Science.gov

Sample records for malaria vector larvae

  1. Habitat Hydrology and Geomorphology Control the Distribution of Malaria Vector Larvae in Rural Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Andrew J.; Gamarra, Javier G. P.; Cross, Dónall E.; Macklin, Mark G.; Smith, Mark W.; Kihonda, Japhet; Killeen, Gerry F.; Ling’ala, George N.; Thomas, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Larval source management is a promising component of integrated malaria control and elimination. This requires development of a framework to target productive locations through process-based understanding of habitat hydrology and geomorphology. Methods We conducted the first catchment scale study of fine resolution spatial and temporal variation in Anopheles habitat and productivity in relation to rainfall, hydrology and geomorphology for a high malaria transmission area of Tanzania. Results Monthly aggregates of rainfall, river stage and water table were not significantly related to the abundance of vector larvae. However, these metrics showed strong explanatory power to predict mosquito larval abundances after stratification by water body type, with a clear seasonal trend for each, defined on the basis of its geomorphological setting and origin. Conclusion Hydrological and geomorphological processes governing the availability and productivity of Anopheles breeding habitat need to be understood at the local scale for which larval source management is implemented in order to effectively target larval source interventions. Mapping and monitoring these processes is a well-established practice providing a tractable way forward for developing important malaria management tools. PMID:24312606

  2. Toxicity of essential oil from Indian borage on the larvae of the African malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Essential oils are currently studied for the control of different disease vectors, because of their efficacy on targeted organisms. In the present investigation, the larvicidal potential of essential oil extracted from Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus) was studied against the African anthropophagic malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. The larvae of An. gambiae s.s laboratory colony and An. gambiae s.l of wild populations were assayed and the larval mortality was observed at 12, 24 and 48 h after exposure period with the concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ppm. Findings Larval mortality rates of the essential oil was entirely time and dose dependent. The LC50 values of the laboratory colony were 98.56 (after 12h) 55.20 (after 24 h) and 32.41 ppm (after 48 h) and the LC90 values were 147.40 (after 12h), 99.09 (after 24 h) and 98.84 ppm (after 48 h). The LC50 and LC90 values of the wild population were 119.52, 179.85 (after 12h) 67.53, 107.60 (after 24 h) and 25.51, 111.17 ppm (after 48 h) respectively. The oil showed good larvicidal potential after 48 h of exposure period against An. gambiae. The essential oil of Indian borage is a renowned natural source of larvicides for the control of the African malaria vector mosquito, An. gambiae. Conclusion The larvicidal efficacy shown by plant extracts against An. gambiae should be tested in semi field and small scale trials for effective compounds to supplement the existing larval control tools. PMID:23206364

  3. Effectiveness of a new granular formulation of biolarvicide Bacillus thuringiensis Var. israelensis against larvae of malaria vectors in India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Satyanarayan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Mittal, Pradeep K; Dash, Aditya P

    2011-01-01

    Control of vector(s) or mosquitoes, in general, through biolarvicide as an alternate biocontrol agent is a greatest desire. We evaluated a water-dispersible granular formulation biolarvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti, H-14 serotype; VectoBac(®) WDG) in the laboratory and also in the field against two principal malaria vectors, Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi. Laboratory evaluations against laboratory-reared immature of the two species were carried out at a temperature of 28°C ± 2°C and 70%-80% relative humidity. Field trials were conducted in a rural area and in Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. First trial against the rural vector An. culicifacies was carried out in stone quarry pits at dosages of 0.05, 0.2, and 1 g/m(2). The second trial against urban vector An. stephensi was carried out in ring wells at 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 g/m(2) dosages. Laboratory tests revealed increased efficacy against An. stephensi. The fifty percent lethal concentration (LC(50)) and LC(90) values against An. culicifacies and An. stephensi were 0.348 and 1.008 mg/L (χ(2) = 8.49; p > 0.05) and 0.245 and 0.533 mg/L (χ(2) = 4.67; p < 0.05), respectively. Based on the findings of no pupal production in the field, the formulation was effective up to 14 days at 0.2 g/m(2) or more appropriately at 0.25 g/m(2) dose for both the species under field conditions. We discuss how this new formulation was evaluated against An. culicifacies and An. stephensi under laboratory and field conditions. No adverse effects were observed on the nontarget species such as frogs, their tadpoles, small local fish, Notonectid bugs, and water scatters. We conclude that VectoBac WDG is effective at 0.25 g/m(2) and be recommended for its use in the vector-borne disease control program under integrated vector management concept. PMID:20491582

  4. Predatory capacity of a shorefly, Ochthera chalybescens, on malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    Minakawa, Noboru; Futami, Kyoko; Sonye, George; Akweywa, Peter; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    Background Since Ochthera chalybescens had been reported to prey on African malaria vectors, the predatory capacity of adults of this species on Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was explored. Method Predatory capacity of this fly on A. gambiae s.s. was tested at all developmental stages, including the adult stage in the laboratory setting. Effects of water depth on its predatory capacity were also examined. Results This study revealed that O. chalybescens preyed on mosquitoes at all life stages except eggs. It was able to prey on an average of 9.8 to 18.8 mosquito larvae in 24 hrs. Mosquito larva size and water depth did not affect predatory capacity. However, the predacious fly preyed on significantly more 2nd-instar larvae than on pupae when larvae and pupae were both available. Conclusion Ochthera chalybescens is, by all indications, an important predator of African malaria vectors. PMID:17683604

  5. Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus (Diptera: Culicidae), not the malaria vector we thought it was: Revised male and female morphology; larva, pupa, and male genitalia characters; and molecular verification

    PubMed Central

    HARRISON, BRUCE A.; RUIZ-LOPEZ, FREDDY; FALERO, GUILLERMO CALDERON; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; PECOR, JAMES E.; WILKERSON, RICHARD C.

    2015-01-01

    The name Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus Zavortink, commonly used for an important malaria vector in the eastern cordillera of the Andes, is here corrected to An. pholidotus Zavortink. We discovered that An. (Ker.) specimens from Peru, and reared-associated specimens from Ecuador, had unambiguous habitus characters that matched those on the male holotype of An. lepidotus. However, the specimens do not exhibit characters of the female allotype and female paratypes of An. lepidotus, which are actually An. pholidotus. Our specimens are the first correctly associated females of An. lepidotus, which allow us to provide a new morphological interpretation for the adult habitus of this species. This finding is also corroborated by molecular data from a portion of the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene and ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (rDNA ITS2). The pupal stage of An. lepidotus is described for the first time, and additional larval characters are also noted. Diagnostic morphological characters for the adult, pupal, and larval stages of An. pholidotus are provided to separate the two species. All stages of An. lepidotus are easily separated from other currently known species in subgenus Kerteszia and a new key to the females of An. (Kerteszia) is given. Previously published distribution, bionomics, and medical significance data are corrected and enhanced. PMID:26726290

  6. Diversity Cascades and Malaria Vectors

    PubMed Central

    CARLSON, JOHN C.; DYER, LEE A.; OMLIN, FRANCOIS X.; BEIER, JOHN C.

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between predator diversity and primary consumer abundance can include direct effects and indirect, cascading effects. Understanding these effects on immature Anopheles mosquitoes is important in sub-Saharan Africa, where most cases of malaria occur. Aquatic predators and immature mosquitoes were collected from shallow pools of varying age previously excavated by brickmakers in the western highlands of Kenya. Path analysis showed an indirect negative effect of habitat age on An. gambiae (Giles, 1902) mediated by effects on predator diversity. Disturbance resets habitats to an earlier successional stage, diminishing predator diversity and increasing An. gambiae populations. The increase in vector abundance as a result of reduced predator diversity highlights the public health value in conserving native insect diversity. PMID:19496413

  7. The biological control of the malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Kamareddine, Layla

    2012-09-01

    The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes. PMID:23105979

  8. Malaria vector species in Colombia: a review.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Lerma, James; Solarte, Yezid A; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria Isabel; Quiñones, Martha L; Ruiz-López, Freddy; Wilkerson, Richard C; González, Ranulfo

    2011-08-01

    Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the vectorial importance of the major Anopheles malaria vectors in Colombia. We provide basic information on the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, immature habitats, adult behaviour, feeding preferences and anthropophily, endophily and infectivity rates. We additionally review information on the life cycle, longevity and population fluctuation of Colombian Anopheles species. Emphasis was placed on the primary vectors that have been epidemiologically incriminated in malaria transmission: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles nuneztovari. The role of a selection of local, regional or secondary vectors (e.g., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles neivai) is also discussed. We highlight the importance of combining biological, morphological and molecular data for the correct taxonomical determination of a given species, particularly for members of the species complexes. We likewise emphasise the importance of studying the bionomics of primary and secondary vectors along with an examination of the local conditions affecting the transmission of malaria. The presence and spread of the major vectors and the emergence of secondary species capable of transmitting human Plasmodia are of great interest. When selecting control measures, the anopheline diversity in the region must be considered. Variation in macroclimate conditions over a species' geographical range must be well understood and targeted to plan effective control measures based on the population dynamics of the local Anopheles species. PMID:21881778

  9. Malaria vector species in Colombia - A review

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Lerma, James; Solarte, Yezid A; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria Isabel; Quiñones, Martha L; Ruiz-López, Freddy; Wilkerson, Richard C; González, Ranulfo

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the vectorial importance of the major Anopheles malaria vectors in Colombia. We provide basic information on the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, immature habitats, adult behaviour, feeding preferences and anthropophily, endophily and infectivity rates. We additionally review information on the life cycle, longevity and population fluctuation of Colombian Anopheles species. Emphasis was placed on the primary vectors that have been epidemiologically incriminated in malaria transmission: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles nuneztovari. The role of a selection of local, regional or secondary vectors (e.g., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles neivai) is also discussed. We highlight the importance of combining biological, morphological and molecular data for the correct taxonomical determination of a given species, particularly for members of the species complexes. We likewise emphasise the importance of studying the bionomics of primary and secondary vectors along with an examination of the local conditions affecting the transmission of malaria. The presence and spread of the major vectors and the emergence of secondary species capable of transmitting human Plasmodia are of great interest. When selecting control measures, the anopheline diversity in the region must be considered. Variation in macroclimate conditions over a species’ geographical range must be well understood and targeted to plan effective control measures based on the population dynamics of the local Anopheles species. PMID:21881778

  10. Linking Deforestation to Malaria in the Amazon: Characterization of the Breeding Habitat of the Principal Malaria Vector, Anopheles darlingi

    PubMed Central

    Vittor, Amy Y.; Pan, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Tielsch, James; Glass, Gregory; Shields, Tim; Sánchez-Lozano, Wagner; Pinedo, Viviana V.; Salas-Cobos, Erit; Flores, Silvia; Patz, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the larval breeding habitat of a major South American malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi, in areas with varying degrees of ecologic alteration in the Peruvian Amazon. Water bodies were repeatedly sampled across 112 km of transects along the Iquitos-Nauta road in ecologically varied areas. Field data and satellite imagery were used to determine the landscape composition surrounding each site. Seventeen species of Anopheles larvae were collected. Anopheles darlingi larvae were present in 87 of 844 sites (10.3%). Sites with A. darlingi larvae had an average of 24.1% forest cover, compared with 41.0% for sites without A. darlingi (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified seasonality, algae, water body size, presence of human populations, and the amount of forest and secondary growth as significant determinants of A. darlingi presence. We conclude that deforestation and associated ecologic alterations are conducive to A. darlingi larval presence, and thereby increase malaria risk. PMID:19556558

  11. Life on the edge: African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae s. l.) larvae are amphibious

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James R.; Huang, Juan; Vulule, John; Walker, Edward D.

    2007-03-01

    Anopheles gambiae s.l. is the main vector of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Here, an estimated 1 million people die every year from this disease. Despite considerable research on An. gambiae that increasingly explores sub-organismal phenomena, important facets of the field biology of this deadly insect are yet being discovered. In the current study, we used simple observational tools to reveal that the habitat of larval An. gambiae is not limited within the boundaries of temporary mud puddles, as has been the accepted generalization. Thus, control tactics aimed at immatures must consider zones larger than puddles per se. In fact, eggs are more likely to be found outside than inside puddles. Eggs can develop and larvae can emerge on mud. Larvae are then capable of three distinct modes of terrestrial displacement (two active and one passive), whereby, they can reach standing water. On mud bearing a film of water, larvae actively displace backwards by sinusoidal undulations shown to be only a slight variation of the swimming motor program. On drying mud, larvae switch to a slower and forward form of active locomotion resembling that of a crawling caterpillar. During rains, small larvae may be passively displaced by flowing rainwater so as to be deposited into puddles. These capabilities for being amphibious, along with very rapid growth and development, help explain how An. gambiae thrives in a highly uncertain and often hostile larval environment.

  12. Malaria Vectors in Lake Victoria and Adjacent Habitats in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Minakawa, Noboru; Dida, Gabriel O.; Sonye, George O.; Futami, Kyoko; Njenga, Sammy M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of malaria among the residents of the Lake Victoria basin remains high. The environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. Lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. This study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. Anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the lakeshore in western Kenya, and their breeding sites characterized. Three primary vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus s.s., and three potential vectors, were found in the lake habitats. Unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was the most dominant vector species in the lake sampling sites. Its habitats were uncovered or covered with short grass. A potential secondary malaria vector, Anopheles rivulorum, dominated the water hyacinths in the lake. Most breeding sites in the lake were limited to areas that were surrounded by tall emergent plants, including trees, and those not exposed to waves. Nearly half of adjacent habitats were lagoons that were separated from the lake by sand bars. Lagoons contained a variety of microhabitats. Anopheles arabiensis dominated open habitats, whereas An. funestus s.s. was found mainly in vegetated habitats in lagoons. The current study confirmed that several breeding sites are associated with Lake Victoria. Given that Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world, the lake related habitats must be extensive; therefore, making targeted vector control difficult. Further exploration is necessary to estimate the effects of lake associated habitats on malaria transmission so as to inform a rational decision-making process for vector control. PMID:22412913

  13. Productivity of Malaria Vectors from Different Habitat Types in the Western Kenya Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Ndenga, Bryson A.; Simbauni, Jemimah A.; Mbugi, Jenard P.; Githeko, Andrew K.; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Background Mosquito Larval Source Management (LSM) could be a valuable additional tool for integrated malaria vector control especially in areas with focal transmission like the highlands of western Kenya if it were not for the need to target all potential habitats at frequent intervals. The ability to determine the productivity of malaria vectors from identified habitats might be used to target LSM only at productive ones. Methods Each aquatic habitat within three highland sites in western Kenya was classified as natural swamp, cultivated swamp, river fringe, puddle, open drain or burrow pit. Three habitats of each type were selected in each site in order to study the weekly productivity of adult malaria vectors from February to May 2009 using a sweep-net and their habitat characteristics recorded. Results All surveyed habitat types produced adult malaria vectors. Mean adult productivity of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in puddles (1.8/m2) was 11–900 times higher than in the other habitat types. However, puddles were the most unstable habitats having water at 43% of all sampling occasions and accounted for 5% of all habitats mapped in the study areas whereas open drains accounted for 72%. Densities of anopheline late instars larvae significantly increased with the presence of a biofilm but decreased with increasing surface area or when water was flowing. Taking stability and frequency of the habitat into account, puddles were still the most productive habitat types for malaria vectors but closely followed by open drains. Conclusion Even though productivity of An. gambiae s.l. was greatest in small and unstable habitats, estimation of their overall productivity in an area needs to consider the more stable habitats over time and their surface extension. Therefore, targeting only the highly productive habitats is unlikely to provide sufficient reduction in malaria vector densities. PMID:21559301

  14. Vector ecology and susceptibility in a malaria-endemic focus in southern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Soleimani-Ahmadi, M; Vatandoost, H; Shaeghi, M; Raeisi, A; Abedi, F; Eshraghian, M R; Madani, A; Safari, R; Shahi, M; Mojahedi, A; Poorahmad-Garbandi, F

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to carry out a malaria situation analysis, species composition and susceptibility levels of the main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi, to different insecticides in Bashagard. A longitudinal survey was conducted in 2 randomly selected villages in Bashagard. Malaria vectors were sampled by dipping method for the larvae and hand catch, night-biting catch, total catch, and shelter pit collection for the adults. Standard WHO susceptibility tests were used for a variety of insecticides on F1 progeny of An. stephensi reared from wild-caught females. In total, 693 adult anopheline mosquitoes and 839 third and fourth-instar larvae were collected and identified. They comprised 7 species; the most abundant adult and larvae anopheline mosquito was An. dthali (40.7% and 30.5% respectively). An. culicifacies (24.2%) and An. stephensi (16.7%) were the next most common species for adult mosquitoes. An. stephensi was fully susceptible to malathion and pyrethroid insecticides but resistant to DDT and tolerant to dieldrin. PMID:23301358

  15. Species Composition and Seasonal Activities of Malaria Vectors in an Area at Reintroduction Prevention Stage, Khuzestan, South-Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoodi, Naimatallah; Ladonni, Hossin; Basseri, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most part of Iran become malaria-free region and fall in prevention of re-introduction stage. These regions however are struggling with imported of malaria cases where malaria vectors exist. Therefore, understanding the situation of mosquito vectors is crucial. This study was carried out to find out the present situation of malaria vectors and malaria transmission potential in a malaria-free area. Methods: The study was conducted in a malaria free area, Izeh County, Khuzestan Province during 12 months in 2011–2012. Five villages, including 2 in highlands and 3 in plain area, were selected randomly. The mosquito sampling methods were conducted using spray sheet and hand catch collection methods from indoor/outdoors, window trap and larvae collections. Results: In total, 3352 female Anopheles were captured, 1826 mosquito from highland and 1526 from plain areas. Five species, An. stephensi, An. fluviatilis s.l., An. dthali, An. superpictus and An. pulcherrimus were identified. The seasonal activities were started from April to March. The abdominal conditions of collected mosquitoes from indoor/outdoor places pointed to exophilic propensity of An. fluviatilis.l. s.l. and endophilic behaviour for rest of the vectors. The results of window trap also confirmed these behaviors. The larval habitats of four species were widely dispersed and included spring, margin of rivers, irrigation channels, stagnant water and rice filed. Conclusion: Understanding the present situation of malaria vectors in free-malaria area is crucial particularly where is struggling with imported cases. The results of present study can be expanded to other area of northern Khuzestan for malaria vector control planning in reintroduction prevention stage. PMID:26114144

  16. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  17. Predicting malaria vector distribution under climate change scenarios in China: Challenges for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhoupeng; Wang, Duoquan; Ma, Aimin; Hwang, Jimee; Bennett, Adam; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Fan, Junfu; Zhang, Wenjie; Yang, Dian; Feng, Xinyu; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Projecting the distribution of malaria vectors under climate change is essential for planning integrated vector control activities for sustaining elimination and preventing reintroduction of malaria. In China, however, little knowledge exists on the possible effects of climate change on malaria vectors. Here we assess the potential impact of climate change on four dominant malaria vectors (An. dirus, An. minimus, An. lesteri and An. sinensis) using species distribution models for two future decades: the 2030 s and the 2050 s. Simulation-based estimates suggest that the environmentally suitable area (ESA) for An. dirus and An. minimus would increase by an average of 49% and 16%, respectively, under all three scenarios for the 2030 s, but decrease by 11% and 16%, respectively in the 2050 s. By contrast, an increase of 36% and 11%, respectively, in ESA of An. lesteri and An. sinensis, was estimated under medium stabilizing (RCP4.5) and very heavy (RCP8.5) emission scenarios. in the 2050 s. In total, we predict a substantial net increase in the population exposed to the four dominant malaria vectors in the decades of the 2030 s and 2050 s, considering land use changes and urbanization simultaneously. Strategies to achieve and sustain malaria elimination in China will need to account for these potential changes in vector distributions and receptivity. PMID:26868185

  18. Predicting malaria vector distribution under climate change scenarios in China: Challenges for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhoupeng; Wang, Duoquan; Ma, Aimin; Hwang, Jimee; Bennett, Adam; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Fan, Junfu; Zhang, Wenjie; Yang, Dian; Feng, Xinyu; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Projecting the distribution of malaria vectors under climate change is essential for planning integrated vector control activities for sustaining elimination and preventing reintroduction of malaria. In China, however, little knowledge exists on the possible effects of climate change on malaria vectors. Here we assess the potential impact of climate change on four dominant malaria vectors (An. dirus, An. minimus, An. lesteri and An. sinensis) using species distribution models for two future decades: the 2030 s and the 2050 s. Simulation-based estimates suggest that the environmentally suitable area (ESA) for An. dirus and An. minimus would increase by an average of 49% and 16%, respectively, under all three scenarios for the 2030 s, but decrease by 11% and 16%, respectively in the 2050 s. By contrast, an increase of 36% and 11%, respectively, in ESA of An. lesteri and An. sinensis, was estimated under medium stabilizing (RCP4.5) and very heavy (RCP8.5) emission scenarios. in the 2050 s. In total, we predict a substantial net increase in the population exposed to the four dominant malaria vectors in the decades of the 2030 s and 2050 s, considering land use changes and urbanization simultaneously. Strategies to achieve and sustain malaria elimination in China will need to account for these potential changes in vector distributions and receptivity. PMID:26868185

  19. Predicting malaria vector distribution under climate change scenarios in China: Challenges for malaria elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhoupeng; Wang, Duoquan; Ma, Aimin; Hwang, Jimee; Bennett, Adam; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Fan, Junfu; Zhang, Wenjie; Yang, Dian; Feng, Xinyu; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Jinfeng

    2016-02-01

    Projecting the distribution of malaria vectors under climate change is essential for planning integrated vector control activities for sustaining elimination and preventing reintroduction of malaria. In China, however, little knowledge exists on the possible effects of climate change on malaria vectors. Here we assess the potential impact of climate change on four dominant malaria vectors (An. dirus, An. minimus, An. lesteri and An. sinensis) using species distribution models for two future decades: the 2030 s and the 2050 s. Simulation-based estimates suggest that the environmentally suitable area (ESA) for An. dirus and An. minimus would increase by an average of 49% and 16%, respectively, under all three scenarios for the 2030 s, but decrease by 11% and 16%, respectively in the 2050 s. By contrast, an increase of 36% and 11%, respectively, in ESA of An. lesteri and An. sinensis, was estimated under medium stabilizing (RCP4.5) and very heavy (RCP8.5) emission scenarios. in the 2050 s. In total, we predict a substantial net increase in the population exposed to the four dominant malaria vectors in the decades of the 2030 s and 2050 s, considering land use changes and urbanization simultaneously. Strategies to achieve and sustain malaria elimination in China will need to account for these potential changes in vector distributions and receptivity.

  20. Ecologic observations on anopheline vectors of malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Tadei, W P; Thatcher, B D; Santos, J M; Scarpassa, V M; Rodrigues, I B; Rafael, M S

    1998-08-01

    Human intervention in the Brazilian Amazon region promotes contacts between humans and vectors that may favor the propagation of anopheline mosquitoes and the spread of malaria in the absence of planning and infrastructure to control this disease. Vector ecology studies were carried out to determine the risk areas. These data should help in designing appropriate malaria control measures. Data from 14 different regions are reported. Vectors are able to adapt to different environments, which made it necessary to study each area. The parameters studied were Anopheles breeding sites, species distribution, incidence, feeding preferences, hours of maximum activity of adult mosquitoes, seasonality, resting places, and the presence of Plasmodium. Species complexes were also studied. Anopheles darlingi may be responsible for maintaining malaria in human populations in this region. A reduction in the population density of A. darlingi in a particular geographic area can sometimes cause the disappearance of malaria. This species feeds at night but has a peak of activity at the beginning of the evening and another at dawn. Other species are mainly crepuscular and all anophelines demonstrated pronounced exophilia. The timing of feeding activities was found to vary in areas altered by human intervention and also depended on the time of the year and climatic conditions. The larvae were more abundant in the rivers with a less acidic pH and rural areas showed the highest larval index. PMID:9715956

  1. Multigene phylogenetics reveals temporal diversification of major African malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Maryam; Marek, Paul E; Peery, Ashley; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Ndo, Cyrille; Tu, Zhijian; Simard, Frederic; Sharakhov, Igor V

    2014-01-01

    The major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa belong to subgenus Cellia. Yet, phylogenetic relationships and temporal diversification among African mosquito species have not been unambiguously determined. Knowledge about vector evolutionary history is crucial for correct interpretation of genetic changes identified through comparative genomics analyses. In this study, we estimated a molecular phylogeny using 49 gene sequences for the African malaria vectors An. gambiae, An. funestus, An. nili, the Asian malaria mosquito An. stephensi, and the outgroup species Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. To infer the phylogeny, we identified orthologous sequences uniformly distributed approximately every 5 Mb in the five chromosomal arms. The sequences were aligned and the phylogenetic trees were inferred using maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods. Bayesian molecular dating using a relaxed log normal model was used to infer divergence times. Trees from individual genes agreed with each other, placing An. nili as a basal clade that diversified from the studied malaria mosquito species 47.6 million years ago (mya). Other African malaria vectors originated more recently, and independently acquired traits related to vectorial capacity. The lineage leading to An. gambiae diverged 30.4 mya, while the African vector An. funestus and the Asian vector An. stephensi were the most closely related sister taxa that split 20.8 mya. These results were supported by consistently high bootstrap values in concatenated phylogenetic trees generated individually for each chromosomal arm. Genome-wide multigene phylogenetic analysis is a useful approach for discerning historic relationships among malaria vectors, providing a framework for the correct interpretation of genomic changes across species, and comprehending the evolutionary origins of this ubiquitous and deadly insect-borne disease. PMID:24705448

  2. Chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticle mediated gene silencing in disease vector mosquito larvae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Mysore, Keshava; Flannery, Ellen; Michel, Kristin; Severson, David W.; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-01-01

    SHORT ABSTRACT Here we describe a procedure for inhibiting gene function in disease vector mosquitoes through the use of chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticles that are ingested by larvae. LONG ABSTRACT Vector mosquitoes inflict more human suffering than any other organism—and kill more than one million people each year. The mosquito genome projects facilitated research in new facets of mosquito biology, including functional genetic studies in the primary African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti. RNA interference- (RNAi-) mediated gene silencing has been used to target genes of interest in both of these disease vector mosquito species. Here, we describe a procedure for preparation of chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticles that are combined with food and ingested by larvae. This technically straightforward, high-throughput, and relatively inexpensive methodology, which is compatible with long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, has been used for the successful knockdown of a number of different genes in A. gambiae and A. aegypti larvae. Following larval feedings, knockdown, which is verified through qRT-PCR or in situ hybridization, can persist at least through the late pupal stage. This methodology may be applicable to a wide variety of mosquito and other insect species, including agricultural pests, as well as other non-model organisms. In addition to its utility in the research laboratory, in the future, chitosan, an inexpensive, non-toxic and biodegradable polymer, could potentially be utilized in the field. PMID:25867635

  3. Ecoregional classification of malaria vectors in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Palis, Y; Zimmerman, R H

    1997-09-01

    An ecoregional approach to the classification of malaria in the neotropics region can give health personnel a new prespective on how to manage malaria control programs. We propose an ecoregional classification based on vector distribution and important environmental determinants, including vegetation type, rainfall patterns, mean temperatures, elevation, and geomorphology. The following 5 ecoregions are described: (1) coastal, (2) piedmont, (3) savanna, (4) interior lowland forest, and (5) high valley. Subregional differences are classified when appropriate. Because human activities and extensive changes in land use usually leads to increased human-vector contact and alter local vector distribution and abundance, it is important that these changes be considered in the classification of vector ecoregions. Using this approach, risk areas can be classified as to the presence and potential abundance of particular vectors. Then, in combination with other components of malaria transmission (e.g., migration, cultural practices, living conditions), areas for surveillance and intervention can be prioritized. It is hoped that this forum will be a catalyst for discussion, future research, and the development of ecologically orientated malaria control programs. PMID:9379453

  4. The Genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector

    PubMed Central

    Marinotti, Osvaldo; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Loreto, Elgion Lucio da Silva; Zaha, Arnaldo; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Wespiser, Adam R.; Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Pacheco, Ana Carolina Landim; da Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa; Graveley, Brenton R.; Walenz, Brian P.; Lima, Bruna de Araujo; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Gomes; Nunes-Silva, Carlos Gustavo; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Matiolli, Cleverson; Caffrey, Daniel; Araújo, Demetrius Antonio M.; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Golenbock, Douglas; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; de Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Prosdocimi, Francisco; May, Gemma; de Azevedo Junior, Gilson Martins; Guimarães, Giselle Moura; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Padilha, Itácio Q. M.; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Dabbas, Karina Maia; Cerdeira, Louise; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Brocchi, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Marcos Oliveira; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Diniz Maia, Maria de Mascena; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Hungria, Mariangela; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Pereira, Maristela; Montes, Martín Alejandro; Cantão, Maurício E.; Vincentz, Michel; Rafael, Miriam Silva; Silverman, Neal; Stoco, Patrícia Hermes; Souza, Rangel Celso; Vicentini, Renato; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Neves, Rogério de Oliveira; Silva, Rosane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Ürményi, Turán P.; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Camargo, Erney Plessmann; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector–human and vector–parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi. PMID:23761445

  5. Sex-specific effects of an avian malaria parasite on an insect vector: support for the resource limitation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Waite, Jessica L; Henry, Autumn R; Adler, Frederick R; Clayton, Dale H

    2012-11-01

    Many parasites, such as those that cause malaria, depend on an insect vector for transmission between vertebrate hosts. Theory predicts that parasites should have little or no effect on the transmission ability of vectors, e.g., parasites should not reduce vector life span as this will limit the temporal window of opportunity for transmission. However, if the parasite and vector compete for limited resources, there may be an unavoidable physiological cost to the vector (resource limitation hypothesis). If this cost reduces vector fitness, then the effect should be on reproduction, not survival. Moreover, in cases where both sexes act as vectors, the effect should be greater on females than males because of the greater cost of reproduction for females. We tested these predictions using Haemoproteus columbae, a malaria parasite of Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) that is vectored by both sexes of the hippoboscid fly Pseudolynchia canariensis, Hippoboscids belong to a group of insects (Hippoboscoidea) with unusually high female reproductive investment; eggs hatch in utero, and each larva progresses through three stages, feeding from internal "milk" glands in the female, followed by deposition as a large puparium. We compared fitness components for flies feeding on malaria-infected vs. uninfected Rock Pigeons. Survival of female flies decreased significantly when they fed on infected birds, while survival of male flies was unaffected. Our results were contrary to the overall prediction that malaria parasites should have no effect on vector survival, but consistent with the prediction that an effect, if present, would be greater on females. As predicted, females feeding on malaria-infected birds produced fewer offspring, but there was no effect on the quality of offspring. A separate short-term feeding experiment confirmed that female flies are unable to compensate for resource limitation by altering blood meal size. The unanticipated effect on female survival may be

  6. Egg hatching, larval movement and larval survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in desiccating habitats

    PubMed Central

    Koenraadt, Constantianus JM; Paaijmans, Krijn P; Githeko, Andrew K; Knols, Bart GJ; Takken, Willem

    2003-01-01

    Background Although the effects of rainfall on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been studied in great detail, the effects of dry periods on its survival remain less clear. Methods The effects of drying conditions were simulated by creating desiccated habitats, which consisted of trays filled with damp soil. Experiments were performed in these trays to (i) test the ability of An. gambiae sensu stricto eggs to hatch on damp soil and for larvae to reach an artificial breeding site at different distances of the site of hatching and (ii) to record survival of the four larval stages of An. gambiae s.s. when placed on damp soil. Results Eggs of An. gambiae s.s. hatched on damp soil and emerging larvae were capable of covering a distance of up to 10 cm to reach surface water enabling further development. However, proportions of larvae reaching the site decreased rapidly with increasing distance. First, second and third-instar larvae survived on damp soil for an estimated period of 64, 65 and 69 hrs, respectively. Fourth-instar larvae survived significantly longer and we estimated that the maximum survival time was 113 hrs. Conclusion Short-term survival of aquatic stages of An. gambiae on wet soil may be important and adaptive when considering the transient nature of breeding sites of this species in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the results suggest that, for larval vector control methods to be effective, habitats should remain drained for at least 5 days to kill all larvae (e.g. in rice fields) and habitats that recently dried up should be treated as well, if larvicidal agents are applied. PMID:12919636

  7. Transcriptome of the adult female malaria mosquito vector Anopheles albimanus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Transmission is a complex phenomenon involving biological and environmental factors of humans, parasites and mosquitoes. Among more than 500 anopheline species, only a few species from different branches of the mosquito evolutionary tree transmit malaria, suggesting that their vectorial capacity has evolved independently. Anopheles albimanus (subgenus Nyssorhynchus) is an important malaria vector in the Americas. The divergence time between Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Africa, and the Neotropical vectors has been estimated to be 100 My. To better understand the biological basis of malaria transmission and to develop novel and effective means of vector control, there is a need to explore the mosquito biology beyond the An. gambiae complex. Results We sequenced the transcriptome of the An. albimanus adult female. By combining Sanger, 454 and Illumina sequences from cDNA libraries derived from the midgut, cuticular fat body, dorsal vessel, salivary gland and whole body, we generated a single, high-quality assembly containing 16,669 transcripts, 92% of which mapped to the An. darlingi genome and covered 90% of the core eukaryotic genome. Bidirectional comparisons between the An. gambiae, An. darlingi and An. albimanus predicted proteomes allowed the identification of 3,772 putative orthologs. More than half of the transcripts had a match to proteins in other insect vectors and had an InterPro annotation. We identified several protein families that may be relevant to the study of Plasmodium-mosquito interaction. An open source transcript annotation browser called GDAV (Genome-Delinked Annotation Viewer) was developed to facilitate public access to the data generated by this and future transcriptome projects. Conclusions We have explored the adult female transcriptome of one important New World malaria vector, An. albimanus. We identified protein-coding transcripts involved in

  8. Seasonal genetic partitioning in the neotropical malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria mosquito vector in the Amazonia region. In spite of being considered a riverine, forest-dwelling species, this mosquito is becoming more abundant in peri-urban areas, increasing malaria risk. This has been associated with human-driven environmental changes such as deforestation. Methods Microsatellites were used to characterize A. darlingi from seven localities along the Madeira River, Rondônia (Brazil), collected in the early and late periods of the rainy season. Results Two genetically distinct subpopulations were detected: one (subpopulation A) was associated with the late rainfall period and seems to be ecologically closer to the typical forest A. darlingi; the other (subpopulation B) was associated with the early rainfall period and is probably more adapted to drier conditions by exploiting permanent anthropogenic breeding sites. Results suggest also a pattern of asymmetric introgression, with more subpopulation A alleles introgressed into subpopulation B. Both subpopulations (and admixed mosquitoes) presented similar malaria infection rates, highlighting the potential for perennial malaria transmission in the region. Conclusions The co-occurrence of two genetically distinct subpopulations of A. darlingi adapted to different periods of rainfall may promote a more perennial transmission of malaria throughout the year. These findings, in a context of strong environmental impact due to deforestation and dam construction, have serious implications for malaria epidemiology and control in the Amazonian region. PMID:24885508

  9. Spatial association between malaria vector species richness and malaria in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Douglas O; Alimi, Temitope; Herrera, Socrates; Beier, John C; Quiñones, Martha L

    2016-06-01

    Malaria transmission in Colombia is highly variable in space and time. Using a species distribution model, we mapped potential distribution of five vector species including Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles neivai, and Anopheles nuneztovari in five Departments of Colombia where malaria transmission remains problematic. We overlaid the range maps of the five species to reveal areas of sympatry and related per-pixel species richness to mean annual parasite index (API) for 2011-2014 mapped by municipality (n = 287). The relationship between mean number of vector species per municipality and API was evaluated using a Poisson regression, which revealed a highly significant relationship between species richness and API (p = 0 for Wald Chi-Square statistic). The results suggest that areas of relatively high transmission in Colombia typically contain higher number of vector species than areas with unstable transmission and that future elimination strategies should account for vector species richness. PMID:26970373

  10. Phylogenetic inference of Indian malaria vectors from multilocus DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Jyotsana; Srivastava, Hemlata; Sharma, Meenu; Das, Manoj K; Singh, O P; Raghavendra, K; Nanda, Nutan; Dash, Aditya P; Saksena, D N; Das, Aparup

    2010-08-01

    Inferences on the taxonomic positions, phylogenetic interrelationships and divergence time among closely related species of medical importance is essential to understand evolutionary patterns among species, and based on which, disease control measures could be devised. To this respect, malaria is one of the important mosquito borne diseases of tropical and sub-tropical parts of the globe. Taxonomic status of malaria vectors has been so far documented based on morphological, cytological and few molecular genetic features. However, utilization of multilocus DNA sequences in phylogenetic inferences are still in dearth. India contains one of the richest resources of mosquito species diversity but little molecular taxonomic information is available in Indian malaria vectors. We herewith utilized the whole genome sequence information of An. gambiae to amplify and sequence three orthologous nuclear genetic regions in six Indian malaria vector species (An. culicifacies, An. minimus, An. sundaicus, An. fluviatilis, An. annularis and An. stephensi). Further, we utilized the previously published DNA sequence information on the COII and ITS2 genes in all the six species, making the total number of loci to five. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic study of Indian anophelines and An. gambiae was conducted at each individual genetic region using Neighbour Joining (NJ), Maximum Likelihood (ML), Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Bayesian approaches. Although tree topologies with COII, and ITS2 genes were similar, for no other three genetic regions similar tree topologies were observed. In general, the reconstructed phylogenetic status of Indian malaria vectors follows the pattern based on morphological and cytological classifications that was reconfirmed with COII and ITS2 genetic regions. Further, divergence times based on COII gene sequences were estimated among the seven Anopheles species which corroborate the earlier hypothesis on the radiation of different species of the Anopheles

  11. Population control of the malaria vector Anopheles pseudopunctipennis by habitat manipulation.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, J. Guillermo; Rojas, Julio C.; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Quiroz-Martínez, Humberto; Valle, Javier; Williams, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    Insect vector-borne diseases continue to present a major challenge to human health. Understanding the factors that regulate the size of mosquito populations is considered fundamental to the ability to predict disease transmission rates and for vector population control. The mosquito, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, a vector of Plasmodium spp., breeds in riverside pools containing filamentous algae in Mesoamerica. Breeding pools along 3 km sections of the River Coatan, Chiapas, Mexico were subjected to algal extraction or left as controls in a cross-over trial extending over 2 years. Initial densities of An. pseudopunctipennis larvae were directly proportional to the prevalence of filamentous algae in each breeding site. The extraction of algae brought about a striking decline in the density of An. pseudopunctipennis larvae sustained for about six weeks, and a concurrent reduction in the adult population in both years of the study. Mark-release experiments indicated that dispersal from adjacent untreated areas was unlikely to exert an important influence on the magnitude of mosquito control that we observed. Habitat manipulation by extraction of filamentous algae offers a unique opportunity for sustainable control of this malaria vector. This technique may represent a valuable intervention, complimenting insecticide spraying of households, to minimize Plasmodium transmission rates in Mesoamerica. PMID:15475337

  12. Efficacy of local neem extracts for sustainable malaria vector control in an African village

    PubMed Central

    Gianotti, Rebecca L; Bomblies, Arne; Dafalla, Mustafa; Issa-Arzika, Ibrahim; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Eltahir, Elfatih AB

    2008-01-01

    Background Larval control of malaria vectors has been historically successful in reducing malaria transmission, but largely fell out of favour with the introduction of synthetic insecticides and bed nets. However, an integrated approach to malaria control, including larval control methods, continues to be the best chance for success, in view of insecticide resistance, the behavioural adaptation of the vectors to changing environments and the difficulties of reaching the poorest populations most at risk,. Laboratory studies investigating the effects of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) extracts on Anopheles larvae have shown high rates of larval mortality and reductions in adult longevity, as well as low potential for resistance development. Methods This paper describes a method whereby seeds of the neem tree can be used to reduce adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. abundance in a way that is low cost and can be implemented by residents of rural villages in western Niger. The study was conducted in Banizoumbou village, western Niger. Neem seeds were collected from around the village. Dried seeds were ground into a coarse powder, which was then sprinkled onto known Anopheles larvae breeding habitats twice weekly during the rainy season 2007. Adult mosquitoes were captured on a weekly basis in the village and captures compared to those from 2005 and 2006 over the same period. Adult mosquitoes were also captured in a nearby village, Zindarou, as a control data set and compared to those from Banizoumbou. Results It was found that twice-weekly applications of the powder to known breeding habitats of Anopheles larvae in 2007 resulted in 49% fewer adult female Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in Banizoumbou, compared with previous captures under similar environmental conditions and with similar habitat characteristics in 2005 and 2006. The productivity of the system in 2007 was found to be suppressed compared to the mean behaviour of 2005 and 2006 in Banizoumbou, whereas no change

  13. Thermal limits of wild and laboratory strains of two African malaria vector species, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria affects large parts of the developing world and is responsible for almost 800,000 deaths annually. As climates change, concerns have arisen as to how this vector-borne disease will be impacted by changing rainfall patterns and warming temperatures. Despite the importance and controversy surrounding the impact of climate change on the potential spread of this disease, little information exists on the tolerances of several of the vector species themselves. Methods Using a ramping protocol (to assess critical thermal limits - CT) and plunge protocol (to assess lethal temperature limits - LT) information on the thermal tolerance of two of Africa’s important malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus was collected. The effects of age, thermal acclimation treatment, sex and strain (laboratory versus wild adults) were investigated for CT determinations for each species. The effects of age and sex for adults and life stage (larvae, pupae, adults) were investigated for LT determinations. Results In both species, females are more tolerant to low and high temperatures than males; larvae and pupae have higher upper lethal limits than do adults. Thermal acclimation of adults has large effects in some instances but small effects in others. Younger adults tend to be more tolerant of low or high temperatures than older age groups. Long-standing laboratory colonies are sufficiently similar in thermal tolerance to field-collected animals to provide reasonable surrogates when making inferences about wild population responses. Differences between these two vectors in their thermal tolerances, especially in larvae and pupae, are plausibly a consequence of different habitat utilization. Conclusions Limited plasticity is characteristic of the adults of these vector species relative to others examined to date, suggesting limited scope for within-generation change in thermal tolerance. These findings and the greater tolerance of females to thermal

  14. Assessing the relationship between environmental factors and malaria vector breeding sites in Swaziland using multi-scale remotely sensed data.

    PubMed

    Dlamini, Sabelo Nick; Franke, Jonas; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Many entomological studies have analyzed remotely sensed data to assess the relationship between malaria vector distribution and the associated environmental factors. However, the high cost of remotely sensed products with high spatial resolution has often resulted in analyses being conducted at coarse scales using open-source, archived remotely sensed data. In the present study, spatial prediction of potential breeding sites based on multi-scale remotely sensed information in conjunction with entomological data with special reference to presence or absence of larvae was realized. Selected water bodies were tested for mosquito larvae using the larva scooping method, and the results were compared with data on land cover, rainfall, land surface temperature (LST) and altitude presented with high spatial resolution. To assess which environmental factors best predict larval presence or absence, Decision Tree methodology and logistic regression techniques were applied. Both approaches showed that some environmental predictors can reliably distinguish between the two alternatives (existence and non-existence of larvae). For example, the results suggest that larvae are mainly present in very small water pools related to human activities, such as subsistence farming that were also found to be the major determinant for vector breeding. Rainfall, LST and altitude, on the other hand, were less useful as a basis for mapping the distribution of breeding sites. In conclusion, we found that models linking presence of larvae with high-resolution land use have good predictive ability of identifying potential breeding sites. PMID:26054511

  15. Habitat characterization and mapping of Anopheles maculatus (Theobald) mosquito larvae in malaria endemic areas in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rohani, A; Wan Najdah, W M A; Zamree, I; Azahari, A H; Mohd Noor, I; Rahimi, H; Lee, H L

    2010-07-01

    In Peninsular Malaysia, a large proportion of malaria cases occur in the central mountainous and forested parts of the country. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, we conducted entomological surveys to determine the type of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats of the vector Anopheles maculatus in malaria endemic areas in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus mosquitoes were collected from 49 breeding sites in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus preferred to breed in water pockets formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls. The most common larval habitats were shallow pools 5.0-15.0 cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and plants or floatage. The mosquito also preferred open or partially shaded habitats. Breeding habitats were generally located at 100-400 m from the nearest human settlement. Changes in breeding characteristics were also observed. Instead of breeding in slow flowing streams, most larvae bred in small water pockets along the river margin. PMID:21073056

  16. Aristolochia indica green-synthesized silver nanoparticles: A sustainable control tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Labeeba, Mohammed Aamina; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wang, Lan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. We biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Aristolochia indica extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. In laboratory, LC50 of A. indica extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 262.66 (larvae I) to 565.02 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP against A. stephensi ranged from 3.94 (larvae I) to 15.65 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of A. indica extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) leads to 100% larval reduction after 72 h. In laboratory, 24-h predation efficiency of Diplonychus indicus against A. stephensi larvae was 33% (larvae II) and 57% (larvae III). In AgNP-contaminated environment (1 ppm), it was 45.5% (larvae II) and 71.75% (larvae III). Overall, A. indica-synthesized AgNP may be considered as newer and safer control tools against Anopheles vectors. PMID:26412532

  17. Larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata leaf extract against filariasis and malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, G; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2011-06-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In this study, larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous extract from Eclipta prostrata, a member of the Asteraceae was investigated against fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus say and malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The synthesized AgNPs characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM analyses of the synthesized AgNPs were clearly distinguishable measured 35-60 nm in size. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of synthesized AgNPs for 24h. The maximum efficacy was observed in crude aqueous, and synthesized AgNPs against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)=27.49 and 4.56 mg/L; LC(90)=70.38 and 13.14 mg/L), and against A. subpictus (LC(50)=27.85 and 5.14 mg/L; LC(90)=71.45 and 25.68 mg/L) respectively. The chi-square value were significant at p<0.05 level. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Culex tritaeniorhynchus and A. subpictus. This method is considered as a new approach to control vectors. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of synthesized AgNPs against vectors. PMID:21419749

  18. Habitat Partitioning of Malaria Vectors in Nchelenge District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Das, Smita; Muleba, Mbanga; Stevenson, Jennifer C; Norris, Douglas E

    2016-06-01

    Nchelenge District in Luapula Province, northern Zambia, experiences holoendemic malaria despite implementation of vector control programs. The major Anopheles vectors that contribute to Plasmodium falciparum transmission in this area had not previously been well defined. Three collections performed during the 2012 wet and dry seasons and the 2013 wet season revealed Anopheles funestus sensu stricto and Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto as the main vectors, where 80-85% of each collection was composed of An. funestus Both vectors were found to be highly anthropophilic, and An. funestus has higher sporozoite infection rates (SIRs) and entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) year-round compared with An. gambiae: SIRs of 1.8-3.0% and 0-2.5%, respectively, and EIRs of 3.7-41.5 infectious bites per 6-month period (ib/p/6mo) and 0-5.9 ib/p/6mo, respectively. Spatial and temporal changes in each vector's dynamics and bionomics were also observed. Anopheles funestus was the predominant vector in the villages near Kenani Stream in both wet and dry seasons, whereas An. gambiae was found to be the main vector in areas near Lake Mweru during the wet season. The vector data illustrate the need for broader temporal and spatial sampling in Nchelenge and present unique opportunities to further our understanding of malarial transmission and implications for malarial control in high-risk areas. PMID:27001755

  19. Shared salinity tolerance invalidates a test for the malaria vector Anopheles farauti s.s. on Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Foley, D H; Bryan, J H

    2000-03-01

    Among the Punctulatus Group of Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), first-instar larvae of the medically unimportant freshwater Anopheles farauti species No. 7 survives a seawater tolerance test (SST) that was previously thought to be diagnostic for the saltwater-tolerant malaria vector species, An. farauti Laveran s.s. Salt tolerance in these two closely related isomorphic species appears to be a shared derived character within the Farauti Complex. Failure to differentiate An. farauti s.s. from An. farauti No. 7 will overestimate potential malaria vector numbers and waste limited larval control resources. Use of the SST should therefore be discontinued on Guadalcanal and other techniques such as allozyme electrophoresis used instead. PMID:10759320

  20. Shared salinity tolerance invalidates a test for the malaria vector Anopheles farauti s.s. on Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands [corrected].

    PubMed

    Foley, D H; Bryan, J H

    2000-12-01

    Among the Punctulatus Group of Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), first-instar larvae of the medically unimportant freshwater Anopheles farauti species No. 7 survives a seawater tolerance test (STT) that was previously thought to be diagnostic for the saltwater-tolerant malaria vector species, An. farauti Laveran s.s. Salt tolerance in these two closely related isomorphic species appears to be a shared derived character within the Farauti Complex. Failure to differentiate An. farauti s.s. from An. farauti No.7 will overestimate potential malaria vector numbers and waste limited larval control resources. Use of the STT should therefore be discontinued on Guadalcanal and other techniques such as allozyme electrophoresis used instead [corrected]. PMID:11129712

  1. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Different challenges are presented by the variety of malaria transmission environments present in the world today. In each setting, improved control for reduction of morbidity is a necessary first step towards the long-range goal of malaria eradication and a priority for regions where the disease burden is high. For many geographic areas where transmission rates are low to moderate, sustained and well-managed application of currently available tools may be sufficient to achieve local elimination. The research needs for these areas will be to sustain and perhaps improve the effectiveness of currently available tools. For other low-to-moderate transmission regions, notably areas where the vectors exhibit behaviours such as outdoor feeding and resting that are not well targeted by current strategies, new interventions that target predictable features of the biology/ecologies of the local vectors will be required. To achieve elimination in areas where high levels of transmission are sustained by very efficient vector species, radically new interventions that significantly reduce the vectorial capacity of wild populations will be needed. Ideally, such interventions should be implemented with a one-time application with a long-lasting impact, such as genetic modification of the vectorial capacity of the wild vector population. PMID:21311587

  2. Distribution of the main malaria vectors in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A detailed knowledge of the distribution of the main Anopheles malaria vectors in Kenya should guide national vector control strategies. However, contemporary spatial distributions of the locally dominant Anopheles vectors including Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles merus, Anopheles funestus, Anopheles pharoensis and Anopheles nili are lacking. The methods and approaches used to assemble contemporary available data on the present distribution of the dominant malaria vectors in Kenya are presented here. Method Primary empirical data from published and unpublished sources were identified for the period 1990 to 2009. Details recorded for each source included the first author, year of publication, report type, survey location name, month and year of survey, the main Anopheles species reported as present and the sampling and identification methods used. Survey locations were geo-positioned using national digital place name archives and on-line geo-referencing resources. The geo-located species-presence data were displayed and described administratively, using first-level administrative units (province), and biologically, based on the predicted spatial margins of Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity in Kenya for the year 2009. Each geo-located survey site was assigned an urban or rural classification and attributed an altitude value. Results A total of 498 spatially unique descriptions of Anopheles vector species across Kenya sampled between 1990 and 2009 were identified, 53% were obtained from published sources and further communications with authors. More than half (54%) of the sites surveyed were investigated since 2005. A total of 174 sites reported the presence of An. gambiae complex without identification of sibling species. Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus were the most widely reported at 244 and 265 spatially unique sites respectively with the former showing the most ubiquitous distribution nationally. Anopheles gambiae

  3. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Apiaceae Plants against Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, MM; Dehkordi, A Sanei; Abai, MR; Khanavi, M; Mohtarami, F; Abadi, Y Salim; Rafi, F; Vatandoost, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in Iran. Methods: Essential oils from Heracleum persicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum seeds were hydro distillated, then their larvicidal activity were evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae of An. stephensi according to standard method of WHO. After susceptibility test, results were analysis using Probit program. Results: Essential oils were separated from H. persicum, F. vulgare and C. sativum plants and their larvicidal activities were tested. Result of this study showed that F. vulgare oil was the most effective against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 44.51 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: All three plants essential oil can serve as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. F. vulgare oil exhibited more larvicidal properties. PMID:22808418

  4. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum L.--potential for malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Dinesh Kumar, Vannam; Elakya, Vijay; Kamala, Tamilselvan; Park, Sung Kwon; Ragam, Muthiah; Saravanan, Muthupandian; Bououdina, Mohomad; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Vincent, Savariar

    2015-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides synthesized of natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green-synthesized using a floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum screened for larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The textures of the yielded Ag NPs were found to be spherical and polydispersed with a mean size in the range of 25-59 nm. Larvae and pupae were exposed to various concentrations of aqueous extract of C. indicum and synthesized Ag NPs for 24 h, and the maximum mortality was observed from the synthesized Ag NPs against the vector A. stephensi (LC50 = 5.07, 10.35, 14.19, 22.81, and 35.05 ppm; LC90 = 29.18, 47.15, 65.53, 87.96, and 115.05 ppm). These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi. Additionally, this study provides the larvicidal and pupicidal properties of green-synthesized Ag NPs with the floral extract of C. indicum against vector mosquito species from the geographical location of India. PMID:25637241

  5. Bionomics of the malaria vector Anopheles farauti in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: issues for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Solomon Islands, the Malaria Eradication Programmes of the 1970s virtually eliminated the malaria vectors: Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis, both late night biting, endophagic species. However, the vector, Anopheles farauti, changed its behaviour to bite early in the evening outdoors. Thus, An. farauti mosquitoes were able to avoid insecticide exposure and still maintain transmission. Thirty years on and the Solomon Islands are planning for intensified malaria control and localized elimination; but little is currently known about the behaviour of the vectors and how they will respond to intensified control. Methods In the elimination area, Temotu Province, standard entomological collection methods were conducted in typical coastal villages to determine the vector, its ecology, biting density, behaviour, longevity, and vector efficacy. These vector surveys were conducted pre-intervention and post-intervention following indoor residual spraying and distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets. Results Anopheles farauti was the only anopheline in Temotu Province. In 2008 (pre-intervention), this species occurred in moderate to high densities (19.5-78.5 bites/person/night) and expressed a tendency to bite outdoors, early in the night (peak biting time 6-8 pm). Surveys post intervention showed that there was little, if any, reduction in biting densities and no reduction in the longevity of the vector population. After adjusting for human behaviour, indoor biting was reduced from 57% pre-intervention to 40% post-intervention. Conclusion In an effort to learn from historical mistakes and develop successful elimination programmes, there is a need for implementing complimentary vector control tools that can target exophagic and early biting vectors. Intensified indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide net use has further promoted the early, outdoor feeding behaviour of An. farauti in the Solomon Islands. Consequently, the

  6. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Okumu, Fredros O; Knols, Bart GJ; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Background Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Methods To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v) on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to a normal diet supplemented with the neem oil formulations in different concentrations. A control group of larvae was exposed to a corn oil formulation in similar concentrations. Results Neem oil had an LC50 value of 11 ppm after 8 days, which was nearly five times more toxic than the corn oil formulation. Adult emergence was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of 6 ppm. Significant reductions on growth indices and pupation, besides prolonged larval periods, were observed at neem oil concentrations above 8 ppm. The corn oil formulation, in contrast, produced no growth disruption within the tested range of concentrations. Conclusion Neem oil has good larvicidal properties for An. gambiae s.s. and suppresses successful adult emergence at very low concentrations. Considering the wide distribution and availability of this tree and its products along the East African coast, this may prove a readily available and cheap alternative to conventional larvicides. PMID:17519000

  7. Health research ethics in malaria vector trials in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Malaria mosquito research in Africa as elsewhere is just over a century old. Early trials for development of mosquito control tools were driven by colonial enterprises and war efforts; they were, therefore, tested in military or colonial settings. The failure of those tools and environmental concerns, coupled with the desperate need for integrated malaria control strategies, has necessitated the development of new malaria mosquito control tools, which are to be tested on humans, their environment and mosquito habitats. Ethical concerns start with phase 2 trials, which pose limited ethical dilemmas. Phase 3 trials, which are undertaken on vulnerable civilian populations, pose ethical dilemmas ranging from individual to community concerns. It is argued that such trials must abide by established ethical principles especially safety, which is mainly enshrined in the principle of non-maleficence. As there is total lack of experience with many of the promising candidate tools (eg genetically modified mosquitoes, entomopathogenic fungi, and biocontrol agents), great caution must be exercised before they are introduced in the field. Since malaria vector trials, especially phase 3 are intrusive and in large populations, individual and community respect is mandatory, and must give great priority to community engagement. It is concluded that new tools must be safe, beneficial, efficacious, effective, and acceptable to large populations in the short and long-term, and that research benefits should be equitably distributed to all who bear the brunt of the research burdens. It is further concluded that individual and institutional capacity strengthening should be provided, in order to undertake essential research, carry out scientific and ethical review, and establish competent regulatory frameworks. PMID:21144083

  8. High Resolution Niche Models of Malaria Vectors in Northern Tanzania: A New Capacity to Predict Malaria Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manisha A.; Desrochers, Rachelle E.; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission rates in Africa can vary dramatically over the space of a few kilometres. This spatial heterogeneity reflects variation in vector mosquito habitat and presents an important obstacle to the efficient allocation of malaria control resources. Malaria control is further complicated by combinations of vector species that respond differently to control interventions. Recent modelling innovations make it possible to predict vector distributions and extrapolate malaria risk continentally, but these risk mapping efforts have not yet bridged the spatial gap to guide on-the-ground control efforts. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Maximum Entropy with purpose-built, high resolution land cover data and other environmental factors to model the spatial distributions of the three dominant malaria vector species in a 94,000 km2 region of east Africa. Remotely sensed land cover was necessary in each vector's niche model. Seasonality of precipitation and maximum annual temperature also contributed to niche models for Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus s.l. (AUC 0.989 and 0.991, respectively), but cold season precipitation and elevation were important for An. gambiae s.s. (AUC 0.997). Although these niche models appear highly accurate, the critical test is whether they improve predictions of malaria prevalence in human populations. Vector habitat within 1.5 km of community-based malaria prevalence measurements interacts with elevation to substantially improve predictions of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in children. The inclusion of the mechanistic link between malaria prevalence and vector habitat greatly improves the precision and accuracy of prevalence predictions (r2 = 0.83 including vector habitat, or r2 = 0.50 without vector habitat). Predictions including vector habitat are unbiased (observations vs. model predictions of prevalence: slope = 1.02). Using this model, we generate a high resolution map of predicted malaria

  9. Oviposition preference and egg eclosion in different salt concentrations in the coastal malaria vector Anopheles aquasalis Curry.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Frances R; Díaz, Sandra; Gómez, Cruz J; Moreno, Milagros; Hernández, Gilma

    2006-03-01

    Anopheles aquasalis is the main malaria vector in Sucre State, Venezuela. The larvae of this species are saltwater tolerant. The effects of different concentrations of salt on oviposition preference and egg survival were studied under laboratory conditions. Choice experiments with salt concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% in bottled water were set up for individual adult females and the number of eggs laid in each salt concentration was noted. Egg survival, as inferred by the number of hatched larvae also was determined for each salt concentration. Females preferred to oviposit in freshwater and rejected water salt concentrations of 40%, but they were neither attracted nor repelled by water with 10-30% of salt. Eggs hatched more quickly in the lower salt concentrations, but egg survival was not affected by salt concentrations of up to 20%. Thus, female oviposition preference in An. aquasalis determines egg survival. PMID:16646320

  10. MALARIA VECTORS IN SAN JOSÉDEL GUAVIARE, ORINOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200–0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human–vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance. PMID:25102591

  11. The Importance of Drains for the Larval Development of Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria Vectors in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marcia C.; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sigsbert; Killeen, Gerry F.; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Background Dar es Salaam has an extensive drain network, mostly with inadequate water flow, blocked by waste, causing flooding after rainfall. The presence of Anopheles and Culex larvae is common, which is likely to impact the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and malaria by the resulting adult mosquito populations. However, the importance of drains as larval habitats remains unknown. Methodology Data on mosquito larval habitats routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) and a special drain survey conducted in 2006 were used to obtain a typology of habitats. Focusing on drains, logistic regression was used to evaluate potential factors impacting the presence of mosquito larvae. Spatial variation in the proportion of habitats that contained larvae was assessed through the local Moran's I indicator of spatial association. Principal Findings More than 70% of larval habitats in Dar es Salaam were human-made. Aquatic habitats associated with agriculture had the highest proportion of Anopheles larvae presence and the second highest of Culex larvae presence. However, the majority of aquatic habitats were drains (42%), and therefore, 43% (1,364/3,149) of all culicine and 33% (320/976) of all anopheline positive habitats were drains. Compared with drains where water was flowing at normal velocity, the odds of finding Anopheles and Culex larvae were 8.8 and 6.3 (p<0.001) times larger, respectively, in drains with stagnant water. There was a positive association between vegetation and the presence of mosquito larvae (p<0.001). The proportion of habitats with mosquito larvae was spatially correlated. Conclusion Restoring and maintaining drains in Dar es Salaam has the potential to eliminate more than 40% of all potential mosquito larval habitats that are currently treated with larvicides by the UMCP. The importance of human-made larval habitats for both lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors underscores the need for a synergy between on-going control

  12. [INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE IN MAJOR MALARIA VECTORS IN UZBEKISTAN].

    PubMed

    Zhakhongirov, Sh M; Saifiev, Sh T; Abidov, Z I

    2016-01-01

    The resistance of Anopheles artemievi to DDT (26.7%) and propoxur (80.0%) was established in the kishlak of Chubat, Bulungursky District, Samarkand Viloyati and that in the kishlak of Rastguzar, Uichinsky District, Namangan Viloyati, was 45.0 and 22.5%, respectively. In the kishlak of Navruz, Kanlikulsky District, Republic of Karakalpakstan, there was reduced propoxur susceptibil- ity (90.0% An. superpictus death); in other human settle- ments, An. artemievi was susceptible--100% death in the use of the test insecticides. An. superpictus proved to be susceptive to 7 test insecticides (other than propoxur). In Uzbekistan, the resistance of An. artemievi was noted only in a small area. Among the major malaria vectors, An. superpictus remained susceptible to pyrethroid insec- ticides. PMID:27405213

  13. Selection of permethrin resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Chakravorthy, B C; Kalyanasundaram, M

    1992-09-01

    The laboratory strain of Anopheles stephensi, a well-known urban malaria vector, was selected with permethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid at LD90 level up to five generations. The selection resulted in the development of resistance in F5 generation to the tune of 13-fold to permethrin and cross-resistance to the tune of 7-fold to cypermethrin, 9-fold to alphamethrin, and 10-fold to deltamethrin. The development of cross-resistance to 4% DDT was also noticed. The susceptibility status against 5% malathion was maintained throughout the five generations. The synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide with permethrin did not overcome the development of resistance. The development of resistance showed a significant relationship between hatchability and different generations. PMID:1286731

  14. Datura metel-synthesized silver nanoparticles magnify predation of dragonfly nymphs against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Prabhu Jenil; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The employ of synthetic insecticides to control Anopheles populations leads to high operational costs, non-target effects, and induced resistance. Recently, plant-borne compounds have been proposed for efficient and rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, their impact against predators of mosquito larvae has been poorly studied. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the Datura metel leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was confirmed analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of AgNPs, with a mean size of 40-60 nm. The presence of silver was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis investigated the identity of secondary metabolites, which may be acting as AgNP capping agents. In laboratory, LC50 of D. metel extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 34.693 ppm (I instar larvae) to 81.500 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP ranged from 2.969 ppm (I instar larvae) to 6.755 ppm (pupae). Under standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of Anax immaculifrons nymphs after 24 h was 75.5 % (II instar larvae) and 53.5 % (III instar larvae). In AgNP-contaminated environment, predation rates were boosted to 95.5 and 78 %, respectively. Our results documented that D. metel-synthesized AgNP might be employed at rather low doses to reduce larval populations of malaria vectors, without detrimental effects on behavioral traits of young instars of the dragonfly Anax immaculifrons. PMID:26337272

  15. How Effective is Integrated Vector Management Against Malaria and Lymphatic Filariasis Where the Diseases Are Transmitted by the Same Vector?

