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Sample records for malaria-nematode co-infection problems

  1. HIV and co-infections

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Christina C; Crane, Megan; Zhou, JingLing; Mina, Michael; Post, Jeffrey J; Cameron, Barbara A; Lloyd, Andrew R; Jaworowski, Anthony; French, Martyn A; Lewin, Sharon R

    2013-01-01

    Summary Despite significant reductions in morbidity and mortality secondary to availability of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection still accounts for 1.5 million deaths annually. The majority of deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa where rates of opportunistic co-infections are disproportionately high. In this review, we discuss the immunopathogenesis of five common infections that cause significant morbidity in HIV-infected patients globally. These include co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Plasmodium falciparum. Specifically, we review the natural history of each co-infection in the setting of HIV, the specific immune defects induced by HIV, the effects of cART on the immune response to the co-infection, the pathogenesis of immune restoration disease (IRD) associated with each infection, and advances in the areas of prevention of each co-infection via vaccination. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and gaps for future research. PMID:23772618

  2. HIV and hepatitis C co-infection.

    PubMed

    Jones, R; Dunning, J; Nelson, M

    2005-09-01

    HIV/HCV co-infection is emerging as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the 21st century. This editorial reviews the prevalence of co-infection, the factors involved in acquisition of HCV, and the influence of co-infection on disease progression. We examine the results of the major co-infection trials including APRICOT, ACTG 5071 and RIBAVIC. These trials, in association with emerging evidence for future therapies currently undergoing investigation, have led to increased hope of treatment success in co-infected individuals. PMID:16115185

  3. Hepatitis Aand E Co-Infection with Worst Outcome.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Anjum; Cheema, Huma Arshad; Assiri, Asaad

    2016-06-01

    Infections are still a major problem in the developing countries like Pakistan because of poor sewage disposal and economic restraints. Acute viral hepatitis like Aand E are not uncommon in pediatric age group because of unhygienic food handling and poor sewage disposal, but majority recovers well without any complications. Co-infections are rare occurrences and physicians need to be well aware while managing such conditions to avoid worst outcome. Co-infection with hepatitis Aand E is reported occasionally in the literature, however, other concurrent infections such as hepatitis A with Salmonellaand hepatotropic viruses like viral hepatitis B and C are present in the literature. Co-infections should be kept in consideration when someone presents with atypical symptoms or unusual disease course like this presented case. We report here a girl child who had acute hepatitis A and E concurrent infections and presented with hepatic encephalopathy and had worst outcome, despite all the supportive measures being taken. PMID:27376213

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C co-infection in sub-Saharan West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mboto, C I; Davies, A; Fielder, M; Jewell, A P

    2006-01-01

    Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is becoming a major global problem, leading to increased morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Co-existence in sub-Saharan West Africa of a high prevalence of HIV and HCV, which share similar behavioural risk factors and modes of transmission, must be seen in the broader context of an emerging third epidemic of HIV and HCV co-infection, as many factors that may affect the spread of HIV and HCV co-infection are endemic in the continent, including host factors such as sexual behaviour, presence of other sexually transmitted diseases, female and male circumcision status, percutaneous and perinatal exposure, and poverty. This review examines the epidemiology, risk factors and transmission of HIV and HCV co-infection and draws attention to the possible emergence of an epidemic of HIV and HCV co-infection in the region. PMID:16613141

  5. Research on HIV Co-Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page Get email updates Order publications Featured Research The Path to a Cure for Hepatitis C ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Research on HIV Co-Infections HIV-infected people are ...

  6. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Thilak, Jai; Zahoor, Adnan; Jyothi, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs. PMID:27293296

  7. [A meningitis case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection].

    PubMed

    Karsen, Hasan; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasim; Irmak, Hasan; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2008-10-01

    Turkey is located at an endemic area for brusellosis and tuberculosis which are both important public health problems. Meningitis caused by Brucella and Mycobacterium spp. may be confused since the clinical and laboratory findings are similar. In this report, a meningitis case with Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection has been presented. A 19-years-old woman was admitted to our clinic with severe headache, fever, vomiting, meningeal irritation symptoms, confusion and diplopia. The patient was initially diagnosed as Brucella meningitis based on her history (stockbreeding, consuming raw milk products, clinical symptoms concordant to brucellosis lasting for 4-5 months), physical examination and laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Standard tube agglutination test for brucellosis was positive at 1/80 titer in CSF and at 1/640 titer in serum, whereas no growth of Brucella spp. was detected in CSF and blood cultures. Antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone, rifampicin and doxycyclin was started, however, there was no clinical improvement and agitation and confusion of the patient continued by the end of second day of treatment. Repeated CSF examination yielded acid-fast bacteria. The patient was then diagnosed as meningitis with double etiology and the therapy was changed to ceftriaxone, streptomycin, morphozinamide, rifampicin and isoniazid for thirty days. Tuberculosis meningitis was confirmed with the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the 14th day of cultivation (BACTEC, Becton Dickinson, USA) of the CSF sample. On the 30th day of treatment she was discharged on anti-tuberculous treatment with isoniazid and rifampicin for 12 months. The follow-up of the patient on the first and third months of treatment revealed clinical and laboratory improvement. Since this was a rare case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection, this report emphasizes that such co-infections should be kept in mind especially in the endemic areas for tuberculosis and brucellosis

  8. Co-infection alters population dynamics of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Susi, Hanna; Barrès, Benoit; Vale, Pedro F; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Co-infections by multiple pathogen strains are common in the wild. Theory predicts co-infections to have major consequences for both within- and between-host disease dynamics, but data are currently scarce. Here, using common garden populations of Plantago lanceolata infected by two strains of the pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis, either singly or under co-infection, we find the highest disease prevalence in co-infected treatments both at the host genotype and population levels. A spore-trapping experiment demonstrates that co-infected hosts shed more transmission propagules than singly infected hosts, thereby explaining the observed change in epidemiological dynamics. Our experimental findings are confirmed in natural pathogen populations-more devastating epidemics were measured in populations with higher levels of co-infection. Jointly, our results confirm the predictions made by theoretical and experimental studies for the potential of co-infection to alter disease dynamics across a large host-pathogen metapopulation. PMID:25569306

  9. HIV, HCV & Leprosy co-infection.

    PubMed

    George, A; Kanish, B

    2014-01-01

    In the era where Hansen's disease has achieved elimination status in India, co-infection with HIV can possibly cause a resurgence of this disease. A young intravenous drug abuser was found to have triple affliction, where HIV and HCV infection were discovered on testing after the patient was clinically diagnosed to have Hansen's disease. To our knowledge, there has been no case reported where leprosy was seen with HIV and HCV infection. We are reporting a patient with lepromatous Hansen's disease in type 2 reaction in whom HIV and HCV was incidentally diagnosed. PMID:26118224

  10. Viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infections in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria I

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affect many people in Asian countries, although there are geographic differences. Both HBV and HIV (HBV/HIV) and HCV/HIV co-infections are highly prevalent in Asia. Hetero- and homosexual, injection drug use, and geographic area are strong predictors of HBV, HCV, and HIV serostatus. In HBV endemic regions, the prevalence and genotype distribution of HBV/HIV co-infection is almost comparable with that in the general population. In Japan, where HBV has low endemicity, the prevalence of HBV/HIV co-infection is approximately 10-fold higher than that in the general population, and HBV Ae is the most common subgenotype among HIV infected individuals. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is an effective treatment for HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Lamivudine, a component of HAART, is an effective treatment for HBV, HIV, and HBV/HIV co-infection; however, cost, emerging drug resistance, antiretroviral-associated liver toxicity and liver-related morbidity due to HCV progression are particular concerns. HCV/HIV co-infection may accelerate the clinical progression of both HCV and HIV. The high prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections in Asia underscores the need to improve prevention and control measures, as fewer evidence-based prevention strategies are available (compared with Western countries). In this review, the most recent publications on the prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections and related issues, such as therapy and problems in Asia, are updated and summarized. PMID:25964874

  11. P. vivax Malaria and Dengue Fever Co-infection: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Belisa M. L.; Siqueira, André M.; Alexandre, Márcia A. A.; Souza, Marcela S.; Gimaque, João B.; Bastos, Michele S.; Figueiredo, Regina M. P.; Melo, Gisely C.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Mourão, Maria P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria and dengue are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases worldwide and represent major public health problems. Both are endemic in tropical regions, propitiating co-infection. Only few co-infection cases have been reported around the world, with insufficient data so far to enhance the understanding of the effects of co-infection in the clinical presentation and severity. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted (2009 to 2011) in hospitalized patients with acute febrile syndrome in the Brazilian Amazon. All patients were submitted to thick blood smear and PCR for Plasmodium sp. detection, ELISA, PCR and NS1 tests for dengue, viral hepatitis, HIV and leptospirosis. In total, 1,578 patients were recruited. Among them, 176 (11.1%) presented P. vivax malaria mono-infection, 584 (37%) dengue fever mono-infection, and 44 (2.8%) were co-infected. Co-infected patients had a higher chance of presenting severe disease (vs. dengue mono-infected), deep bleeding (vs. P. vivax mono-infected), hepatomegaly, and jaundice (vs. dengue mono-infected). Conclusions/Significance In endemic areas for dengue and malaria, jaundice (in dengue patients) and spontaneous bleeding (in malaria patients) should raise the suspicion of co-infection. Besides, whenever co-infection is confirmed, we recommend careful monitoring for bleeding and hepatic complications, which may result in a higher chance of severity, despite of the fact that no increased fatality rate was seen in this group. PMID:25340346

  12. Experimental co-infection of chickens and turkeys with avian influenza and newcastle disease viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are the two most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from both the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. The goal of this study was to examine the i...

