of innovative control measures, particularly among immigrants, is warranted.

Varghese, Bright; Shoukri, Mohammed M.; Al-Omari, Ruba; Al-Herbwai, Mais; AlRabiah, Fahad; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.; Abuljadayel, Naila; Al-Thawadi, Sahar; Zumla, Alimuddin; Zignol, Matteo; Raviglione, Mario C.; Memish, Ziad

2013-01-01

331

Susceptibility of Saudi Bulinus truncatus to infection with Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium with observations on protein electrophoretic pattern of the snails.  

PubMed

A laboratory-based susceptibility study was carried out on snails Bulinus truncatus collected from highland Abha, Asser, Saudi Arabia to Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium to investigate the potential role of Saudi B. truncatus in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium and to know the possibility that the parasite might be able to spread into Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that, compared to Egyptian snails, survival of snails at day 25 post-exposure was significantly higher in Saudi B. truncatus ones. The infection rate was higher in Saudi snails as compared to Egyptian ones. The incubation period was shorter in Saudi snails but the duration of cercarial shedding was longer in the Egyptian than in the Saudi snails. The production of S. haematobium cercariae per snail was higher in Egyptian snails than in Saudi ones. These results suggest that Saudi B. truncatus can play a role in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium in Saudi Arabia and therefore this parasite might be able to spread into the Kingdom. In addition, electrophoretic analysis of tissue soluble proteins was done to determine the effects of the parasite on both the Egyptian and Saudi snails. The electrophoretic analysis revealed the occasional presence or absence of certain bands in infected snails in comparison with non-infected one. PMID:19329256

Mostafa, Osama M S; Bin Dajem, Saad M; Abu El Einin, Hanaa M

2009-03-09

332

Measurements of environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in three mountainous locations in the western region of Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes measurements of external gamma radiation dose rate from terrestrial gamma-rays 1 m above the ground in three different mountainous locations in the western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. These locations are At-Taif city, Al-Hada village, and Ash-Shafa village. CaSO{sub 4}:Dy (TLD-900) thermoluminescent dosimeters were used for the detection of terrestrial gamma radiation at 40 different places in the three locations. The values of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate measured ranged between 14 and 279 nGy h{sup -1} for the time interval from June 2001 to June 2002. The measured dose rate varied with the season of the year. The average gamma radiation dose rates were 468, 541, and 781 {mu}Gy y{sup -1} for At-Taif city, Al-Hada village, and Ash-Shafa village, respectively. The corresponding average absorbed doses to the population of the three locations were 328, 379, and 547 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}, respectively. The quality factor of 0.7 Sv Gy{sup -1} was applied in the calculations of the absorbed dose to humans.

Al-Ghorabie, Fayez H.H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, P.O. Box 10130, Makkah 21955 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: alghorabie_f@hotmail.com

2005-06-01

333

Genetic and genomic analysis of classic aniridia in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the genetic and genomic alterations underlying classic aniridia in Saudi Arabia, a region with social preference for consanguineous marriage. Methods Prospective study of consecutive patients referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist in Saudi Arabia (2005–2009). All patients had paired box gene 6 (PAX6) analysis (sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis if sequencing was normal). If PAX6 analysis was negative, the following were performed: candidate gene sequencing (forkhead box C1 [FOXC1], paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 [PITX2], cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B [CYP1B1], paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 3 [PITX3], and v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog [MAF]) and molecular karyotyping by array competitive genomic hybridization (250K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays). Results All 12 probands (4 months – 25 years of age; four boys and eight girls) had lens opacity and foveal hypoplasia in addition to no grossly visible iris. Four cases were familial. All cases were products of consanguineous unions except for three, one of which was endogamous. Heterozygous PAX6 mutations (including two novel mutations) were detectable in all but two cases, both of which were sporadic. In one of these two cases, the phenotype segregated with homozygosity for a previously-reported pathogenic missense FOXC1 variant (p.P297S) when homozygosity for chromosome 11q24.2 deletion (chr11:125,001,547–125,215,177 [rs114259885; rs112291840]) was also present. In the other, no genetic or genomic abnormalities were found. Conclusions The classic aniridia phenotype in Saudi Arabia is typically caused by heterozygous PAX6 mutations, even in the setting of enhanced homozygosity from recent shared parental ancestry. For PAX6-negative cases, interaction between missense variation in an anterior segment developmental gene and copy number variation elsewhere in the genome may be a potential mechanism for the phenotype.

Khan, Arif O.; Aldahmesh, Mohammed A.

2011-01-01

334

Aborting a Malformed Fetus: A Debatable Issue in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective.

Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; AlFaleh, Khalid M.

2012-01-01

335

Knowledge, attitude, and behavior among Saudis toward cancer preventive practice  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC) or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test. Results: The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE); 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ‘heard of cancer warning signal’ were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8%) felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6%) insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics. Conclusion: Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information.

Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Al-Hamdan, Nasser A.; Mohamed, Gamal

2011-01-01

336

Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1) Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2) Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3) Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL) was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA) by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females) from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%). There were 26 (2.2%) students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1%) and 9 males (1.5%). Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%). The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479), Madinah 1.8% (8/436), and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252). The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence.

Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Almadi, Majid A; Alhammad, Alwaleed; Al Faleh, Faleh Z

2013-01-01

337

Primary health care in Saudi Arabia: applying global aspects of health for all, locally.  

PubMed

Primary health care in Saudi Arabia: applying global aspects of health for all, locally This paper describes the application of primary health care principles in the Islamic Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It arose from a doctoral supervisory experience on a joint programme for women students, operating between a British and Saudi Arabian University. The research looked at nutritional advice given by diploma-level nurses to pregnant women attending primary health care centres in Saudi Arabia. The supervisor supported research that drew on internationally recognized trends in nursing research (the reflexive learner) whilst attending to local requirements and conventions of the culture. The student was encouraged explicitly to site the research within the framework of Islamic teaching and Saudi culture. The Qur'an was used as an overarching framework within which the tenets of primary health care were explored. This was seen to be crucial in addressing World Health Organisation and the International Council of Nurses' views on contextualizing nursing for the greatest benefit of the population. This was of particular relevance in Saudi Arabia where research carried out in the community by women is novel, and as yet there are no nurse theorists from within Saudi culture. PMID:11012811

Littlewood, J; Yousuf, S

2000-09-01

338

Sale of US military aircraft to Saudi Arabia. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War in the late 1980s resulted in a gigantic downsizing and consolidation of America`s defense industries, as domestic demand plummeted and the volume of international arms trading fell. However, in total world arms exports the United States exports more arms than any other nation. The country of Saudi Arabia has been the destination of a disproportionate amount of these weapons. The following account is an examination of the US military aerospace industry, the world military aerospace market, US government policy concerning arms exports, and the Saudi aerospace market. Each of these entities profoundly impacts US-Saudi military aerospace commerce. By individually analyzing the above factors, it will be demonstrated that the supply relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia is dependent on the convergence of several long standing and deep seated aspirations on the part of the three major players: the US Aerospace Industry, the US Government, and the Saudi Government. The US military aerospace industry`s exports are critical to ensure its independent survival, help fund crucial RD programs, and maintain a viable defense high tech industrial base in the U.S. In addition, it wishes to exert a military presence in the Gulf area and nurture relations with Saudi Arabia in particular, as the world`s leading oil producer. The Saudi government requires a military defense anchored in high tech aerospace systems, as well as a dependable and capable military ally such as the US.

Bents, E.R.

1995-05-01

339

A passive solar test facility for Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

A passive solar test facility has been designed for Dammam, Saudi Arabia. It will be located on the campus of King Faisal University, adjacent to the Persian Gulf. This maritime desert climate is terribly sevre, and one for which it is a formidable challenge to design a year around thermally efficient building. This facility incorporates seven different passive strategies: proper orientation, operable shading for windows, flow-through ventilation, externally insulated thermal mass, wind tower with direct evaporative cooling, indirect evaporative cooling through a double shell, and solar water heating. Construction should begin in June of 1983. Upon completion, the building will be monitored for at least two years.

Woods, P.K.

1983-06-01

340

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity. PMID:3485894

Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Mossa, J S; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Said, M S; Tariq, M

1986-01-01

341

Nutritional evaluation of selected meat based Saudi Arabian dishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen popular Saudi Arabian dishes containing a significant amount of animal protein (meat, fish, egg) were investigated. On a fresh weight basis, the dishes contained 46.6–82.6% moisture, 3.6–9.4% protein (N × 6.25), 0.7–14.7% fat, 0.1–1.1% crude fiber, 0.8–2.4% ash, 3.9–40.9% nitrogen free extract and 82–236 Cals 0.34–0.99 Mj) per 100 g food. The dishes had reasonably good amounts of K,

Wajih N. Sawaya; Joseph P. Salji; Muhammad Ayaz; Jehangir K. Khalil

1986-01-01

342

Saudi regulations for the accreditation of sleep medicine physicians and technologists  

PubMed Central

The professional content of sleep medicine has grown significantly over the past few decades, warranting the recognition of sleep medicine as an independent specialty. Because the practice of sleep medicine has expanded in Saudi Arabia over the past few years, a national regulation system to license and ascertain the competence of sleep medicine physicians and technologists has become essential. Recently, the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties formed the National Committee for the Accreditation of Sleep Medicine Practice and developed national accreditation criteria. This paper presents the newly approved Saudi accreditation criteria for sleep medicine physicians and technologists.

BaHammam, Ahmed S.; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; AlHarbi, Adel S.; AlOtaibi, Ghazi; Asiri, Saad M.; AlSayegh, Abdulaziz

2013-01-01

343

What Is Clean Cities?  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

Not Available

2007-08-01

344

Soda Bottle City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces the Soda Bottle City project which meets Content Standard C of the National Science Education Standards. Involves design and construction of the city with appropriate energy sources. (YDS)|

Gampel, Manette

2001-01-01

345

A comparison of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in Riyadh, Medina, and Oklahoma City.  

PubMed

Many bacteria are known to develop resistance to anti-microbial agents following their clinical use. The resistance pattern varies from one geographic location to another depending upon the patient population and local history of antibiotic use. The bacterial resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents in Oklahoma City was found to be different from two cities in Saudi Arabia, especially amongst Gram-negative bacilli. A total of 13,575 fresh clinical isolates from the Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH), Riyadh; and the King Fahad Hospital (KFH), Medina, Saudi Arabia; were used. There were 6,270 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, 2,799 pseudomonads and Acinetobacter, and 4,506 Gram positive strains of staphylococcus bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria from KFH were considerably more resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than at KFSH and VAMC. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus isolated from VAMC exhibited a significantly higher degree of resistance to oxacillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than those at KFSH and KFH. PMID:1744780

Qadri, S M; Ali, S I; Flournoy, D J; Miskeen, A K; Tharwat, J D; Miller, J

1991-10-01

346

"Outbreak" of hand injuries during Hajj festivities in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Pediatric hand surgeons in Europe and North America are aware of the yearly "outbreak" of pediatric hand injuries on Halloween from carving pumpkins. This study reports another yearly "outbreak" of hand injuries--in Saudi Arabia from slaughtering sheep. During the 3 days of festivities following the Hajj ceremony, hundreds of thousands of sheep are slaughtered. Over 4 consecutive years, 298 patients attended the emergency room of Riyadh Central Hospital with injuries related to the slaughtering of animals sustained during the 3 days of festivity. Almost three quarters of patients (73%) were injured on the first day of festivity. The majority (92%) were nonprofessionals. Children accounted for 6.7% of patients. In adults, the female-to-male ratio was 1:7. The most common mechanism of injury was a knife cut (80.9%). Almost three quarters of injuries (73.5%) affected the hands, with more involvement of the left than the right hand. Only 7.7% of patients with hand injuries were admitted to the hospital for treatment. It was concluded that implementing safety measures while slaughtering, and educating the general population would be important in the prevention of these hand injuries in Saudi Arabia. PMID:10454321

Rahman, M M; Al-Zahrani, S; Al-Qattan, M M

1999-08-01

347

Anthropometric comparison between high- and low-altitude Saudi Arabians.  