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Christopher M.; Lindsay, Steve W.; Chitnis, Nakul

    2014-01-01

    Background The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between the two diseases into account. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a general model of malaria and LF transmission and derived expressions for the basic reproductive number (R0) for each disease. Transmission of both diseases was most sensitive to vector mortality and biting rate. Simulating different levels of coverage of long lasting-insecticidal nets (LLINs) and larval control confirms the effectiveness of these interventions for the control of both diseases. When LF was maintained near the critical density of mosquitoes, minor levels of vector control (8% coverage of LLINs or treatment of 20% of larval sites) were sufficient to eliminate the disease. Malaria had a far greater R0 and required a 90% population coverage of LLINs in order to eliminate it. When the mosquito density was doubled, 36% and 58% coverage of LLINs and larval control, respectively, were required for LF elimination; and malaria elimination was possible with a combined coverage of 78% of LLINs and larval control. Conclusions/Significance Despite the low level of vector control required to eliminate LF, simulations suggest that prevalence of LF will decrease at a slower rate than malaria, even at high levels of coverage. If representative of field situations, integrated management should take into account not only how malaria control can facilitate filariasis elimination, but strike a balance between the high levels of coverage of (multiple) interventions required for malaria with the long duration

  16. [Anopheles gambiae, major malaria vector in Logbessou, a peri-urban area of Douala (Cameroon)].

    PubMed

    Akono, P Ntonga; Tonga, C; Mbida, J A Mbida; Hondt, O E Ngo; Ambene, P Awono; Ndo, C; Magne, G Tamdem; Peka, M F; Ngaha, R; Lehman, L G

    2015-12-01

    An entomological survey was carried out from August to November 2013, in order to determine the vector system of a building site for social housing in a coastal periurban district of Douala (Cameroon). Mosquito larvae were collected and adult endophilic mosquitoes captured on volunteers, for a total sample of 4897 mosquitoes. Morpho-taxonomic techniques alongside molecular techniques enabled the identification of 4 species, all aggressive to humans: Cx. pipiens (22.3%), Ae. albopictus (0.3%), An. coluzzii and An. gambiae (77.4%). The overall average biting rate recorded was 41.73 bites/person/night (b/p/n). An. gambiae s.l. represents 90.82% of this aggressive fauna, followed by Cx. pipiens (8.58%) and Ae. albopictus (0.6%). The detection of CSP showed that An. gambiae was responsible for 100% of P. falciparum transmission. The overall mean Entomological Inoculation Rate (EIR) was 3.94 ib/p/n. Female An. gambiae mortality rates were 14.47%, 82.5% and 100% respectively with DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin. The proliferation of An. gambiae in this area during raining season, at the detriment of An. coluzzii Coetze & Wilkerson and An. melas Theobald known to be major malaria vectors in island and coastal areas of Africa, may owe to the forest that still colonises this coastal peri-urban locality. Residents should therefore make use of deltamethrin based protective measures. PMID:26419486

  17. Re-Emerging Malaria Vectors in Rural Sahel (nouna, Burkina Faso): the Paluclim Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignolles, Cécile; Sauerborn, Rainer; Dambach, Peter; Viel, Christian; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Sié, Ali; Rogier, Christophe; Tourre, Yves M.

    2016-06-01

    The Paluclim project applied the tele-epidemiology approach, linking climate, environment and public health (CNES, 2008), to rural malaria in Nouna (Burkina Faso). It was to analyze the climate impact on vectorial risks, and its consequences on entomological risks forecast. The objectives were to: 1) produce entomological risks maps in the Nouna region, 2) produce dynamic maps on larvae sites and their productivity, 3) study the climate impact on malaria risks, and 4) evaluate the feasibility of strategic larviciding approach.

  18. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data (DEM) were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight against malaria in Zambia and

  19. Workbook on the Identification of Anopheles Larvae. Preliminary Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; Stojanovich, Chester J.

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable malarial control workers to identify the larvae of "Anopheles" species that are important malaria vectors. The morphological features of the larvae are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains an illustrated taxonomic key to 25 species of anopheline larvae. A glossary and a short…

  20. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Jarju, Lamin BS; Fillinger, Ulrike; Green, Clare; Louca, Vasilis; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to fly. The traditional practice

  1. Avoidance behavior to essential oils by Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excito-repellency tests were used to characterize behavioral responses of laboratory colonized Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand, using four essential oils, citronella (Cymbopogom nadus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), ...

  2. Using a Geographical-Information-System-Based Decision Support to Enhance Malaria Vector Control in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Mukonka, Victor Munyongwe; Mthembu, David; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Coetzer, Sarel; Shinondo, Cecilia Jill

    2012-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GISs) with emerging technologies are being harnessed for studying spatial patterns in vector-borne diseases to reduce transmission. To implement effective vector control, increased knowledge on interactions of epidemiological and entomological malaria transmission determinants in the assessment of impact of interventions is critical. This requires availability of relevant spatial and attribute data to support malaria surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation. Monitoring the impact of vector control through a GIS-based decision support (DSS) has revealed spatial relative change in prevalence of infection and vector susceptibility to insecticides and has enabled measurement of spatial heterogeneity of trend or impact. The revealed trends and interrelationships have allowed the identification of areas with reduced parasitaemia and increased insecticide resistance thus demonstrating the impact of resistance on vector control. The GIS-based DSS provides opportunity for rational policy formulation and cost-effective utilization of limited resources for enhanced malaria vector control. PMID:22548086

  3. The effect of larval nutritional deprivation on the life history and DDT resistance phenotype in laboratory strains of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in Africa. It thrives in agricultural areas and has been associated with increased malaria incidence in areas under rice and maize cultivation. This effect may be due to increased adult size and abundance as a consequence of optimal larval nutrition. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of larval nutrition on the life history and expression of insecticide resistance in adults of laboratory reared An. arabiensis. Methods Larvae drawn from an insecticide susceptible An. arabiensis strain (SENN) as well as a DDT-resistant strain (SENN-DDT) were subjected to three fasting regimes: 1 mg of food per larva offered once per day, once every second day and once every third day. Control cohorts included larvae offered 1 mg food thrice per day. The rate of larval development was compared between matched cohorts from each strain as well as between fasted larvae and their respective controls. The expression of DDT resistance/tolerance in adults was compared between the starved cohorts and their controls by strain. Factors potentially affecting variation in DDT resistance/tolerance were examined including: adult body size (wing length), knock-down resistance (kdr) status and levels of detoxification enzyme activity. Results and conclusion Anopheles arabiensis larval development is prolonged by nutrient deprivation and adults that eclose from starved larvae are smaller and less tolerant to DDT intoxication. This effect on DDT tolerance in adults is also associated with reduced detoxification enzyme activity. Conversely, well fed larvae develop comparatively quickly into large, more DDT tolerant (SENN) or resistant (SENN-DDT) adults. This is important in those instances where cereal farming is associated with increased An. arabiensis transmitted malaria incidence, because large adult females with high teneral reserves and decreased susceptibility to insecticide intoxication may also prove to be more

  4. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    Quartan malaria; Falciparum malaria; Biduoterian fever; Blackwater fever; Tertian malaria; Plasmodium ... Malaria is caused by a parasite that is passed to humans by the bite of infected Anopheles ...

  5. Ecotope-Based Entomological Surveillance and Molecular Xenomonitoring of Multidrug Resistant Malaria Parasites in Anopheles Vectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and spread of multidrug resistant (MDR) malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax have become increasingly important in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). MDR malaria is the heritable and hypermutable property of human malarial parasite populations that can decrease in vitro and in vivo susceptibility to proven antimalarial drugs as they exhibit dose-dependent drug resistance and delayed parasite clearance time in treated patients. MDR malaria risk situations reflect consequences of the national policy and strategy as this influences the ongoing national-level or subnational-level implementation of malaria control strategies in endemic GMS countries. Based on our experience along with current literature review, the design of ecotope-based entomological surveillance (EES) and molecular xenomonitoring of MDR falciparum and vivax malaria parasites in Anopheles vectors is proposed to monitor infection pockets in transmission control areas of forest and forest fringe-related malaria, so as to bridge malaria landscape ecology (ecotope and ecotone) and epidemiology. Malaria ecotope and ecotone are confined to a malaria transmission area geographically associated with the infestation of Anopheles vectors and particular environments to which human activities are related. This enables the EES to encompass mosquito collection and identification, salivary gland DNA extraction, Plasmodium- and species-specific identification, molecular marker-based PCR detection methods for putative drug resistance genes, and data management. The EES establishes strong evidence of Anopheles vectors carrying MDR P. vivax in infection pockets epidemiologically linked with other data obtained during which a course of follow-up treatment of the notified P. vivax patients receiving the first-line treatment was conducted. For regional and global perspectives, the EES would augment the epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of MDR falciparum and vivax malaria

  6. Adult vector control, mosquito ecology and malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Oliver J.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Gething, Peter W.; Cohen, Justin M.; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Alex Perkins, T.; Reiner, Robert C.; Tusting, Lucy S.; Scott, Thomas W.; Lindsay, Steven W.; Hay, Simon I.; Smith, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Standard advice regarding vector control is to prefer interventions that reduce the lifespan of adult mosquitoes. The basis for this advice is a decades-old sensitivity analysis of ‘vectorial capacity’, a concept relevant for most malaria transmission models and based solely on adult mosquito population dynamics. Recent advances in micro-simulation models offer an opportunity to expand the theory of vectorial capacity to include both adult and juvenile mosquito stages in the model. Methods In this study we revisit arguments about transmission and its sensitivity to mosquito bionomic parameters using an elasticity analysis of developed formulations of vectorial capacity. Results We show that reducing adult survival has effects on both adult and juvenile population size, which are significant for transmission and not accounted for in traditional formulations of vectorial capacity. The elasticity of these effects is dependent on various mosquito population parameters, which we explore. Overall, control is most sensitive to methods that affect adult mosquito mortality rates, followed by blood feeding frequency, human blood feeding habit, and lastly, to adult mosquito population density. Conclusions These results emphasise more strongly than ever the sensitivity of transmission to adult mosquito mortality, but also suggest the high potential of combinations of interventions including larval source management. This must be done with caution, however, as policy requires a more careful consideration of costs, operational difficulties and policy goals in relation to baseline transmission. PMID:25733562

  7. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis as a viable option in an Integrated Malaria Vector Control Programme in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Integrated Vector Control (IVC) remains the approach for managing the malaria-causing vector. The study investigated the contribution of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) in the control of malaria by targeting the larvae and also mapped and documented major breeding sites in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Methods Using a hand held GPS receiver unit, major breeding sites within the metropolis were mapped out during the larval survey. Mosquito larvae were then collected from the breeding sites and reared in an insectary to obtain an F1 generation for laboratory bioassays. The minimum effective dosage of Bti Water Dispersible Granular (WDG) formulation was determined by a series of bioassays. Based on the results obtained in the laboratory, the optimum effective dosage of Bti formulations against naturally occurring larvae of the indigenous mosquito species was determined through open field trials. Results A total of 33 breeding sites were identified and geo-referenced during the larval surveys with the majority of the breeding sites located in the Asokwa sub-metropolis, Kumasi, Ghana. A Bti (3,000 International Toxic Unit (ITU)/mg) concentration of 0.026 mg/l resulted in 50% mortality whilst a concentration of 0.136 mg/l resulted in 95% mortality. Results from the open field trials with Bti showed that a dosage of 0.2 kg/ha is as effective as 0.4 kg/ha in suppressing late instars and resulting pupae. Conclusion This study reveals that Bti at a very low dosage of 0.2 kg/ha is highly effective against Anopheles larvae and therefore offers viable options for the management of vector mosquitoes. Further research is needed to extend this to the field in order to determine its ability to reduce malaria incidence. PMID:23607376

  8. Malaria Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Malaria > Research Malaria Understanding Research NIAID Role Basic Biology Prevention and Control Strategies Strategic Partnerships and Research ... the malaria parasite. Related Links Global Research​ Vector Biology International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) ...

  9. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles fabricated using Anisomeles indica: Mosquitocidal potential against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools against mosquito vectors are a priority. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap, aqueous leaf extract of Anisomeles indica by reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. Bio-reduced AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The acute toxicity of A. indica leaf extract and biosynthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Both the A. indica leaf extract and AgNP showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against all tested mosquito species. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized AgNP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 31.56, 35.21 and 38.08 μg/mL, respectively. Overall, this study firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of A. indica, a potential bioresource for rapid, cheap and effective AgNP synthesis. PMID:26708933

  10. Modelling the risk of being bitten by malaria vectors in a vector control area in southern Benin, west Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The diversity of malaria vector populations, expressing various resistance and/or behavioural patterns could explain the reduced effectiveness of vector control interventions reported in some African countries. A better understanding of the ecology and distribution of malaria vectors is essential to design more effective and sustainable strategies for malaria control and elimination. Here, we analyzed the spatio-temporal risk of the contact between humans and the sympatric An. funestus and both M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. in an area of Benin with high coverage of vector control measures with an unprecedented level of resolution. Methods Presence-absence data for the three vectors from 1-year human-landing collections in 19 villages were assessed using binomial mixed-effects models according to vector control measures and environmental covariates derived from field and remote sensing data. After 8-fold cross-validations of the models, predictive maps of the risk of the contact between humans and the sympatric An. funestus and both molecular M and S forms of An. gambiae s.s. were computed. Results Model validations showed that the An. funestus, An. gambiae M form, and S form models provided an excellent (Area Under Curve>0.9), a good (AUC>0.8), and an acceptable (AUC>0.7) level of prediction, respectively. The distribution area of the probability of contact between human and An. funestus largely overlaps that of An. gambiae M form but this latter showed important seasonal variation. An. gambiae S form also showed seasonal variation but with different ecological preferences. Landscape data were useful to discriminate between the species’ distributions. Conclusions These results showed that available remote sensing data could help in predicting the human-vector contact for several species of malaria vectors at a village level scale. The predictive maps showed seasonal and spatial variations in the risk of human-vector contact for all three

  11. Draft Genomes of Anopheles cracens and Anopheles maculatus: Comparison of Simian Malaria and Human Malaria Vectors in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junhui; Zhong, Zhen; Jian, Jianbo; Amir, Amirah; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Sum, Jia-Siang; Fong, Mun-Yik

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles cracens has been incriminated as the vector of human knowlesi malaria in peninsular Malaysia. Besides, it is a good laboratory vector of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The distribution of An. cracens overlaps with that of An. maculatus, the human malaria vector in peninsular Malaysia that seems to be refractory to P. knowlesi infection in natural settings. Whole genome sequencing was performed on An. cracens and An. maculatus collected here. The draft genome of An. cracens was 395 Mb in size whereas the size of An. maculatus draft genome was 499 Mb. Comparison with the published Malaysian An. maculatus genome suggested the An. maculatus specimen used in this study as a different geographical race. Comparative analyses highlighted the similarities and differences between An. cracens and An. maculatus, providing new insights into their biological behavior and characteristics. PMID:27347683

  12. Participatory Risk Mapping of Malaria Vector Exposure in Northern South America using Environmental and Population Data

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, D.O.; Troyo, A.; Alimi, T.O.; Beier, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria elimination remains a major public health challenge in many tropical regions, including large areas of northern South America. In this study, we present a new high spatial resolution (90 × 90 m) risk map for Colombia and surrounding areas based on environmental and human population data. The map was created through a participatory multi-criteria decision analysis in which expert opinion was solicited to determine key environmental and population risk factors, different fuzzy functions to standardize risk factor inputs, and variable factor weights to combine risk factors in a geographic information system. The new risk map was compared to a map of malaria cases in which cases were aggregated to the municipio (municipality) level. The relationship between mean municipio risk scores and total cases by muncípio showed a weak correlation. However, the relationship between pixel-level risk scores and vector occurrence points for two dominant vector species, Anopheles albimanus and An. darlingi, was significantly different (p < 0.05) from a random point distribution, as was a pooled point distribution for these two vector species and An. nuneztovari. Thus, we conclude that the new risk map derived based on expert opinion provides an accurate spatial representation of risk of potential vector exposure rather than malaria transmission as shown by the pattern of malaria cases, and therefore it may be used to inform public health authorities as to where vector control measures should be prioritized to limit human-vector contact in future malaria outbreaks. PMID:24976656

  13. Participatory Risk Mapping of Malaria Vector Exposure in Northern South America using Environmental and Population Data.

    PubMed

    Fuller, D O; Troyo, A; Alimi, T O; Beier, J C

    2014-03-01

    Malaria elimination remains a major public health challenge in many tropical regions, including large areas of northern South America. In this study, we present a new high spatial resolution (90 × 90 m) risk map for Colombia and surrounding areas based on environmental and human population data. The map was created through a participatory multi-criteria decision analysis in which expert opinion was solicited to determine key environmental and population risk factors, different fuzzy functions to standardize risk factor inputs, and variable factor weights to combine risk factors in a geographic information system. The new risk map was compared to a map of malaria cases in which cases were aggregated to the municipio (municipality) level. The relationship between mean municipio risk scores and total cases by muncípio showed a weak correlation. However, the relationship between pixel-level risk scores and vector occurrence points for two dominant vector species, Anopheles albimanus and An. darlingi, was significantly different (p < 0.05) from a random point distribution, as was a pooled point distribution for these two vector species and An. nuneztovari. Thus, we conclude that the new risk map derived based on expert opinion provides an accurate spatial representation of risk of potential vector exposure rather than malaria transmission as shown by the pattern of malaria cases, and therefore it may be used to inform public health authorities as to where vector control measures should be prioritized to limit human-vector contact in future malaria outbreaks. PMID:24976656

  14. Local Adaptation and Vector-Mediated Population Structure in Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Ceron, Lilia; Carlton, Jane M.; Gueye, Amy; Fay, Michael; McCutchan, Thomas F.; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax in southern Mexico exhibits different infectivities to 2 local mosquito vectors, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles albimanus. Previous work has tied these differences in mosquito infectivity to variation in the central repeat motif of the malaria parasite's circumsporozoite (csp) gene, but subsequent studies have questioned this view. Here we present evidence that P. vivax in southern Mexico comprised 3 genetic populations whose distributions largely mirror those of the 2 mosquito vectors. Additionally, laboratory colony feeding experiments indicate that parasite populations are most compatible with sympatric mosquito species. Our results suggest that reciprocal selection between malaria parasites and mosquito vectors has led to local adaptation of the parasite. Adaptation to local vectors may play an important role in generating population structure in Plasmodium. A better understanding of coevolutionary dynamics between sympatric mosquitoes and parasites will facilitate the identification of molecular mechanisms relevant to disease transmission in nature and provide crucial information for malaria control. PMID:18385220

  15. Molecular Characterization Reveals Diverse and Unknown Malaria Vectors in the Western Kenyan Highlands.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Brandyce; Cooke, Mary; Krishnankutty, Sindhu M; Asih, Puji; Mueller, John D; Kahindi, Samuel; Ayoma, Elizabeth; Oriango, Robin M; Thumloup, Julie; Drakeley, Chris; Cox, Jonathan; Collins, Frank H; Lobo, Neil F; Stevenson, Jennifer C

    2016-02-01

    The success of mosquito-based malaria control is dependent upon susceptible bionomic traits in local malaria vectors. It is crucial to have accurate and reliable methods to determine mosquito species composition in areas subject to malaria. An unexpectedly diverse set of Anopheles species was collected in the western Kenyan highlands, including unidentified and potentially new species carrying the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This study identified 2,340 anopheline specimens using both ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region 2 and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 loci. Seventeen distinct sequence groups were identified. Of these, only eight could be molecularly identified through comparison to published and voucher sequences. Of the unidentified species, four were found to carry P. falciparum by circumsporozoite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction, the most abundant of which had infection rates comparable to a primary vector in the area, Anopheles funestus. High-quality adult specimens of these unidentified species could not be matched to museum voucher specimens or conclusively identified using multiple keys, suggesting that they may have not been previously described. These unidentified vectors were captured outdoors. Diverse and unknown species have been incriminated in malaria transmission in the western Kenya highlands using molecular identification of unusual morphological variants of field specimens. This study demonstrates the value of using molecular methods to compliment vector identifications and highlights the need for accurate characterization of mosquito species and their associated behaviors for effective malaria control. PMID:26787150

  16. Additional Selection for Insecticide Resistance in Urban Malaria Vectors: DDT Resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher M.; Toé, Hyacinthe K.; Sanou, Antoine; Namountougou, Moussa; Hughes, Angela; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Dabiré, Roch; Simard, Frederic; Ranson, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    In the city of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, Anopheles arabiensis has superseded Anopheles gambiae s.s. as the major malaria vector and the larvae are found in highly polluted habitats normally considered unsuitable for Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we show that An. gambiae s.l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba) have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose = 65.8% in the dry season and 70.4% in the rainy season, respectively). An investigation into the mechanisms responsible found an unexpectedly high frequency of the 1014S kdr mutation (allele frequency = 0.4), which is found at very low frequencies in An. arabiensis in the surrounding rural areas, and an increase in transcript levels of several detoxification genes, notably from the glutathione transferase and cytochrome P450 gene families. A number of ABC transporter genes were also expressed at elevated levels in the DDT resistant An. arabiensis. Unplanned urbanisation provides numerous breeding grounds for mosquitoes. The finding that Anopheles mosquitoes adapted to these urban breeding sites have a high prevalence of insecticide resistance has important implications for our understanding of the selective forces responsible for the rapid spread of insecticide resistant populations of malaria vectors in Africa. PMID:23049917

  17. Temporal dynamics of the ABC transporter response to insecticide treatment: insights from the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Epis, Sara; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Urbanelli, Sandra; Sassera, Davide; De Marco, Leone; Mereghetti, Valeria; Montagna, Matteo; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In insects, ABC transporters have been shown to contribute to defence/resistance to insecticides by reducing toxic concentrations in cells/tissues. Despite the extensive studies about this detoxifying mechanism, the temporal patterns of ABC transporter activation have been poorly investigated. Using the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi as a study system, we investigated the expression profile of ABC genes belonging to different subfamilies in permethrin-treated larvae at different time points (30 min to 48 h). Our results showed that the expression of ABCB and ABCG subfamily genes was upregulated at 1 h after treatment, with the highest expression observed at 6 h. Therefore, future investigations on the temporal dynamics of ABC gene expression will allow a better implementation of insecticide treatment regimens, including the use of specific inhibitors of ABC efflux pumps. PMID:25504146

  18. Temporal dynamics of the ABC transporter response to insecticide treatment: insights from the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Epis, Sara; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Urbanelli, Sandra; Sassera, Davide; De Marco, Leone; Mereghetti, Valeria; Montagna, Matteo; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In insects, ABC transporters have been shown to contribute to defence/resistance to insecticides by reducing toxic concentrations in cells/tissues. Despite the extensive studies about this detoxifying mechanism, the temporal patterns of ABC transporter activation have been poorly investigated. Using the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi as a study system, we investigated the expression profile of ABC genes belonging to different subfamilies in permethrin-treated larvae at different time points (30 min to 48 h). Our results showed that the expression of ABCB and ABCG subfamily genes was upregulated at 1 h after treatment, with the highest expression observed at 6 h. Therefore, future investigations on the temporal dynamics of ABC gene expression will allow a better implementation of insecticide treatment regimens, including the use of specific inhibitors of ABC efflux pumps. PMID:25504146

  19. Temporal dynamics of the ABC transporter response to insecticide treatment: insights from the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epis, Sara; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Urbanelli, Sandra; Sassera, Davide; De Marco, Leone; Mereghetti, Valeria; Montagna, Matteo; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    In insects, ABC transporters have been shown to contribute to defence/resistance to insecticides by reducing toxic concentrations in cells/tissues. Despite the extensive studies about this detoxifying mechanism, the temporal patterns of ABC transporter activation have been poorly investigated. Using the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi as a study system, we investigated the expression profile of ABC genes belonging to different subfamilies in permethrin-treated larvae at different time points (30 min to 48 h). Our results showed that the expression of ABCB and ABCG subfamily genes was upregulated at 1 h after treatment, with the highest expression observed at 6 h. Therefore, future investigations on the temporal dynamics of ABC gene expression will allow a better implementation of insecticide treatment regimens, including the use of specific inhibitors of ABC efflux pumps.

  20. [Results of epidemiological supervision of malaria vectors in the open water reservoirs of Moscow].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T N; Tanygina, E Iu; Baranova, A M; Ganushkina, L A

    2009-01-01

    In the past 2 years, the malaria epidemiological situation has drastically improved in Moscow: only sporadic cases of local transmission of tertian (Plasmodium vivax) malaria have been notified, which sets a task to eradicate malaria in the megalopolis in 2010. In this connection, the surveillance of the malaria vectors Anopheles mosquitoes is assuming prime importance. The results of entomological monitoring have shown its efficiency on the territory of the megalopolis. Main efforts have been directed to the application of safe controlling methods against the mosquitoes and to hydraulic engineering actions to reduce "area susceptibility". Entomological observations have demonstrated benefits from the correctly chosen and constantly performed hydraulic engineering measures that guarantee a long-term and positive impact on the malaria situation. PMID:20135875

  1. Challenges for malaria elimination in Zanzibar: pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and poor performance of long-lasting insecticide nets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual house spraying (IRS) are the main interventions for the control of malaria vectors in Zanzibar. The aim of the present study was to assess the susceptibility status of malaria vectors against the insecticides used for LLINs and IRS and to determine the durability and efficacy of LLINs on the island. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled from Pemba and Unguja islands in 2010–2011 for use in WHO susceptibility tests. One hundred and fifty LLINs were collected from households on Unguja, their physical state was recorded and then tested for efficacy as well as total insecticide content. Results Species identification revealed that over 90% of the Anopheles gambiae complex was An. arabiensis with a small number of An. gambiae s.s. and An. merus being present. Susceptibility tests showed that An. arabiensis on Pemba was resistant to the pyrethroids used for LLINs and IRS. Mosquitoes from Unguja Island, however, were fully susceptible to all pyrethroids tested. A physical examination of 150 LLINs showed that two thirds were damaged after only three years in use. All used nets had a significantly lower (p < 0.001) mean permethrin concentration of 791.6 mg/m2 compared with 944.2 mg/m2 for new ones. Their efficacy decreased significantly against both susceptible An. gambiae s.s. colony mosquitoes and wild-type mosquitoes from Pemba after just six washes (p < 0.001). Conclusion The sustainability of the gains achieved in malaria control in Zanzibar is seriously threatened by the resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and the short-lived efficacy of LLINs. This study has revealed that even in relatively well-resourced and logistically manageable places like Zanzibar, malaria elimination is going to be difficult to achieve with the current control measures. PMID:23537463

  2. An Assessment of Participatory Integrated Vector Management for Malaria Control in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mbogo, Charles; Mwangangi, Joseph; Imbahale, Susan; Kibe, Lydia; Orindi, Benedict; Girma, Melaku; Njui, Annah; Lwande, Wilber; Affognon, Hippolyte; Gichuki, Charity; Mukabana, Wolfgang Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integrated vector management (IVM) as a strategy to improve and sustain malaria vector control. However, this approach has not been widely adopted. Objectives We comprehensively assessed experiences and findings on IVM in Kenya with a view to sharing lessons that might promote its wider application. Methods The assessment used information from a qualitative external evaluation of two malaria IVM projects implemented between 2006 and 2011 and an analysis of their accumulated entomological and malaria case data. The project sites were Malindi and Nyabondo, located in coastal and western Kenya, respectively. The assessment focused on implementation of five key elements of IVM: integration of vector control methods, evidence-based decision making, intersectoral collaboration, advocacy and social mobilization, and capacity building. Results IVM was more successfully implemented in Malindi than in Nyabondo owing to greater community participation and multistakeholder engagement. There was a significant decline in the proportion of malaria cases among children admitted to Malindi Hospital, from 23.7% in 2006 to 10.47% in 2011 (p < 0.001). However, the projects’ operational research methodology did not allow statistical attribution of the decline in malaria and malaria vectors to specific IVM interventions or other factors. Conclusions Sustaining IVM is likely to require strong participation and support from multiple actors, including community-based groups, non-governmental organizations, international and national research institutes, and various government ministries. A cluster-randomized controlled trial would be essential to quantify the effectiveness and impact of specific IVM interventions, alone or in combination. Citation Mutero CM, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Imbahale S, Kibe L, Orindi B, Girma M, Njui A, Lwande W, Affognon H, Gichuki C, Mukabana WR. 2015. An assessment of participatory integrated vector

  3. A global bionomic database for the dominant vectors of human malaria

    PubMed Central

    Massey, N. Claire; Garrod, Gala; Wiebe, Antoinette; Henry, Andrew J.; Huang, Zhi; Moyes, Catherine L.; Sinka, Marianne E.

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes were first recognised as the transmitters of human malaria in the late 19th Century and have been subject to a huge amount of research ever since. Yet there is still much that is unknown regarding the ecology, behaviour (collectively ‘bionomics’) and sometimes even the identity of many of the world’s most prominent disease vectors, much less the within-species variation in their bionomics. Whilst malaria elimination remains an ambitious goal, it is becoming increasingly clear that knowledge of vector behaviour is needed to effectively target control measures. A database of bionomics data for the dominant vector species of malaria worldwide has been compiled from published peer-reviewed literature. The data identification and collation processes are described, together with the geo-positioning and quality control methods. This is the only such dataset in existence and provides a valuable resource to researchers and policy makers in this field. PMID:26927852

  4. Chemical composition, toxicity and non-target effects of Pinus kesiya essential oil: An eco-friendly and novel larvicide against malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide, with special reference to tropical and subtropical countries. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pinus kesiya leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the P. kesiya EO contained 18 compounds. Major constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and germacrene D. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 52, 57, and 62µg/ml, respectively. Notably, the EO was safer towards several aquatic non-target organisms Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 4135 to 8390µg/ml. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides from Pinaceae plants against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito vectors. PMID:26995063

  5. Mosquitoes and transmission of malaria parasites – not just vectors

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Richard EL; Diallo, Mawlouth; Brey, Paul T

    2004-01-01

    The regional malaria epidemics of the early 1900s provided the basis for much of our current understanding of malaria epidemiology. Colonel Gill, an eminent malariologist of that time, suggested that the explosive nature of the regional epidemics was due to a sudden increased infectiousness of the adult population. His pertinent observations underlying this suggestion have, however, gone unheeded. Here, the literature on Plasmodium seasonal behaviour is reviewed and three historical data sets, concerning seasonal transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, are examined. It is proposed that the dramatic seasonal increase in the density of uninfected mosquito bites results in an increased infectiousness of the human reservoir of infection and, therefore, plays a key role in "kick-starting" malaria parasite transmission. PMID:15533243

  6. Year to year and seasonal variations in vector bionomics and malaria transmission in a humid savannah village in west Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Dabiré, K R; Diabaté, A; Paré-Toé, L; Rouamba, J; Ouari, A; Fontenille, D; Baldet, T

    2008-06-01

    A longitudinal entomological study was carried out from 1999 to 2001 in Lena, a humid savannah village in the western region of Burkina Faso in order to establish malaria vector bionomics and the dynamics of malaria transmission. In the first year, malaria transmission was mainly due to An. gambiae s.s., but during the two later years was due to An. funestus, which were observed in high frequency towards the end of the rainy season. PCR identification of samples of An. gambiae s.1. showed 93% to be An. gambiae s.s. and 7% An. arabiensis. An. funestus constituting more than 60% of the vectors were identified in PCR as An. funestus s.s. The persistence of intense vectorial activity in this village was probably due to the road building in a swampy area creating a semi-permanent swamp that provided large sites for larval mosquitoes. These swampy sites seemed to be more favorable for An. funestus than for An. gambiae s.s. Thus, land development must be monitored and subjected to planning to minimize vector proliferation. Such a system of planning could lead to the restriction or even elimination of the swamp that is the source of larvae developing in the heart of the village. PMID:18697309

  7. Evaluation of silver nanoparticles toxicity of Arachis hypogaea peel extracts and its larvicidal activity against malaria and dengue vectors.

    PubMed

    Velu, Kuppan; Elumalai, Devan; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Janaki, Arumugam; Babu, Muthu; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesised from aqueous silver nitrate using the extracts of Arachis hypogaea peels. The synthesised SNPs were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy analysis and high-resonance scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. AgNPs were well defined and measured 20 to 50 nm in size. The nanoparticles were crystallized with a face-centered cubic structure. Larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels was tested for their larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever), Anopheles stephensi (Human malaria). The results suggest that the synthesised AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly resource for the control of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. This study provides the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels against vectors of malaria and dengue. PMID:26154036

  8. Effects of Reservoir Characteristics on Malaria and its vector Abundance: A Case Study of the Bongo District of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofosu, E.; Awuah, E.; Annor, F. O.

    2009-04-01

    In the seven (7) administrative zones of the Bongo District of the Upper East Region of Ghana, the occurrences of malaria and relative abundance of the principal malaria vector, Anopheles species, were studied as a function of the presence and characteristics of reservoirs during the rainy season. Case studies in the sub-Sahara Africa indicate that malaria transmission may increase decrease or remain largely unchanged as a consequence of reservoir presence. Analysis made, shows that the distance from reservoir to settlement and surface area of reservoirs significantly affected adult Anopheles mosquito abundance. Percentage of inhabitants using insecticide treated nets, livestock population density, human population density and Anopheles mosquito abundance significantly affected the occurrence of malaria. The results suggest that vector control targeted at reservoir characteristics and larval control, and supplemented by high patronage of insecticide treated nets may be an effective approach for epidemic malaria control in the Bongo District. Key Words: Bongo District, Reservoir, Anopheles species, Malaria, Vector abundance.

  9. Host association and the capacity of sand flies as vectors of lizard malaria in Panama.

    PubMed

    Kimsey, R B

    1992-08-01

    In this paper the capacity of sand flies (Lutzomyia) as vectors of parasites that cause malaria in anoles (Anolis limifrons) in the Zona de Canal, Panama was investigated. Inhabiting all study plots, often in local abundance, L. trinidadensis emerged as the principal candidate sand fly vector; the results of surveys did not suggest a likely mosquito vector. Although L. trinidadensis and infected anoles co-inhabited all plots, their abundances seemed unrelated. No evidence that sand flies parasitized anoles was uncovered. As anole activity patterns in daylight reciprocate with those of sand flies and at night anoles seem to avoid locations that sand flies frequent, anoles may evade sand fly bites altogether. Further, these sand flies occurred in close numerical and ecological association with Thecadactylus rapicauda, a reclusive moist forest gecko, often parasitizing these hosts in large numbers. Thus, sand flies lack capacity as vectors of malaria-causing parasites in central Panamanian anoles. PMID:1356940

  10. Population genetic structure of urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Arvind; Kumar, Ashwani; Dube, Madhulika; Gakhar, S K

    2016-04-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in India because climatic condition and geography of India provide an ideal environment for development of malaria vector. Anopheles stephensi is a major urban malaria vector in India and its control has been hampered by insecticide resistance. In present study population genetic structure of A. stephensi is analyzed at macro geographic level using 13 microsatellite markers. Significantly high genetic differentiation was found in all studied populations with differentiation values (FST) ranging from 0.0398 to 0.1808. The geographic distance was found to be playing a major role in genetic differentiation between different populations. Overall three genetic pools were observed and population of central India was found to be coexisting in two genetic pools. High effective population size (Ne) was found in all the studied populations. PMID:26777030

  11. Hydrologic modeling to screen potential environmental management methods for malaria vector control in Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Rebecca L.; Bomblies, Arne; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes the first use of Hydrology-Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a physically based distributed hydrology model, to investigate environmental management methods for malaria vector control in the Sahelian village of Banizoumbou, Niger. The investigation showed that leveling of topographic depressions where temporary breeding habitats form during the rainy season, by altering pool basin microtopography, could reduce the pool persistence time to less than the time needed for establishment of mosquito breeding, approximately 7 days. Undertaking soil surface plowing can also reduce pool persistence time by increasing the infiltration rate through an existing pool basin. Reduction of the pool persistence time to less than the rainfall interstorm period increases the frequency of pool drying events, removing habitat for subadult mosquitoes. Both management approaches could potentially be considered within a given context. This investigation demonstrates that management methods that modify the hydrologic environment have significant potential to contribute to malaria vector control in water-limited, Sahelian Africa.

  12. Eco-friendly larvicides from Indian plants: Effectiveness of lavandulyl acetate and bicyclogermacrene on malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, filiariasis and Zika virus. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment and induce resistance in a number of vectors. In this scenario, newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance mosquito control. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for entomological and parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as recently elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Here we investigated the toxicity of Heracleum sprengelianum (Apiaceae) leaf essential oil and its major compounds toward third instar larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC-MS analysis showed that EO major components were lavandulyl acetate (17.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (12.9%). The EO was toxic to A. subpictus, A. albopictus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 of 33.4, 37.5 and 40.9µg/ml, respectively. Lavandulyl acetate was more toxic to mosquito larvae if compared to bicyclogermacrene. Their LC50 were 4.17 and 10.3µg/ml for A. subpictus, 4.60 and 11.1µg/ml for A. albopictus, 5.11 and 12.5µg/ml for C. tritaeniorhynchus. Notably, the EO and its major compounds were safer to three non-target mosquito predators, Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 ranging from 206 to 4219µg/ml. Overall, this study highlights that H. sprengelianum EO is a promising source of eco-friendly larvicides against three important mosquito vectors with moderate toxicity against non-target aquatic

  13. Distribution and larval habitat characterization of Anopheles moucheti, Anopheles nili, and other malaria vectors in river networks of southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Ndo, Cyrille; Costantini, Carlo; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Fontenille, Didier; Simard, Frédéric

    2009-12-01

    Despite their importance as malaria vectors, little is known of the bionomic of Anopheles nili and Anopheles moucheti. Larval collections from 24 sites situated along the dense hydrographic network of south Cameroon were examined to assess key ecological factors associated with these mosquitoes distribution in river networks. Morphological identification of the III and IV instar larvae by the use of microscopy revealed that 47.6% of the larvae belong to An. nili and 22.6% to An. moucheti. Five variables were significantly involved with species distribution, the pace of flow of the river (lotic, or lentic), the light exposure (sunny or shady), vegetation (presence or absence of vegetation) the temperature and the presence or absence of debris. Using canonical correspondence analysis, it appeared that lotic rivers, exposed to light, with vegetation or debris were the best predictors of An. nili larval abundance. Whereas, An. moucheti and An. ovengensis were highly associated with lentic rivers, low temperature, having Pistia. An. nili and An. moucheti distribution along river systems across south Cameroon was highly correlated with environmental variables. The distribution of An. nili conforms to that of a generalist species which is adapted to exploiting a variety of environmental conditions, Whereas, An. moucheti, Anopheles ovengensis and Anopheles carnevalei appeared as specialist forest mosquitoes. PMID:19682965

  14. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridone alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behaviour especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined the toxicity and larvicidal activity on this vector of extracts from six selected plants found in Kenya and two compounds identified from Ricinus communis: 3-carbonitrile-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone (ricinine), and its carboxylic acid derivative 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone, the latter compound being reported for the first time from this plant. Methods Feeding assays tested for toxic effects of extracts from the plants Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd, Bidens pilosa L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ricinus coummunis L., Senna didymobotrya Fresen. and Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. on adult females and larvicidal activity was tested against third-instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Mortality of larvae and adult females was monitored for three and eight days, respectively; Probit analysis was used to calculate LC50. Survival was analysed with Kaplan-Meier Model. LC-MS was used to identify the pure compounds. Results Of the six plants screened, extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis were the most toxic against adult female mosquitoes after 7 days of feeding, with LC50 of 1.52 and 2.56 mg/mL respectively. Larvicidal activity of all the extracts increased with the exposure time with the highest mortality recorded for the extract from R. communis after 72 h of exposure (LC50 0.18 mg/mL). Mosquitoes fed on solutions of the pure compounds, 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone and ricinine survived almost as long as those fed on the R. communis extract with mean survival of 4.93 ± 0.07, 4.85 ± 0.07 and 4.50 ± 0.05 days respectively. Conclusions Overall, these findings demonstrate that extracts from the six plant species exhibit

  15. Simplified Models of Vector Control Impact upon Malaria Transmission by Zoophagic Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Kiware, Samson S.; Chitnis, Nakul; Moore, Sarah J.; Devine, Gregor J.; Majambere, Silas; Merrill, Stephen; Killeen, Gerry F.

    2012-01-01

    Background High coverage of personal protection measures that kill mosquitoes dramatically reduce malaria transmission where vector populations depend upon human blood. However, most primary malaria vectors outside of sub-Saharan Africa can be classified as “very zoophagic,” meaning they feed occasionally (<10% of blood meals) upon humans, so personal protection interventions have negligible impact upon their survival. Methods and Findings We extended a published malaria transmission model to examine the relationship between transmission, control, and the baseline proportion of bloodmeals obtained from humans (human blood index). The lower limit of the human blood index enables derivation of simplified models for zoophagic vectors that (1) Rely on only three field-measurable parameters. (2) Predict immediate and delayed (with and without assuming reduced human infectivity, respectively) impacts of personal protection measures upon transmission. (3) Illustrate how appreciable indirect communal-level protection for non-users can be accrued through direct personal protection of users. (4) Suggest the coverage and efficacy thresholds required to attain epidemiological impact. The findings suggest that immediate, indirect, community-wide protection of users and non-users alike may linearly relate to the efficacy of a user’s direct personal protection, regardless of whether that is achieved by killing or repelling mosquitoes. High protective coverage and efficacy (≥80%) are important to achieve epidemiologically meaningful impact. Non-users are indirectly protected because the two most common species of human malaria are strict anthroponoses. Therefore, the small proportion of mosquitoes that are killed or diverted while attacking humans can represent a large proportion of those actually transmitting malaria. Conclusions Simplified models of malaria transmission by very zoophagic vectors may be used by control practitioners to predict intervention impact

  16. Development of a population suppression strain of the human malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transgenic mosquito strains are being developed to contribute to the control of dengue and malaria transmission. One approach uses genetic manipulation to confer conditional, female-specific dominant lethality phenotypes. Engineering of a female-specific flightless phenotype provides a sexing mechanism essential for male-only mosquito, release approaches that result in population suppression of target vector species. Methods An approach that uses a female-specific gene promoter and antibiotic-repressible lethal factor to produce a sex-specific flightless phenotype was adapted to the human malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Transposon- and site-specific recombination-mediated technologies were used to generate a number of transgenic An. stephensi lines that when combined through mating produced the phenotype of flight-inhibited females and flight-capable males. Results The data shown here demonstrate the successful engineering of a female-specific flightless phenotype in a malaria vector. The flightless phenotype was repressible by the addition of tetracycline to the larval diet. This conditional phenotype allows the rearing of the strains under routine laboratory conditions. The minimal level of tetracycline that rescues the flightless phenotype is higher than that found as an environmental contaminant in circumstances where there is intensive use of antibiotics. Conclusions These studies support the further development of flightless female technology for applications in malaria control programmes that target the vectors. PMID:23622561

  17. Larval habitat of Anopheles philippinensis: a vector of malaria in Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Elias, M.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the various types of larval habitat of the malaria vector Anopheles philippinensis Ludlow in Bangladesh and characterizes its breeding ecology. Discussed also are the possible implications of the environmental changes on its breeding habitats resulting from intensified land use brought about by population increase and developments in irrigation and water resources. PMID:8823969

  18. Behavioural response of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar feeding is critical for survival of malaria vectors and, although discriminative plant feeding previously has been shown to occur in Anopheles gambiae s.s., little is known about the cues mediating attraction to these plants. In this study, we investigated the role of olfaction in An. gambiae ...

  19. Strong larvicidal potential of Artemisia annua leaf extract against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti L.) vectors and bioassay-driven isolation of the marker compounds.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kapoor, Himanshi; Chopra, Madhu; Kumar, Kaushal; Agrawal, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and dengue are the two most important vector-borne human diseases caused by mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Of the various strategies adopted for eliminating these diseases, controlling of vectors through herbs has been reckoned as one of the important measures for preventing their resurgence. Artemisia annua leaf chloroform extract when tried against larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti has shown a strong larvicidal activity against both of these vectors, their respective LC50 and LC90 values being 0.84 and 4.91 ppm for A. stephensi and 0.67 and 5.84 ppm for A. aegypti. The crude extract when separated through column chromatography using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate gradient (0-100%) yielded 76 fractions which were pooled into three different active fractions A, B and C on the basis of same or nearly similar R f values. The aforesaid pooled fractions when assayed against the larvae of A. stephensi too reported a strong larvicidal activity. The respective marker compound purified from the individual fractions A, B and C, were Artemisinin, Arteannuin B and Artemisinic acid, as confirmed and characterized through FT-IR and NMR. This is our first report of strong mortality of A. annua leaf chloroform extract against vectors of two deadly diseases. This technology can be scaled up for commercial exploitation. PMID:24158647

  20. Effects of Local Anthropogenic Changes on Potential Malaria Vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile Virus Vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France

    PubMed Central

    Ponçon, Nicolas; Balenghien, Thomas; Toty, Céline; Ferré, Jean Baptiste; Thomas, Cyrille; Dervieux, Alain; L’Ambert, Grégory; Schaffner, Francis; Bardin, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Using historical data, we highlight the consequences of anthropogenic ecosystem modifications on the abundance of mosquitoes implicated as the current most important potential malaria vector, Anopheles hyrcanus, and the most important West Nile virus (WNV) vector, Culex modestus, in the Camargue region, France. From World War II to 1971, populations of these species increased as rice cultivation expanded in the region in a political context that supported agriculture. They then fell, likely because of decreased cultivation and increased pesticide use to control a rice pest. The species increased again after 2000 with the advent of more targeted pest-management strategies, mainly the results of European regulations decisions. An intertwined influence of political context, environmental constraints, technical improvements, and social factors led to changes in mosquito abundance that had potential consequences on malaria and WNV transmission. These findings suggest that anthropogenic changes should not be underestimated in vectorborne disease recrudescence. PMID:18258028

  1. Use of a mixture statistical model in studying malaria vectors density.

    PubMed

    Boussari, Olayidé; Moiroux, Nicolas; Iwaz, Jean; Djènontin, Armel; Bio-Bangana, Sahabi; Corbel, Vincent; Fonton, Noël; Ecochard, René

    2012-01-01

    Vector control is a major step in the process of malaria control and elimination. This requires vector counts and appropriate statistical analyses of these counts. However, vector counts are often overdispersed. A non-parametric mixture of Poisson model (NPMP) is proposed to allow for overdispersion and better describe vector distribution. Mosquito collections using the Human Landing Catches as well as collection of environmental and climatic data were carried out from January to December 2009 in 28 villages in Southern Benin. A NPMP regression model with "village" as random effect is used to test statistical correlations between malaria vectors density and environmental and climatic factors. Furthermore, the villages were ranked using the latent classes derived from the NPMP model. Based on this classification of the villages, the impacts of four vector control strategies implemented in the villages were compared. Vector counts were highly variable and overdispersed with important proportion of zeros (75%). The NPMP model had a good aptitude to predict the observed values and showed that: i) proximity to freshwater body, market gardening, and high levels of rain were associated with high vector density; ii) water conveyance, cattle breeding, vegetation index were associated with low vector density. The 28 villages could then be ranked according to the mean vector number as estimated by the random part of the model after adjustment on all covariates. The NPMP model made it possible to describe the distribution of the vector across the study area. The villages were ranked according to the mean vector density after taking into account the most important covariates. This study demonstrates the necessity and possibility of adapting methods of vector counting and sampling to each setting. PMID:23185626

  2. Use of a Mixture Statistical Model in Studying Malaria Vectors Density

    PubMed Central

    Boussari, Olayidé; Moiroux, Nicolas; Iwaz, Jean; Djènontin, Armel; Bio-Bangana, Sahabi; Corbel, Vincent; Fonton, Noël; Ecochard, René

    2012-01-01

    Vector control is a major step in the process of malaria control and elimination. This requires vector counts and appropriate statistical analyses of these counts. However, vector counts are often overdispersed. A non-parametric mixture of Poisson model (NPMP) is proposed to allow for overdispersion and better describe vector distribution. Mosquito collections using the Human Landing Catches as well as collection of environmental and climatic data were carried out from January to December 2009 in 28 villages in Southern Benin. A NPMP regression model with “village” as random effect is used to test statistical correlations between malaria vectors density and environmental and climatic factors. Furthermore, the villages were ranked using the latent classes derived from the NPMP model. Based on this classification of the villages, the impacts of four vector control strategies implemented in the villages were compared. Vector counts were highly variable and overdispersed with important proportion of zeros (75%). The NPMP model had a good aptitude to predict the observed values and showed that: i) proximity to freshwater body, market gardening, and high levels of rain were associated with high vector density; ii) water conveyance, cattle breeding, vegetation index were associated with low vector density. The 28 villages could then be ranked according to the mean vector number as estimated by the random part of the model after adjustment on all covariates. The NPMP model made it possible to describe the distribution of the vector across the study area. The villages were ranked according to the mean vector density after taking into account the most important covariates. This study demonstrates the necessity and possibility of adapting methods of vector counting and sampling to each setting. PMID:23185626

  3. An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Paulo F P; Orfano, Alessandra S; Bahia, Ana C; Duarte, Ana P M; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Melo, Fabrício F; Pessoa, Felipe A C; Oliveira, Giselle A; Campos, Keillen M M; Villegas, Luis Martínez; Rodrigues, Nilton Barnabé; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Simões, Rejane C; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Amino, Rogerio; Traub-Cseko, Yara M; Lima, José B P; Barbosa, Maria G V; Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2015-02-01

    In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Anopheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence. PMID:25742262

  4. An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Paulo FP; Orfano, Alessandra S; Bahia, Ana C; Duarte, Ana PM; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Melo, Fabrício F; Pessoa, Felipe AC; Oliveira, Giselle A; Campos, Keillen MM; Villegas, Luis Martínez; Rodrigues, Nilton Barnabé; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Simões, Rejane C; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Amino, Rogerio; Traub-Cseko, Yara M; Lima, José BP; Barbosa, Maria GV; Lacerda, Marcus VG; Tadei, Wanderli P; Secundino, Nágila FC

    2015-01-01

    In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Ano- pheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence. PMID:25742262

  5. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Gmelina asiatica leaf extract against filariasis, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L

    2015-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Gmelina asiatica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal dose (LC₅₀) = 22.44 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 40.65 μg/mL), Ae. aegypti (LC₅₀ = 25.77 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 45.98 μg/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC₅₀ = 27.83 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 48.92 μg/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of G. asiatica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. PMID:25666372

  6. A realistic host-vector transmission model for describing malaria prevalence pattern.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sandip; Sinha, Somdatta; Sarkar, Ram Rup

    2013-12-01

    Malaria continues to be a major public health concern all over the world even after effective control policies have been employed, and considerable understanding of the disease biology have been attained, from both the experimental and modelling perspective. Interactions between different general and local processes, such as dependence on age and immunity of the human host, variations of temperature and rainfall in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and continued presence of asymptomatic infections, regulate the host-vector interactions, and are responsible for the continuing disease prevalence pattern.In this paper, a general mathematical model of malaria transmission is developed considering short and long-term age-dependent immunity of human host and its interaction with pathogen-infected mosquito vector. The model is studied analytically and numerically to understand the role of different parameters related to mosquitoes and humans. To validate the model with a disease prevalence pattern in a particular region, real epidemiological data from the north-eastern part of India was used, and the effect of seasonal variation in mosquito density was modelled based on local climactic data. The model developed based on general features of host-vector interactions, and modified simply incorporating local environmental factors with minimal changes, can successfully explain the disease transmission process in the region. This provides a general approach toward modelling malaria that can be adapted to control future outbreaks of malaria. PMID:24122398

  7. Newly incriminated anopheline vectors of human malaria parasites in Junin Department, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J; Calderon, G; Falcon, R; Zambrano, V

    1987-09-01

    Sporozoite data from salivary gland dissections are presented that clearly incriminate Anopheles trinkae, An. pseudopunctipennis, An. sp. near fluminensis, An. oswaldoi, An. nuneztovari and An. rangeli as vectors of malaria parasites in the Rio Ene Valley, a hyperendemic malarious area in Junin Department, eastern Peru. Anopheles trinkae is considered the most important vector based on dissections, abundance and man-vector contact. Other notes are presented on the relative abundance, bionomics and previous records of these species in Peru and in the study sites. PMID:3333060

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

    PubMed Central

    Ageep, Tellal B; Cox, Jonathan; Hassan, M'oawia M; Knols, Bart GJ; Benedict, Mark Q; Malcolm, Colin A; Babiker, Ahmed; El Sayed, Badria B

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT). To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carried out to provide key data on spatial and seasonal dynamics of local vector populations. Methods Monthly cross-sectional larval surveys were carried out between March 2005 and May 2007 in two localities (Dongola and Merowe) adjacent to the river Nile. A stratified random sampling strategy based on the use of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to select survey locations. Breeding sites were mapped using GPS and data on larval density and breeding site characteristics were recorded using handheld computers. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify breeding site characteristics associated with increased risk of presence of larvae. Seasonal patterns in the proportion of breeding sites positive for larvae were compared visually to contemporaneous data on climate and river height. Results Of a total of 3,349 aquatic habitats sampled, 321 (9.6%) contained An. arabiensis larvae. The frequency with which larvae were found varied markedly by habitat type. Although most positive sites were associated with temporary standing water around the margins of the main Nile channel, larvae were also found at brickworks and in areas of leaking pipes and canals – often far from the river. Close to the Nile channel, a distinct seasonal pattern in larval populations was evident and appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the river level. These patterns were not evident in vector

  9. Larvicidal efficacy of Ethiopian ethnomedicinal plant Juniperus procera essential oil against Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Girmay, Askual; Fekadu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen the essential oil of Juniperus procera (J. procera) (Cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis (An. arabiensis) Patton, the principle malaria vector in Ethiopia. Methods The essential oil of J. procera was evaluated against the larvae of An. arabiensis under the laboratory and semi-field conditions by adopting the World Health Organization standard protocols. The larval mortality was observed for 24 h of post exposure. Results The essential oil of J. procera has demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against An. arabiensis. The LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 14.42 and 24.65 mg/L, respectively under the laboratory conditions, and from this data, a Chi-square value 6.662 was observed to be significant at the P=0.05 level. However, under the semi-field conditions the LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 24.51 and 34.21 mg/L, respectively and a Chi-square value 4.615 was significant at the P=0.05 level. The observations clearly showed that larval mortality rate is completely time and dose-dependent as compared with the control. Conclusions This investigation indicates that J. procera could serve as a potential larvicidal agent against insect vector of diseases, particularly An. arabiensis. However further studies are strongly recommended for the identification of the chemical constituents and the mode of action towards the rational design of alternative promising insecticidal agents in the near future. PMID:25183156

  10. Impact of long-lasting, insecticidal nets on anaemia and prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum among children under five years in areas with highly resistant malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The widespread use of insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) leads to the development of vector resistance to insecticide. This resistance can reduce the effectiveness of LLIN-based interventions and perhaps reverse progress in reducing malaria morbidity. To prevent such difficulty, it is important to know the real impact of resistance in the effectiveness of mosquito nets. Therefore, an assessment of LLIN efficacy was conducted in malaria prevention among children in high and low resistance areas. Methods The study was conducted in four rural districts and included 32 villages categorized as low or high resistance areas in Plateau Department, south-western Benin. Larvae collection was conducted to measure vector susceptibility to deltamethrin and knockdown resistance (kdr) frequency. In each resistance area, around 500 children were selected to measure the prevalence of malaria infection as well as the prevalence of anaemia associated with the use of LLINs. Results Observed mortalities of Anopheles gambiae s.s population exposed to deltamethrin ranged from 19 to 96%. Knockdown resistance frequency was between 38 and 84%. The prevalence of malaria infection in children under five years was 22.4% (19.9-25.1). This prevalence was 17.3% (14.2-20.9) in areas of high resistance and 27.1% (23.5-31.1) in areas of low resistance (p = 0.04). Eight on ten children that were aged six - 30 months against seven on ten of those aged 31–59 months were anaemic. The anaemia observed in the six to 30-month old children was significantly higher than in the 31–59 month old children (p = 0.00) but no difference associated with resistance areas was observed (p = 0.35). The net use rate was 71%. The risk of having malaria was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with LLIN use in both low and high resistance areas. The preventive effect of LLINs in high resistance areas was 60% (95% CI: 40–70), and was significantly higher than that observed in low resistance

  11. Coquillettidia (Culicidae, Diptera) mosquitoes are natural vectors of avian malaria in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The mosquito vectors of Plasmodium spp. have largely been overlooked in studies of ecology and evolution of avian malaria and other vertebrates in wildlife. Methods Plasmodium DNA from wild-caught Coquillettidia spp. collected from lowland forests in Cameroon was isolated and sequenced using nested PCR. Female Coquillettidia aurites were also dissected and salivary glands were isolated and microscopically examined for the presence of sporozoites. Results In total, 33% (85/256) of mosquito pools tested positive for avian Plasmodium spp., harbouring at least eight distinct parasite lineages. Sporozoites of Plasmodium spp. were recorded in salivary glands of C. aurites supporting the PCR data that the parasites complete development in these mosquitoes. Results suggest C. aurites, Coquillettidia pseudoconopas and Coquillettidia metallica as new and important vectors of avian malaria in Africa. All parasite lineages recovered clustered with parasites formerly identified from several bird species and suggest the vectors capability of infecting birds from different families. Conclusion Identifying the major vectors of avian Plasmodium spp. will assist in understanding the epizootiology of avian malaria, including differences in this disease distribution between pristine and disturbed landscapes. PMID:19664282

  12. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Malaria Overview What is malaria? Malaria is an infection of a part of the blood called the red blood cells. It is ... by mosquitoes that carry a parasite that causes malaria. If a mosquito carrying this parasite bites you, ...

  13. Automated innovative diagnostic, data management and communication tool, for improving malaria vector control in endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management. PMID:27225553

  14. Fine-scale distribution modeling of avian malaria vectors in north-central Kansas.

    PubMed

    Ganser, Claudia; Gregory, Andrew J; McNew, Lance B; Hunt, Lyla A; Sandercock, Brett K; Wisely, Samantha M

    2016-06-01

    Infectious diseases increasingly play a role in the decline of wildlife populations. Vector-borne diseases, in particular, have been implicated in mass mortality events and localized population declines are threatening some species with extinction. Transmission patterns for vector-borne diseases are influenced by the spatial distribution of vectors and are therefore not uniform across the landscape. Avian malaria is a globally distributed vector-borne disease that has been shown to affect endemic bird populations of North America. We evaluated shared habitat use between avian malaria vectors, mosquitoes in the genus Culex and a native grassland bird, the Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido), by (1) modeling the distribution of Culex spp. occurrence across the Smoky Hills of north-central Kansas using detection data and habitat variables, (2) assessing the occurrence of these vectors at nests of female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and (3) evaluating if shared habitat use between vectors and hosts is correlated with malarial infection status of the Greater Prairie-Chicken. Our results indicate that Culex occurrence increased at nest locations compared to other available but unoccupied grassland habitats; however the shared habitat use between vectors and hosts did not result in an increased prevalence of malarial parasites in Greater Prairie-Chickens that occupied habitats with high vector occurrence. We developed a predictive map to illustrate the associations between Culex occurrence and infection status with malarial parasites in an obligate grassland bird that may be used to guide management decisions to limit the spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:27232133

  15. Using Hydrologic Modeling to Screen Potential Environmental Management Methods for Malaria Vector Control in Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, R. L.; Bomblies, A.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    This study describes the use of HYDREMATS, a physically-based distributed hydrology model, to investigate environmental management methods for malaria vector control in the Sahelian village of Banizoumbou, Niger. The model operates at fine spatial and temporal scales to enable explicit simulation of individual pool dynamics and isolation of mosquito breeding habitats. The results showed that leveling of topographic depressions where temporary breeding habitats form during the rainy season could reduce the persistence time of a pool to less than the time needed for establishment of mosquito breeding, approximately 7 days. Increasing the surface soil permeability by ploughing could also reduce the persistence time of a pool but this technique was not as effective as leveling. Therefore it is considered that leveling should be the preferred of the two options where possible. This investigation demonstrates that management methods that modify the hydrologic environment have significant potential to contribute to malaria vector control and human health improvement in Sahelian Africa.

  16. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Matthew E; Lapointe, Dennis A

    2009-12-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 2001-2003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (~ 20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (<50%). Less than 20% of trees surveyed at 'Ainahou Ranch had treeholes and few mosquito larvae were detected. Aerial surveys at 'Ainahou Ranch detected 56% (95% CI: 42-68%) of the potential larval habitat identified in ground surveys. At Mauna Loa Strip Road, Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were only found in the rock holes of small intermittent stream drainages that made up 20% (5 of 25) of the total potential larval habitat. The volume of the potential larval habitat did not influence the probability of mosquito occurrence at Mauna Loa Strip Road. Our results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance, and subsequently avian malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate. PMID:20836824

  17. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (<50%). Less than 20% of trees surveyed at ' Ainahou Ranch had treeholes and few mosquito larvae were detected. Aerial surveys at 'Ainahou Ranch detected 56% (95% CI: 42-68%) of the potential larval habitat identified in ground surveys. At Mauna Loa Strip Road, Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were only found in the rock holes of small intermittent stream drainages that made up 20% (5 of 25) of the total potential larval habitat. The volume of the potential larval habitat did not influence the probability of mosquito occurrence at Mauna Loa Strip Road. Our results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance, and subsequently avian malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  18. [Campaign against malaria vectors in the framework of a rural development project in Burundi].