  13. Viral Co-infection and Leprosy Outcomes: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Paulo R. L.; Machado, Lídia M.; Shibuya, Mayume; Rego, Jamile; Johnson, Warren D.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of the host immunity in determining leprosy clinical forms and complications is well recognized, implying that changes in the immune status may interfere with several aspects of the disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that the presence of viral co-infections and associated immunological changes will have a clinical impact on leprosy outcomes. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on the development of reactions, neuritis, neuropathy and relapses. Methodology/Principal Findings Cohort study in 245 leprosy subjects from Bahia, Brazil. Patients were followed from the time of diagnosis until at least the end of multidrug therapy. Viral co-infection was detected in 36 out of the 245 patients (14.7%). Specific co-infection rates were 10.6% for HBV, 2.9% for HIV, 2.5% for HTLV-1 and 0.8% for HCV. All four groups of co-infected patients had higher rates of neuritis and nerve function impairment compared to non co-infected leprosy subjects. The relapse rate was also higher in the co-infected group (8.3%) versus patients without co-infection (1.9%); relative risk 4.37, 95% confidence interval 1.02–18.74. Conclusions/Significance Leprosy patients should be screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV-1 co-infections. Besides contributing to better health care, this measure will facilitate the early detection of severe complications through targeting of higher risk patients. PMID:26267882

  14. The epidemiological consequences of leprosy-tuberculosis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, N; Voss-Böhme, A

    2013-02-01

    While in antiquity both leprosy and tuberculosis were prevalent in Europe, leprosy declined thereafter and, simultaneously, tuberculosis prevalence increased. Since both diseases are caused by mycobacterial infections, it has been suggested that there might be a causal relationship between both epidemics. Chaussinand observed the inverse prevalence of leprosy and tuberculosis and suggested that individuals with a latent tuberculosis infection are protected from acquiring leprosy. His cross-immunity hypothesis has been countered more recently by a co-infection hypothesis. The latter suggestion, proposed by Donoghue, states that people being infected with multi-bacillary leprosy are more susceptible to tuberculosis, which leads to increased mortality from the disease. This study utilizes mathematical modeling to explore the epidemiological consequences of the co-infection hypothesis for realistically confined parameter values. While the co-infection hypothesis appears plausible at first glance, a second thought reveals that it comprises also substantial consequences for tuberculosis epidemics: if co-infection raises the mortality rate above that of purely tuberculosis infected persons, then tuberculosis might as well be eradicated by leprosy. It is the specific interplay of both increased susceptibility towards tuberculosis and increased death rate when co-infected that determines the epidemiological fate. As a result of this analysis, it is shown that there is a large parameter region where the eventual disappearance of leprosy could indeed be explained by co-infection. This parameter region is considerably larger than that predicted by the cross-immunity hypothesis. This shows that the co-infection hypothesis should be considered a significant alternative to the cross-immunity hypothesis. The time scales at which the effects of co-infection are observed depend critically on the spatial distribution of the individuals but reach epidemiologically realistic values for

  15. An 11-year-old boy with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and dengue co-infection.

    PubMed

    Issaranggoon na ayuthaya, Satja; Wangjirapan, Anchalee; Oberdorfer, Peninnah

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and dengue fever are major mosquito-borne public health problems in tropical countries. The authors report a malaria and dengue co-infection in an 11-year-old boy who presented with sustained fever for 10 days. The physical examination revealed a flushed face, injected conjunctivae and left submandibular lymphadenopathy. His peripheral blood smear showed few ring-form trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum. His blood tests were positive for dengue NS-1 antigen and IgM antibody, and negative for IgG antibody. After the initiation of antimalarial treatment with artesunate and mefloquine, his clinical condition gradually improved. However, he still had low-grade fever that persisted for 6 days. Finally, he recovered well without fluid leakage, shock or severe bleeding. This case report emphasises that early recognition and concomitant treatment of malaria and dengue co-infection in endemic areas can improve clinical outcome and prevent serious complications. PMID:24692379

  16. Experimental co-infection studies with avian influenza viruses and Newcastle Disease viruses in chickens, turkeys and domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-infections of poultry with Newcastle Disease viruses (NDVs) and Avian Influenza viruses (AIVs) present a problem both from the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. Little has been done to understand the interactions between these two viruses when infecting poultry. Exposur...

  17. Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Berghoff, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for

  18. Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for

  19. Co-infections and Pathogenesis of KSHV-Associated Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Suhani; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is one of the several carcinogenic viruses that infect humans. KSHV infection has been implicated in the development of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman’s Disease. While KSHV infection is necessary for the development of KSHV associated malignancies, it is not sufficient to induce tumorigenesis. Evidently, other co-factors are essential for the progression of KSHV induced malignancies. One of the most important co-factors, necessary for the progression of KSHV induced tumors, is immune suppression that frequently arises during co-infection with HIV and also by other immune suppressants. In this mini-review, we discuss the roles of co-infection with HIV and other pathogens on KSHV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:26913028

  20. Parasite virulence, co-infections and cytokine balance in malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Raquel Müller; Lima, Nathália Ferreira; Ferreira, Marcelo Urbano

    2014-01-01

    Strong early inflammatory responses followed by a timely production of regulatory cytokines are required to control malaria parasite multiplication without inducing major host pathology. Here, we briefly examine the homeostasis of inflammatory responses to malaria parasite species with varying virulence levels and discuss how co-infections with bacteria, viruses, and helminths can modulate inflammation, either aggravating or alleviating malaria-related morbidity. PMID:24854175

  1. Diagnosis & treatment of tuberculosis in HIV co-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Padmapriyadarsini, C.; Narendran, G.; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge, with an estimated 1.4 million patients worldwide. Co-infection with HIV leads to challenges in both the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. Further, there has been an increase in rates of drug resistant tuberculosis, including multi-drug (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB), which are difficult to treat and contribute to increased mortality. Because of the poor performance of sputum smear microscopy in HIV-infected patients, newer diagnostic tests are urgently required that are not only sensitive and specific but easy to use in remote and resource-constrained settings. The treatment of co-infected patients requires antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs to be administered concomitantly; challenges include pill burden and patient compliance, drug interactions, overlapping toxic effects, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Also important questions about the duration and schedule of anti-TB drug regimens and timing of antiretroviral therapy remain unanswered. From a programmatic point of view, screening of all HIV-infected persons for TB and vice-versa requires good co-ordination and communication between the TB and AIDS control programmes. Linkage of co-infected patients to antiretroviral treatment centres is critical if early mortality is to be prevented. We present here an overview of existing diagnostic strategies, new tests in the pipeline and recommendations for treatment of patients with HIV-TB dual infection. PMID:22310818

  2. Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection.

    PubMed Central

    Funnyé, Allen S.; Akhtar, Abbasi J.

    2003-01-01

    Co-infection of syphilis and AIDS has profound implications for the African American community. The purpose of this review is to: evaluate the historical background of HIV and syphilis and their similarities in pathogenesis; review the epidemiology of syphilis and HIV co-infection, and implications for continued prevention efforts; examine the effect of syphilis on HIV transmission and acquisition; and, to examine the effects of HIV infection on syphilis transmission, diagnostic and serologic changes, clinical course, and treatment. The prevalence of HIV is higher in those with syphilis; moreover, the prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection is highest in African Americans. There may be humoral and cellular immune similarities. HIV may affect the transmission of syphilis, alter its serologic diagnosis, and accelerate and change the clinical course and response to treatment. In conclusion, combined infection of HIV and syphilis may alter the clinical presentation and course of either disease. There are historical and immunologic similarities and the high prevalence in African Americans compared to other groups is of great importance for prevention efforts. PMID:12793793

  3. Distribution and Risk Factors for Plasmodium and Helminth Co-infections: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Children in Bagamoyo District, Coastal Region of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Nahya; Knopp, Stefanie; Lweno, Omar; Abdul, Ummi; Mohamed, Ali; Schindler, Tobias; Rothen, Julian; Masimba, John; Kwaba, Denis; Mohammed, Alisa S.; Althaus, Fabrice; Abdulla, Salim; Tanner, Marcel; Daubenberger, Claudia; Genton, Blaise

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasmodium and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are a major public health problem, particularly among children. There are conflicting findings on potential association between these two parasites. This study investigated the Plasmodium and helminth co-infections among children aged 2 months to 9 years living in Bagamoyo district, coastal region of Tanzania. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1033 children. Stool, urine and blood samples were examined using a broad set of quality controlled diagnostic methods for common STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichura), schistosoma species and Wuchereria bancrofti. Blood slides and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) were utilized for Plasmodium diagnosis. Results Out of 992 children analyzed, the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 13% (130/992), helminth 28.5% (283/992); 5% (50/992) had co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth. The prevalence rate of Plasmodium, specific STH and co-infections increased significantly with age (p < 0.001), with older children mostly affected except for S. stercoralis monoinfection and co-infections. Spatial variations of co-infection prevalence were observed between and within villages. There was a trend for STH infections to be associated with Plasmodium infection [OR adjusted for age group 1.4, 95% CI (1.0–2.1)], which was more marked for S. stercoralis (OR = 2.2, 95% CI (1.1–4.3). Age and not schooling were risk factors for Plasmodium and STH co-infection. Conclusion The findings suggest that STH and Plasmodium infections tend to occur in the same children, with increasing prevalence of co-infection with age. This calls for an integrated approach such as using mass chemotherapy with dual effect (e.g., ivermectin) coupled with improved housing, sanitation and hygiene for the control of both parasitic infections. PMID:25837022

  4. Experimental co-infection of chickens with lentogenic, mesogenic and velogenic strains of Newcastle disease viruses and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from the clinical point of view and diagnosis of these viruses, but little is known on t...