PubMed

Measurements of weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, mid-upper arm muscle circumference and skinfold thickness over the triceps region were made in 437 high-altitude residents (3150m above sea level) aged 16-60 years and 468 low-altitude residents (500 m above sea level) aged 16-60 years in southern Saudi Arabia. Compared with low-altitude residents, high-altitude residents were found to be significantly heavier and taller, but to have nearly similar mid-upper arm circumference, mid-upper arm muscle circumference and triceps skinfold thickness. Estimates of body fat have been made from the triceps skinfold measurements. No significant difference in the percentage of fat was detected between high- and low-altitude residents. When fat mass (kg) and fat mass index (fat mass (kg)/height in m2) were considered, similar trends were found between highland and lowland men only. Highland women showed significantly higher fat mass and fat mass index when compared with lowland women. These differences in physique between highland and lowland residents of southern Saudi Arabia may be attributed to the effect of environmental factors, possibly the hot climate and parasitic infections prevalent in lowland areas, in addition to the higher physical activity observed in lowland women. PMID:8744999

Khalid, M

348

Assessing oral cancer knowledge among saudi medical undergraduates.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide with more than 263,000 patients diagnosed in 2008. Nonspecialists' negative attitudes and poor working knowledge of oral cancer significantly contribute to suboptimal detection of early-stage disease which leads to delays in diagnosis. We aimed to assess the working knowledge and views associated with oral cancer prevention among medical students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of 4th, 5th, and 6th year undergraduate medical students was undertaken. Questions included knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention. The overall response rate was 82 % (137/167). Mean score of cancer knowledge was 57.8 % which was below the expected standard of 70 %. Only 53 % correctly answered all questions related to oral cancer. This result had no association with either the academic year (p?=?0.23) or gender (p?=?0.37). Interestingly, 72 % of the respondents did not feel confident in performing an oral examination. Sixty-three percent of the medical students believed it to be beyond their role to aid patients in smoking cessation measures or to take part in other disease preventative strategies. This study demonstrates a dearth of knowledge relating to the diagnosis and management of oral cancer among clinical students within an established Saudi medical school. An immediate refinement of current medical curricula to address these deficiencies is warranted. PMID:23900623

Kujan, Omar; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Azzegahiby, Saleh; Alenzi, Faris Q; Idrees, Majdy

2013-12-01

349

Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges  

PubMed Central

Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

BaHammam, Ahmed S.

2011-01-01

350

Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ=-0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r=0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t=2.898; df=18; p<0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. PMID:22353176

Alharbi, O A; Phillips, M R; Williams, A T; Gheith, A M; Bantan, R A; Rasul, N M

2012-02-19

351

Denied Dignity: Systematic Discrimination and Hostility toward Saudi Shia Citizens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch, "the world's leading independent organizations dedicated to defending and protecting human rights", has a revealing report available on their website about the discrimination that has occurred against the Shia religious community in Saudi Arabia. The Report, found in the "Publications" tab of the website, can be read online in English or Arabic (click the yellow "L" near the top of the page), can be downloaded as a PDF, or ordered for purchase. The report includes a summary of the situation at the beginning of the report, plus recommendations to Saudi Arabia from Human Rights Watch to rectify the situation, as well as information about the report's research methodology. Under the "Reports" tab there are hundreds of other reports available online, and they can be browsed by date, country, or issue. Additionally scholars will appreciate that the "Methodology" the Human Rights Watch researchers use to document abuse of human rights throughout the world is available here in a comprehensive document entitled "Our Research Methodology".

352

The Saudi health care system: a view from the minaret.  

PubMed

This review article provides information about the origins, history, evolution and current status of the Saudi healthcare system, which is currently being transformed from a publicly financed and managed welfare system to a market-oriented, employment-based, insurance-driven system. Since its inception in the 1920s, the system has provided free healthcare to all Saudi nationals at publicly owned facilities run by government-employed administrators and healthcare providers. For millions of foreign workers in the country, healthcare at privately owned for-profit facilities has been paid for either by the employer or by the individual. At the completion of the three-stage transition, everyone in the country, whether employed in the public or private sector, is expected to have insurance coverage provided by the employer. All Ministry of Health-owned hospitals will be divested to the private sector, whereas primary health centres are likely to be retained by the government. Many of the operational details of the transition are unclear at this stage and will be worked out in the coming years. This paper provides a context for these changes and highlights some of the existing issues and weaknesses. The article also points to some of the future challenges and cautions against pitfalls involved in the complete transformation of the system. PMID:22555119

Khaliq, Amir A

2012-01-01

353

In vitro cytotoxic screening of selected Saudi medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity. PMID:21953271

Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

2011-09-28

354

Einstein in the City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On his first trip to the United States in April 1921, Albert Einstein visited The City College of New York before he proceeded to Columbia and Princeton Universities. As a result, Einstein gave his very first scientific speech in the United States at The City College, known simply and cordially to New Yorkers as ``the City.'' That visit, however, is now rarely known. This paper will investigate why Einstein came to the City, what he spoke there, and the significance and consequences of his visit. In particular, the paper will discuss Einstein's associations with Reinhard Wetzel, a physicist, and Morris R. Cohen, a philosopher, at the City.

Hu, Danian

2007-04-01

355

Effectiveness of the Saudi Arabian government's programs to modernize Saudi society through the development of a non-oil industrial sector  

SciTech Connect

To reduce its dependence on a depletable resource, and its reliance on imports, and increase the country's export base, the Saudi government is using oil revenues to develop alternative sources of income to ensure the continuation of modernization. Having limited agricultural resources, the development of a non-oil industrial sector seems the best choice to diversify the Saudi economic base, given the availability of capital, abundance of oil and natural gas, and the discovery of minerals. The economy, however, faces a severe labor shortage and over 40% of the labor force is composed of foreign workers. In addition, Saudis are reluctant to take blue collar or technical jobs. Saudi Arabia needs to reduce its dependence on foreign labor and increase the participation of Saudis as workers and investors in the industrial sector. This study concludes that the government's policy of using the development of a non-oil industrial sector to achieve its goal of modernization has met with mixed success. Some aspects of modernization, such as the introduction of new technologies, have been actively promoted by the government easily accepted by the population in general. Other aspects of modernization, especially those involving political and social change, have met with resistance from the government, the population, or both.

Al-Rowaithy, A.S.

1987-01-01

356

Atmospheric turbidity and transmittance of solar radiation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades, the urban areas in the city of Riyadh—the capital of Saudi Arabia—were increasing at an exceptionally high rate through a series of development plans. The major plans had been completed by the end of 1982. Some other big utility projects were started and completed during 1987. As a consequence, the air quality has deteriorated markedly and air pollution episodes recorded during these activities showed that particulates were present in the atmosphere at high concentrations. Later in January 1991 the Gulf war started and the firing of the oil fields in Kuwait soon followed. It was estimated that soot particulates were emitted at a rate of 600 ton d -1 along with high rates of other gases. This event has led to significant air quality and visibility problems. Direct normal solar radiation has been measured during the summer months of July and August which were characterized by very dry and cloudless weather for the period between 1982 and 1992. A year-to-year trend of the transmittance of direct normal solar irradiance was then determined. The atmospheric fine aerosol (<2 ?m diameter) loading data during the same period were used to establish a correlation between the aerosol concentration and the extinction coefficient. The total horizontal and direct normal solar radiation measurements during some days when the dark smoke emitted from the oil field fires in Kuwait were passing over Riyadh are presented. The reduction in solar irradiation reflects the intensity of dark smoke at a distance of 500 km from Kuwait.

El-Shobokshy, Mohammad S.; Al-Saedi, Yaseen G.

357

PATTERN OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION AMONG FOOD HANDLERS IN RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA  

PubMed Central

Objective: Identify the types and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers, and test the effectiveness of the current pre-employment screening policy. Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out in the catchment areas of seven primary health care centres (PHCCs) to represent various sections of Riyadh city. A total of 700 food handlers working in restaurants were randomly selected from the study area. All study subjects were asked to complete a data collection form and to bring a fresh stool specimen on the specified day to the designated PHCC. Results: About 66% of the selected subjects complied in bringing fresh stool specimens. Fifty nine (12.8%) of the specimens were positive for parasites. There was a significant association between the food handler's nationality and the likelihood of a positive specimen result, being highest among the Bangladeshis (20.2%) and Indians (18.5%) and the lowest among the Arabs (3.4%) and the Turks (10%). The commonest intestinal parasites isolated were Giardia lamblia (33.8%), followed by Enterobius vermicularis (27.4%). The current screening policy does not seem effective, as there was an absence of significant association between holding a valid PEHC and the test result, with 81% of the positive results from persons holding valid pre-employment health certificates (PEHCs). Conclusions: Though it is obligatory for food handlers to hold a PEHC in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of intestinal parasites remains high. Possible solutions include health education on hygiene, more frequent stool tests, and assessment of the current annual screening procedure.

Kalantan, Khalid A.; Al-Faris, Eiad A.; Al-Taweel, Ahmed A.

2001-01-01

358

Export crudes for the '90s; Malaysian, Canadian, Saudi crudes assayed  

SciTech Connect

This paper supplies statistical data on the characteristics of Tapais blend (Malaysia), Cold Lake blend (Alta), and Arabian Light (Saudi Arabia) crude oils. Temperature range, API gravity, sulfur percentage, viscosity, nitrogen content, and other data are provided.

Rhodes, A.K.

1992-04-27

359

Possible Scenarios for Iran and Saudi Arabia in the 1980's.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memorandum evolved from the Military Policy Symposium, Iran and Saudi Arabia: Problems and Possibilities for the United States in the Mid Range, sponsored by the Strategic Studies Institute in April 1982. During the Symposium, academic and government...

R. G. Darius R. H. Pelletreau

1982-01-01

360

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Study, Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of global and normal incident radiation at the Yanbu, Saudi Arabia solar powered desalination plant site are documented. The use of parabolic, two axis tracking, point focusing solar collectors necessitates the measurement and analysis of the...

1985-01-01

361

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, June 1985  

SciTech Connect

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of June 1985 are presented. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

362

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, May 1985  

SciTech Connect

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of May 1985 are presented. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

363

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, April 1985  

SciTech Connect

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of April 1985 was presented. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

364

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of March 1985 are presented. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-03-01

365

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, April 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of April 1985 was presented. (ERA ...

1985-01-01

366

Human infection with Bertiella studeri (Cestode: Anoplocephalidae) in an Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Perhaps this is the first case of bertiellosis studeri record in Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia. The patient was resistant to Niclosamide but successfully treated with Commiphora molmol extract. PMID:20503589

Al-Mathal, Ebtesam M; Saleh, Nagla Mostafa K; Morsy, Tosson A

2010-04-01

367

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of March 1985 are presented. (ERA ...

1985-01-01

368

Analysis of Shuttle Multispecral Infrared Radiometer measurements of the western Saudi Arabian shield.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the November 12-14, 1981 mission of the space shuttle Columbia, the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) recorded radiances in 10 channels along a 100m wide groundtrack across the western Saudi Arabian shield.-from Authors

Rowan, L. C.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Abbott, E.

1987-01-01

369

75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7220] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations...