    PubMed

    Barutwanayo, M; Coosemans, M; Delacollette, C; Bisore, S; Mpitabakana, P; Seruzingo, D

    1991-01-01

    In the context of a large project for the socio-economic improvement of the Imbo area, measures were taken for the integration at all levels of malaria control: health centres for improvement of curative care; hygiene and sanitation centres, communes and agricultural projects for vector control; craftsmen, cooperatives and social centres for the manufacture and selling of impregnated bed-nets. The adopted strategy for malaria control results from preliminary epidemiological studies. The recommended measures are the improvement of medical care and vector control. The latter is based on indoor spraying of malathion, once a year. Malathion is only active during the period (2 months) of highest transmission, which occurs at the end of the rainy season. Occasionally other insecticides are used. Impregnated bed-nets with deltamethrin and village draining are complementary methods. In villages of the rice-growing area with good participation of the community, vector control activities have a considerable impact on malaria prevalence. About 70% before the intervention, the prevalence does not exceed 10% in 1990. High parasitaemia (greater than 2000 troph./microliters), and hence morbidity, decreased considerably (35% in 1983 to less than 5% in 1990). In villages with poor community participation, the decrease of prevalence is less spectacular (from 70% to 25%). Drains are not kept in repair and constitute new breeding places of vectors in the populated areas. The use of mosquito bed-nets is not common, a better information campaign should overcome this unpopularity. In peri-urban villages, inhabitants are complaining about indoor spraying, but the results are satisfactory. This programme demonstrates that reducing malaria prevalence and morbidity with conventional measures is feasible in particular biotopes. Health education activities in the Imbo Centre must be pursued and adapted according to the professional activities of the community. PMID:1793263

  19. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    El-Akhal, Fouad; Guemmouh, Raja; Ez Zoubi, Yassine; El Ouali Lalami, Abdelhakim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens. PMID:26640701

  20. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    El-Akhal, Fouad; Guemmouh, Raja; Ez Zoubi, Yassine; El Ouali Lalami, Abdelhakim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens. PMID:26640701

  1. Malaria vector incrimination in three rural riverine villages in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Arruda, Mercia; D'Almeida Couto, Alvaro A R; Wirtz, Robert; Lounibos, L Philip; Zimmerman, Robert H

    2007-03-01

    Vector incrimination studies were conducted from April 2003 to February 2005 at three riverine villages 1.5 km to 7.0 km apart, along the Matapi River, Amapa State, Brazil. A total of 113,117 mosquitoes were collected and placed in pools of malariae. Anopheles darlingi and An. marajoara had the highest proportion of circumsporozoite protein positives for human malaria parasites compared with An. nuneztovari, An. triannulatus, and An. intermedius. Anopheles darlingi and An. marajoara had the highest entomological inoculation rates (EIR) and were considered to be the most important malaria vectors in the study. Anopheles nuneztovari was also an important vector. Differences in entomological inoculation rates were more dependent on mosquito abundance than on sporozoite rates. PMID:17360868

  2. Mosquitoes as Potential Bridge Vectors of Malaria Parasites from Non-Human Primates to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Niels O.; Smallegange, Renate C.; Takken, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites which are transmitted by mosquitoes. Until recently, human malaria was considered to be caused by human-specific Plasmodium species. Studies on Plasmodium parasites in non-human primates (NHPs), however, have identified parasite species in gorillas and chimpanzees that are closely related to human Plasmodium species. Moreover, P. knowlesi, long known as a parasite of monkeys, frequently infects humans. The requirements for such a cross-species exchange and especially the role of mosquitoes in this process are discussed, as the latter may act as bridge vectors of Plasmodium species between different primates. Little is known about the mosquito species that would bite both humans and NHPs and if so, whether humans and NHPs share the same Plasmodium vectors. To understand the vector-host interactions that can lead to an increased Plasmodium transmission between species, studies are required that reveal the nature of these interactions. Studying the potential role of NHPs as a Plasmodium reservoir for humans will contribute to the ongoing efforts of human malaria elimination, and will help to focus on critical areas that should be considered in achieving this goal. PMID:22701434

  3. Progress with viral vectored malaria vaccines: A multi-stage approach involving “unnatural immunity”

    PubMed Central

    Ewer, Katie J.; Sierra-Davidson, Kailan; Salman, Ahmed M.; Illingworth, Joseph J.; Draper, Simon J.; Biswas, Sumi; Hill, Adrian V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Viral vectors used in heterologous prime-boost regimens are one of very few vaccination approaches that have yielded significant protection against controlled human malaria infections. Recently, protection induced by chimpanzee adenovirus priming and modified vaccinia Ankara boosting using the ME-TRAP insert has been correlated with the induction of potent CD8+ T cell responses. This regimen has progressed to field studies where efficacy against infection has now been reported. The same vectors have been used pre-clinically to identify preferred protective antigens for use in vaccines against the pre-erythrocytic, blood-stage and mosquito stages of malaria and this work is reviewed here for the first time. Such antigen screening has led to the prioritization of the PfRH5 blood-stage antigen, which showed efficacy against heterologous strain challenge in non-human primates, and vectors encoding this antigen are in clinical trials. This, along with the high transmission-blocking activity of some sexual-stage antigens, illustrates well the capacity of such vectors to induce high titre protective antibodies in addition to potent T cell responses. All of the protective responses induced by these vectors exceed the levels of the same immune responses induced by natural exposure supporting the view that, for subunit vaccines to achieve even partial efficacy in humans, “unnatural immunity” comprising immune responses of very high magnitude will need to be induced. PMID:26476366

  4. Progress with viral vectored malaria vaccines: A multi-stage approach involving "unnatural immunity".

    PubMed

    Ewer, Katie J; Sierra-Davidson, Kailan; Salman, Ahmed M; Illingworth, Joseph J; Draper, Simon J; Biswas, Sumi; Hill, Adrian V S

    2015-12-22

    Viral vectors used in heterologous prime-boost regimens are one of very few vaccination approaches that have yielded significant protection against controlled human malaria infections. Recently, protection induced by chimpanzee adenovirus priming and modified vaccinia Ankara boosting using the ME-TRAP insert has been correlated with the induction of potent CD8(+) T cell responses. This regimen has progressed to field studies where efficacy against infection has now been reported. The same vectors have been used pre-clinically to identify preferred protective antigens for use in vaccines against the pre-erythrocytic, blood-stage and mosquito stages of malaria and this work is reviewed here for the first time. Such antigen screening has led to the prioritization of the PfRH5 blood-stage antigen, which showed efficacy against heterologous strain challenge in non-human primates, and vectors encoding this antigen are in clinical trials. This, along with the high transmission-blocking activity of some sexual-stage antigens, illustrates well the capacity of such vectors to induce high titre protective antibodies in addition to potent T cell responses. All of the protective responses induced by these vectors exceed the levels of the same immune responses induced by natural exposure supporting the view that, for subunit vaccines to achieve even partial efficacy in humans, "unnatural immunity" comprising immune responses of very high magnitude will need to be induced. PMID:26476366

  5. Larvicidal and repellent potential of Zingiber nimmonii (J. Graham) Dalzell (Zingiberaceae) essential oil: an eco-friendly tool against malaria, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors?

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Arivoli, Subramanian; Tennyson, Samuel; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of terms of public health relevance, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The continuous and indiscriminate use of conventional pesticides for the control of mosquito vectors has resulted in the development of resistance and negative impacts on non-target organisms and the environment. Therefore, there is a need for development of effective mosquito control tools. In this study, the larvicidal and repellent activity of Zingiber nimmonii rhizome essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the Z. nimmonii EO contained at least 33 compounds. Major constituents were myrcene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and α-cadinol. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 41.19, 44.46, and 48.26 μg/ml, respectively. Repellency bioassays at 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) of Z. nimmonii EO gave 100 % protection up to 120, 150, and 180 min. against An. stephensi, followed by Ae. aegypti (90, 120, and 150 min) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (60, 90, and 120 min). Furthermore, the EO was safer towards two non-target aquatic organisms, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values of 3241.53 and 9250.12 μg/ml, respectively. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides and repellent from Zingiberaceae plants against malaria, dengue, and filariasis mosquito vectors. PMID:26792432

  6. Single-step biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Zornia diphylla leaves: A potent eco-friendly tool against malaria and arbovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Khater, Hanem F; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and Zika virus. The application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on the environment and human health. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools of mosquito vectors are a priority. Here single-step fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap aqueous leaf extract of Zornia diphylla as reducing and capping agent pf Ag(+) ions has been carried out. Biosynthesized AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The acute toxicity of Z. diphylla leaf extract and biosynthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Both the Z. diphylla leaf extract and Ag NP showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against all tested mosquito species. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized Ag NP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 12.53, 13.42 and 14.61μg/ml, respectively. Biosynthesized Ag NP were found safer to non-target organisms Chironomus circumdatus, Anisops bouvieri and Gambusia affinis, with the respective LC50 values ranging from 613.11 to 6903.93μg/ml, if compared to target mosquitoes. Overall, our results highlight that Z. diphylla-fabricated Ag NP are a promising and eco-friendly tool against larval populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance, with negligible toxicity against other non-target organisms. PMID:27318605

  7. Eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene from Plectranthus barbatus essential oil as eco-friendly larvicides against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Eco-friendly mosquitocides are a priority. In Ayurvedic medicine, Plectranthus species have been used to treat heart disease, convulsions, spasmodic pain and painful urination. In this research, we evaluated the acute toxicity of essential oil from Plectranthus barbatus and its major constituents, against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of P. barbatus essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Nineteen components were identified. Major constituents were eugenol (31.12%), α-pinene (19.38%) and β-caryophyllene (18.42%). Acute toxicity against early third-instar larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was investigated. The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 84.20, 87.25 and 94.34 μg/ml and 90% lethal concentration (LC90) values of 165.25, 170.56 and 179.58 μg/ml, respectively. Concerning major constituents, eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene appeared to be most effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 25.45, 32.09 and 41.66 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 28.14, 34.09 and 44.77 μg/ml, respectively) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 30.80, 36.75 and 48.17 μg/ml, respectively). Overall, the chance to use metabolites from P. barbatus essential oil against mosquito vectors seems promising, since they are effective at low doses and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools. PMID:26518773

  8. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in a malaria-endemic region of eastern Amazonian Brazil.

    PubMed

    Conn, Jan E; Vineis, Joseph H; Bollback, Jonathan P; Onyabe, David Y; Wilkerson, Richard C; Póvoa, Marinete M

    2006-05-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the primary malaria vector in Latin America, and is especially important in Amazonian Brazil. Historically, control efforts have been focused on indoor house spraying using a variety of insecticides, but since the mid-1990s there has been a shift to patient treatment and focal insecticide fogging. Anopheles darlingi was believed to have been significantly reduced in a gold-mining community, Peixoto de Azevedo (in Mato Grosso State), in the early 1990s by insecticide use during a severe malaria epidemic. In contrast, although An. darlingi was eradicated from some districts of the city of Belem (the capital of Para State) in 1968 to reduce malaria, populations around the water protection area in the eastern district were treated only briefly. To investigate the population structure of An. darlingi including evidence for a population bottleneck in Peixoto, we analyzed eight microsatellite loci of 256 individuals from seven locations in Brazil: three in Amapa State, three in Para State, and one in Mato Grosso State. Allelic diversity and mean expected heterozygosity were high for all populations (mean number alleles/locus and H(E) were 13.5 and 0.834, respectively) and did not differ significantly between locations. Significant heterozygote deficits were associated with linkage disequilibrium, most likely due to either the Wahlund effect or selection. We found no evidence for a population bottleneck in Peixoto, possibly because the reduction was not extreme enough to be detected. Overall estimates of long-term N(e) varied from 92.4 individuals under the linkage disequilibrium model to infinity under the heterozygote excess model. Fixation indices and analysis of molecular variance demonstrated significant differentiation between locations north and south of the Amazon River, suggesting a degree of genetic isolation between them, attributed to isolation by distance. PMID:16687683

  9. Implementation of the global plan for insecticide resistance management in malaria vectors: progress, challenges and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Mnzava, Abraham P; Knox, Tessa B; Temu, Emmanuel A; Trett, Anna; Fornadel, Christen; Hemingway, Janet; Renshaw, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in resistance of malaria vectors to insecticides, particularly to pyrethroids which are widely used in insecticide-treated nets. The Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in malaria vectors (GPIRM), released in May 2012, is a collective strategy for the malaria community to tackle this challenge. This review outlines progress made to date and the challenges experienced in the implementation of GPIRM, and outlines focus areas requiring urgent attention. Whilst there has been some advancement, uptake of GPIRM at the national level has generally been poor for various reasons, including limited availability of vector control tools with new mechanisms of action as well as critical financial, human and infrastructural resource deficiencies. There is an urgent need for a global response plan to address these deficits and ensure the correct and efficient use of available tools in order to maintain the effectiveness of current vector control efforts whilst novel vector control tools are under development. Emphasis must be placed on enhancing national capacities (such as human and infrastructural resources) to enable efficient monitoring and management of insecticide resistance, and to support availability and accessibility of appropriate new vector control products. Lack of action by the global community to address the threat of insecticide resistance is unacceptable and deprives affected communities of their basic right of universal access to effective malaria prevention. Aligning efforts and assigning the needed resources will ensure the optimal implementation of GPIRM with the ultimate goal of maintaining effective malaria vector control. PMID:25899397

  10. Vector capacity of Anopheles sinensis in malaria outbreak areas of central China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Both falciparum and vivax malaria were historically prevalent in China with high incidence. With the control efforts, the annual incidence in the whole country has reduced to 0.0001% except in some areas in the southern borders after 2000. Despite this, the re-emergence or outbreak of malaria was unavoidable in central China during 2005–2007. In order to understand the role of the vector in the transmission of malaria during the outbreak period, the vector capacity of An. sinensis in Huanghuai valley of central China was investigated. Findings The study was undertaken in two sites, namely Huaiyuan county of Anhui province and Yongcheng county of Henan province. In each county, malaria cases were recorded for recent years, and transmission risk factors for each study village including anti-mosquito facilities and total number of livestock were recorded by visiting each household in the study sites. The specimens of mosquitoes were collected in two villages, and population density and species in each study site were recorded after the identification of different species, and the blood-fed mosquitoes were tested by ring precipitation test. Finally, various indicators were calculated to estimate vector capacity or dynamics, including mosquito biting rate (MBR), human blood index (HBI), and the parous rates (M). Finally, the vector capacity, as an important indicator of malaria transmission to predict the potential recurrence of malaria, was estimated and compared in each study site. About 93.0% of 80 households in Huaiyuan and 89.3% of 192 households in Yongcheng had anti-mosquito facilities. No cattle or pigs were found, only less than 10 sheep were found in each study village. A total of 94 and 107 Anopheles spp. mosquitos were captured in two study sites, respectively, and all of An. sinensis were morphologically identified. It was found that mosquito blood-feeding peak was between 9:00 pm and 12:00 pm. Man biting rate of An. sinensis was 6.0957 and

  11. Malaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  12. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    Malaria is a serious disease caused by a parasite. You get it when an infected mosquito bites you. Malaria is a major cause of death worldwide, but ... at risk. There are four different types of malaria caused by four related parasites. The most deadly ...

  13. Detection of 1014F kdr mutation in four major Anopheline malaria vectors in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is a serious public health problem in Indonesia, particularly in areas outside Java and Bali. The spread of resistance to the currently available anti-malarial drugs or insecticides used for mosquito control would cause an increase in malaria transmission. To better understand patterns of transmission and resistance in Indonesia, an integrated mosquito survey was conducted in three areas with different malaria endemicities, Purworejo in Central Java, South Lampung District in Sumatera and South Halmahera District in North Mollucca. Methods Mosquitoes were collected from the three areas through indoor and outdoor human landing catches (HLC) and indoor restinging catches. Specimens were identified morphologically by species and kept individually in 1.5 ml Eppendorf microtube. A fragment of the VGSC gene from 95 mosquito samples was sequenced and kdr allelic variation determined. Results The molecular analysis of these anopheline mosquitoes revealed the existence of the 1014F allele in 4 major malaria vectors from South Lampung. These species include, Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles vagus. The 1014F allele was not found in the other areas. Conclusion The finding documents the presence of this mutant allele in Indonesia, and implies that selection pressure on the Anopheles population in this area has occurred. Further studies to determine the impact of the resistance allele on the efficacy of pyrethroids in control programmes are needed. PMID:21054903

  14. Existing Infection Facilitates Establishment and Density of Malaria Parasites in Their Mosquito Vector.

    PubMed

    Pollitt, Laura C; Bram, Joshua T; Blanford, Simon; Jones, Matthew J; Read, Andrew F

    2015-07-01

    Very little is known about how vector-borne pathogens interact within their vector and how this impacts transmission. Here we show that mosquitoes can accumulate mixed strain malaria infections after feeding on multiple hosts. We found that parasites have a greater chance of establishing and reach higher densities if another strain is already present in a mosquito. Mixed infections contained more parasites but these larger populations did not have a detectable impact on vector survival. Together these results suggest that mosquitoes taking multiple infective bites may disproportionally contribute to malaria transmission. This will increase rates of mixed infections in vertebrate hosts, with implications for the evolution of parasite virulence and the spread of drug-resistant strains. Moreover, control measures that reduce parasite prevalence in vertebrate hosts will reduce the likelihood of mosquitoes taking multiple infective feeds, and thus disproportionally reduce transmission. More generally, our study shows that the types of strain interactions detected in vertebrate hosts cannot necessarily be extrapolated to vectors. PMID:26181518

  15. Existing Infection Facilitates Establishment and Density of Malaria Parasites in Their Mosquito Vector

    PubMed Central

    Pollitt, Laura C.; Bram, Joshua T.; Blanford, Simon; Jones, Matthew J.; Read, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how vector-borne pathogens interact within their vector and how this impacts transmission. Here we show that mosquitoes can accumulate mixed strain malaria infections after feeding on multiple hosts. We found that parasites have a greater chance of establishing and reach higher densities if another strain is already present in a mosquito. Mixed infections contained more parasites but these larger populations did not have a detectable impact on vector survival. Together these results suggest that mosquitoes taking multiple infective bites may disproportionally contribute to malaria transmission. This will increase rates of mixed infections in vertebrate hosts, with implications for the evolution of parasite virulence and the spread of drug-resistant strains. Moreover, control measures that reduce parasite prevalence in vertebrate hosts will reduce the likelihood of mosquitoes taking multiple infective feeds, and thus disproportionally reduce transmission. More generally, our study shows that the types of strain interactions detected in vertebrate hosts cannot necessarily be extrapolated to vectors. PMID:26181518

  16. Vectorial capacity and vector control: reconsidering sensitivity to parameters for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Oliver J.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Gething, Peter W.; Cohen, Justin M.; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Perkins, T. Alex; Reiner, Robert C.; Tusting, Lucy S.; Sinka, Marianne E.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Eckhoff, Philip A.; Scott, Thomas W.; Lindsay, Steven W.; Hay, Simon I.; Smith, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major gains have been made in reducing malaria transmission in many parts of the world, principally by scaling-up coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. Historically, choice of vector control intervention has been largely guided by a parameter sensitivity analysis of George Macdonald's theory of vectorial capacity that suggested prioritizing methods that kill adult mosquitoes. While this advice has been highly successful for transmission suppression, there is a need to revisit these arguments as policymakers in certain areas consider which combinations of interventions are required to eliminate malaria. Methods and Results Using analytical solutions to updated equations for vectorial capacity we build on previous work to show that, while adult killing methods can be highly effective under many circumstances, other vector control methods are frequently required to fill effective coverage gaps. These can arise due to pre-existing or developing mosquito physiological and behavioral refractoriness but also due to additive changes in the relative importance of different vector species for transmission. Furthermore, the optimal combination of interventions will depend on the operational constraints and costs associated with reaching high coverage levels with each intervention. Conclusions Reaching specific policy goals, such as elimination, in defined contexts requires increasingly non-generic advice from modelling. Our results emphasize the importance of measuring baseline epidemiology, intervention coverage, vector ecology and program operational constraints in predicting expected outcomes with different combinations of interventions. PMID:26822603

  17. Efficacy of light-traps in sampling malaria vectors in different ecological zones in central India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N; Mishra, A K

    1997-03-01

    This preliminary field study was designed chiefly to test the efficiency of the light-trap as a tool for sampling malaria vectors, in tribal villages located in different ecological settings in comparison with indoor resting collections as an alternative method. Anopheles culicifacies, a known malaria vector, was the most prevalent species in the study villages and more than 80% of trap catches were obtained before midnight with peak activity during dusk. Reproductive status of trapped specimens revealed proportional representations of unfed, freshly fed, and gravid females. Another vector, An. fluviatilis was found in small numbers by both the methods. Thus the trap could give a reliable and unbiased sample of vector population. Seven species were abundant in the light-trap catches while only four in the indoor resting collections indicates the usefulness of the light-trap for sampling exophilic species. The study revealed that light-traps did not have any bias in favor of any particular species. The method may be useful for assessing the night time densities of different species or the fluctuation of a species at different dates and village to village variations. Light-traps could be used for sampling both endophilic and exophilic anophelines. PMID:9322305

  18. Predictions of malaria vector distribution in Belize based on multispectral satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. R.; Paris, J. F.; Manguin, S.; Harbach, R. E.; Woodruff, R.; Rejmankova, E.; Polanco, J.; Wullschleger, B.; Legters, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Use of multispectral satellite data to predict arthropod-borne disease trouble spots is dependent on clear understandings of environmental factors that determine the presence of disease vectors. A blind test of remote sensing-based predictions for the spatial distribution of a malaria vector, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, was conducted as a follow-up to two years of studies on vector-environmental relationships in Belize. Four of eight sites that were predicted to be high probability locations for presence of An. pseudopunctipennis were positive and all low probability sites (0 of 12) were negative. The absence of An. pseudopunctipennis at four high probability locations probably reflects the low densities that seem to characterize field populations of this species, i.e., the population densities were below the threshold of our sampling effort. Another important malaria vector, An. darlingi, was also present at all high probability sites and absent at all low probability sites. Anopheles darlingi, like An. pseudopunctipennis, is a riverine species. Prior to these collections at ecologically defined locations, this species was last detected in Belize in 1946.

  19. Modeling the role of environmental variables on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of weather and climate on malaria transmission has attracted considerable attention in recent years, yet uncertainties around future disease trends under climate change remain. Mathematical models provide powerful tools for addressing such questions and understanding the implications for interventions and eradication strategies, but these require realistic modeling of the vector population dynamics and its response to environmental variables. Methods Published and unpublished field and experimental data are used to develop new formulations for modeling the relationships between key aspects of vector ecology and environmental variables. These relationships are integrated within a validated deterministic model of Anopheles gambiae s.s. population dynamics to provide a valuable tool for understanding vector response to biotic and abiotic variables. Results A novel, parsimonious framework for assessing the effects of rainfall, cloudiness, wind speed, desiccation, temperature, relative humidity and density-dependence on vector abundance is developed, allowing ease of construction, analysis, and integration into malaria transmission models. Model validation shows good agreement with longitudinal vector abundance data from Tanzania, suggesting that recent malaria reductions in certain areas of Africa could be due to changing environmental conditions affecting vector populations. Conclusions Mathematical models provide a powerful, explanatory means of understanding the role of environmental variables on mosquito populations and hence for predicting future malaria transmission under global change. The framework developed provides a valuable advance in this respect, but also highlights key research gaps that need to be resolved if we are to better understand future malaria risk in vulnerable communities. PMID:22877154

  20. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridine alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behavior especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined th...

  1. Remote sensing and environment in the study of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in Mali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rian, Sigrid Katrine Eivindsdatter

    The malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the most important vector for the most devastating form of human malaria, the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. In-depth knowledge of the vector's history and environmental preferences is essential in the pursuit of new malaria mitigation strategies. Research was conducted in Mali across a range of habitats occupied by the vector, focusing on three identified chromosomal forms in the mosquito complex. The development of a 500-m landcover classification map was carried out using MODIS satellite imagery and extensive ground survey. The resulting product has the highest resolution and is the most up-to-date and most extensively ground-surveyed among land-cover maps for the study region. The new landcover classification product is a useful tool in the mapping of the varying ecological preferences of the different An. gambiae chromosomal forms. Climate and vegetation characteristics and their relationship to chromosomal forms were investigated further along a Southwest-Northeast moisture gradient in Mali. This research demonstrates particular ecological preferences of each chromosomal form, and gives a detailed examination of particular vegetation structural and climatological patterns across the study region. A key issue in current research into the population structure of An. gambiae is speciation and evolution in the complex, as an understanding of the mechanisms of change can help in the development of new mitigation strategies. A historical review of the paleoecology, archaeology, and other historical sources intended to shed light on the evolutionary history of the vector is presented. The generally held assumption that the current breed of An. gambiae emerged in the rainforest is called into question and discussed within the framework of paleoenvironment and human expansions in sub-Saharan West Africa.

  2. Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Kathryn N.; Kain, Kevin C.; Keystone, Jay S.

    2004-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic infection of global importance. Although relatively uncommon in developed countries, where the disease occurs mainly in travellers who have returned from endemic regions, it remains one of the most prevalent infections of humans worldwide. In endemic regions, malaria is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and creates enormous social and economic burdens. Current efforts to control malaria focus on reducing attributable morbidity and mortality. Targeted chemoprophylaxis and use of insecticide-treated bed nets have been successful in some endemic areas. For travellers to malaria-endemic regions, personal protective measures and appropriate chemoprophylaxis can significantly reduce the risk of infection. Prompt evaluation of the febrile traveller, a high degree of suspicion of malaria, rapid and accurate diagnosis, and appropriate antimalarial therapy are essential in order to optimize clinical outcomes of infected patients. Additional approaches to malaria control, including genetic manipulation of mosquitoes and malaria vaccines, are areas of ongoing research. PMID:15159369

  3. Species Composition and Diversity of Malaria Vector Breeding Habitats in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilaka, Nayana; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma; Hapugoda, Menaka; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Mosquito larval ecology is important in determining larval densities and species assemblage. This in turn influences malaria transmission in an area. Therefore, understanding larval habitat ecology is important in designing malaria control programs. Method. Larval surveys were conducted in 20 localities under five sentinel sites (Padavisiripura, Gomarankadawala, Thoppur, Mollipothana, and Ichchallampaththu) in Trincomalee District, Eastern Province of Sri Lanka, between June 2010 and July 2013. The relationship between seven abiotic variables (temperature, pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), and salinity) was measured. Results. A total of 21,347 anophelines were recorded representing 15 species. Anopheles subpictus 24.72% (5,278/21,347) was the predominant species, followed by 24.67% (5,267/21,347) of An. nigerrimus and 14.56% (3,109/21,347) of An. peditaeniatus. A total of 9,430 breeding habitats under twenty-one categories were identified. An. culcicifacies was noted to be highest from built wells (20.5%) with high salinity (1102.3 ± 81.8 mg/L), followed by waste water collections (20.2%) having low DO levels (2.85 ± 0.03 mg/L) and high TDS (1,654 ± 140 mg/L). Conclusion. This study opens an avenue to explore new breeding habitats of malaria vectors in the country and reemphasizes the requirement of conducting entomological surveillance to detect potential transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka under the current malaria elimination programme. PMID:26583136

  4. Eco-friendly microbial route to synthesize cobalt nanoparticles using Bacillus thuringiensis against malaria and dengue vectors.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Sampath; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rajakumar, Govindasamy

    2013-12-01

    The developments of resistance and persistence to chemical insecticides and concerns about the non-target effects have prompted the development of eco-friendly mosquito control agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal activities of synthesized cobalt nanoparticles (Co NPs) using bio control agent, Bacillus thuringiensis against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The synthesized Co NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD analysis showed three distinct diffraction peaks at 27.03°, 31.00°, and 45.58° indexed to the planes 102, 122, and 024, respectively on the face-centered cubic cobalt acetate with an average size of 85.3 nm. FTIR spectra implicated role of the peak at 3,436 cm(-1) for O-H hydroxyl group, 2924 cm(-1) for methylene C-H stretch in the formation of Co NPs. FESEM analysis showed the topological and morphological appearance of NPs which were found to be spherical and oval in shape. TEM analysis showed polydispersed and clustered NPs with an average size of 84.81 nm. The maximum larvicidal mortality was observed in the cobalt acetate solution, B. thuringiensis formulation, and synthesized Co NPs against fourth instar larvae of A. subpictus and A. aegypti with LC50 values of 29.16, 8.12, 3.59 mg/L; 34.61, 6.94, and 2.87 mg/L; r (2) values of 0.986, 0.933, 0.942; 0.962, 0.957, and 0.922, respectively. PMID:24013343

  5. High-throughput sorting of mosquito larvae for laboratory studies and for future vector control interventions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mosquito transgenesis offers new promises for the genetic control of vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Genetic control strategies require the release of large number of male mosquitoes into field populations, whether they are based on the use of sterile males (sterile insect technique, SIT) or on introducing genetic traits conferring refractoriness to disease transmission (population replacement). However, the current absence of high-throughput techniques for sorting different mosquito populations impairs the application of these control measures. Methods A method was developed to generate large mosquito populations of the desired sex and genotype. This method combines flow cytometry and the use of Anopheles gambiae transgenic lines that differentially express fluorescent markers in males and females. Results Fluorescence-assisted sorting allowed single-step isolation of homozygous transgenic mosquitoes from a mixed population. This method was also used to select wild-type males only with high efficiency and accuracy, a highly desirable tool for genetic control strategies where the release of transgenic individuals may be problematic. Importantly, sorted males showed normal mating ability compared to their unsorted brothers. Conclusions The developed method will greatly facilitate both laboratory studies of mosquito vectorial capacity requiring high-throughput approaches and future field interventions in the fight against infectious disease vectors. PMID:22929810

  6. Zoom in at African country level: potential climate induced changes in areas of suitability for survival of malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Predicting anopheles vectors’ population densities and boundary shifts is crucial in preparing for malaria risks and unanticipated outbreaks. Although shifts in the distribution and boundaries of the major malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis) across Africa have been predicted, quantified areas of absolute change in zone of suitability for their survival have not been defined. In this study, we have quantified areas of absolute change conducive for the establishment and survival of these vectors, per African country, under two climate change scenarios and based on our findings, highlight practical measures for effective malaria control in the face of changing climatic patterns. Methods We developed a model using CLIMEX simulation platform to estimate the potential geographical distribution and seasonal abundance of these malaria vectors in relation to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity). The model yielded an eco-climatic index (EI) describing the total favourable geographical locations for the species. The EI values were classified and exported to a GIS package. Using ArcGIS, the EI shape points were clipped to the extent of Africa and then converted to a raster layer using Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method. Generated maps were then transformed into polygon-based geo-referenced data set and their areas computed and expressed in square kilometers (km2). Results Five classes of EI were derived indicating the level of survivorship of these malaria vectors. The proportion of areas increasing or decreasing in level of survival of these malaria vectors will be more pronounced in eastern and southern African countries than those in western Africa. Angola, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, South Africa and Zambia appear most likely to be affected in terms of absolute change of malaria vectors suitability zones under the selected climate change scenarios. Conclusion The potential shifts of

  7. Transcriptomic differences between euryhaline and stenohaline malaria vector sibling species in response to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Uyhelji, Hilary A; Cheng, Changde; Besansky, Nora J

    2016-05-01

    Evolution of osmoregulatory systems is a key factor in the transition of species between fresh- and saltwater habitats. Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles merus are stenohaline and euryhaline malaria vector mosquitoes belonging to a larger group of sibling species, the Anopheles gambiae complex, which radiated in Africa within the last 2 million years. Comparative ecological genomics of these vector species can provide insight into the mechanisms that permitted the rapid radiation of this species complex into habitats of contrasting salinity. Here, we use RNA-Seq to investigate gene expression differences between An. coluzzii and An. merus after briefly exposing both young and old larval instars of each species to either saltwater (SW) or freshwater (FW). Our study aims to identify candidate genes and pathways responsible for the greater SW tolerance of An. merus. Our results are congruent with the ability of gene induction to mediate salinity tolerance, with both species showing increasing amounts of differential gene expression between SW and FW as salt concentrations increase. Besides ion transporters such as AgAE2 that may serve as effectors for osmoregulation, we also find mitogen-activated protein kinases that may serve in a phosphorylation signalling pathway responding to salinity, and report potential cross-talk between the mosquito immune response and osmoregulation. This study provides a key step towards applying the growing molecular knowledge of these malaria vectors to improve understanding of their ecological tolerances and habitat occupancy. PMID:26945667

  8. Malaria vectors in ecologically heterogeneous localities of the Colombian Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Díaz, Nelson; Altamiranda, Mariano; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2014-01-01

    The Colombian Pacific region is second nationally in number of malaria cases reported. This zone presents great ecological heterogeneity and Anopheles species diversity. However, little is known about the current spatial and temporal distribution of vector species. This study, conducted in three ecologically different localities of the Pacific region, aimed to evaluate the composition and distribution of Anopheles species and characterize transmission intensity. A total of 4,016 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected representing seven species. The composition and dominant species differed in each locality. Three species were infected with malaria parasites: Anopheles darlingi and An. calderoni were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and An. nuneztovari with Plasmodium vivax VK210 and VK247. Annual EIRs varied from 3.5-7.2 infective bites per year. These results confirm the importance of the primary vector An. nuneztovari in areas disturbed by human interventions, of An. darlingi in deforested margins of humid tropical rainforest and An. albimanus and the suspected vector An. calderoni in areas impacted by urbanization and large-scale palm oil agriculture close to the coast. This constitutes the first report in the Colombia Pacific region of naturally infected An. darlingi, and in Colombia of naturally infected An. calderoni. Further studies should evaluate the epidemiological importance of An. calderoni in the Pacific region. PMID:25090233

  9. Malaria Vectors in Ecologically Heterogeneous Localities of the Colombian Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo-Díaz, Nelson; Altamiranda, Mariano; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2014-01-01

    The Colombian Pacific region is second nationally in number of malaria cases reported. This zone presents great ecological heterogeneity and Anopheles species diversity. However, little is known about the current spatial and temporal distribution of vector species. This study, conducted in three ecologically different localities of the Pacific region, aimed to evaluate the composition and distribution of Anopheles species and characterize transmission intensity. A total of 4,016 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected representing seven species. The composition and dominant species differed in each locality. Three species were infected with malaria parasites: Anopheles darlingi and An. calderoni were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and An. nuneztovari with Plasmodium vivax VK210 and VK247. Annual EIRs varied from 3.5–7.2 infective bites per year. These results confirm the importance of the primary vector An. nuneztovari in areas disturbed by human interventions, of An. darlingi in deforested margins of humid tropical rainforest and An. albimanus and the suspected vector An. calderoni in areas impacted by urbanization and large-scale palm oil agriculture close to the coast. This constitutes the first report in the Colombia Pacific region of naturally infected An. darlingi, and in Colombia of naturally infected An. calderoni. Further studies should evaluate the epidemiological importance of An. calderoni in the Pacific region. PMID:25090233

  10. Bottlenecks and multiple introductions: Population genetics of the vector of avian malaria in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fonseca, Dina M.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    Avian malaria has had a profound impact on the demographics and behaviour of Hawaiian forest birds since its vector, Culex quinquefasciatusthe southern house mosquito, was first introduced to Hawaii around 1830. In order to understand the dynamics of the disease in Hawaii and gain insights into the evolution of vector-mediated parasite–host interactions in general we studied the population genetics of Cx. quinquefasciatus in the Hawaiian Islands. We used both microsatellite and mitochondrial loci. Not surprisingly we found that mosquitoes in Midway, a small island in the Western group, are quite distinct from the populations in the main Hawaiian Islands. However, we also found that in general mosquito populations are relatively isolated even among the main islands, in particular between Hawaii (the Big Island) and the remaining Hawaiian Islands. We found evidence of bottlenecks among populations within the Big Island and an excess of alleles in Maui, the site of the original introduction. The mitochondrial diversity was typically low but higher than expected. The current distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes combined with the microsatellite information lead us to conclude that there have been several introductions and to speculate on some processes that may be responsible for the current population genetics of vectors of avian malaria in Hawaii.

  11. Monitoring malaria vector control interventions: effectiveness of five different adult mosquito sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Shirley A; Kitron, Uriel; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M; Kokwaro, Elizabeth; King, Charles H; Mutuku, Francis M

    2013-09-01

    Long-term success of ongoing malaria control efforts based on mosquito bed nets (long-lasting insecticidal net) and indoor residual spraying is dependent on continuous monitoring of mosquito vectors, and thus on effective mosquito sampling tools. The objective of our study was to identify the most efficient mosquito sampling tool(s) for routine vector surveillance for malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission in coastal Kenya. We evaluated relative efficacy of five collection methods--light traps associated with a person sleeping under a net, pyrethrum spray catches, Prokopack aspirator, clay pots, and urine-baited traps--in four villages representing three ecological settings along the south coast of Kenya. Of the five methods, light traps were the most efficient for collecting female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles funestus (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, whereas the Prokopack aspirator was most efficient in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) and other culicines. With the low vector densities here, and across much of sub-Saharan Africa, wherever malaria interventions, long-lasting insecticidal nets, and/or indoor residual spraying are in place, the use of a single mosquito collection method will not be sufficient to achieve a representative sample of mosquito population structure. Light traps will remain a relevant tool for host-seeking mosquitoes, especially in the absence of human landing catches. For a fair representation of the indoor mosquito population, light traps will have to be supplemented with aspirator use, which has potential for routine monitoring of indoor resting mosquitoes, and can substitute the more labor-intensive and intrusive pyrethrum spray catches. There are still no sufficiently efficient mosquito collection methods for sampling outdoor mosquitoes, particularly those that are bloodfed. PMID:24180120

  12. Eave Screening and Push-Pull Tactics to Reduce House Entry by Vectors of Malaria.

    PubMed

    Menger, David J; Omusula, Philemon; Wouters, Karlijn; Oketch, Charles; Carreira, Ana S; Durka, Maxime; Derycke, Jean-Luc; Loy, Dorothy E; Hahn, Beatrice H; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Mweresa, Collins K; van Loon, Joop J A; Takken, Willem; Hiscox, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying have contributed to a decline in malaria over the last decade, but progress is threatened by the development of physiological and behavioral resistance of mosquitoes against insecticides. Acknowledging the need for alternative vector control tools, we quantified the effects of eave screening in combination with a push-pull system based on the simultaneous use of a repellent (push) and attractant-baited traps (pull). Field experiments in western Kenya showed that eave screening, whether used in combination with an attractant-baited trap or not, was highly effective in reducing house entry by malaria mosquitoes. The magnitude of the effect varied for different mosquito species and between two experiments, but the reduction in house entry was always considerable (between 61% and 99%). The use of outdoor, attractant-baited traps alone did not have a significant impact on mosquito house entry but the high number of mosquitoes trapped outdoors indicates that attractant-baited traps could be used for removal trapping, which would enhance outdoor as well as indoor protection against mosquito bites. As eave screening was effective by itself, addition of a repellent was of limited value. Nevertheless, repellents may play a role in reducing outdoor malaria transmission in the peridomestic area. PMID:26834195

  13. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Malaria Vector Control Measures in Urban Settings of Dakar by a Specific Anopheles Salivary Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Drame, Papa Makhtar; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Poinsignon, Anne; Boussari, Olayide; Dos Santos, Stephanie; Machault, Vanessa; Lalou, Richard; Cornelie, Sylvie; LeHesran, Jean-Yves; Remoue, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Standard entomological methods for evaluating the impact of vector control lack sensitivity in low-malaria-risk areas. The detection of human IgG specific to Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary antigen reflects a direct measure of human–vector contact. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a range of vector control measures (VCMs) in urban settings by using this biomarker approach. The study was conducted from October to December 2008 on 2,774 residents of 45 districts of urban Dakar. IgG responses to gSG6-P1 and the use of malaria VCMs highly varied between districts. At the district level, specific IgG levels significantly increased with age and decreased with season and with VCM use. The use of insecticide-treated nets, by drastically reducing specific IgG levels, was by far the most efficient VCM regardless of age, season or exposure level to mosquito bites. The use of spray bombs was also associated with a significant reduction of specific IgG levels, whereas the use of mosquito coils or electric fans/air conditioning did not show a significant effect. Human IgG response to gSG6-P1 as biomarker of vector exposure represents a reliable alternative for accurately assessing the effectiveness of malaria VCM in low-malaria-risk areas. This biomarker tool could be especially relevant for malaria control monitoring and surveillance programmes in low-exposure/low-transmission settings. PMID:23840448

  14. Visual and olfactory associative learning in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Memory and learning are critical aspects of the ecology of insect vectors of human pathogens because of their potential effects on contacts between vectors and their hosts. Despite this epidemiological importance, there have been only a limited number of studies investigating associative learning in insect vector species and none on Anopheline mosquitoes. Methods A simple behavioural assays was developed to study visual and olfactory associative learning in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector of malaria in Africa. Two contrasted membrane qualities or levels of blood palatability were used as reinforcing stimuli for bi-directional conditioning during blood feeding. Results Under such experimental conditions An. gambiae females learned very rapidly to associate visual (chequered and white patterns) and olfactory cues (presence and absence of cheese or Citronella smell) with the reinforcing stimuli (bloodmeal quality) and remembered the association for up to three days. Associative learning significantly increased with the strength of the conditioning stimuli used. Importantly, learning sometimes occurred faster when a positive reinforcing stimulus (palatable blood) was associated with an innately preferred cue (such as a darker visual pattern). However, the use of too attractive a cue (e.g. Shropshire cheese smell) was counter-productive and decreased learning success. Conclusions The results address an important knowledge gap in mosquito ecology and emphasize the role of associative memory for An. gambiae's host finding and blood-feeding behaviour with important potential implications for vector control. PMID:22284012

  15. Visual arrestins in olfactory pathways of Drosophila and the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, C. E.; Riesgo-Escovar, J.; Pitts, R. J.; Kafatos, F. C.; Carlson, J. R.; Zwiebel, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    Arrestins are important components for desensitization of G protein-coupled receptor cascades that mediate neurotransmission as well as olfactory and visual sensory reception. We have isolated AgArr1, an arrestin-encoding cDNA from the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, where olfaction is critical for vectorial capacity. Analysis of AgArr1 expression revealed an overlap between chemosensory and photoreceptor neurons. Furthermore, an examination of previously identified arrestins from Drosophila melanogaster exposed similar bimodal expression, and Drosophila arrestin mutants demonstrate impaired electrophysiological responses to olfactory stimuli. Thus, we show that arrestins in Drosophila are required for normal olfactory physiology in addition to their previously described role in visual signaling. These findings suggest that individual arrestins function in both olfactory and visual pathways in Dipteran insects; these genes may prove useful in the design of control strategies that target olfactory-dependent behaviors of insect disease vectors. PMID:11792843

  16. Cloning and analysis of a cecropin gene from the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Vizioli, J; Bulet, P; Charlet, M; Lowenberger, C; Blass, C; Müller, H M; Dimopoulos, G; Hoffmann, J; Kafatos, F C; Richman, A

    2000-02-01

    Parasites of the genus Plasmodium are transmitted to mammalian hosts by anopheline mosquitoes. Within the insect vector, parasite growth and development are potentially limited by antimicrobial defence molecules. Here, we describe the isolation of cDNA and genomic clones encoding a cecropin antibacterial peptide from the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The locus was mapped to polytene division 1C of the X chromosome. Cecropin RNA was induced by infection with bacteria and Plasmodium. RNA levels varied in different body parts of the adult mosquito. During development, cecropin expression was limited to the early pupal stage. The peptide was purified from both adult mosquitoes and cell culture supernatants. Anopheles gambiae synthetic cecropins displayed activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. PMID:10672074

  17. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both the wet and dry seasons

  18. Multipurpose effectiveness of Couroupita guianensis-synthesized gold nanoparticles: high antiplasmodial potential, field efficacy against malaria vectors and synergy with Aplocheilus lineatus predators.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. According to recent estimates, about 3.2 billion people, almost half of the world's population, are at risk of malaria. Malaria control is particularly challenging due to a growing number of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium and pesticide-resistant Anopheles vectors. Newer and safer control tools are required. In this research, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were biosynthesized using a cheap flower extract of Couroupita guianensis as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biofabrication of AuNP was confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, and particle size analysis. AuNP showed different shapes including spheres, ovals, and triangles. AuNPs were crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry; mean size was 29.2-43.8 nm. In laboratory conditions, AuNPs were toxic against Anopheles stephensi larvae, pupae, and adults. LC50 was 17.36 ppm (larva I), 19.79 ppm (larva II), 21.69 ppm (larva III), 24.57 ppm (larva IV), 28.78 ppm (pupa), and 11.23 ppm (adult). In the field, a single treatment with C. guianensis flower extract and AuNP (10 × LC50) led to complete larval mortality after 72 h. In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of golden wonder killifish, Aplocheilus lineatus, against A. stephensi IV instar larvae was 56.38 %, while in an aquatic environment treated with sub-lethal doses of the flower extract or AuNP, predation efficiency was boosted to 83.98 and 98.04 %, respectively. Lastly, the antiplasmodial activity of C. guianensis flower extract and AuNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. IC50 of C. guianensis flower extract was 43.21 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 51.16 μg/ml (CQ-r). AuNP IC50 was 69.47 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 76

  19. Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mukabana, W Richard; Kannady, Khadija; Kiama, G Michael; Ijumba, Jasper N; Mathenge, Evan M; Kiche, Ibrahim; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Mboera, Leonard; Mtasiwa, Deo; Yamagata, Yoichi; van Schayk, Ingeborg; Knols, Bart GJ; Lindsay, Steven W; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Mshinda, Hassan; Tanner, Marcel; Fillinger, Ulrike; Killeen, Gerry F

    2006-01-01

    Background Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Methods Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Results Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Conclusion Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community-based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role. PMID:16457724

  20. Pyrethroid susceptibility of malaria vectors in four Districts of western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors has been reported in western Kenya where long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the mainstays of vector control. To ensure the sustainability of insecticide-based malaria vector control, monitoring programs need to be implemented. This study was designed to investigate the extent and distribution of pyrethroid resistance in 4 Districts of western Kenya (Nyando, Rachuonyo, Bondo and Teso). All four Districts have received LLINs while Nyando and Rachuonyo Districts have had IRS campaigns for 3–5 years using pyrethroids. This study is part of a programme aimed at determining the impact of insecticide resistance on malaria epidemiology. Methods Three day old adult mosquitoes from larval samples collected in the field, were used for bioassays using the WHO tube bioassay, and mortality recorded 24 hours post exposure. Resistance level was assigned based on the 2013 WHO guidelines where populations with <90% mortality were considered resistant. Once exposed, samples were identified to species using PCR. Results An. arabiensis comprised at least 94% of all An. gambiae s.l. in Bondo, Rachuonyo and Nyando. Teso was a marked contrast case with 77% of all samples being An. gambiae s.s. Mortality to insecticides varied widely between clusters even in one District with mortality to deltamethrin ranging from 45-100%, while to permethrin the range was 30-100%. Mortality to deltamethrin in Teso District was < 90% in 4 of 6 clusters tested in An arabiensis and <90% in An. gambiae s.s in 5 of 6 clusters tested. To permethrin, mortality ranged between 5.9-95%, with <90% mortality in 9 of 13 and 8 of 13 in An. arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s. respectively. Cluster specific mortality of An. arabiensis between permethin and deltamethrin were not correlated (Z = 2.9505, P = 0.2483). Conclusion High levels of pyrethroid resistance were observed in western Kenya. This

  1. Efficacy of Aquatain, a Monomolecular Film, for the Control of Malaria Vectors in Rice Paddies

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Tullu; Takken, Willem; Githeko, Andrew K.; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Rice paddies harbour a large variety of organisms including larvae of malaria mosquitoes. These paddies are challenging for mosquito control because their large size, slurry and vegetation make it difficult to effectively apply a control agent. Aquatain, a monomolecular surface film, can be considered a suitable mosquito control agent for such breeding habitats due to its physical properties. The properties allow Aquatain to self-spread over a water surface and affect multiple stages of the mosquito life cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings A trial based on a pre-test/post-test control group design evaluated the potential of Aquatain as a mosquito control agent at Ahero rice irrigation scheme in Kenya. After Aquatain application at a dose of 2 ml/m2 on rice paddies, early stage anopheline larvae were reduced by 36%, and late stage anopheline larvae by 16%. However, even at a lower dose of 1 ml/m2 there was a 93.2% reduction in emergence of anopheline adults and 69.5% reduction in emergence of culicine adults. No pupation was observed in treated buckets that were part of a field bio-assay carried out parallel to the trial. Aquatain application saved nearly 1.7 L of water in six days from a water surface of 0.2 m2 under field conditions. Aquatain had no negative effect on rice plants as well as on a variety of non-target organisms, except backswimmers. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrated that Aquatain is an effective agent for the control of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes in irrigated rice paddies. The agent reduced densities of aquatic larval stages and, more importantly, strongly impacted the emergence of adult mosquitoes. Aquatain also reduced water loss due to evaporation. No negative impacts were found on either abundance of non-target organisms, or growth and development of rice plants. Aquatain, therefore, appears a suitable mosquito control tool for use in rice agro-ecosystems. PMID:21738774

  2. Enhancing Attraction of African Malaria Vectors to a Synthetic Odor Blend.

    PubMed

    Mweresa, Collins K; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Omusula, Philemon; Otieno, Bruno; Van Loon, Joop J A; Takken, Willem

    2016-06-01

    The deployment of odor-baited tools for sampling and controlling malaria vectors is limited by a lack of potent synthetic mosquito attractants. A synthetic mixture of chemical compounds referred to as "the Mbita blend" (MB) was shown to attract as many host-seeking malaria mosquitoes as attracted to human subjects. We hypothesized that this effect could be enhanced by adding one or more attractive compounds to the blend. We tested changes in the capability of MB (ammonia + L-lactic acid + tetradecanoic acid +3-methyl-1-butanol + carbon dioxide) to attract host-seeking malaria mosquitoes by addition of selected dilutions of butyl-2-methylbutanoate (1:10,000), 2-pentadecanone (1:100), 1-dodecanol (1:10,000), and butan-1-amine (1:10,000,000). The experiments were conducted in semi-field enclosures and in a village in western Kenya. In semi-field enclosures, the attraction of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto females to MB-baited traps was not enhanced by adding butyl-2-methylbutanoate. There was, however, an increase in the proportion of An. gambiae caught in traps containing MB augmented with the selected dilutions of butan-1-amine, 2-pentadecanone, and 1-dodecanol. When tested in the village, addition of butan-1-amine to MB enhanced catches of female An. gambiae sensu lato, An. funestus, and Culex mosquitoes. 1-Dodecanol increased attraction of An. gambiae s.l. to the MB, while addition of 2-pentadecanone improved trap catches of An. funestus and Culex mosquitoes. This study demonstrates the possibility of enhancing synthetic odor blends for trapping the malarial mosquitoes An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus, as well as some culicine species. The findings provide promising results for the optimization and utilization of synthetic attractants for sampling and controlling major disease vectors. PMID:27349651

  3. Modeling larval malaria vector habitat locations using landscape features and cumulative precipitation measures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Predictive models of malaria vector larval habitat locations may provide a basis for understanding the spatial determinants of malaria transmission. Methods We used four landscape variables (topographic wetness index [TWI], soil type, land use-land cover, and distance to stream) and accumulated precipitation to model larval habitat locations in a region of western Kenya through two methods: logistic regression and random forest. Additionally, we used two separate data sets to account for variation in habitat locations across space and over time. Results Larval habitats were more likely to be present in locations with a lower slope to contributing area ratio (i.e. TWI), closer to streams, with agricultural land use relative to nonagricultural land use, and in friable clay/sandy clay loam soil and firm, silty clay/clay soil relative to friable clay soil. The probability of larval habitat presence increased with increasing accumulated precipitation. The random forest models were more accurate than the logistic regression models, especially when accumulated precipitation was included to account for seasonal differences in precipitation. The most accurate models for the two data sets had area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.864 and 0.871, respectively. TWI, distance to the nearest stream, and precipitation had the greatest mean decrease in Gini impurity criteria in these models. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of random forest models for larval malaria vector habitat modeling. TWI and distance to the nearest stream were the two most important landscape variables in these models. Including accumulated precipitation in our models improved the accuracy of larval habitat location predictions by accounting for seasonal variation in the precipitation. Finally, the sampling strategy employed here for model parameterization could serve as a framework for creating predictive larval habitat models to assist in larval control efforts. PMID:24903736

  4. Design of a Two-level Adaptive Multi-Agent System for Malaria Vectors driven by an ontology

    PubMed Central

    Koum, Guillaume; Yekel, Augustin; Ndifon, Bengyella; Etang, Josiane; Simard, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Background The understanding of heterogeneities in disease transmission dynamics as far as malaria vectors are concerned is a big challenge. Many studies while tackling this problem don't find exact models to explain the malaria vectors propagation. Methods To solve the problem we define an Adaptive Multi-Agent System (AMAS) which has the property to be elastic and is a two-level system as well. This AMAS is a dynamic system where the two levels are linked by an Ontology which allows it to function as a reduced system and as an extended system. In a primary level, the AMAS comprises organization agents and in a secondary level, it is constituted of analysis agents. Its entry point, a User Interface Agent, can reproduce itself because it is given a minimum of background knowledge and it learns appropriate "behavior" from the user in the presence of ambiguous queries and from other agents of the AMAS in other situations. Results Some of the outputs of our system present a series of tables, diagrams showing some factors like Entomological parameters of malaria transmission, Percentages of malaria transmission per malaria vectors, Entomological inoculation rate. Many others parameters can be produced by the system depending on the inputted data. Conclusion Our approach is an intelligent one which differs from statistical approaches that are sometimes used in the field. This intelligent approach aligns itself with the distributed artificial intelligence. In terms of fight against malaria disease our system offers opportunities of reducing efforts of human resources who are not obliged to cover the entire territory while conducting surveys. Secondly the AMAS can determine the presence or the absence of malaria vectors even when specific data have not been collected in the geographical area. In the difference of a statistical technique, in our case the projection of the results in the field can sometimes appeared to be more general. PMID:17605778

  5. Malaria in the WHO Southeast Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kondrashin, A V

    1992-09-01

    Malaria endemic countries in the southeast Asia region include Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Population movement and rapid urbanization, both largely caused by unemployment, and environmental deterioration change the malaria pattern. They also increase the incidence of drug-resistant malaria, especially resistance to 4-aminoquinolines. In India, Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the density and distribution of tribals, and, in southern Thailand, rubber tappers have the highest malaria incidence rate (46.29%). Since the population is young and the young are highly sensitive to malaria infection, the region has low community immunity. High malaria priority areas are forests, forested hills, forest fringe areas, developmental project sites, and border areas. High risk groups include infants, young children, pregnant women, and mobile population groups. Malaria incidence is between 2.5-2.8 million cases, and the slide positivity rate is about 3%. P. falciparum constitutes 40% for all malaria cases. In 1988 in India, there were 222 malaria deaths. Malaria is the 7th most common cause of death in Thailand. 3 of the 19 Anopheline species are resistant to at least 1 insecticide, particularly DDT. Posteradication epidemics surfaced in the mid-1970s. Malaria control programs tend to use the primary health care and integration approach to malaria control. Antiparasite measures range from a single-dose of an antimalarial to mass drug administration. Residual spraying continues to be the main strategy of vector control. Some other vector control measures are fish feeding on mosquito larvae, insecticide impregnated mosquito nets, and repellents. Control programs also have health education activities. India allocates the highest percentage of its total health budget to malaria control (21.54%). Few malariology training programs exist in the region. Slowly processed surveillance data limit the countries' ability to

  6. Using the entomological inoculation rate to assess the impact of vector control on malaria parasite transmission and elimination

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prior studies have shown that annual entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) must be reduced to less than one to substantially reduce the prevalence of malaria infection. In this study, EIR values were used to quantify the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and source reduction (SR) on malaria transmission. The analysis of EIR was extended through determining whether available vector control tools can ultimately eradicate malaria. Method The analysis is based primarily on a review of all controlled studies that used ITN, IRS, and/or SR and reported their effects on the EIR. To compare EIRs between studies, the percent difference in EIR between the intervention and control groups was calculated. Results Eight vector control intervention studies that measured EIR were found: four ITN studies, one IRS study, one SR study, and two studies with separate ITN and IRS intervention groups. In both the Tanzania study and the Solomon Islands study, one community received ITNs and one received IRS. In the second year of the Tanzania study, EIR was 90% lower in the ITN community and 93% lower in the IRS community, relative to the community without intervention; the ITN and IRS effects were not significantly different. In contrast, in the Solomon Islands study, EIR was 94% lower in the ITN community and 56% lower in the IRS community. The one SR study, in Dar es Salaam, reported a lower EIR reduction (47%) than the ITN and IRS studies. All of these vector control interventions reduced EIR, but none reduced it to zero. Conclusion These studies indicate that current vector control methods alone cannot ultimately eradicate malaria because no intervention sustained an annual EIR less than one. While researchers develop new tools, integrated vector management may make the greatest impact on malaria transmission. There are many gaps in the entomological malaria literature and recommendations for future research are provided. PMID

  7. Chlorfenapyr: a new insecticide with novel mode of action can control pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria vectors have acquired widespread resistance to many of the currently used insecticides, including synthetic pyrethroids. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop alternative insecticides for effective management of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. In the present study, chlorfenapyr was evaluated against Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi for its possible use in vector control. Methods Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against An. culicifacies and An. stephensi was assessed using adult bioassay tests. In the laboratory, determination of diagnostic dose, assessment of residual activity on different substrates, cross-resistance pattern with different insecticides and potentiation studies using piperonyl butoxide were undertaken by following standard procedures. Potential cross-resistance patterns were assessed on field populations of An. culicifacies. Results A dose of 5.0% chlorfenapyr was determined as the diagnostic concentration for assessing susceptibility applying the WHO tube test method in anopheline mosquitoes with 2 h exposure and 48 h holding period. The DDT-resistant/malathion-deltamethrin-susceptible strain of An. culicifacies species C showed higher LD50 and LD99 (0.67 and 2.39% respectively) values than the DDT-malathion-deltamethrin susceptible An. culicifacies species A (0.41 and 2.0% respectively) and An. stephensi strains (0.43 and 2.13% respectively) and there was no statistically significant difference in mortalities among the three mosquito species tested (p > 0.05). Residual activity of chlorfenapyr a.i. of 400 mg/m2 on five fabricated substrates, namely wood, mud, mud+lime, cement and cement + distemper was found to be effective up to 24 weeks against An. culicifacies and up to 34 weeks against An. stephensi. No cross-resistance to DDT, malathion, bendiocarb and deltamethrin was observed with chlorfenapyr in laboratory-reared strains of An. stephensi and field-caught An. culicifacies. Potentiation studies

  8. Pantropic retroviral vectors integrate and express in cells of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, T; Beeman, R W; Shike, H; Besansky, N J; Mukabayire, O; Higgs, S; James, A A; Burns, J C

    1996-01-01

    The lack of efficient mechanisms for stable genetic transformation of medically important insects, such as anopheline mosquitoes, is the single most important impediment to progress in identifying novel control strategies. Currently available techniques for foreign gene expression in insect cells in culture lack the benefit of stable inheritance conferred by integration. To overcome this problem, a new class of pantropic retroviral vectors has been developed in which the amphotropic envelope is completely replaced by the G glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. The broadened host cell range of these particles allowed successful entry, integration, and expression of heterologous genes in cultured cells of Anopheles gambiae, the principle mosquito vector responsible for the transmission of over 100 million cases of malaria each year. Mosquito cells in culture infected with a pantropic vector expressing hygromycin phosphotransferase from the Drosophila hsp70 promoter were resistant to the antibiotic hygromycin B. Integrated provirus was detected in infected mosquito cell clones grown in selective media. Thus, pantropic retroviral vectors hold promise as a transformation system for mosquitoes in vivo. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8650240

  9. The bionomics of the malaria vector Anopheles farauti in Northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands: issues for successful vector control

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The north coast of Guadalcanal has some of the most intense malaria transmission in the Solomon Islands. And, there is a push for intensified vector control in Guadalcanal, to improve the livelihood of residents and to minimize the number of cases, which are regularly exported to the rest of the country. Therefore, the bionomics of the target vector, Anopheles farauti, was profiled in 2007–08; which was after 20 years of limited surveillance during which time treated bed nets (ITNs) were distributed in the area. Methods In three villages on northern Guadalcanal, blood-seeking female mosquitoes were caught using hourly human landing catches by four collectors, two working indoors and two outdoors, from 18.00-06.00 for at least two nights per month from July 2007 to June 2008. The mosquitoes were counted, identified using morphological and molecular markers and dissected to determine parity. Results Seasonality in vector densities was similar in the three villages, with a peak at the end of the drier months (October to December) and a trough at the end of the wetter months (March to May). There was some variability in endophagy (indoor biting) and nocturnal biting (activity during sleeping hours) both spatially and temporally across the longitudinal dataset. The general biting pattern was consistent throughout all sample collections, with the majority of biting occurring outdoors (64%) and outside of sleeping hours (65%). Peak biting was 19.00-20.00. The proportion parous across each village ranged between 0.54-0.58. Parity showed little seasonal trend despite fluctuations in vector densities over the year. Conclusion The early, outdoor biting behaviour of An. farauti documented 20 years previously on north Guadalcanal was still exhibited. It is possible that bed net use may have maintained this biting profile though this could not be determined unequivocally. The longevity of these populations has not changed despite long-term ITN use. This early

  10. Behavioural determinants of gene flow in malaria vector populations: Anopheles gambiae males select large females as mates

    PubMed Central

    Okanda, FM; Dao, A; Njiru, BN; Arija, J; Akelo, HA; Touré, Y; Odulaja, A; Beier, JC; Githure, JI; Yan, G; Gouagna, LC; Knols, BGJ; Killeen, GF

    2002-01-01

    Background Plasmodium-refractory mosquitoes are being rapidly developed for malaria control but will only succeed if they can successfully compete for mates when released into the wild. Pre-copulatory behavioural traits maintain genetic population structure in wild mosquito populations and mating barriers have foiled previous attempts to control malaria vectors through sterile male release. Methods Varying numbers of virgin male and female Anopheles gambiae Giles, from two strains of different innate sizes, were allowed to mate under standardized conditions in laboratory cages, following which, the insemination status, oviposition success and egg batch size of each female was assessed. The influence of male and female numbers, strain combination and female size were determined using logistic regression, correlation analysis and a simple mechanistic model of male competition for females. Results Male An. gambiae select females on the basis of size because of much greater fecundity among large females. Even under conditions where large numbers of males must compete for a smaller number of females, the largest females are more likely to become inseminated, to successfully oviposit and to produce large egg batches. Conclusions Sexual selection, on the basis of size, could either promote or limit the spread of malaria-refractory genes into wild populations and needs to be considered in the continued development and eventual release of transgenic vectors. Fundamental studies of behavioural ecology in malaria vectors such as An. gambiae can have important implications for malaria control and should be prioritised for more extensive investigation in the future. PMID:12296972

  11. Malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in Goulmoun, a rural city in south-western Chad

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Knowledge of some baseline entomological data such as Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIR) is crucially needed to assess the epidemiological impact of malaria control activities directed either against parasites or vectors. In Chad, most published surveys date back to the 1960's. In this study, anopheline species composition and their relation to malaria transmission were investigated in a dry Sudanian savannas area of Chad. Methods A 12-month longitudinal survey was conducted in the irrigated rice-fields area of Goulmoun in south western Chad. Human landing catches were performed each month from July 2006 to June 2007 in three compounds (indoors and outdoors) and pyrethrum spray collections were conducted in July, August and October 2006 in 10 randomly selected rooms. Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex and to the An. funestus group were identified by molecular diagnostic tools. Plasmodium falciparum infection and blood meal sources were detected by ELISA. Results Nine anopheline species were collected by the two sampling methods. The most aggressive species were An. arabiensis (51 bites/human/night), An. pharoensis (12.5 b/h/n), An. funestus (1.5 b/h/n) and An. ziemanni (1.3 b/h/n). The circumsporozoite protein rate was 1.4% for An. arabiensis, 1.4% for An. funestus, 0.8% for An. pharoensis and 0.5% for An. ziemanni. Malaria transmission is seasonal, lasting from April to December. However, more than 80% of the total EIR was concentrated in the period from August to October. The overall annual EIR was estimated at 311 bites of infected anophelines/human/year, contributed mostly by An. arabiensis (84.5%) and An. pharoensis (12.2%). Anopheles funestus and An. ziemanni played a minor role. Parasite inoculation occurred mostly after 22:00 hours but around 20% of bites of infected anophelines were distributed earlier in the evening. Conclusion The present study revealed the implication of An. pharoensis in malaria transmission in the

  12. Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-05-01

    The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, and RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America and the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations and even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps and the

  13. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... a parasite. You get it when an infected mosquito bites you. Malaria is a major cause of ... insect repellent with DEET Cover up Sleep under mosquito netting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  14. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Malaria can be carried by mosquitoes in temperate climates, but the parasite disappears over the winter. The ... a major disease hazard for travelers to warm climates. In some areas of the world, mosquitoes that ...

  15. Malaria.

    PubMed

    White, Nicholas J; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Hien, Tran Tinh; Faiz, M Abul; Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2014-02-22

    Although global morbidity and mortality have decreased substantially, malaria, a parasite infection of red blood cells, still kills roughly 2000 people per day, most of whom are children in Africa. Two factors largely account for these decreases; increased deployment of insecticide-treated bednets and increased availability of highly effective artemisinin combination treatments. In large trials, parenteral artesunate (an artemisinin derivative) reduced severe malaria mortality by 22·5% in Africa and 34·7% in Asia compared with quinine, whereas adjunctive interventions have been uniformly unsuccessful. Rapid tests have been an important addition to microscopy for malaria diagnosis. Chemopreventive strategies have been increasingly deployed in Africa, notably intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment in pregnancy, and monthly amodiaquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during the rainy season months in children aged between 3 months and 5 years across the sub-Sahel. Enthusiasm for malaria elimination has resurfaced. This ambitious but laudable goal faces many challenges, including the worldwide economic downturn, difficulties in elimination of vivax malaria, development of pyrethroid resistance in some anopheline mosquitoes, and the emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in southeast Asia. We review the epidemiology, clinical features, pathology, prevention, and treatment of malaria. PMID:23953767

  16. Field Evaluation of Picaridin Repellents Reveals Differences in Repellent Sensitivity between Southeast Asian Vectors of Malaria and Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Denis, Leen; Van den Broeck, Nick; Heng, Somony; Siv, Sovannaroth; Sluydts, Vincent; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies

    2014-01-01

    Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1–97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the epidemiological

  17. Low and seasonal malaria transmission in the middle Senegal River basin: identification and characteristics of Anopheles vectors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decades two dams were constructed along the Senegal River. These intensified the practice of agriculture along the river valley basin. We conducted a study to assess malaria vector diversity, dynamics and malaria transmission in the area. Methods A cross-sectional entomological study was performed in September 2008 in 20 villages of the middle Senegal River valley to evaluate the variations of Anopheles density according to local environment. A longitudinal study was performed, from October 2008 to January 2010, in 5 selected villages, to study seasonal variations of malaria transmission. Results Among malaria vectors, 72.34% of specimens collected were An. arabiensis, 5.28% An. gambiae of the S molecular form, 3.26% M form, 12.90% An. pharoensis, 4.70% An. ziemanni, 1.48% An. funestus and 0.04% An. wellcomei. Anopheles density varied according to village location. It ranged from 0 to 21.4 Anopheles/room/day and was significantly correlated with the distance to the nearest ditch water but not to the river. Seasonal variations of Anopheles density and variety were observed with higher human biting rates during the rainy season (8.28 and 7.55 Anopheles bite/man/night in October 2008 and 2009 respectively). Transmission was low and limited to the rainy season (0.05 and 0.06 infected bite/man/night in October 2008 and 2009 respectively). During the rainy season, the endophagous rate was lower, the anthropophagic rate higher and L1014F kdr frequency higher. Conclusions Malaria vectors are present at low-moderate density in the middle Senegal River basin with An. arabiensis as the predominant species. Other potential vectors are An. gambiae M and S form and An. funestus. Nonetheless, malaria transmission was extremely low and seasonal. PMID:22269038

  18. The use of digital spaceborne SAR data for the delineation of surface features indicative of malaria vector breeding habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Vermillion, C. H.; Khan, F. A.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation to examine the utility of spaceborne radar image data to malaria vector control programs is described. Specific tasks involve an analysis of radar illumination geometry vs information content, the synergy of radar and multispectral data mergers, and automated information extraction techniques.