  5. Response to antiretroviral therapy in occult hepatitis B and HIV co-infection in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, David; Stanley, Alastair; Sarfo, Stephen; Appiah, Lambert; Ankcorn, Michael; Foster, Geraldine; Schwab, Uli; Phillips, Richard; Geretti, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the outcome of first-line antiretroviral therapy among 35 Ghanaians with occult HBV/HIV co-infection, comparing them over 2 years to 120 patients with HBsAg+ HBV/HIV co-infection and 230 patients without HBV co-infection. Increases in CD4 cell count and BMI were similar, whereas elevations of hepatic transaminases were more frequent in both the occult HBV and HBsAg+ patients. Occult HBV/HIV co-infection appears not to impact adversely on response to antiretroviral therapy in Ghana. PMID:22874516

  6. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral co-infections among HIV-1 infected individuals in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infections among HIV-1 infected individuals are growing worldwide health problems characterized by lack of effective vaccines, need for expensive treatment, chronicity of morbidity and associated mortality. Their prevalence and distribution patterns continue to vary across geographical locations with high prevalence being detected among high risk populations. To determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV among HIV-1 infected individuals, blood samples were collected from consenting study subjects visiting comprehensive HIV clinics in Nairobi during the period between October and December 2009. Methods Blood samples from volunteers were screened with ELISA tests for detecting HIV, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. Results In a total of three (300) hundred infected individuals consisting of 129 (43%) males and 171 (57%) females 15.3% (46/300) were HIV-1 co-infected with either HBV or HCV or both, 10.3% (31/300) with HIV-1 and HCV and 6% (18/300) with HIV-1 and HBV infections. However, only three individuals (1%) were coinfected with the three viruses (HIV/HBV/HCV). Conclusion Though, low levels of co-infection with all three viruses were reported, there could be higher prevalence rates than reported here especially among high risk populations. PMID:24016453

  7. HIV/Tuberculosis Co-Infection among Patients Attending a Referral Chest Clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeh, E. U.; Ishaleku, D.; Iheukwumere, C. C.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) coinfection rate was investigated among patients referred to a chest clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of the 344 patients who presented with respiratory problems at the clinic, 44.8% had M. tuberculosis infection, 24.7% HIV infection and 12.8% HIV/tubercle bacilli co-infection. Coinfection rate in HIV infected persons (HIV+) was 51.8 and 28.6% in those with M. tuberculosis infection. The relative risk of HIV positive persons being coinfected was 1.075, while it was 0.401 for TB infected persons. The estimated Odds Ratio (OR) shows that the risk of co-infection was 2.68 times higher among HIV+ persons than among those with tuberculosis. The attributable risk was 45% and shows the extent to which co-infection could be attributed to HIV infection. A key socio-economic variable, eating in groups, was significantly correlated with coinfection (r = 0.107; p< 0.05). The results of this study may provide a useful policy guide in the formulation of HIV and tuberculosis control measures in Nigeria.

  8. Malaria-Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Co-infection: Influence on Disease Outcomes and Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Pinna, Raquel A.; Silva-dos-Santos, Danielle; Perce-da-Silva, Daiana S.; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Villa-Verde, Dea M. S.; De Luca, Paula M.; Banic, Dalma M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) are co-endemic throughout large regions in tropical countries and co-infection may impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. In the present study, we evaluate Malaria/Leishmaniasis disease outcome, Th1/Th2 cytokine levels and the CD4 and CD8 T-cell profiles in a co-infection murine model (BALB/c) of Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL (Py) and Leishmania amazonensis (La) or L. braziliensis (Lb). Malaria parasitaemia was assessed through blood strains stained with Giemsa. Leishmania lesions were monitored with a digital caliper and parasite loads determined by limiting-dilution assay. Serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17 were determined using multiplexed bead assay and expression of CD3, CD4, and CD8 T-cells markers were determined by Flow Cytometry in the thymus, spleens and lymph nodes. Parasitaemia in Lb+Py co-infected group was lower than in Py single-infected group, suggesting a protective effect of Lb co-infection in Malaria progression. In contrast, La+Py co-infection increased parasitaemia, patent infection and induced mortality in non-lethal Malaria infection. Regarding Leishmaniasis, Lb+Py co-infected group presented smaller lesions and less ulceration than Lb single-infected animals. In contrast, La+Py co-infected group presented only a transitory delay on the development of lesions when compared to La single-infected mice. Decreased levels of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-6, and IL-10 were observed in the serum of co-infected groups, demonstrating a modulation of Malaria immune response by Leishmania co-infections. We observed an intense thymic atrophy in Py single-infected and co-infected groups, which recovered earlier in co-infected animals. The CD4 and CD8 T cell profiles in thymus, spleens and lymph nodes did not differ between Py single and co-infected groups, except for a decrease in CD4+CD8+ T cells which also increased faster in co-infected mice. Our results suggest that Py and Leishmania co-infection

  9. High prevalence of trypanosome co-infections in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Losev, Alexander; Kostygov, Alexei Yu; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-12-01

    One thousand three hundred seventy three fish specimens of eight different species from the vicinity of Kyiv, Ukraine, were examined for the presence of trypanosomes and 921 individuals were found to be infected. The prevalence of infection ranged from 24% in freshwater bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus), to 100% in spined loach, Cobitis 'taenia' Linnaeus. The level of parasitaemia also varied significantly between generally mild infections in pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus), and heavy ones in C. 'taenia'. In most cases the infections with trypanosomes were asymptomatic. Cases of co-infection with species of Trypanoplasma Laveran et Mesnil, 1901 were documented for five out of eight examined host species. Molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences revealed that four hosts, namely northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, freshwater bream, spined loach and European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were simultaneously infected with two different trypanosome species. Our findings advocate the view that to avoid the risk posed by mixed infections, subsequent molecular taxonomic studies should be performed on clonal lines derived from laboratory cultures of fish trypanosomes. PMID:25651690

  10. German cohort of HCV mono-infected and HCV/HIV co-infected patients reveals relative under-treatment of co-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current German and European HIV guidelines recommend early evaluation of HCV treatment in all HIV/HCV co-infected patients. However, there are still considerable barriers to initiate HCV therapy in everyday clinical practice. This study evaluates baseline characteristics, “intention-to-treat” pattern and outcome of therapy of HCV/HIV co-infected patients in direct comparison to HCV mono-infected patients in a “real-life” setting. Methods A large, single-center cohort of 172 unselected HCV patients seen at the Infectious Diseases Unit at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf from 2000–2011, 88 of whom HCV/HIV co-infected, was retrospectively analyzed by chart review with special focus on demographic, clinical and virologic aspects as well as treatment outcome. Results Antiviral HCV combination therapy with PEG-interferon plus weight-adapted ribavirin was initiated in 88/172 (52%) patients of the entire cohort and in n = 36 (40%) of all HCV/HIV co-infected patients (group A) compared to n = 52 (61%) of the HCV mono-infected group (group B) (p = 0.006). There were no significant differences of the demographics or severity of the liver disease between the two groups with the exception of slightly higher baseline viral loads in group A. A sustained virologic response (SVR) was observed in 50% (n = 18) of all treated HIV/HCV co-infected patients versus 52% (n = 27) of all treated HCV mono-infected patients (p = 0.859). Genotype 1 was the most frequent genotype in both groups (group A: n = 37, group B: n = 49) and the SVR rates for these patients were only slightly lower in the group of co-infected patients (group A: n = 33%, group B: 40% p = 0.626). During the course of treatment HCV/HIV co-infected patients received less ribavirin than mono-infected patients. Conclusion Overall, treatment was only initiated in half of the patients of the entire cohort and in an even smaller proportion of HCV/HIV co-infected

  11. The Role of Co-Infections in Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV§

    PubMed Central

    King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Kourtis, Athena P.

    2015-01-01

    In HIV-infected women, co-infections that target the placenta, fetal membranes, genital tract, and breast tissue, as well as systemic maternal and infant infections, have been shown to increase the risk for mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT). Active co-infection stimulates the release of cytokines and inflammatory agents that enhance HIV replication locally or systemically and increase tissue permeability, which weakens natural defenses to MTCT. Many maternal or infant co-infections can affect MTCT of HIV, and particular ones, such as genital tract infection with herpes simplex virus, or systemic infections such as hepatitis B, can have substantial epidemiologic impact on MTCT. Screening and treatment for co-infections that can make infants susceptible to MTCT in utero, peripartum, or postpartum can help reduce the incidence of HIV infection among infants and improve the health of mothers and infants worldwide. PMID:23305198

  12. Resource limitation alters the consequences of co-infection for both hosts and parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most animals are concurrently infected with multiple parasites and live in environments with fluctuating resource availability. Compelling evidence from humans, laboratory model systems, and wildlife suggests that interactions among co-infecting parasites can influence disease dynamics, individual h...