2010-11-02

370

Donor Deferral/Ineligibility for Time Spent in Saudi Arabia to ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionDonor Deferral / Ineligibility for Time Spent in Saudi Arabia to Reduce Risk of vCJD Transmitted by Blood and Blood Products and by Human Cells ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

371

The Food Court in the Magic Kingdom: Globalization, Cuisine and Attitudes in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last twenty years, Saudi Arabia has been modernizing much faster and in a shorter period than in the majority of the world’s countries. This study seeks to examine factors that influence the diet of Saudi Arabians. Aside from language, one of the principal manifestations of culture is a country’s cuisine.\\u000aI sought to determine whether factors, such as

Klaus Heyer

2012-01-01

372

Two-level negotiations in a fragmented system: Saudi Arabia's WTO accession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a case study of Saudi Arabia's WTO accession, the article offers a critique of conventional factor- and sector-based models of trade policy, proposing instead a two-level institutional account that is likely to be relevant for non-democratic states in general. Historically grown patterns of institutional fragmentation in both public and private sector in Saudi Arabia have made interest formation

Steffen Hertog

2008-01-01

373

A Community Survey of Neurological Disorders in Saudi Arabia: The Thugbah Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the findings of a total population survey of Thugbah community in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia (SA) to determine its point prevalence of neurological diseases. During this two-phase door-to-door study, all Saudi nationals living in Thugbah were first screened by trained interviewers using a pretested questionnaire (sensitivity 98%, specificity 89%) administered at a face-to-face interview. Individuals with

S. Al Rajeh; O. Bademosi; H. Ismail; A. Awada; A. Dawodu; H. Al-Freihi; S. Assuhaimi; M. Borollosi; S. Al-Shammasi

1993-01-01

374

Fortification with vitamin D: Comparative study in the Saudi Arabian and US markets  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi Arabian population. To evaluate the current status of vitamin D fortification and calcium content of commonly consumed food items by the Saudi population and to compare it to US data. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional market survey at markets of Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and State of Illinois, USA. Methods: A dietary survey was carried out for the content of calcium and vitamin D on the most commonly consumed food products by the Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D. The survey included different brands of fresh milk, yoghurt, powdered milk, cheese, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and orange juice. Vitamin D content in the products studied from the Saudi marketplace was compared with the suggested vitamin D content in the same products according to US Code of Federal Regulations recommendations. Results: The overall calcium content in the processed dairy products is generally higher than the content in fresh dairy products. Vitamin D content in the fresh dairy products varied from 40 IU/L to 400 IU/L. None of the cereals or orange juice in Saudi Arabia contain vitamin D supplement. The vitamin D content in the food items from the Saudi marketplace is mostly lower than recommended by the US Code of Federal Regulations. Conclusion: Most commonly consumed food products by Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D either not fortified or contain an amount less than recommended by guidelines set for US marketplace.

Sadat-Ali, Mir; Al Elq, Abdulmohsen; Al-Farhan, Mohammed; Sadat, Nazia A.

2013-01-01

375

Victory City: The City of the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the past 40-odd years, Orville Simpson II has been pursuing a dream, his vision of a city of the future, a Victory City based on reason and efficiency. Victory Cities would be entirely self-contained under one roof, ideally consisting of seven linked buildings -- each 102 stories -- containing residences, offices, industry, and retail space. Although the idea of snap-out modular walls, furniture bolted to the floors, and no kitchens (residents will be transported to the cafeterias by Ferris wheels) does not appeal to everyone, Simpson must be given credit for the depth and breadth of his vision. Users reading the Residents Guide will find that few details have been overlooked. Simpson addresses issues such as the money and food systems, education, postal service, transportation, security, recreation, pets, healthcare, ecological issues, and so on. Users can view numerous floor plans and conceptual drawings in the Victory City tour, review his arguments for the city in the Purpose/Benefits section, and read a collection of newspaper and magazine features on the man and his city in the Media Coverage section. Simpson is, by the way, still seeking investors.

376

A key review on present status and future directions of solar energy studies and applications in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy is accepted as a key source for the future, not only for Saudi Arabia, but also for the world. Saudi Arabia has abundant potential for exploiting solar energy, which is renewable, clean, and freely available. The average annual solar radiation falling on the Arabian Peninsula is about 2200kWh\\/m2. Applications of solar energy in Saudi Arabia have been growing

Arif Hepbasli; Zeyad Alsuhaibani

2011-01-01

377

Shell and Sabic (Saudi Basic Industries Corp. ) to construct Jubail petrochemical plant  

SciTech Connect

Shell Oil Co.'s Pecten Arabian Ltd. affiliate and Saudi Basic Industries Corp. have agreed to build a $3 billion petrochemical complex at Jubail, Saudi Arabia; the final documents will be signed in late Sept. 1980. The partners will invest about $400 million each in the joint venture, with Saudi public investment funds and commercial banks providing the balance of the funding. Shell will have the right to purchase Saudi crude oil on a long-term basis, as well as some chemical raw materials; the volume of crude made available will be determined by a formula that the Saudis are now developing. One plan under discussion would offer firms options to buy 500 bbl/day of Saudi crude for each $1 million of their investment. The feed for the new plant will be methane and ethane from associated gas now being flared. Product exports are scheduled to begin in late 1985. Product capacities will include (in thousands of metric tons/yr): ethane, 656; chlorine, 333; caustic soda, 377; ethylene dichloride, 454; ethyl benzene, 327; styrene, 295; and crude industrial ethanol, 281. Ships, terminals, and other infrastructure facilities are included in the agreement.

Not Available

1980-07-14

378

Vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic and a common health problem worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the vitamin D status in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to study its relation to various variables. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pediatric clinic in Jeddah Clinic Hospital-Kandarah, Jeddah, KSA, from October through December 2010, in which 510 healthy children aged 4–15 years were enrolled. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured. Dietary vitamin D intake and duration of daily sunlight exposure were determined. 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL and <7 ng/mL were defined as relative and severe vitamin D deficiency, respectively. Results: The mean concentration of 25(OH)D was 13.07 ± 7.81 ng/mL. Seventy subjects (13.72%) had normal 25(OH)D level ranging 20–70 ng/mL. Three hundred (58.82%) had relative 25(OH)D deficiency and 140 (27.45%) had severe deficiency (P=0.000). 220 (43.14%) subjects were males and 290 (56.86%) were females having a statistically significant higher incidence of 25(OH)D deficiency (P=0.019). 54.9% were Saudis, 27.45% were Yemenis and 11.76% were Egyptians. Saudis and Yemenis were more subjected to 25(OH)D deficiency in comparison to Egyptians and other nationalities (P=0.01). There were significant inverse correlations between 25(OH)D levels and bony aches (P=0.000). 56.25% of asymptomatic children had vitamin D deficiency (P=0.000). Duration of sunlight exposure and daily intake of vitamin D had significant effects on serum level of vitamin D (P=0.000). Conclusions: A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah was observed in this study. Vitamin D supplementation of food products can prevent vitamin D deficiency in these children.

Mansour, Maha M. H. K.; Alhadidi, Khaled M.

2012-01-01

379

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the os calcis in Saudi women: defining Saudi reference value for the diagnosis of low bone mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  One thousand healthy Saudi Arabian females underwent bone mass measurement using ultrasonography (Achilles Express, GE), which\\u000a indicated that the Saudi reference values for diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis using QUS is different from the standard\\u000a Middle East and US reference values.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  As bone mineral density differs among different ethnic groups, the use of same reference data for different populations may

Mir Sadat-Ali; Abdulmohsen Al-Elq; Ibrahim Al-Habdan; Fahd A. Al-Mohanna; Abdulaziz A. Al-Mulhim

2010-01-01

380

The changing face of healthcare in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Many countries now struggle to provide cost-effective, quality healthcare services to their citizens. Saudi Arabia has experienced high costs along with concerns about quality of care in its public facilities. To address these issues the country is currently restructuring their healthcare system to privatize public hospitals and introduce insurance coverage for both foreign workers and citizens. The changes provide an interesting and insightful case for the challenges in radically changing a country's healthcare system. The situation also demonstrates a unique case in the Middle East for greater reliance of the private sector to address rapidly escalating healthcare costs and deteriorating quality. The complexity of changing a healthcare system is discusses with the many challenges associated with the change. PMID:18596400

Walston, Stephen; Al-Harbi, Yousef; Al-Omar, Badran

381

Measuring Studentsâ Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

Alhadlaq, Hisham; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Perkins, Katherine K.; Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-10-02

382

Simulation effectively sites surge-relief facilities on Saudi pipeline  

SciTech Connect

Pipeline hydraulic and surge analysis studies of the Saudi Aramco East-West crude-oil pipeline assisted in expanding the system's capacity by 50%. Surge studies predicted that operational upsets, such as the trip of a pump station, cause excessive surge pressures in the pipeline system at new flow rates. Additional surge studies showed that surge-relief stations must be located downstream from each of six pump stations. The new surge-relief stations and an increase in capacity of existing surge-relief stations protect the pipelines at the higher flow rates. The paper describes modeling the system, the analysis of the hydraulics, surge analysis, acoustic transit times, relief valve simulation, surge-relief protection, surge-relief stations, station locations, simulation results, tank sizing, and valve testing.

Dempsey, J.J.; Al-Gouhi, A.H. (Saudi Arabian Oil Co., Dhahrain (Saudi Arabia))

1993-09-20

383

Preliminary noise survey and data report of Saudi Arabian data  

SciTech Connect

From November 1995 to March 1996 a total of 9 broadband temporary stations were deployed across Saudi Arabian shield. These stations consisted of STS-2 seismometers recorded continuously at 40 sps on RefTek dataloggers. All installations were at bedrock sites. Using data sections selected randomly during the deployment, noise studies showed that most stations were exceptionally quiet with noise level near the USGS low noise model for frequencies higher than 0.1 Hz. At lower frequencies, the horizontal components showed increased noise levels, possibly due to instrumental characteristics. High-frequency (greater than 1 Hz) noise varied as much as 10 db between day and night for some stations (RAYN, TAIF) while more isolated stations (HALM) were constant. Seasonal noise levels also varied, with April to June being the quietest months. Slight changes in peak microseism frequency also occurred seasonally.

Mellors, R.

1997-08-01

384

BEHAVIOUR PREFERENCES AND CITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The resurgence of big, old cities and their regions took urban theory by surprise. A great deficiency of much urban theory is that it is static, partial, and backward-looking. As such, it has few tools to understand large-scale, medium-term change in complex systems such as cities. Explainingsuch changes requires realistic assumptionsabout the behaviours that make cities. Did resurgence occur

Urban Resurgence; Michael Storper; Michael Manville

385

Mineral exploration, Mahd adh Dhahab District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mahd adh Dhahab is the largest of numerous ancient gold mines scattered through the Precambrian shield of Saudi Arabia and the only one with recent production. During the period 1939-54, 765,768 fine ounces of gold and 1,002,029 ounces of silver were produced from the mines by the Saudi Arabian Mining Syndicate. Ore minerals at Mahd adh Dhahab include free gold and silver, tellurides, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in and associated with a system of north-trending quartz veins and quartz veinlet stockworks. Pyrite is a common sulfide gangue mineral. Country rocks are a north dipping sequence of pyroclastic and transported pyroclastic rocks of the Hulayfah Group that are locally highly silicified and potassium-feldspathized. The prime target for this exploration program was a north-trending zone of quartz veins and breccias, faults, alteration, and metalization approximately 400 m wide and 1000 m long. The ancient and recent mine workings are located in the northern part of this zone. Although the quartz veins and alteration cut all lithologies, the major metalization is confined to the intersection of veins and agglomerate. Ten holes were diamond drilled to explore geochemical, geological, and geophysical targets in the area. A significant new zone of metalization was discovered 700 m south of the ancient and recent mine workings and within the same major zone of quartz veins, alteration, and faults. Metalization in this southern mineralized zone is at the intersection of the quartz veins and a distinctive and highly altered agglomerate. The total zone of vein and agglomerate intercept is potentially metalized and comprises a block of ground 40 m thick and 400 m wide along the strike of the agglomerate and projected downdip 250 m. Tonnage of this block is 17.2 million tons. The explored zone, approximately 25 percent of the potentially metalized rock, has a potential resource of 1.1 million tons containing 27 g/t gold and 73 g/t silver.

Worl, Ronald G.