  19. Larvicidal and repellent activity of Vetiveria zizaniodes (Poaceae) essential oil against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oil extracted by steam distillation of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash (Poaceae) was evaluated for larvicidal and adult repellent activity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) at 24 h post treatment for instars 1-4 were, respectively,...

  20. Development and assessment of plant-based synthetic odor baits for surveillance and control of Malaria vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent malaria vector control measures have considerably reduced indoor biting mosquito populations. However, reducing the outdoor biting populations remains a challenge because of the unavailability of appropriate lures to achieve this. This study sought to test the efficacy of plant-based syntheti...

  1. The Sticky Resting Box, a new tool for studying resting behaviour of Afrotropical malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring densities of adult mosquito populations is a major challenge in efforts to evaluate the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases, and their response to vector control interventions. In the case of malaria, collection of outdoor-resting Anophelines is rarely incorporated into surveillance and control, partially due to the lack of standardized collection tools. Such an approach, however, is increasingly important to investigate possible changes in mosquito behaviour in response to the scale up of Insecticide Treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying. In this study we evaluated the Sticky Resting Box (SRB) - i.e. a sticky variant of previously investigated mosquito Resting Box, which allows passive collection of mosquitoes entering the box – and compared its performance against traditional methods for indoor and outdoor resting mosquito sampling. Methods Daily collections were carried out in two neighbouring villages of Burkina Faso during rainy season 2011 and dry season 2012 by SRB located indoors and outdoors, and by Back-Pack aspiration inside houses (BP) and in ad hoc built outdoor pit-shelters (PIT). Results Overall, almost 20,000 Culicidae specimens belonging to 16 species were collected and morphologically identified. Malaria vectors included Anopheles coluzzii (53%), An. arabiensis (12%), An. gambiae s.s. (2.0%) and An. funestus (4.5%). The diversity of species collected in the two villages was similar for SRB and PIT collections outdoors, and significantly higher for SRB than for BP indoors. The population dynamics of An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes, as obtained by SRB-collections was significantly correlated with those obtained by the traditional methods. The predicted mean estimates of An. gambiae s.l. specimens/sampling-unit/night-of-collections was 6- and 5-times lower for SRB than for BP indoors and PIT outdoors, respectively. Conclusions Overall, the daily performance of SRB in terms of number of malaria vectors/trap was lower than

  2. House design modifications reduce indoor resting malaria vector densities in rice irrigation scheme area in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Atieli, Harrysone; Menya, Diana; Githeko, Andrew; Scott, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Simple modifications of typical rural house design can be an effective and relatively inexpensive method of reducing indoor mosquito vector densities and consequently decreasing malaria transmission. Public health scientists have shown the potential for house design to protect people against malaria, yet this type of intervention remains virtually ignored. A randomized-controlled study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the effects of this method of vector control on the density of indoor resting malaria vectors in a rice irrigation scheme area in lowlands of western Kenya. Methods Ten treatment houses were modified with ceilings of papyrus mats and insecticide-treated netting (ITN) and tested against ten control houses without papyrus ceilings. To determine densities of mosquitoes resting in homes, the pyrethrum spray method was used to simultaneously collect indoor resting malaria vectors in intervention and control houses. Each house was sampled a total of eight times over a period of four months, resulting in a total of 80 sampling efforts for each treatment. Community response to such intervention was investigated by discussions with residents. Results Papyrus mats ceiling modification reduced house entry by Anopheles gambiae s.l and Anopheles funestus densities by between 78–80% and 86% respectively compared to unmodified houses. Geometric mean density of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus in modified houses were significantly lower (t18 = 7.174, P < 0.0001 and t18 = 2.52, P = 0.02, respectively) compared to controls. Unmodified houses were associated with relatively higher densities of malaria vectors. There was a 84% (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.07–0.39, P < 0.0001) and 87% (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03–0.5, P = 0.0004) reduction in the odds of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus presence in modified houses, respectively, compared with unmodified houses. Residents responded favourably to this mode of vector control. Conclusion House

  3. Assessment of Anopheles salivary antigens as individual exposure biomarkers to species-specific malaria vector bites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission occurs during the blood feeding of infected anopheline mosquitoes concomitant with a saliva injection into the vertebrate host. In sub-Saharan Africa, most malaria transmission is due to Anopheles funestus s.s and to Anopheles gambiae s.l. (mainly Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis). Several studies have demonstrated that the immune response against salivary antigens could be used to evaluate individual exposure to mosquito bites. The aim of this study was to assess the use of secreted salivary proteins as specific biomarkers of exposure to An. gambiae and/or An. funestus bites. Methods For this purpose, salivary gland proteins 6 (SG6) and 5′nucleotidases (5′nuc) from An. gambiae (gSG6 and g-5′nuc) and An. funestus (fSG6 and f-5′nuc) were selected and produced in recombinant form. The specificity of the IgG response against these salivary proteins was tested using an ELISA with sera from individuals living in three Senegalese villages (NDiop, n = 50; Dielmo, n = 38; and Diama, n = 46) that had been exposed to distinct densities and proportions of the Anopheles species. Individuals who had not been exposed to these tropical mosquitoes were used as controls (Marseille, n = 45). Results The IgG responses against SG6 recombinant proteins from these two Anopheles species and against g-5′nucleotidase from An. gambiae, were significantly higher in Senegalese individuals compared with controls who were not exposed to specific Anopheles species. Conversely, an association was observed between the level of An. funestus exposure and the serological immune response levels against the f-5′nucleotidase protein. Conclusion This study revealed an Anopheles salivary antigenic protein that could be considered to be a promising antigenic marker to distinguish malaria vector exposure at the species level. The epidemiological interest of such species-specific antigenic markers is discussed. PMID:23276246

  4. Antennal-expressed ammonium transporters in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Pitts, R Jason; Derryberry, Stephen L; Pulous, Fadi E; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2014-01-01

    The principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae remains a significant threat to human health. In this anthropophagic species, females detect and respond to a range of human-derived volatile kairomones such as ammonia, lactic acid, and other carboxylic acids in their quest for blood meals. While the molecular underpinnings of mosquito olfaction and host seeking are becoming better understood, many questions remain unanswered. In this study, we have identified and characterized two candidate ammonium transporter genes, AgAmt and AgRh50 that are expressed in the mosquito antenna and may contribute to physiological and behavioral responses to ammonia, which is an important host kairomone for vector mosquitoes. AgAmt transcripts are highly enhanced in female antennae while a splice variant of AgRh50 appears to be antennal-specific. Functional expression of AgAmt in Xenopus laevis oocytes facilitates inward currents in response to both ammonium and methylammonium, while AgRh50 is able to partially complement a yeast ammonium transporter mutant strain, validating their conserved roles as ammonium transporters. We present evidence to suggest that both AgAmt and AgRh50 are in vivo ammonium transporters that are important for ammonia sensitivity in An. gambiae antennae, either by clearing ammonia from the sensillar lymph or by facilitating sensory neuron responses to environmental exposure. Accordingly, AgAmt and AgRh50 represent new and potentially important targets for the development of novel vector control strategies. PMID:25360676

  5. Malaria vectors in San José del Guaviare, Orinoquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Irene P; Conn, Jan E; Brochero, Helena

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200-0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human-vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance. PMID:25102591

  6. Immune factor Gambif1, a new rel family member from the human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Barillas-Mury, C; Charlesworth, A; Gross, I; Richman, A; Hoffmann, J A; Kafatos, F C

    1996-09-01

    A novel rel family member, Gambif1 (gambiae immune factor 1), has been cloned from the human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, and shown to be most similar to Drosophila Dorsal and Dif. Gambif1 protein is translocated to the nucleus in fat body cells in response to bacterial challenge, although the mRNA is present at low levels at all developmental stages and is not induced by infection. DNA binding activity to the kappaB-like sites in the A.gambiae Defensin and the Drosophila Diptericin and Cecropin promoters is also induced in larval nuclear extracts following infection. Gambif1 has the ability to bind to kappaB-like sites in vitro. Co-transfection assays in Drosophila mbn-2 cells show that Gambif1 can activate transcription by interacting with the Drosophila Diptericin regulatory elements, but is not functionally equivalent to Dorsal in this assay. Gambif1 protein translocation to the nucleus and the appearance of kappaB-like DNA binding activity can serve as molecular markers of activation of the immune system and open up the possibility of studying the role of defence reactions in determining mosquito susceptibility/refractoriness to malaria infection. PMID:8887560

  7. Mosquito genomics. Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Neafsey, Daniel E; Waterhouse, Robert M; Abai, Mohammad R; Aganezov, Sergey S; Alekseyev, Max A; Allen, James E; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W; Blandin, Stephanie A; Brockman, Andrew I; Burkot, Thomas R; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L M; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M; Hall, Andrew B; Han, Mira V; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S T; Jenkins, Adam M; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K N; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A; Naumenko, Anastasia N; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A; Peery, Ashley N; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J; Rinker, David C; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V; Shea, Terrance; Simão, Felipe A; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J; Thomas, Gregg W C; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, José M C; Unger, Maria F; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K; Collins, Frank H; Cornman, Robert S; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J; Emrich, Scott J; Fontaine, Michael C; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W; Hansen, Immo A; Howell, Paul I; Kafatos, Fotis C; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A T; Ribeiro, José M; Riehle, Michael A; Sharakhov, Igor V; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Besansky, Nora J

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts. PMID:25554792

  8. “Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes”

    PubMed Central

    Neafsey, Daniel E.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Abai, Mohammad R.; Aganezov, Sergey S.; Alekseyev, Max A.; Allen, James E.; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A.; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W.; Blandin, Stephanie A.; Brockman, Andrew I.; Burkot, Thomas R.; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S.; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C.; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L.M.; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Hall, Andrew B.; Han, Mira V.; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S.T.; Jenkins, Adam M.; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G.; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K.; Koekemoer, Lizette L.; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K.N.; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F.; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M.; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N.; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A.; Naumenko, Anastasia N.; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M.; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A.; Peery, Ashley N.; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P.; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J.; Rinker, David C.; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L.; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Shea, Terrance; Simão, Felipe A.; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A.; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, José M.C.; Unger, Maria F.; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K.; Collins, Frank H.; Cornman, Robert S.; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J.; Emrich, Scott J.; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W.; Hansen, Immo A.; Howell, Paul I.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A.T.; Ribeiro, José M.; Riehle, Michael A.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J.; Besansky, Nora J.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover, but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts. PMID:25554792

  9. Target product profile choices for intra-domiciliary malaria vector control pesticide products: repel or kill?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The most common pesticide products for controlling malaria-transmitting mosquitoes combine two distinct modes of action: 1) conventional insecticidal activity which kills mosquitoes exposed to the pesticide and 2) deterrence of mosquitoes away from protected humans. While deterrence enhances personal or household protection of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual sprays, it may also attenuate or even reverse communal protection if it diverts mosquitoes to non-users rather than killing them outright. Methods A process-explicit model of malaria transmission is described which captures the sequential interaction between deterrent and toxic actions of vector control pesticides and accounts for the distinctive impacts of toxic activities which kill mosquitoes before or after they have fed upon the occupant of a covered house or sleeping space. Results Increasing deterrency increases personal protection but consistently reduces communal protection because deterrent sub-lethal exposure inevitably reduces the proportion subsequently exposed to higher lethal doses. If the high coverage targets of the World Health Organization are achieved, purely toxic products with no deterrence are predicted to generally provide superior protection to non-users and even users, especially where vectors feed exclusively on humans and a substantial amount of transmission occurs outdoors. Remarkably, this is even the case if that product confers no personal protection and only kills mosquitoes after they have fed. Conclusions Products with purely mosquito-toxic profiles may, therefore, be preferable for programmes with universal coverage targets, rather than those with equivalent toxicity but which also have higher deterrence. However, if purely mosquito-toxic products confer little personal protection because they do not deter mosquitoes and only kill them after they have fed, then they will require aggressive "catch up" campaigns, with behaviour change communication

  10. Changes in vector species composition and current vector biology and behaviour will favour malaria elimination in Santa Isabel Province, Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, Santa Isabel Province in the Solomon Islands embarked on a malaria elimination programme. However, very little is known in the Province about the anopheline fauna, which species are vectors, their bionomics and how they may respond to intensified intervention measures. The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data on the malaria vectors and to ascertain the possibility of successfully eliminating malaria using the existing conventional vector control measures, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN). Methods Entomological surveys were undertaken during October 2009. To determine species composition and distribution larval surveys were conducted across on the whole island. For malaria transmission studies, adult anophelines were sampled using human landing catches from two villages - one coastal and one inland. Results Five Anopheles species were found on Santa Isabel: Anopheles farauti, Anopheles hinesorum, Anopheles lungae, Anopheles solomonis, and Anopheles nataliae. Anopheles hinesorum was the most widespread species. Anopheles farauti was abundant, but found only on the coast. Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis were not found. Anopheles farauti was the only species found biting in the coastal village, it was incriminated as a vector in this study; it fed early in the night but equally so indoors and outdoors, and had a low survival rate. Anopheles solomonis was the main species biting humans in the inland village, it was extremely exophagic, with low survival rates, and readily fed on pigs. Conclusion The disappearance of the two major vectors, An. punctulatus and An. koliensis, from Santa Isabel and the predominance of An. hinesorum, a non-vector species may facilitate malaria elimination measures. Anopheles farauti was identified as the main coastal vector with An. solomonis as a possible inland vector. The behaviour of An. solomonis is novel as it has not been previously found

  11. Development of a Gravid Trap for Collecting Live Malaria Vectors Anopheles gambiae s.l.

    PubMed Central

    Dugassa, Sisay; Lindh, Jenny M.; Oyieke, Florence; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Lindsay, Steven W.; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective malaria vector control targeting indoor host-seeking mosquitoes has resulted in fewer vectors entering houses in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa, with the proportion of vectors outdoors becoming more important in the transmission of this disease. This study aimed to develop a gravid trap for the outdoor collection of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l. based on evaluation and modification of commercially available gravid traps. Methods Experiments were implemented in an 80 m2 semi-field system where 200 gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. were released nightly. The efficacy of the Box, CDC and Frommer updraft gravid traps was compared. The Box gravid trap was tested to determine if the presence of the trap over water and the trap’s sound affected catch size. Mosquitoes approaching the treatment were evaluated using electrocuting nets or detergents added to the water in the trap. Based on the results, a new gravid trap (OviART trap) that provided an open, unobstructed oviposition site was developed and evaluated. Results Box and CDC gravid traps collected similar numbers (relative rate (RR) 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6–1.2; p = 0.284), whereas the Frommer trap caught 70% fewer mosquitoes (RR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2–0.5; p < 0.001). The number of mosquitoes approaching the Box trap was significantly reduced when the trap was positioned over a water-filled basin compared to an open pond (RR 0.7 95% CI 0.6–0.7; p < 0.001). This effect was not due to the sound of the trap. Catch size increased by 60% (RR 1.6, 1.2–2.2; p = 0.001) with the new OviART trap. Conclusion Gravid An. Gambiae s.s. females were visually deterred by the presence of the trapping device directly over the oviposition medium. Based on these investigations, an effective gravid trap was developed that provides open landing space for egg-laying Anopheles. PMID:23861952

  12. Vectored dispersal of Symbiodinium by larvae of a Caribbean gorgonian octocoral.

    PubMed

    Wirshing, Herman H; Feldheim, Kevin A; Baker, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    The ability of coral reefs to recover from natural and anthropogenic disturbance is difficult to predict, in part due to uncertainty regarding the dispersal capabilities and connectivity of their reef inhabitants. We developed microsatellite markers for the broadcast spawning gorgonian octocoral Eunicea (Plexaura) flexuosa (four markers) and its dinoflagellate symbiont, Symbiodinium B1 (five markers), and used them to assess genetic connectivity, specificity and directionality of gene flow among sites in Florida, Panama, Saba and the Dominican Republic. Bayesian analyses found that most E. flexuosa from the Florida reef tract, Saba and the Dominican Republic were strongly differentiated from many E. flexuosa in Panama, with the exception of five colonies from Key West that clustered with colonies from Panama. In contrast, Symbiodinium B1 was more highly structured. At least seven populations were detected that showed patterns of isolation by distance. The symbionts in the five unusual Key West colonies also clustered with symbionts from Panama, suggesting these colonies are the result of long-distance dispersal. Migration rate tests indicated a weak signal of northward immigration from the Panama population into the lower Florida Keys. As E. flexuosa clonemates only rarely associated with the same Symbiodinium B1 genotype (and vice versa), these data suggest a dynamic host-symbiont relationship in which E. flexuosa is relatively well dispersed but likely acquires Symbiodinium B1 from highly structured natal areas prior to dispersal. Once vectored by host larvae, these symbionts may then spread through the local population, and/or host colonies may acquire different local symbiont genotypes over time. PMID:23980762

  13. Comparative assessment of vaccine vectors encoding ten malaria antigens identifies two protective liver-stage candidates

    PubMed Central

    Longley, Rhea J.; Salman, Ahmed M.; Cottingham, Matthew G.; Ewer, Katie; Janse, Chris J.; Khan, Shahid M.; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2015-01-01

    The development of an efficacious Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine remains a top priority for global health. Vaccination with irradiated sporozoites is able to provide complete sterile protection through the action of CD8+ T cells at the liver-stage of infection. However, this method is currently unsuitable for large-scale deployment and focus has instead turned to the development of sub-unit vaccines. Sub-unit vaccine efforts have traditionally focused on two well-known pre-erythrocytic antigens, CSP and TRAP, yet thousands of genes are expressed in the liver-stage. We sought to assess the ability of eight alternative P. falciparum pre-erythrocytic antigens to induce a high proportion of CD8+ T cells. We show that all antigens, when expressed individually in the non-replicating viral vectors ChAd63 and MVA, are capable of inducing an immune response in mice. Furthermore, we also developed chimeric P. berghei parasites expressing the cognate P. falciparum antigen to enable assessment of efficacy in mice. Our preliminary results indicate that vectors encoding either PfLSA1 or PfLSAP2 are capable of inducing sterile protection dependent on the presence of CD8+ T cells. This work has identified two promising P. falciparum liver-stage candidate antigens that will now undergo further testing in humans. PMID:26139288

  14. Studying fitness cost of Plasmodium falciparum infection in malaria vectors: validation of an appropriate negative control

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The question whether Plasmodium falciparum infection affects the fitness of mosquito vectors remains open. A hurdle for resolving this question is the lack of appropriate control, non-infected mosquitoes that can be compared to the infected ones. It was shown recently that heating P. falciparum gametocyte-infected blood before feeding by malaria vectors inhibits the infection. Therefore, the same source of gametocyte-infected blood could be divided in two parts, one heated, serving as the control, the other unheated, allowing the comparison of infected and uninfected mosquitoes which fed on exactly the same blood otherwise. However, before using this method for characterizing the cost of infection to mosquitoes, it is necessary to establish whether feeding on previously heated blood affects the survival and fecundity of mosquito females. Methods Anopheles gambiae M molecular form females were exposed to heated versus non-heated, parasite-free human blood to mimic blood meal on non-infectious versus infectious gametocyte-containing blood. Life history traits of mosquito females fed on blood that was heat-treated or not were then compared. Results The results reveal that heat treatment of the blood did not affect the survival and fecundity of mosquito females. Consistently, blood heat treatment did not affect the quantity of blood ingested. Conclusions The study indicates that heat inactivation of gametocyte-infected blood will only inhibit mosquito infection and that this method is suitable for quantifying the fitness cost incurred by mosquitoes upon infection by P. falciparum. PMID:23282172

  15. Spatio-temporal analysis of abundances of three malaria vector species in southern Benin using zero-truncated models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the ecology and spatial-temporal distribution of malaria vectors is essential to design more effective and sustainable strategies for malaria control and elimination. In a previous study, we analyzed presence-absence data of An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s. in an area of southern Benin with high coverage of vector control measures. Here, we further extend the work by analysing the positive values of the dataset to assess the determinants of the abundance of these three vectors and to produce predictive maps of vector abundance. Methods Positive counts of the three vectors were assessed using negative-binomial zero-truncated (NBZT) mixed-effect models according to vector control measures and environmental covariates derived from field and remote sensing data. After 8-fold cross-validation of the models, predictive maps of abundance of the sympatric An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s. were produced. Results Cross-validation of the NBZT models showed a satisfactory predictive accuracy. Almost all changes in abundance between two surveys in the same village were well predicted by the models but abundances for An. gambiae s.s. were slightly underestimated. During the dry season, predictive maps showed that abundance greater than 1 bite per person per night were observed only for An. funestus and An. coluzzii. During the rainy season, we observed both increase and decrease in abundance of An. funestus, which are dependent on the ecological setting. Abundances of both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. increased during the rainy season but not in the same areas. Conclusions Our models helped characterize the ecological preferences of three major African malaria vectors. This works highlighted the importance to study independently the binomial and the zero-truncated count processes when evaluating vector control strategies. The study of the bio-ecology of malaria vector species in time and space is critical

  16. National malaria vector control policy: an analysis of the decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tesfazghi, Kemi; Hill, Jenny; Jones, Caroline; Ranson, Hilary; Worrall, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Background: New vector control tools are needed to combat insecticide resistance and reduce malaria transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) endorses larviciding as a supplementary vector control intervention using larvicides recommended by the WHO Pesticides Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). The decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria provided an opportunity to investigate the factors influencing policy adoption and assess the role that actors and evidence play in the policymaking process, in order to draw lessons that help accelerate the uptake of new methods for vector control. Methods: A retrospective policy analysis was carried out using in-depth interviews with national level policy stakeholders to establish normative national vector control policy or strategy decision-making processes and compare these with the process that led to the decision to scale-up larviciding. The interviews were transcribed, then coded and analyzed using NVivo10. Data were coded according to pre-defined themes from an analytical policy framework developed a priori. Results: Stakeholders reported that the larviciding decision-making process deviated from the normative vector control decision-making process. National malaria policy is normally strongly influenced by WHO recommendations, but the potential of larviciding to contribute to national economic development objectives through larvicide production in Nigeria was cited as a key factor shaping the decision. The larviciding decision involved a restricted range of policy actors, and notably excluded actors that usually play advisory, consultative and evidence generation roles. Powerful actors limited the access of some actors to the policy processes and content. This may have limited the influence of scientific evidence in this policy decision. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that national vector control policy change can be facilitated by linking malaria control objectives to wider socioeconomic considerations and

  17. Community-owned resource persons for malaria vector control: enabling factors and challenges in an operational programme in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community participation in vector control and health services in general is of great interest to public health practitioners in developing countries, but remains complex and poorly understood. The Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, implements larval control of malaria vector mosquitoes. The UMCP delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to community-owned resource persons (CORPs), recruited from within local communities via the elected local government. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional survey assessed the ability of CORPs to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae, and investigated demographic characteristics of the CORPs, their reasons for participating in the UMCP, and their work performance. Detection coverage was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the investigator which had been reported by CORP. Detection sensitivity was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the CORPS which the investigator found to contain Anopheles larvae that were also reported to be occupied by the CORP. Results The CORPs themselves perceived their role as professional rather than voluntary, with participation being a de facto form of employment. Habitat detection coverage was lower among CORPs that were recruited through the program administrative staff, compared to CORPs recruited by local government officials or health committees (Odds Ratio = 0.660, 95% confidence interval = [0.438, 0.995], P = 0.047). Staff living within their areas of responsibility had > 70% higher detection sensitivity for both Anopheline (P = 0.016) and Culicine (P = 0.012): positive habitats compared to those living outside those same areas. Discussion and conclusions Improved employment conditions as well as involving the local health committees in recruiting individual program staff, communication and community engagement skills are required to optimize achieving effective community

  18. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in

  19. Policy development in malaria vector management in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Cliff, Julie; Lewin, Simon; Woelk, Godfrey; Fernandes, Benedita; Mariano, Alda; Sevene, Esperança; Daniels, Karen; Matinhure, Sheillah; Oxman, Andrew; Lavis, John

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), two principal malaria control strategies, are similar in cost and efficacy. We aimed to describe recent policy development regarding their use in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Methods Using a qualitative case study methodology, we undertook semi-structured interviews of key informants from May 2004 to March 2005, carried out document reviews and developed timelines of key events. We used an analytical framework that distinguished three broad categories: interests, ideas and events. Results A disparate mix of interests and ideas slowed the uptake of ITNs in Mozambique and Zimbabwe and prevented uptake in South Africa. Most respondents strongly favoured one strategy over the other. In all three countries, national policy makers favoured IRS, and only in Mozambique did national researchers support ITNs. Outside interests in favour of IRS included manufacturers who supplied the insecticides and groups opposing environmental regulation. International research networks, multilateral organizations, bilateral donors and international NGOs supported ITNs. Research evidence, local conditions, logistic feasibility, past experience, reaction to outside ideas, community acceptability, the role of government and NGOs, and harm from insecticides used in spraying influenced the choice of strategy. The end of apartheid permitted a strongly pro-IRS South Africa to influence the region, and in Mozambique and Zimbabwe, floods provided conditions conducive to ITN distribution. Conclusions Both IRS and ITNs have a place in integrated malaria vector management, but pro-IRS interests and ideas slowed or prevented the uptake of ITNs. Policy makers needed more than evidence from trials to change from the time-honoured IRS strategy that they perceived was working. Those intending to promote new policies such as ITNs should examine the interests and ideas motivating key stakeholders and their own

  20. Morphogenetic characterisation, date of divergence, and evolutionary relationships of malaria vectors Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles homunculus.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Camila; Patané, José S L; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2015-10-01

    The mosquito species Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles homunculus are co-occurring vectors for etiological agents of malaria in southeastern Brazil, a region known to be a major epidemic spot for malaria outside Amazon region. We sought to better understand the biology of these species in order to contribute to future control efforts by (1) improving species identification, which is complicated by the fact that the females are very similar, (2) investigating genetic composition and morphological differences between the species, (3) inferring their phylogenetic histories in comparison with those of other Anophelinae, and (4) dating the evolutionary divergence of the two species. To characterise the species we used wing geometry and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene as morphological and genetic markers, respectively. We also used the genes white, 28S, ITS2, Cytb, and COI in our phylogenetic and dating analyses. A comparative analysis of wing thin-plate splines revealed species-specific wing venation patterns, and the species An. cruzii showed greater morphological diversity (8.74) than An. homunculus (5.58). Concerning the COI gene, An. cruzii was more polymorphic and also showed higher haplotype diversity than An. homunculus, with many rare haplotypes that were displayed by only a few specimens. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all tree topologies converged and showed [Anopheles bellator+An. homunculus] and [Anopheles laneanus+An. cruzii] as sister clades. Diversification within the subgenus Kerteszia occurred 2-14.2millionyears ago. The landmark data associated with wing shape were consistent with the molecular phylogeny, indicating that this character can distinguish higher level phylogenetic relationships within the Anopheles group. Despite their morphological similarities and co-occurrence, An. cruzii and An. homunculus show consistent differences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the species are not sister-groups but species that recently

  1. How the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae Adapts to the Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets by African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ndiath, Mamadou Ousmane; Mazenot, Catherine; Sokhna, Cheikh; Trape, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide treated bed nets have been recommended and proven efficient as a measure to protect African populations from malaria mosquito vector Anopheles spp. This study evaluates the consequences of bed nets use on vectors resistance to insecticides, their feeding behavior and malaria transmission in Dielmo village, Senegal, were LLINs were offered to all villagers in July 2008. Methods Adult mosquitoes were collected monthly from January 2006 to December 2011 by human landing catches (HLC) and by pyrethroid spray catches (PCS). A randomly selected sub-sample of 15–20% of An. gambiae s.l. collected each month was used to investigate the molecular forms of the An. gambiae complex, kdr mutations, and Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CSP) rate. Malaria prevalence and gametocytaemia in Dielmo villagers were measured quarterly. Results Insecticide susceptible mosquitoes (wild kdr genotype) presented a reduced lifespan after LLINs implementation but they rapidly adapted their feeding behavior, becoming more exophageous and zoophilic, and biting earlier during the night. In the meantime, insecticide-resistant specimens (kdr L1014F genotype) increased in frequency in the population, with an unchanged lifespan and feeding behaviour. P. falciparum prevalence and gametocyte rate in villagers decreased dramatically after LLINs deployment. Malaria infection rate tended to zero in susceptible mosquitoes whereas the infection rate increased markedly in the kdr homozygote mosquitoes. Conclusion Dramatic changes in vector populations and their behavior occurred after the deployment of LLINs due to the extraordinary adaptative skills of An. gambiae s. l. mosquitoes. However, despite the increasing proportion of insecticide resistant mosquitoes and their almost exclusive responsibility in malaria transmission, the P. falciparum gametocyte reservoir continued to decrease three years after the deployment of LLINs. PMID:24892677

  2. Insecticidal activity of the essential oil from fruits and seeds of Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi against African malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alternative insecticides for the control of malaria and filarial vectors are of paramount need as resistance is increasing among classes of insecticides currently in use in the public health sector. In this study, mosquitocidal activity of Schinus terebinthifolia essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus was assessed in laboratory, semi- field and full- field conditions Method Twenty third instar larvae of both Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to different dosages of plant extract in both laboratory and semi- field environments. Observation of the mortality response was assessed at intervals of 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Adult semi- gravid female mosquitoes were exposed to papers treated with S. terebinthifolia and compared with WHO standard paper treated with alphacypermethrin (0.05%). Results Gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry, identified 15 compounds from S. terebinthifolia extracts, the most abundant identified compound was δ-3-carene (55.36%) and the least was γ-elemene (0.41%). The density of the oil was found to be 0.8086 g/ml. The effective dosages in the insectary ranged from 202.15 to 2625.20 ppm and were further evaluated in the semi- field situation. In the laboratory, the mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus ranged from 0.5 to 96.75% while for An. gambiae s.s it was from 13.75 to 97.91%. In the semi- field experiments, the mortality rates observed varied for both species with time and concentrations. The LC50 and LC95 value in the laboratory was similar for both species while in the semi- field they were different for each. In wild, adult mosquitoes, the KT50 for S. terebinthifolia was 11.29 minutes while for alphacypermethrin was 19.34 minutes. The 24 hour mortality was found to be 100.0% for S. terebinthifolia and 75.0% for alphacypermethrin which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion The efficacy shown by essential oils of fruits and seeds

  3. Pyrethroid resistance/susceptibility and differential urban/rural distribution of Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s. malaria vectors in Nigeria and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kristan, M; Fleischmann, H; della Torre, A; Stich, A; Curtis, C F

    2003-09-01

    Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides and DDT caused by the kdr gene in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) has been reported in several West African countries. To test for pyrethroid resistance in two more countries, we sampled populations of the An. gambiae complex from south-western Ghana and from urban and rural localities in Ogun State, south-west Nigeria. Adult mosquitoes, reared from field-collected larvae, were exposed to the WHO-recommended discriminating dosage of exposure for 1 h to DDT 4%, deltamethrin 0.05% or permethrin 0.75% and mortality was recorded 24 h post-exposure. Susceptibility of An. gambiae s.l. to DDT was 94-100% in Ghana and 72-100% in Nigeria, indicating low levels of DDT resistance. Deltamethrin gave the highest mortality rates: 97-100% in Ghana, 95-100% in Nigeria. Ghanaian samples of An. gambiae s.l. were fully susceptible to permethrin, whereas some resistance to permethrin was detected at 4/5 Nigerian localities (percentage mortalities 75, 82, 88, 90 and 100%), with survivors including both An. arabiensis Patton and An. gambiae s.s. identified by PCR assay. Even so, the mean knockdown time was not significantly different from a susceptible reference strain, indicating absence or low frequency of kdr-type resistance. Such low levels of pyrethroid resistance are unlikely to impair the effectiveness of pyrethroid-impregnated bednets against malaria transmission. Among Nigerian samples of An. gambiae s.l., the majority from two urban localities were identified as An. arabiensis, whereas the majority from rural localities were An. gambiae s.s. These findings are consistent with those of M. Coluzzi et al. (1979). Differences of ecological distribution between molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. were also found, with rural samples almost exclusively of the S-form, whereas the M-form predominated in urban samples. It is suggested that 'urban island' populations of An. arabiensis and of An. gambiae s.s. M

  4. Preliminary Biological Studies on Larvae and Adult Anopheles Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Miraflores, a Malaria Endemic Locality in Guaviare Department, Amazonian Colombia

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    In the malaria endemic municipality of Miraflores in southeastern Amazonian Colombia, several aspects of the biology of local Anopheles species were investigated to supplement the limited entomological surveillance information available and to provide baseline data for malaria prevention and vector control. Anopheles darlingi Root, 1926 was the most abundant species (95.6%), followed by Anopheles braziliensis (Chagas) (3.6%) and Anopheles oswaldoi s.l. (Peryassu) (0.7%). During the dry season, exophagic activity was prevalent only between 1800–2100 hours; after this (2100–0600 hours) only endophagy was encountered. In contrast, during the rainy season, both endophagy and exophagy occurred throughout the collection period. The human biting rate for An. darlingi was 8.6. This species was positive for Plasmodium vivax VK210 with a sporozoite rate = 0.13 (1/788). Breeding sites corresponded to stream (n = 7), flooded excavations (n = 4), flooded forest (n = 1), wetlands (n = 2), and an abandoned water reservoir (n = 1). An. darlingi predominated in these sites in both seasons. Based on these data, An. darlingi is the main local malaria vector, and we recommend that local prevention and control efforts focus on strengthening entomological surveillance to determine potential changes of species biting behavior and time to reduce human–vector interactions. PMID:25276930

  5. Fascioliasis Control: In Vivo and In Vitro Phytotherapy of Vector Snail to Kill Fasciola Larva

    PubMed Central

    Sunita, Kumari; Singh, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Snail is one of the important components of an aquatic ecosystem, it acts as intermediate host of Fasciola species. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria in the snail body. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of the plant products and their active component such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin, and allicin against larva of Fasciola in infected snail Lymnaea acuminata were tested. Mortality of larvae were observed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h, of treatment. In in vivo treatment, azadirachtin caused highest mortality in redia and cercaria larva (8 h, LC50 0.11, and 0.05 mg/L) whereas in in vitro condition allicin was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8 h, LC50 0.01, and 0.009 mg/L). Toxicity of citral was lowest against redia and cercaria larva. PMID:22132306

  6. Can malaria vector control accelerate the interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Africa; capturing a window of opportunity?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in 2000, and nearly all endemic countries in the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean and Asia-Pacific regions have now initiated the WHO recommended mass drug administration (MDA) campaign to interrupt transmission of the parasite. However, nearly 50% of the LF endemic countries in Africa are yet to implement the GPELF MDA strategy, which does not include vector control. Nevertheless, the recent scale up in insecticide treated /long lasting nets (ITNs/LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control in Africa may significantly impact LF transmission because the parasite is transmitted mainly by Anopheles mosquitoes. This study examined the magnitude, geographical extent and potential impact of vector control in the 17 African countries that are yet to or have only recently started MDA. Methods National data on mosquito bed nets, ITNs/LLINs and IRS were obtained from published literature, national reports, surveys and datasets from public sources such as Demographic Health Surveys, Malaria Indicator Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, Malaria Report, Roll Back Malaria and President’s Malaria Initiative websites. The type, number and distribution of interventions were summarised and mapped at sub-national level. and compared with known or potential LF distributions, and those which may be co-endemic with Loa loa and MDA is contraindicated. Results Analyses found that vector control activities had increased significantly since 2005, with a three-fold increase in ITN ownership and IRS coverage. However, coverage varied dramatically across the 17 countries; some regions reported >70% ITNs ownership and regular IRS activity, while others had no coverage in remote rural populations where the risk of LF was potentially high and co-endemic with high risk L.loa. Conclusions Despite many African countries being slow to initiate MDA for LF, the continued commitment and

  7. Integrated vector management targeting Anopheles darlingi populations decreases malaria incidence in an unstable transmission area, in the rural Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on vector behaviour should be conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of vector control measures on malaria protection in endemic areas of Latin America, where P. vivax predominates. This work aims to investigate the fauna of anopheline mosquitoes and verify the impact of integrated vector management in two colonization projects in the Careiro Municipality, Western Brazilian Amazon. Methods Four mosquitoes’ captures were carried out from August 2008 to March 2010, with an interval of six months between each collection. Since September 2009 a large programme to reduce the burden of malaria has started in the two communities by distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) and intensification of indoor residual spraying (IRS). Human biting rates (HBRs), entomological inoculation rates (EIRs), malaria incidence rate (MIR) and Plasmodium carrier’s prevalence were used as outcomes to estimate the impact of the control measures. Results A total of 3,189 anophelines were collected, belonging to 13 species. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species in the period (42.6%), followed by Anopheles albitarsis (38.4%). An. darlingi HBRs showed a notable decreasing trend from the start to the end of the study. Conversely, An. albitarsis increased its contribution to overall HBRs throughout the study. For An. darlingi there was a significant positive correlation between HBRs and MIR (p = 0.002). Anopheles albitarsis HBRs showed a significant negative correlation with the corresponding MIR (p = 0.045). EIR from total anophelines and from An. darlingi and An. albitarsis presented decreasing patterns in the successive collections. Four species of anophelines (An. darlingi, An. albitarsis, Anopheles braziliensis and Anopheles nuneztovari) were naturally infected with Plasmodium, albeit at very low infection rates. There were a decrease in the MIR for both vivax and falciparum malaria and in the prevalence of Plasmodium vivax and

  8. Landscape Movements of Anopheles gambiae Malaria Vector Mosquitoes in Rural Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Christopher J.; Cross, Dónall E.; Bøgh, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background For malaria control in Africa it is crucial to characterise the dispersal of its most efficient vector, Anopheles gambiae, in order to target interventions and assess their impact spatially. Our study is, we believe, the first to present a statistical model of dispersal probability against distance from breeding habitat to human settlements for this important disease vector. Methods/Principal Findings We undertook post-hoc analyses of mosquito catches made in The Gambia to derive statistical dispersal functions for An. gambiae sensu lato collected in 48 villages at varying distances to alluvial larval habitat along the River Gambia. The proportion dispersing declined exponentially with distance, and we estimated that 90% of movements were within 1.7 km. Although a ‘heavy-tailed’ distribution is considered biologically more plausible due to active dispersal by mosquitoes seeking blood meals, there was no statistical basis for choosing it over a negative exponential distribution. Using a simple random walk model with daily survival and movements previously recorded in Burkina Faso, we were able to reproduce the dispersal probabilities observed in The Gambia. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide an important quantification of the probability of An. gambiae s.l. dispersal in a rural African setting typical of many parts of the continent. However, dispersal will be landscape specific and in order to generalise to other spatial configurations of habitat and hosts it will be necessary to produce tractable models of mosquito movements for operational use. We show that simple random walk models have potential. Consequently, there is a pressing need for new empirical studies of An. gambiae survival and movements in different settings to drive this development. PMID:23874719

  9. Abandoning small-scale fish farming in western Kenya leads to higher malaria vector abundance.

    PubMed

    Howard, Annabel F V; Omlin, Francois X

    2008-01-01

    Fishponds become abandoned due to lack of access to both young fish and technical support and faster economic returns from other activities. Certain conditions found in abandoned fishponds, such as absence of fish and presence of aquatic vegetation, are conducive to the presence of malaria vectors. We conducted a district-wide fishpond census to determine the maintenance status and mosquito populations of fishponds in Kisii Central District in western Kenya. Two hundred and sixty one fishponds were found, 186 active (fish present) and 75 abandoned (fish absent). Vegetation was not significantly associated with the distribution of Anopheles gambiae s.l., Anopheles funestus or culicines (Diptera: Culicidae) in active or abandoned ponds. The presence of fish, however, correlated significantly with the distribution of all mosquito species, with significantly higher mosquito densities in abandoned fishponds. An. gambiae s.l. was the most abundant mosquito species found in both active and abandoned ponds, being proportionally more abundant in the abandoned ponds. The proportion of An. funestus increased with altitude. Following the census the demand for fish to re-stock abandoned ponds rose by 67% when compared to the same time period in the previous year. This study highlights the potential public health problems associated with the abandonment of small-scale fish farming in the highlands of western Kenya. PMID:18068136

  10. Evidence of multiple pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Awolola, T S; Oduola, O A; Strode, C; Koekemoer, L L; Brooke, B; Ranson, H

    2009-11-01

    Pyrethroid insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is a major concern to malaria vector control programmes. Resistance is mainly due to target-site insensitivity arising from a single point mutation, often referred to as knockdown resistance (kdr). Metabolic-based resistance mechanisms have also been implicated in pyrethroid resistance in East Africa and are currently being investigated in West Africa. Here we report the co-occurrence of both resistance mechanisms in a population of An. gambiae s.s. from Nigeria. Bioassay, synergist and biochemical analysis carried out on resistant and susceptible strains of An. gambiae s.s. from the same geographical area revealed >50% of the West African kdr mutation in the resistant mosquitoes but <3% in the susceptible mosquitoes. Resistant mosquitoes synergized using pyperonyl butoxide before permethrin exposure showed a significant increase in mortality compared with the non-synergized. Biochemical assays showed an increased level of monooxygenase but not glutathione-S-transferase or esterase activities in the resistant mosquitoes. Microarray analysis using the An. gambiae detox-chip for expression of detoxifying genes showed five over-expressed genes in the resistant strain when compared with the susceptible one. Two of these, CPLC8 and CPLC#, are cuticular genes not implicated in pyrethroid metabolism in An. gambiae s.s, and could constitute a novel set of candidate genes that warrant further investigation. PMID:18829056

  11. Population genetics of the malaria vector Anopheles aconitus in China and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Harbach, Ralph E; Walton, Catherine; He, Zhengbo; Zhong, Daibin; Yan, Guiyun; Butlin, Roger K

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles aconitus is a well-known vector of malaria and is broadly distributed in the Oriental Region, yet there is no information on its population genetic characteristics. In this study, the genetic differentiation among populations was examined using 140 mtDNA COII sequences from 21 sites throughout Southern China, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Sri Lanka. The population in Sri Lanka has characteristic rDNA D3 and ITS2, mtDNA COII and ND5 haplotypes, and may be considered a distinct subspecies. Clear genetic structure was observed with highly significant genetic variation present among population groups in Southeast Asia. The greatest genetic diversity exists in Yunnan and Myanmar population groups. All population groups are significantly different from one another in pairwise Fst values, except Northern Thailand with Central Thailand. Mismatch distributions and extremely significant F(s) values suggest that the populations passed through a recent demographic expansion. These patterns are discussed in relation to the likely biogeographic history of the region and compared to other Anopheles species. PMID:22982161

  12. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Eunho; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Saveer, Ahmed M.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2016-01-01

    Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone) each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females. PMID:26900947

  13. piRNA pathway gene expression in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Macias, V; Coleman, J; Bonizzoni, M; James, A A

    2014-01-01

    The ability of transposons to mobilize to new places in a genome enables them to introgress rapidly into populations. The piRNA pathway has been characterized recently in the germ line of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and is responsible for downregulating transposon mobility. Transposons have been used as tools in mosquitoes to genetically transform a number of species including Anopheles stephensi, a vector of human malaria. These mobile genetic elements also have been proposed as tools to drive antipathogen effector genes into wild mosquito populations to replace pathogen-susceptible insects with those engineered genetically to be resistant to or unable to transmit a pathogen. The piRNA pathway may affect the performance of such proposed genetic engineering strategies. In the present study, we identify and describe the An. stephensi orthologues of the major genes in the piRNA pathway, Ago3, Aubergine (Aub) and Piwi. Consistent with a role in protection from transposon movement, these three genes are expressed constitutively in the germ-line cells of ovaries and induced further after a blood meal. PMID:24947897

  14. Effectiveness of methoprene, an insect growth regulator, against malaria vectors in Fars, Iran: a field study.

    PubMed

    Darabi, H; Vatandoost, H; Abaei, M R; Gharibi, O; Pakbaz, F

    2011-01-01

    Methoprene, an insect growth regulator, was evaluated under field conditions against the main malaria vectors in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The effect of 5, 10 and 20 kg ha(-1) concentration ofmethoprene granule formulation and 100 and 200 mL ha(-1) concentration of EC formulation was measured to determine any changes in Anophelini larval abundance and IE ratio in both rice fields and artificial ponds. In artificial ponds, granular methoprene at a dose of 20 kg ha(-1) inhibited adult emergence by 77.1% after 1 day and 65.9% after 3 days. The emulsifiable concentrate formulation of methoprene at 200 mL ha(-1) inhibited adult emergence by 83.7% after 1 day and 32.2% after 3 days. In rice fields, inhibition of emergence was 44.3% at 20 kg ha(-1) granule and 35.8% for emulsifiable concentrate at 200 mL ha(-1) after 3 days. The results vary depending on the mosquito species, treatment methods, breeding places and type of formulation. PMID:21913501

  15. Efficacy of three insect repellents against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis.

    PubMed

    Govere, J; Durrheim, D N; Baker, L; Hunt, R; Coetzee, M

    2000-12-01

    Three commercial repellents marketed in South Africa: Bio-Skincare (BSC, oils of coconut, jojoba, rapeseed and vitamin E), Mosiguard towelletes with 0.574 g quwenling (p-menthane-3,8-diol, PMD) and the standard deet (15% diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, Tabard lotion), were compared against a laboratory colony of the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae), the predominant malaria vector in South Africa. Human forearms were treated with 1.2 g BSC, 0.8 g PMD towelette or 0.5 g deet and exposed to 200 hungry An. arabiensis females for 1 min, at intervals of 1-6 h post-treatment. Tests were conducted by three adult male volunteers (aged 30-45 years, crossover controlled test design for 3 consecutive days), using their left arm for treatment and right arm for untreated control. Biting rates averaged 39-52 bites/min on untreated arms. All three repellents provided complete protection against An. arabiensis for up to 3-4 h post-application; deet and PMD gave 90-100% protection up to 5-6h, but BSC declined to only 52% protection 6h post-treatment. These results are interpreted to show that all three repellent products give satisfactory levels of personal protection against An. arabiensis for 4-5 h, justifying further evaluation in the field. PMID:11129710

  16. Lethal Effects of Aspergillus niger against Mosquitoes Vector of Filaria, Malaria, and Dengue: A Liquid Mycoadulticide

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus. It has caused a disease called black mold on certain fruits and vegetables. The culture filtrates released from the A. niger ATCC 66566 were grown in Czapek dox broth (CDB) then filtered with flash chromatograph and were used for the bioassay after a growth of thirty days. The result demonstrated these mortalities with LC50, LC90, and LC99 values of Culex quinquefasciatus 0.76, 3.06, and 4.75, Anopheles stephensi 1.43, 3.2, and 3.86, and Aedes aegypti 1.43, 2.2, and 4.1 μl/cm2, after exposure of seven hours. We have calculated significant LT90 values of Cx. quinquefasciatus 4.5, An. stephensi 3.54, and Ae. aegypti 6.0 hrs, respectively. This liquid spray of fungal culture isolate of A. niger can reduce malaria, dengue, and filarial transmission. These results significantly support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond chemical adulticides. PMID:22629156

  17. An Integrated Genetic Map of the African Human Malaria Vector Mosquito, Anopheles Gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L.; Benedict, M. Q.; Cornel, A. J.; Collins, F. H.; Kafatos, F. C.

    1996-01-01

    We present a genetic map based on microsatellite polymorphisms for the African human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Polymorphisms in laboratory strains were detected for 89% of the tested microsatellite markers. Genotyping was performed for individual mosquitoes from 13 backcross families that included 679 progeny. Three linkage groups were identified, corresponding to the three chromosomes. We added 22 new markers to the existing X chromosome map, for a total of 46 microsatellite markers spanning a distance of 48.9 cM. The second chromosome has 57 and the third 28 microsatellite markers spanning a distance of 72.4 and 93.7 cM, respectively. The overall average distance between markers is 1.6 cM (or 1.1, 1.2, and 3.2 cM for the X, second, and third chromosomes, respectively). In addition to the 131 microsatellite markers, the current map also includes a biochemical selectable marker, Dieldrin resistance (Dl), on the second chromosome and five visible markers, pink-eye (p) and white (w) on the X, collarless (c) and lunate (lu) on the second, and red-eye (r) on the third. The cytogenetic locations on the nurse cell polytene chromosomes have been determined for 47 markers, making this map an integrated tool for cytogenetic, genetic, and molecular analysis. PMID:8725240

  18. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Malaria Mosquito Vector-Associated Novel Pathogen Elizabethkingia anophelis

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Jeanette; Tan, Sean Yang-Yi; Liu, Yang; Tay, Martin; Ding, Yichen; Li, Yingying; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Givskov, Michael; Lin, Raymond T.P.; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of Elizabethkingia infections in intensive care units (ICUs) has risen in the past decade. Treatment of Elizabethkingia infections is challenging due to the lack of effective therapeutic regimens, leading to a high mortality rate. Elizabethkingia infections have long been attributed to Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. Recently, we used whole-genome sequencing to reveal that E. anophelis is the pathogenic agent for an Elizabethkingia outbreak at two ICUs. We performed comparative genomic analysis of seven hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains with five available Elizabethkingia spp. genomes deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database. A pan-genomic approach was applied to identify the core- and pan-genome for the Elizabethkingia genus. We showed that unlike the hospital-isolated pathogen E. meningoseptica ATCC 12535 strain, the hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains have genome content and organization similar to the E. anophelis Ag1 and R26 strains isolated from the midgut microbiota of the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae. Both the core- and accessory genomes of Elizabethkingia spp. possess genes conferring antibiotic resistance and virulence. Our study highlights that E. anophelis is an emerging bacterial pathogen for hospital environments. PMID:24803570

  19. Genome-Wide Divergence in the West-African Malaria Vector Anopheles melas.

    PubMed

    Deitz, Kevin C; Athrey, Giridhar A; Jawara, Musa; Overgaard, Hans J; Matias, Abrahan; Slotman, Michel A

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles melas is a member of the recently diverged An. gambiae species complex, a model for speciation studies, and is a locally important malaria vector along the West-African coast where it breeds in brackish water. A recent population genetic study of An. melas revealed species-level genetic differentiation between three population clusters. An. melas West extends from The Gambia to the village of Tiko, Cameroon. The other mainland cluster, An. melas South, extends from the southern Cameroonian village of Ipono to Angola. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea An. melas populations are genetically isolated from mainland populations. To examine how genetic differentiation between these An. melas forms is distributed across their genomes, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic differentiation and selection using whole genome sequencing data of pooled individuals (Pool-seq) from a representative population of each cluster. The An. melas forms exhibit high levels of genetic differentiation throughout their genomes, including the presence of numerous fixed differences between clusters. Although the level of divergence between the clusters is on a par with that of other species within the An. gambiae complex, patterns of genome-wide divergence and diversity do not provide evidence for the presence of pre- and/or postmating isolating mechanisms in the form of speciation islands. These results are consistent with an allopatric divergence process with little or no introgression. PMID:27466271

  20. Genome-Wide Divergence in the West-African Malaria Vector Anopheles melas

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, Kevin C.; Athrey, Giridhar A.; Jawara, Musa; Overgaard, Hans J.; Matias, Abrahan; Slotman, Michel A.

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles melas is a member of the recently diverged An. gambiae species complex, a model for speciation studies, and is a locally important malaria vector along the West-African coast where it breeds in brackish water. A recent population genetic study of An. melas revealed species-level genetic differentiation between three population clusters. An. melas West extends from The Gambia to the village of Tiko, Cameroon. The other mainland cluster, An. melas South, extends from the southern Cameroonian village of Ipono to Angola. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea An. melas populations are genetically isolated from mainland populations. To examine how genetic differentiation between these An. melas forms is distributed across their genomes, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic differentiation and selection using whole genome sequencing data of pooled individuals (Pool-seq) from a representative population of each cluster. The An. melas forms exhibit high levels of genetic differentiation throughout their genomes, including the presence of numerous fixed differences between clusters. Although the level of divergence between the clusters is on a par with that of other species within the An. gambiae complex, patterns of genome-wide divergence and diversity do not provide evidence for the presence of pre- and/or postmating isolating mechanisms in the form of speciation islands. These results are consistent with an allopatric divergence process with little or no introgression. PMID:27466271

  1. Reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin and kdr mutation in Anopheles stephensi Liston, a malaria vector in India.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, V; Murthy, P Balakrishna

    2006-12-01

    The Indian urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston was selected for deltamethrin resistance for 25 generations (F25) at larval and adult stages separately in the laboratory. There was roughly a 151-fold increase in the lethal concentration (LC)50 and a 99-fold increase in the LC90 in larval selection, when the F25 was compared with the parent colony. Similarly, adult selection resulted in a 39-fold increase in the LC50 and a 31-fold increase in the LC90 in the adults. Knockdown bioassays conducted on adults (selected at the larval and adult stages) against the diagnostic concentration of insecticide-impregnated papers, namely, deltamethrin (0.05%), permethrin (0.75%), lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), and cyfluthrin (0.15%), revealed that the adults selected at the adult stage were more resistant to deltamethrin and the other pyrethroids than those selected at the larval stage. A significant cross-resistance to DDT was noticed only in the adults selected at the adult stage, and no cross-resistance to malathion and propoxur was observed in the adults of both resistant colonies. Polymerase chain reaction studies revealed an occurrence of heterozygote level of kdr mutation (leucine to phenylalanine) in the adults selected at the adult stage. This event was not observed in the adults selected at the larval stage. Moreover, this is the first report on the occurrence of kdr mutation in Indian An. stephensi resistant to deltamethrin. PMID:17304937

  2. Relative Abundance and Plasmodium Infection Rates of Malaria Vectors in and around Jabalpur, a Malaria Endemic Region in Madhya Pradesh State, Central India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeru; Mishra, Ashok K.; Chand, Sunil K.; Bharti, Praveen K.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Nanda, Nutan; Singh, Om P.; Sodagiri, Kranti; Udhyakumar, Venkatachalam

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken in two Primary Health Centers (PHCs) of malaria endemic district Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh (Central India). Methods In this study we had investigated the relative frequencies of the different anopheline species collected within the study areas by using indoor resting catches, CDC light trap and human landing methods. Sibling species of malaria vectors were identified by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The role of each vector and its sibling species in the transmission of the different Plasmodium species was ascertained by using sporozoite ELISA. Results A total of 52,857 specimens comprising of 17 anopheline species were collected by three different methods (39,964 by indoor resting collections, 1059 by human landing and 11,834 by CDC light trap). Anopheles culicifacies was most predominant species in all collections (55, 71 and 32% in indoor resting, human landing and light trap collections respectively) followed by An. subpictus and An. annularis. All five sibling species of An. culicifacies viz. species A, B, C, D and E were found while only species T and S of An. fluviatilis were collected. The overall sporozoite rate in An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were 0.42% (0.25% for P. falciparum and 0.17% for P. vivax) and 0.90% (0.45% for P. falciparum and 0.45% for P. vivax) respectively. An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were found harbouring both P. vivax variants VK-210 and VK-247, and P. falciparum. An. culicifacies sibling species C and D were incriminated as vectors during most part of the year while sibling species T of An. fluviatilis was identified as potential vector in monsoon and post monsoon season. Conclusions An. culicifacies species C (59%) was the most abundant species followed by An. culicifacies D (24%), B (8.7%), E (6.7%) and A (1.5%). Among An. fluviatilis sibling species, species T was common (99%) and only few specimens of S were found. Our study provides crucial information on the prevalence

  3. Assessment of Immune Interference, Antagonism and Diversion following Human Immunization with Bi-Allelic Blood-Stage Malaria Viral Vectored Vaccines and Controlled Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Sean C.; Collins, Katharine A.; Halstead, Fenella D.; Choudhary, Prateek; Bliss, Carly M.; Ewer, Katie J.; Sheehy, Susanne H.; Duncan, Christopher J. A.; Biswas, Sumi; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Draper, Simon J.

    2012-01-01

    Overcoming antigenic variation is one of the major challenges in the development of an effective vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum, a causative agent of human malaria. Inclusion of multiple antigen variants in subunit vaccine candidates is one strategy that has aimed to overcome this problem for the leading blood-stage malaria vaccine targets, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). However previous studies, utilizing malaria antigens, have concluded that inclusion of multiple allelic variants, encoding altered peptide ligands (APL), in such a vaccine may be detrimental to both the priming and in vivo re-stimulation of antigen-experienced T cells. Here we analyze the T cell responses to two alleles of MSP1 and AMA1 induced by vaccination of malaria-naïve adult volunteers with bi-valent viral vectored vaccine candidates. We show a significant bias to the 3D7/MAD20 allele compared to the Wellcome allele for the 33kDa region of MSP1, but not for the 19kDa fragment or the AMA1 antigen. Whilst this bias could be caused by ‘immune interference’ at priming, the data don’t support a significant role for ‘immune antagonism’ during memory T cell re-stimulation, despite observation of the latter at a minimal epitope level in vitro. A lack of class I HLA epitopes in the Wellcome allele that are recognized by vaccinated volunteers may in fact contribute to the observed bias. We also show that controlled infection with 3D7 strain P. falciparum parasites neither boosts existing 3D7-specific T cell responses nor appears to ‘immune divert’ cellular responses towards the Wellcome allele. PMID:23293353

  4. Parasite Killing in Malaria Non-Vector Mosquito Anopheles culicifacies Species B: Implication of Nitric Oxide Synthase Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Sonam; Rawat, Manmeet; Adak, Tridibes; Dixit, Rajnikant; Nanda, Nutan; Srivastava, Harish; Sharma, Joginder K.; Prasad, Godavarthi B. K. S.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Background Anopheles culicifacies, the main vector of human malaria in rural India, is a complex of five sibling species. Despite being phylogenetically related, a naturally selected subgroup species B of this sibling species complex is found to be a poor vector of malaria. We have attempted to understand the differences between vector and non-vector Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes in terms of transcriptionally activated nitric oxide synthase (AcNOS) physiologies to elucidate the mechanism of refractoriness. Identification of the differences between genes and gene products that may impart refractory phenotype can facilitate development of novel malaria transmission blocking strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a study on phylogenetically related susceptible (species A) and refractory (species B) sibling species of An. culicifacies mosquitoes to characterize biochemical and molecular differences in AcNOS gene and gene elements and their ability to inhibit oocyst growth. We demonstrate that in species B, AcNOS specific activity and nitrite/nitrates in mid-guts and haemolymph were higher as compared to species A after invasion of the mid-gut by P. vivax at the beginning and during the course of blood feeding. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and real time PCR data of AcNOS concluded that this gene is more abundantly expressed in midgut of species B than in species A and is transcriptionally upregulated post blood meals. Dietary feeding of L-NAME along with blood meals significantly inhibited midgut AcNOS activity leading to an increase in oocyst production in An. culicifacies species B. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that upregulation of mosquito innate cytotoxicity due to NOS in refractory strain to Plasmodium vivax infection may contribute to natural refractoriness in An. culicifacies mosquito population. This innate capacity of refractory mosquitoes could represent the ancestral function of the mosquito immune system against the parasite and

  5. Eco-friendly control of malaria and arbovirus vectors using the mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and ultra-low dosages of Mimusops elengi-synthesized silver nanoparticles: towards an integrative approach?

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Suresh; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. Their impact against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. We synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of Mimusops elengi as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of AgNP was studied using different biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, TEM, XRD, EDX and FTIR. Low doses of AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus. AgNP LC50 against A. stephensi ranged from 12.53 (I instar larvae) to 23.55 ppm (pupae); LC50 against A. albopictus ranged from 11.72 ppm (I) to 21.46 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of M. elengi extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. In adulticidal experiments, AgNP showed LC50 of 13.7 ppm for A. stephensi and 14.7 ppm for A. albopictus. The predation efficiency of Gambusia affinis against A. stephensi and A. albopictus III instar larvae was 86.2 and 81.7 %, respectively. In AgNP-contaminated environments, predation was 93.7 and 88.6 %, respectively. This research demonstrates that M. elengi-synthesized AgNP may be employed at ultra-low doses to reduce larval populations of malaria and arbovirus vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies, such as larvivorous fishes. PMID:26300364

  6. Evaluation of Endod (Phytolacca dodecandra: Phytolaccaceae) as a Larvicide Against Anopheles arabiensis, the Principal Vector of Malaria in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Dejene; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2016-06-01

    Malaria control methods rely mostly on adult mosquito control using insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying with insecticides. Plants such as endod (Phytolacca dodecandra) can potentially be used for the control of mosquito larvae as a supplement to adult control methods. Following the discovery of endod, a molluscicide plant, more than 5 decades ago in Ethiopia, subsequent studies have shown that its potency can further be increased by simple procedures such as aging endod berry powder in water. This study was conducted to evaluate the killing effect of fresh and aged endod solution against 4th-stage larvae of Anopheles arabiensis. Laboratory-reared An. arabiensis larvae exposed to different concentrations of endod preparation using distilled or spring water had 50% lethal concentration (LC(50))  =  49.6 ppm and 90% lethal concentration (LC(90))  =  234 ppm for fresh and LC(50)  =  36.4 ppm and LC(90)  =  115.7 ppm for the aged endod solution in distilled water against the laboratory population. Against field-collected larvae of the same species, aged preparations in habitat water resulted in higher LC(50) (472.7 ppm) and LC(90) (691 ppm) values, with only a slight improvement over fresh preparations in habitat water (LC(50)  =  456.2 ppm; LC(90)  =  896.1 ppm). In general, although aged preparations of endod required lower concentrations than fresh to kill at least 90% of the larvae, these concentrations were much higher (12-70×) than that required for schistosome-transmitting snails. PMID:27280350

  7. Evaluation of Insecticides Susceptibility and Malaria Vector Potential of Anopheles annularis s.l. and Anopheles vagus in Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Sunil; Yadav, Kavita; Rabha, Bipul; Goswami, Diganta; Hazarika, S; Tyagi, Varun

    2016-01-01

    During the recent past, development of DDT resistance and reduction to pyrethroid susceptibility among the malaria vectors has posed a serious challenge in many Southeast Asian countries including India. Current study presents the insecticide susceptibility and knock-down data of field collected Anopheles annularis sensu lato and An. vagus mosquito species from endemic areas of Assam in northeast India. Anopheles annularis s.l. and An. vagus adult females were collected from four randomly selected sentinel sites in Orang primary health centre (OPHC) and Balipara primary health centre (BPHC) areas, and used for testing susceptibility to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. After insecticide susceptibility tests, mosquitoes were subjected to VectorTest™ assay kits to detect the presence of malaria sporozoite in the mosquitoes. An. annularis s.l. was completely susceptible to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion in both the study areas. An. vagus was highly susceptible to deltamethrin in both the areas, but exhibited reduced susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in BPHC. Both the species were resistant to DDT and showed very high KDT50 and KDT99 values for DDT. Probit model used to calculate the KDT50 and KDT99 values did not display normal distribution of percent knock-down with time for malathion in both the mosquito species in OPHC (p<0.05) and An. vagus in BPHC (χ2 = 25.3; p = 0.0), and also for deltamethrin to An. vagus in BPHC area (χ2 = 15.4; p = 0.004). Minimum infection rate (MIR) of Plasmodium sporozoite for An. vagus was 0.56 in OPHC and 0.13 in BPHC, while for An. annularis MIR was found to be 0.22 in OPHC. Resistance management strategies should be identified to delay the expansion of resistance. Testing of field caught Anopheles vectors from different endemic areas for the presence of malaria sporozoite may be useful to ensure their role in malaria transmission. PMID:27010649

  8. Evaluation of Insecticides Susceptibility and Malaria Vector Potential of Anopheles annularis s.l. and Anopheles vagus in Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Sunil; Yadav, Kavita; Rabha, Bipul; Goswami, Diganta; Hazarika, S.; Tyagi, Varun

    2016-01-01

    During the recent past, development of DDT resistance and reduction to pyrethroid susceptibility among the malaria vectors has posed a serious challenge in many Southeast Asian countries including India. Current study presents the insecticide susceptibility and knock-down data of field collected Anopheles annularis sensu lato and An. vagus mosquito species from endemic areas of Assam in northeast India. Anopheles annularis s.l. and An. vagus adult females were collected from four randomly selected sentinel sites in Orang primary health centre (OPHC) and Balipara primary health centre (BPHC) areas, and used for testing susceptibility to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. After insecticide susceptibility tests, mosquitoes were subjected to VectorTest™ assay kits to detect the presence of malaria sporozoite in the mosquitoes. An. annularis s.l. was completely susceptible to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion in both the study areas. An. vagus was highly susceptible to deltamethrin in both the areas, but exhibited reduced susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in BPHC. Both the species were resistant to DDT and showed very high KDT50 and KDT99 values for DDT. Probit model used to calculate the KDT50 and KDT99 values did not display normal distribution of percent knock-down with time for malathion in both the mosquito species in OPHC (p<0.05) and An. vagus in BPHC (χ2 = 25.3; p = 0.0), and also for deltamethrin to An. vagus in BPHC area (χ2 = 15.4; p = 0.004). Minimum infection rate (MIR) of Plasmodium sporozoite for An. vagus was 0.56 in OPHC and 0.13 in BPHC, while for An. annularis MIR was found to be 0.22 in OPHC. Resistance management strategies should be identified to delay the expansion of resistance. Testing of field caught Anopheles vectors from different endemic areas for the presence of malaria sporozoite may be useful to ensure their role in malaria transmission. PMID:27010649

  9. Potential use of neem leaf slurry as a sustainable dry season management strategy to control the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) in west African villages.