  13. The Effect of Malaria and HIV Co-Infection on Anemia: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Naing, Cho; Sandhu, Nisha Kaur; Wai, Victor Nyunt

    2016-04-01

    Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are globally important public health concerns. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infections in people living in endemic countries, and (ii) to assess the effect of co-infection on anemia.Studies were searched on electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Medline, Google Scholar, and African Journals Online. Observational studies, assessing the prevalence of co-infection and reporting its association with anemia, were included. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using a tool called the risk of bias assessment for non-randomized studies. Heterogeneity among studies was investigated with the I-square test. Pooled prevalence of the co-infection and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the random-effect model, reflected on heterogeneity among studies. Summary odds ratio (OR), summary standardized mean difference (SMD), and their corresponding 95% CIs were estimated, as appropriate. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed for robustness of results. Publication bias was assessed by visualization of a funnel plot.Twenty-three studies were included in the present study. Overall, the pooled prevalence of co-infection was 19% (95% CI: 15-23%, I: 98.1%), showing 26% (95% CI: 20-32%, I: 98.7%) in adults, 12% (95% CI: 7-17%, I: 95.0) in pregnant women, and 9% (95% CI: 6-11%, I: 68.6%) in children. Anemia was comparable between the monoinfected and co-infected adults (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.93-2.37) and increased by 49% in co-infected pregnant women (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.14-1.94). The mean hemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in the co-infected group than the monoinfected group (summary SMD: -0.47, 95% CI: -0.61 to -0.33). The results of meta-regression on the prevalence of co-infection using the publication year and total population as covariates showed the I value remained high implying

  14. The consequences of co-infections for parasite transmission in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alison B; Agnew, Philip; Noel, Valérie; Michalakis, Yannis

    2015-03-01

    Co-infections may modify parasite transmission opportunities directly as a consequence of interactions in the within-host environment, but also indirectly through changes in host life history. Furthermore, host and parasite traits are sensitive to the abiotic environment with variable consequences for parasite transmission in co-infections. We investigate how co-infection of the mosquito Aedes aegypti with two microsporidian parasites (Vavraia culicis and Edhazardia aedis) at two levels of larval food availability affects parasite transmission directly, and indirectly through effects on host traits. In a laboratory infection experiment, we compared how co-infection, at low and high larval food availability, affected the probability of infection, within-host growth and the transmission potential of each parasite, compared to single infections. Horizontal transmission was deemed possible for both parasites when infected hosts died harbouring horizontally transmitting spores. Vertical transmission was judged possible for E. aedis when infected females emerged as adults. We also compared the total input number of spores used to seed infections with output number, in single and co-infections for each parasite. The effects of co-infection on parasite fitness were complex, especially for V. culicis. In low larval food conditions, co-infection increased the chances of mosquitoes dying as larvae or pupae, thus increasing opportunities for V. culicis' horizontal transmission. However, co-infection reduced larval longevity and hence time available for V. culicis spore production. Overall, there was a negative net effect of co-infection on V. culicis, whereby the number of spores produced was less than the number used to seed infection. Co-infections also negatively affected horizontal transmission of the more virulent parasite, E. aedis, through reduced longevity of pre-adult hosts. However, its potential transmission suffered less relative to V. culicis. Our results

  15. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    uninfected children. There are conflicting results on effectiveness of isoniazid preventive therapy in reducing incidence of tuberculosis disease in children with HIV. Conclusion Data on HIV/TB co-infection in children are still lacking. There are on-going large clinical trials on the prevention and treatment of TB/HIV infection in children that hopefully will help to guide an evidence-based clinical practice in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings. PMID:24564453

  16. Predictors of pneumococcal co-infection for patients with pandemic (H1N1) 2009.

    PubMed

    Masiá, Mar; Padilla, Sergio; Antequera, Pedro; Ramos, José Manuel; Ruiz, Montserrat; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2011-08-01

    We conducted a systematic investigation of pneumococcal co-infection in patients with a diagnosis of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and any risk factor for complications or with severity criteria. We found 14% prevalence, with one third of patients having nonpneumonic infections. A severity assessment score >1 and high C-reactive protein levels were predictors of pneumococcal co-infection. PMID:21801627

  17. Co-infection of Plasmodium vivax Malaria and Cytomegalovirus in an Immunocompetent Neonate.

    PubMed

    Chandelia, Sudha; Jain, Sarika

    2014-12-01

    Co-infections when occur can pose substantial diagnostic and treatment challenges for clinicians. In this case report we describe a neonate with co infection of plasmodium vivax malaria with Cytomegalovirus and discuss whether it can be the result of reactivation of one by the other infection postnatally or if these infections can affect and facilitate the transplacental transmission of each other from the mother. PMID:25653999

  18. Insights into human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis B virus co-infection in India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Runu; Pal, Ananya

    2015-01-01

    Shared routes of transmission lead to frequent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in a host which results in about 10% of HIV positive individuals to have chronic hepatitis B infection worldwide. In post-antiretroviral therapy era, liver diseases have emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals and HBV co-infection have become the major health issue among this population particularly from the regions with endemic HBV infection. In setting of HIV-HBV co-infection, HIV significantly impacts the natural history of HBV infection, its disease profile and the treatment outcome in negative manner. Moreover, the epidemiological pattern of HBV infection and the diversity in HBV genome (genotypic and phenotypic) are also varied in HIV co-infected subjects as compared to HBV mono-infected individuals. Several reports on the abovementioned issues are available from developed parts of the world as well as from sub-Saharan African countries. In contrast, most of these research areas remained unexplored in India despite having considerable burden of HIV and HBV infections. This review discusses present knowledge from the studies on HIV-HBV co-infection in India and relevant reports from different parts of the world. Issues needed for the future research relevant to HIV-HBV co-infection in India are also highlighted here, including a call for further investigations on this field of study. PMID:26279986

  19. Host infection history modifies co-infection success of multiple parasite genotypes.

    PubMed

    Klemme, Ines; Louhi, Katja-Riikka; Karvonen, Anssi

    2016-03-01

    Co-infections by multiple parasite genotypes are common and have important implications for host-parasite ecology and evolution through within-host interactions. Typically, these infections take place sequentially, and therefore, the outcome of co-infection may be shaped by host immune responses triggered by previous infections. For example, in vertebrates, specific immune responses play a central role in protection against disease over the course of life, but co-infection research has mostly focused on previously uninfected individuals. Here, we investigated whether sequential exposure and activation of host resistance in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss affects infection success and interactions between co-infecting parasite genotypes of the trematode eye-fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum. In accordance with earlier results, we show that a simultaneous attack of two parasite genotypes facilitates parasite establishment in previously uninfected hosts. However, we find for the first time that this facilitation in co-infection is lost in hosts with prior infection. We conclude that vertebrate host infection history can affect the direction of within-host-parasite interactions. Our results may have significant implications for the evolution of co-infections and parasite transmission strategies. PMID:26589834

  20. High number of diarrhoeal co-infections in travellers to Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Travellers’ diarrhoea (TD) is the most frequent health problem among travellers to the tropics. Using routine techniques, the aetiology mostly remains unresolved, whereas modern molecular methods enable reducing the number of equivocal cases considerably. While many studies address the aetiology of TD in Asian, Central American and North African tourist resorts, only few focus on Western Africa. Methods Stool samples from 45 travellers travelling in Benin, West Africa, were analyzed by a new multiplex qPCR assay for Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella or enteroinvasive (EIEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Results All 18 pre-travel samples proved negative for bacterial pathogens. Of the 39/45 (87%) travellers having had TD, EPEC was detected in post-travel samples in 30 (77%) cases, EAEC in 23 (59%), ETEC in 22 (56%), Shigella or EIEC in 7 (18%), EHEC in two (5%), and Salmonella in one (3%). In 31(79%) of the TD cases two or more bacterial pathogens were identified. Two (8%) samples remained negative: both patients had taken antimicrobials for TD. Conclusions EPEC, EAEC and ETEC were the most common findings. 79% of the cases had a co-infection. As modern diagnostics reveals in most patients a multitude of pathogens, the role of each pathogen should be re-evaluated. PMID:24521079

  1. Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face interviews by trained clinical nurses using the Kessler 10 scale. Several risk factors for CMD were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results- TB/HIV co-infected patients had significantly (p = 0.001) greater risk of CMD (63.7%) than the non-co-infected patients (46.7%). When adjusted for the effect of potential confounding variables, the odds of having CMD for TB/HIV co-infected individuals was 1.7 times the odds for non-co-infected patients [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.0, 2.9)]. Individuals who had no source of income [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.1, 2.8)], and day labourers [OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.2, 5.1)] were more likely to have CMD as compared to individuals who had a source of income and government employees respectively. Patients who perceived stigma [OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.5, 3.2)] and who rate their general health as "poor" [OR = 10.0, 95%CI: 2.8, 35.1)] had significantly greater risk of CMD than individual who did not perceive stigma or who perceived their general health to be "good". Conclusion- TB/HIV control programs should develop guidelines to screen and treat CMD among TB/HIV co-infected patients. Screening programs should focus on individuals with no source of income, jobless people and day labourers. PMID:20618942

  2. Human Helminth Co-Infection: Analysis of Spatial Patterns and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Community

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, Rachel L.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Geiger, Stefan M.; Cundill, Bonnie; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Brooker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Background Individuals living in areas endemic for helminths are commonly infected with multiple species. Despite increasing emphasis given to the potential health impacts of polyparasitism, few studies have investigated the relative importance of household and environmental factors on the risk of helminth co-infection. Here, we present an investigation of exposure-related risk factors as sources of heterogeneity in the distribution of co-infection with Necator americanus and Schistosoma mansoni in a region of southeastern Brazil. Methodology Cross-sectional parasitological and socio-economic data from a community-based household survey were combined with remotely sensed environmental data using a geographical information system. Geo-statistical methods were used to explore patterns of mono- and co-infection with N. americanus and S. mansoni in the region. Bayesian hierarchical models were then developed to identify risk factors for mono- and co-infection in relation to community-based survey data to assess their roles in explaining observed heterogeneity in mono and co-infection with these two helminth species. Principal Findings The majority of individuals had N. americanus (71.1%) and/or S. mansoni (50.3%) infection; 41.0% of individuals were co-infected with both helminths. Prevalence of co-infection with these two species varied substantially across the study area, and there was strong evidence of household clustering. Hierarchical multinomial models demonstrated that relative socio-economic status, household crowding, living in the eastern watershed and high Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were significantly associated with N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection. These risk factors could, however, only account for an estimated 32% of variability between households. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that variability in risk of N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection between households cannot be entirely explained by exposure-related risk