1978-01-01

386

Theme city or gated community - images of future cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of the cities has been under discussion since the first city. It has been typical in every civilisation and era to hope for a better city. Creek philosopher Platon created image of future city where all men were equal and the city was ruled by philosophers minds. Many philosopher or later social scientist have ended up to similar

Leena Helenius-Mäki

2002-01-01

387

Smoking in Saudi Arabia and its relation to coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives The health hazards related to smoking are well known. Smoking is a recognized risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite rejection of smoking by the Saudi community, we are still seeing smokers in our population. This study is designed to determine the prevalence of smoking in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and to find out its relation to CAD. This study is part of the Coronary Artery Disease In Saudis (CADIS) study. Methods This health survey was conducted by collecting data regarding smoking status among adult Saudis aged between 30 and 70 years of both sexes in KSA over a five year period from 1995 up to 2000. The study sample was of normal distribution and representative of all regions of KSA. The data were analyzed to provide the prevalence of smoking and its relation with CAD. Results The total number of subjects was 17,350, and current smokers were 2217; accordingly the overall prevalence of smoking among Saudis was 12.8%. Males (1555) were significantly smoking more than females (662) with a prevalence of 18.7% and 7.3%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Smoking is more prevalent among Saudis living in urban, northern, western, and eastern regions compared to other regions of KSA. Smokers are more likely to develop CAD compared to non-smokers (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Smoking is a prevalent health problem among Saudis that requires intervention for eradication. We found clear association between cigarettes smoking and CAD particularly among males. Persistent education of the health hazards related to smoking is recommended particularly at early age in-order to prevent initiation of smoking.

Al-Nozha, Mansour M.; Al-Mazrou, Yaqoub Y.; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Al-Maatouq, Mohammed A.; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Khan, Nazeer B.; Al-Khadra, Akram; Al-Marzouki, Khalid; Al-Harthi, Saad S.; Abdullah, Moheeb; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Al-Mobeireek, Abdulellah; Nouh, Mohmmed S.

2009-01-01

388

From intelligent to smart cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing upon the smart experiences of ‘world class’ cities in N. America, Canada and Europe, this special issue draws together five papers from leading international experts on the transition from intelligent to smart cities. Together they do what Hollands (‘Will the real smart city stand up?’ City 12(3), 302–320) has recently asked of smart cities and provide the definitional components,

Mark Deakin; Husam Al Waer

2011-01-01

389

SOLERAS - Saudi Arabian-United States Program for cooperation in the field of solar energy: Executive summary SOLERAS Program overview  

SciTech Connect

The SOLERAS Program was a unique bilateral, international, cooperative research effort. The intent of SOLERAS was to utilize the technical and financial resources of each country to advance the development of solar energy through cooperative research projects. The Program involved research and applications in most of the major renewable technologies during its nine-year life, and its participants include some of the most accomplished individuals, corporations, universities, and laboratories in solar energy research. The Program benefited enormously from the professional and personal commitment of these participants. SOLERAS accomplished several major research projects, completed resource assessment activities, and sponsored numerous technology workshops, short courses, and technical reports. This Executive Summary report provides only a limited overview of the activities and major accomplishments. Detailed project activities and experiences are documented in numerous SOLERAS reports describing system design, operations, and evaluations. These reports are available in the United States through the National Technical Information Center. In Saudi Arabia, these reports are available through the King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology. 19 figs., 4 tabs.

Williamson, J.S.; Key, W.P.

1987-03-01

390

Procedural modeling of cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling a city poses a number of problems to computer graphics. Every urban area has a transportation network that follows population and environmental influences, and often a superimposed pattern plan. The buildings appearances follow historical, aesthetic and statutory rules. To create a virtual city, a roadmap has to be designed and a large number of buildings need to be generated.

Yoav I. H. Parish; Pascal Müller

2001-01-01

391

Walkout in Crystal City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student…

Barrios, Greg

2009-01-01

392

Air pollution in cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality in cities is the result of a complex interaction between natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. Air pollution in cities is a serious environmental problem – especially in the developing countries. The air pollution path of the urban atmosphere consists of emission and transmission of air pollutants resulting in the ambient air pollution. Each part of the path is

Helmut Mayer

1999-01-01

393

Communication externalities in cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify communication externalities in French cities, we exploit a unique survey recording workplace communication of individual workers. Our hypothesis is that in larger and\\/or more educated cities, workers should communicate more. In turn, more communication should have a positive effect on wages. By estimating both an earnings and a communication equation, we find evidence of communication externalities. In larger

Sylvie Charlot; Gilles Duranton

2004-01-01

394

Communication Externalities in Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify communication externalities in French cities, we exploit a unique survey recording workplace communication of individual workers. Our hypothesis is that in larger and\\/or more educated cities, workers should communicate more. In turn, more communication should have a positive effect on individual wages. By estimating both an earnings and a communication equation, we find evidence of communication externalities. Being

Sylvie Charlot; Gilles Duranton

2003-01-01

395

The Plains City Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City

van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

2006-01-01

396

European cities: Towards a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article puts forth the thesis that European cities are increasingly influenced by recreation, changing the essential quality of the urban space. I begin by setting out a theoretical framework in which cities are seen as specific places used as a resource by mobile individuals in a specific \\

Mathis Stock

2006-01-01

397

Parking, People, and Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study of how off-street parking requirements affect urban form, we begin by analyzing the relationship between population density and streets in cities. We find that denser cities devote a greater share of their land to streets, but also have less street space per person. This relationship results in part from the difficulty of constructing new streets in built-out

Michael Manville; Donald Shoup

2005-01-01

398

Why Do Cities Shrink?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities and regions in different political contexts might play different roles in building communities, but when the cities shrink, they share common elements of what can be characterized as a “shrinkage identity”. One well-documented element is the independence from the country political context and a certain dependence on the effects of globalization on local industries. It can be described as

Diana Reckien; Cristina Martinez-Fernandez

2011-01-01

399

Seattle's Mobile City Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The City of Seattle's pioneering Mobile City Government Project has received wide attention, since it promises greatly improved fieldwork operations in local government. Three years into operation and with another fieldwork unit in the process of adopting mobile applications, our research studies the work domains of the units involved to better understand the premises, requirements, and effects of fully mobile,

Raya Fidel; Jens-Erik Mai; Kristene Unsworth

400

High prevalence of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among Saudi population, aged 30–64 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Study the prevalence of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and other cholesterol related risk factors among Saudi population, aged 30–64 years. Design: Cross sectional national epidemiological randomized household survey. Subject: 2059 Saudi subjects, aged 30–64 years. Sample was representative and in accordance with the national population distribution with respect to age, gender, regional and

Abdul Rahman Al-Nuaim

1997-01-01

401

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: King Faisal University. Design analysis study. Volume 3. Appendixes VII-X  

SciTech Connect

Documentation supporting the proposed construction of a passively cooled house at King Faisal University in Saudi Arabia is presented. The documents include: computer printouts for comparisons of design; landscapes analysis; field station study for Al Batin, Saudi Arabia; data acquisition systems; and performance evaluation. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

402

SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study  

SciTech Connect

Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

403

Guidelines for the management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Saudi Arabia: a model for the Middle East region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common respiratory tract infection and is now a growing public health concern in Saudi Arabia. In an effort to simplify treatment regimens to aid the practitioner, empirical treatment guidelines for CAP have evolved across the international medical community, reducing the number of antibiotics used and improving outcomes. Saudi Arabia and the surrounding region have

Ziad A Memish; Atef M Shibl; Qanta A. A Ahmed

2002-01-01

404

An Investigation of the Scope, Purpose, and Effects of United States Foreign Military Sales to Saudi Arabia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Security Assistance Program has grown rapidly in the 1970s and Saudi Arabia has been an integral part of the growth. By 1976 Saudi Arabia became the largest purchaser of U.S. arms and equipment worldwide. The research analyzes the purpos...

B. L. Dycus J. A. Fiorillo

1977-01-01

405

Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

2011-01-01

406

Intercultural Conflicts between Close Friends: A Case Study of Power Relations in Continuing Education in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…

Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie

2008-01-01

407

International Perspective: Business Education and Its Influence on Attitudes to Business, Consumerism, and Government in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the similarities and differences in the attitudes of business majors and nonbusiness majors toward business, consumerism, and government in Saudi Arabia. Drawing on the unique culture of Saudi Arabia and the potential influence of business education, we developed three hypotheses. An examination of a sample of 134 respondents revealed that business majors were more favorably predisposed toward

Shahid N. Bhuian; Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin; David Kim

2001-01-01

408

What drives consumers' continuance intention to e-shopping? : Conceptual framework and managerial implications in the case of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to propose a model of e-shopping continuance intentions that incorporates the revised technology acceptance model and expectation confirmation theory and evaluates the expanded model in a new context: Saudi Arabia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The 465-respondent sample consists of internet users in Saudi Arabia. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Findings – Perceived

Talal Al-Maghrabi; Charles Dennis

2011-01-01

409

Cutaneous leishmaniasis: a 46-year study of the epidemiology and clinical features in Saudi Arabia (1956–2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the clinical spectrum of the disease was evaluated.Methods: This is a retrospective study of cutaneous leishmania cases from 1956 to 2002.Results: In the study period, there were 1862 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Saudi Aramco health

Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq; Abbas AbuKhamsin

2004-01-01

410

A systematic review of population-based dental caries studies among children in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective Dental caries critically impacts the health and development of children. Understanding caries experience is an important task for Saudi Arabian policymakers to identify intervention targets and improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to analyze current data to assess the nationwide prevalence and severity of caries in children, to identify gaps in baseline information, and to determine areas for future research. Methods A search of published and unpublished studies in PubMed, Google, and local Saudi medical and dental journals was conducted for the three keywords “dental,” “caries,” and “Saudi Arabia.” The inclusion criteria required that the articles were population-based studies that assessed the prevalence of dental caries in healthy children attending regular schools using a cross-sectional study design of a random sample. Results/discussion The review was comprised of one unpublished thesis and 27 published surveys of childhood caries in Saudi Arabia. The earliest study was published in 1988 and the most recent was published in 2010. There is a lack of representative data on the prevalence of dental caries among the whole Saudi Arabian population. The national prevalence of dental caries and its severity in children in Saudi Arabia was estimated to be approximately 80% for the primary dentition with a mean dmft of 5.0 and approximately 70% for children’s permanent dentition with a mean DMFT score of 3.5. The current estimates indicate that the World Health Organization (WHO) 2000 goals are still unmet for Saudi Arabian children. Conclusion Childhood dental caries is a serious dental public health problem that warrants the immediate attention of the government and the dental profession officials in Saudi Arabia. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate oral health goals. Without the ability to describe the current situation, it is not possible to identify whether progress is being made toward these goals. A roadmap with a clear starting point, destination, and pathway is a desperately needed tool to improve the oral health of Saudi Arabian children.

Al Agili, Dania Ebrahim

2012-01-01

411

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). Conclusion The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method.