    PubMed

    Luong, Kyphuong; Dunkel, Florence V; Coulibaly, Keriba; Beckage, Nancy E

    2012-11-01

    Larval management of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s., has been successful in reducing disease transmission. However, pesticides are not affordable to farmers in remote villages in Mali, and in other material resource poor countries. Insect resistance to insecticides and nontarget toxicity pose additional problems. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a tree with many beneficial, insect bioactive compounds, such as azadirachtin. We tested the hypothesis that neem leaf slurry is a sustainable, natural product, anopheline larvicide. A field study conducted in Sanambele (Mali) in 2010 demonstrated neem leaf slurry can work with only the available tools and resources in the village. Laboratory bioassays were conducted with third instar An. gambiae and village methods were used to prepare the leaf slurry. Experimental concentration ranges were 1,061-21,224 mg/L pulverized neem leaves in distilled water. The 50 and 90% lethal concentrations at 72 h were 8,825 mg/L and 15,212 mg/L, respectively. LC concentrations were higher than for other parts of the neem tree when compared with previous published studies because leaf slurry preparation was simplified by omitting removal of fibrous plant tissue. Using storytelling as a medium of knowledge transfer, villagers combined available resources to manage anopheline larvae. Preparation of neem leaf slurries is a sustainable approach which allows villagers to proactively reduce mosquito larval density within their community as part of an integrated management system. PMID:23270164

  10. Gene expression divergence between malaria vector sibling species Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii from rural and urban Yaoundé Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Cassone, Bryan J.; Kamdem, Colince; Cheng, Changde; Tan, John C.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Costantini, Carlo; Besansky, Nora J.

    2014-01-01

    Divergent selection based on aquatic larval ecology is a likely factor in the recent isolation of two broadly sympatric and morphologically identical African mosquito species, the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii. Population-based genome scans have revealed numerous candidate regions of recent positive selection, but have provided few clues as to the genetic mechanisms underlying behavioral and physiological divergence between the two species, phenotypes which themselves remain obscure. To uncover possible genetic mechanisms, we compared global transcriptional profiles of natural and experimental populations using gene-based microarrays. Larvae were sampled as second and fourth instars from natural populations in and around the city of Yaoundé, capital of Cameroon, where the two species segregate along a gradient of urbanization. Functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that An. coluzzii—the species that breeds in more stable, biotically complex and potentially polluted urban water bodies—over-expresses genes implicated in detoxification and immunity relative to An. gambiae, which breeds in more ephemeral and relatively depauperate pools and puddles in suburbs and rural areas. Moreover, our data suggest that such over-expression by An. coluzzii is not a transient result of induction by xenobiotics in the larval habitat, but an inherent and presumably adaptive response to repeatedly encountered environmental stressors. Finally, we find no significant overlap between the differentially expressed loci and previously identified genomic regions of recent positive selection, suggesting that transcriptome divergence is regulated by trans-acting factors rather than cis-acting elements. PMID:24673723

  11. Mass marking of Leuciscus idus larvae using Artemia salina as a vector of fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Stańczak, K; Krejszeff, S; Dębowska, M; Mierzejewska, K; Woźniak, M; Hliwa, P

    2015-09-01

    A method for the mass marking of ide Leuciscus idus larvae by feeding them Artemia salina nauplii that were immersed in different solutions of alizarin red S, tetracycline hydrochloride and calcein was tested. The best quality marks were obtained after feeding fish for 4 days with nauplii that had been immersed in 200 mg l(-1) alizarin red S. PMID:26255972

  12. How human practices have affected vector-borne diseases in the past: a study of malaria transmission in Alpine valleys

    PubMed Central

    Sérandour, Julien; Girel, Jacky; Boyer, Sebastien; Ravanel, Patrick; Lemperière, Guy; Raveton, Muriel

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaria was endemic in the Rhône-Alpes area of eastern France in the 19th century and life expectancy was particularly shortened in Alpine valleys. This study was designed to determine how the disease affected people in the area and to identify the factors influencing malaria transmission. Methods Demographic data of the 19th century were collected from death registers of eight villages of the flood-plain of the river Isère. Correlations were performed between these demographic data and reconstructed meteorological data. Archive documents from medical practitioners gave information on symptoms of ill people. Engineer reports provided information on the hydraulic project developments in the Isère valley. Results Description of fevers was highly suggestive of endemic malaria transmission in the parishes neighbouring the river Isère. The current status of anopheline mosquitoes in the area supports this hypothesis. Mean temperature and precipitation were poorly correlated with demographic data, whereas the chronology of hydrological events correlated with fluctuations in death rates in the parishes. Conclusion Nowadays, most of the river development projects involve the creation of wet areas, enabling controlled flooding events. Flood-flow risk and the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases would probably be influenced by the climate change. The message is not to forget that human disturbance of any functioning hydrosystem has often been linked to malaria transmission in the past. PMID:17727700

  13. Impact assessment of malaria vector control using routine surveillance data in Zambia: implications for monitoring and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), with pyrethroids and DDT, to reduce malaria transmission has been expansively implemented in Zambia. The impact of these interventions on malaria morbidity and mortality has not previously been formally assessed at the population level in Zambia. Methods The impact of IRS (15 urban districts) and LLINs (15 rural districts) implementation on severe malaria cases, deaths and case fatality rates in children below the age of five years were compared. Zambian national Health Management Information System data from 2007 to 2008 were retrospectively analysed to assess the epidemiological impact of the two interventions using odds ratios to compare the pre-scaling up year 2007 with the scaling-up year 2008. Results Overall there were marked reductions in morbidity and mortality, with cases, deaths and case fatality rates (CFR) of severe malaria decreasing by 31%, 63% and 62%, respectively between 2007 and 2008. In urban districts with IRS introduction there was a significant reduction in mortality (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.31-0.43, P = 0.015), while the reduction in mortality in rural districts with LLINs implementation was not significant (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P = 0.666). A similar pattern was observed for case fatality rates with a significant reduction in urban districts implementing IRS (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.33-0.36, P = 0.005), but not in rural districts implementing LLINs (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00, P = 0.913). No substantial difference was detected in overall reduction of malaria cases between districts implementing IRS and LLINs (P = 0.933). Conclusion Routine surveillance data proved valuable for determining the temporal effects of malaria control with two strategies, IRS and LLINs on severe malaria disease in different types of Zambian districts. However, this analysis did not take into account the effect of artemisinin

  14. Satellite-observed sensitivity of weather condition for forecasting malaria vector distribution in Bandarban District, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Rahman, Atiqur; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix; Powell, Al; Goldberg, Mitch; Khan, Mohammad M.

    2008-10-01

    Malaria is a serious public health problem in Bangladesh. Almost thirteen districts in Bangladesh experience epidemics of malaria. Epidemics occur mainly in the highlands of Bangladesh, notably in Bandarban district. This study examined the relationship between environmental factors and malaria incidence in Bandarban district in Bangladesh. This paper examines the association between malaria cases and weekly vegetation health condition index for the region for last fourteen years. The vegetation health index derived from a combination of Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer based normalized difference vegetation index and 10 micrometer (μm) to 11 micrometer (μm) thermal radiances, was designed for monitoring moisture and thermal impacts on vegetation health. It estimates the correlation between malaria cases and Vegetation Health (VH) Indices (Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI)) computed for each week over a period of 14 years (1992-2005). Following the results of correlation analysis the principal components regression (PCR) method was performed on weather components of satellite data and climate variability during each of the two annual malaria seasons to construct a model to predict malaria as a function of the TCI computed for this period. A good correlation was found between malaria cases and TCI characterizing thermal condition during the month of August and September. Furthermore the simulated results found from PCR model were compared with observed malaria statistics showing that the error of the estimates of malaria is less than 10%. Remote sensing therefore demonstrates the potential of a seasonal forecasting which can provide information about peak mosquito to breading conditions. The derived results are potential important for decision makers in the region to control malaria particularly under constraint of limited budget allocations.

  15. A Regional Model for Malaria Vector Developmental Habitats Evaluated Using Explicit, Pond-Resolving Surface Hydrology Simulations.

    PubMed

    Asare, Ernest Ohene; Tompkins, Adrian Mark; Bomblies, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical malaria models can relate precipitation to the availability of vector breeding sites using simple models of surface hydrology. Here, a revised scheme is developed for the VECTRI malaria model, which is evaluated alongside the default scheme using a two year simulation by HYDREMATS, a 10 metre resolution, village-scale model that explicitly simulates individual ponds. Despite the simplicity of the two VECTRI surface hydrology parametrization schemes, they can reproduce the sub-seasonal evolution of fractional water coverage. Calibration of the model parameters is required to simulate the mean pond fraction correctly. The default VECTRI model tended to overestimate water fraction in periods subject to light rainfall events and underestimate it during periods of intense rainfall. This systematic error was improved in the revised scheme by including the a parametrization for surface run-off, such that light rainfall below the initial abstraction threshold does not contribute to ponds. After calibration of the pond model, the VECTRI model was able to simulate vector densities that compared well to the detailed agent based model contained in HYDREMATS without further parameter adjustment. Substituting local rain-gauge data with satellite-retrieved precipitation gave a reasonable approximation, raising the prospects for regional malaria simulations even in data sparse regions. However, further improvements could be made if a method can be derived to calibrate the key hydrology parameters of the pond model in each grid cell location, possibly also incorporating slope and soil texture. PMID:27003834

  16. A Regional Model for Malaria Vector Developmental Habitats Evaluated Using Explicit, Pond-Resolving Surface Hydrology Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Asare, Ernest Ohene; Tompkins, Adrian Mark; Bomblies, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical malaria models can relate precipitation to the availability of vector breeding sites using simple models of surface hydrology. Here, a revised scheme is developed for the VECTRI malaria model, which is evaluated alongside the default scheme using a two year simulation by HYDREMATS, a 10 metre resolution, village-scale model that explicitly simulates individual ponds. Despite the simplicity of the two VECTRI surface hydrology parametrization schemes, they can reproduce the sub-seasonal evolution of fractional water coverage. Calibration of the model parameters is required to simulate the mean pond fraction correctly. The default VECTRI model tended to overestimate water fraction in periods subject to light rainfall events and underestimate it during periods of intense rainfall. This systematic error was improved in the revised scheme by including the a parametrization for surface run-off, such that light rainfall below the initial abstraction threshold does not contribute to ponds. After calibration of the pond model, the VECTRI model was able to simulate vector densities that compared well to the detailed agent based model contained in HYDREMATS without further parameter adjustment. Substituting local rain-gauge data with satellite-retrieved precipitation gave a reasonable approximation, raising the prospects for regional malaria simulations even in data sparse regions. However, further improvements could be made if a method can be derived to calibrate the key hydrology parameters of the pond model in each grid cell location, possibly also incorporating slope and soil texture. PMID:27003834

  17. Is vector body size the key to reduced malaria transmission in the irrigated region of Niono, Mali?

    PubMed

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Touré, Mahamoudou B; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Doumbia, Seydou; Traoré, Sekou F; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A; Taylor, Charles E

    2006-09-01

    Malaria vectors can reach very high densities in villages near irrigated rice fields in Africa, leading to the expectation that malaria should be especially prevalent there. Surprisingly, this is not always the case. In Niono, Mali, villages from nonirrigated areas have higher malaria prevalence than those within the irrigated regions, which suffer from higher mosquito numbers. One hypothesis explaining this observation is that mosquitoes from irrigated fields with high densities are inefficient vectors. This could occur if higher larval densities lead to smaller mosquitoes that suffer elevated mortality. Three predictions of the hypothesis were studied. First, the effect of larval density on larval body size was measured for both Anopheles gambiae Giles and Anopheles funestus Giles. Second, the relationship between larval and adult body size was tested. Third, evidence of an effect of adult size on survivorship in both irrigated and nonirrigated villages during the wet and dry seasons was sought. There was a modest positive relationship between densities of immatures and larval size, and a strong relationship between larval and adult size. Furthermore, adult survivorship was higher in nonirrigated areas. However, there was no effect of size on survivorship between comparable samples from both the irrigated and nonirrigated zones. Although density may have a causal relationship with reduced transmission in the irrigated areas of Niono, it is unlikely to be because higher density leads to smaller body size and lower survivorship. PMID:17017214

  18. Development and Assessment of Plant-Based Synthetic Odor Baits for Surveillance and Control of Malaria Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Nyasembe, Vincent O.; Tchouassi, David P.; Kirwa, Hillary K.; Foster, Woodbridge A.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent malaria vector control measures have considerably reduced indoor biting mosquito populations. However, reducing the outdoor biting populations remains a challenge because of the unavailability of appropriate lures to achieve this. This study sought to test the efficacy of plant-based synthetic odor baits in trapping outdoor populations of malaria vectors. Methodology and Principal Finding Three plant-based lures ((E)-linalool oxide [LO], (E)-linalool oxide and (E)-β-ocimene [LO + OC], and a six-component blend comprising (E)-linalool oxide, (E)-β-ocimene, hexanal, β-pinene, limonene, and (E)-β-farnesene [Blend C]), were tested alongside an animal/human-based synthetic lure (comprising heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal [Blend F]) and worn socks in a malaria endemic zone in the western part of Kenya. Mosquito Magnet-X (MM-X) and lightless Centre for Disease Control (CDC) light traps were used. Odor-baited traps were compared with traps baited with either solvent alone or solvent + carbon dioxide (controls) for 18 days in a series of randomized incomplete-block designs of days × sites × treatments. The interactive effect of plant and animal/human odor was also tested by combining LO with either Blend F or worn socks. Our results show that irrespective of trap type, traps baited with synthetic plant odors compared favorably to the same traps baited with synthetic animal odors and worn socks in trapping malaria vectors, relative to the controls. Combining LO and worn socks enhanced trap captures of Anopheles species while LO + Blend F recorded reduced trap capture. Carbon dioxide enhanced total trap capture of both plant- and animal/human-derived odors. However, significantly higher proportions of male and engorged female Anopheles gambiae s.l. were caught when the odor treatments did not include carbon dioxide. Conclusion and Significance The results highlight the potential of plant-based odors and specifically linalool oxide, with or

  19. Screening Mosquito House Entry Points as a Potential Method for Integrated Control of Endophagic Filariasis, Arbovirus and Malaria Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ogoma, Sheila B.; Lweitoijera, Dickson W.; Ngonyani, Hassan; Furer, Benjamin; Russell, Tanya L.; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Killeen, Gerry F.; Moore, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Partial mosquito-proofing of houses with screens and ceilings has the potential to reduce indoor densities of malaria mosquitoes. We wish to measure whether it will also reduce indoor densities of vectors of neglected tropical diseases. Methodology The main house entry points preferred by anopheline and culicine vectors were determined through controlled experiments using specially designed experimental huts and village houses in Lupiro village, southern Tanzania. The benefit of screening different entry points (eaves, windows and doors) using PVC-coated fibre glass netting material in terms of reduced indoor densities of mosquitoes was evaluated compared to the control. Findings 23,027 mosquitoes were caught with CDC light traps; 77.9% (17,929) were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, of which 66.2% were An. arabiensis and 33.8% An. gambiae sensu stricto. The remainder comprised 0.2% (50) An. funestus, 10.2% (2359) Culex spp. and 11.6% (2664) Mansonia spp. Screening eaves reduced densities of Anopheles gambiae s. l. (Relative ratio (RR)  = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.84, 0.98; P = 0.01); Mansonia africana (RR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; P<0.001) and Mansonia uniformis (RR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.56; P<0.001) but not Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. univittatus or Cx. theileri. Numbers of these species were reduced by screening windows and doors but this was not significant. Significance This study confirms that across Africa, screening eaves protects households against important mosquito vectors of filariasis, Rift Valley Fever and O'Nyong nyong as well as malaria. While full house screening is required to exclude Culex species mosquitoes, screening of eaves alone or fitting ceilings has considerable potential for integrated control of other vectors of filariasis, arbovirus and malaria. PMID:20689815

  20. Genetic evidence for malaria vectors of the Anopheles sundaicus complex in Sri Lanka with morphological characteristics attributed to Anopheles subpictus species B

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anopheles subpictus sensu lato, a widespread malaria vector in Asia, is reportedly composed of four sibling species A - D. Mosquitoes morphologically identified as belonging to the Subpictus complex were collected from different locations near the east coast of Sri Lanka, and specific ribosomal DNA sequences determined to validate their taxonomic status. Methods Anopheles subpictus s.l. larvae and blood-fed adults were collected from different locations in the Eastern province and their sibling species status was determined based on published morphological characteristics. DNA sequences of the D3 domain of 28 S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the internal transcribed spacer -2 (ITS-2) of mosquitoes morphologically identified as An. subpictus sibling species A, B, C and D were determined. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on D3 domain of rDNA resulted in two clades: one clade with mosquitoes identified as An. subpictus species A, C, D and some mosquitoes identified as species B, and another clade with a majority of mosquitoes identified as species B with D3 sequences that were identical to Anopheles sundaicus cytotype D. Analysis of ITS-2 sequences confirmed a close relationship between a majority of mosquitoes identified as An. subpictus B with members of the An. sundaicus complex and others identified as An. subpictus B with An. subpictus s.l. Conclusions The study suggests that published morphological characteristics are not specific enough to identify some members of the Subpictus complex, particularly species B. The sequences of the ITS-2 and D3 domain of rDNA suggest that a majority that were identified morphologically as An. subpictus species B in the east coast of Sri Lanka, and some identified elsewhere in SE Asia as An. subpictus s.l., are in fact members of the Sundaicus complex based on genetic similarity to An. sundaicus s.l. In view of the well-known ability of An. sundaicus s.l. to breed in brackish and fresh water and its proven ability to

  1. Control of malaria and other vector-borne protozoan diseases in the tropics: enduring challenges despite considerable progress and achievements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne protozoan diseases represent a serious public health challenge, especially in the tropics where poverty together with vector-favorable climates are the aggravating factors. Each of the various strategies currently employed to face these scourges is seriously inadequate. Despite enormous efforts, vaccines—which represent the ideal weapon against these parasitic diseases—are yet to be sufficiently developed and implemented. Chemotherapy and vector control are therefore the sole effective attempts to minimize the disease burden. Nowadays, both strategies are also highly challenged by the phenomenon of drug and insecticide resistance, which affects virtually all interventions currently used. The recently growing support from international organizations and governments of some endemic countries is warmly welcome, and should be optimally exploited in the various approaches to drug and insecticide research and development to overcome the burden of these prevalent diseases, especially malaria, leishmaniasis, Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), and Chagas disease. PMID:24401663

  2. Characterization and expression analysis of gene encoding heme peroxidase HPX15 in major Indian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kajla, Mithilesh; Kakani, Parik; Choudhury, Tania Pal; Gupta, Kuldeep; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of mosquito immune system with Plasmodium is critical in determining the vector competence. Thus, blocking the crucial mosquito molecules that regulate parasite development might be effective in controlling the disease transmission. In this study, we characterized a full-length AsHPX15 gene from the major Indian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. This gene is true ortholog of Anopheles gambiae heme peroxidase AgHPX15 (AGAP013327), which modulates midgut immunity and regulates Plasmodium falciparum development. We found that AsHPX15 is highly induced in mosquito developmental stages and blood fed midguts. In addition, this is a lineage-specific gene that has identical features and 65-99% amino acids identity with other HPX15 genes present in eighteen worldwide-distributed anophelines. We discuss that the conserved HPX15 gene might serve as a common target to manipulate mosquito immunity and arresting Plasmodium development inside the vector host. PMID:26943999

  3. Insecticide Resistance and Malaria Vector Control: The Importance of Fitness Cost Mechanisms in Determining Economically Optimal Control Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Zachary S.; Dickinson, Katherine L.; Kramer, Randall A.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary dynamics of insecticide resistance in harmful arthropods has economic implications, not only for the control of agricultural pests (as has been well studied), but also for the control of disease vectors, such as malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes. Previous economic work on insecticide resistance illustrates the policy relevance of knowing whether insecticide resistance mutations involve fitness costs. Using a theoretical model, this article investigates economically optimal strategies for controlling malaria-transmitting mosquitoes when there is the potential for mosquitoes to evolve resistance to insecticides. Consistent with previous literature, we find that fitness costs are a key element in the computation of economically optimal resistance management strategies. Additionally, our models indicate that different biological mechanisms underlying these fitness costs (e.g., increased adult mortality and/or decreased fecundity) can significantly alter economically optimal resistance management strategies. PMID:23448053

  4. Development of an exposure-free bednet trap for sampling Afrotropical malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Mathenge, E M; Killeen, G F; Oulo, D O; Irungu, L W; Ndegwa, P N; Knols, B G J

    2002-03-01

    An exposure-free bednet trap (the 'Mbita trap') for sampling of Afrotropical malaria vectors was developed during preliminary studies of mosquito behaviour around human-occupied bednets. Its mosquito sampling efficiency was compared to the CDC miniature light-trap and human landing catches under semi-field conditions in a screen-walled greenhouse using laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae). When compared in a competitive manner (side by side), the Mbita trap caught 4.1+/-0.5 times as many mosquitoes as the CDC light-trap, hung beside an occupied bednet (P < 0.000 1) and 43.2+/-10% the number caught by human landing catches (P < 0.0001). The ratio of Mbita trap catches to those of the CDC light trap increased with decreasing mosquito density. Mosquito density did not affect the ratio of Mbita trap to human-landing catches. In a non-competitive comparison (each method independent of the other), the Mbita trap caught 89.7+/-10% the number of mosquitoes caught by human landing catches (P < 0.0001) and 1.2+/-0.1 times more mosquitoes than the CDC light trap (P = 0.0008). Differences in Mbita trap performance relative to the human landing catch under noncompetitive vs. competitive conditions were explained by the rate at which each method captured mosquitoes. Such bednet traps do not expose people to potentially infectious mosquito bites and operate passively all night without the need for skilled personnel. This trap is specifically designed to catch host-seeking mosquitoes only and may be an effective, sensitive, user-friendly and economic alternative to existing methods for mosquito surveillance in Africa. PMID:11963983

  5. [Resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethrins used for impregnating mosquito nets in Benin, West Africa].

    PubMed

    Akogbéto, M; Yakoubou, S

    1999-05-01

    Impregnated bednets can be considered a major tool for reducing Anopheles bites, malaria morbidity and overall mortality. The resistance of Anopheles gambiae to pyrethroids used to impregnate bednets and curtains has already been noted in the urban area of Cotonou in Benin (18, 21). In this study, we wished to find out if the resistance observed in Cotonou is localized only in this town or is already extensive throughout Benin. In this case, such resistance would be a handicap to the promotion of impregnated bednets in Benin. The study was carried out in 15 localities throughout the different ecological zones of Benin. The study has also taken into account environmental factors favouring the emergence of resistance. We did susceptibility tests with WHO test kits for adult mosquitoes using impregnated papers. The papers were impregnated with permethrin 0.25%, deltamethrin 0.025% and lambdacyhalothrin 0.1%. We also tested DDT 4% to find out if there was a cross resistance between DDT and the pyrethroids. Two mosquito species were tested: An. gambiae and An melas. In northern Benin, where farmers use insecticides against cotton pests, vectors are susceptible to deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin and resistant to permethrin. In the south, An. gambiae is resistant to deltamethrin and permethrin. This resistance is high in the urban zone of Cotonou, in the coastal and lagoon areas and at Kraké, a frontier viliage with Nigeria. The resistance observed in southern Benin is confirmed by the lengthening of the knock-down time of mosquitoes which were exposed for 1 hour to insecticide in impregnated WHO test tubes, and by a reduction of permethrin and deltamethrin remanence effect. PMID:10399604

  6. Establishment of a large semi-field system for experimental study of African malaria vector ecology and control in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Heather M; Ng'habi, Kija R; Walder, Thomas; Kadungula, Demetrius; Moore, Sarah J; Lyimo, Issa; Russell, Tanya L; Urassa, Honorathy; Mshinda, Hassan; Killeen, Gerry F; Knols, Bart GJ

    2008-01-01

    Background Medical entomologists increasingly recognize that the ability to make inferences between laboratory experiments of vector biology and epidemiological trends observed in the field is hindered by a conceptual and methodological gap occurring between these approaches which prevents hypothesis-driven empirical research from being conducted on relatively large and environmentally realistic scales. The development of Semi-Field Systems (SFS) has been proposed as the best mechanism for bridging this gap. Semi-field systems are defined as enclosed environments, ideally situated within the natural ecosystem of a target disease vector and exposed to ambient environmental conditions, in which all features necessary for its life cycle completion are present. Although the value of SFS as a research tool for malaria vector biology is gaining recognition, only a few such facilities exist worldwide and are relatively small in size (< 100 m2). Methods The establishment of a 625 m2 state-of-the-art SFS for large-scale experimentation on anopheline mosquito ecology and control within a rural area of southern Tanzania, where malaria transmission intensities are amongst the highest ever recorded, is described. Results A greenhouse frame with walls of mosquito netting and a polyethylene roof was mounted on a raised concrete platform at the Ifakara Health Institute. The interior of the SFS was divided into four separate work areas that have been set up for a variety of research activities including mass-rearing for African malaria vectors under natural conditions, high throughput evaluation of novel mosquito control and trapping techniques, short-term assays of host-seeking behaviour and olfaction, and longer-term experimental investigation of anopheline population dynamics and gene flow within a contained environment that simulates a local village domestic setting. Conclusion The SFS at Ifakara was completed and ready for use in under two years. Preliminary observations

  7. Bacterial diversity analysis of larvae and adult midgut microflora using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods in lab-reared and field-collected Anopheles stephensi-an Asian malarial vector

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are intermediate hosts for numerous disease causing organisms. Vector control is one of the most investigated strategy for the suppression of mosquito-borne diseases. Anopheles stephensi is one of the vectors of malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. The parasite undergoes major developmental and maturation steps within the mosquito midgut and little is known about Anopheles-associated midgut microbiota. Identification and characterization of the mosquito midgut flora is likely to contribute towards better understanding of mosquito biology including longevity, reproduction and mosquito-pathogen interactions that are important to evolve strategies for vector control mechanisms. Results Lab-reared and field-collected A. stephensi male, female and larvae were screened by "culture-dependent and culture-independent" methods. Five 16S rRNA gene library were constructed form lab and field-caught A. stephensi mosquitoes and a total of 115 culturable isolates from both samples were analyzed further. Altogether, 68 genera were identified from midgut of adult and larval A. stephensi, 53 from field-caught and 15 from lab-reared mosquitoes. A total of 171 and 44 distinct phylotypes having 85 to 99% similarity with the closest database matches were detected among field and lab-reared A. stephensi midgut, respectively. These OTUs had a Shannon diversity index value of 1.74–2.14 for lab-reared and in the range of 2.75–3.49 for field-caught A. stephensi mosquitoes. The high species evenness values of 0.93 to 0.99 in field-collected adult and larvae midgut flora indicated the vastness of microbial diversity retrieved by these approaches. The dominant bacteria in field-caught adult male A. stephensi were uncultured Paenibacillaceae while in female and in larvae it was Serratia marcescens, on the other hand in lab-reared mosquitoes, Serratia marcescens and Cryseobacterium meninqosepticum bacteria were found to be abundant. Conclusion More than fifty percent of

  8. Electroantennogram and behavioural responses of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to human-specific sweat components.

    PubMed

    Costantini, C; Birkett, M A; Gibson, G; Ziesmann, J; Sagnon, N F; Mohammed, H A; Coluzzi, M; Pickett, J A

    2001-09-01

    Afrotropical malaria vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae), particularly An. gambiae sensu stricto, are attracted mainly to human hosts. A major source of human volatile emissions is sweat, from which key human-specific components are the carboxylic acids (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid and 7-octenoic acid. Electrophysiological studies on the antennae of An. gambiae s.s. showed selective sensitivity to these compounds, with a threshold at 10(-6) g comparable to that of known olfactory stimulants 1-octen-3-ol, p-cresol, isovaleric acid, and lower than threshold sensitivity to L-lactic acid and the synthetic mosquito repellent N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET). A combination of the acids released at concentrations > 10(-5) g in wind tunnel bioassays significantly reduced the response to CO2, the major attractant released by human hosts, for strains of An. gambiae s.s. originating from East and West Africa. Field trials with odour-baited entry traps (OBETs) in Burkina Faso showed that 7-octenoic acid significantly increased (by 1.7-fold) the catch of females of An. gambiae sensu lato (comprising two sibling species: An. arabiensis Patton and An. gambiae s.s.) in OBETs baited with CO2, whereas combinations of the acids significantly reduced the catch in CO2-baited traps (by 2.1-fold) and in whole human odour-baited traps (by 1.5-fold). The pure (E) and (Z) geometric isomers of 3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid gave comparable results to the (EIZ) isomer mixture. These results provide the first experimental evidence that human-specific compounds affect the behaviour of highly anthropophilic An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes. The compounds appear to inhibit the upwind flight' response to known long-range attractants, and may serve either to mask' the attractants present or, more probably, to 'arrest' upwind flight when mosquitoes arrive at a host under natural conditions. In the final approach to hosts, vectors are known to reduce their flight speed and increase

  9. Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2015-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica and root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 °C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 °C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica and root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to

  10. Stress dependent infection cost of the human malaria agent Plasmodium falciparum on its natural vector Anopheles coluzzii.

    PubMed

    Sangare, I; Dabire, R; Yameogo, B; Da, D F; Michalakis, Y; Cohuet, A

    2014-07-01

    Unraveling selective forces that shape vector-parasite interactions has critical implications for malaria control. However, it remains unclear whether Plasmodium infection induces a fitness cost to their natural mosquito vectors. Moreover, environmental conditions are known to affect infection outcome and may impact the effect of infection on mosquito fitness. We investigated in the laboratory the effects of exposition to and infection by field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum on fecundity and survival of a major vector in the field, Anopheles coluzzii under different conditions of access to sugar resources after blood feeding. The results evidenced fitness costs induced by exposition and infection. When sugar was available after blood meal, infected and exposed mosquitoes had either reduced or equal to survival to unexposed mosquitoes while fecundity was either increased or decreased depending on the blood donor. Under strong nutritional stress, survival was reduced for exposed and infected mosquitoes in all assays. We therefore provide here evidence of an environmental-dependant reduced survival in mosquitoes exposed to infection in a natural and one of the most important parasite-mosquito species associations for human malaria transmission. PMID:24747607

  11. Aquaporin water channel AgAQP1 in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae during blood feeding and humidity adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Cha, Sung-Jae; Agre, Peter; Rasgon, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    Altered patterns of malaria endemicity reflect, in part, changes in feeding behavior and climate adaptation of mosquito vectors. Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are found throughout nature and confer high-capacity water flow through cell membranes. The genome of the major malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae contains at least seven putative AQP sequences. Anticipating that transmembrane water movements are important during the life cycle of A. gambiae, we identified and characterized the A. gambiae aquaporin 1 (AgAQP1) protein that is homologous to AQPs known in humans, Drosophila, and sap-sucking insects. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, AgAQP1 transports water but not glycerol. Similar to mammalian AQPs, water permeation of AgAQP1 is inhibited by HgCl2 and tetraethylammonium, with Tyr185 conferring tetraethylammonium sensitivity. AgAQP1 is more highly expressed in adult female A. gambiae mosquitoes than in males. Expression is high in gut, ovaries, and Malpighian tubules where immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that AgAQP1 resides in stellate cells but not principal cells. AgAQP1 expression is up-regulated in fat body and ovary by blood feeding but not by sugar feeding, and it is reduced by exposure to a dehydrating environment (42% relative humidity). RNA interference reduces AgAQP1 mRNA and protein levels. In a desiccating environment (<20% relative humidity), mosquitoes with reduced AgAQP1 protein survive significantly longer than controls. These studies support a role for AgAQP1 in water homeostasis during blood feeding and humidity adaptation of A. gambiae, a major mosquito vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21444767

  12. Host population persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases: Hawaii amakihi and avian malaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, B.L.; Atkinson, C.T.; Lapointe, D.A.; Hart, P.J.; Spiegel, C.S.; Tweed, E.J.; Henneman, C.; LeBrun, J.; Denette, T.; DeMots, R.; Kozar, K.L.; Triglia, D.; Lease, D.; Gregor, A.; Smith, T.; Duffy, D.

    2005-01-01

    The past quarter century has seen an unprecedented increase in the number of new and emerging infectious diseases throughout the world, with serious implications for human and wildlife populations. We examined host persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases in Hawaii, where introduced avian malaria and introduced vectors have had a negative impact on most populations of Hawaiian forest birds for nearly a century. We studied birds, parasites, and vectors in nine study areas from 0 to 1,800 m on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii from January to October, 2002. Contrary to predictions of prior work, we found that Hawaii amakihi (Hemignathus virens), a native species susceptible to malaria, comprised from 24.5% to 51.9% of the avian community at three low-elevation forests (55-270 m). Amakihi were more abundant at low elevations than at disease-free high elevations, and were resident and breeding there. Infection rates were 24-40% by microscopy and 55-83% by serology, with most infected individuals experiencing low-intensity, chronic infections. Mosquito trapping and diagnostics provided strong evidence for year-round local transmission. Moreover, we present evidence that Hawaii amakihi have increased in low elevation habitats on south-eastern Hawaii Island over the past decade. The recent emergent phenomenon of recovering amakihi populations at low elevations, despite extremely high prevalence of avian malaria, suggests that ecological or evolutionary processes acting on hosts or parasites have allowed this species to recolonize low-elevation habitats. A better understanding of the mechanisms allowing coexistence of hosts and parasites may ultimately lead to tools for mitigating disease impacts on wildlife and human populations.

  13. Host population persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases: Hawaii amakihi and avian malaria.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Bethany L; Atkinson, Carter T; Lapointe, Dennis A; Hart, Patrick J; Spiegel, Caleb S; Tweed, Erik J; Henneman, Carlene; Lebrun, Jaymi; Denette, Tami; Demots, Rachel; Kozar, Kelly L; Triglia, Dennis; Lease, Dan; Gregor, Aaron; Smith, Tom; Duffy, David

    2005-02-01

    The past quarter century has seen an unprecedented increase in the number of new and emerging infectious diseases throughout the world, with serious implications for human and wildlife populations. We examined host persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases in Hawaii, where introduced avian malaria and introduced vectors have had a negative impact on most populations of Hawaiian forest birds for nearly a century. We studied birds, parasites, and vectors in nine study areas from 0 to 1,800 m on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii from January to October, 2002. Contrary to predictions of prior work, we found that Hawaii amakihi (Hemignathus virens), a native species susceptible to malaria, comprised from 24.5% to 51.9% of the avian community at three low-elevation forests (55-270 m). Amakihi were more abundant at low elevations than at disease-free high elevations, and were resident and breeding there. Infection rates were 24-40% by microscopy and 55-83% by serology, with most infected individuals experiencing low-intensity, chronic infections. Mosquito trapping and diagnostics provided strong evidence for year-round local transmission. Moreover, we present evidence that Hawaii amakihi have increased in low elevation habitats on southeastern Hawaii Island over the past decade. The recent emergent phenomenon of recovering amakihi populations at low elevations, despite extremely high prevalence of avian malaria, suggests that ecological or evolutionary processes acting on hosts or parasites have allowed this species to recolonize low-elevation habitats. A better understanding of the mechanisms allowing coexistence of hosts and parasites may ultimately lead to tools for mitigating disease impacts on wildlife and human populations. PMID:15668377

  14. Host population persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases: Hawaii amakihi and avian malaria

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, Bethany L.; Atkinson, Carter T.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Hart, Patrick J.; Spiegel, Caleb S.; Tweed, Erik J.; Henneman, Carlene; LeBrun, Jaymi; Denette, Tami; DeMots, Rachel; Kozar, Kelly L.; Triglia, Dennis; Lease, Dan; Gregor, Aaron; Smith, Tom; Duffy, David

    2005-01-01

    The past quarter century has seen an unprecedented increase in the number of new and emerging infectious diseases throughout the world, with serious implications for human and wildlife populations. We examined host persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases in Hawaii, where introduced avian malaria and introduced vectors have had a negative impact on most populations of Hawaiian forest birds for nearly a century. We studied birds, parasites, and vectors in nine study areas from 0 to 1,800 m on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii from January to October, 2002. Contrary to predictions of prior work, we found that Hawaii amakihi (Hemignathus virens), a native species susceptible to malaria, comprised from 24.5% to 51.9% of the avian community at three low-elevation forests (55–270 m). Amakihi were more abundant at low elevations than at disease-free high elevations, and were resident and breeding there. Infection rates were 24–40% by microscopy and 55–83% by serology, with most infected individuals experiencing low-intensity, chronic infections. Mosquito trapping and diagnostics provided strong evidence for year-round local transmission. Moreover, we present evidence that Hawaii amakihi have increased in low elevation habitats on southeastern Hawaii Island over the past decade. The recent emergent phenomenon of recovering amakihi populations at low elevations, despite extremely high prevalence of avian malaria, suggests that ecological or evolutionary processes acting on hosts or parasites have allowed this species to recolonize low-elevation habitats. A better understanding of the mechanisms allowing coexistence of hosts and parasites may ultimately lead to tools for mitigating disease impacts on wildlife and human populations. PMID:15668377

  15. Utilization of combined remote sensing techniques to detect environmental variables influencing malaria vector densities in rural West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The use of remote sensing has found its way into the field of epidemiology within the last decades. With the increased sensor resolution of recent and future satellites new possibilities emerge for high resolution risk modeling and risk mapping. Methods A SPOT 5 satellite image, taken during the rainy season 2009 was used for calculating indices by combining the image's spectral bands. Besides the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) other indices were tested for significant correlation against field observations. Multiple steps, including the detection of surface water, its breeding appropriateness for Anopheles and modeling of vector imagines abundance, were performed. Data collection on larvae, adult vectors and geographic parameters in the field, was amended by using remote sensing techniques to gather data on altitude (Digital Elevation Model = DEM), precipitation (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission = TRMM), land surface temperatures (LST). Results The DEM derived altitude as well as indices calculations combining the satellite's spectral bands (NDTI = Normalized Difference Turbidity Index, NDWI Mac Feeters = Normalized Difference Water Index) turned out to be reliable indicators for surface water in the local geographic setting. While Anopheles larvae abundance in habitats is driven by multiple, interconnected factors - amongst which the NDVI - and precipitation events, the presence of vector imagines was found to be correlated negatively to remotely sensed LST and positively to the cumulated amount of rainfall in the preceding 15 days and to the Normalized Difference Pond Index (NDPI) within the 500 m buffer zone around capture points. Conclusions Remotely sensed geographical and meteorological factors, including precipitations, temperature, as well as vegetation, humidity and land cover indicators could be used as explanatory variables for surface water presence, larval development and imagines densities. This modeling

  16. Field evaluation of three plant-based insect repellents against malaria vectors in Vaca Diez Province, the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah J; Lenglet, Annick; Hill, Nigel

    2002-06-01

    The efficacy of repellents against Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in Bolivia, was evaluated. This mosquito has a peak in biting activity early in the evening. Three natural repellents (1 eucalyptus based, 1 neem based, and 1 containing several repellent essential oils) were tested in comparison with 15% deet in human landing catches in Bolivia. The eucalyptus-based repellent containing 30% p-menthane-diol applied at a dose similar to those used in practice gave 96.89% protection for 4 h. Deet gave 84.81% protection. The other 2 products did not provide significant protection from mosquito bites. PMID:12083351

  17. Remote sensing of anophelines in rice-cropping villages in Mali: Patterns of vector abundance and malaria transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diuk Wasser, Maria Ana

    The explosive population growth and widespread urbanization in Africa requires a significant increase in food production. Crop irrigation is therefore expected to increase in the future, although it is often blamed for aggravating the health risk of local communities---by providing habitats suitable for mosquitoes vectors of malaria (Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus in our study area) and other diseases. An epidemiological paradox sometimes occurs, however, when an increase in vector numbers is accompanied by a reduction of the risk of infection, due to a reduction in mosquito longevity and of their tendency to bite human (vs. animals). The objective of this dissertation was to determine how agricultural patterns mapped using satellite data affected vector densities and malaria transmission parameters in 18 rice-cropping villages in Mali. I used a combination of optical (Landsat ETM+) and synthetic aperture radar (ERS-2 SAR). Using Landsat data, rice was distinguished from other land uses with 98% accuracy and rice cohorts were discriminated with 84% accuracy (three classes) or 94% (two classes). ERS-2 SAR backscatter was correlated with the height and biomass of rice plants and was therefore useful to distinguish among rice growth stages. As in previous studies, the early vegetative stage was associated with higher larval production. SAR was further able to distinguish between agronomic practices linked to high and low-production within those early stages. The landcover maps were integrated with archived data on adult and larval anopheline densities and malaria transmission parameters. The area of several landcovers explained up to 89% of the variability in mosquito numbers. The maximum correlation was obtained when landcover was measured in a 1-km buffer area. Vector density was negatively associated to parity and anthropophilic rates. An. gambiae showed higher vectorial capacity (VC) than An. funestus , with seasonal variations. Peak VC for both species

  18. History of the discovery of the malaria parasites and their vectors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium transmitted by female Anopheles species mosquitoes. Our understanding of the malaria parasites begins in 1880 with the discovery of the parasites in the blood of malaria patients by Alphonse Laveran. The sexual stages in the blood were discovered by William MacCallum in birds infected with a related haematozoan, Haemoproteus columbae, in 1897 and the whole of the transmission cycle in culicine mosquitoes and birds infected with Plasmodium relictum was elucidated by Ronald Ross in 1897. In 1898 the Italian malariologists, Giovanni Battista Grassi, Amico Bignami, Giuseppe Bastianelli, Angelo Celli, Camillo Golgi and Ettore Marchiafava demonstrated conclusively that human malaria was also transmitted by mosquitoes, in this case anophelines. The discovery that malaria parasites developed in the liver before entering the blood stream was made by Henry Shortt and Cyril Garnham in 1948 and the final stage in the life cycle, the presence of dormant stages in the liver, was conclusively demonstrated in 1982 by Wojciech Krotoski. This article traces the main events and stresses the importance of comparative studies in that, apart from the initial discovery of parasites in the blood, every subsequent discovery has been based on studies on non-human malaria parasites and related organisms. PMID:20205846

  19. Amazonian malaria: Asymptomatic human reservoirs, diagnostic challenges, environmentally-driven changes in mosquito vector populations, and the mandate for sustainable control strategies

    PubMed Central

    da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Moreno, Marta; Conn, Jan E.; Gamboa, Dionicia; Abeles, Shira; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.

    2012-01-01

    Across the Americas and the Caribbean, nearly 561,000 slide-confirmed malaria infections were reported officially in 2008. The nine Amazonian countries accounted for 89% of these infections; Brazil and Peru alone contributed 56% and 7% of them, respectively. Local populations of the relatively neglected parasite P. vivax, which currently accounts for 77% of the regional malaria burden, are extremely diverse genetically and geographically structured. At a time when malaria elimination is placed on the public health agenda of several endemic countries, it remains unclear why malaria proved so difficult to control in areas of relatively low levels of transmission such as the Amazon Basin. We hypothesize that asymptomatic parasite carriage and massive environmental changes that affect vector abundance and behavior are major contributors to malaria transmission in epidemiologically diverse areas across the Amazon Basin. Here we review available data supporting this hypothesis and discuss their implications for current and future malaria intervention policies in the region. Given that locally generated scientific evidence is urgently required to support malaria control interventions in Amazonia, we briefly describe the aims of our current field-oriented malaria research in rural villages and gold-mining enclaves in Peru and a recently opened agricultural settlement in Brazil. PMID:22015425

  20. A randomized longitudinal factorial design to assess malaria vector control and disease management interventions in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Randall A; Mboera, Leonard E G; Senkoro, Kesheni; Lesser, Adriane; Shayo, Elizabeth H; Paul, Christopher J; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-05-01

    The optimization of malaria control strategies is complicated by constraints posed by local health systems, infrastructure, limited resources, and the complex interactions between infection, disease, and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of a randomized factorial study designed to address this research gap. This project will evaluate two malaria control interventions in Mvomero District, Tanzania: (1) a disease management strategy involving early detection and treatment by community health workers using rapid diagnostic technology; and (2) vector control through community-supported larviciding. Six study villages were assigned to each of four groups (control, early detection and treatment, larviciding, and early detection and treatment plus larviciding). The primary endpoint of interest was change in malaria infection prevalence across the intervention groups measured during annual longitudinal cross-sectional surveys. Recurring entomological surveying, household surveying, and focus group discussions will provide additional valuable insights. At baseline, 962 households across all 24 villages participated in a household survey; 2,884 members from 720 of these households participated in subsequent malariometric surveying. The study design will allow us to estimate the effect sizes of different intervention mixtures. Careful documentation of our study protocol may also serve other researchers designing field-based intervention trials. PMID:24840349

  1. Regulation of Anti-Plasmodium Immunity by a LITAF-like Transcription Factor in the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan C.; Eappen, Abraham G.; Radtke, Andrea J.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The mosquito is the obligate vector for malaria transmission. To complete its development within the mosquito, the malaria parasite Plasmodium must overcome the protective action of the mosquito innate immune system. Here we report on the involvement of the Anopheles gambiae orthologue of a conserved component of the vertebrate immune system, LPS-induced TNFα transcription factor (LITAF), and its role in mosquito anti-Plasmodium immunity. An. gambiae LITAF-like 3 (LL3) expression is up-regulated in response to midgut invasion by both rodent and human malaria parasites. Silencing of LL3 expression greatly increases parasite survival, indicating that LL3 is part of an anti-Plasmodium defense mechanism. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays identified specific LL3 DNA-binding motifs within the promoter of SRPN6, a gene that also mediates mosquito defense against Plasmodium. Further experiments indicated that these motifs play a direct role in LL3 regulation of SRPN6 expression. We conclude that LL3 is a transcription factor capable of modulating SRPN6 expression as part of the mosquito anti-Plasmodium immune response. PMID:23093936

  2. A Randomized Longitudinal Factorial Design to Assess Malaria Vector Control and Disease Management Interventions in Rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Randall A.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Senkoro, Kesheni; Lesser, Adriane; Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Paul, Christopher J.; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of malaria control strategies is complicated by constraints posed by local health systems, infrastructure, limited resources, and the complex interactions between infection, disease, and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of a randomized factorial study designed to address this research gap. This project will evaluate two malaria control interventions in Mvomero District, Tanzania: (1) a disease management strategy involving early detection and treatment by community health workers using rapid diagnostic technology; and (2) vector control through community-supported larviciding. Six study villages were assigned to each of four groups (control, early detection and treatment, larviciding, and early detection and treatment plus larviciding). The primary endpoint of interest was change in malaria infection prevalence across the intervention groups measured during annual longitudinal cross-sectional surveys. Recurring entomological surveying, household surveying, and focus group discussions will provide additional valuable insights. At baseline, 962 households across all 24 villages participated in a household survey; 2,884 members from 720 of these households participated in subsequent malariometric surveying. The study design will allow us to estimate the effect sizes of different intervention mixtures. Careful documentation of our study protocol may also serve other researchers designing field-based intervention trials. PMID:24840349

  3. Operational efficiency and sustainability of vector control of malaria and dengue: descriptive case studies from the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis is lacking on the management of vector control systems in disease-endemic countries with respect to the efficiency and sustainability of operations. Methods Three locations were selected, at the scale of province, municipality and barangay (i.e. village). Data on disease incidence, programme activities, and programme management were collected on-site through meetings and focus group discussions. Results Adaptation of disease control strategies to the epidemiological situation per barangay, through micro-stratification, brings gains in efficiency, but should be accompanied by further capacity building on local situational analysis for better selection and targeting of vector control interventions within the barangay. An integrated approach to vector control, aiming to improve the rational use of resources, was evident with a multi-disease strategy for detection and response, and by the use of combinations of vector control methods. Collaboration within the health sector was apparent from the involvement of barangay health workers, re-orientation of job descriptions and the creation of a disease surveillance unit. The engagement of barangay leaders and use of existing community structures helped mobilize local resources and voluntary services for vector control. In one location, local authorities and the community were involved in the planning, implementation and evaluation of malaria control, which triggered local programme ownership. Conclusions Strategies that contributed to an improved efficiency and sustainability of vector control operations were: micro-stratification, integration of vector control within the health sector, a multi-disease approach, involvement of local authorities, and empowerment of communities. Capacity building on situational analysis and vector surveillance should be addressed through national policy and guidelines. PMID:22873707

  4. Human antibody responses to the Anopheles salivary gSG6-P1 peptide: a novel tool for evaluating the efficacy of ITNs in malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Drame, Papa Makhtar; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Cornelie, Sylvie; Le Mire, Jacques; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Dos-Santos, Maria Adelaide; Sembène, Mbacké; Fortes, Filomeno; Simondon, Francois; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2010-01-01

    To optimize malaria control, WHO has prioritised the need for new indicators to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector control strategies. The gSG6-P1 peptide from gSG6 protein of Anopheles gambiae salivary glands was previously designed as a specific salivary sequence of malaria vector species. It was shown that the quantification of human antibody (Ab) responses to Anopheles salivary proteins in general and especially to the gSG6-P1 peptide was a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles. The present objective was to validate this indicator in the evaluation of the efficacy of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs). A longitudinal evaluation, including parasitological, entomological and immunological assessments, was conducted on children and adults from a malaria-endemic area before and after the introduction of ITNs. Significant decrease of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response was observed just after the efficient ITNs use. Interestingly, specific IgG Ab level was especially pertinent to evaluate a short-time period of ITNs efficacy and at individual level. However, specific IgG rose back up within four months as correct ITN use waned. IgG responses to one salivary peptide could constitute a reliable biomarker for the evaluation of ITN efficacy, at short- and long-term use, and provide a valuable tool in malaria vector control based on a real measurement of human-vector contact. PMID:21179476

  5. Human Antibody Responses to the Anopheles Salivary gSG6-P1 Peptide: A Novel Tool for Evaluating the Efficacy of ITNs in Malaria Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Drame, Papa Makhtar; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Cornelie, Sylvie; Le Mire, Jacques; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Dos-Santos, Maria Adelaide; Sembène, Mbacké; Fortes, Filomeno; Simondon, Francois; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2010-01-01

    To optimize malaria control, WHO has prioritised the need for new indicators to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector control strategies. The gSG6-P1 peptide from gSG6 protein of Anopheles gambiae salivary glands was previously designed as a specific salivary sequence of malaria vector species. It was shown that the quantification of human antibody (Ab) responses to Anopheles salivary proteins in general and especially to the gSG6-P1 peptide was a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles. The present objective was to validate this indicator in the evaluation of the efficacy of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs). A longitudinal evaluation, including parasitological, entomological and immunological assessments, was conducted on children and adults from a malaria-endemic area before and after the introduction of ITNs. Significant decrease of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response was observed just after the efficient ITNs use. Interestingly, specific IgG Ab level was especially pertinent to evaluate a short-time period of ITNs efficacy and at individual level. However, specific IgG rose back up within four months as correct ITN use waned. IgG responses to one salivary peptide could constitute a reliable biomarker for the evaluation of ITN efficacy, at short- and long-term use, and provide a valuable tool in malaria vector control based on a real measurement of human-vector contact. PMID:21179476

  6. Risk factors for house-entry by malaria vectors in a rural town and satellite villages in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Matthew J; Green, Clare; Milligan, Paul M; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Jasseh, Momadou; Conway, David J; Lindsay, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    Background In the pre-intervention year of a randomized controlled trial investigating the protective effects of house screening against malaria-transmitting vectors, a multi-factorial risk factor analysis study was used to identify factors that influence mosquito house entry. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled using CDC light traps in 976 houses, each on one night, in Farafenni town and surrounding villages during the malaria-transmission season in The Gambia. Catches from individual houses were both (a) left unadjusted and (b) adjusted relative to the number of mosquitoes caught in four sentinel houses that were operated nightly throughout the period, to allow for night-to-night variation. Houses were characterized by location, architecture, human occupancy and their mosquito control activities, and the number and type of domestic animals within the compound. Results 106,536 mosquitoes were caught, of which 55% were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, the major malaria vectors in the region. There were seven fold higher numbers of An. gambiae s.l. in the villages (geometric mean per trap night = 43.7, 95% confidence intervals, CIs = 39.5–48.4) than in Farafenni town (6.3, 5.7–7.2) and significant variation between residential blocks (p < 0.001). A negative binomial multivariate model performed equally well using unadjusted or adjusted trap data. Using the unadjusted data the presence of nuisance mosquitoes was reduced if the house was located in the town (odds ratio, OR = 0.11, 95% CIs = 0.09–0.13), the eaves were closed (OR = 0.71, 0.60–0.85), a horse was tethered near the house (OR = 0.77, 0.73–0.82), and churai, a local incense, was burned in the room at night (OR = 0.56, 0.47–0.66). Mosquito numbers increased per additional person in the house (OR = 1.04, 1.02–1.06) or trapping room (OR = 1.19, 1.13–1.25) and when the walls were made of mud blocks compared with concrete (OR = 1.44, 1.10–1.87). Conclusion This study demonstrates that the risk of

  7. Lineage divergence detected in the malaria vector Anopheles marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Amazonian Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cryptic species complexes are common among anophelines. Previous phylogenetic analysis based on the complete mtDNA COI gene sequences detected paraphyly in the Neotropical malaria vector Anopheles marajoara. The "Folmer region" detects a single taxon using a 3% divergence threshold. Methods To test the paraphyletic hypothesis and examine the utility of the Folmer region, genealogical trees based on a concatenated (white + 3' COI sequences) dataset and pairwise differentiation of COI fragments were examined. The population structure and demographic history were based on partial COI sequences for 294 individuals from 14 localities in Amazonian Brazil. 109 individuals from 12 localities were sequenced for the nDNA white gene, and 57 individuals from 11 localities were sequenced for the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). Results Distinct A. marajoara lineages were detected by combined genealogical analysis and were also supported among COI haplotypes using a median joining network and AMOVA, with time since divergence during the Pleistocene (<100,000 ya). COI sequences at the 3' end were more variable, demonstrating significant pairwise differentiation (3.82%) compared to the more moderate 2.92% detected by the Folmer region. Lineage 1 was present in all localities, whereas lineage 2 was restricted mainly to the west. Mismatch distributions for both lineages were bimodal, likely due to multiple colonization events and spatial expansion (~798 - 81,045 ya). There appears to be gene flow within, not between lineages, and a partial barrier was detected near Rio Jari in Amapá state, separating western and eastern populations. In contrast, both nDNA data sets (white gene sequences with or without the retention of the 4th intron, and ITS2 sequences and length) detected a single A. marajoara lineage. Conclusions Strong support for combined data with significant differentiation detected in the COI and absent in the nDNA suggest that the

  8. Water vapour is a pre-oviposition attractant for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To date no semiochemicals affecting the pre-oviposition behaviour of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu lato have been described. Water vapour must be the major chemical signal emanating from a potential larval habitat, and although one might expect that gravid An. gambiae s.l. detect and respond to water vapour in their search for an aquatic habitat, this has never been experimentally confirmed for this species. This study aimed to investigate the role of relative humidity or water vapour as a general cue for inducing gravid An. gambiae sensu stricto to make orientated movements towards the source. Methods Three experiments were carried out with insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. One with unfed females and two with gravid females during their peak oviposition time in the early evening. First, unfed females and gravid females were tested separately in still air where a humidity difference was established between opposite ends of a WHO bioassay tube and mosquitoes released individually in the centre of the tube. Movement of mosquitoes to either low or high humidity was recorded. Additionally, gravid mosquitoes were released into a larger air-flow olfactometer and responses measured towards collection chambers that contained cups filled with water or empty cups. Results Unfed females equally dispersed in the small bioassay tubes to areas of high and low humidity (mean 50% (95% confidence interval (CI) 38-62%). In contrast, gravid females were 2.4 times (95% CI 1.3-4.7) more likely to move towards high humidity than unfed females. The results were even more pronounced in the airflow olfactometer. Gravid females were 10.6 times (95% CI 5.4-20.8) more likely to enter the chamber with water than a dry chamber. Conclusions Water vapour is a strong pre-oviposition attractant to gravid An. gambiae s.s. in still and moving air and is likely to be a general cue used by mosquitoes for locating aquatic habitats. PMID:24120083

  9. Efficacy of indigenous plant extracts on the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Bagavan, A.; Kamaraj, C.; Rajakumar, G.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Marimuthu, S.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta leaves tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The dried leaves of the three plants were powdered mechanically and extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. One gram of crude extract was first dissolved in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution). From the stock solution, test solution concentrations of 31.21- 499.42 mg/l for oviposition- deterrence assay and repellency and 15.60 - 998.85 mg/l were used in ovicidal assay. The percentage oviposition- deterrence, hatching rate of eggs and protection time were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used for the multiple concentration tests and for per cent mortality to determine significant treatment differences. Results: The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was highest at 499.42 mg/l and the lowest at 31.21 mg/l in ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 499.42 mg/l were -0.91, -0.93, -0.84, -0.84, -0.87, -0.82, -0.87, -0.89 and -0.87, respectively. Mortality (no egg hatchability) was 100 per cent with ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 998.85 mg/l. The maximum adult repellent activity was observed at 499.42 mg/l in ethyl acetate extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and methanol extracts of T. erecta, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with

  10. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An increasing knowledge of the global risk of malaria shows that the nations of the Americas have the lowest levels of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax endemicity worldwide, sustained, in part, by substantive integrated vector control. To help maintain and better target these efforts, knowledge of the contemporary distribution of each of the dominant vector species (DVS) of human malaria is needed, alongside a comprehensive understanding of the ecology and behaviour of each species. Results A database of contemporary occurrence data for 41 of the DVS of human malaria was compiled from intensive searches of the formal and informal literature. The results for the nine DVS of the Americas are described in detail here. Nearly 6000 occurrence records were gathered from 25 countries in the region and were complemented by a synthesis of published expert opinion range maps, refined further by a technical advisory group of medical entomologists. A suite of environmental and climate variables of suspected relevance to anopheline ecology were also compiled from open access sources. These three sets of data were then combined to produce predictive species range maps using the Boosted Regression Tree method. The predicted geographic extent for each of the following species (or species complex*) are provided: Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus Wiedemann, 1820, An. (Nys.) albitarsis*, An. (Nys.) aquasalis Curry, 1932, An. (Nys.) darlingi Root, 1926, An. (Anopheles) freeborni Aitken, 1939, An. (Nys.) marajoara Galvão & Damasceno, 1942, An. (Nys.) nuneztovari*, An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis* and An. (Ano.) quadrimaculatus Say, 1824. A bionomics review summarising ecology and behaviour relevant to the control of each of these species was also compiled. Conclusions The distribution maps and bionomics review should both be considered as a starting point in an ongoing process of (i) describing the distributions of these DVS (since the opportunistic sample of occurrence

  11. Highly efficient Cas9-mediated gene drive for population modification of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Gantz, Valentino M.; Tatarenkova, Olga; Fazekas, Aniko; Macias, Vanessa M.; Bier, Ethan; James, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering technologies can be used both to create transgenic mosquitoes carrying antipathogen effector genes targeting human malaria parasites and to generate gene-drive systems capable of introgressing the genes throughout wild vector populations. We developed a highly effective autonomous Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated gene-drive system in the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, adapted from the mutagenic chain reaction (MCR). This specific system results in progeny of males and females derived from transgenic males exhibiting a high frequency of germ-line gene conversion consistent with homology-directed repair (HDR). This system copies an ∼17-kb construct from its site of insertion to its homologous chromosome in a faithful, site-specific manner. Dual anti-Plasmodium falciparum effector genes, a marker gene, and the autonomous gene-drive components are introgressed into ∼99.5% of the progeny following outcrosses of transgenic lines to wild-type mosquitoes. The effector genes remain transcriptionally inducible upon blood feeding. In contrast to the efficient conversion in individuals expressing Cas9 only in the germ line, males and females derived from transgenic females, which are expected to have drive component molecules in the egg, produce progeny with a high frequency of mutations in the targeted genome sequence, resulting in near-Mendelian inheritance ratios of the transgene. Such mutant alleles result presumably from nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) events before the segregation of somatic and germ-line lineages early in development. These data support the design of this system to be active strictly within the germ line. Strains based on this technology could sustain control and elimination as part of the malaria eradication agenda. PMID:26598698

  12. Spatial and Temporal Trends in Insecticide Resistance among Malaria Vectors in Chad Highlight the Importance of Continual Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Geraldine Marie; Coleman, Michael; Thomsen, Edward; Ranson, Hilary; Yangalbé-Kalnone, Elise; Moundai, Tchomfienet; Demba Kodindo, Israel; Nakebang, Amen; Mahamat, Adoum; Peka, Mallaye; Kerah-Hinzoumbé, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Background A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Chad 2008–2010. When this programme ended, only sporadic bioassays were performed in a small number of sites. Methods WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of insecticide resistance to 0.1% bendiocarb, 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 1% fenitrothion, and 0.75% permethrin in the main malaria vectors at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season for three years 2008–2010, with subsequent collections in 2011 and 2014. Species and molecular identification of An. gambiae M and S forms and kdr genotyping was performed using PCR-RLFP; circumsporozoite status was assessed using ELISA. Results Between 2008 and 2010, significant changes in insecticide resistance profiles to deltamethrin and permethrin were seen in 2 of the sites. No significant changes were seen in resistance to DDT in any site during the study period. Testing performed after the period of routine monitoring had ended showed dramatic increases to DDT and pyrethroid resistance in 3 sites. No resistance to organophosphate or carbamate insecticides was detected. An. arabiensis was the predominate member of the An. gambiae complex in all 4 sites; adult collections showed temporal variation in species composition in only 1 site. Kdr analysis identified both 1014F and 1014S alleles in An. gambiae S only. Circumsporozoite analysis showed the highest vector infection rates were present in Donia, a site with extensive use of agricultural insecticides. Conclusions During the monitoring gap of four years, significant changes occurred in resistance prevalence in 3 of the 4 sites (p = <0.001), endangering the efficacy of currently implemented malaria control interventions. Significant changes in insecticide resistance profiles and a lack of kdr resistance alleles in adult populations highlight the urgent need for comprehensive entomological

  13. Highly efficient Cas9-mediated gene drive for population modification of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Gantz, Valentino M; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Tatarenkova, Olga; Fazekas, Aniko; Macias, Vanessa M; Bier, Ethan; James, Anthony A