  3. Clonorchis sinensis Co-infection Could Affect the Disease State and Treatment Response of HBV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Chen, Tingjin; Kong, Xiangzhan; Sun, Hengchang; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is considered to be an important parasitic zoonosis because it infects approximately 35 million people, while approximately 15 million were distributed in China. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health issue. Two types of pathogens have the potential to cause human liver disease and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Concurrent infection with HBV and C. sinensis is often observed in some areas where C. sinensis is endemic. However, whether C. sinensis could impact HBV infection or vice versa remains unknown. Principal Findings Co-infection with C. sinensis and HBV develops predominantly in males. Co-infected C. sinensis and HBV patients presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA titers. Combination treatment with antiviral and anti-C. sinensis drugs in co-infected patients could contribute to a reduction in viral load and help with liver function recovery. Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) may, in some ways, increase HBV viral replication in vitro. A mixture of ESP and HBV positive sera could induce peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce higher level of Th2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to HBV alone, it seems that due to presence of ESP, the cytokine production shift towards Th2. C. sinensis/HBV co-infected patients showed higher serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels and lower serum IFN-γ levels. Conclusions/Significance Patients with concomitant C. sinensis and HBV infection presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA copies. In co-infected patients, the efficacy of anti-viral treatment was better in patients who were prescribed with entecavir and praziquantel than entecavir alone. One possible reason for the weaker response to antiviral therapies in co-infected patients was the shift in cytokine production from Th1 to Th2 that may inhibit viral clearance. C. sinensis/HBV co-infection could exacerbate the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine. PMID:27348302

  4. ToRCH "co-infections" are associated with increased risk of abortion in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rasti, Sima; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Sadat; Abdoli, Amir; Piroozmand, Ahmad; Mousavi, Seyed Gholam Abbas; Fakhrie-Kashan, Zohreh

    2016-03-01

    ToRCH infections (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex virus) have long been known to be associated with bad obstetric outcomes. However, little information is available about the impact of ToRCH co-infections on the outcome of pregnancy. Hence, we tested the IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus among 81 pregnant women with abortion (case group) and 98 pregnant women with normal delivery (control group). In the single-infection model, only CMV-IgM seropositivity was significantly increased in case than control group (25.9% in case and 12.2 % in control, OR = 2.5, P = 0.019). In the co-infection model, 14 patterns were recognized, but two patterns were significantly increased in the case than the control group. Co-infection of T. gondii IgG + CMV IgM was 9.1-fold increased in the case than the control group (8.6% in the case and 1% in control, OR = 9.1; P = 0.024). Also, co-infection of T. gondii IgG + HSV IgG + CMV IgM was 7.7-fold increased in case than the control group (7.4% in case and 1 % in control, OR = 7.7; P = 0.04). Although the OR of other co-infections was higher in the case than the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. These findings indicate that ToRCH co-infections are associated with increased risk of abortion than single infection. Hence, the rates of co-infections should be considered in prenatal screening of ToRCH infections. PMID:26499091

  5. Interaction between unrelated viruses during in vivo co-infection to limit pathology and immunity.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Megan S; Huynh, Trung P; Johnson, John L; Jacobs, Bertram L; Blattman, Joseph N

    2015-10-01

    Great progress has been made in understanding immunity to viral infection. However, infection can occur in the context of co-infection by unrelated pathogens that modulate immune responses and/or disease. We have studied immunity and disease during co-infection with two unrelated viruses: Ectromelia virus (ECTV) and Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). ECTV infection can be a lethal in mice due in part to the blockade of Type I Interferons (IFN-I). We show that ECTV/LCMV co-infection results in decreased ECTV viral load and amelioration of ECTV-induced disease, likely due to IFN-I induction by LCMV, as rescue is not observed in IFN-I receptor deficient mice. However, immune responses to LCMV in ECTV co-infected mice were also lower compared to mice infected with LCMV alone and potentially biased toward effector-memory cell generation. Thus, we provide evidence for bi-directional effects of viral co-infection that modulate disease and immunity. PMID:26099694

  6. HBV and HIV co-infection: Impact on liver pathobiology and therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Mohammad Khalid

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on progression of severe liver diseases is a serious public health issue, worldwide. In the co-infection cases, about 90% of HIV-infected population is seropositive for HBV where approximately 5%-40% individuals are chronically infected. In HIV co-infected individuals, liver-related mortality is estimated over 17 times higher than those with HBV mono-infection. The spectrum of HIV-induced liver diseases includes hepatitis, steatohepatitis, endothelialitis, necrosis, granulomatosis, cirrhosis and carcinoma. Moreover, HIV co-infection significantly alters the natural history of hepatitis B, and therefore complicates the disease management. Though several studies have demonstrated impact of HIV proteins on hepatocyte biology, only a few data is available on interactions between HBV and HIV proteins. Thus, the clinical spectrum as well as the complexity of the co-infection offers challenging fronts to study the underlying molecular mechanisms, and to design effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:25625003

  7. Distribution, diversity and drivers of blood-borne parasite co-infections in Alaskan bird populations.

    PubMed

    Oakgrove, Khouanchy S; Harrigan, Ryan J; Loiseau, Claire; Guers, Sue; Seppi, Bruce; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2014-09-01

    Avian species are commonly infected by multiple parasites, however few studies have investigated the environmental determinants of the prevalence of co-infection over a large scale. Here we believe that we report the first, detailed ecological study of the prevalence, diversity and co-infections of four avian blood-borne parasite genera: Plasmodium spp., Haemoproteus spp., Leucocytozoon spp. and Trypanosoma spp. We collected blood samples from 47 resident and migratory bird species across a latitudinal gradient in Alaska. From the patterns observed at collection sites, random forest models were used to provide evidence of associations between bioclimatic conditions and the prevalence of parasite co-infection distribution. Molecular screening revealed a higher prevalence of haematozoa (53%) in Alaska than previously reported. Leucocytozoons had the highest diversity, prevalence and prevalence of co-infection. Leucocytozoon prevalence (35%) positively correlated with Trypanosoma prevalence (11%), negatively correlated with Haemoproteus prevalence (14%) and had no correlation with Plasmodium prevalence (7%). We found temperature, precipitation and tree cover to be the primary environmental drivers that show a relationship with the prevalence of co-infection. The results provide insight into the impacts of bioclimatic drivers on parasite ecology and intra-host interactions, and have implications for the study of infectious diseases in rapidly changing environments. PMID:25014331

  8. The geographic distribution patterns of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users in a national methadone maintenance treatment program in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-, HCV- and HIV/HCV co-infections among drug users have become a rapidly emerging global public health problem. In order to constrain the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use, China has adopted a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) since 2004. Studies of the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and HCV infections at a local scale are sparse, which has critical implications for future MMTP implementation and health policies covering both HIV and HCV prevention among drug users in China. This study aimed to characterize geographic patterns of HIV and HCV prevalence at the township level among drug users in a Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Southwest of China. Methods Data on demographic and clinical characteristics of all clients in the 11 MMTP clinics of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected. A GIS-based geographic analysis involving geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics were employed to identify the geographic distribution pattern of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users. Results A total of 6690 MMTP clients was analyzed. The prevalence of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections were 25.2%, 30.8%, and 10.9% respectively. There were significant global and local geographic autocorrelations for HIV-, HCV-, and co-infection. The Moran’s I was 0.3015, 0.3449, and 0.3155, respectively (P < 0.0001). Both the geographic autocorrelation analysis and the geographic scan statistical analysis showed that HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections in the prefecture exhibited significant geographic clustering at the township level. The geographic distribution pattern of each infection group was different. Conclusion HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections among drug users in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture all exhibited substantial geographic heterogeneity at the township level. The geographic distribution patterns of the three groups were different. These findings imply that it may be necessary to inform or invent

  9. Mechanistic insights on immunosenescence and chronic immune activation in HIV-tuberculosis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Esaki M; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie

    2015-02-12

    Immunosenescence is marked by accelerated degradation of host immune responses leading to the onset of opportunistic infections, where senescent T cells show remarkably higher ontogenic defects as compared to healthy T cells. The mechanistic association between T-cell immunosenescence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, and functional T-cell responses in HIV-tuberculosis (HIV-TB) co-infection remains to be elaborately discussed. Here, we discussed the association of immunosenescence and chronic immune activation in HIV-TB co-infection and reviewed the role played by mediators of immune deterioration in HIV-TB co-infection necessitating the importance of designing therapeutic strategies against HIV disease progression and pathogenesis. PMID:25674514

  10. Impact of HIV co-infection on the evolution and transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Eldholm, Vegard; Rieux, Adrien; Monteserin, Johana; Lopez, Julia Montana; Palmero, Domingo; Lopez, Beatriz; Ritacco, Viviana; Didelot, Xavier; Balloux, Francois