Kamel, Remah M

2013-01-01

412

Stroke Awareness in the Saudi Community Living in Riyadh: Prompt Public Health Measures Must be Implemented.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Stroke is very prevalent in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, approaching 43.8 per 100,000 people. Stroke outcome is known to be affected by the level of stroke awareness in the community. We conducted this study to assess the level of stroke awareness in the Saudi population. METHODS: A validated survey of 11 questions was used to assess the level of stroke awareness among the Saudi population. The survey was distributed in a 1-month period to every adult Saudi citizen visiting 10 shopping centers, 10 large supermarkets, 4 hospitals, and 2 universities. RESULTS: Two thousand eight hundred sixty-two people completed the questionnaire (a 78% response rate). One thousand eight hundred forty-four people (64%) were able to define stroke correctly. One thousand four hundred twenty-eight people (49.9%) named mass media as the source of their knowledge. One thousand three hundred one (45.9%) believe stroke and brain death share the same pathologic mechanism and outcome, particularly those <40 years of age (P < .05). Six hundred twenty-two (21.7%) of the respondents correctly chose ?5 risk factors and made ?1 error. Five hundred twenty-seven (18.4%) of the participants in this study were able to correctly identify ?3 symptoms of the list and make ?1 error. CONCLUSIONS: There is an alarming deficit in the level of stroke awareness in the Saudi population. Urgent public health measures to correct this deficiency are promptly needed. PMID:23680680

Alaqeel, Ahmed; Alammari, Albatool; Alsyefi, Nourah; Al-Hussain, Fawaz; Mohammad, Yousef

2013-05-13

413

Description of Nematotaenia dispar from gray monitor (Varanus griseus) a new record in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Due to the increasing information on the reptile fauna in Saudi Arabia and the importance of this group of vertebrate animals, it is of great interest to study the parasites that can infect them. Out of total ten gray monitor Varanus griseus of both sex, only three were found to be infected (representing an infection rate of 30%) with parasitic worms. The parasitic burden index was 20. As regards to sex, 60.7% of the infected Varanus were males. These gray monitor, Varanus griseus of both sexes were caught from the arid area of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The present study provided that Nematotaenia dispar was the only worm isolated and identified from the infected gray monitor. The present is the first record of this parasite from Saudi Arabia. PMID:19530630

Al-Mohammed, Hamdan I

2009-04-01

414

The Madinah eruption, Saudi Arabia: Magma mixing and simultaneous extrusion of three basaltic chemical types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a 52-day eruption in 1256 A.D., 0.5 km3 of alkali-olivine basalt was extruded from a 2.25-km-long fissure at the north end of the Harrat Rahat lava field, Saudi Arabia. The eruption produced 6 scoria cones and a lava flow 23 km long that approached the ancient and holy city of Madinah to within 8 km. Three chemical types of basalt are defined by data point clusters on variation diagrams, i.e. the low-K, high-K, and hybrid types. All three erupted simultaneously. Their distribution is delineated in both scoria cones and lava flow units from detailed mapping and a petrochemical study of 135 samples. Six flow units, defined by distinct flow fronts, represent extrusive pulses. The high-K type erupted during all six pulses, the low-K type during the first three, and the hybrid type during the first two. Three mineral assemblages occur out of equilibrium in all three chemical types. Assemblage 1 contains resorbed olivine and clinopyroxene megacrysts and ultramafic microxenoliths (Fo90 + Cr spinel + Cr endiopside) which fractionated within the spinel zone of the mantle. Assemblage 2 contains resorbed plagioclase megacrysts (An60) with olivine inclusions (Fo78) which fractionated in the crust. Assemblage 3 contains microphenocrysts of plagioclase and olivine in a groundmass of the same minerals with late-crystallizing titansalite and titanomagnetite; assemblage 3 crystallized at the surface and/or in the upper crust. Each assemblage represents a distinct range in PTX environment, suggesting that their coexistence in each chemical type may be a function of magma mixing. Such a process is confirmed by variable ratios of incompatible element pairs in a range of analyses. All three chemical types are products of mixing. Some of the hybrid types may have developed from surface mixing of the low-K and high-K lavas; however, the occurrence of all three types at the vent system suggests that subsurface mixing was the dominant process. We suggest that the Madinah flow was extruded from a heterogeneous magma chamber containing vertically stacked sections equivalent to the six eruptive pulses. This chamber may have developed contemporaneously with magma mixing when a crustal reservoir containing a magma in equilibrium with assemblage 2 was invaded by a more primitive magma containing cognate microxenoliths and megacrysts of assemblage 1.

Camp, Victor E.; Hooper, Peter R.; Roobol, M. John; White, D. L.

1987-04-01

415

Sister Cities International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People from around the world have sought to establish links with other individuals from different nations, and since 1956, cities have sought to also establish meaningful relationships with other urban areas through the Sister Cities International organization. Currently, the organization represents more than 2,500 communities in 126 countries. Visitors to the site can learn which cities are currently seeking partnerships with other cities, read about the organization's annual conference, and also read about the programs they administer. Also, its calendar of events is quite full with programs designed for the general public, such as those dealing with relationships with countries in the Middle East and the question of local government. Finally, the material on the site is available in a number of different languages, including French, German, Spanish, and Japanese.

416

Noise in Mexico City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mexico City is known to be the largest city in the world, inhabited by some 20 percent of the national population, so noise pollution is not strange to it, particularly in view of the fact that industry is not concentrated, but rather spread throughout the city. The international airport also lies within the city limits, in the midst of residential areas. The heavy traffic during rush hours in the morning and in the evening and the activities of the populace, together with special events, produce a noise problem that is difficult to assess and to solve. Nevertheless, with educational programs begun several years ago and noise campaigns planned for the near future, in addition to existing regulations, the problem is not completely out of control. This paper presents a discussion of the general noise problem and describes how authorities and institutions are dealing with it.

Beristain, Sergio

2001-05-01

417

Design a Solar City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students design and build a model city powered by the sun! They learn about the benefits of solar power, and how architectural and building engineers integrate photovoltaic panels into the design of buildings.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

418

Transforming Cities With Transit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are cities transformed by the creation of new transit lines? How can existing transit lines be modified to create new land use opportunities for housing and commercial properties? These subjects are covered by a 172-page conference edition of a forthcoming paper from the World Bank. The paper was authored by Hiroaki Suzuki, Robert Cervero, and Kanako Iuchi. Visitors will note that the work focuses on "identifying barriers to and opportunities for effective coordination of transport infrastructure and urban development." The work takes on a number of global best practices of transit-oriented metropolises that have direct relevance to cities in developing countries and offers both analysis and suggestions for future projects. Sections here include "Lessons from Sustainable Transit-Oriented Cities," "Integrating Transit and Urban Development in Cities in the Developing World," and "Toward Sustainable Urban Futures."

Cervero, Robert.; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Iuchi, Kanako

419

State of health economic evaluation research in Saudi Arabia: a review  

PubMed Central

Background If evaluation of economic evidence is to be used increasingly in Saudi Arabia, a review of the published literature would be useful to inform policy decision-makers of the current state of research and plan future research agendas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the state of health economic evaluation research within the Saudi context with regard to the number, characteristics, and quality of published articles. Methods A literature search was conducted on May 8, 2011 to identify health economic articles pertaining to Saudi Arabia in the PubMed, Embase, and EconLit databases, using the following terms alone or in combination: “cost*”, “economics”, “health economics”, “cost-effectiveness”, “cost-benefit”, “cost minimization”, “cost utility analysis”, and “Saudi”. Reference lists of the articles identified were also searched for further articles. The tables of contents of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal and the Saudi Medical Journal were reviewed for the previous 5 years. Results The search identified 535 citations. Based on a reading of abstracts and titles, 477 papers were excluded. Upon reviewing the full text of the remaining 58 papers, 43 were excluded. Fifteen papers were included. Ten were categorized as full economic evaluations and five as partial economic evaluations. These articles were published between 1997 and 2010. The majority of the studies identified did not clearly state the perspective of their evaluation. There are many concerns about the methods used to collect outcome and costs data. Only one study used some sort of sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of uncertainty on the robustness of its conclusions. Conclusion This review highlights major flaws in the design, analysis, and reporting of the identified economic analyses. Such deficiencies mean that the local economic evidence available to decision-makers is not very useful. Thus, building research capability in health economics is warranted.

Al-Aqeel, Sinaa A

2012-01-01

420

The Microbiology of Tonsils in Khamis Civil Hospital, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Tonsillitis is a common infection in all age groups, especially under the age of five. Organisms causing this condition vary from place to place. Our aim is to find out the main causative agents of this condition in our hospital. Patients and Methods. Fifty-two consenting patients who needed tonsillectomy in Khamis civil hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between September 2006 and April 2007, were enrolled for the study. Swabs were taken from their inner surfaces and cultured for anaerobes and aerobes according to standard microbiological techniques. Results. Fifty-two patients, consisting of 30 males and 22 females were enrolled. Their mean age was 9.81 ± 6.47. Nearly 65% of patients had positive cultures while 35% were negative. The commonest bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (44.1%); and Group B Streptococcus (35.3 %). Two Gram-negative bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, (8.82%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.94 %), were also isolated. No anaerobe was isolated. Conclusion. Gram-positive cocci, consisting of Staphylococcus aureus and Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae), are the major causes of tonsillitis requiring surgery in our hospital. Antibiotic treatment of this condition should be directed largely against these organisms.

Al Ahmary, Mohammed S.; Al Mastour, Ali S.; Ghnnam, Wagih M.

2012-01-01

421

Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition. PMID:12656385

Abdou, Adel A

2003-03-01

422

Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

Abdou, Adel A.

2003-03-01

423

A review of some statistics on breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Breastfeeding is the ideal and most natural way of nurturing infants. The importance of breastfeeding has been proved unequivocally, and UNICEF and WHO have issued guidelines to ensure breastfeeding. Saudi Arabia is a country where the legislation is derived from the Quran and Hadiths. The Holy Quran says that the mothers shall give suck to their offspring for two complete years.... The majority of mothers start breastfeeding their infants but soon introduce bottles. The single most common reason cited for the early introduction of bottle feeding is that the breast milk is insufficient. Because of this tendency, many mothers practice mixed feeding. The duration of breastfeeding varies but in general it is done beyond six months, and various factors affect the duration. Researchers have recently started using the WHO recommended key breastfeeding indicators. In a study these key indicators were found to be very low. The authors feel that there is a need to revise the media campaign for promoting breastfeeding utilizing the instructions and guidance from the Holy Quran and Hadiths. PMID:14653507

Al-Jassir, Mohammed; Moizuddin, Syed Khaja; Al-Bashir, Bushra

2003-01-01

424

Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

Aljaloud, Sulaiman O.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

2013-01-01

425

Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance. PMID:23762541

Aljaloud, Sulaiman O; Ibrahim, Salam A

2013-05-26

426

Patterns of childhood nephrotic syndrome in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

To determine the patterns in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) in our region, we retrospectively studied 25 nephrotic patients evaluated and followed-up in the hospitals of the Aljouf region in Saudi Arabia. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The incidence of idiopathic NS was two to six cases per 100,000 children/year, while the prevalence was 12 cases per 100,000 children. Five patients presented with hypertension, seven (28%) with respiratory tract infection, three (12%) with tender abdomen, two (8%) with gross hematuria, one (4%) with thrombosis of renal veins with seizure and shock and the remaining seven presented to the hospital without complications. Twenty-three (92%) patients were sensitive to the first steroid course and two (8%) patients were steroid resistant, and both of them proved to have focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) on biopsy. Of those who responded, six (24%) patients remained in remission, while 17 (68%) patients became steroid dependant. Of those who were diagnosed as steroid dependent, three patients were biopsied and one of them was diagnosed as FSGS, while the remaining two had minimal change glomerulonephritis. Regarding steroid-dependent patient relapses, seven (41%) patients showed infrequent relapses and ten (59%) patients had frequent relapses. We conclude that the patterns of NS and the response to treatment observed in this study did not differ significantly from studies from other places in the world. PMID:24029283

Alhassan, Abdulaziz; Mohamed, Waleed Z; Alhaymed, Mohamed

2013-09-01

427

Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia. PMID:22134079

Khater, Ashraf E M

2012-01-01

428

Conjunctival nevi: clinical and histopathologic features in a Saudi population  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Conjunctival nevi are benign lesions with wide variation in clinical and histopathological features. The differentiation between benign nevi and other pigmented lesions is essential. The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of the histopathologic types of conjunctival nevi among the Saudi population and to provide the basic knowledge needed for proper clinical diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study of surgically excised benign conjunctival nevi was conducted at a tertiary care eye hospital from 1995 to 2006. Clinical data was collected from medical records and the histopathologic features reviewed by a single pathologist. RESULTS: A total 105 conjunctival nevi were included from 104 consecutive patients (mean age, 26 years, 54 males and 50 females). The anatomical location was the bulbar conjunctiva in 83%, juxtalimbal in 12%, caruncle in 4% and palpebral in 1%. The lesion was removed for cosmetic reasons in 38% while 8% of the lesions were removed to rule out malignancy. The compound nevus was the commonest (72%) in all age groups, followed by subepithelial nevus (24%) and finally junctional nevus (3%). CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of the histopathologic types of this tumor in our population matches the pattern in other areas of the world with the compound nevus being the commonest lesion. However, fewer lesions among our patients are removed to rule out malignancy.