    2015-12-01

    Genetic engineering technologies can be used both to create transgenic mosquitoes carrying antipathogen effector genes targeting human malaria parasites and to generate gene-drive systems capable of introgressing the genes throughout wild vector populations. We developed a highly effective autonomous Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated gene-drive system in the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, adapted from the mutagenic chain reaction (MCR). This specific system results in progeny of males and females derived from transgenic males exhibiting a high frequency of germ-line gene conversion consistent with homology-directed repair (HDR). This system copies an ∼ 17-kb construct from its site of insertion to its homologous chromosome in a faithful, site-specific manner. Dual anti-Plasmodium falciparum effector genes, a marker gene, and the autonomous gene-drive components are introgressed into ∼ 99.5% of the progeny following outcrosses of transgenic lines to wild-type mosquitoes. The effector genes remain transcriptionally inducible upon blood feeding. In contrast to the efficient conversion in individuals expressing Cas9 only in the germ line, males and females derived from transgenic females, which are expected to have drive component molecules in the egg, produce progeny with a high frequency of mutations in the targeted genome sequence, resulting in near-Mendelian inheritance ratios of the transgene. Such mutant alleles result presumably from nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) events before the segregation of somatic and germ-line lineages early in development. These data support the design of this system to be active strictly within the germ line. Strains based on this technology could sustain control and elimination as part of the malaria eradication agenda. PMID:26598698

  14. Allelic Variation of Cytochrome P450s Drives Resistance to Bednet Insecticides in a Major Malaria Vector.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Riveron, Jacob M; Bibby, Jaclyn; Irving, Helen; Yunta, Cristina; Paine, Mark J I; Wondji, Charles S

    2015-10-01

    Scale up of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) has massively contributed to reduce malaria mortality across Africa. However, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in malaria vectors threatens its continued effectiveness. Deciphering the detailed molecular basis of such resistance and designing diagnostic tools is critical to implement suitable resistance management strategies. Here, we demonstrated that allelic variation in two cytochrome P450 genes is the most important driver of pyrethroid resistance in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus and detected key mutations controlling this resistance. An Africa-wide polymorphism analysis of the duplicated genes CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b revealed that both genes are directionally selected with alleles segregating according to resistance phenotypes. Modelling and docking simulations predicted that resistant alleles were better metabolizers of pyrethroids than susceptible alleles. Metabolism assays performed with recombinant enzymes of various alleles confirmed that alleles from resistant mosquitoes had significantly higher activities toward pyrethroids. Additionally, transgenic expression in Drosophila showed that flies expressing resistant alleles of both genes were significantly more resistant to pyrethroids compared with those expressing the susceptible alleles, indicating that allelic variation is the key resistance mechanism. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses demonstrated that three amino acid changes (Val109Ile, Asp335Glu and Asn384Ser) from the resistant allele of CYP6P9b were key pyrethroid resistance mutations inducing high metabolic efficiency. The detection of these first DNA markers of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids allows the design of DNA-based diagnostic tools to detect and track resistance associated with bednets scale up, which will improve the design of evidence-based resistance management strategies. PMID:26517127

  15. Predicted Distribution of Major Malaria Vectors Belonging to the Anopheles dirus Complex in Asia: Ecological Niche and Environmental Influences

    PubMed Central

    Obsomer, Valerie; Defourny, Pierre; Coosemans, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Methods derived from ecological niche modeling allow to define species distribution based on presence-only data. This is particularly useful to develop models from literature records such as available for the Anopheles dirus complex, a major group of malaria mosquito vectors in Asia. This research defines an innovative modeling design based on presence-only model and hierarchical framework to define the distribution of the complex and attempt to delineate sibling species distribution and environmental preferences. At coarse resolution, the potential distribution was defined using slow changing abiotic factors such as topography and climate representative for the timescale covered by literature records of the species. The distribution area was then refined in a second step using a mask of current suitable land cover. Distribution area and ecological niche were compared between species and environmental factors tested for relevance. Alternatively, extreme values at occurrence points were used to delimit environmental envelopes. The spatial distribution for the complex was broadly consistent with its known distribution and influencing factors included temperature and rainfall. If maps developed from environmental envelopes gave similar results to modeling when the number of sites was high, the results were less similar for species with low number of recorded presences. Using presence-only models and hierarchical framework this study not only predicts the distribution of a major malaria vector, but also improved ecological modeling analysis design and proposed final products better adapted to malaria control decision makers. The resulting maps can help prioritizing areas which need further investigation and help simulate distribution under changing conditions such as climate change or reforestation. The hierarchical framework results in two products one abiotic based model describes the potential maximal distribution and remains valid for decades and the other

  16. Allelic Variation of Cytochrome P450s Drives Resistance to Bednet Insecticides in a Major Malaria Vector

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Riveron, Jacob M.; Bibby, Jaclyn; Irving, Helen; Yunta, Cristina; Paine, Mark J. I.; Wondji, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Scale up of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) has massively contributed to reduce malaria mortality across Africa. However, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in malaria vectors threatens its continued effectiveness. Deciphering the detailed molecular basis of such resistance and designing diagnostic tools is critical to implement suitable resistance management strategies. Here, we demonstrated that allelic variation in two cytochrome P450 genes is the most important driver of pyrethroid resistance in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus and detected key mutations controlling this resistance. An Africa-wide polymorphism analysis of the duplicated genes CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b revealed that both genes are directionally selected with alleles segregating according to resistance phenotypes. Modelling and docking simulations predicted that resistant alleles were better metabolizers of pyrethroids than susceptible alleles. Metabolism assays performed with recombinant enzymes of various alleles confirmed that alleles from resistant mosquitoes had significantly higher activities toward pyrethroids. Additionally, transgenic expression in Drosophila showed that flies expressing resistant alleles of both genes were significantly more resistant to pyrethroids compared with those expressing the susceptible alleles, indicating that allelic variation is the key resistance mechanism. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses demonstrated that three amino acid changes (Val109Ile, Asp335Glu and Asn384Ser) from the resistant allele of CYP6P9b were key pyrethroid resistance mutations inducing high metabolic efficiency. The detection of these first DNA markers of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids allows the design of DNA-based diagnostic tools to detect and track resistance associated with bednets scale up, which will improve the design of evidence-based resistance management strategies. PMID:26517127

  17. Microgeographic Genetic Variation of the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) from Córdoba and Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Lina A.; Gómez, Giovan F.; González, John J.; Castro, Martha I.; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of Plasmodium spp. in several malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. This study was conducted to test genetic variation of An. darlingi at a microgeographic scale (approximately 100 km) from localities in Córdoba and Antioquia states, in western Colombia, to better understand the potential contribution of population genetics to local malaria control programs. Microsatellite loci: nuclear white and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences were analyzed. The northern white gene lineage was exclusively distributed in Córdoba and Antioquia and shared COI haplotypes were highly represented in mosquitoes from both states. COI analyses showed these An. darlingi are genetically closer to Central American populations than southern South American populations. Overall microsatellites and COI analysis showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in northwestern Colombia. Given the existence of high gene flow between An. darlingi populations of Córdoba and Antioquia, integrated vector control strategies could be developed in this region of Colombia. PMID:20595475

  18. Chromosomal and environmental determinants of morphometric variation in natural populations of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Diego; Caro-Riaño, Harling; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Rahola, Nil; Simard, Frederic; Fontenille, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles funestus is one of the most proficient malaria vectors in the world, mainly because of its remarkable ability to populate a wide range of ecological settings across Africa. Its formidable environmental plasticity has been primarily associated to high amounts of genetic and inversion polymorphisms. However, very little is known about the morphological changes that this ecological adaptation entails. Here, we report on wing morphometric variations in karyotyped specimens of this species collected throughout a wide range of eco-geographical conditions in Cameroon (Central Africa). Our results revealed strong selection on mosquito wing traits. Variation of wing size was dependent on temperature and elevation (p<0.001), while wing shape did not exhibit a specific environmental pattern. On the other hand, we observed a significant correlation of wing shape variation (p<0.001), but not size (p>0.05), with regard to karyotype. This pattern was maintained across different environmental conditions. In conclusion, our findings cast strong evidence that change in morphometric traits are under natural selection and contribute to local adaptation in Anopheles funestus populations. Furthermore, the robust relation between chromosome polymorphisms and wing shape suggests new evolutionary hypotheses about the effect of chromosomal inversions on phenotypic variation in this malaria vector. PMID:21414420

  19. [Evaluation of malaria vector control measures in central Vietnam (1976-1991)].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T V; Bui, D B; Mai, V S; Ta, V T; Nguyen, T Q; Tan, N; Nguyen, T

    1996-01-01

    Activities used to control malaria transmission in the pilot station of Vanh Canh in the Binh Dinh Province of central Vietnam from 1976 to 1991 have been evaluated. These activities were: spraying DDT in and around the houses in the villages and the settlements in the fields; spraying lambdacyalothrin in the houses; and use of bed-nets impregnated with permethrin. Their efficacy was measured by the number of fever episodes due to malaria infections among the population. The spraying of DDT in the houses was followed by a reduction of malaria infection by more than 90%. However, spraying of the settlements was not advantageous. The termination of DDT spraying was not followed by an increase of malaria infections. Spraying with lambdacyalothrin was slightly more effective than with pyrimiphos and DDT. The use of pesticide-impregnated bed-nets was efficient, especially in the villages far away from the forest. Thus, these activities can contribute to the control of the malaria endemic in central Vietnam. PMID:8705136

  20. Vector bionomics and malaria transmission in the Upper Orinoco River, Southern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Magris, Magda; Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Menares, Cristóbal; Villegas, Leopoldo

    2007-06-01

    A longitudinal epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in Ocamo, Upper Orinoco River, between January 1994 and February 1995 to understand the dynamics of malaria transmission in this area. Malaria transmission occurs throughout the year with a peak in June at the beginning of the rainy season. The Annual Parasite Index was 1,279 per 1,000 populations at risk. Plasmodium falciparum infections accounted for 64% of all infections, P. vivax for 28%, and P. malariae for 4%. Mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infections were diagnosed in 15 people representing 4% of total cases. Children under 10 years accounted for 58% of the cases; the risk for malaria in this age group was 77% higher than for those in the greater than 50 years age group. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant anopheline species landing on humans indoors with a biting peak between midnight and dawn. A significant positive correlation was found between malaria monthly incidence and mean number of An. darlingi caught. There was not a significant relationship between mean number of An. darlingi and rainfall or between incidence and rainfall. A total of 7295 anophelines were assayed by ELISA for detection of Plasmodium circumsporozoite (CS) protein. Only An. darlingi (55) was positive for CS proteins of P. falciparum (0.42%), P. malariae (0.25%), and P. vivax-247 (0.1%). The overall estimated entomological inoculation rate was 129 positive bites/person/year. The present study was the first longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study conducted in this area and set up the basic ground for subsequent intervention with insecticide-treated nets. PMID:17568935

  1. The Cry4B toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis kills Permethrin-resistant Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of malaria.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Griko, Natalya B; Bulla, Lee A

    2013-04-01

    Resurgence of malaria has been attributed, in part, to the development of resistance by Anopheles gambiae, a principal vector of the disease, to various insecticidal compounds such as Permethrin. Permethrin, a neurotoxicant, is widely used to impregnate mosquito nets. An alternative strategy to control mosquitoes is the use of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) because there is no observable resistance in the field to the bacterium. Bti kills mosquitoes by targeting cadherin molecules residing in the midgut epithelium of larvae of the insect. Cry proteins (Cry4A, Cry4B, Cry10A and Cry11A) produced by the bacterium during the sporulation phase of its life cycle bind to the cadherin molecules, which serve as receptors for the proteins. These Cry proteins have variable specificity to a variety of mosquitoes, including Culex and Aedes as well as Anopheles. Importantly, selective mosquitocidal action is occasioned by binding of the respective Cry toxins to cadherins distinctive to individual mosquito species. Differential fractionation of the four Cry proteins from a novel Bti isolate (M1) and cloning and expression of their genes in Escherichia coli revealed that Cry4B is the only Cry protein that exerts insecticidal action against An. gambiae. Indeed, it does so against a Permethrin-resistant strain of the mosquito. The other three Cry proteins are ineffective. Multiple sequence alignments of the four Cry proteins revealed a divergent sequence motif in the Cry4B toxin, which most likely determines binding of the toxin to its cognate receptor, BT-R3, in An. gambiae and to its specific toxicity. A model showing Cry4B toxin binding to BT-R3 is presented. PMID:23760000

  2. Prevalence and distribution of pox-like lesions, avian malaria, and mosquito vectors in Kipahulu valley, Haleakala National Park, Hawai'i, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aruch, Samuel; Atkinson, Carter T.; Savage, Amy F.; LaPointe, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    We determined prevalence and altitudinal distribution of introduced avian malarial infections (Plasmodium relictum) and pox-like lesions (Avipoxvirus) in forest birds from Kīpahulu Valley, Haleakalā National Park, on the island of Maui, and we identified primary larval habitat for the mosquito vector of this disease. This intensively managed wilderness area and scientific reserve is one of the most pristine areas of native forest remaining in the state of Hawai‘i, and it will become increasingly important as a site for restoration and recovery of endangered forest birds. Overall prevalence of malarial infections in the valley was 8% (11/133) in native species and 4% (4/101) in nonnative passerines; prevalence was lower than reported for comparable elevations and habitats elsewhere in the state. Infections occurred primarily in ‘Apapane (Himatione sanguinea) and Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) at elevations below 1,400 m. Pox-like lesions were detected in only two Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (2%; 2/94) at elevations below 950 m. We did not detect malaria or pox in birds caught at 1,400 m in upper reaches of the valley. Adult mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) were captured at four sites at elevations of 640, 760, 915, and 975 m, respectively. Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were found only in rock holes along intermittent tributaries of the two largest streams in the valley, but not in standing surface water, pig wallows, ground pools, tree cavities, and tree fern cavities. Mosquito populations in the valley are low, and they are probably influenced by periods of high rainfall that flush stream systems.

  3. Trends in Malaria in Odisha, India—An Analysis of the 2003–2013 Time-Series Data from the National Vector Borne Disease Control Program

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Madan Mohan; AK, Kavitha; Kar, Priyanka; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dutta, Ambarish

    2016-01-01

    Background Although Odisha is the largest contributor to the malaria burden in India, no systematic study has examined its malaria trends. Hence, the spatio-temporal trends in malaria in Odisha were assessed against the backdrop of the various anti-malaria strategies implemented in the state. Methods Using the district-wise malaria incidence and blood examination data (2003–2013) from the National Vector Borne Disease Control Program, blood examination-adjusted time-trends in malaria incidence were estimated and predicted for 2003–2013 and 2014–2016, respectively. An interrupted time series analysis using segmented regression was conducted to compare the disease trends between the pre (2003–2007) and post-intensification (2009–2013) periods. Key-informant interviews of state stakeholders were used to collect the information on the various anti-malaria strategies adopted in the state. Results The state annual malaria incidence declined from 10.82/1000 to 5.28/1000 during 2003–2013 (adjusted annual decline: -0.54/1000, 95% CI: -0.78 to -0.30). However, the annual blood examination rate remained almost unchanged from 11.25% to 11.77%. The keyinformants revealed that intensification of anti-malaria activities in 2008 led to a more rapid decline in malaria incidence during 2009–2013 as compared to that in 2003–2007 [adjusted decline: -0.83 (-1.30 to -0.37) and -0.27 (-0.41 to -0.13), respectively]. There was a significant difference in the two temporal slopes, i.e., -0.054 (-0.10 to -0.002, p = 0.04) per 1000 population per month, between these two periods, indicating almost a 200% greater decline in the post-intensification period. Although, the seven southern high-burden districts registered the highest decline, they continued to remain in that zone, thereby, making the achievement of malaria elimination (incidence <1/1000) unlikely by 2017. Conclusion The anti-malaria strategies in Odisha, especially their intensification since 2008, have helped

  4. Effects of Microclimate Condition Changes Due to Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Survivorship of Malaria Vectors in China-Myanmar Border Region.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Xiaoming; Xu, Tielong; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Hartsel, Joshua A; Cui, Liwang; Zheng, Bin; Yan, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. However, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. This study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles sinensis and An. minimus in the China-Myanmar border region. We examined three conditions: indoor, forested, and banana plantation. Mean survival time of An. sinensis in banana plantation environment was significantly longer than those in forested environment, and mosquitoes exhibited the longest longevity in the indoor environment. This pattern held for both males and females, and also for An. minimus. To further test the effect of temperature on mosquito survival, we used two study sites with different elevation and ambient temperatures. Significantly higher survivorship of both species was found in sites with lower elevation and higher ambient temperature. Increased vector survival in the deforested area could have an important impact on malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. Understanding how deforestation impacts vector survivorship can help combat malaria transmission. PMID:27171475

  5. Effects of Microclimate Condition Changes Due to Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Survivorship of Malaria Vectors in China-Myanmar Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Xiaoming; Xu, Tielong; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Hartsel, Joshua A.; Cui, Liwang; Zheng, Bin; Yan, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. However, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. This study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles sinensis and An. minimus in the China-Myanmar border region. We examined three conditions: indoor, forested, and banana plantation. Mean survival time of An. sinensis in banana plantation environment was significantly longer than those in forested environment, and mosquitoes exhibited the longest longevity in the indoor environment. This pattern held for both males and females, and also for An. minimus. To further test the effect of temperature on mosquito survival, we used two study sites with different elevation and ambient temperatures. Significantly higher survivorship of both species was found in sites with lower elevation and higher ambient temperature. Increased vector survival in the deforested area could have an important impact on malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. Understanding how deforestation impacts vector survivorship can help combat malaria transmission. PMID:27171475

  6. Efficacy of an insecticide paint against malaria vectors and nuisance in West Africa - Part 2: Field evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Widespread resistance of the main malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to pyrethroids reported in many African countries and operational drawbacks to current IRS methods suggest the convenience of exploring new products and approaches for vector control. Insecticide paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, containing two organophosphates (OPs), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, and one insect growth regulator (IGR), pyriproxyfen, was tested in Benin, West Africa, for 12 months. Methods Field trials were conducted in six experimental huts that were randomly allocated to one or two layers of insecticide at 1 Kg/6 m2 or control. Evaluations included: (i) early mosquito collection, (ii) mosquito release experiments, (iii) residual efficacy tests and (iv) distance tests. Early mosquito collections were performed on local populations of pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. As per WHOPES phase II procedures, four entomological criteria were evaluated: deterrence, excito-repellence, blood-feeding inhibition and mortality. Mosquito release experiments were done using local malaria-free An. gambiae females reared at the CREC insectarium. Residual efficacy tests and distance tests were performed using reference susceptible strains of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results Six months after treatment, mortality rates were still 90-100% against pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations in experimental huts. At nine months, mortality rates in huts treated with two layers was still about 90-93% against An. gambiae and 55% against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Malaria-free local mosquito release experiments yielded a 90% blood-feeding inhibition in the absence of a physical barrier. A long-term residual efficacy of 12 months was observed by WHO-bioassays in huts treated with two layers (60-80%). Mortality after an overnight exposition at distances of 1 meter was 96-100% for up to 12 months. Conclusion The encouraging results obtained on the insecticide paint Inesfly 5A IGR

  7. Dose–response tests and semi-field evaluation of lethal and sub-lethal effects of slow release pyriproxyfen granules (Sumilarv®0.5G) for the control of the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu lato

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently research has shown that larviciding can be an effective tool for integrated malaria vector control. Nevertheless, the uptake of this intervention has been hampered by the need to re-apply larvicides frequently. There is a need to explore persistent, environmentally friendly larvicides for malaria vector control to reduce intervention efforts and costs by reducing the frequency of application. In this study, the efficacy of a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule (Surmilarv®0.5G, Sumitomo Chemicals) was assessed for the control of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis, the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Dose–response and standardized field tests were implemented following standard procedures of the World Health Organization’s Pesticide Evaluation Scheme to determine: (i) the susceptibility of vectors to this formulation; (ii) the residual activity and appropriate retreatment schedule for field application; and, (iii) sub-lethal impacts on the number and viability of eggs laid by adults after exposure to Sumilarv®0.5G during larval development. Results Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis were highly susceptible to Sumilarv®0.5G. Estimated emergence inhibition (EI) values were very low and similar for both species. The minimum dosage that completely inhibited adult emergence was between 0.01-0.03 parts per million (ppm) active ingredient (ai). Compared to the untreated control, an application of 0.018 ppm ai prevented 85% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82%-88%) of adult emergence over six weeks under standardized field conditions. A fivefold increase in dosage of 0.09 ppm ai prevented 97% (95% CI 94%-98%) emergence. Significant sub-lethal effects were observed in the standardized field tests. Female An. gambiae s.s. that were exposed to 0.018 ppm ai as larvae laid 47% less eggs, and females exposed to 0.09 ppm ai laid 74% less eggs than females that were unexposed to the treatment. Furthermore, 77

  8. First report of the infection of insecticide-resistant malaria vector mosquitoes with an entomopathogenic fungus under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Insecticide-resistant mosquitoes are compromising the ability of current mosquito control tools to control malaria vectors. A proposed new approach for mosquito control is to use entomopathogenic fungi. These fungi have been shown to be lethal to both insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. The goal of this study was to see whether entomopathogenic fungi could be used to infect insecticide-resistant malaria vectors under field conditions, and to see whether the virulence and viability of the fungal conidia decreased after exposure to ambient African field conditions. Methods This study used the fungus Beauveria bassiana to infect the insecticide-resistant malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s (Diptera: Culicidae) VKPER laboratory colony strain. Fungal conidia were applied to polyester netting and kept under West African field conditions for varying periods of time. The virulence of the fungal-treated netting was tested 1, 3 and 5 days after net application by exposing An. gambiae s.s. VKPER mosquitoes in WHO cone bioassays carried out under field conditions. In addition, the viability of B. bassiana conidia was measured after up to 20 days exposure to field conditions. Results The results show that B. bassiana infection caused significantly increased mortality with the daily risk of dying being increased by 2.5× for the fungus-exposed mosquitoes compared to the control mosquitoes. However, the virulence of the B. bassiana conidia decreased with increasing time spent exposed to the field conditions, the older the treatment on the net, the lower the fungus-induced mortality rate. This is likely to be due to the climate because laboratory trials found no such decline within the same trial time period. Conidial viability also decreased with increasing exposure to the net and natural abiotic environmental conditions. After 20 days field exposure the conidial viability was 30%, but the viability of control

  9. Ecological succession and its impact on malaria vectors and their predators in borrow pits in western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kiszewski, Anthony E; Teffera, Zelalem; Wondafrash, Melaku; Ravesi, Michael; Pollack, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Soil pits excavated for home construction are important larval habitats for malaria vectors in certain parts of Africa. Borrow pits in diverse stages of ecological succession in a maize-farming region of Western Ethiopia were surveyed to assess the relationships between stage of succession and the structure and composition of invertebrate and plant communities, with particular attention to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. coustani, the primary local malaria vectors. An array of 82 borrow pits was identified in a multi-lobed drainage basin in the community of Woktola. Each pit was evaluated on its physical features and by faunal and floral surveys during August, 2011, at the height of the longer rainy season (kiremt). Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. coustani were the sole immature anophelines collected, often coexisting with Culex spp. Sedges were the most common plants within these pits, and included Cyperus elegantulus, C. flavescens, C. erectus and C. assimilis. The legume Smithia abyssinica, Nile grass (Acroceras macrum), cutgrass (Leersia hexandra), clover (Trifolium spp.), and the edible herb Centella asiatica, were also common in these habitats. No plant species in particular was strongly and consistently predictive of the presence or absence of mosquito immatures, particularly with regard to An. coustani. The presence of An.gambiae s.l. immatures in borrow pit habitats was negatively correlated with the presence of backswimmers (Notonectidae) (Z = -2.34, P = 0.019). Young (freshly excavated) borrow pits more likely contained immature An. gambiae s.l. (Z =-2.86, P=0.004). Ecological succession was apparent in older pits, and as they aged, they became less likely to serve as habitats for An. gambiae s.l. (Z=0.26, P=0.796), and more likely to support An. coustani (Z=0.728, P=0.007). As borrow pits age they become less suitable for An. gambiae s.l. breeding and more likely to harbor An. coustani. The abundance of notonectids in habitats was a negative indicator for

  10. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    administrative areas in ways of improving senior staff's skills in the laboratory diagnosis of malaria. The laboratory equipment which the country has received makes it possible to train high-level specialists and to equip its main malaria diagnosis centers with microscopes and reagents. The received insecticides and sprayers enable mosquitoes to be eliminated in an area of 960,000 sq. km (240 foci of infection): for this, our sincere thanks and gratitude are due to Dr. Guido Sabatinelli. Specialists teams have been created in each region by a decree of the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry to conduct mosquito elimination activities, with personal responsibility for their progress. Three-day vector control seminars have been held for disinfectors in all regions. We should stress that 5 extra posts have been created in the parasitology department of the Central Laboratory of Hygiene and Epidemiology, State Epidemiological Surveillance Service in order to strengthen preventive malaria control activities in Turkmenistan (organizational and methodological support for health facilities, staff training, etc.). To prevent the emergence of new breeding grounds for malaria vectors, the state system of health surveillance over the hygiene and technical status of water facilities and the rules governing their work have been reinforced. Local executive authorities do every effort to eliminate small, economically unprofitable water areas by draining, filling in or cleaning them. All existing and potential mosquito breeding grounds within a three-kilometer radius of any community were identified. These water areas were certified and their previous certifications analyzed, taking into account any changes and additional information which has become available about the area. Seasonal variations in the number of larvae and imagoes were monitored in the specimen areas of water and daytime resting sites. The existing vector species were identified and a list of the main species in all areas

  11. Secondray structure and sequence of ITS2-rDNA of the Egyptian malaria vector Anopheles pharoensis (Theobald).

    PubMed

    Wassim, Nahla M

    2014-04-01

    Out of the twelve Anophelines present in Egypt, only five species known to be malaria vectors. Anopheles (An.) pharoensis proved to be the important vector all over Egypt, especially in the Delta. Anopheles sergenti proved to be the primary vector in the Oases of the Western Desert, An. multicolor in Faiyoum, An. stephensi in the Red Sea Coast, and An. superpictus in Sinai. Genomic DNA was isolated from single adult mosquito of An. pharoensis (Sahel Sudanese form), PCR was performed to amplify ITS2 region of rDNA using specific primers for 5.8S and 28S rDNA genes. The amplicons were purified, directly sequenced and aligned to the sequence of the same region of An. gambiae, using clustalw2. The length of ITS2-rDNA of An. pharoensis was 411bp. The GC content of the ITS2 reported 53% is consistent with spacer base composition in Anopheles species. The similarity between the two species was 52% and genetic distance was 0.46.Variable simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are found at low frequency. The secondary structure of rDNA-ITS2was predicted by MFOLD and was -192; 60 to-195.32 kilocalories/mole. PMID:24961025

  12. A CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Drive System Targeting Female Reproduction in the Malaria Mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Andrew; Galizi, Roberto; Kyrou, Kyros; Simoni, Alekos; Siniscalchi, Carla; Katsanos, Dimitris; Gribble, Matthew; Baker, Dean; Marois, Eric; Russell, Steven; Burt, Austin; Windbichler, Nikolai; Crisanti, Andrea; Nolan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Gene-drive systems that enable super-Mendelian inheritance of a transgene have the potential to modify insect populations over a timeframe of a few years [AU please provide a real estimate, this seems vague]. We describe CRISPR-Cas9 endonuclease constructs that function as gene-drive systems in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector for malaria [AU:OK?]. We identified three genes (AGAP005958, AGAP011377 and AGAP007280) that confer a recessive female sterility phenotype upon disruption, and inserted into each locus CRISPR-Cas9 gene-drive constructs designed to target and edit each gene [AU:OK?]. For each locus targeted we observed strong gene drive at the molecular level, with transmission rates to progeny of 91 to 99.6%. Population modelling and cage experiments indicate that a CRISPR-Cas9 construct targeting one of these loci, AGAP007280, meets the minimum requirement for a gene drive targeting female reproduction in an insect population. These findings could expedite the development of gene drives to control suppress mosquito populations to levels that do not support malaria transmission. PMID:26641531

  13. Organ-Specific Splice Variants of Aquaporin Water Channel AgAQP1 in the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Liu, Kun; Linser, Paul J.; Agre, Peter; Rasgon, Jason L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are important for water homeostasis in all organisms. Malaria transmission is dependent on Anopheles mosquitoes. Water balance is a major factor influencing mosquito survival, which may indirectly affect pathogen transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained full-length mRNA sequences for Anopheles gambiae aquaporin 1 (AgAQP1) and identified two splice variants for the gene. In vitro expression analysis showed that both variants transported water and were inhibited by Hg2+. One splice variant (AgAQP1A) was exclusively expressed in adult female ovaries indicating a function in mosquito reproduction. The other splice variant (AgAQP1B) was expressed in the midgut, malpighian tubules and the head in adult mosquitoes. Immunolabeling showed that in malpighian tubules, AgAQP1 is expressed in principal cells in the proximal portion and in stellate cells in the distal portion. Moreover, AgAQP1 is expressed in Johnston’s organ (the “ear”), which is important for courtship behavior. Conclusions And Significance These results suggest that AgAQP1 may play roles associated with mating (courtship) and reproduction in addition to water homeostasis in this important African malaria vector. PMID:24066188

  14. A CRISPR-Cas9 gene drive system targeting female reproduction in the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Andrew; Galizi, Roberto; Kyrou, Kyros; Simoni, Alekos; Siniscalchi, Carla; Katsanos, Dimitris; Gribble, Matthew; Baker, Dean; Marois, Eric; Russell, Steven; Burt, Austin; Windbichler, Nikolai; Crisanti, Andrea; Nolan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Gene drive systems that enable super-Mendelian inheritance of a transgene have the potential to modify insect populations over a timeframe of a few years. We describe CRISPR-Cas9 endonuclease constructs that function as gene drive systems in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector for malaria. We identified three genes (AGAP005958, AGAP011377 and AGAP007280) that confer a recessive female-sterility phenotype upon disruption, and inserted into each locus CRISPR-Cas9 gene drive constructs designed to target and edit each gene. For each targeted locus we observed a strong gene drive at the molecular level, with transmission rates to progeny of 91.4 to 99.6%. Population modeling and cage experiments indicate that a CRISPR-Cas9 construct targeting one of these loci, AGAP007280, meets the minimum requirement for a gene drive targeting female reproduction in an insect population. These findings could expedite the development of gene drives to suppress mosquito populations to levels that do not support malaria transmission. PMID:26641531

  15. Effects of community-wide use of lambdacyhalothrin-impregnated bednets on malaria vectors in rural Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Magbity, E B; Marbiah, N T; Maude, G; Curtis, C F; Bradley, D J; Greenwood, B M; Petersen, E; Lines, J D

    1997-01-01

    The effect of community-wide use of bednets treated with lambdacyhalothrin 10 mg/m2 on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (forest form) was evaluated in Sierra Leone. Sixteen similar villages near the town of Bo were randomly allocated either to remain without nets or to receive treated bednets for all inhabitants, with effect from June 1992. Mosquitoes were sampled using human biting catches on verandas, light-trap catch (beside an occupied untreated bednet), window exit-trap catch and pyrethrum spray collections. During the first year of intervention (June 1992 to July 1993) the treated bednets provided personal protection for people sleeping under them, but had very little impact on densities of An.gambiae collected on human bait. The human blood index (HBI) of An.gambiae was not affected (HBI = 99% in villages with and without nets). An.gambiae parous rates were significantly reduced in all intervention villages, but malaria sporozoite rates fell in only some of the villages. These results are intermediate between those obtained from other projects in Tanzania and Burkina Faso, where treated bednets reduced man-biting, parity and sporozoite rates, versus The Gambia where treated bednets had no significant impact on any of these factors. Possible reasons for these contrasted findings are discussed. PMID:9061681

  16. Changing Malaria Prevalence on the Kenyan Coast since 1974: Climate, Drugs and Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Robert W.; Kibuchi, Eliud; Karuri, Stella W.; Sang, Gilbert; Gitonga, Caroline W.; Mwandawiro, Charles; Bejon, Philip; Noor, Abdisalan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Progress toward reducing the malaria burden in Africa has been measured, or modeled, using datasets with relatively short time-windows. These restricted temporal analyses may miss the wider context of longer-term cycles of malaria risk and hence may lead to incorrect inferences regarding the impact of intervention. Methods 1147 age-corrected Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence (PfPR2-10) surveys among rural communities along the Kenyan coast were assembled from 1974 to 2014. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive generalized linear mixed model was used to interpolate to 279 small areas for each of the 41 years since 1974. Best-fit polynomial splined curves of changing PfPR2-10 were compared to a sequence of plausible explanatory variables related to rainfall, drug resistance and insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) use. Results P. falciparum parasite prevalence initially rose from 1974 to 1987, dipped in 1991–92 but remained high until 1998. From 1998 onwards prevalence began to decline until 2011, then began to rise through to 2014. This major decline occurred before ITNs were widely distributed and variation in rainfall coincided with some, but not all, short-term transmission cycles. Emerging resistance to chloroquine and introduction of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine provided plausible explanations for the rise and fall of malaria transmission along the Kenyan coast. Conclusions Progress towards elimination might not be as predictable as we would like, where natural and extrinsic cycles of transmission confound evaluations of the effect of interventions. Deciding where a country lies on an elimination pathway requires careful empiric observation of the long-term epidemiology of malaria transmission. PMID:26107772

  17. Human Antibody Response to Anopheles gambiae Saliva: An Immuno-Epidemiological Biomarker to Evaluate the Efficacy of Insecticide-Treated Nets in Malaria Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Drame, Papa M.; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Le Mire, Jacques; Dos-Santos, Maria A.; Sow, Cheikh S.; Cornelie, Sylvie; Foumane, Vincent; Toto, Jean-Claude; Sembene, Mbacké; Boulanger, Denis; Simondon, François; Fortes, Filomeno; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2010-01-01

    For the fight against malaria, the World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized the need for indicators to evaluate the efficacy of vector-control strategies. This study investigates a potential immunological marker, based on human antibody responses to Anopheles saliva, as a new indicator to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Parasitological, entomological, and immunological assessments were carried out in children and adults from a malaria-endemic region of Angola before and after the introduction of ITNs. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels to An. gambiae saliva were positively associated with the intensity of An. gambiae exposure and malaria infection. A significant decrease in the anti-saliva IgG response was observed after the introduction of ITNs, and this was associated with a drop in parasite load. This study represents the first stage in the development of a new indicator to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector-control strategies, which could apply in other arthropod vector-borne diseases. PMID:20595489

  18. Biolarvicidal compound gymnemagenol isolated from leaf extract of miracle fruit plant, Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult against malaria and filariasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Kannabiran, Krishnan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu

    2011-11-01

    Owing to the fact that the application of synthetic larvicide has envenomed the surroundings as well as non-target organisms, natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been tried as an indigenous method for the control of a variety of insect pests and vectors in the recent past. Insecticides of plant origin have been extensively used on agricultural pests and, to a very limited extent, against insect vectors of public health importance, which deserve careful and thorough screening. The use of plant extracts for insect control has several appealing features as these are generally more biodegradable, less hazardous and a rich storehouse of chemicals of diverse biological activities. Moreover, herbal sources give a lead for discovering new insecticides. Therefore, biologically active plant materials have attracted considerable interest in mosquito control study in recent times. The crude leaf extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult (Asclepiadaceae) and purified gymnemagenol compound were studied against the early fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether leaf extract of G. sylvestre led to the separation and identification of gymnemagenol as a potential new antiparasitic compound. Phytochemical analysis of G. sylvestre leaves revealed the presence of active constituents such as carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and tannins. However, cardiac glycosides and phlobatannins are absent in the plant extracts. Quantitative analysis results suggested that saponin (5%) was present in a high concentration followed by tannins (1.0%). The 50 g powder was loaded on silica gel column and eluted with chloroform-methanol-water as eluents. From that, 16 mg pure saponin compound was isolated and analysed by thin layer chromatography using chloroform and methanol as the solvent systems. The structure of

  19. Consistently high estimates for the proportion of human exposure to malaria vector populations occurring indoors in rural Africa

    PubMed Central

    Huho, Bernadette; Briët, Olivier; Seyoum, Aklilu; Sikaala, Chadwick; Bayoh, Nabie; Gimnig, John; Okumu, Fredros; Diallo, Diadier; Abdulla, Salim; Smith, Thomas; Killeen, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are highly effective tools for controlling malaria transmission in Africa because the most important vectors, from the Anopheles gambiae complex and the A. funestus group, usually prefer biting humans indoors at night. Methods Matched surveys of mosquito and human behaviour from six rural sites in Burkina Faso, Tanzania, Zambia, and Kenya, with ITN use ranging from 0.2% to 82.5%, were used to calculate the proportion of human exposure to An. gambiae sensu lato and An. funestus s.l. that occurs indoors (πi), as an indicator of the upper limit of personal protection that indoor vector control measures can provide. This quantity was also estimated through use of a simplified binary analysis (πiB) so that the proportions of mosquitoes caught indoors (Pi), and between the first and last hours at which most people are indoors (Pfl) could also be calculated as underlying indicators of feeding by mosquitoes indoors or at night, respectively. Results The vast majority of human exposure to Anopheles bites occurred indoors (πiB = 0.79–1.00). Neither An. gambiae s.l. nor An. funestus s.l. strongly preferred feeding indoors (Pi = 0.40–0.63 and 0.22–0.69, respectively), but they overwhelmingly preferred feeding at times when most humans were indoors (Pfl = 0.78–1.00 and 0.86–1.00, respectively). Conclusions These quantitative summaries of behavioural interactions between humans and mosquitoes constitute a remarkably consistent benchmark with which future observations of vector behaviour can be compared. Longitudinal monitoring of these quantities is vital to evaluate the effectiveness of ITNs and IRS and the need for complementary measures that target vectors outdoors. PMID:23396849

  20. Effect of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles from filtrate of Trichoderma harzianum against larvae and pupa of dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Sundaravadivelan, Chandran; Padmanabhan, Madanagopal Nalini

    2014-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Therefore, screening for larvicidal and pupicidal activity of microbial extracts attributes could lead to development of new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and safe for nontarget organisms and are ecofriendly. Synthetic chemical insecticides occupy predominant position in control strategies. These hazardous chemicals exert unwarranted toxicity and lethal effects on nontarget organisms, develop physiological resistance in target, and cause adverse environmental effect. For vector control, fungal-mediated natural products have been a priority in this area at present. In the current study, effective larvicidal and pupicidal effect of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using an entomopathogenic fungi Trichoderma harzianum against developmental stages of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti was investigated. An attractive possibility of green nanotechnology is to use microorganisms in the synthesis of nanosilver especially Ag NPs. The mycosynthesized Ag NPs were characterized to find their unique properties through UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared, and surface characteristics by scanning electron microscopy. To analyze the bioefficacy, different test concentrations for extracellular filtrate (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 %) and Ag NPs (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 %) were prepared to a final volume of 200 mL using deionized water; 20 larvae of each instars (I-IV) and pupa were exposed to each test concentration separately which included a set of control (distilled water) group with five replicates. Characterization of the synthesized Ag NPs were about 10-20 nm without aggregation. Susceptibility of larval instars to synthesized Ag NPs was higher than the extracellular filtrate of T. harzianum alone after 24-h exposure, where the highest mortality was recorded as 92 and 96 % for first and second instars and

  1. Repellent, Irritant and Toxic Effects of 20 Plant Extracts on Adults of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Detects a Complex Evolutionary History with Pleistocene Epoch Divergence for the Neotropical Malaria Vector Anopheles nuneztovari Sensu Lato

    PubMed Central

    Scarpassa, Vera Margarete; Conn, Jan E.

    2011-01-01

    Cryptic species and lineages characterize Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. Gabaldón, an important malaria vector in South America. We investigated the phylogeographic structure across the range of this species with cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial DNA sequences to estimate the number of clades and levels of divergence. Bayesian and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses detected four groups distributed in two major monophyletic clades (I and II). Samples from the Amazon Basin were clustered in clade I, as were subclades II-A and II-B, whereas those from Bolivia/Colombia/Venezuela were restricted to one basal subclade (II-C). These data, together with a statistical parsimony network, confirm results of previous studies that An. nuneztovari is a species complex consisting of at least two cryptic taxa, one occurring in Colombia and Venezuela and the another occurring in the Amazon Basin. These data also suggest that additional incipient species may exist in the Amazon Basin. Divergence time and expansion tests suggested that these groups separated and expanded in the Pleistocene Epoch. In addition, the COI sequences clearly separated An. nuneztovari s.l. from the closely related species An. dunhami Causey, and three new records are reported for An. dunhami in Amazonian Brazil. These findings are relevant for vector control programs in areas where both species occur. Our analyses support dynamic geologic and landscape changes in northern South America, and infer particularly active divergence during the Pleistocene Epoch for New World anophelines. PMID:22049039

  3. Repellent, irritant and toxic effects of 20 plant extracts on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae mosquito.

    PubMed

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

  4. Managing insecticide resistance in malaria vectors by combining carbamate-treated plastic wall sheeting and pyrethroid-treated bed nets

    PubMed Central

    Djènontin, Armel; Chabi, Joseph; Baldet, Thierry; Irish, Seth; Pennetier, Cédric; Hougard, Jean-Marc; Corbel, Vincent; Akogbéto, Martin; Chandre, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid resistance is now widespread in Anopheles gambiae, the major vector for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. This resistance may compromise malaria vector control strategies that are currently in use in endemic areas. In this context, a new tool for management of resistant mosquitoes based on the combination of a pyrethroid-treated bed net and carbamate-treated plastic sheeting was developed. Methods In the laboratory, the insecticidal activity and wash resistance of four carbamate-treated materials: a cotton/polyester blend, a polyvinyl chloride tarpaulin, a cotton/polyester blend covered on one side with polyurethane, and a mesh of polypropylene fibres was tested. These materials were treated with bendiocarb at 100 mg/m2 and 200 mg/m2 with and without a binding resin to find the best combination for field studies. Secondly, experimental hut trials were performed in southern Benin to test the efficacy of the combined use of a pyrethroid-treated bed net and the carbamate-treated material that was the most wash-resistant against wild populations of pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Results Material made of polypropylene mesh (PPW) provided the best wash resistance (up to 10 washes), regardless of the insecticide dose, the type of washing, or the presence or absence of the binding resin. The experimental hut trial showed that the combination of carbamate-treated PPW and a pyrethroid-treated bed net was extremely effective in terms of mortality and inhibition of blood feeding of pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae. This efficacy was found to be proportional to the total surface of the walls. This combination showed a moderate effect against wild populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, which were strongly resistant to pyrethroid. Conclusion These preliminary results should be confirmed, including evaluation of entomological, parasitological, and clinical parameters. Selective pressure on resistance mechanisms within the vector

  5. Early Phase Clinical Trials with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 and Malaria Vectored Vaccines in The Gambia: Frontline Challenges in Study Design and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Afolabi, Muhammed O.; Adetifa, Jane U.; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B.; Viebig, Nicola K.; Kampmann, Beate; Bojang, Kalifa

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and malaria are among the most important infectious diseases in developing countries. Existing control strategies are unlikely to curtail these diseases in the absence of efficacious vaccines. Testing of HIV and malaria vaccines candidates start with early phase trials that are increasingly being conducted in developing countries where the burden of the diseases is high. Unique challenges, which affect planning and implementation of vaccine trials according to internationally accepted standards have thus been identified. In this review, we highlight specific challenges encountered during two early phase trials of novel HIV-1 and malaria vectored vaccine candidates conducted in The Gambia and how some of these issues were pragmatically addressed. We hope our experience will be useful for key study personnel involved in day-to-day running of similar clinical trials. It may also guide future design and implementation of vaccine trials in resource-constrained settings. PMID:24615122

  6. Efficacy of Olyset® Plus, a New Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Incorporating Permethrin and Piperonil-Butoxide against Multi-Resistant Malaria Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Pennetier, Cédric; Bouraima, Aziz; Chandre, Fabrice; Piameu, Michael; Etang, Josiane; Rossignol, Marie; Sidick, Ibrahim; Zogo, Barnabas; Lacroix, Marie-Noëlle; Yadav, Rajpal; Pigeon, Olivier; Corbel1, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid extension of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors worldwide, manufacturers are developing new vector control tools including insecticide mixtures containing at least two active ingredients with different mode of action as part of insecticide resistance management. Olyset® Plus is a new long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) incorporating permethrin and a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), into its fibres in order to counteract metabolic-based pyrethroid resistance of mosquitoes. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Olyset® Plus both in laboratory and field against susceptible and multi-resistant malaria vectors and compared with Olyset Net, which is a permethrin incorporated into polyethylene net. In laboratory, Olyset® Plus performed better than Olyset® Net against susceptible Anopheles gambiae strain with a 2-day regeneration time owing to an improved permethrin bleeding rate with the new incorporation technology. It also performed better than Olyset® Net against multiple resistant populations of An. gambiae in experimental hut trials in West Africa. Moreover, the present study showed evidence for a benefit of incorporating a synergist, PBO, with a pyrethroid insecticide into mosquito netting. These results need to be further validated in a large-scale field trial to assess the durability and acceptability of this new tool for malaria vector control. PMID:24116029

  7. Shape of Key Malaria Protein Could Help Improve Vaccine Efficacy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Malaria > Research Malaria Understanding Research NIAID Role Basic Biology Prevention and Control Strategies Strategic Partnerships and Research ... the malaria parasite. Related Links Global Research​ Vector Biology International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) ...

  8. Molecular evidence for historical presence of knock-down resistance in Anopheles albimanus, a key malaria vector in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles albimanus is a key malaria vector in the northern neotropics. Current vector control measures in the region are based on mass distributions of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and focal indoor residual spraying (IRS) with pyrethroids. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides can be mediated by increased esterase and/or multi-function oxidase activity and/or mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. The aim of this work was to characterize the homologous kdr region of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene in An. albimanus and to conduct a preliminary retrospective analysis of field samples collected in the 1990’s, coinciding with a time of intense pyrethroid application related to agricultural and public health insect control in the region. Methods Degenerate primers were designed to amplify the homologous kdr region in a pyrethroid-susceptible laboratory strain (Sanarate) of An. albimanus. Subsequently, a more specific primer pair was used to amplify and sequence the region that contains the 1014 codon associated with pyrethroid resistance in other Anopheles spp. (L1014F, L1014S or L1014C). Results Direct sequencing of the PCR products confirmed the presence of the susceptible kdr allele in the Sanarate strain (L1014) and the presence of homozygous-resistant kdr alleles in field-collected individuals from Mexico (L1014F), Nicaragua (L1014C) and Costa Rica (L1014C). Conclusions For the first time, the kdr region in An. albimanus is described. Furthermore, molecular evidence suggests the presence of kdr-type resistance in field-collected An. albimanus in Mesoamerica in the 1990s. Further research is needed to conclusively determine an association between the genotypes and resistant phenotypes, and to what extent they may compromise current vector control efforts. PMID:24330978

  9. How Much Does Malaria Vector Control Quality Matter: The Epidemiological Impact of Holed Nets and Inadequate Indoor Residual Spraying

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Andrea M.; Coleman, Mike; Schwabe, Christopher; Baltazar, Giovanna; Matias, Abrahan; Roncon Gomes, Irina; Yellott, Lee; Aragon, Cynthia; Nseng Nchama, Gloria; Mzilahowa, Themba; Rowland, Mark; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2011-01-01

    Background Insecticide treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the two pillars of malaria vector control in Africa, but both interventions are beset by quality and coverage concerns. Data from three control programs were used to investigate the impact of: 1) the physical deterioration of ITNs, and 2) inadequate IRS spray coverage, on their respective protective effectiveness. Methods Malaria indicator surveys were carried out in 2009 and 2010 in Bioko Island, mainland Equatorial Guinea and Malawi to monitor infection with P.falciparum in children, mosquito net use, net condition and spray status of houses. Nets were classified by their condition. The association between infection and quality and coverage of interventions was investigated. Results There was reduced odds of infection with P.falciparum in children sleeping under ITNs that were intact (Odds ratio (OR): 0.65, 95% CI: 0.55–0.77 and OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.56–1.18 in Equatorial Guinea and in Malawi respectively), but the protective effect became less with increasingly worse condition of the net. There was evidence for a linear trend in infection per category increase in deterioration of nets. In Equatorial Guinea IRS offered protection to those in sprayed and unsprayed houses alike when neighbourhood spray coverage was high (≥80%) compared to those living in areas of low IRS coverage (<20%), regardless of whether the house they lived in was sprayed or not (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.33–0.89). ITNs provided only personal protection, offering no protection to non users. Although similar effects were seen in Malawi, the evidence was much weaker than in Equatorial Guinea. Conclusions Universal coverage strategies should consider policies for repair and replacement of holed nets and promote the care of nets by their owners. IRS programs should ensure high spray coverage since inadequate coverage gives little or no protection at all. PMID:21559436

  10. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Naresh Kumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rejeeth, Chandrababu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-03-01

    A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles that were tested as mosquito larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous 1 mM AgNO₃ to stable silver nanoparticles with an average size of 450 nm. The structure and percentage of synthesized nanoparticles was characterized by using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy methods. The median lethal concentrations (LC₅₀) of silver nanoparticles that killed fourth instars of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. stephensi were 0.30, 0.41, and 2.12 ppm, respectively. Adult longevity (days) in male and female mosquitoes exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles was reduced by ~30% (p<0.05), whereas the number of eggs laid by females exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles decreased by 36% (p<0.05). PMID:22022807

  11. Improving the population genetics toolbox for the study of the African malaria vector Anopheles nili: microsatellite mapping to chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anopheles nili is a major vector of malaria in the humid savannas and forested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the population genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics of this species is important for the development of an adequate and targeted malaria control strategy in Africa. Chromosomal inversions and microsatellite markers are commonly used for studying the population structure of malaria mosquitoes. Physical mapping of these markers onto the chromosomes further improves the toolbox, and allows inference on the demographic and evolutionary history of the target species. Results Availability of polytene chromosomes allowed us to develop a map of microsatellite markers and to study polymorphism of chromosomal inversions. Nine microsatellite markers were mapped to unique locations on all five chromosomal arms of An. nili using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Probes were obtained from 300-483 bp-long inserts of plasmid clones and from 506-559 bp-long fragments amplified with primers designed using the An. nili genome assembly generated on an Illumina platform. Two additional loci were assigned to specific chromosome arms of An. nili based on in silico sequence similarity and chromosome synteny with Anopheles gambiae. Three microsatellites were mapped inside or in the vicinity of the polymorphic chromosomal inversions 2Rb and 2Rc. A statistically significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, due to a deficit in heterozygotes at the 2Rb inversion, and highly significant linkage disequilibrium between the two inversions, were detected in natural An. nili populations collected from Burkina Faso. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that next-generation sequencing can be used to improve FISH for microsatellite mapping in species with no reference genome sequence. Physical mapping of microsatellite markers in An. nili showed that their cytological locations spanned the entire five-arm complement, allowing genome-wide inferences

  12. Study protocol for a three-armed randomized controlled trial to assess whether house screening can reduce exposure to malaria vectors and reduce malaria transmission in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Matthew J; Milligan, Paul J; Conway, David J; Lindsay, Steve W

    2008-01-01

    Background Mosquito-proofing homes was one of the principal methods of environmental management in the early 1900s. House screening provides protection against malaria by reducing exposure to malaria parasites and has the added benefit of protecting everyone sleeping in the house, avoiding issues of inequity within the household. The aim of this study is to determine whether house screening protects people against malaria in Africa. It is hoped that this study will mark the beginning of a series of trials assessing a range of environmental interventions for malaria control in Africa. Design A 3-armed randomised-controlled trial will be conducted in and around Farafenni town in The Gambia, West Africa, to assess whether screening windows, doors and closing eaves or installing netting ceilings in local houses can substantially reduce malaria transmission and anaemia compared to homes with no screening. Eligible houses will be sorted and stratified by location and the number of children in each house, then randomly allocated to the interventions in blocks of 5 houses (2 with full screening, 2 with screened ceilings and 1 control house without screening). Risk of malaria transmission will be assessed in each house by routine collections of mosquitoes using light traps and an anaemia prevalence study in children at the end of the main transmission period. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN51184253 – Screening-homes to prevent malaria PMID:18538004

  13. Lactate dehydrogenase as a marker of Plasmodium infection in malaria vector Anopheles.

    PubMed

    Riandey, M F; Sannier, C; Peltre, G; Monteny, N; Cavaleyra, M

    1996-06-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) electrophoresis showed the presence of Plasmodium yoelii yoelii in Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae. The Ldh appeared as an additional band (pLdh) whose activity was more intense with 3-acetyl pyridine adenine dinucleotide as coenzyme than with beta nicotin-amide adenine dinucleotide. Several allelic forms occurred both in the vector and the host. The isoelectric point of Ldh, similar in the vector and host, differed from those of Ldh from mosquito and mouse. The presence of pLdh was detected from the 2nd to the 28th day of infection. The pLdh appeared to be proportional to the number of sporozoites present in infected salivary glands. However, pLdh was not found in salivary glands or midguts, but it was detected in the rest of the corresponding mosquito. The origin and use of pLdh as a marker of Plasmodium in its vector is discussed. PMID:8827592

  14. Linking individual phenotype to density-dependent population growth: the influence of body size on the population dynamics of malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Tanya L.; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Knols, Bart G. J.; Takken, Willem; Killeen, Gerry F.; Ferguson, Heather M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the endogenous factors that drive the population dynamics of malaria mosquitoes will facilitate more accurate predictions about vector control effectiveness and our ability to destabilize the growth of either low- or high-density insect populations. We assessed whether variation in phenotypic traits predict the dynamics of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes, the most important vectors of human malaria. Anopheles gambiae dynamics were monitored over a six-month period of seasonal growth and decline. The population exhibited density-dependent feedback, with the carrying capacity being modified by rainfall (97% wAICc support). The individual phenotypic expression of the maternal (p = 0.0001) and current (p = 0.040) body size positively influenced population growth. Our field-based evidence uniquely demonstrates that individual fitness can have population-level impacts and, furthermore, can mitigate the impact of exogenous drivers (e.g. rainfall) in species whose reproduction depends upon it. Once frontline interventions have suppressed mosquito densities, attempts to eliminate malaria with supplementary vector control tools may be attenuated by increased population growth and individual fitness. PMID:21389034

  15. Pilot study on the combination of an organophosphate-based insecticide paint and pyrethroid-treated long lasting nets against pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Mosqueira, Beatriz; Soma, Dieudonné D; Namountougou, Moussa; Poda, Serge; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Ali, Ouari; Fournet, Florence; Baldet, Thierry; Carnevale, Pierre; Dabiré, Roch K; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    A pilot study to test the efficacy of combining an organophosphate-based insecticide paint and pyrethroid-treated Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLINs) against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector mosquitoes was performed in a real village setting in Burkina Faso. Paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, comprised of two organophosphates (OPs) and an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR), was tested in combination with pyrethroid-treated LLINs. Efficacy was assessed in terms of mortality for 12 months using Early Morning Collections of malaria vectors and 30-minute WHO bioassays. Resistance to pyrethroids and OPs was assessed by detecting the frequency of L1014F and L1014S kdr mutations and Ace-1(R)G119S mutation, respectively. Blood meal origin was identified using a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The combination of Inesfly 5A IGR™ and LLINs was effective in killing 99.9-100% of malaria vector populations for 6 months regardless of the dose and volume treated. After 12 months, mortality rates decreased to 69.5-82.2%. The highest mortality rates observed in houses treated with 2 layers of insecticide paint and a larger volume. WHO bioassays supported these results: mortalities were 98.8-100% for 6 months and decreased after 12 months to 81.7-97.0%. Mortality rates in control houses with LLINs were low. Collected malaria vectors consisted exclusively of Anopheles coluzzii and were resistant to pyrethroids, with a L1014 kdr mutation frequency ranging from 60 to 98% through the study. About 58% of An. coluzzii collected inside houses had bloodfed on non-human animals. Combining Inesfly 5A IGR™ and LLINs yielded a one year killing efficacy against An. coluzzii highly resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to OPs that exhibited an anthropo-zoophilic behaviour in the study area. The results obtained in a real setting supported previous work performed in experimental huts and underscore the need to study the impact that this novel strategy may have on clinical

  16. Molecular basis of odor coding in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guirong; Carey, Allison F.; Carlson, John R.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic functional analysis across much of the conventional Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor (AgOR) repertoire was carried out in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode, voltage-clamp electrophysiology. The resulting data indicate that each AgOR manifests a distinct odor-response profile and tuning breadth. The large diversity of tuning responses ranges from AgORs that are responsive to a single or small number of odorants (specialists) to more broadly tuned receptors (generalists). Several AgORs were identified that respond robustly to a range of human volatiles that may play a critical role in anopheline host selection. AgOR responses were analyzed further by constructing a multidimensional odor space representing the relationships between odorants and AgOR responses. Within this space, the distance between odorants is related to both chemical class and concentration and may correlate with olfactory discrimination. This study provides a comprehensive overview of olfactory coding mechanisms of An. gambiae that ultimately may aid in fostering the design and development of olfactory-based strategies for reducing the transmission of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:20160092

  17. Effect of irrigation systems on temporal distribution of malaria vectors in semi-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Shunji; Kaga, Takumi

    2014-04-01

    Previous research models have used climate data to explain habitat conditions of Anopheles mosquitoes transmitting malaria parasites. Although they can estimate mosquito populations with sufficient accuracy in many areas, observational data show that there is a tendency to underestimate the active growth and reproduction period of mosquitoes in semi-arid agricultural regions. In this study, a new, modified model that includes irrigation as a factor was developed to predict the active growing period of mosquitoes more precisely than the base model for ecophysiological and climatological distribution of mosquito generations (ECD-mg). Five sites with complete sets of observational data were selected in semi-arid regions of India for the comparison. The active growing period of mosquitoes determined from the modified ECD-mg model that incorporated the irrigation factor was in agreement with the observational data, whereas the active growing period was underestimated by the previous ECD-mg model that did not incorporate irrigation. This suggests that anthropogenic changes in the water supply due to extensive irrigation can encourage the growth of Anopheles mosquitoes through the alteration of the natural water balance in their habitat. In addition, it was found that the irrigation systems not only enable the active growth of mosquitoes in dry seasons but also play an important role in stabilizing the growth in rainy seasons. Consequently, the irrigation systems could lengthen the annual growing period of Anopheles mosquitoes and increase the maximum generation number of mosquitoes in semi-arid subtropical regions.

  18. Interactive cost of Plasmodium infection and insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Alout, Haoues; Dabiré, Roch K; Djogbénou, Luc S; Abate, Luc; Corbel, Vincent; Chandre, Fabrice; Cohuet, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide resistance raises concerns for the control of vector-borne diseases. However, its impact on parasite transmission could be diverse when considering the ecological interactions between vector and parasite. Thus we investigated the fitness cost associated with insecticide resistance and Plasmodium falciparum infection as well as their interactive cost on Anopheles gambiae survival and fecundity. In absence of infection, we observed a cost on fecundity associated with insecticide resistance. However, survival was higher for mosquito bearing the kdr mutation and equal for those with the ace-1(R) mutation compared to their insecticide susceptible counterparts. Interestingly, Plasmodium infection reduced survival only in the insecticide resistant strains but not in the susceptible one and infection was associated with an increase in fecundity independently of the strain considered. This study provides evidence for a survival cost associated with infection by Plasmodium parasite only in mosquito selected for insecticide resistance. This suggests that the selection of insecticide resistance mutation may have disturbed the interaction between parasites and vectors, resulting in increased cost of infection. Considering the fitness cost as well as other ecological aspects of this natural mosquito-parasite combination is important to predict the epidemiological impact of insecticide resistance. PMID:27432257

  19. Interactive cost of Plasmodium infection and insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Alout, Haoues; Dabiré, Roch K.; Djogbénou, Luc S.; Abate, Luc; Corbel, Vincent; Chandre, Fabrice; Cohuet, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide resistance raises concerns for the control of vector-borne diseases. However, its impact on parasite transmission could be diverse when considering the ecological interactions between vector and parasite. Thus we investigated the fitness cost associated with insecticide resistance and Plasmodium falciparum infection as well as their interactive cost on Anopheles gambiae survival and fecundity. In absence of infection, we observed a cost on fecundity associated with insecticide resistance. However, survival was higher for mosquito bearing the kdr mutation and equal for those with the ace-1R mutation compared to their insecticide susceptible counterparts. Interestingly, Plasmodium infection reduced survival only in the insecticide resistant strains but not in the susceptible one and infection was associated with an increase in fecundity independently of the strain considered. This study provides evidence for a survival cost associated with infection by Plasmodium parasite only in mosquito selected for insecticide resistance. This suggests that the selection of insecticide resistance mutation may have disturbed the interaction between parasites and vectors, resulting in increased cost of infection. Considering the fitness cost as well as other ecological aspects of this natural mosquito-parasite combination is important to predict the epidemiological impact of insecticide resistance. PMID:27432257

  20. A comparison of two commercial mosquito traps for the capture of malaria vectors in northern belize, central america.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Joseph; Grieco, John P; Bautista, Kim; Polanco, Jorge; Briceño, Ireneo; King, Russell; Achee, Nicole L

    2014-09-01

    To achieve maximum success from any vector control intervention, it is critical to identify the most efficacious tools available. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 2 commercially available adult mosquito traps for capturing Anopheles albimanus and An. vestitipennis, 2 important malaria vectors in northern Belize, Central America. Additionally, the impact of outdoor baited traps on mosquito entry into experimental huts was assessed. When operated outside of human-occupied experimental huts, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) miniature light trap, baited with human foot odors, captured significantly greater numbers of female An. albimanus per night (5.1 ± 1.9) than the Biogents Sentinel™ trap baited with BG-Lure™ (1.0 ± 0.2). The 2 trap types captured equivalent numbers of female An. vestitipennis per night, 134.3 ± 45.6 in the CDC trap and 129.6 ± 25.4 in the Sentinel trap. When compared to a matched control hut using no intervention, the use of baited CDC light traps outside an experimental hut did not impact the entry of An. vestitipennis into window interception traps, 17.1 ± 1.3 females per hour in experimental huts vs. 17.2 ± 1.4 females per hour in control huts. However, the use of outdoor baited CDC traps did significantly decrease the entry of An. albimanus into window interception traps from 3.5 ± 0.5 females per hour to 1.9 ± 0.2 females per hour. These results support existing knowledge that the underlying ecological and behavioral tendencies of different Anopheles species can influence trap efficacy. Furthermore, these findings will be used to guide trap selection for future push-pull experiments to be conducted at the study site. PMID:25843092

  1. Structural and Inhibitory Effects of Hinge Loop Mutagenesis in Serpin-2 from the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Meekins, David A.; An, Chunju; Zolkiewski, Michal; Battaile, Kevin P.; Kanost, Michael R.; Lovell, Scott; Michel, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Serpin-2 (SRPN2) is a key negative regulator of the melanization response in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. SRPN2 irreversibly inhibits clip domain serine proteinase 9 (CLIPB9), which functions in a serine proteinase cascade culminating in the activation of prophenoloxidase and melanization. Silencing of SRPN2 in A. gambiae results in spontaneous melanization and decreased life span and is therefore a promising target for vector control. The previously determined structure of SRPN2 revealed a partial insertion of the hinge region of the reactive center loop (RCL) into β sheet A. This partial hinge insertion participates in heparin-linked activation in other serpins, notably antithrombin III. SRPN2 does not contain a heparin binding site, and any possible mechanistic function of the hinge insertion was previously unknown. To investigate the function of the SRPN2 hinge insertion, we developed three SRPN2 variants in which the hinge regions are either constitutively expelled or inserted and analyzed their structure, thermostability, and inhibitory activity. We determined that constitutive hinge expulsion resulted in a 2.7-fold increase in the rate of CLIPB9Xa inhibition, which is significantly lower than previous observations of allosteric serpin activation. Furthermore, we determined that stable insertion of the hinge region did not appreciably decrease the accessibility of the RCL to CLIPB9. Together, these results indicate that the partial hinge insertion in SRPN2 does not participate in the allosteric activation observed in other serpins and instead represents a molecular trade-off between RCL accessibility and efficient formation of an inhibitory complex with the cognate proteinase. PMID:25525260

  2. SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF MALARIA VECTORS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN RURAL LOCALITIES OF PORTO VELHO, RONDÔNIA, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    PubMed Central

    GIL, Luiz Herman Soares; RODRIGUES, Moreno de Souza; de LIMA, Alzemar Alves; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of the malaria vectors in an area where a power line had been constructed, between the municipalities of Porto Velho and Rio Branco, in the states of Rondônia and Acre, respectively. The present paper relates to the results of the survey of Anopheles fauna conducted in the state of Rondônia. Mosquito field collections were performed in six villages along the federal highway BR 364 in the municipality of Porto Velho, namely Porto Velho, Jaci Paraná, Mutum Paraná, Vila Abunã, Vista Alegre do Abunã, and Extrema. Mosquito captures were performed at three distinct sites in each locality during the months of February, July, and October 2011 using a protected human-landing catch method; outdoor and indoor captures were conducted simultaneously at each site for six hours. In the six sampled areas, we captured 2,185 mosquitoes belonging to seven Anopheles species. Of these specimens, 95.1% consisted of Anopheles darlingi, 1.8% An. triannulatus l.s., 1.7% An. deaneorum, 0.8% An. konderi l.s., 0.4 An. braziliensis, 0.1% An. albitarsis l.s., and 0.1% An. benarrochi. An. darlingi was the only species found in all localities; the remaining species occurred in sites with specific characteristics. PMID:26200969

  3. Olfactory basis of floral preference of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) among common African plants.