    2016-01-01

    The tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is fueled by a parallel Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic, but it remains unclear to what extent the HIV epidemic has been a driver for drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Here we assess the impact of HIV co-infection on the emergence of resistance and transmission of Mtb in the largest outbreak of multidrug-resistant TB in South America to date. By combining Bayesian evolutionary analyses and the reconstruction of transmission networks utilizing a new model optimized for TB, we find that HIV co-infection does not significantly affect the transmissibility or the mutation rate of Mtb within patients and was not associated with increased emergence of resistance within patients. Our results indicate that the HIV epidemic serves as an amplifier of TB outbreaks by providing a reservoir of susceptible hosts, but that HIV co-infection is not a direct driver for the emergence and transmission of resistant strains. PMID:27502557

  11. Mathematical Analysis of the Effects of HIV-Malaria Co-infection on Workplace Productivity.

    PubMed

    Seidu, Baba; Makinde, Oluwole D; Seini, Ibrahim Y

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear dynamical system is proposed and qualitatively analyzed to study the dynamics and effects of HIV-malaria co-infection in the workplace. Basic reproduction numbers of sub-models are derived and are shown to have LAS disease-free equilibria when their respective basic reproduction numbers are less than unity. Conditions for existence of endemic equilibria of sub-models are also derived. Unlike the HIV-only model, the malaria-only model is shown to exhibit a backward bifurcation under certain conditions. Conditions for optimal control of the co-infection are derived using the Pontryagin's maximum principle. Numerical experimentation on the resulting optimality system is performed. Using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, it is observed that combining preventative measures for both diseases is the best strategy for optimal control of HIV-malaria co-infection at the workplace. PMID:25980477

  12. Seroprevalence of HIV and hepatitis C co-infection among blood donors in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karki, Surendra; Ghimire, Prakash; Tiwari, Bishnu Raj; Shrestha, Ashish Chandra; Gautam, Avhishekh; Rajkarnikar, Manita

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in different categories of blood donors and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection rate. A total of 33,255 blood samples were screened for HIV using a third generation ELISA test at the Central Blood Transfusion Service, Nepal Red Cross Society, Kathmandu from December 2006 to September 2007. The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.19% (95% CI= 0.15-0.25) and co-infection with HCV was found in 10.8% (95% CI= 4.4-20.9). There were no significant differences in HIV seroprevalence among the different categories of age, sex, type of donation and time of donation. The study revealed a relatively lower seroprevalence of HIV among blood donors in Kathmandu Valley than reported earlier but a higher HCV co-infection rate. The similar seroprevalence between first time and repeat donors suggests the need for more improved donor education and counselling. PMID:19323036

  13. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanling; Xiong, Yujiao; Huang, Wenxiang; Jia, Bei

    2014-01-01

    We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis A infection prompt the use of timely antiviral therapy. PMID:24884719

  14. Culture proven Salmonella typhi co-infection in a child with Dengue fever: a case report.

    PubMed

    Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Narayanan, Parameswaran; Kanimozhi, Thandapani

    2015-09-01

    Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Sometimes concurrent infections with multiple infectious agents may occur in one patient, which make the diagnosis and management a challenging task. The authors here present a case of co-infection of typhoid fever with dengue fever in a ten-year-old child and discuss the pertinent issues. The authors emphasize that the risk factors predicting the presence of such co-infections, if developed, will be immensely useful in areas where dengue outbreak occurs in the background of high transmission of endemic infections. PMID:26409747

  15. Repeatable Population Dynamics among Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Lineages Evolved under High Co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Elizabeth S. C. P.; Morales, Nadya M.; Wasik, Brian R.; Brusic, Vesna; Whelan, Sean P. J.; Turner, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and hosts can experience oscillatory cycles, where the densities of these interacting species dynamically fluctuate through time. Viruses with different replication strategies can also interact to produce cyclical dynamics. Frequent cellular co-infection can select for defective-interfering particles (DIPs): “cheater” viruses with shortened genomes that interfere with intracellular replication of full-length (ordinary) viruses. DIPs are positively selected when rare because they out-replicate ordinary viruses during co-infection, but DIPs are negatively selected when common because ordinary viruses become unavailable for intracellular exploitation via cheating. Here, we tested whether oscillatory dynamics of ordinary viruses were similar across independently evolved populations of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Results showed identical cyclical dynamics across populations in the first 10 experimental passages, which transitioned to repeatable dampened oscillations by passage 20. Genomic analyses revealed parallel molecular substitutions across populations, particularly novel mutations that became dominant by passage 10. Our study showed that oscillatory dynamics and molecular evolution of interacting viruses were highly repeatable in VSV populations passaged under frequent co-infection. Furthermore, our data suggested that frequent co-infection with DIPs caused lowered performance of full-length viruses, by reducing their population densities by orders of magnitude compared to reproduction of ordinary viruses during strictly clonal infections. PMID:27065953

  16. Relative reproductive success of co-infecting parasite genotypes under intensified within-host competition.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Otto; Louhi, Katja-Riikka; Karvonen, Anssi; Rellstab, Christian; Jokela, Jukka

    2015-12-01

    In nature, host individuals are commonly simultaneously infected with more than one genotype of the same parasite species. These co-infecting parasites often interact, which can affect their fitness and shape host-parasite ecology and evolution. Many of such interactions take place through competition for limited host resources. Therefore, variation in ecological factors modifying the host resource level could be important in determining the intensity of competition and the outcome of co-infections. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the relative reproductive success of co-infecting genotypes of the trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum in its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis while experimentally manipulating snail resource level using contrasting feeding treatments (ad libitum food supply, no food). We found that food deprivation constrained the overall parasite within-host reproduction as the release of parasite transmission stages (cercariae) was reduced. This indicates intensified competition among the parasite genotypes. The genotypic composition of the released cercariae, however, was not affected by the feeding treatments. This suggests that in this system, the relative reproductive success of co-infecting parasite genotypes, which is an important component determining their fitness, is robust to variation in ecological factors modifying the strength of resource competition. PMID:26296607

  17. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to Epstein Barr virus and Leishmania co-infection in a toddler

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Pinilla, N; Baro-Fernández, M; González-Granado, LI

    2015-01-01

    This is the report of an EBV + Leishmanial co-infection. The patient developed hemophagocytic syndrome (HLH) and was treated with the standard HLH-2004 protocol. However, PCR in bone marrow discovered this secondary cause for HLH. In endemic countries, visceral leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis even in EBV-related HLH, as chemotherapy toxicity may be avoided. PMID:25511219

  18. Repeatable Population Dynamics among Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Lineages Evolved under High Co-infection.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth S C P; Morales, Nadya M; Wasik, Brian R; Brusic, Vesna; Whelan, Sean P J; Turner, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and hosts can experience oscillatory cycles, where the densities of these interacting species dynamically fluctuate through time. Viruses with different replication strategies can also interact to produce cyclical dynamics. Frequent cellular co-infection can select for defective-interfering particles (DIPs): "cheater" viruses with shortened genomes that interfere with intracellular replication of full-length (ordinary) viruses. DIPs are positively selected when rare because they out-replicate ordinary viruses during co-infection, but DIPs are negatively selected when common because ordinary viruses become unavailable for intracellular exploitation via cheating. Here, we tested whether oscillatory dynamics of ordinary viruses were similar across independently evolved populations of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Results showed identical cyclical dynamics across populations in the first 10 experimental passages, which transitioned to repeatable dampened oscillations by passage 20. Genomic analyses revealed parallel molecular substitutions across populations, particularly novel mutations that became dominant by passage 10. Our study showed that oscillatory dynamics and molecular evolution of interacting viruses were highly repeatable in VSV populations passaged under frequent co-infection. Furthermore, our data suggested that frequent co-infection with DIPs caused lowered performance of full-length viruses, by reducing their population densities by orders of magnitude compared to reproduction of ordinary viruses during strictly clonal infections. PMID:27065953

  19. Blood-borne viral co-infections among human immunodeficiency virus-infected inmates.

    PubMed

    Pontali, Emanuele; Bobbio, Nicoletta; Zaccardi, Marilena; Urciuoli, Renato

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence of HBV and/or HCV co-infection among HIV-infected inmates entering the correctional facility. Design/methodology/approach - Prospective collection of data of HIV-infected inmates entered the institution over a ten-year period. Findings - During study period 365 consecutive different inmates were evaluated. HCV co-infection was observed in more than 80 per cent of the tested HIV-infected inmates, past HBV infection in 71.6 per cent and active HBV co-infection was detected in 7.1 per cent; triple coinfection (HIV, HCV and HBs-Ag positivity) was present in 6 per cent of the total. Originality/value - This study confirms high prevalence of co-infections among HIV-infected inmates. Testing for HBV and HCV in all HIV-infected inmates at entry in any correctional system is recommended to identify those in need of specific care and/or preventing interventions. PMID:27219906

  20. Infection-related hemolysis and susceptibility to Gram-negative bacterial co-infection.

    PubMed

    Orf, Katharine; Cunnington, Aubrey J

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to co-infection with enteric Gram-negative bacteria, particularly non-typhoidal Salmonella, is reported in malaria and Oroya fever (Bartonella bacilliformis infection), and can lead to increased mortality. Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates a causal association with risk of bacterial co-infection, rather than just co-incidence of common risk factors. Both malaria and Oroya fever are characterized by hemolysis, and observations in humans and animal models suggest that hemolysis causes the susceptibility to bacterial co-infection. Evidence from animal models implicates hemolysis in the impairment of a variety of host defense mechanisms, including macrophage dysfunction, neutrophil dysfunction, and impairment of adaptive immune responses. One mechanism supported by evidence from animal models and human data, is the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in bone marrow, which impairs the ability of developing neutrophils to mount a competent oxidative burst. As a result, dysfunctional neutrophils become a new niche for replication of intracellular bacteria. Here we critically appraise and summarize the key evidence for mechanisms which may contribute to these very specific combinations of co-infections, and propose interventions to ameliorate this risk. PMID:26175727