Alkatan, Hind M.; Al-Arfaj, Khalid M.; Maktabi, Azza

2010-01-01

429

Evaluation of emulsified asphalt for use in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Arabia currently contains 31,000 km (18,600 mi) of paved roads and 42,000 km (25,200 mi) of agricultural roads, with the prospect of more roads to be constructed. The low population (6 million) compared to the large area of the country (2,253,300 kmS, 900,000 miS) coupled with the high cost of crushed aggregate makes maintenance and road building costs very high. Local emulsified-asphalt economics, plants, and uses were investigated in this study. Emulsified asphalt proved to be attractive when used for local road maintenance and road bases and low-volume road construction, especially when used with dune sand and marl. Emulsified asphalts were evaluated for use with dune sand and marl and at two portland cement contents. Three types of emulsified asphalts were used which included locally produced, laboratory prepared, and Chevron USA emulsions. Emulsion treated mixes were tested for tensile strength, Poisson's ratio, resilient modulus, fatigue life, and rutting characteristics. Both diametral and beam fatigue tests were used and tests were conducted at 10, 25, 40, and 55C (50, 77, 104, and 131F). The open-graded mix was tested for fatigue characteristics using beam flexure with a confining membrane.

Al-Abdulwahhab, H.I.

1985-01-01

430

Sinkhole detection using electrical resistivity tomography in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst phenomena exist in different areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, causing serious environmental problems that affect urban development and infrastructure (buildings, roads and highways). One of the most important problems are sinkholes, which most of the time consist of unfilled voids. These sinkholes are formed as a result of the chemical leaching of carbonate and evaporite formations by percolating water. Field investigations show that there are many surface expressions of sinkholes in the area; some appear on the ground surface and others are hidden in the subsurface. Geophysical data were collected at the study area using two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with different electrode spacings to delineate buried sinkholes and associated subsurface cavities. Our findings indicated that the dipole-dipole method using an electrode spacing of 1 m was successful in detecting a known subsurface sinkhole. According to the ERT method the detected sinkhole depth ranges from 2 to 4 m, its height ranges from 2 to 4 m, and its width ranges from 5 to 7 m. Field observation has verified the geophysical data, especially along the profile A-A\\. Finally, closely spaced ERT profiles were successful in determining the three-dimensional volume of the subsurface sinkhole.

Youssef, Ahmed M.; El-Kaliouby, Hesham; Zabramawi, Yasser A.

2012-12-01

431

Compliance of Saudi dental students with infection control guidelines.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate compliance of dental students in a Saudi dental school with recommended infection control protocols. A pilot-tested questionnaire concerning various aspects of infection control practices was distributed to 330 dental students. The response rate was 93.9% (n = 311). About 99% of students recorded the medical history of their patients and 80% were vaccinated against hepatitis B. The highest compliance (100%) with recommended guidelines was reported for wearing gloves and use of a new saliva ejector for each patient. Over 90% of the respondents changed gloves between patients, wore face masks, changed hand instruments, burs and handpieces between patients, used a rubber dam in restorative procedures and discarded sharp objects in special containers. A lower usage rate was reported for changing face masks between patients (81%), disinfecting impression materials (87%) and dental prosthesis (74%) and wearing gowns (57%). Eye glasses and face shield were used by less than one-third of the sample. The majority of students were found to be in compliance with most of the investigated infection control measures. Nevertheless, further education is needed to improve some infection control measures including vaccination for Hepatitis B virus (HBV), wearing eye glasses, gowns and face shields and disinfecting impression materials and dental prostheses. PMID:23879255

Ahmad, Ibrahim Ali; Rehan, Elaf Ali; Pani, Sharat Chandra

2013-04-15

432

Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series. PMID:11378931

al-Jarallah, M

2001-01-01

433

Insecticide resistance in anophelines in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

In 1953, the fifth year of a malaria control programme with DDT in Eastern Saudi Arabia, the resting of Anopheles stephensi on recently sprayed surfaces suggested the development of resistance in this species to DDT, and this suspicion has been confirmed by tests carried out from 1955 to 1958. DDT was replaced by dieldrin in 1955 and malaria rates, which had been rising, were again reduced. No dieldrin-resistance has been found in local. A. stephensi strains, and no A. stephensi have been collected from treated villages since the wide use of dieldrin. A. pulcherrimus, A. coustani var. tenebrosus, A. fluviatilis and A. sergenti have proved susceptible to DDT, but the first two have developed resistance to dieldrin. A. pulcherrimus was rarely collected before and during the use of DDT but has become increasingly frequent since the introduction of dieldrin. Its possible role in transmitting malaria in the area is discussed. Egg measurements and ratios on several series of eggs obtained from locally collected A. stephensi fall within the limits of the range set for A. stephensi mysorensis, not previously recorded outside India.

Peffly, R. L.

1959-01-01

434

Designing the Digital City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forms that cities take, the ways they function, and the mixes and distributions of activities within them have always\\u000a been influenced very strongly by the capabilities of their underlying network infrastructures. Furthermore, cities have often\\u000a been transformed by the introduction of new infrastructures. It is impossible to imagine Rotterdam without its canals and\\u000a connection to the North Sea, Chicago

William J. Mitchell

2000-01-01

435

Atopia (On Vice City)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It’s like paradise here. Everything seems pastel-hued as you drive by with the radio on. The car is stolen, but so long as\\u000a the police didn’t see you, it won’t matter. Vice City is a nice place (Grand Theft Auto: Vice City 2002). It is not quite utopia. And nor is it some dark dystopia. There’s no\\u000a storyline here where

McKenzie Wark

436

[Cities in peril, Mahgreb].  

PubMed

The urban population has surpassed 50% in the Maghreb: first in Tunisia, followed by Algeria and Morocco. This phenomenon has greatly affected the distribution of power and the forms of its exercise in the political, social, and economic domain. The old city social strata are becoming extinct while city management is falling more and more under the control of cadres originally from rural areas. Urbanization is occurring at a slower pace than in other developing countries, however. In Morocco, the small- and medium-sized towns are growing at a faster rate than the cities. Their lack of infrastructure and services, like those that exist in the periphery of large cities, preoccupies the small- and medium-sized towns. The urban explosion is much more contained than its management is adapting. Legal and illegal housing will dominate the Moroccan city in the future. In the last decade, Moroccan authorities have tried to establish mechanisms to integrate populations in slums and illegal housing with the urban space. The Tunisians are also working on this. In Algeria, the rigid, urban formal management leaves no room to develop any type of housing. The problem of housing is even more grave here than the other 2 countries. Structural adjustment policies promote selling rather than renting houses. The government is not involved in social and health services. Algeria has a 2-tier society: a minority involved in the private sector and the majority who depends on the collapsing public sector which cannot meet the great needs of the poor. Persons with college degrees are unemployed in Algeria. One no longer knows how to build towns with the traditional medinas. The transportation system is falling apart in cities. Cities dump liquid and solid wastes directly into the sea or the wadis. The major risk of maghrebian cities lies in socioeconomic inequalities. PMID:12179396

Naciri, M

1994-10-01

437

The Cities Alliance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the World Bank and other organizations, the Cities Alliance is "a global coalition of cities and their development partners committed to scaling up successful approaches to poverty reduction." The "News" area is front and center on their homepage and it provides a fine overview of their work, which ranges from concerted efforts to upgrade slums in the developing world, developing strategies to help cities with their financial situation, and also working on cohesive and comprehensive development strategies. Visitors can click on the right-hand side of the page to learn more about each of these thematic areas in the "Cities Alliance Activities" section. Moving on, the "Publications" area with its annual reports, fact sheets, and archived e-newsletters is a place worth visiting as well. The site is rounded out by the "City Development Strategies" area, which offers a rigorous explanation of the ways in which cities can assess their existing strengths and what the key aspects of a meaningful development strategy might be.

438

A new species of Chalicodoma from Saudi Arabia with modified facial setae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia with such morphological adaptations, Chalicodoma riyadhense sp. n., is described and figured. The species was captured visiting flowers of Blepharis ciliaris (L.) (Acanthaceae). The occurrence of modified facial setae is documented and discussed for the first time in eight other species of Pseudomegachile, and a key to the genera and subgenera of Megachilini currently confirmed for Saudi Arabia is provided.

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

2012-01-01

439

Triage systems: a review of the literature with reference to Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This review evaluates some of the international literature on triage in order to provide evidence-based data for the medical community in Saudi Arabia specifically and the Eastern Mediterranean Region in general. The aim is to encourage national health planners and decision-makers to apply formal triage systems in the emergency departments of general and specialist hospitals and other relevant health settings, including primary and psychiatric care. Research and training on triage is extremely limited in Saudi Arabia and the Region and this review highlights the need for more research on triage systems and for the inclusion of training on triage in medical education programmes. PMID:20799600

Qureshi, N A

2010-06-01

440

Ultra-high CPV system development and deployment in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.

Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor

2013-09-01

441

A new species of Chalicodoma from Saudi Arabia with modified facial setae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae).  

PubMed

Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia with such morphological adaptations, Chalicodoma riyadhensesp. n., is described and figured. The species was captured visiting flowers of Blepharis ciliaris (L.) (Acanthaceae). The occurrence of modified facial setae is documented and discussed for the first time in eight other species of Pseudomegachile, and a key to the genera and subgenera of Megachilini currently confirmed for Saudi Arabia is provided. PMID:22787421

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Gonzalez, Victor H; Engel, Michael S

2012-06-25

442

The Right to the City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identity and character of cities in America have been profoundly influenced by race. In the past, laws mandating the segregation of African American and white urban residents through racially discriminatory housing and lending policies created racial geographic boundaries within cities and between cities and suburbs. The impact of this racial segregation in cities can be seen in the creation

Ngai Pindell

2008-01-01

443

Bushehr as an Energic City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bushehr city is one of the famous city in the south of Iran which is situated in the coastal part of Persian Gulf. This paper try to discuss one of the most important theme which threat the sustainability and comfortability of tomorrow`s life. Changing Bushehr into an Energic city is one of the effective ways to solve the cities problem.