    PubMed

    Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood R; Terbot, John W; Otienoburu, Philip E; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2014-12-01

    Mosquitoes of both sexes feed on plants to obtain sugar. Nocturnal species probably locate the plants primarily by their volatile semiochemicals that also form the basis for the mosquitoes' innate plant-species preferences. To evaluate these olfactory preferences quantitatively, we used a two-choice wind-tunnel olfactometer to measure the upwind orientation of Anopheles gambiae Giles, an important vector of malaria in equatorial Africa, toward odor plumes produced by nine plant species common where this mosquito occurs. These plants are reported to induce feeding behaviors in An. gambiae and to produce floral or extrafloral nectar. Results presented here demonstrated that the volatiles of S. didymobotrya, P. hysterophorus, S. occidentalis, and L. camara, in descending order of numbers of mosquitoes responding, were all attractive, compared to a control plant species, whereas D. stramonium, R. communis, S. bicapsularis, T. stans, and T. diversifolia were not. As expected, chromatographic analysis of the headspace of attractive plants whose volatiles were captured by stir-bar sorptive extraction revealed a wide range of compounds, primarily terpenoids. Once their bioactivity and attractiveness for An. gambiae, alone and in blends, has been firmly established, some of these semiochemicals may have applications in population sampling and control. PMID:25424267

  4. Climate influences on the cost-effectiveness of vector-based interventions against malaria in elimination scenarios.

    PubMed

    Parham, Paul E; Hughes, Dyfrig A

    2015-04-01

    Despite the dependence of mosquito population dynamics on environmental conditions, the associated impact of climate and climate change on present and future malaria remains an area of ongoing debate and uncertainty. Here, we develop a novel integration of mosquito, transmission and economic modelling to assess whether the cost-effectiveness of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) against Plasmodium falciparum transmission by Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes depends on climatic conditions in low endemicity scenarios. We find that although temperature and rainfall affect the cost-effectiveness of IRS and/or LLIN scale-up, whether this is sufficient to influence policy depends on local endemicity, existing interventions, host immune response to infection and the emergence rate of insecticide resistance. For the scenarios considered, IRS is found to be more cost-effective than LLINs for the same level of scale-up, and both are more cost-effective at lower mean precipitation and higher variability in precipitation and temperature. We also find that the dependence of peak transmission on mean temperature translates into optimal temperatures for vector-based intervention cost-effectiveness. Further cost-effectiveness analysis that accounts for country-specific epidemiological and environmental heterogeneities is required to assess optimal intervention scale-up for elimination and better understand future transmission trends under climate change. PMID:25688017

  5. Assessing the Fauna of Aquatic Insects for Possible Use for Malaria Vector Control in Large River, Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Shayeghi, Mansoureh; Nejati, Jalil; Shirani-Bidabadi, Leila; Koosha, Mona; Badakhshan, Mehdi; Mohammadi Bavani, Mulood; Arzamani, Kourosh; Choubdar, Nayyereh; Bagheri, Fatemeh; Saghafipour, Abedin; Veysi, Arshad; Karimian, Fateh; Akhavan, Amir Ahamd; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Insects with over 30,000 aquatic species are known as very successful arthropods in freshwater habitats. Some of them are applied as biological indicators for water quality control, as well as the main food supply for fishes and amphibians. The faunistic studies are the basic step in entomological researches; the current study was carried out emphasizing on the fauna of aquatic insects in Karaj River, northern Iran. A field study was carried out in six various sampling site of Karaj River during spring 2013. The aquatic insects were collected using several methods such as D-frame nets, dipping and direct search on river floor stones. Specimens were collected and preserved in Ethanol and identified by standard identification keys. Totally, 211 samples were collected belonging to three orders; Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera. Seven genuses (Perla, Isoperla, Hydropsyche, Cheumatopsyche, Baetis, Heptagenia and Maccafferium) from five families (Perlidae, Perlodidae, Hydropsychidae, Batidae, Heptagenidae) were identified. The most predominant order was Plecoptera followed by Trichoptera. Karaj River is a main and important river, which provides almost all of water of Karaj dam. So, identification of aquatic species which exist in this river is vital and further studies about systematic and ecological investigations should be performed. Also, monitoring of aquatic biota by trained health personnel can be a critical step to describe water quality in this river. Understanding the fauna of aquatic insects will provide a clue for possible biological control of medically important aquatic insects such as Anopheles as the malaria vectors. PMID:26553079

  6. Climate influences on the cost-effectiveness of vector-based interventions against malaria in elimination scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Parham, Paul E.; Hughes, Dyfrig A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the dependence of mosquito population dynamics on environmental conditions, the associated impact of climate and climate change on present and future malaria remains an area of ongoing debate and uncertainty. Here, we develop a novel integration of mosquito, transmission and economic modelling to assess whether the cost-effectiveness of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) against Plasmodium falciparum transmission by Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes depends on climatic conditions in low endemicity scenarios. We find that although temperature and rainfall affect the cost-effectiveness of IRS and/or LLIN scale-up, whether this is sufficient to influence policy depends on local endemicity, existing interventions, host immune response to infection and the emergence rate of insecticide resistance. For the scenarios considered, IRS is found to be more cost-effective than LLINs for the same level of scale-up, and both are more cost-effective at lower mean precipitation and higher variability in precipitation and temperature. We also find that the dependence of peak transmission on mean temperature translates into optimal temperatures for vector-based intervention cost-effectiveness. Further cost-effectiveness analysis that accounts for country-specific epidemiological and environmental heterogeneities is required to assess optimal intervention scale-up for elimination and better understand future transmission trends under climate change. PMID:25688017

  7. Limited usefulness of microsatellite markers from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae when applied to the closely related species Anopheles melas.

    PubMed

    Deitz, Kevin C; Reddy, Vamsi P; Reddy, Michael R; Satyanarayanah, Neha; Lindsey, Michael W; Overgaard, Hans J; Jawara, Musa; Caccone, Adalgisa; Slotman, Michel A

    2012-07-01

    Anopheles melas is a brackish water mosquito found in coastal West Africa where it is a dominant malaria vector locally. In order to facilitate genetic studies of this species, 45 microsatellite loci originally developed for Anopheles gambiae were sequenced in An. melas. Those that were suitable based on repeat number and flanking regions were examined in 2 natural populations from Equatorial Guinea. Only 15 loci were eventually deemed suitable as polymorphic markers in An. melas populations. These loci were screened in 4 populations from a wider geographic range. Heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.18 to 0.79, and 2.5-15 average alleles were observed per locus, yielding 13 highly polymorphic markers and 2 loci with lower variability. To examine the usefulness of microsatellite markers when applied in a sibling species, the original An. gambiae specific markers were used to amplify 5 loci in An. melas. Null alleles were found for 1 An. gambiae marker. We discuss the pitfalls of using microsatellite loci across closely related species and conclude that in addition to the problem of null alleles associated with this practice, many loci may prove to be of very limited use as polymorphic markers even when used in a sibling species. PMID:22593601

  8. Insecticidal activities of bark, leaf and seed extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Hans J; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl E; Wangensteen, Helle; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Paulsen, Berit S; Massamba, Daniel; Duchon, Stephane; Corbel, Vincent; Chandre, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii) is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis]), a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis), and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis). The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female), but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides. PMID:25525826

  9. Insecticide susceptibility status of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Khartoum city, Sudan: differences between urban and periurban areas.

    PubMed

    Seidahmed, O M E; Abdelmajed, M A; Mustafa, M S; Mnzava, A P

    2012-07-01

    Vector resistance to insecticides is becoming a major obstacle to malaria prevention measures. A baseline survey was carried out in Khartoum city, Sudan, during September-November 2007, to map the insecticide susceptibility status ofAnophelesarabiensis and to examine the correlation with insecticide usage in urban agriculture. Susceptibility tests were conducted in 6 sentinel sites representing urban and periurban strata of the city. Mortality rates and knockdown times were calculated for 8 insecticides on a total of 9820 specimens. An. arabiensis was susceptible to bendiocarb (98.1%), propoxur (100%), fenitrothion (100%), deltamethrin (99.8%) and lambda-cyhalothrin (99.2%). Susceptibility rates were significantly different between urban and periurban sites for malathion (80.8% vs 56.0%), DDT (99.0% vs 95.0%) and permethrin (98.5% vs 96.3%). The 50% knockdown times were significantly higher in periurban than urban populations of An. arabiensis for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion. PMID:22891527

  10. Microdistribution of the resistance of malaria vectors to deltamethrin in the region of Plateau (southeastern Benin) in preparation for an assessment of the impact of resistance on the effectiveness of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to research two areas, one with a resistant and the other with a susceptible profile of An. gambiae to deltamethrin in the region of Plateau (southern Benin). In each area, eight localities were sought. Both areas were needed for the assessment of the impact of malaria vector resistance to pyrethroids on the effectiveness of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs). The susceptible area of An. gambiae to deltamethrin was used as a control. Methods In total, 119 localities in the region of Plateau were screened by sampling An. gambiae s.l larvae. Female mosquitoes resulting from these larvae were exposed to 0.05% deltamethrin following WHO standards. PCR was used to identify species and molecular forms of the dead and alive mosquitoes. Finally, we identified kdr mutations (1014 F and1014S) using the HOLA technique. Results Fifty-six out of 119 prospected localities tested positive for Anopheles gambae s.l breeding sites. The results showed that An. gambiae was resistant to deltamethrin in 39 localities and susceptible in only 2 localities; resistance to deltamethrin was suspected in 15 localities. The HOLA technique confirmed the presence of kdr 1014 F mutation and the absence of kdr 1014S mutation. The kdr 1014 F mutation was found in both M and S molecular forms at relatively high frequencies therefore confirming the susceptibility tests. Conclusion We were unable to identify the eight susceptible areas due to the overall resistance of An. gambiae to deltamethrin in the region of Plateau. To implement the study, we kept two areas, one with high resistance (R+++) and the other with low resistance (R+) of An. gambiae to deltamethrin. PMID:24564260

  11. Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) malaria vectors in the municipality of Puerto Carreno, Vichada, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Pilar; Conn, Jan E.; Wirtz, Robert; Brochero, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The study of the biological aspects of Anopheles spp., strengthens the entomological surveillance. Objective To determine biological aspects and behavior of adult Anopheles mosquitoes in the urban area of Puerto Carreño municipality, Vichada, Colombia. Materials and methods Wild anophelines were collected landing on humans both indoors and outdoors between 18:00h and 06:00h for 50 min/h during two consecutive nights/month for eight months in the urban area of Puerto Carreño. The biting rate activity, the natural infection by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax VK247 and VK210 using ELISA, and the annual entomological inoculation rate were determined for each species. The members of the Albitarsis complex were determined by amplificacion of the white gene by polymerase chain reaction. Results In order of abundance the species found were An. darlingi (n=1,166), An. marajoara sensu stricto (n=152), An. braziliensis (n=59), An. albitarsis F (n=25), An. albitarsis sensu lato (n=16), An. argyritarsis (n=3) and An. oswaldoi sensu lato (n=2). An. darlingi showed two activity peaks between 21:00 to 22:00 and 05:00 to 06:00 hours outdoors and between 21:00 to 22:00 and 04:00 to 05:00 indoors. Natural infection of this species was found with P. vivax VK210 and its annual entomological inoculation rate was 2. Natural infection of An marajoara sensu stricto with P. falciparum was found, with an annual entomological inoculation rate of 5 and a peak biting activity between 18:00 to 19:00 hrs both indoors and outdoors. Conclusion Transmission of malaria in the urban area of Puerto Carreño, Vichada, can occur by An. darlingi and An. marajoara s. s. PMID:23235809

  12. Investigation of a Sudden Malaria Outbreak in the Isolated Amazonian Village of Saül, French Guiana, January–April 2009

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Franck; Flamand, Claude; Musset, Lise; Djossou, Félix; Rosine, Jacques; Sanquer, Marie-Anne; Dusfour, Isabelle; Legrand, Eric; Ardillon, Vanessa; Rabarison, Patrick; Grenier, Claire; Girod, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in French Guiana. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the predominant species responsible and Anopheles darlingi is described as the major vector. In mid-August 2008, an increase in malaria incidence was observed in Saül. A retrospective cohort survey was performed. In vitro susceptibility profiles to antimalarials were determined on P. falciparum isolates. Collections of mosquitoes were organized. The malaria attack rate reached 70.6/100. The risk of malaria increased for people between 40 and 49 years of age, living in a house not subjected to a recent indoor residual insecticide spraying or staying overnight in the surrounding forest. All isolates were susceptible. Anopheles darlingi females and larvae were collected in the village suggesting a local transmission. Our results strongly support a role of illegal mining activities in the emergence of new foci of malaria. Therefore, public health authorities should define policies to fight malaria at a transborder level. PMID:22492141

  13. Microneedle-mediated immunization of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine enhances antigen-specific antibody immunity and reduces anti-vector responses compared to the intradermal route

    PubMed Central

    Carey, John B.; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Draper, Simon J.; Moore, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial effort has been placed in developing efficacious recombinant attenuated adenovirus-based vaccines. However induction of immunity to the vector is a significant obstacle to its repeated use. Here we demonstrate that skin-based delivery of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine, HAdV5-PyMSP142, to mice using silicon microneedles induces equivalent or enhanced antibody responses to the encoded antigen, however it results in decreased anti-vector responses, compared to intradermal delivery. Microneedle-mediated vaccine priming and resultant induction of low anti-vector antibody titres permitted repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine vector. This resulted in significantly increased antigen-specific antibody responses in these mice compared to ID-treated mice. Boosting with a heterologous vaccine; MVA-PyMSP142 also resulted in significantly greater antibody responses in mice primed with HAdV5-PyMSP142 using MN compared to the ID route. The highest protection against blood-stage malaria challenge was observed when a heterologous route of immunization (MN/ID) was used. Therefore, microneedle-mediated immunization has potential to both overcome some of the logistic obstacles surrounding needle-and-syringe-based immunization as well as to facilitate the repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine thereby potentially reducing manufacturing costs of multiple vaccines. This could have important benefits in the clinical ease of use of adenovirus-based immunization strategies. PMID:25142082

  14. Chromobacterium Csp_P Reduces Malaria and Dengue Infection in Vector Mosquitoes and Has Entomopathogenic and In Vitro Anti-pathogen Activities

    PubMed Central

    Bahia, Ana C.; Saraiva, Raul G.; Dong, Yuemei; Kang, Seokyoung; Tripathi, Abhai; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium and dengue virus, the causative agents of the two most devastating vector-borne diseases, malaria and dengue, are transmitted by the two most important mosquito vectors, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Insect-bacteria associations have been shown to influence vector competence for human pathogens through multi-faceted actions that include the elicitation of the insect immune system, pathogen sequestration by microbes, and bacteria-produced anti-pathogenic factors. These influences make the mosquito microbiota highly interesting from a disease control perspective. Here we present a bacterium of the genus Chromobacterium (Csp_P), which was isolated from the midgut of field-caught Aedes aegypti. Csp_P can effectively colonize the mosquito midgut when introduced through an artificial nectar meal, and it also inhibits the growth of other members of the midgut microbiota. Csp_P colonization of the midgut tissue activates mosquito immune responses, and Csp_P exposure dramatically reduces the survival of both the larval and adult stages. Ingestion of Csp_P by the mosquito significantly reduces its susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infection, thereby compromising the mosquito's vector competence. This bacterium also exerts in vitro anti-Plasmodium and anti-dengue activities, which appear to be mediated through Csp_P -produced stable bioactive factors with transmission-blocking and therapeutic potential. The anti-pathogen and entomopathogenic properties of Csp_P render it a potential candidate for the development of malaria and dengue control strategies. PMID:25340821

  15. Characterization of malaria transmission by vector populations for improved interventions during the dry season in the Kpone-on-Sea area of coastal Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major public health problem in Ghana. We present a site-specific entomological study of malaria vectors and transmission indices as part of an effort to develop a site for the testing of improved control strategies including possible vaccine trials. Methods Pyrethrum spray catches (PSC), and indoor and outdoor human landing collections of adult female anopheline mosquitoes were carried out over a six-month period (November 2005 - April 2006) at Kpone-on-Sea, a fishing village in southern Ghana. These were morphologically identified to species level and sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex further characterized by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum mosquito infectivity and host blood meal sources. Parity rate was examined based on dilatation of ovarian tracheoles following dissection. Results Of the 1233 Anopheles mosquitoes collected, An. gambiae s.l. was predominant (99.5%), followed by An. funestus (0.4%) and An. pharoensis (0.1%). All An. gambiae s.l. examined (480) were identified as An. gambiae s.s. with a majority of M molecular form (98.2%) and only 1.8% S form with no record of M/S hybrid. A significantly higher proportion of anophelines were observed outdoors relative to indoors (χ2 = 159.34, df = 1, p < 0.0000). Only An. gambiae M molecular form contributed to transmission with a high degree of anthropophily, parity rate and an estimated entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of 62.1 infective bites/person/year. The Majority of the infective bites occurred outdoors after 09.00 pm reaching peaks between 12.00-01.00 am and 03.00-04.00 am. Conclusion Anopheles gambiae M molecular form is responsible for maintaining the status quo of malaria in the surveyed site during the study period. The findings provide a baseline for evidence-based planning and implementation of improved malaria interventions. The plasticity observed in

  16. Vaccine Efficacy against Malaria by the Combination of Porcine Parvovirus-Like Particles and Vaccinia Virus Vectors Expressing CS of Plasmodium

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Dolores; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Rodríguez, Juan R.; Vijayan, Aneesh; Gherardi, Magdalena; Rueda, Paloma; Casal, J. Ignacio; Esteban, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    With the aim to develop an efficient and cost-effective approach to control malaria, we have generated porcine parvovirus-like particles (PPV-VLPs) carrying the CD8+ T cell epitope (SYVPSAEQI) of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein from Plasmodium yoelii fused to the PPV VP2 capsid protein (PPV-PYCS), and tested in prime/boost protocols with poxvirus vectors for efficacy in a rodent malaria model. As a proof-of concept, we have characterized the anti-CS CD8+ T cell response elicited by these hybrid PPV-VLPs in BALB/c mice after immunizations with the protein PPV-PYCS administered alone or in combination with recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV) vectors from the Western Reserve (WR) and modified virus Ankara (MVA) strains expressing the entire P. yoelii CS protein. The results of different immunization protocols showed that the combination of PPV-PYCS prime/poxvirus boost was highly immunogenic, inducing specific CD8+ T cell responses to CS resulting in 95% reduction in liver stage parasites two days following sporozoite challenge. In contrast, neither the administration of PPV-PYCS alone nor the immunization with the vectors given in the order poxvirus/VLPs was as effective. The immune profile induced by VLPs/MVA boost was associated with polyfunctional and effector memory CD8+ T cell responses. These findings highlight the use of recombinant parvovirus PPV-PYCS particles as priming agents and poxvirus vectors, like MVA, as booster to enhance specific CD8+ T cell responses to Plasmodium antigens and to control infection. These observations are relevant in the design of T cell-inducing vaccines against malaria. PMID:22529915

  17. Electric nets and sticky materials for analysing oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Methods Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high × 0.5m wide) were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized complete block design was used for all experiments with 200 mosquitoes released each day. Experiments were conducted in screened semi-field systems using insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. Data were analysed by generalized estimating equations. Results An electric net operated at the highest spark box energy of a 400 volt direct current made the net spark, creating a crackling sound, a burst of light and a burning smell. This setting caught 64% less mosquitoes than a net powered by reduced voltage output that could neither be heard nor seen (odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.53, p < 0.001). Three sticky boards (transparent film, glue coated black fly-screen and yellow film) were evaluated as catching devices under electric nets and the transparent and shiny black surfaces were found highly attractive (OR 41.6, 95% CI 19.8 – 87.3, p < 0.001 and OR 28.8, 95% CI 14.5 – 56.8, p < 0.001, respectively) for gravid mosquitoes to land on compared to a

  18. Storage and persistence of a candidate fungal biopesticide for use against adult malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background New products aimed at augmenting or replacing chemical insecticides must have operational profiles that include both high efficacy in reducing vector numbers and/or blocking parasite transmission and be long lasting following application. Research aimed at developing fungal spores as a biopesticide for vector control have shown considerable potential yet have not been directly assessed for their viability after long-term storage or following application in the field. Methods Spores from a single production run of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana were dried and then stored under refrigeration at 7°C. After 585 days these spores were sub-sampled and placed at either 22°C, 26°C or 32°C still sealed in packaging (closed storage) or in open beakers and exposed to the 80% relative humidity of the incubator they were kept in. Samples were subsequently taken from these treatments over a further 165 days to assess viability. Spores from the same production run were also used to test their persistence following application to three different substrates, clay, cement and wood, using a hand held sprayer. The experiments were conducted at two different institutes with one using adult female Anopheles stephensi and the other adult female Anopheles gambiae. Mosquitoes were exposed to the treated substrates for one hour before being removed and their survival monitored for the next 14 days. Assays were performed at monthly intervals over a maximum seven months. Results Spore storage under refrigeration resulted in no loss of spore viability over more than two years. Spore viability of those samples kept under open and closed storage was highly dependent on the incubation temperature with higher temperatures decreasing viability more rapidly than cooler temperatures. Mosquito survival following exposure was dependent on substrate type. Spore persistence on the clay substrate was greatest achieving 80% population reduction for four months against An

  19. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah J; Darling, Samuel T; Sihuincha, Moisés; Padilla, Norma; Devine, Gregor J

    2007-01-01

    Background The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD) and lemongrass oil (LG). Methods To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. Results In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p < 0.0001). In Peru, collections were performed for four hours, commencing two hours after repellent application. The PMD/LG repellent provided 95% protection for six hours after application with a biting pressure of >46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p < 0.0001). Conclusion In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities. PMID:17678537

  20. The Impacts of Land Use Change on Malaria Vector Abundance in a Water-Limited Highland Region of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, J.; Bomblies, A.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in land use and climate are expected to alter risk of malaria transmission in areas where rainfall limits vector abundance. We use a coupled hydrology-entomology model to investigate the effects of land use change on hydrological processes impacting mosquito abundance in a highland village of Ethiopia. Land use affects partitioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff that reaches small-scale topographic depressions, which constitute the primary breeding habitat of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes. A physically-based hydrology model isolates hydrological mechanisms by which land use impacts pool formation and persistence, and an agent-based entomology model evaluates the response of mosquito populations. This approach reproduced observed interannual variability in mosquito abundance between the 2009 and 2010 wet seasons. Several scenarios of land cover were then evaluated using the calibrated, field-validated model. Model results show variation in pool persistence and depth, as well as in mosquito abundance, due to land use changes alone. The model showed particular sensitivity to surface roughness, but also to root zone uptake. Scenarios in which land use was modified from agriculture to forest generally resulted in lowest mosquito abundance predictions; classification of the entire domain as rainforest produced a 34% decrease in abundance compared to 2010 results. This study also showed that in addition to vegetation type, spatial proximity of land use change to habitat locations has an impact on mosquito abundance. This modeling approach can be applied to assess impacts of climate and land use conditions that fall outside of the range of previously observed variability.

  1. The relationship between reproductive outcome measures in DDT exposed malaria vector control workers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Dalvie, Mohamed A; Myers, Jonathan E

    2006-01-01

    Background The utility of blood reproductive endocrine biomarkers for assessing or estimating semen quality was explored. Methods A cross-sectional study of 47 DDT exposed malaria vector control workers was performed. Tests included blood basal and post gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), lutenizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2) and inhibin; a questionnaire (demographics and general medical history); a physical examination and semen analysis. Semen parameters were determined using either/or or both WHO or the strict Tygerberg criteria. Relationships between semen parameters and endocrine measures were adjusted for age, duration of abstinence before sampling, presence of physical abnormalities and fever in the last two months. All relationships between specific endocrine hormones were adjusted for age and basal SHBG. Results Multiple logistic regression showed a consistent positive relationship (prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 8.2, CI:1.4–49.2) between low basal inhibin (<100 pg/ml) and low semen count (< 40 million) and density (< 20 million/ml); consistent positive, but weaker relationships (1> POR < 2) between abnormally low semen count as well as density and baseline and post GnRH FSH; and positive relationships (POR = 37, CI:2–655) between the prevalence of high basal estradiol (> 50 pg/ml) and abnormal morphology (proportion < 5%) and low motility (proportion <50%). Most of the expected physiological relationships between specific endocrines were significant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that low basal inhibin, elevated basal FSH and high basal E2 can serve as markers of impaired semen quality. PMID:16901337

  2. The salivary gland transcriptome of the neotropical malaria vector Anopheles darlingi reveals accelerated evolution of genes relevant to hematophagy

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Eric; Pham, Van M; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Andersen, John F; Ribeiro, José MC

    2009-01-01

    Background Mosquito saliva, consisting of a mixture of dozens of proteins affecting vertebrate hemostasis and having sugar digestive and antimicrobial properties, helps both blood and sugar meal feeding. Culicine and anopheline mosquitoes diverged ~150 MYA, and within the anophelines, the New World species diverged from those of the Old World ~95 MYA. While the sialotranscriptome (from the Greek sialo, saliva) of several species of the Cellia subgenus of Anopheles has been described thoroughly, no detailed analysis of any New World anopheline has been done to date. Here we present and analyze data from a comprehensive salivary gland (SG) transcriptome of the neotropical malaria vector Anopheles darlingi (subgenus Nyssorhynchus). Results A total of 2,371 clones randomly selected from an adult female An. darlingi SG cDNA library were sequenced and used to assemble a database that yielded 966 clusters of related sequences, 739 of which were singletons. Primer extension experiments were performed in selected clones to further extend sequence coverage, allowing for the identification of 183 protein sequences, 114 of which code for putative secreted proteins. Conclusion Comparative analysis of sialotranscriptomes of An. darlingi and An. gambiae reveals significant divergence of salivary proteins. On average, salivary proteins are only 53% identical, while housekeeping proteins are 86% identical between the two species. Furthermore, An. darlingi proteins were found that match culicine but not anopheline proteins, indicating loss or rapid evolution of these proteins in the old world Cellia subgenus. On the other hand, several well represented salivary protein families in old world anophelines are not expressed in An. darlingi. PMID:19178717

  3. Insecticidal and repellent activities of pyrethroids to the three major pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The dramatic success of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in African countries has been countered by the rapid development of pyrethroid resistance in vector mosquitoes over the past decade. One advantage of the use of pyrethroids in ITNs is their excito-repellency. Use of the excito-repellency of pyrethroids might be biorational, since such repellency will not induce or delay the development of any physiological resistance. However, little is known about the relationship between the mode of insecticide resistance and excito-repellency in pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. Methods Differences in the reactions of 3 major malaria vectors in western Kenya to pyrethroids were compared in laboratory tests. Adult susceptibility tests were performed using World Health Organization (WHO) test tube kits for F1 progenies of field-collected An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus s.s., and laboratory colonies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. The contact repellency to pyrethroids or permethrin-impregnated LLINs (Olyset® Nets) was evaluated with a simple choice test modified by WHO test tubes and with the test modified by the WHO cone bioassay test. Results Field-collected An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus s.s. showed high resistance to both permethrin and deltamethrin. The allelic frequency of the point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (L1014S) in An. gambiae s.s. was 99.3–100%, while no point mutations were detected in the other 2 species. The frequency of takeoffs from the pyrethroid-treated surface and the flying times without contacting the surface increased significantly in pyrethroid-susceptible An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis colonies and wild An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. colonies, while there was no significant increase in the frequency of takeoffs or flying time in the An. gambiae s.s. wild colony. Conclusion A different repellent reaction was observed in

  4. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII) gene. Methods Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. Results A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP) in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. Conclusions The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be confirmed and its

  5. Microsatellite data suggest significant population structure and differentiation within the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Central and South America

    PubMed Central

    Mirabello, Lisa; Vineis, Joseph H; Yanoviak, Stephen P; Scarpassa, Vera M; Póvoa, Marinete M; Padilla, Norma; Achee, Nicole L; Conn, Jan E

    2008-01-01

    Background Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Neotropics. An understanding of A. darlingi's population structure and contemporary gene flow patterns is necessary if vector populations are to be successfully controlled. We assessed population genetic structure and levels of differentiation based on 1,376 samples from 31 localities throughout the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon and Central America using 5–8 microsatellite loci. Results We found high levels of polymorphism for all of the Amazonian populations (mean RS = 7.62, mean HO = 0.742), and low levels for the Belize and Guatemalan populations (mean RS = 4.3, mean HO = 0.457). The Bayesian clustering analysis revealed five population clusters: northeastern Amazonian Brazil, southeastern and central Amazonian Brazil, western and central Amazonian Brazil, Peruvian Amazon, and the Central American populations. Within Central America there was low non-significant differentiation, except for between the populations separated by the Maya Mountains. Within Amazonia there was a moderate level of significant differentiation attributed to isolation by distance. Within Peru there was no significant population structure and low differentiation, and some evidence of a population expansion. The pairwise estimates of genetic differentiation between Central America and Amazonian populations were all very high and highly significant (FST = 0.1859 – 0.3901, P < 0.05). Both the DA and FST distance-based trees illustrated the main division to be between Central America and Amazonia. Conclusion We detected a large amount of population structure in Amazonia, with three population clusters within Brazil and one including the Peru populations. The considerable differences in Ne among the populations may have contributed to the observed genetic differentiation. All of the data suggest that the primary division within A. darlingi corresponds to two white gene genotypes between Amazonia (genotype 1) and

  6. Partial mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest the existence of a cryptic species within the Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae), forest malaria vectors, in northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background During the last decade, Southeast Asian countries have been very successful in reducing the burden of malaria. However, malaria remains endemic in these countries, especially in remote and forested areas. The Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles harbors the most important malaria vectors in forested areas of Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, previous molecular studies have resulted in the identification of only Anopheles dirus sensu stricto (previously known as An. dirus species A) among the Leucosphyrus group members. However, Vietnamese entomologists have recognized that mosquitoes belonging to the Leucosphyrus group in northern Vietnam exhibit morphological characteristics similar to those of Anopheles takasagoensis, which has been reported only from Taiwan. Here, we aimed to confirm the genetic and morphological identities of the members of the Leucosphyrus group in Vietnam. Results In the molecular phylogenetic trees reconstructed using partial COI and ND6 mitochondrial gene sequences, samples collected from southern and central Vietnam clustered together with GenBank sequences of An. dirus that were obtained from Thailand. However, samples from northern Vietnam formed a distinct clade separated from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis by other valid species. Conclusions The results suggest the existence of a cryptic species in northern Vietnam that is morphologically similar to, but phylogenetically distant from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis. We have tentatively designated this possible cryptic species as Anopheles aff. takasagoensis for convenience, until a valid name is assigned. However, it is difficult to distinguish the species solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. Further studies on such as karyotypes and polytene chromosome banding patterns are necessary to confirm whether An. aff. takasagoensis is a valid species. Moreover, studies on (1) the geographic distribution, which is potentially spreading along the Vietnam

  7. A bioinformatics approach for integrated transcriptomic and proteomic comparative analyses of model and non-sequenced anopheline vectors of human malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Ubaida Mohien, Ceereena; Colquhoun, David R; Mathias, Derrick K; Gibbons, John G; Armistead, Jennifer S; Rodriguez, Maria C; Rodriguez, Mario Henry; Edwards, Nathan J; Hartler, Jürgen; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Graham, David R; Martinez-Barnetche, Jesus; Rokas, Antonis; Dinglasan, Rhoel R

    2013-01-01

    Malaria morbidity and mortality caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax extend well beyond the African continent, and although P. vivax causes between 80 and 300 million severe cases each year, vivax transmission remains poorly understood. Plasmodium parasites are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes, and the critical site of interaction between parasite and host is at the mosquito's luminal midgut brush border. Although the genome of the "model" African P. falciparum vector, Anopheles gambiae, has been sequenced, evolutionary divergence limits its utility as a reference across anophelines, especially non-sequenced P. vivax vectors such as Anopheles albimanus. Clearly, technologies and platforms that bridge this substantial scientific gap are required in order to provide public health scientists with key transcriptomic and proteomic information that could spur the development of novel interventions to combat this disease. To our knowledge, no approaches have been published that address this issue. To bolster our understanding of P. vivax-An. albimanus midgut interactions, we developed an integrated bioinformatic-hybrid RNA-Seq-LC-MS/MS approach involving An. albimanus transcriptome (15,764 contigs) and luminal midgut subproteome (9,445 proteins) assembly, which, when used with our custom Diptera protein database (685,078 sequences), facilitated a comparative proteomic analysis of the midgut brush borders of two important malaria vectors, An. gambiae and An. albimanus. PMID:23082028

  8. Multimodal Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors, Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O.; Ohashi, Kazunori; Komagata, Osamu; Kasai, Shinji; Tomita, Takashi; Sonye, George; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Mwatele, Cassian; Njenga, Sammy M.; Mwandawiro, Charles; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. are the most important species for malaria transmission. Pyrethroid resistance of these vector mosquitoes is one of the main obstacles against effective vector control. The objective of the present study was to monitor the pyrethroid susceptibility in the 3 major malaria vectors in a highly malaria endemic area in western Kenya and to elucidate the mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in these species. Gembe East and West, Mbita Division, and 4 main western islands in the Suba district of the Nyanza province in western Kenya were used as the study area. Larval and adult collection and bioassay were conducted, as well as the detection of point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (1014L) by using direct DNA sequencing. A high level of pyrethroid resistance caused by the high frequency of point mutations (L1014S) was detected in An. gambiae s.s. In contrast, P450-related pyrethroid resistance seemed to be widespread in both An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. Not a single L1014S mutation was detected in these 2 species. A lack of cross-resistance between DDT and permethrin was also found in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s., while An. gambiae s.s. was resistant to both insecticides. It is noteworthy that the above species in the same area are found to be resistant to pyrethroids by their unique resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, it is interesting that 2 different resistance mechanisms have developed in the 2 sibling species in the same area individually. The cross resistance between permethrin and DDT in An. gambiae s.s. may be attributed to the high frequency of kdr mutation, which might be selected by the frequent exposure to ITNs. Similarly, the metabolic pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. is thought to develop without strong selection by DDT. PMID:21853038

  9. Multimodal pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Ohashi, Kazunori; Komagata, Osamu; Kasai, Shinji; Tomita, Takashi; Sonye, George; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Mwatele, Cassian; Njenga, Sammy M; Mwandawiro, Charles; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. are the most important species for malaria transmission. Pyrethroid resistance of these vector mosquitoes is one of the main obstacles against effective vector control. The objective of the present study was to monitor the pyrethroid susceptibility in the 3 major malaria vectors in a highly malaria endemic area in western Kenya and to elucidate the mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in these species. Gembe East and West, Mbita Division, and 4 main western islands in the Suba district of the Nyanza province in western Kenya were used as the study area. Larval and adult collection and bioassay were conducted, as well as the detection of point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (1014L) by using direct DNA sequencing. A high level of pyrethroid resistance caused by the high frequency of point mutations (L1014S) was detected in An. gambiae s.s. In contrast, P450-related pyrethroid resistance seemed to be widespread in both An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. Not a single L1014S mutation was detected in these 2 species. A lack of cross-resistance between DDT and permethrin was also found in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s., while An. gambiae s.s. was resistant to both insecticides. It is noteworthy that the above species in the same area are found to be resistant to pyrethroids by their unique resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, it is interesting that 2 different resistance mechanisms have developed in the 2 sibling species in the same area individually. The cross resistance between permethrin and DDT in An. gambiae s.s. may be attributed to the high frequency of kdr mutation, which might be selected by the frequent exposure to ITNs. Similarly, the metabolic pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. is thought to develop without strong selection by DDT. PMID:21853038

  10. Insecticide resistance mechanisms associated with different environments in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae: a case study in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides is a growing concern in Africa. Since only a few insecticides are used for public health and limited development of new molecules is expected in the next decade, maintaining the efficacy of control programmes mostly relies on resistance management strategies. Developing such strategies requires a deep understanding of factors influencing resistance together with characterizing the mechanisms involved. Among factors likely to influence insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, agriculture and urbanization have been implicated but rarely studied in detail. The present study aimed at comparing insecticide resistance levels and associated mechanisms across multiple Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations from different environments. Methods Nine populations were sampled in three areas of Tanzania showing contrasting agriculture activity, urbanization and usage of insecticides for vector control. Insecticide resistance levels were measured in larvae and adults through bioassays with deltamethrin, DDT and bendiocarb. The distribution of An. gambiae sub-species and pyrethroid target-site mutations (kdr) were investigated using molecular assays. A microarray approach was used for identifying transcription level variations associated to different environments and insecticide resistance. Results Elevated resistance levels to deltamethrin and DDT were identified in agriculture and urban areas as compared to the susceptible strain Kisumu. A significant correlation was found between adult deltamethrin resistance and agriculture activity. The subspecies Anopheles arabiensis was predominant with only few An. gambiae sensu stricto identified in the urban area of Dar es Salaam. The L1014S kdr mutation was detected at elevated frequency in An gambiae s.s. in the urban area but remains sporadic in An. arabiensis specimens. Microarrays identified 416 transcripts differentially expressed in any area versus the susceptible reference

  11. Studies on the impact of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in relation to malaria and filariasis vector control against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Subarani, Selladurai; Sabhanayakam, Selvi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2013-02-01

    Biosynthesized nanoparticles have been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Vinca rosea (L.) (Apocynaceae) against the larvae of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of V. rosea and synthesized AgNPs for 24, 48, and 72 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of V. rosea, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 15 min. The results recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with the Bragg reflections at 2θ = 29.36, 38.26, 44.51, 63.54, and 77.13° which can be indexed to the (121), (111), (200), (220), and (311) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at the spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 3,406.71 to 3,431.90 cm(-1) double in case of NH(2) group of a primary amine (N-H stretch). The presence of the sharp peak at 2,926.54 to 2,925.80 cm(-1) very broad often looks like distorted baseline (O-H carboxylic acids). The band 1,633.26 to 1,625.81 cm(-1) was assigned to C = C alkenes, aromatic ring stretching vibration, respectively. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated and having the size of 120 nm. TEM reveals spherical shape of synthesized AgNPs. Particle size analysis revealed that the size of particles ranges from 25 to 47 nm with average size of 34.61 nm

  12. Biolarvicidal and pupicidal activity of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex Willd.(Family:Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and microbial insecticide, Metarhizium anisopliae(Metsch.)against malaria fever mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was made to determine the biological activity of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarizhium anisopliae against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Ethanolic A. alnifolia leaf extract tested against 1st through 4th instars and pupae o...

  13. Environmental factors associated with the distribution of Anopheles gambiae s.s in Ghana; an important vector of lymphatic filariasis and malaria.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Dziedzom; Kelly-Hope, Louise; Lawson, Bernard; Wilson, Michael; Boakye, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae s.s mosquitoes are important vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and malaria in Ghana. To better understand their ecological aspects and influence on disease transmission, we examined the spatial distribution of the An. gambiae (M and S) molecular forms and associated environmental factors, and determined their relationship with disease prevalence. Published and current data available on the An. gambiae species in Ghana were collected in a database for analysis, and the study sites were georeferenced and mapped. Using the An. gambiae s.s sites, environmental data were derived from climate, vegetation and remote-sensed satellite sources, and disease prevalence data from existing LF and malaria maps in the literature. The data showed that An. gambiae M and S forms were sympatric in most locations. However, the S form predominated in the central region, while the M form predominated in the northern and coastal savanna regions. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses identified temperature as a key factor distinguishing their distributions. An. gambiae M was significantly correlated with LF, and 2.5 to 3 times more prevalent in the high LF zone than low to medium zones. There were no significant associations between high prevalence An. gambiae s.s locations and malaria. The distribution of the An. gambiae M and S forms and the diseases they transmit in Ghana appear to be distinct, driven by different environmental factors. This study provides useful baseline information for disease control, and future work on the An. gambiae s.s in Ghana. PMID:20360950

  14. Larvivorous fish for preventing malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Walshe, Deirdre P; Garner, Paul; Abdel-Hameed Adeel, Ahmed A; Pyke, Graham H; Burkot, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult anopheline mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. Some fish species eat mosquito larvae and pupae. In disease control policy documents, the World Health Organization includes biological control of malaria vectors by stocking ponds, rivers, and water collections near where people live with larvivorous fish to reduce Plasmodium parasite transmission. The Global Fund finances larvivorous fish programmes in some countries, and, with increasing efforts in eradication of malaria, policy makers may return to this option. We therefore assessed the evidence base for larvivorous fish programmes in malaria control. Objectives Our main objective was to evaluate whether introducing larvivorous fish to anopheline breeding sites impacts Plasmodium parasite transmission. Our secondary objective was to summarize studies evaluating whether introducing larvivorous fish influences the density and presence of Anopheles larvae and pupae in water sources, to understand whether fish can possibly have an effect. Search methods We attempted to identify all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status (published, unpublished, in press, or ongoing). We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; LILACS; and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) until 18 June 2013. We checked the reference lists of all studies identified by the above methods. We also examined references listed in review articles and previously compiled bibliographies to look for eligible studies. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials and non-randomized controlled trials, including controlled before-and-after studies, controlled time series and controlled interrupted time series studies from malaria-endemic regions that introduced fish as a larvicide and reported on malaria in

  15. Cuticular differences associated with aridity acclimation in African malaria vectors carrying alternative arrangements of inversion 2La

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Principal malaria vectors in Africa, An. gambiae and An. coluzzii, share an inversion polymorphism on the left arm of chromosome 2 (2La/2L+a) that is distributed non-randomly in the environment. Genomic sequencing studies support the role of strong natural selection in maintaining steep clines in 2La inversion frequency along environmental gradients of aridity, and physiological studies have directly implicated 2La in heat and desiccation tolerance, but the precise genetic basis and the underlying behavioral and physiological mechanisms remain unknown. As the insect cuticle is the primary barrier to water loss, differences in cuticle thickness and/or epicuticular waterproofing associated with alternative 2La arrangements might help explain differences in desiccation resistance. Methods To test that hypothesis, two subcolonies of both An. gambiae and An. coluzzii were established that were fixed for alternative 2La arrangements (2La or 2L+a) on an otherwise homosequential and shared genetic background. Adult mosquitoes reared under controlled environmental conditions (benign or arid) for eight days post-eclosion were collected and analyzed. Measurements of cuticle thickness were made based on scanning electron microscopy, and cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) composition was evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results After removing the allometric effects of body weight, differences in mean cuticle thickness were found between alternative 2La karyotypes, but not between alternative environments. Moreover, the thicker cuticle of the An. coluzzii 2La karyotype was contrary to the known higher rate of water loss of this karyotype relative to 2L+a. On the other hand, quantitative differences in individual CHCs and overall CHC profiles between alternative karyotypes and environmental conditions were consistent with expectation based on previous physiological studies. Conclusions Our results suggest that alternative arrangements of the 2La inversion

  16. Impact of Malaria Vector Control Interventions at the Beginning of a Malaria Elimination Stage in a Dominant Area of Anopheles anthropophagus, Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, K J; Cai, S X; Lin, W; Xia, J; Pi, Q; Hu, L Q; Huang, G Q; Pei, S J; Zhang, H X

    2015-10-01

    Three towns with similar socio-ecological characteristics, malaria morbidities, and populations were selected for this study to explore economic and effective malaria control measures.The sources of infection were controlled in each town. Impregnated mosquito nets with 2.5% deltamethrin (15 mg/m(2)) combined with residual spraying of 5% cypermethrin (25 mg/m(2)) was implemented in cattle and pig pens, as well as in crowded sites in Chenji, whereas the mosquito nets were treated with 2.5% deltamethrin only in Guanqiao Town. All the control measures implemented in Fengling (control town) were the same as those implemented in the towns of Chenji and Guanqiao, except for mosquito elimination control. Results were evaluated and compared based on pathogens and entomology. The densities of Anopheles anthropophagus mosquitoes in houses, outside houses (man bait), as well as in cattle pens and pig pens were reduced by 100%, 71.96%, 94.01%, and 67.42%, respectively at all 4 sites in Chenji Town, whereas the density increased at 1 site (the outside house [man bait]) by 12.38%, while the densities at the other 3 sites (in houses, cattle pens and pig pens) were reduced by 99.63%, 18.71% and 69.44% respectively in Guanqiao Town. The biting rates of An. anthropophagus in the 3 towns were 0.11, 0.22, and 1.1 respectively in Chenji, Guanqiao, and Fengling. The incidence of malaria in the 3 towns decreased by 73.12%, 57.71%, and 65.71% in terms of annual average. Both impregnated mosquito nets combined with residual spraying and impregnated mosquito nets only reduced the density of An. anthropophagus in houses in the 2 towns, but reduction was more rapid in Chenji Town. PMID:25993491

  17. Benefit of Insecticide-Treated Nets, Curtains and Screening on Vector Borne Diseases, Excluding Malaria: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anne L.; Dhiman, Ramesh C.; Kitron, Uriel; Scott, Thomas W.; van den Berg, Henk; Lindsay, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. However, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (VBDs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of ITNs, insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) and insecticide-treated house screening (ITS) against Chagas disease, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, human African trypanosomiasis, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and Tropical Disease Bulletin databases were searched using intervention, vector- and disease-specific search terms. Cluster or individually randomised controlled trials, non-randomised trials with pre- and post-intervention data and rotational design studies were included. Analysis assessed the efficacy of ITNs, ITCs or ITS versus no intervention. Meta-analysis of clinical data was performed and percentage reduction in vector density calculated. Results Twenty-one studies were identified which met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of clinical data could only be performed for four cutaneous leishmaniasis studies which together showed a protective efficacy of ITNs of 77% (95%CI: 39%–91%). Studies of ITC and ITS against cutaneous leishmaniasis also reported significant reductions in disease incidence. Single studies reported a high protective efficacy of ITS against dengue and ITNs against Japanese encephalitis. No studies of Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis or onchocerciasis were identified. Conclusion There are likely to be considerable collateral benefits of ITN roll out on cutaneous leishmaniasis where this disease is co-endemic with malaria. Due to the low number of studies identified, issues with reporting of entomological outcomes, and few studies reporting clinical outcomes, it is difficult to make strong conclusions on the effect of ITNs, ITCs or ITS on other VBDs and therefore further studies

  18. Ecological and genetic relationships of the Forest-M form among chromosomal and molecular forms of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoosook; Cornel, Anthony J; Meneses, Claudio R; Fofana, Abdrahamane; Andrianarivo, Aurélie G; McAbee, Rory D; Fondjo, Etienne; Traoré, Sekou F; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2009-01-01

    Background Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, one of the principal vectors of malaria, has been divided into two subspecific groups, known as the M and S molecular forms. Recent studies suggest that the M form found in Cameroon is genetically distinct from the M form found in Mali and elsewhere in West Africa, suggesting further subdivision within that form. Methods Chromosomal, microsatellite and geographic/ecological evidence are synthesized to identify sources of genetic polymorphism among chromosomal and molecular forms of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Results Cytogenetically the Forest M form is characterized as carrying the standard chromosome arrangement for six major chromosomal inversions, namely 2La, 2Rj, 2Rb, 2Rc, 2Rd, and 2Ru. Bayesian clustering analysis based on molecular form and chromosome inversion polymorphisms as well as microsatellites describe the Forest M form as a distinct population relative to the West African M form (Mopti-M form) and the S form. The Forest-M form was the most highly diverged of the An. gambiae s.s. groups based on microsatellite markers. The prevalence of the Forest M form was highly correlated with precipitation, suggesting that this form prefers much wetter environments than the Mopti-M form. Conclusion Chromosome inversions, microsatellite allele frequencies and habitat preference all indicate that the Forest M form of An. gambiae is genetically distinct from the other recognized forms within the taxon Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Since this study covers limited regions of Cameroon, the possibility of gene flow between the Forest-M form and Mopti-M form cannot be rejected. However, association studies of important phenotypes, such as insecticide resistance and refractoriness against malaria parasites, should take into consideration this complex population structure. PMID:19383163

  19. Microsatellite and mitochondrial markers reveal strong gene flow barriers for Anopheles farauti in the Solomon Archipelago: implications for malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Luke; Cooper, Robert D; Russell, Tanya L; Burkot, Thomas R; Lobo, Neil F; Collins, Frank H; Hii, Jeffrey; Beebe, Nigel W

    2014-03-01

    Anopheles farauti is the primary malaria vector throughout the coastal regions of the Southwest Pacific. A shift in peak biting time from late to early in the night occurred following widespread indoor residue spraying of dichlorodiphenyltrichloro-ethane (DDT) and has persisted in some island populations despite the intervention ending decades ago. We used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequence data and 12 newly developed microsatellite markers to assess the population genetic structure of this malaria vector in the Solomon Archipelago. With geographically distinct differences in peak A. farauti night biting time observed in the Solomon Archipelago, we tested the hypothesis that strong barriers to gene flow exist in this region. Significant and often large fixation index (FST) values were found between different island populations for the mitochondrial and nuclear markers, suggesting highly restricted gene flow between islands. Some discordance in the location and strength of genetic breaks was observed between the mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. Since early night biting A. farauti individuals occur naturally in all populations, the strong gene flow barriers that we have identified in the Solomon Archipelago lend weight to the hypothesis that the shifts in peak biting time from late to early night have appeared independently in these disconnected island populations. For this reason, we suggest that insecticide impregnated bed nets and indoor residue spraying are unlikely to be effective as control tools against A. farauti occurring elsewhere, and if used, will probably result in peak biting time behavioural shifts similar to that observed in the Solomon Islands. PMID:24440418

  20. The reproductive tracts of two malaria vectors are populated by a core microbiome and by gender- and swarm-enriched microbial biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Segata, Nicola; Baldini, Francesco; Pompon, Julien; Garrett, Wendy S.; Truong, Duy Tin; Dabiré, Roch K.; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Levashina, Elena A.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    Microbes play key roles in shaping the physiology of insects and can influence behavior, reproduction and susceptibility to pathogens. In Sub-Saharan Africa, two major malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii, breed in distinct larval habitats characterized by different microorganisms that might affect their adult physiology and possibly Plasmodium transmission. We analyzed the reproductive microbiomes of male and female An. gambiae and An. coluzzii couples collected from natural mating swarms in Burkina Faso. 16S rRNA sequencing on dissected tissues revealed that the reproductive tracts harbor a complex microbiome characterized by a large core group of bacteria shared by both species and all reproductive tissues. Interestingly, we detected a significant enrichment of several gender-associated microbial biomarkers in specific tissues, and surprisingly, similar classes of bacteria in males captured from one mating swarm, suggesting that these males originated from the same larval breeding site. Finally, we identified several endosymbiotic bacteria, including Spiroplasma, which have the ability to manipulate insect reproductive success. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of the reproductive microbiome of important human disease vectors, and identifies a panel of core and endosymbiotic bacteria that can be potentially exploited to interfere with the transmission of malaria parasites by the Anopheles mosquito. PMID:27086581

  1. Impact of Insecticide Resistance on the Effectiveness of Pyrethroid-Based Malaria Vectors Control Tools in Benin: Decreased Toxicity and Repellent Effect.

    PubMed

    Agossa, Fiacre R; Gnanguenon, Virgile; Anagonou, Rodrigue; Azondekon, Roseric; Aïzoun, Nazaire; Sovi, Arthur; Oké-Agbo, Frédéric; Sèzonlin, Michel; Akogbéto, Martin C

    2015-01-01

    Since the first evidence of pyrethroids resistance in 1999 in Benin, mutations have rapidly increased in mosquitoes and it is now difficult to design a study including a control area where malaria vectors are fully susceptible. Few studies have assessed the after effect of resistance on the success of pyrethroid based prevention methods in mosquito populations. We therefore assessed the impact of resistance on the effectiveness of pyrethroids based indoor residual spraying (IRS) in semi-field conditions and long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in laboratory conditions. The results observed showed low repulsion and low toxicity of pyrethroids compounds in the test populations. The toxicity of pyrethroids used in IRS was significantly low with An. gambiae s.l (< 46%) but high for other predominant species such as Mansonia africana (93% to 97%). There were significant differences in terms of the repellent effect expressed as exophily and deterrence compared to the untreated huts (P<0.001). Furthermore, mortality was 23.71% for OlyseNet® and 39.06% for PermaNet®. However, with laboratory susceptible "Kisumu", mortality was 100% for both nets suggesting a resistance within the wild mosquito populations. Thus treatment with pyrethroids at World Health Organization recommended dose will not be effective at reducing malaria in the coming years. Therefore it is necessary to study how insecticide resistance decreases the efficacy of particular pyrethroids used in pyrethroid-based vector control so that a targeted approach can be adopted. PMID:26674643

  2. The reproductive tracts of two malaria vectors are populated by a core microbiome and by gender- and swarm-enriched microbial biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Segata, Nicola; Baldini, Francesco; Pompon, Julien; Garrett, Wendy S; Truong, Duy Tin; Dabiré, Roch K; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Levashina, Elena A; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    Microbes play key roles in shaping the physiology of insects and can influence behavior, reproduction and susceptibility to pathogens. In Sub-Saharan Africa, two major malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii, breed in distinct larval habitats characterized by different microorganisms that might affect their adult physiology and possibly Plasmodium transmission. We analyzed the reproductive microbiomes of male and female An. gambiae and An. coluzzii couples collected from natural mating swarms in Burkina Faso. 16S rRNA sequencing on dissected tissues revealed that the reproductive tracts harbor a complex microbiome characterized by a large core group of bacteria shared by both species and all reproductive tissues. Interestingly, we detected a significant enrichment of several gender-associated microbial biomarkers in specific tissues, and surprisingly, similar classes of bacteria in males captured from one mating swarm, suggesting that these males originated from the same larval breeding site. Finally, we identified several endosymbiotic bacteria, including Spiroplasma, which have the ability to manipulate insect reproductive success. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of the reproductive microbiome of important human disease vectors, and identifies a panel of core and endosymbiotic bacteria that can be potentially exploited to interfere with the transmission of malaria parasites by the Anopheles mosquito. PMID:27086581

  3. Impact of Insecticide Resistance on the Effectiveness of Pyrethroid-Based Malaria Vectors Control Tools in Benin: Decreased Toxicity and Repellent Effect

    PubMed Central

    Agossa, Fiacre R.; Gnanguenon, Virgile; Anagonou, Rodrigue; Azondekon, Roseric; Aïzoun, Nazaire; Sovi, Arthur; Oké-Agbo, Frédéric; Sèzonlin, Michel; Akogbéto, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first evidence of pyrethroids resistance in 1999 in Benin, mutations have rapidly increased in mosquitoes and it is now difficult to design a study including a control area where malaria vectors are fully susceptible. Few studies have assessed the after effect of resistance on the success of pyrethroid based prevention methods in mosquito populations. We therefore assessed the impact of resistance on the effectiveness of pyrethroids based indoor residual spraying (IRS) in semi-field conditions and long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in laboratory conditions. The results observed showed low repulsion and low toxicity of pyrethroids compounds in the test populations. The toxicity of pyrethroids used in IRS was significantly low with An. gambiae s.l (< 46%) but high for other predominant species such as Mansonia africana (93% to 97%). There were significant differences in terms of the repellent effect expressed as exophily and deterrence compared to the untreated huts (P<0.001). Furthermore, mortality was 23.71% for OlyseNet® and 39.06% for PermaNet®. However, with laboratory susceptible “Kisumu”, mortality was 100% for both nets suggesting a resistance within the wild mosquito populations. Thus treatment with pyrethroids at World Health Organization recommended dose will not be effective at reducing malaria in the coming years. Therefore it is necessary to study how insecticide resistance decreases the efficacy of particular pyrethroids used in pyrethroid-based vector control so that a targeted approach can be adopted. PMID:26674643

  4. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The final article in a series of three publications examining the global distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS) of malaria is presented here. The first publication examined the DVS from the Americas, with the second covering those species present in Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Here we discuss the 19 DVS of the Asian-Pacific region. This region experiences a high diversity of vector species, many occurring sympatrically, which, combined with the occurrence of a high number of species complexes and suspected species complexes, and behavioural plasticity of many of these major vectors, adds a level of entomological complexity not comparable elsewhere globally. To try and untangle the intricacy of the vectors of this region and to increase the effectiveness of vector control interventions, an understanding of the contemporary distribution of each species, combined with a synthesis of the current knowledge of their behaviour and ecology is needed. Results Expert opinion (EO) range maps, created with the most up-to-date expert knowledge of each DVS distribution, were combined with a contemporary database of occurrence data and a suite of open access, environmental and climatic variables. Using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) modelling method, distribution maps of each DVS were produced. The occurrence data were abstracted from the formal, published literature, plus other relevant sources, resulting in the collation of DVS occurrence at 10116 locations across 31 countries, of which 8853 were successfully geo-referenced and 7430 were resolved to spatial areas that could be included in the BRT model. A detailed summary of the information on the bionomics of each species and species complex is also presented. Conclusions This article concludes a project aimed to establish the contemporary global distribution of the DVS of malaria. The three articles produced are intended as a detailed reference for scientists continuing research into the

  5. Factors influencing the spatial distribution of Anopheles larvae in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Naresh Kumar; Kadarkarai, Murugan; Kumar, Shobana; Pari, Madhiyazhagan; Thiyagarajan, Nataraj; Vincent, C Thomas; Barnard, Donald R

    2015-12-01

    Malaria causes extensive morbidity and mortality in humans and results in significant economic losses in India. The distribution of immature malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes was studied in 17 villages in Coimbatore District as a prelude to the development and implementation of vector control strategies that are intended to reduce the risk of human exposure to potentially infectious mosquitoes. Eight Anopheles species were recorded. The most numerous species were Anopheles vagus, Anopheles subpictus, and Anopheles hyrcanus. The location of mosquito development sites and the density of larvae in each village was evaluated for correlation with selected demographic, biologic, and land use parameters using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) technology. We found the number of mosquito development sites in a village and the density of larvae in such sites to be positively correlated with human population density but not the surface area (km(2)) of the village. The number of mosquito development sites and the density of larvae in each site were not correlated. Data from this study are being used to construct a GIS-based mapping system that will enable the location of aquatic habitats with Anopheles larvae in the Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India as target sites for the application of vector control. PMID:26364718

  6. The use of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. (Myrtaceae) oil (leaf extract) as a natural larvicidal agent against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Senthil Nathan, Sengottayan

    2007-07-01

    Secondary metabolites obtained from the indigenous plants with proven mosquito control potential can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides under the integrated vector control. The essential oil extract from the forest redgum, Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. (Myrtaceae) was tested against mature and immature mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera) under laboratory condition. The extract showed strong larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activity. The leaf oil extracts showed high bioactivity at high doses. Results obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the leaf extracts suppressed the pupal and adult activity of Anopheles stephensi at higher doses. In general, first and second instar larvae were more susceptible to all treatments. Clear dose -response relationships were established with the highest dose of 160ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. The results obtained suggest that, in addition to their medicinal activities, E. tereticornis can also serve as a natural mosquitocide. PMID:16997545

  7. Dynamics of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Benin: first evidence of the presence of L1014S kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae from West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance monitoring is essential to help national programmers to implement more effective and sustainable malaria control strategies in endemic countries. This study reported the spatial and seasonal variations of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Benin, West Africa. Methods Anopheles gambiae s.l populations were collected from October 2008 to June 2010 in four sites selected on the basis of different use of insecticides and environment. WHO susceptibility tests were carried out to detect resistance to DDT, fenitrothion, bendiocarb, permethrin and deltamethrin. The synergist piperonyl butoxide was used to assess the role of non-target site mechanisms in pyrethroid resistance. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were identified to species and to molecular M and S forms using PCR techniques. Molecular and biochemical assays were carried out to determine kdr and Ace.1R allelic frequencies and activity of the detoxification enzymes. Results Throughout the surveys very high levels of mortality to bendiocarb and fenitrothion were observed in An. gambiae s.l. populations. However, high frequencies of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids were seen in both M and S form of An. gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis. PBO increased the toxicity of permethrin and restored almost full susceptibility to deltamethrin. Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes from Cotonou and Malanville showed higher oxidase activity compared to the Kisumu susceptible strain in 2009, whereas the esterase activity was higher in the mosquitoes from Bohicon in both 2008 and 2009. A high frequency of 1014F kdr allele was initially showed in An. gambiae from Cotonou and Tori-Bossito whereas it increased in mosquitoes from Bohicon and Malanville during the second year. For the first time the L1014S kdr mutation was found in An. arabiensis in Benin. The ace.1R mutation was almost absent in An. gambiae s.l. Conclusion Pyrethroid and DDT resistance is widespread in malaria vector in Benin

  8. Evaluation of the Efficacy of ChAd63-MVA Vectored Vaccines Expressing Circumsporozoite Protein and ME-TRAP Against Controlled Human Malaria Infection in Malaria-Naive Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Susanne H.; Ewer, Katie J.; Bliss, Carly M.; Edwards, Nick J.; Rampling, Thomas; Anagnostou, Nicholas A.; de Barra, Eoghan; Havelock, Tom; Bowyer, Georgina; Poulton, Ian D.; de Cassan, Simone; Longley, Rhea; Illingworth, Joseph J.; Douglas, Alexander D.; Mange, Pooja B.; Collins, Katharine A.; Roberts, Rachel; Gerry, Stephen; Berrie, Eleanor; Moyle, Sarah; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Sinden, Robert E.; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Bejon, Philip; Lawrie, Alison M.; Nicosia, Alfredo; Faust, Saul N.; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Circumsporozoite protein (CS) is the antigenic target for RTS,S, the most advanced malaria vaccine to date. Heterologous prime-boost with the viral vectors simian adenovirus 63 (ChAd63)-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is the most potent inducer of T-cells in humans, demonstrating significant efficacy when expressing the preerythrocytic antigen insert multiple epitope–thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (ME-TRAP). We hypothesized that ChAd63-MVA containing CS may result in a significant clinical protective efficacy. Methods. We conducted an open-label, 2-site, partially randomized Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) study to compare the clinical efficacy of ChAd63-MVA CS with ChAd63-MVA ME-TRAP. Results. One of 15 vaccinees (7%) receiving ChAd63-MVA CS and 2 of 15 (13%) receiving ChAd63-MVA ME-TRAP achieved sterile protection after CHMI. Three of 15 vaccinees (20%) receiving ChAd63-MVA CS and 5 of 15 (33%) receiving ChAd63-MVA ME-TRAP demonstrated a delay in time to treatment, compared with unvaccinated controls. In quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses, ChAd63-MVA CS was estimated to reduce the liver parasite burden by 69%–79%, compared with 79%–84% for ChAd63-MVA ME-TRAP. Conclusions. ChAd63-MVA CS does reduce the liver parasite burden, but ChAd63-MVA ME-TRAP remains the most promising antigenic insert for a vectored liver-stage vaccine. Detailed analyses of parasite kinetics may allow detection of smaller but biologically important differences in vaccine efficacy that can influence future vaccine development. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01623557. PMID:25336730