  1. In vitro model of mycobacteria and HIV-1 co-infection for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Sudhamathi; Finney John, Sarah; Nusbaum, Rebecca J; Ferguson, Monique R; Cirillo, Jeffrey D; Olaleye, Omonike; Endsley, Janice J

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has become a global health threat in the wake of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic and is the leading cause of death in people with HIV/AIDS. Treatment of patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)/HIV co-infection is complicated by drug interactions and toxicity that present huge challenges for clinical intervention. Discovery efforts to identify novel compounds with increased effectiveness and decreased drug-drug interactions against Mtb, HIV-1, or both, would be greatly aided by the use of a co-infection model for screening drug libraries. Currently, inhibitors of Mtb are screened independently in mycobacterial cell cultures or target based biochemical screens and less often in macrophages or peripheral blood leukocytes. Similarly, HIV-1 drugs are screened in vitro independently from anti-mycobacterial compounds. Here, we describe an in vitro model where primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or monocyte-derived macrophages are infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and HIV-1, and used to evaluate drug toxicity and activity in a co-infection setting. Our results with standard compounds (e.g. Azidothymidine, Rifampicin) demonstrate the utility of this in vitro model to evaluate drug effectiveness relevant to cellular toxicity, HIV-1 replication, and intracellular mycobacterial growth, through the use of ELISA, bacterial enumeration, and multi-variate flow cytometry. This model and associated assays have great value in accelerating the discovery of compounds for use in Mtb/HIV-1 co-infected patients. PMID:24388652

  2. Infection-related hemolysis and susceptibility to Gram-negative bacterial co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Orf, Katharine; Cunnington, Aubrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to co-infection with enteric Gram-negative bacteria, particularly non-typhoidal Salmonella, is reported in malaria and Oroya fever (Bartonella bacilliformis infection), and can lead to increased mortality. Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates a causal association with risk of bacterial co-infection, rather than just co-incidence of common risk factors. Both malaria and Oroya fever are characterized by hemolysis, and observations in humans and animal models suggest that hemolysis causes the susceptibility to bacterial co-infection. Evidence from animal models implicates hemolysis in the impairment of a variety of host defense mechanisms, including macrophage dysfunction, neutrophil dysfunction, and impairment of adaptive immune responses. One mechanism supported by evidence from animal models and human data, is the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in bone marrow, which impairs the ability of developing neutrophils to mount a competent oxidative burst. As a result, dysfunctional neutrophils become a new niche for replication of intracellular bacteria. Here we critically appraise and summarize the key evidence for mechanisms which may contribute to these very specific combinations of co-infections, and propose interventions to ameliorate this risk. PMID:26175727

  3. Imbalanced Oxidative Stress Causes Chlamydial Persistence during Non-Productive Human Herpes Virus Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prusty, Bhupesh K.; Böhme, Linda; Bergmann, Birgit; Siegl, Christine; Krause, Eva; Mehlitz, Adrian; Rudel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Both human herpes viruses and Chlamydia are highly prevalent in the human population and are detected together in different human disorders. Here, we demonstrate that co-infection with human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) interferes with the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis and induces persistence. Induction of chlamydial persistence by HHV6 is independent of productive virus infection, but requires the interaction and uptake of the virus by the host cell. On the other hand, viral uptake is strongly promoted under co-infection conditions. Host cell glutathione reductase activity was suppressed by HHV6 causing NADPH accumulation, decreased formation of reduced glutathione and increased oxidative stress. Prevention of oxidative stress restored infectivity of Chlamydia after HHV6-induced persistence. We show that co-infection with Herpes simplex virus 1 or human Cytomegalovirus also induces chlamydial persistence by a similar mechanism suggesting that Chlamydia -human herpes virus co-infections are evolutionary shaped interactions with a thus far unrecognized broad significance. PMID:23077614

  4. Co-infection of dengue fever and hepatitis A in a Russian traveler.

    PubMed

    Volchkova, Elena; Umbetova, Karina; Belaia, Olga; Sviridova, Maria; Dmitrieva, Ludmila; Arutyunova, Daria; Chernishov, Dmitriy; Karan, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    We report a hepatitis A (HAV) and dengue virus (DENV) co-infection in Russian man who had been traveling to Dominican Republic. At admission to the hospital hemorrhagic and jaundice symptoms were observed in patient. PCR tests of blood serum and urine revealed RNA dengue virus type 3, HAV RNA, anti-HAV-IgM. PMID:27516967

  5. Co-infection and disease severity of Ohio Maize dwarf mosaic virus and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two major maize viruses have been reported in the United States: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV). These viruses co-occur in regions where maize is grown such that co-infections are likely. Co-infection of different strains of MCDV is also observed frequently...

  6. Malaria endemicity and co-infection with tissue-dwelling parasites in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Onkoba, Nyamongo W; Chimbari, Moses J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms and outcomes of host-parasite interactions during malaria co-infections with gastrointestinal helminths are reasonably understood. In contrast, very little is known about such mechanisms in cases of malaria co-infections with tissue-dwelling parasites. This is lack of knowledge is exacerbated by misdiagnosis, lack of pathognomonic clinical signs and the chronic nature of tissue-dwelling helminthic infections. A good understanding of the implications of tissue-dwelling parasitic co-infections with malaria will contribute towards the improvement of the control and management of such co-infections in endemic areas. This review summarises and discusses current information available and gaps in research on malaria co-infection with gastro-intestinal helminths and tissue-dwelling parasites with emphasis on helminthic infections, in terms of the effects of migrating larval stages and intra and extracellular localisations of protozoan parasites and helminths in organs, tissues, and vascular and lymphatic circulations. PMID:26377900

  7. TB-HIV co-infection: a catastrophic comradeship.

    PubMed

    Narendran, G; Swaminathan, S

    2016-04-01

    The symbiotic association of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV poses a challenge to human survival. HIV complicates every aspect of TB including presentation, diagnosis and treatment. HIV-TB patients encounter unique problems like drug-drug interactions, cumulative toxicity, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), lower plasma drug levels and emergence of drug resistance during treatment despite adherence. TB may also be overdiagnosed in HIV due to a number of diseases that closely resemble TB. Notable among them are non-tuberculous mycobacteria, Pneumocystis Jirovecii and Nocardia. Even though diagnostic procedures have improved over the years, patients in developing countries usually seek health care at later stage of the disease. Research data ascertains the duration of therapy for TB to be 6 months with rifampicin and isoniazid, reinforced with ethambutol and pyrazinamide in the first 2 months. The schedule of therapy is still debatable with daily regimens being preferred in the context of HIV. Many reasons exist for persistence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M.TB) in sputum, or delayed-clearance of TB from sputum smears in HIV, apart from emergence of drug resistance and non-compliance. Acquired rifampicin resistance (ARR) is a unique phenomenon complicating HIV-associated TB when an intermittent regimen of antituberculosis therapy (ATT) is used without timely initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), especially in patients harbouring isoniazid-resistant strains Immune restoration is often incomplete ('swiss cheese' pattern) even with effective HAART if not started early. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is the paradoxical worsening of the patient's condition often with radiological deterioration, due to an enhanced immune response with HAART. IRIS occurs despite an effective virological suppression and a favourable response to ATT. The incidence of IRIS in HIV has reached up to 54%, requiring utilization of experts

  8. Understanding HIV-Mycobacteria synergism through comparative proteomics of intra-phagosomal mycobacteria during mono- and HIV co-infection.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Rakesh; Dhali, Snigdha; Rizvi, Arshad; Rapole, Srikanth; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the most common co-infection in HIV patients and a serious co-epidemic. Apart from increasing the risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB), HIV infection also permits opportunistic infection of environmental non-pathogenic mycobacteria. To gain insights into mycobacterial survival inside host macrophages and identify mycobacterial proteins or processes that influence HIV propagation during co-infection, we employed proteomics approach to identify differentially expressed intracellular mycobacterial proteins during mono- and HIV co-infection of human THP-1 derived macrophage cell lines. Of the 92 proteins identified, 30 proteins were upregulated during mycobacterial mono-infection and 40 proteins during HIV-mycobacteria co-infection. We observed down-regulation of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules, up-regulation of cation transporters, Type VII (Esx) secretion systems, proteins involved in cell wall lipid or protein metabolism, glyoxalate pathway and branched chain amino-acid synthesis during co-infection. The bearings of these mycobacterial factors or processes on HIV propagation during co-infection, as inferred from the proteomics data, were validated using deletion mutants of mycobacteria. The analyses revealed mycobacterial factors that possibly via modulating the host environment, increased viral titers during co-infection. The study provides new leads for investigations towards hitherto unknown molecular mechanisms explaining HIV-mycobacteria synergism, helping address diagnostics and treatment challenges for effective co-epidemic management. PMID:26916387