Nasser Sabatsani

2007-01-01

444

Antibiotic Attack (Kinetic City)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game is a part of the Tau Pack of the Kinetic City site (see description below). In this simulation, the patient's bodies are filled with bacteria. The object is to cure as many patients as possible. Learning concepts enforced here are that antibiotics are specific for the type of bacteria they treat, their strength, and that the bacteria may also become resistant to the bacteria by mutations.KINETIC CITY DESCRIPTION: "Kinetic City" (www.kineticcity.com) is a fun, Web-based after-school science club for kids, ages 8 through 11. It combines exciting online animations and activities with boxes of hands-on science experiments. Children earn "Kinetic City" power points and collect stickers as they complete missions and learn standards-based science content. Here's how it works: The "Kinetic City" super crew (Keisha, Curtis, Megan and Max) needs the help of Earth kids to save their planet Vearth, from the science-distorting computer virus Deep Delete. Each of Deep Delete's 60 hideous strains attacks a different area of science with disastrous consequences. After each attack, teams of Earth kids fight back by viewing a short online animation describing the situation on Vearth; performing a series of activities to re-learn the lost science and going on a mission to Vearth during which they answer science questions and gobble up Deep Delete viruses. Their scores appear on their own Kinetic City Club Web page. "Kinetic City" is produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), with a grant from the National Science Foundation. AAAS writes the "Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy," which forms the basis of most state science standards.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-01-01

445

The knowledge that shapes the city: The human city beneath the social city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In the Atlanta Symposium (Hillier, 2001, 2003a) a theory of the social construction ofthe city was presented. In this paper it is proposed that underlying the various kinds of social city there is a deeper, more generic human city, which arises from the pervasive intervention of the human,cognitive subject in the shaping and working of the city. This intervention

Bill Hillier

446

The puzzle of self-reported weight gain in a month of fasting (Ramadan) among a cohort of Saudi families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background During Ramadan fast, approximately one billion Muslims abstain from food and fluid between the hours of sunrise to sunset, and usually eat a large meal after sunset and another meal before sunrise. Many studies reported good health-related outcomes of fasting including weight loss. The objective of this study is to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a group of families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross-section study using a pre-designed questionnaire to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a representative cohort of Saudis living in Jeddah. It was piloted on 173 nutrition students and administered by them to their families. Results A total of 173 Saudi families were interviewed. One out of 5 indicated that their expenditure increases during Ramadan. Approximately two thirds of the respondents (59.5%) reported weight gain after Ramadan. When asked about their perspective explanations for that: 40% attributed that to types of foods being rich in fat and carbohydrates particularly date in (Sunset meal) 97.7% and rice in (Dawn meal) 80.9%. One third (31.2%) indicated that it was due to relative lack of physical exercise in Ramadan and 14.5% referred that to increase in food consumption. Two thirds (65.2%) of those with increased expenditure reported weight gain. Conclusion Surprisingly weight gain and not weight loss was reported after Ramadan by Saudis which indicates timely needed life-style and dietary modification programs for a population which reports one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes.

2011-01-01

447

Characteristics of Down syndrome subjects in a Saudi sample.  

PubMed

Objective: To compare the cephalometric characteristics of Down syndrome (DS) subjects with those of normal subjects. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric radiographs of 60 Saudi DS subjects and 60 controls with specific inclusion criteria were used. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the quantitative and categorical variables, and the Student's t-test for two independent samples was used to compare the mean values of quantitative variables. Results: SBa and SN were higher in controls than in DS subjects, whereas the NSBa was significantly higher in DS subjects than in controls. SNA, Co-A, ANB, and A-Na perp of controls were higher than the DS subjects. However, SN-MP, PP-MP, ANS-Me/N-Me, Y-axis, and Ar-Go-Me of the DS subjects were higher than those of the controls. In addition, U1-NA, U1-NA mm, L1-NB, and L1-NB mm of the DS subjects were also higher than the controls with a more acute U1-L1 angle in DS. NLA was larger in controls than in DS, whereas LL-E and UL-E of the DS subjects were higher than the controls. Conclusions: Differences between DS subjects and controls can be found when examining cephalometric radiographs. Anterior and posterior cranial base lengths are shorter with a backward inclination of the posterior cranial base in DS subjects. DS subjects present with a retrognathic maxilla and shorter effective length, with an increased LFH and a hyperdivergent mandible. Bimaxillary dental protrusion can also be expected in DS subjects with prominent lips and a reduced nasolabial angle. PMID:23745979

Korayem, Mohammed A; Alkofide, Eman A

2013-06-01

448

Remote sensing of aerosols over the Solar Village, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol optical properties over Solar Village, Saudi Arabia have been studied using ground-based remote sensing observations through the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Our analysis covered 8 recorded years of aerosol measurements, starting from February 1999 through January 2007. The seasonal mean values of aerosol optical thickness (AOT), the Ångström wavelength exponent ? and the surface wind speed ( V), exhibit a one year cyclical pattern. Seasonal variations are clearly found in the shape and magnitude of the volume size distribution (VSD) of the coarse size mode due to dust emission. The Spring is characterized by dusty aerosols as the modal value of the exponent ? was low ~ 0.25 while that of AOT was high ~ 0.3. The modal value of wind speed was the highest ~ 3.6 m/s in spring. The increase in wind speed is responsible for increasing the concentration of dust particles during Spring. Spring of 2003 has the highest mean values of AOT, V and VSD and the lowest mean value for the exponent ?. The seasonal mean values of the exponent ? are anticorrelated with those of the wind speed ( r = - 0.63). The annual mean values of the exponent ? are well correlated ( r = 0.77) with those of the difference between the maximum and minimum values of temperature ? T. They are anticorrelated ( r = - 0.74) with the annual mean values of the relative humidity. Large aerosol particles and high relative humidity increase the radiative forcing. This results in reduction of the values of the temperature difference ? T.

Sabbah, I.; Hasan, Fatma M.

2008-11-01

449

Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action  

PubMed Central

Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution.

Al-Naami, Mohammed Y.; Arafah, Maria A.; Al-Ibrahim, Fatimah S.

2010-01-01

450

Reproducing in cities.  

PubMed

Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European birth rates began to plummet. Fertility decline in Africa only started recently and has been dramatic in some cities. Here it is argued that both historical and evolutionary demographers are interpreting fertility declines across the globe in terms of the relative costs of child rearing, which increase to allow children to outcompete their peers. Now largely free from the fear of early death, postindustrial societies may create an environment that generates runaway parental investment, which will continue to drive fertility ever lower. PMID:18258904

Mace, Ruth

2008-02-01

451

Scanning electron microscopy of Subulura brumpti from domestic chicken Gallus gallus domesticus from Taif, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The nematode Subulura brumpti is described from the caecae of the domestic fowl collected from Taif, Saudi Arabia. The surface topography of the worms is described using scanning electron microscopy. This included the description of mouth opening, sensory papillae, cuticular surface, copulatory spicules and copulatory papillae. PMID:23697032

Ashour, Ameen A; Al-Gody, Mansour H

2013-04-01

452

THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNAL AUDIT IN SAUDI ARABIA: AN INSTITUTIONAL THEORY PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses institutional theory to interpret the results of two questionnaires and research interviews concerned with internal audit in the Saudi Arabian corporate sector. The results show that internal audit is not well developed. Where it does exist it operates in departments that are inadequately resourced, lack qualified staff, have restrictions on their degree of independence, concentrate on compliance

Abdulrahman A. M Al-Twaijry; John A Brierley; David R Gwilliam

2003-01-01

453

Women in dentistry: A perspective on major universities in Saudi Arabia. Part 1: Historical background  

PubMed Central

As the works of females have been present in many fields of our lives, the history mentions little trace of these facts. The field of dentistry was among these professions. This paper will review the presence of dental practice by women world wide and will present a review of dentistry in Saudi Arabia.

Shaker, Randa E.; Babgi, Amani A.

2009-01-01

454

Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, America and the World: September 11th from Another Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper employs an autobiographical method using biographical elements from narrated experiences from Cyprus, Saudi Arabia, and the United States, where she has come to study. The paper offers perspectives on the September 11, 2001 tragedy and other acts of terrorism, violence, and mass destruction. It describes how the author's Cyprus…

Christodoulou, Niki

455

Religion and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among young Muslim women in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen young women suffering from OCD in Saudi Arabia were interviewed about their experience of the illness and the roles played by religion. Religion was not perceived as a cause of the illness, but the illness can show itself in religious symptoms – notably with respect to prayer, and in a phase in which the young women were very strict

Lamis Al-Solaim; Kate Miriam Loewenthal

2011-01-01

456

Seat belt utilization in Saudi Arabia and its impact on road accident injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most industrialized countries and many developing countries have passed laws that require the use of seat belts in motor vehicles. It is widely believed that seat belt use is an effective way to reduce road accident fatalities and injuries. Saudi Arabia joined these countries when it enacted a similar law on 5 December 2000 making seat belt use compulsory for

Salaheddine Bendak

2005-01-01

457

Eastern Margin of the Red Sea and the Coastal Structures in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of many investigations since 1950 show that the eastern margin of the Red Sea and associated coastal structures in Saudi Arabia have a long geologic history, starting with the deposition of Precambrian eugeosynclinal sedimentary and volcanic rocks before 1000 Ma ago and extending to recent geologic time. The northeastern flank of the Red Sea rift valley is in a

G. F. Brown

1970-01-01

458

Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis in Saudi Arabia: Are We Off the Hook?  

PubMed Central

Some 400 million people worldwide are currently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and the infection is common in the Middle East. Another 170 million people around the globe presently live with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Both HBV and HCV represent a worldwide epidemic. Despite significant decline in the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in Saudi Arabia, these viral diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, and impose a great burden on the country's healthcare system. On the other hand, Saudi epidemiology studies have shown that the hepatitis A virus seroprevalence in the country has reduced considerably over the past two decades. The progress in mapping the epidemiological pattern of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia has not only aided our understanding of the disease, but has also exposed the small but relevant gaps in our identification of the intricate details concerning the disease's clinical expression. In this review, we aim to document the timeline of viral hepatitis epidemiology in Saudi Arabia, while summarizing the relevant published literature on the subject.

Abdo, Ayman A.; Sanai, Faisal M.; Al-Faleh, Faleh Z.

2012-01-01

459

An optimization model for guiding the petrochemical industry development in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed integer linear programming model is formulated for determining the optimum plan for the expansion of the Saudi Arabian petrochemical industry. The products selected for consideration fall into four categories: propylene derivatives, ethylene derivatives, synthesis gas derivatives, and aromatic derivatives. The model incorporates new variables and constraints, and realistic estimates of production costs, which are calculated based on local

Hesham Alfares; Adnan Al-Amer

2002-01-01

460

The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the nature of FDI flows into the economy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), its impacts and the various determinants, which govern its levels and performances. The paper discusses FDI in the KSA with respect to overall trends including stages, sources and their regional, sectoral and sub-sectoral distributions. Positive trends are observable in both contracted and

A. M. M. Abdel-Rahman

2002-01-01

461

Some mathematical planning models for management of the oil, gas, and petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation develops studies and mathematical methods for the managerial analysis of situations involving the interrelations of the oil and gas network facilities and the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. The first part develops a goal programming model to study the impact of crude oil develops a goal programming model to study the impact of crude oil production on the

Al-Zayer

1986-01-01

462

Petrochemical study of Al-Mizil plutonic rocks of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A petrochemical study of some rock samples has been carried out using different experimental techniques. The rock samples were collected from the Al-Mizil area, Saudi Arabia. Al-Mizil area consists of Precambrian metasediments which belong to the Halaban Formation. The plutonic rocks later intruded into the Halaban Formation. Major oxides and trace elements in these rocks are presented. The study indicates

A. Naeem; A. A. Almohandis

1986-01-01

463

Health data standards and adoption process : Preliminary findings of a qualitative study in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for, health data and related standards in

Abdullah Alkraiji; Thomas Jackson; Ian Murray

2011-01-01

464

Perception of Saudi dentists and lay people to altered smile esthetics  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate and compare the perceptions of Saudi dentists and lay people to altered smile features. Methods Thirty-six digital smile photographs with altered features were used. Altered features included the following: crown length, width, gingival level of the lateral incisors, gingival display, midline diastema, and upper midline shift. The photographs were presented to a sample of 30 dentists and 30 lay people with equal gender distribution. Each participant rated each picture with a visual analogue scale, which ranged from 0 (very unattractive) to 100 (very attractive). Results Dentists were more critical than lay people when evaluating symmetrical crown length discrepancies. Compared to lay people, Saudi dentists gave lower ratings to a crown length discrepancy of >2 mm (P < 0.001), crown width discrepancy of ?2 mm (P < 0.05), change in gingiva to lip distance of ?2 mm (P < 0.01), and midline deviation of >1 mm (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between dentists and lay people towards alterations in the gingival level of the lateral incisors or towards a space between the central incisors. No significant sex difference was seen across the groups. Conclusion In this sample, Saudi dentists gave significantly lower attractiveness scores to crown length and crown width discrepancies, midline deviations, and changes in gingiva to lip distance compared to Saudi lay people.