  9. REEVALUATION OF MALARIA PARASITES IN EL-FAYOUM GOVERNORATE, EGYPT USING RAPID DIAGNOSTIC TESTS (RDTS).

    PubMed

    Dahesh, Salwa M A; Mostafa, Heba I

    2015-12-01

    Malaria as a disease has been identified in Egypt since ancient times. Malaria was endemic in almost all parts of the country but prevalence showed a steady decrease by 1990, and regressed in most of the Governorates. Then by the end of 1998 till now Egypt become free from local transmission of malaria. All reported cases were imported mainly from Sudan. However, the outbreak of falciparum (1 case) and vivax (23 cases) that occurred (May 2014) in Aswan Governorate strongly indicated that malaria is reemerging in the country. El-Fayoum should be take special attention, rather than being the last residual focus. The efficient malaria vector A. sergenti, the proven vector A. pharoensis and the suspected vector A. multicolor were encountered. This work reevaluated malaria status by using RDTs in survey and Giemsa stained thick films to confirm positive cases and estimation of parasite rate, formula, densities and species, also to study the ecological and entomological efficacy factors. The result showed that out of 2044 examined persons, 14 (0.68%) were passive cases, i.e., attending themselves to El-Fayoum Malaria Units after their return from Sudan. Microscopic examination of their stained thick films obtained from MOH&P shows that 9 (64.2%) out of passive cases were positive 3 of them are P. falciparum (33.3%) and the rest P. vivax 6 (66.7%) The species formulas of P. falciparum and P. vivax were 33.3% and 66.7% respectively. Concerning the density class, only one vivax case was of low density class while the other cases were of high density class. All positive cases were males, imported from Sudan and most of them were merchants having trade activities in Sudan. All examined persons during active case detection ACD (1551) and neighborhood of detected cases NOD (479) were malaria negative by rapid diagnostic tests. The areas recording the highest number of imported cases were Abu Shanap, Aboxa (Ballona) and Kafr Aboud (Abshaway Center) but no Anopheline spp larvae

  10. Effective autodissemination of pyriproxyfen to breeding sites by the exophilic malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in semi-field settings in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria vector control strategies that target adult female mosquitoes are challenged by the emergence of insecticide resistance and behavioural resilience. Conventional larviciding is restricted by high operational costs and inadequate knowledge of mosquito-breeding habitats in rural settings that might be overcome by the juvenile hormone analogue, Pyriproxyfen (PPF). This study assessed the potential for Anopheles arabiensis to pick up and transfer lethal doses of PPF from contamination sites to their breeding habitats (i.e. autodissemination of PPF). Methods A semi-field system (SFS) with four identical separate chambers was used to evaluate PPF-treated clay pots for delivering PPF to resting adult female mosquitoes for subsequent autodissemination to artificial breeding habitats within the chambers. In each chamber, a tethered cow provided blood meals to laboratory-reared, unfed female An. arabiensis released in the SFS. In PPF-treated chambers, clay pot linings were dusted with 0.2 – 0.3 g AI PPF per pot. Pupae were removed from the artificial habitats daily, and emergence rates calculated. Impact of PPF on emergence was determined by comparing treatment with an appropriate control group. Results Mean (95% CI) adult emergence rates were (0.21 ± 0.299) and (0.95 ± 0.39) from PPF-treated and controls respectively (p < 0.0001). Laboratory bioassay of water samples from artificial habitats in these experiments resulted in significantly lower emergence rates in treated chambers (0.16 ± 0.23) compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05) (p < 0.0001). In experiments where no mosquitoes introduced, there were no significant differences between control and treatment, indicating that transfer of PPF to breeding sites only occurred when mosquitoes were present; i.e. that autodissemination had occurred. Treatment of a single clay pot reduced adult emergence in six habitats to (0.34 ± 0.13) compared to (0.98 ± 0.02) in the controls

  11. Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Drescher, Axel W; Tanner, Marcel; Castro, Marcia C; Killeen, Gerry F

    2007-01-01

    Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1) community-based development of sketch maps and (2) verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa. PMID:17784963

  12. Structure and Function of a G-actin Sequestering Protein with a Vital Role in Malaria Oocyst Development inside the Mosquito Vector*

    PubMed Central

    Hliscs, Marion; Sattler, Julia M.; Tempel, Wolfram; Artz, Jennifer D.; Dong, Aiping; Hui, Raymond; Matuschewski, Kai; Schüler, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) are evolutionary conserved G-actin-binding proteins that regulate microfilament turnover. CAPs have a modular structure consisting of an N-terminal adenylate cyclase binding domain, a central proline-rich segment, and a C-terminal actin binding domain. Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, such as Cryptosporidium and the malaria parasite Plasmodium, express small CAP orthologs with homology to the C-terminal actin binding domain (C-CAP). Here, we demonstrate by reverse genetics that C-CAP is dispensable for the pathogenic Plasmodium blood stages. However, c-cap(-) parasites display a complete defect in oocyst development in the insect vector. By trans-species complementation we show that the Cryptosporidium parvum ortholog complements the Plasmodium gene functions. Purified recombinant C. parvum C-CAP protein binds actin monomers and prevents actin polymerization. The crystal structure of C. parvum C-CAP shows two monomers with a right-handed β-helical fold intercalated at their C termini to form the putative physiological dimer. Our results reveal a specific vital role for an apicomplexan G-actin-binding protein during sporogony, the parasite replication phase that precedes formation of malaria transmission stages. This study also exemplifies how Plasmodium reverse genetics combined with biochemical and structural analyses of orthologous proteins can offer a fast track toward systematic gene characterization in apicomplexan parasites. PMID:20083609

  13. Effects of environmental endocrine disruptors, including insecticides used for malaria vector control on reproductive parameters of male rats.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Sean M; Bornman, Maria S; Joubert, Annie M; Pitts, Neville; Naidoo, Vinny; de Jager, Christiaan

    2016-06-01

    The male reproductive system is sensitive to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during critical developmental windows. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in utero-, during lactation- and directly to 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) and a mixture of DDT, deltamethrin (DM), p-nonylphenol (p-NP) and phytoestrogens, at concentrations found in a malaria-area. After dosing for 104 days, histological assessments and reproductive-endpoints were assessed. The anogenital distance (AGD) (P=0.005) was shorter in the mixture-exposed group, while the prostate mass (P=0.018) was higher in the DDT-exposed group. A higher testicular mass and abnormal histology was observed in the DDT-(P=0.019), DDE-(P=0.047) and mixture-exposed (P<0.005) groups. This study shows that in utero-, lactational- and direct exposure to EDCs present in a malaria-area negatively affects male reproductive parameters in rats. These findings raise concerns to EDC-exposures to mothers living in malaria-areas and the reproductive health of their male offspring. PMID:26928317

  14. Baculovirus-Vectored Multistage Plasmodium vivax Vaccine Induces Both Protective and Transmission-Blocking Immunities against Transgenic Rodent Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Masanori; Iyori, Mitsuhiro; Blagborough, Andrew M.; Fukumoto, Shinya; Funatsu, Tomohiro; Sinden, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    A multistage malaria vaccine targeting the pre-erythrocytic and sexual stages of Plasmodium could effectively protect individuals against infection from mosquito bites and provide transmission-blocking (TB) activity against the sexual stages of the parasite, respectively. This strategy could help prevent malaria infections in individuals and, on a larger scale, prevent malaria transmission in communities of endemicity. Here, we describe the development of a multistage Plasmodium vivax vaccine which simultaneously expresses P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (PvCSP) and P25 (Pvs25) protein of this species as a fusion protein, thereby acting as a pre-erythrocytic vaccine and a TB vaccine, respectively. A new-concept vaccine platform based on the baculovirus dual-expression system (BDES) was evaluated. The BDES-Pvs25-PvCSP vaccine displayed correct folding of the Pvs25-PvCSP fusion protein on the viral envelope and was highly expressed upon transduction of mammalian cells in vitro. This vaccine induced high levels of antibodies to Pvs25 and PvCSP and elicited protective (43%) and TB (82%) efficacies against transgenic P. berghei parasites expressing the corresponding P. vivax antigens in mice. Our data indicate that our BDES, which functions as both a subunit and DNA vaccine, can offer a promising multistage vaccine capable of delivering a potent antimalarial pre-erythrocytic and TB response via a single immunization regimen. PMID:25092912

  15. Assessment of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) on Vectors and Malaria Transmission in the Commune of Aguegues, Benin

    PubMed Central

    Modeste Gouissi, Fadéby; Salifou, Sahidou; Patrick Edorh, Aléodjrodo; Anges Yadouleton, William; Djenontin, Armel; Bio-Banganna, Sahabi; Geoffroy Augustin Gouissi, Sègbèhin; Akogbeto, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction To overcome the problems of periodic re-impregnation of mosquito nets and low rates of treatment, the commune of Aguegues was chosen to evaluate the effects of Olyset® nets on malaria transmission and against An. gambiae. Methods 87 old Olyset® nets installed five years ago were identified in the village ‘Akpadon’. 10 untreated nets were installed in 10 structures of type “a bedroom and parlour” in the village ‘Akodji’. Four rooms without nets were identified in the village ‘Donoukpa’. Entomological and epidemiological evaluations were conducted during the May to October 2011. 24 sessions of capture or 2088 men-nights resulted in the capture of 30,608 mosquitoes. Results The entrance of anopheles was significantly reduced in the village with Olyset® nets. 45% of mosquitoes captured inside rooms with Olyset® nets were found dead after 24 hrs of obser-vation. Overall, parasitemia was very low in the treated village (4.52%). 18 (4.64%) cases of malaria fever were from Akpadon with 7.5% positive blade smear, 29 (10.98%) were from Akodji with 8.37% positive blade smear, and 80 (95.23%) come from Donoukpa with 38.09% positive blade smear. The Olyset® nets and untreated net were adjusted hemoglobin levels. Conclusion Olyset® net had a very high knock down effect and is an alternative in malaria control. PMID:23678454

  16. The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Longevity and Insecticide Resistance Phenotype of the Major Malaria Vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Shüné V; Brooke, Basil D

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays numerous biological roles, both functional and pathological. The role of oxidative stress in various epidemiologically relevant biological traits in Anopheles mosquitoes is not well established. In this study, the effects of oxidative stress on the longevity and insecticide resistance phenotype in the major malaria vector species An. arabiensis and An. funestus were examined. Responses to dietary copper sulphate and hydrogen peroxide were used as proxies for the oxidative stress phenotype by determining the effect of copper on longevity and hydrogen peroxide lethal dose. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were determined colorimetrically. Oxidative burden was quantified as protein carbonyl content. Changes in insecticide resistance phenotype were monitored by WHO bioassay. Insecticide resistant individuals showed an increased capacity for coping with oxidative stress, mediated by increased glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. This effect was observed in both species, as well as in laboratory strains and F1 individuals derived from wild-caught An. funestus mothers. Phenotypic capacity for coping with oxidative stress was greatest in strains with elevated Cytochrome P450 activity. Synergism of oxidative stress defence enzymes by dietary supplementation with haematin, 3-Amino-1, 2, 4-triazole and Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate significantly increased pyrethroid-induced mortality in An. arabiensis and An. funestus. It is therefore concluded that defence against oxidative stress underlies the augmentation of the insecticide resistance phenotype associated with multiple blood-feeding. This is because multiple blood-feeding ultimately leads to a reduction of oxidative stress in insecticide resistant females, and also reduces the oxidative burden induced by DDT and pyrethroids, by inducing increased glutathione peroxidase activity. This study highlights the importance of oxidative stress in the longevity and insecticide resistance

  17. The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Longevity and Insecticide Resistance Phenotype of the Major Malaria Vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Shüné V.; Brooke, Basil D.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays numerous biological roles, both functional and pathological. The role of oxidative stress in various epidemiologically relevant biological traits in Anopheles mosquitoes is not well established. In this study, the effects of oxidative stress on the longevity and insecticide resistance phenotype in the major malaria vector species An. arabiensis and An. funestus were examined. Responses to dietary copper sulphate and hydrogen peroxide were used as proxies for the oxidative stress phenotype by determining the effect of copper on longevity and hydrogen peroxide lethal dose. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were determined colorimetrically. Oxidative burden was quantified as protein carbonyl content. Changes in insecticide resistance phenotype were monitored by WHO bioassay. Insecticide resistant individuals showed an increased capacity for coping with oxidative stress, mediated by increased glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. This effect was observed in both species, as well as in laboratory strains and F1 individuals derived from wild-caught An. funestus mothers. Phenotypic capacity for coping with oxidative stress was greatest in strains with elevated Cytochrome P450 activity. Synergism of oxidative stress defence enzymes by dietary supplementation with haematin, 3-Amino-1, 2, 4-triazole and Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate significantly increased pyrethroid-induced mortality in An. arabiensis and An. funestus. It is therefore concluded that defence against oxidative stress underlies the augmentation of the insecticide resistance phenotype associated with multiple blood-feeding. This is because multiple blood-feeding ultimately leads to a reduction of oxidative stress in insecticide resistant females, and also reduces the oxidative burden induced by DDT and pyrethroids, by inducing increased glutathione peroxidase activity. This study highlights the importance of oxidative stress in the longevity and insecticide resistance

  18. Fatty acids in anopheline mosquito larvae and their habitats.

    PubMed

    Komínková, Dana; Rejmánková, Eliška; Grieco, John; Achee, Nicole

    2012-12-01

    Larvae of the three important Central American malaria vectors, Anopheles albimanus, An. vestitipennis, and An. darlingi, are found in distinctly different habitats broadly defined by hydrology and aquatic vegetation, but little is known about the actual food quality and quantity of these habitats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are of special interest, because mosquitoes require 20:5ω3 (EPA), 20:4ω6 (ARA), and 22:6ω3 (DHA) and without an adequate supply of these PUFAs they are not able to complete their life cycle. We collected samples of larvae and their corresponding habitats and analyzed their fatty acid (FA) composition to reveal if there are any species-specific and habitat-specific differences in FA composition, and if habitat FA differences can be linked to differences in the mosquito FA pattern and, ultimately, mosquito performance. We also assessed how FA of wild larvae compare to the laboratory-reared larvae. Habitats were generally low in essential PUFAs and there were no significant differences among the FA composition of habitat samples. There were significant differences in FA composition of larvae. An. darlingi contained significantly higher amounts of FA, specifically a higher content of ω-6 PUFA, represented mainly by the linoleic acid (18:2ω-6). Large differences were found between field-collected and laboratory-reared An. vestitipennis larvae, especially in the content of PUFAs. The laboratory-reared larvae contained significantly more of the total FA, ω3 PUFA, and MUFA. The laboratory-reared larvae contained three to five times more essential PUFAs, EPA, and DHA. However, there were no differences in the total dry weight of the 4(th) instar larvae between the wild vs laboratory-reared larvae. Total FA in both larvae and habitats of An. albimanus and An. darlingi were positively correlated with the concentration of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC, PON) in their respective habitats, but no such correlation was found for An

  19. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This is the second in a series of three articles documenting the geographical distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS) of human malaria. The first paper addressed the DVS of the Americas and the third will consider those of the Asian Pacific Region. Here, the DVS of Africa, Europe and the Middle East are discussed. The continent of Africa experiences the bulk of the global malaria burden due in part to the presence of the An. gambiae complex. Anopheles gambiae is one of four DVS within the An. gambiae complex, the others being An. arabiensis and the coastal An. merus and An. melas. There are a further three, highly anthropophilic DVS in Africa, An. funestus, An. moucheti and An. nili. Conversely, across Europe and the Middle East, malaria transmission is low and frequently absent, despite the presence of six DVS. To help control malaria in Africa and the Middle East, or to identify the risk of its re-emergence in Europe, the contemporary distribution and bionomics of the relevant DVS are needed. Results A contemporary database of occurrence data, compiled from the formal literature and other relevant resources, resulted in the collation of information for seven DVS from 44 countries in Africa containing 4234 geo-referenced, independent sites. In Europe and the Middle East, six DVS were identified from 2784 geo-referenced sites across 49 countries. These occurrence data were combined with expert opinion ranges and a suite of environmental and climatic variables of relevance to anopheline ecology to produce predictive distribution maps using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) method. Conclusions The predicted geographic extent for the following DVS (or species/suspected species complex*) is provided for Africa: Anopheles (Cellia) arabiensis, An. (Cel.) funestus*, An. (Cel.) gambiae, An. (Cel.) melas, An. (Cel.) merus, An. (Cel.) moucheti and An. (Cel.) nili*, and in the European and Middle Eastern Region: An. (Anopheles) atroparvus, An. (Ano

  20. Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) methods decimate populations of Anopheles malaria vectors in arid environments regardless of the local availability of favoured sugar-source blossoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) methods are a new and promising "attract and kill" strategy for mosquito control. Sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes attracted to ATSB solutions, either sprayed on plants or in bait stations, ingest an incorporated low-risk toxin such as boric acid and are killed. This field study in the arid malaria-free oasis environment of Israel compares how the availability of a primary natural sugar source for Anopheles sergentii mosquitoes: flowering Acacia raddiana trees, affects the efficacy of ATSB methods for mosquito control. Methods A 47-day field trial was conducted to compare impacts of a single application of ATSB treatment on mosquito densities and age structure in isolated uninhabited sugar-rich and sugar-poor oases relative to an untreated sugar-rich oasis that served as a control. Results ATSB spraying on patches of non-flowering vegetation around freshwater springs reduced densities of female An. sergentii by 95.2% in the sugar-rich oasis and 98.6% in the sugar-poor oasis; males in both oases were practically eliminated. It reduced daily survival rates of female An. sergentii from 0.77 to 0.35 in the sugar-poor oasis and from 0.85 to 0.51 in the sugar-rich oasis. ATSB treatment reduced the proportion of older more epidemiologically dangerous mosquitoes (three or more gonotrophic cycles) by 100% and 96.7%, respectively, in the sugar-poor and sugar-rich oases. Overall, malaria vectorial capacity was reduced from 11.2 to 0.0 in the sugar-poor oasis and from 79.0 to 0.03 in the sugar-rich oasis. Reduction in vector capacity to negligible levels days after ATSB application in the sugar-poor oasis, but not until after 2 weeks in the sugar-rich oasis, show that natural sugar sources compete with the applied ATSB solutions. Conclusion While readily available natural sugar sources delay ATSB impact, they do not affect overall outcomes because the high frequency of sugar feeding by mosquitoes has an accumulating effect

  1. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and aqueous leaf extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae) and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the maximum efficacy was observed in crude methanol, aqueous, and synthesized silver nanoparticles against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 8.89, 11.82, and 0.69 ppm; LC(90) = 28.65, 36.06, and 2.15 ppm) and against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 9.51, 13.65, and 1.10 ppm; LC(90) = 28.13, 35.83, and 3.59 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the leaf methanol, aqueous extracts of N. nucifera, and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles. PMID:20978795

  2. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  3. Combining Viral Vectored and Protein-in-adjuvant Vaccines Against the Blood-stage Malaria Antigen AMA1: Report on a Phase 1a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Susanne H; Choudhary, Prateek; Elias, Sean C; Milne, Kathryn H; Rampling, Thomas W; Biswas, Sumi; Poulton, Ian D; Miura, Kazutoyo; Douglas, Alexander D; Alanine, Daniel GW; Illingworth, Joseph J; de Cassan, Simone C; Zhu, Daming; Nicosia, Alfredo; Long, Carole A; Moyle, Sarah; Berrie, Eleanor; Lawrie, Alison M; Wu, Yimin; Ellis, Ruth D; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective vaccines against difficult disease targets will require the identification of new subunit vaccination strategies that can induce and maintain effective immune responses in humans. Here we report on a phase 1a clinical trial using the AMA1 antigen from the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite delivered either as recombinant protein formulated with Alhydrogel adjuvant with and without CPG 7909, or using recombinant vectored vaccines—chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 and the orthopoxvirus MVA. A variety of promising “mixed-modality” regimens were tested. All volunteers were primed with ChAd63, and then subsequently boosted with MVA and/or protein-in-adjuvant using either an 8- or 16-week prime-boost interval. We report on the safety of these regimens, as well as the T cell, B cell, and serum antibody responses. Notably, IgG antibody responses primed by ChAd63 were comparably boosted by AMA1 protein vaccine, irrespective of whether CPG 7909 was included in the Alhydrogel adjuvant. The ability to improve the potency of a relatively weak aluminium-based adjuvant in humans, by previously priming with an adenoviral vaccine vector encoding the same antigen, thus offers a novel vaccination strategy for difficult or neglected disease targets when access to more potent adjuvants is not possible. PMID:25156127

  4. Induction of CD8(+) T cell responses and protective efficacy following microneedle-mediated delivery of a live adenovirus-vectored malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Frances E; O'Mahony, Conor; Moore, Anne C; Hill, Adrian V S

    2015-06-22

    There is an urgent need for improvements in vaccine delivery technologies. This is particularly pertinent for vaccination programmes within regions of limited resources, such as those required for adequate provision for disposal of used needles. Microneedles are micron-sized structures that penetrate the stratum corneum of the skin, creating temporary conduits for the needle-free delivery of drugs or vaccines. Here, we aimed to investigate immunity induced by the recombinant simian adenovirus-vectored vaccine ChAd63.ME-TRAP; currently undergoing clinical assessment as a candidate malaria vaccine, when delivered percutaneously by silicon microneedle arrays. In mice, we demonstrate that microneedle-mediated delivery of ChAd63.ME-TRAP induced similar numbers of transgene-specific CD8(+) T cells compared to intradermal (ID) administration with needle-and-syringe, following a single immunisation and after a ChAd63/MVA heterologous prime-boost schedule. When mice immunised with ChAd63/MVA were challenged with live Plasmodium berghei sporozoites, microneedle-mediated ChAd63.ME-TRAP priming demonstrated equivalent protective efficacy as did ID immunisation. Furthermore, responses following ChAd63/MVA immunisation correlated with a specific design parameter of the array used ('total array volume'). The level of transgene expression at the immunisation site and skin-draining lymph node (dLN) was also linked to total array volume. These findings have implications for defining silicon microneedle array design for use with live, vectored vaccines. PMID:25839104

  5. Combining viral vectored and protein-in-adjuvant vaccines against the blood-stage malaria antigen AMA1: report on a phase 1a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Susanne H; Choudhary, Prateek; Elias, Sean C; Milne, Kathryn H; Rampling, Thomas W; Biswas, Sumi; Poulton, Ian D; Miura, Kazutoyo; Douglas, Alexander D; Alanine, Daniel Gw; Illingworth, Joseph J; de Cassan, Simone C; Zhu, Daming; Nicosia, Alfredo; Long, Carole A; Moyle, Sarah; Berrie, Eleanor; Lawrie, Alison M; Wu, Yimin; Ellis, Ruth D; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

    2014-12-01

    The development of effective vaccines against difficult disease targets will require the identification of new subunit vaccination strategies that can induce and maintain effective immune responses in humans. Here we report on a phase 1a clinical trial using the AMA1 antigen from the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite delivered either as recombinant protein formulated with Alhydrogel adjuvant with and without CPG 7909, or using recombinant vectored vaccines--chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 and the orthopoxvirus MVA. A variety of promising "mixed-modality" regimens were tested. All volunteers were primed with ChAd63, and then subsequently boosted with MVA and/or protein-in-adjuvant using either an 8- or 16-week prime-boost interval. We report on the safety of these regimens, as well as the T cell, B cell, and serum antibody responses. Notably, IgG antibody responses primed by ChAd63 were comparably boosted by AMA1 protein vaccine, irrespective of whether CPG 7909 was included in the Alhydrogel adjuvant. The ability to improve the potency of a relatively weak aluminium-based adjuvant in humans, by previously priming with an adenoviral vaccine vector encoding the same antigen, thus offers a novel vaccination strategy for difficult or neglected disease targets when access to more potent adjuvants is not possible. PMID:25156127

  6. One-pot biogenic fabrication of silver nanocrystals using Quisqualis indica: Effectiveness on malaria and Zika virus mosquito vectors, and impact on non-target aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Vijayan, Periasamy; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Currently, mosquito vector control is facing a number of key challenges, including the rapid development of resistance to synthetic pesticides and the recent spread of aggressive arbovirus outbreaks. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently considered an environmental friendly alternative to the employ of pyrethroids, carbamates and microbial agents (e.g. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis), since AgNPs are easy to produce, effective and stable in the aquatic environment. However, their biophysical features showed wide variations according to the botanical agent using for the green synthesis, outlining the importance of screening local floral resources used as reducing and stabilizing agents. In this study, we focused on the biophysical properties and the mosquitocidal action of Quisqualis indica-fabricated AgNPs. AgNPs were characterized using spectroscopic (UV, FTIR, XRD) and microscopic (AFM, SEM, TEM and EDX) techniques. AFM, SEM and TEM confirmed the synthesis of poly-dispersed AgNPs with spherical shape and size ranging from 1 to 30nm. XRD shed light on the crystalline structure of these AgNPs. The acute toxicity of Quisqualis indica extract and AgNPs was evaluated against malaria, arbovirus, and filariasis vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as on three important non-target aquatic organisms. The Q. indica leaf extract showed moderate larvicidal effectiveness on Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=220.42), Ae. aegypti (LC50=203.63) and An. stephensi (LC50=185.98). Q. indica-fabricated AgNPs showed high toxicity against Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=14.63), Ae. aegypti (LC50=13.55) and An. stephensi (LC50=12.52), respectively. Notably, Q. indica-synthesized AgNPs were moderately toxic to non-target aquatic mosquito predators Anisops bouvieri (LC50=653.05μg/mL), Diplonychus indicus (LC50=860.94μg/mL) and Gambusia affinis (LC50=2183.16μg/mL), if compared to the targeted mosquitoes. Overall, the

  7. Population structure analyses and demographic history of the malaria vector Anopheles albimanus from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Anopheles albimanus is an important malaria vector in some areas throughout its distribution in the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia, covering three biogeographic zones of the neotropical region, Maracaibo, Magdalena and Chocó. Methods This study was conducted to estimate intra-population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and demographic history of An. albimanus populations because knowledge of vector population structure is a useful tool to guide malaria control programmes. Analyses were based on mtDNA COI gene sequences and four microsatellite loci of individuals collected in eight populations from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia. Results Two distinctive groups were consistently detected corresponding to COI haplotypes from each region. A star-shaped statistical parsimony network, significant and unimodal mismatch distribution, and significant negative neutrality tests together suggest a past demographic expansion or a selective sweep in An. albimanus from the Caribbean coast approximately 21,994 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Overall moderate to low genetic differentiation was observed between populations within each region. However, a significant level of differentiation among the populations closer to Buenaventura in the Pacific region was observed. The isolation by distance model best explained genetic differentiation among the Caribbean region localities: Los Achiotes, Santa Rosa de Lima and Moñitos, but it could not explain the genetic differentiation observed between Turbo (Magdalena providence), and the Pacific region localities (Nuquí, Buenaventura, Tumaco). The patterns of differentiation in the populations from the different biogeographic provinces could not be entirely attributed to isolation by distance. Conclusion The data provide evidence for limited past gene flow between the Caribbean and the Pacific regions, as estimated by mtDNA sequences and current gene flow patterns among An

  8. Vector control in some countries of Southeast Asia: comparing the vectors and the strategies.

    PubMed

    Meek, S R

    1995-04-01

    The use of information on malaria vector behaviour in vector control is discussed in relation to the area of Southeast Asia comprising Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. The major vectors in the region are Anopheles dirus, An. minimus, An. maculatus and An. sundaicus, of which An. dirus is the most important. Options for vector control and the biological features of mosquitoes, which would make them amenable to control by these measures, are listed. The methods with the greatest potential for controlling each of the four vector species are described. Experiences of vector control by residual spraying, insecticide-treated nets and larva control and of personal protection against the four vectors are outlined, and it is noted that choice of control strategy is often determined by epidemiological, economic and political considerations, whilst entomological observations may help to explain failures of control and to indicate alternative strategies. Future research needs include basic entomological field studies using the most appropriate indicators to detect changes related to rapidly changing environmental conditions, such as loss of forest and climate change. Further studies of the efficacy of insecticide-treated mosquito nets, with greater attention to study design, are needed before it can be assumed that they will work in Southeast Asia. At the same time, research to improve sustainable utilization of nets is important, bearing in mind that nets are not the only means to control malaria and should not drain resources from supervision and training, which improve access to diagnosis and treatment of malaria and other diseases. Research is needed to make decisions on whether vector control is appropriate in different environments, and, if so, how to carry it out in different health systems. Researchers need to play a greater role in making operational research (entomological, epidemiological, social, economic and health systems research) of good quality

  9. Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Bento Pereira; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Rodovalho, Cynara Melo; Santos, Fátima; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil. PMID:25185008

  10. Migration and Malaria in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of imported malaria cases due to immigrants in Europe has increased during the lasts decades, with higher rates associated with settled immigrants who travel to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) in their country of origin. Cases are mainly due to P. falciparum and Sub-Saharan Africa is the most common origin. Clinically, malaria in immigrants is characterised by a mild clinical presentation including asymptomatic or delayed malaria cases and low parasitic levels. These characteristics may be explained by a semi-immunity acquired after long periods of time exposed to stable malaria transmission. Malaria cases among immigrants, even asymptomatic patients with sub-microscopic parasitemia, could increase the risk of transmission and cause the reintroduction of malaria in certain areas that have adequate vectors and climate conditions. Moreover, imported malaria cases in immigrants can also play an important role in the non-vector transmission out of endemic areas, through blood transfusions, organ transplantation or congenital transmission or occupational exposures. Consequently, outside of endemic areas, malaria screening should be carried out among recently arrived immigrants coming from malaria endemic countries. The aim of screening is to reduce the risk of clinical malaria in the individual as well as to prevent autochthonous transmission of malaria in areas where it has been eradicated. PMID:22536477

  11. [Malaria in Iraq].

    PubMed

    Shamo, F J

    2001-01-01

    Malaria control campaign started in Iraq in 1957. This made the country largely free of the disease. Since 1991, following the recent war, Iraq has been affected by serious epidemic of P. vivax malaria that started in 3 autonomous governorates and soon involved other parts of the country. There were 49,840 malaria cases in the country in 1995. The national malaria programme personnel did their best to contain and control the epidemic. Active and passive case detection and treatment were introduced. Free of charge drugs are provided at all levels in the endemic area. Vector control includes environmental management, distribution of Gambusia fish, larviciding, indoor residual spraying with pyrithroids. A total of 4134 malaria cases were recorded in the country in 1999. PMID:11548316

  12. Next-Generation Site-Directed Transgenesis in the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles gambiae: Self-Docking Strains Expressing Germline-Specific phiC31 Integrase

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Janet M.; Underhill, Ann; McArthur, Clare C.; Eggleston, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes have a devastating impact on global health and the situation is complicated due to difficulties with both existing control measures and the impact of climate change. Genetically modified mosquitoes that are refractory to disease transmission are seen as having great potential in the delivery of novel control strategies. The Streptomyces phage phiC31 integrase system has been successfully adapted for site-directed transgene integration in a range of insects, thus overcoming many limitations due to size constraints and random integration associated with transposon-mediated transformation. Using this technology, we previously published the first site-directed transformation of Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria. Mosquitoes were initially engineered to incorporate the phiC31 docking site at a defined genomic location. A second phase of genetic modification then achieved site-directed integration of an anti-malarial effector gene. In the current publication we report improved efficiency and utility of the phiC31 integrase system following the generation of Anopheles gambiae self-docking strains. Four independent strains, with docking sites at known locations on three different chromosome arms, were engineered to express integrase under control of the regulatory regions of the nanos gene from Anopheles gambiae. The resulting protein accumulates in the posterior oocyte to provide integrase activity at the site of germline development. Two self-docking strains, exhibiting significantly different levels of integrase expression, were assessed for site-directed transgene integration and found to demonstrate greatly improved survival and efficiency of transformation. In the fight against malaria, it is imperative to establish a broad repertoire of both anti-malarial effector genes and tissue-specific promoters to regulate their expression, enabling those offering maximum effect with minimum fitness cost to be identified

  13. Anopheles gambiae exploits the treehole ecosystem in western Kenya: a new urban malaria risk?

    PubMed

    Omlin, Francois X; Carlson, John C; Ogbunugafor, C Brandon; Hassanali, Ahmed

    2007-12-01

    At six sites in western Kenya, we explored the presence of Anopheles immature stages in treeholes. An. gambiae larvae were found in 19 species, 13 of which are exotic. The most common exotic species were Delonix regia, Jacaranda mimosipholia, and Eucalyptus citrodora. In Kisumu city, longitudinal assessments of 10 Flamboyant trees showed repeated presence of An. gambiae s.s. in treeholes with water. Production of Anopheles larvae did not correlate with habitat volume but with habitat height, showing a strong but statistically insignificant negative correlation. During a dry season, eggs recovered by rinsing dry treeholes hatched into 2.5 +/- 3.06 An. gambiae and 7.9 +/- 8.2 Aedes larvae. In cage experiments, An. gambiae s.s. laid more eggs in water originating from treeholes than in distilled or lake water, implying preference for ovipositing in this habitat. Our findings indicate that treeholes represent a hitherto unrecognized habitat for malaria vectors, which needs further studies. PMID:18165501

  14. Predicting Scenarios for Successful Autodissemination of Pyriproxyfen by Malaria Vectors from Their Resting Sites to Aquatic Habitats; Description and Simulation Analysis of a Field-Parameterizable Model

    PubMed Central

    Kiware, Samson S.; Corliss, George; Merrill, Stephen; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Devine, Gregor; Majambere, Silas; Killeen, Gerry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Large-cage experiments indicate pyriproxifen (PPF) can be transferred from resting sites to aquatic habitats by Anopheles arabiensis - malaria vector mosquitoes to inhibit emergence of their own offspring. PPF coverage is amplified twice: (1) partial coverage of resting sites with PPF contamination results in far higher contamination coverage of adult mosquitoes because they are mobile and use numerous resting sites per gonotrophic cycle, and (2) even greater contamination coverage of aquatic habitats results from accumulation of PPF from multiple oviposition events. Methods and Findings Deterministic mathematical models are described that use only field-measurable input parameters and capture the biological processes that mediate PPF autodissemination. Recent successes in large cages can be rationalized, and the plausibility of success under full field conditions can be evaluated a priori. The model also defines measurable properties of PPF delivery prototypes that may be optimized under controlled experimental conditions to maximize chances of success in full field trials. The most obvious flaw in this model is the endogenous relationship that inevitably occurs between the larval habitat coverage and the measured rate of oviposition into those habitats if the target mosquito species is used to mediate PPF transfer. However, this inconsistency also illustrates the potential advantages of using a different, non-target mosquito species for contamination at selected resting sites that shares the same aquatic habitats as the primary target. For autodissemination interventions to eliminate malaria transmission or vector populations during the dry season window of opportunity will require comprehensive contamination of the most challenging subset of aquatic habitats (Clx) that persist or retain PPF activity (Ux) for only one week (Clx→1, where Ux = 7 days). To achieve >99% contamination coverage of these habitats will necessitate values for the product of

  15. Malaria ecotypes and stratification.

    PubMed

    Schapira, Allan; Boutsika, Konstantina

    2012-01-01

    To deal with the variability of malaria, control programmes need to stratify their malaria problem into a number of smaller units. Such stratification may be based on the epidemiology of malaria or on its determinants such as ecology. An ecotype classification was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) around 1990, and it is time to assess its usefulness for current malaria control as well as for malaria modelling on the basis of published research. Journal and grey literature was searched for articles on malaria or Anopheles combined with ecology or stratification. It was found that all malaria in the world today could be assigned to one or more of the following ecotypes: savanna, plains and valleys; forest and forest fringe; foothill; mountain fringe and northern and southern fringes; desert fringe; coastal and urban. However, some areas are in transitional or mixed zones; furthermore, the implications of any ecotype depend on the biogeographical region, sometimes subregion, and finally, the knowledge on physiography needs to be supplemented by local information on natural, anthropic and health system processes including malaria control. Ecotyping can therefore not be seen as a shortcut to determine control interventions, but rather as a framework to supplement available epidemiological and entomological data so as to assess malaria situations at the local level, think through the particular risks and opportunities and reinforce intersectoral action. With these caveats, it does however emerge that several ecotypic distinctions are well defined and have relatively constant implications for control within certain biogeographic regions. Forest environments in the Indo-malay and the Neotropics are, with a few exceptions, associated with much higher malaria risk than in adjacent areas; the vectors are difficult to control, and the anthropic factors also often converge to impose constraints. Urban malaria in Africa is associated with lower risk than savanna

  16. Patterns of Mitochondrial Variation within and between African Malaria Vectors, Anopheles Gambiae and An. Arabiensis, Suggest Extensive Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Besansky, N. J.; Lehmann, T.; Fahey, G. T.; Fontenille, D.; Braack, LEO.; Hawley, W. A.; Collins, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis are mosquito species responsible for most malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. They are also closely related sibling species that share chromosomal and molecular polymorphisms as a consequence of incomplete lineage sorting or introgressive hybridization. To help resolve these processes, this study examined the partitioning of mtDNA sequence variation within and between species across Africa, from both population genetic and phylogeographic perspectives. Based on partial gene sequences from the cytochrome b, ND1 and ND5 genes, haplotype diversity was high but sequences were very closely related. Within species, little or no population subdivision was detected, and there was no evidence for isolation by distance. Between species, there were no fixed nucleotide differences, a high proportion of shared polymorphisms, and eight haplotypes in common over distances as great as 6000 km. Only one of 16 shared polymorphisms led to an amino acid difference, and there was no compelling evidence for nonneutral variation. Parsimony networks constructed of haplotypes from both species revealed no correspondence of haplotype with either geography or taxonomy. This trend of low intraspecific genetic divergence is consistent with evidence from allozyme and microsatellite data and is interpreted in terms of both extensive gene flow and recent range expansion from relatively large, stable populations. We argue that retention of ancestral polymorphisms is a plausible but insufficient explanation for low interspecific genetic divergence, and that extensive hybridization is a contributing factor. PMID:9409838

  17. Highly focused anopheline breeding sites and malaria transmission in Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Machault, Vanessa; Gadiaga, Libasse; Vignolles, Cécile; Jarjaval, Fanny; Bouzid, Samia; Sokhna, Cheikh; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre; Trape, Jean-François; Rogier, Christophe; Pagès, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Background Urbanization has a great impact on the composition of the vector system and malaria transmission dynamics. In Dakar, some malaria cases are autochthonous but parasite rates and incidences of clinical malaria attacks have been recorded at low levels. Ecological heterogeneity of malaria transmission was investigated in Dakar, in order to characterize the Anopheles breeding sites in the city and to study the dynamics of larval density and adult aggressiveness in ten characteristically different urban areas. Methods Ten study areas were sampled in Dakar and Pikine. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing collection during four nights in each area (120 person-nights). The Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CSP) index was measured by ELISA and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were calculated. Open water collections in the study areas were monitored weekly for physico-chemical characterization and the presence of anopheline larvae. Adult mosquitoes and hatched larvae were identified morphologically and by molecular methods. Results In September-October 2007, 19,451 adult mosquitoes were caught among which, 1,101 were Anopheles gambiae s.l. The Human Biting Rate ranged from 0.1 bites per person per night in Yoff Village to 43.7 in Almadies. Seven out of 1,101 An. gambiae s.l. were found to be positive for P. falciparum (CSP index = 0.64%). EIR ranged from 0 infected bites per person per year in Yoff Village to 16.8 in Almadies. The An. gambiae complex population was composed of Anopheles arabiensis (94.8%) and Anopheles melas (5.2%). None of the An. melas were infected with P. falciparum. Of the 54 water collection sites monitored, 33 (61.1%) served as anopheline breeding sites on at least one observation. No An. melas was identified among the larval samples. Some physico-chemical characteristics of water bodies were associated with the presence/absence of anopheline larvae and with larval density. A very close parallel between larval and adult

  18. Transcriptome profiling of chemosensory appendages in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae reveals tissue- and sex-specific signatures of odor coding

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemosensory signal transduction guides the behavior of many insects, including Anopheles gambiae, the major vector for human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. To better understand the molecular basis of mosquito chemosensation we have used whole transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare transcript expression profiles between the two major chemosensory tissues, the antennae and maxillary palps, of adult female and male An. gambiae. Results We compared chemosensory tissue transcriptomes to whole body transcriptomes of each sex to identify chemosensory enhanced genes. In the six data sets analyzed, we detected expression of nearly all known chemosensory genes and found them to be highly enriched in both olfactory tissues of males and females. While the maxillary palps of both sexes demonstrated strict chemosensory gene expression overlap, we observed acute differences in sensory specialization between male and female antennae. The relatively high expression levels of chemosensory genes in the female antennae reveal its role as an organ predominately assigned to chemosensation. Remarkably, the expression of these genes was highly conserved in the male antennae, but at much lower relative levels. Alternatively, consistent with a role in mating, the male antennae displayed significant enhancement of genes involved in audition, while the female enhancement of these genes was observed, but to a lesser degree. Conclusions These findings suggest that the chemoreceptive spectrum, as defined by gene expression profiles, is largely similar in female and male An. gambiae. However, assuming sensory receptor expression levels are correlated with sensitivity in each case, we posit that male and female antennae are perceptive to the same stimuli, but possess inverse receptive prioritizations and sensitivities. Here we have demonstrated the use of RNA-seq to characterize the sensory specializations of an important disease vector and grounded future studies

  19. Evaluation of the Amazon River delta as a barrier to gene flow for the regional malaria vector, Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fairley, T L; Póvoa, M M; Conn, J E

    2002-11-01

    The Neotropical malaria vector Anopheles aquasalis Curry is distributed predominantly along the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts because of its tolerance for breeding in salt water. We tested the hypothesis that the freshwater Amazon River acts as a barrier to gene flow in northeastern Brazil, by examining variation at a 588-nucleotide fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase Igene from five populations. We identified 15 haplotypes of which 5 were shared both (1) between sample localities and (2) across the Amazon River Delta. Sequence divergence ranged from 0.0017-0.0272 (average = 0.0137). Estimates of genetic subdivision based on the presence of the Amazon Riverwere greatest within localities (phi = 0.029) and among regions (phi = 0.018), followed by among localities (phi = 0.011), but none were significant. Parsimony, neighbor-joining, and Nested Clade Analyses were used to estimate relationships among populations and infer evolutionary processes. Two phylogenetically distinct clusters of populations were moderately supported by parsimony. Neighbor-joining trees were poorly resolved, thus providing no geographical resolution and no support for the Amazon River as a barrier to migration. Phylogeographic structure as detected by the Nested Clade Analysis was consistent with restricted gene flow coupled with isolation by distance. Taken together, these analyses suggest that the localities within this region of northeastern Brazil constitute a single large population of An. aquasalis that spans the Amazon Delta. PMID:12495184

  20. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential in Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B T; Stone, C M; Ebrahimi, B; Briët, O J T; Foster, W A

    2015-03-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for use in experiments on behaviour, reproduction and adult survivorship in the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m(3) ) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito's energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed the easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately using a method that accounts for the loss of a proportion of bodies. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes in which space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. PMID:25294339

  1. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential of Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Bryan T.; Stone, Christopher M.; Ebrahimi, Babak; Briët, Olivier J.T.; Foster, Woodbridge A.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for experiments on behaviour, reproduction, and adult survivorship of the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m3) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito’s energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately, using a method that accounts for a proportion of bodies being lost. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single-cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition, and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes where space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. PMID:25294339

  2. Annona muricata leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles synthesis and its larvicidal potential against dengue, malaria and filariasis vector.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, S B; Yuvarajan, R; Natarajan, D

    2015-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit several diseases which cause millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes caused diverse effects to the environment, mammals, and high manufacturing cost. The present study was aimed to test the larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Annona muricata plant leaf extract against third instar larvae of three medically important mosquitoes, i.e., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The different concentrations of green synthesized Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs; 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous crude leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae for 24 h. Significant larval mortality was observed after the treatment of A. muricata for all mosquitoes with lowest LC50 and LC90 values, viz., A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 12.58 and 26.46 μg mL(-1)), A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 15.28 and 31.91 μg mL(-1)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 and LC90 values of 18.77 and 35.72 μg mL(-1)), respectively. The synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata were highly toxic than aqueous crude extract. The nanoparticle characterization was done using spectral and microscopic analysis, namely UV-visible spectroscopy which showed a sharp peak at 420 nm of aqueous medium containing AgNPs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of synthesized AgNPs (approximately 45 nm), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study exhibited prominent peaks 3381.28, 2921.03, 1640.17, 1384.58, 1075.83, and 610.77 cm(-1). Particle size analysis (PSA) showed the size and distribution of AgNPs (103 nm); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis showed a spherical shape, size range from 20 to 53 nm; and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) reflects the chemical composition of synthesized AgNPs. Heat stability of the AgNPs was

  3. Using a new high resolution regional model for malaria that accounts for population density and surface hydrology to determine sensitivity of malaria risk to climate drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Adrian; Ermert, Volker; Di Giuseppe, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    In order to better address the role of population dynamics and surface hydrology in the assessment of malaria risk, a new dynamical disease model been developed at ICTP, known as VECTRI: VECtor borne disease community model of ICTP, TRIeste (VECTRI). The model accounts for the temperature impact on the larvae, parasite and adult vector populations. Local host population density affects the transmission intensity, and the model thus reproduces the differences between peri-urban and rural transmission noted in Africa. A new simple pond model framework represents surface hydrology. The model can be used on with spatial resolutions finer than 10km to resolve individual health districts and thus can be used as a planning tool. Results of the models representation of interannual variability and longer term projections of malaria transmission will be shown for Africa. These will show that the model represents the seasonality and spatial variations of malaria transmission well matching a wide range of survey data of parasite rate and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) from across West and East Africa taken in the period prior to large-scale interventions. The model is used to determine the sensitivity of malaria risk to climate variations, both in rainfall and temperature, and then its use in a prototype forecasting system coupled with ECMWF forecasts will be demonstrated.

  4. Temporal and micro-spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of Anopheles vectors of malaria along the Kenyan coast

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The distribution of anopheline mosquitoes is determined by temporally dynamic environmental and human-associated variables, operating over a range of spatial scales. Macro-spatial short-term trends are driven predominantly by prior (lagged) seasonal changes in climate, which regulate the abundance of suitable aquatic larval habitats. Micro-spatial distribution is determined by the location of these habitats, proximity and abundance of available human bloodmeals and prevailing micro-climatic conditions. The challenge of analysing—in a single coherent statistical framework—the lagged and distributed effect of seasonal climate changes simultaneously with the effects of an underlying hierarchy of spatial factors has hitherto not been addressed. Methods Data on Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and A. funestus collected from households in Kilifi district, Kenya, were analysed using polynomial distributed lag generalized linear mixed models (PDL GLMMs). Results Anopheline density was positively and significantly associated with amount of rainfall between 4 to 47 days, negatively and significantly associated with maximum daily temperature between 5 and 35 days, and positively and significantly associated with maximum daily temperature between 29 and 48 days in the past (depending on Anopheles species). Multiple-occupancy households harboured greater mosquito numbers than single-occupancy households. A significant degree of mosquito clustering within households was identified. Conclusions The PDL GLMMs developed here represent a generalizable framework for analysing hierarchically-structured data in combination with explanatory variables which elicit lagged effects. The framework is a valuable tool for facilitating detailed understanding of determinants of the spatio-temporal distribution of Anopheles. Such understanding facilitates delivery of targeted, cost-effective and, in certain circumstances, preventative antivectorial interventions against malaria

  5. Laboratory and field efficacy of Pedalium murex and predatory copepod, Mesocyclops longisetus on rural malaria vector, Anopheles culicifacies

    PubMed Central

    Chitra, Thangadurai; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kumar, Arjunan Naresh; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Nataraj, Thiyagarajan; Indumathi, Duraisamy; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the potentiality of the leaf extract of Pedalium murex (P. murex) and predatory copepod Mesocyclops longisetus (M. longisetus) in individual and combination in controlling the rural malarial vector, Anopheles culicifacies (An. culicifacies) in laboratory and field studies. Methods P. murex leaves were collected from in and around Erode, Tamilnadu, India. The active compounds were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. Laboratory studies on larvicidal and pupicidal effects of methanolic extract of P. murex tested against the rural malarial vector, An. culicifacies were significant. Results Evaluated lethal concentrations (LC50) of P. murex extract were 2.68, 3.60, 4.50, 6.44 and 7.60 mg/L for I, II, III, IV and pupae of An. culicifacies, respectively. Predatory copepod, M. longisetus was examined for their predatory efficacy against the malarial vector, An. culicifacies. M. longisetus showed effective predation on the early instar (47% and 36% on I and II instar) when compared with the later ones (3% and 1% on III and IV instar). Predatory efficacy of M. longisetus was increased (70% and 45% on I and II instar) when the application was along with the P. murex extract. Conclusions Predator survival test showed that the methanolic extract of P. murex is non-toxic to the predatory copepod, M. longisetus. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate the efficacy of methanolic extract of P. murex and M. longisetus in the direct breeding sites (paddy fields) of An. culicifacies. Reduction in larval density was very high and sustained for a long time in combined treatment of P. murex and M. longisetus.

  6. Forced egg retention and oviposition behavior of malaria, dengue and filariasis vectors to a topical repellent diethyl-phenylacetamide.

    PubMed

    Seenivasagan, T; Iqbal, S Thanvir; Guha, Lopamudra

    2015-07-01

    Egg retention and oviposition behavior of four species of mosquito vectors viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus to a topical insect repellent diethyl-phenylacetamide (DEPA) at 0.1-1000 mg/L was investigated under laboratory conditions. Based on oviposition activity indices, DEPA demonstrated concentration dependent oviposition deterrent effect to A. stephensi (-0.18 to -0.97), A. aegypti (-0.18 to -0.91) and A. albopictus (-0.50 to -0.98) females. In contrast, positive oviposition response by C. quinquefasciatus (+0.39 and +0.70) was observed respectively at 0.1 and 1 ppm, while 10 ppm of DEPA on water received 50% lesser egg rafts than control. Gravid Culex females laid no egg rafts at 100 and 1000 ppm DEPA treated bowls effecting 100% oviposition deterrence. Test mosquito females deposited most of their eggs (> 90%) in the absence of repellent odour, while DEPA odour on water surface forced them to retain huge numbers of eggs. Females of A. aegypti, A. albopictus and A. stephensi retained 49, 67 and 50% of total eggs, respectively throughout the experiment. Egg retention by Culex females due to DEPA on the water surface was ca. 65%, equivalent to 4 egg rafts. Therefore, DEPA at lower concentrations could effectively disturb the oviposition by these vectors. Application of repellents in small water bodies would help in reducing the population build up of mosquitoes near human households and could be useful in the integrated management of mosquito vectors. PMID:26245028

  7. Plant based insect repellent and insecticide treated bed nets to protect against malaria in areas of early evening biting vectors: double blind randomised placebo controlled clinical trial in the Bolivian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Lenglet, A; Arnéz, A M; Carneiro, I

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness in reducing malaria of combining an insect repellent with insecticide treated bed nets compared with the nets alone in an area where vector mosquitoes feed in the early evening. Design A double blind, placebo controlled cluster-randomised clinical study. Setting Rural villages and peri-urban districts in the Bolivian Amazon. Participants 4008 individuals in 860 households. Interventions All individuals slept under treated nets; one group also used a plant based insect repellent each evening, a second group used placebo. Main outcome measure Episodes of Plasmodium falciparum or P vivax malaria confirmed by rapid diagnostic test or blood slide, respectively. Results We analysed 15 174 person months at risk and found a highly significant 80% reduction in episodes of P vivax in the group that used treated nets and repellent (incidence rate ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 0.38, P<0.001). Numbers of P falciparum cases during the study were small and, after adjustment for age, an 82% protective effect was observed, although this was not significant (0.18, 0.02 to 1.40, P=0.10). Reported episodes of fever with any cause were reduced by 58% in the group that used repellent (0.42, 0.31 to 0.56, P<0.001). Conclusions Insect repellents can provide protection against malaria. In areas where vectors feed in the early evening, effectiveness of treated nets can be significantly increased by using repellent between dusk and bedtime. This has important implications in malaria vector control programmes outside Africa and shows that the combined use of treated nets and insect repellents, as advocated for most tourists travelling to high risk areas, is fully justified. Registration NCT 00144716. PMID:17940319

  8. Preliminary investigation on the use of a light-trap for sampling malaria vectors in the Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Odetoyinbo, J. A.

    1969-01-01

    Light-traps have been used successfully as mechanical sampling tools for insects of agricultural importance but medical entomologists have had only limited success because of the assumption that light-traps would attract vectors, even when sited in open fields well away from hosts. The investigations reported in this paper suggest that vectors are attracted primarily by their hosts and that only when light-traps are placed in the immediate vicinity of hosts, or in the narrow flight paths followed by host-seeking females, are appreciable numbers caught. When the CDC miniature light-trap was placed at various distances from hosts, the number of anopheline and culicine species captured decreased as the distance from the host increased. There were statistically significant differences between the means of catches in light-traps suspended on or in human dwellings, placed inside village compounds, and placed near the breeding site about 1.6 km from the nearest house. The maximum catch of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and culicines exceeded 3000 and 7000 per trap per night, respectively, and the average was in excess of 1200 A. gambiae s.l. The investigations showed that 6 anopheline species could be caught in appreciable numbers in human dwellings and thus demonstrated that light-traps could be used for sampling both endophilic and exophilic anophelines. It also appears that the effective range of the CDC miniature light-trap is about 5 m. PMID:5306720

  9. Fresh, dried or smoked? repellent properties of volatiles emitted from ethnomedicinal plant leaves against malaria and yellow fever vectors in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the search for plant-based mosquito repellents, volatile emanations were investigated from five plant species, Corymbia citriodora, Ocimum suave, Ocimum lamiifolium, Olea europaea and Ostostegia integrifolia, traditionally used in Ethiopia as protection against mosquitoes. Methods The behaviour of two mosquitoes, the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis and the arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti, was assessed towards volatiles collected from the headspace of fresh and dried leaves, and the smoke from burning the dried leaves in a two-choice landing bioassay and in the background of human odour. Results Volatile extracts from the smoke of burning dried leaves were found to be more repellent than those from fresh leaves, which in turn were more repellent to mosquitoes than volatiles from dried leaves. Of all smoke and fresh volatile extracts, those from Co. citriodora (52-76%) and Oc. suave (58-68%) were found to be the most repellent, Os. integrifolia (29-56%) to be intermediate while Ol. europaea (23-40%) and Os. integrifolia (19-37%) were the least repellent. One volatile present in each of the fresh leaf extracts of Co. citriodora, Oc. suave and Os. integrifolia was ß-ocimene. The levels of ß-ocimene reflected the mosquito repellent activity of these three fresh leaf extracts. Female host-seeking mosquitoes responded dose-dependently to ß-ocimene, both physiologically and behaviourally, with a maximal behavioural repulsion at 14% ß-ocimene. ß-ocimene (14%) repels mosquitoes in our 6-minute landing assays comparable to the synthetic insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (10% DEET). Conclusions Volatiles in the smoke of burning as well as fresh leaves of Co. citriodora and Oc. suave have significant repellent properties against host seeking An. arabiensis and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. ß-ocimene, present in the fresh leaf headspace of Co. citriodora, Oc. suave and Os. integrifolia, is a significantly effective volatile mosquito repellent in the

  10. Anti-mosquito plants as an alternative or incremental method for malaria vector control among rural communities of Bagamoyo District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plants represent one of the most accessible resources available for mosquito control by communities in Tanzania. However, no documented statistics exist for their contribution in the management of mosquitoes and other insects except through verbal and some publications. This study aimed at assessing communities’ knowledge, attitudes and practices of using plants as an alternative method for mosquito control among selected communities in a malaria-prone area in Tanzania. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 202 respondents from four villages of Bagamoyo District, Pwani Region, in Tanzania followed by participatory rural appraisal with village health workers. Secondary data collection for plants mentioned by the communities was undertaken using different search engines such as googlescholar, PubMED and NAPRALERT. Results Results showed about 40.3% of respondents used plants to manage insects, including mosquitoes. A broad profile of plants are used, including “mwarobaini” (Azadirachta indica) (22.5%), “mtopetope” (Annona spp) (20.8%), “mchungwa/mlimau” (Citrus spp) (8.3%), “mvumbashi/uvumbati” (Ocimum spp) (7.4%), “mkorosho” (Anacadium occidentale) (7.1%), “mwembe” (5.4%) (Mangifera indica), “mpera” (4.1%) (Psidium spp) and “maganda ya nazi” (4.1%) (Cocos nucifera). Majority of respondents collected these plants from the wild (54.2%), farms (28.9%) and/or home gardens (6%). The roles played by these plants in fighting mosquitoes is reflected by the majority that deploy them with or without bed-nets (p > 0.55) or insecticidal sprays (p >0.22). Most respondents were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria (90.6%) while few respondents associated elephantiasis/hydrocele (46.5%) and yellow fever (24.3%) with mosquitoes. Most of the ethnobotanical uses mentioned by the communities were consistent with scientific information gathered from the literature, except for Psidium guajava, which is reported for the first time in

  11. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of plant extracts from Clausena dentata (Willd) (Rutaceae) against dengue, malaria, and filariasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Manjari, Murugesan Susitra; Karthi, Sengodan; Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2014-07-01

    Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative to chemical insecticides. Acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum benzine leaf extracts of Clausena dentata were tested against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest larval mortality was found in acetone leaf extract, C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 0.150278 mg/ml; LC90 = 7.302613 mg/ml), A. aegypti (LC50 = 0.169495 mg/ml; LC90 = 1.10034 mg/ml), and A. stephensi (LC50 = 0.045684 mg/ml; LC90 = 0.045684 mg/ml). GC-MS analysis of plant extracts of acetone solvent revealed 16 compounds, of which the major compounds were benzene,1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl) (14.97%), Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.81%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (28.14%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (17.34%), and 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl (10.35%). Our result shows acetone leaf extracts of C. dentata have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for mosquito control. PMID:24802866

  12. Malaria epidemiology and control in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mharakurwa, Sungano; Thuma, Philip E; Norris, Douglas E; Mulenga, Modest; Chalwe, Victor; Chipeta, James; Munyati, Shungu; Mutambu, Susan; Mason, Peter R

    2012-03-01

    The burden of malaria has decreased dramatically within the past several years in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, following the scale-up of interventions supported by the Roll Back Malaria Partnership, the President's Malaria Initiative and other partners. It is important to appreciate that the reductions in malaria have not been uniform between and within countries, with some areas experiencing resurgence instead. Furthermore, while interventions have greatly reduced the burden of malaria in many countries, it is also recognized that the malaria decline pre-dated widespread intervention efforts, at least in some cases where data are available. This raises more questions as what other factors may have been contributing to the reduction in malaria transmission and to what extent. The International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) in Southern Africa aims to better understand the underlying malaria epidemiology, vector ecology and parasite genomics using three contrasting settings of malaria transmission in Zambia and Zimbabwe: an area of successful malaria control, an area of resurgent malaria and an area where interventions have not been effective. The Southern Africa ICEMR will capitalize on the opportunity to investigate the complexities of malaria transmission while adapting to intervention and establish the evidence-base to guide effective and sustainable malaria intervention strategies. Key approaches to attain this goal for the region will include close collaboration with national malaria control programs and contribution to capacity building at the individual, institutional and national levels. PMID:21756864

  13. Host choice and multiple blood feeding behaviour of malaria vectors and other anophelines in Mwea rice scheme, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Muriu, Simon M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat I; Mbogo, Charles M; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Jacob, Benjamin G; Irungu, Lucy W; Mukabana, Richard W; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies were conducted between April 2004 and February 2006 to determine the blood-feeding pattern of Anopheles mosquitoes in Mwea Kenya. Methods Samples were collected indoors by pyrethrum spay catch and outdoors by Centers for Disease Control light traps and processed for blood meal analysis by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Results A total of 3,333 blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes representing four Anopheles species were collected and 2,796 of the samples were assayed, with Anopheles arabiensis comprising 76.2% (n = 2,542) followed in decreasing order by Anopheles coustani 8.9% (n = 297), Anopheles pharoensis 8.2% (n = 272) and Anopheles funestus 6.7% (n = 222). All mosquito species had a high preference for bovine (range 56.3–71.4%) over human (range 1.1–23.9%) or goat (0.1–2.2%) blood meals. Some individuals from all the four species were found to contain mixed blood meals. The bovine blood index (BBI) for An. arabiensis was significantly higher for populations collected indoors (71.8%), than populations collected outdoors (41.3%), but the human blood index (HBI) did not differ significantly between the two populations. In contrast, BBI for indoor collected An. funestus (51.4%) was significantly lower than for outdoor collected populations (78.0%) and the HBI was significantly higher indoors (28.7%) than outdoors (2.4%). Anthropophily of An. funestus was lowest within the rice scheme, moderate in unplanned rice agro-ecosystem, and highest within the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem. Anthropophily of An. arabiensis was significantly higher in the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem than in the other agro-ecosystems. Conclusion These findings suggest that rice cultivation has an effect on host choice by Anopheles mosquitoes. The study further indicate that zooprophylaxis may be a potential strategy for malaria control, but there is need to assess how domestic animals may influence arboviruses epidemiology before adapting the strategy. PMID:18312667

  14. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Cupressus arizonica E.L. Greene against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Dehkordi, Alireza Sanei; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Background Using botanical insecticides as an alternative biocontrol technique for vector control is considered by some scientists. Materials and Methods Chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). In addition, the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil of Cupressus arizonica was investigated against fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared An. stephensi according to the method of the World Health Organization. Results Of 46 constituents in the oil, limonene (14.44%), umbellulone (13.25%) and α-pinene (11%) were determined as the main constituents. Cupressus arizonica volatile oil showed significant larvicidal activity against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values 79.30 ppm and 238.89 ppm respectively. Clear dose-response relationships were established with the highest dose of 160 ppm essential oil with almost 100% mortality. Discussion The results from this study revealed that C. arizonica essential oil could be considered as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. However, the field evaluation of the formulation is necessary. PMID:21772758

  15. Adulticidal properties of synthesized silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against filariasis, malaria, and dengue vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2014-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the adulticidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against adults of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the adults of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Adults were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following lethal dose (LD)₅₀ and LD₉₀ values: A. stephensi had LD₅₀ and LD₉₀ values of 18

  16. Newer approaches to malaria control

    PubMed Central

    Damodaran, SE; Pradhan, Prita; Pradhan, Suresh Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is the third leading cause of death due to infectious diseases affecting around 243 million people, causing 863,000 deaths each year, and is a major public health problem. Most of the malarial deaths occur in children below 5 years and is a major contributor of under-five mortality. As a result of environmental and climatic changes, there is a change in vector population and distribution, leading to resurgence of malaria at numerous foci. Resistance to antimalarials is a major challenge to malaria control and there are new drug developments, new approaches to treatment strategies, combination therapy to overcome resistance and progress in vaccine development. Now, artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line therapy as the malarial parasite has developed resistance to other antimalarials. Reports of artemisinin resistance are appearing and identification of new drug targets gains utmost importance. As there is a shift from malaria control to malaria eradication, more research is focused on malaria vaccine development. A malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is in phase III of development and may become the first successful one. Due to resistance to insecticides and lack of environmental sanitation, the conventional methods of vector control are turning out to be futile. To overcome this, novel strategies like sterile insect technique and transgenic mosquitoes are pursued for effective vector control. As a result of the global organizations stepping up their efforts with continued research, eradication of malaria can turn out to be a reality. PMID:23508211

  17. [Malaria in Algerian Sahara].

    PubMed

    Hammadi, D; Boubidi, S C; Chaib, S E; Saber, A; Khechache, Y; Gasmi, M; Harrat, Z

    2009-08-01

    Thanks to the malaria eradication campaign launched in Algeria in 1968, the number of malaria cases fell down significantly from 95,424 cases in 1960 to 30 cases in 1978. At that time the northern part of the country was declared free of Plasmodium falciparum. Only few cases belonging to P. vivax persisted in residual foci in the middle part of the country. In the beginning of the eighties, the south of the country was marked by an increase of imported malaria cases. The resurgence of the disease in the oases coincided with the opening of the Trans-Saharan road and the booming trade with the neighbouring southern countries. Several authors insisted on the risk of introduction of malaria or its exotic potential vectors in Algeria via this new road. Now, the totality of malaria autochthonous cases in Algeria are located in the south of the country where 300 cases were declared during the period (1980-2007). The recent outbreak recorded in 2007 at the borders with Mall and the introduction of Anopheles gambiae into the Algerian territory show the vulnerability of this area to malaria which is probably emphasized by the local environme