Talic, Nabeel; AlOmar, Samar; AlMaidhan, Asma

2012-01-01

465

The pattern and factors associated with child spacing in eastern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the patterns of child spacing/birth intervals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and the socio-economic factors related to them. The study sample comprised nine to 10-year-old Saudi school children randomly selected from 14 schools in Khobar, Thoghba and Dhahran in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A two-stage sampling technique was applied and yielded a sample of 536 children. The SPSS programme was used for data analysis. The mean preceding and succeeding birth intervals of children in the study were 26.2 +/- 13.7 and 28.2 +/- 12 months respectively. The most important variables that were found to be significantly correlated with the birth intervals were maternal age, level of education, family size and breastfeeding. This is the first time birth intervals were studied for an urban area in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The figures-obtained are essential for any planning of mother and child health interventions. Health team members need to know this information and the variables related to them in order to advise mothers. The figures are also essential in planning measures to reduce infant and child morbidity and mortality. PMID:14669496

al-Almaie, S M

2003-11-01

466

State, Islam and opposition in Saudi Arabia: The post?desert storm phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the status of Saudi opposition groups in the period following the Second Gulf War. The historical roots of opposition to the monarchy are traced, and it is noted that although the monarchy did successfully consolidate its authority and adapt over time, the presence of groups critical of the government and its Islamic and administrative positions have remained.

Joseph Kostiner

1996-01-01

467

Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia Among Female Elementary School Children in Northern Jeddah-Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in relation to variables such as: age, weight, height, mother s education, number of family members, and nutritional habit s among female elementary school children (age 6 -12 years) in the western province of Saudi Arabia. A total of 123 female children were

MAMDOOH A. GARI

2008-01-01

468

Perceived obstacles of Saudi- Arabian exporters of non-oil products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on one part of a study which investigates selected aspects of the export behaviour and assistance requirements of Saudi Arabian exporters of non-oil products; specifically, it focuses on results concerning firms’ perceived obstacles to exporting. Provides a contribution to the literature since, although a body of knowledge exists on the area of obstacles to exporting, empirical data has tended

Dave Crick; Mansour Al Obaidi; Shiv Chaudhry

1998-01-01

469

Survey of trace elements in household and bottled drinking water samples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total dissolved beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the drinking water of 101 households and 21 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to ascertain the water quality for human consumption. The Inductively

I Al-Saleh; I Al-Doush

1998-01-01

470

The economic costs of tobacco consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Pending a comprehensive study of tobacco economics in Saudi Arabia, our aim was to estimate the economic costs of tobacco consumption in Saudi Arabia over a period of 10 years (2001-2010). METHODS: Pertinent data on imported tobacco were obtained from the Saudi Customs Authority through the Central Department of Statistics and Information. Mortality was calculated using the following parameters: 1 ton of tobacco consumed causes an average of 0.65 premature deaths, and the net loss was calculated as US$47.6 million (2011 US$ prices) for every 1000 tons of tobacco consumed. This represented the net cost of premature deaths and the direct and indirect costs of morbidity. RESULTS: Using 2011 prices, the economic loss due to tobacco was US$20.5 billion over the last 10 years, without accounting for smuggled (illegally imported) tobacco. If the smuggling rate was 10% or 25%, the economic loss would be 22.6 or 25.6 billion US$, respectively. There were 280 000 premature deaths during the same period without accounting for smuggled tobacco. CONCLUSIONS: In Saudi Arabia, short-term and long-term economic gains will result from reductions in tobacco use. PMID:23696558

Albedah, Abdullah M N; Khalil, Mohamed K M

2013-05-21

471

Evaluation of solar energy research and its applications in Saudi Arabia — 20 years of experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-seventies Saudi Arabia has been at the forefront of research and development into solar energy. For example, two major international joint research and development (R&D) programs were funded, in cooperation with the United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany, aimed at developing renewable energy technology and demonstrating its applications by designing and installing several pilot

Saleh H. Alawaji

2001-01-01

472

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: University of Riyadh. Solar air conditioning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research on solar air conditioning at the University of Riyadh in Riyhadh, Saudi Arabia is presented. Topics relevant to the university's proposed solar cooling laboratory are discussed: absorption systems and various contingencies, photovoltaic solar collectors and thermoelectric elements, measuring instruments, solar radiation measurement and analysis, laboratory specifications, and decision theories. Dual cycle computations and equipment specifications are included among the appendices.

Not Available

1986-01-01

473

Heavy Metals Content of Commercial Inorganic Fertilizers Used in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years much concern has been given to toxic heavy metals which enter the human food chain. Application of inorganic fertilizers is considered one of the potential routes of such entry. In this work 74 samples of commercial fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were analyzed for their heavy metal concentrations. Fertilizer samples included 20 samples of

A. S. Modaihsh; M. S. Al-Swailem; M. O. Mahjoub

474

Coronary heart disease mortality in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia in 1989 and 1990.  

PubMed

Unfortunately, mortality statistics are not available for Saudi Arabia. In the absence of such data, this paper introduces data collected on the number of deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD), considered as a proportion of the total number of deaths, for patients in six hospitals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, for each month of the years 1409H and 1410H of the Hijri lunar calendar. These proportions, the so-called proportionate mortality ratio (PMR), are categorized in terms of gender and age, and in terms of a three-level lifestyle variable; namely, rural, urban, or bedouin. The data were analyzed using logistic regression. As might be expected, female deaths from CHD are a lower proportion of total deaths than are male deaths from CHD. However, an interesting conclusion is that CHD seems to be a less prevalent recorded cause of death among bedouins than among rural or urban Saudis. Some possible reasons are discussed. The proportion of recorded CHD deaths is higher in winter months and generally increases with increasing age (except for the very old). This study suggests some hypotheses about the size of the future CHD incidence in Saudi Arabia; it a) indicates the urgent need for comprehensive data collection and b) suggests the need for an effective health care program. PMID:17586951

Alobaid, A A; Gilchrist, R; Bointon, B

1994-09-01

475

Siting of nuclear power plants in Saudi Arabia using fuzzy decision analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy set theory is adapted here to handle decisions on selection of sites for nuclear power plants. The approach is demonstrated by considering a choice of a site for the first nuclear power plant in Saudi Arabia. The approach allows for accommodation of imprecision in evaluation of the factors impacting site selection such as the site geology; hydrology; seismology; topography;

A. R. F. Abdul-Fattah; W. H. Abulfaraj

1982-01-01

476

Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI\\/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny

Khaled K Abu-Amero; Ana M González; Jose M Larruga; Thomas M Bosley; Vicente M Cabrera

2007-01-01

477

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, May 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of May 1985 are presented. (ERA ci...

1985-01-01

478

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, June 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of June 1985 are presented. (ERA c...

1985-01-01

479

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Study, Yanbu, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of global and normal incident radiation at the Yanbu, Saudi Arabia solar powered desalination plant site are documented. The use of parabolic, two axis tracking, point focusing solar collectors necessitates the measurement and analysis of the normal incident data. The accuracy of the measuring instruments and the results of analysis of one year solar radiation are briefly discussed. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

480

Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

2010-01-01

481

Inflammatory bowel disease register: Steps towards Crohn's & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia (CCFSA).  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are among the leading cause of financial burden, morbidity and employee absenteeism in developed countries because of their chronic remitting and relapsing courses. IBD is estimated to affect the Canadian economy to the tune of 100 million dollars per year. The data regarding exact prevalence in Asian countries, including Saudi Arabia, is still incomplete as there is underreporting and lack of proper registry of the diagnosed cases. The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) has increased over the last decade in Saudi Arabia due to increased IBD awareness among population, as more patients seek medical help and also due to unknown reasons. There is a need of proper registration of IBD patients and establishment of Crohn's & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia (CCFSA) as in other parts of the world. The Crohn's & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia will be a forum which will co ordinate IBD treatment and research in the country in addition to health education among IBD population. PMID:23580900

Masoodi, Ibrahim; Alsayari, Khalid; Albishri, Jamal

2012-06-01

482

Injection safety at primary health care level in south-western Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of injection safety in Abha health district, Saudi Arabia, data were collected from 47 physicians and 85 nurses at 24 primary health care centres, using an observation checklist and an interview questionnaire. All centres used individually packed disposable syringes and puncture-proof containers to collect used needles. Needlestick injury in the previous year was reported by 14.9% of

A. A. Mahfouz; I. Abdelmoneim; M. Y. Khan; A. A. Daffalla; M. M. Diab; H. Shaban; H. S. Al Amri

483

Mineral and Microbial Contents of Bottled and Tap Water in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is essential to health however its purity, potability and the mineral content is important for consumption by humans. This study aim to determine the clinically important levels of minerals in bottled water and to determine the microbiological content of commercially available bottled waters and tap water from 5 regions of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Commercially available bottled mineral waters were

Kawther F. Abed; Suaad S. Alwakeel

484

Fat indices in high and low altitude populations in Southwestern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to determine the fat indices in high and low altitude populations in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Measurement of weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, mid-upper arm muscle area, and skinfold thickness over the triceps region in 261 males living at high altitude (3150 meters above sea level) and 237 males living at low altitude (500 meters above sea level) in Southern Saudi Arabia are reported. The assessment of fatness by calculation of percent body weight is supported by correlation of triceps skinfold thickness with body mass index (BMI). In both high- and lowlanders the triceps skinfold thickness has significant correlation with BMI (P<0.001 for both). BMI also showed significant correlations with body weight, mid-upper arm circumference and mid-upper arm muscle area (P<0.001 for all). The findings show that the use of skinfold thickness in the prediction of degree of fatness in both groups seems to be a practical and useful method. However, it appears that there is a need for densitometric studies among Saudi populations to enable the derivation of valid regression equations for the calculation of body fat from skinfold thickness measurements. In the absence of skinfold measurements the BMI appeared to be a reliable indicator for assessment of body fat in Saudi high- and lowlanders. PMID:17369729

Khalid, M E; Mahmoud, M S; Ahmed, M E; Adzaku, F K

1997-05-01

485

Mandibular cephalometric characteristics of a Saudi sample of patients having impacted third molars  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the cephalometric characteristics of mandibles of Saudi patients having impacted third molars and to compare them to those of patients having normally erupted third molars. Material and methods One hundred and twenty-one Saudi adult subjects (59 females and 62 males; age: 20–40 years) were divided into two groups based on the status of the mandibular third molars: (1) impaction group and (2) normal group. Means and standard deviations of 21 cephalometric measurements related to mandibular geometry were measured and compared between the two groups using the unpaired t-test. Males and females in the impaction group were also compared with their equivalent subgroups in the normal group using the unpaired t-test. Results Anteroposteriorly, space distal to second molar, ramal width and mandibular body length were significantly less in the impaction group than in the control group. In addition, posterior teeth were more upright in the impaction group. Vertically, posterior alveolar height was significantly less in the impaction group. The Y-axis was significantly increased in the impaction group. The significance of these measurements was variable between males and females. Conclusions Third-molar impactions in the Saudis living in the Western region of Saudi Arabia were more likely to occur when inadequate retromolar space is present. This can be attributed to certain mandibular skeletal and dental features, among which the increased width of mandibular ramus and backward inclination of posterior teeth seem to be the most influencing factors in both sexes.

Hassan, Ali H.

2010-01-01

486

From Barriers to Bridges: An Investigation on Saudi Student Mobility (2006-2009)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by…

Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

2011-01-01

487

Teaching Arabic and the Preparation of Its Teachers before Service in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…

Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

2012-01-01

488

Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric…

Amr, Mostafa Abdel-Monhem; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Hablas, Hatem Refaat

2010-01-01

489

U.S. Military/Security Assistance for Saudi Arabia Strategic Implications for the 1990s.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the 1950s the United States has had a strong Military/Security Assistance program with Saudi Arabia. This paper looks at the history of this program in some detail. Additionally, the paper looks at the dynamics of military balance among the nations ...

L. R. Mayes

1990-01-01

490

Health Data Standards and Adoption Process: Preliminary Findings of a Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans…

Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

2011-01-01

491