  9. Understanding HIV-Mycobacteria synergism through comparative proteomics of intra-phagosomal mycobacteria during mono- and HIV co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Rakesh; Dhali, Snigdha; Rizvi, Arshad; Rapole, Srikanth; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the most common co-infection in HIV patients and a serious co-epidemic. Apart from increasing the risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB), HIV infection also permits opportunistic infection of environmental non-pathogenic mycobacteria. To gain insights into mycobacterial survival inside host macrophages and identify mycobacterial proteins or processes that influence HIV propagation during co-infection, we employed proteomics approach to identify differentially expressed intracellular mycobacterial proteins during mono- and HIV co-infection of human THP-1 derived macrophage cell lines. Of the 92 proteins identified, 30 proteins were upregulated during mycobacterial mono-infection and 40 proteins during HIV-mycobacteria co-infection. We observed down-regulation of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules, up-regulation of cation transporters, Type VII (Esx) secretion systems, proteins involved in cell wall lipid or protein metabolism, glyoxalate pathway and branched chain amino-acid synthesis during co-infection. The bearings of these mycobacterial factors or processes on HIV propagation during co-infection, as inferred from the proteomics data, were validated using deletion mutants of mycobacteria. The analyses revealed mycobacterial factors that possibly via modulating the host environment, increased viral titers during co-infection. The study provides new leads for investigations towards hitherto unknown molecular mechanisms explaining HIV-mycobacteria synergism, helping address diagnostics and treatment challenges for effective co-epidemic management. PMID:26916387

  10. Fatal leptospirosis and chikungunya co-infection: Do not forget leptospirosis during chikungunya outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Nhan, Tu-Xuan; Bonnieux, Eric; Rovery, Clarisse; De Pina, Jean-Jacques; Musso, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In endemic areas, leptospirosis can be missed by erroneous clinical or laboratory diagnosis of arboviroses or co-infections with arboviruses and an increase in mortality due to leptospirosis has already been reported during arboviruses outbreaks. During the French Polynesian chikungunya virus outbreak in 2014-2015, two leptospirosis and chikungunya co-infections were reported, one of which was fatal. Diagnosis of leptospiroses was delayed in the context of chikungunya outbreak. In the context of arbovirus outbreak, the risk of misdiagnosis of leptospirosis is maximum and clinicians should initiate early antibiotic therapy if leptospirosis is suspected. A delayed diagnosis of leptospirosis can be responsible for fatal outcome. Leptospirosis should be considered even if dengue or chikungunya virus infections are confirmed by reference molecular testing. PMID:27413690

  11. Co-Infection by Chytrid Fungus and Ranaviruses in Wild and Harvested Frogs in the Tropical Andes

    PubMed Central

    Warne, Robin W.; LaBumbard, Brandon; LaGrange, Seth; Vredenburg, Vance T.; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    While global amphibian declines are associated with the spread of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), undetected concurrent co-infection by other pathogens may be little recognized threats to amphibians. Emerging viruses in the genus Ranavirus (Rv) also cause die-offs of amphibians and other ectotherms, but the extent of their distribution globally, or how co-infections with Bd impact amphibians are poorly understood. We provide the first report of Bd and Rv co-infection in South America, and the first report of Rv infections in the amphibian biodiversity hotspot of the Peruvian Andes, where Bd is associated with extinctions. Using these data, we tested the hypothesis that Bd or Rv parasites facilitate co-infection, as assessed by parasite abundance or infection intensity within individual adult frogs. Co-infection occurred in 30% of stream-dwelling frogs; 65% were infected by Bd and 40% by Rv. Among terrestrial, direct-developing Pristimantis frogs 40% were infected by Bd, 35% by Rv, and 20% co-infected. In Telmatobius frogs harvested for the live-trade 49% were co-infected, 92% were infected by Bd, and 53% by Rv. Median Bd and Rv loads were similar in both wild (Bd = 101.2 Ze, Rv = 102.3 viral copies) and harvested frogs (Bd = 103.1 Ze, Rv = 102.7 viral copies). While neither parasite abundance nor infection intensity were associated with co-infection patterns in adults, these data did not include the most susceptible larval and metamorphic life stages. These findings suggest Rv distribution is global and that co-infection among these parasites may be common. These results raise conservation concerns, but greater testing is necessary to determine if parasite interactions increase amphibian vulnerability to secondary infections across differing life stages, and constitute a previously undetected threat to declining populations. Greater surveillance of parasite interactions may increase our capacity to contain and mitigate the impacts of these and other wildlife

  12. Co-Infection by Chytrid Fungus and Ranaviruses in Wild and Harvested Frogs in the Tropical Andes.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; LaBumbard, Brandon; LaGrange, Seth; Vredenburg, Vance T; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    While global amphibian declines are associated with the spread of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), undetected concurrent co-infection by other pathogens may be little recognized threats to amphibians. Emerging viruses in the genus Ranavirus (Rv) also cause die-offs of amphibians and other ectotherms, but the extent of their distribution globally, or how co-infections with Bd impact amphibians are poorly understood. We provide the first report of Bd and Rv co-infection in South America, and the first report of Rv infections in the amphibian biodiversity hotspot of the Peruvian Andes, where Bd is associated with extinctions. Using these data, we tested the hypothesis that Bd or Rv parasites facilitate co-infection, as assessed by parasite abundance or infection intensity within individual adult frogs. Co-infection occurred in 30% of stream-dwelling frogs; 65% were infected by Bd and 40% by Rv. Among terrestrial, direct-developing Pristimantis frogs 40% were infected by Bd, 35% by Rv, and 20% co-infected. In Telmatobius frogs harvested for the live-trade 49% were co-infected, 92% were infected by Bd, and 53% by Rv. Median Bd and Rv loads were similar in both wild (Bd = 101.2 Ze, Rv = 102.3 viral copies) and harvested frogs (Bd = 103.1 Ze, Rv = 102.7 viral copies). While neither parasite abundance nor infection intensity were associated with co-infection patterns in adults, these data did not include the most susceptible larval and metamorphic life stages. These findings suggest Rv distribution is global and that co-infection among these parasites may be common. These results raise conservation concerns, but greater testing is necessary to determine if parasite interactions increase amphibian vulnerability to secondary infections across differing life stages, and constitute a previously undetected threat to declining populations. Greater surveillance of parasite interactions may increase our capacity to contain and mitigate the impacts of these and other wildlife

  13. Hepatitis C in human immunodeficiency virus co-infected individuals: Is this still a “special population”?

    PubMed Central

    Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Allen, Joanna; Bhagani, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of individuals with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Co-infected individuals are traditionally considered as one of the “special populations” amongst those with chronic HCV, mainly because of faster progression to end-stage liver disease and suboptimal responses to treatment with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin, the benefits of which are often outweighed by toxicity. The advent of the newer direct acting antivirals (DAAs) has given hope that the majority of co-infected individuals can clear HCV. However the “special population” designation may prove an obstacle for those with co-infection to gain access to the new agents, in terms of requirement for separate pre-licensing clinical trials and extensive drug-drug interaction studies. We review the global epidemiology, natural history and pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C in HIV co-infection. The accelerated course of chronic hepatitis C in HIV co-infection is not adequately offset by successful combination antiretroviral therapy. We also review the treatment trials of chronic hepatitis C in HIV co-infected individuals with DAAs and compare them to trials in the HCV mono-infected. There is convincing evidence that HIV co-infection no longer diminishes the response to treatment against HCV in the new era of DAA-based therapy. The management of HCV co-infection should therefore become a priority in the care of HIV infected individuals, along with public health efforts to prevent new HCV infections, focusing particularly on specific patient groups at risk, such as men who have sex with men and injecting drug users. PMID:26244068

  14. Hepatitis B and Schistosoma co-infection in a non-endemic area.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Gómez, J Á; Salas-Coronas, J; Lozano-Serrano, A B; Vázquez-Villegas, J; Soriano-Pérez, M J; Estévez-Escobar, M; Villarejo-Ordóñez, A; Cabezas-Fernández, M T

    2016-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is related to the development of liver fibrosis and portal hypertension. Chronic co-infection with HBV and Schistosoma has been associated in endemic areas with a higher risk for a more severe liver disease. However, no studies have assessed the real importance of this co-infection in non-endemic regions. This is a retrospective observational study of Sub-Saharan immigrants attending between October 2004 and February 2014. Patients with chronic HBV infection with and without evidence of schistosomal infection were compared. Epidemiological, analytical, and microbiological data were analysed. Likelihood of liver fibrosis based on APRI and FIB-4 indexes was established. A total of 507 patients were included in the study, 170 (33.5 %) of them harbouring evidence of schistosome infection. No differences were found in transaminase, GGT, and ALP levels. In fibrosis tests, a higher proportion of patients with HVB and S. mansoni detection reached possible fibrosis scores (F > 2) when compared to patients without schistosomiasis: 17.4 vs 14.2 % and 4.3 % vs 4.2 % (using high sensitivity and high specificity cut-offs respectively), although differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.69, p = 0.96). For possible cirrhosis (F4) score, similar results were observed: 4.3 % of co-infected patients vs 2.1 % of mono-infected ones, p = 0.46. According to these datas, in non-endemic regions the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B is not substantially modified by schistosome co-infection. PMID:27272213

  15. Baseline characteristics of HIV & hepatitis B virus (HIV/HBV) co-infected patients from Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Saha, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Saha, Bibhuti; Kedia, Deepika; Guha Mazumder, D.N.; Chakravarty, Runu; Guha, Subhasish Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV co-infection has variable prevalence worldwide. In comparison to HBV mono-infection, the course of chronic HBV infection is accelerated in HIV/HBV co-infected patients. The present study was carried out to analyse the baseline characteristics (clinical, biochemical, serological and virological) of treatment naïve HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients. Methods: Between July 2011 and January 2013, a total number of 1331 HIV-seropositive treatment naïve individuals, enrolled in the ART Centre of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India, were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A total of 1253 HIV mono-infected and 78 HIV/HBV co-infected patients were characterized. The co-infected patients were evaluated for HBeAg and anti-HBe antibody by ELISA. HIV RNA was quantified for all co-infected patients. HBV DNA was detected and quantified by real time-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination. Results: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had proportionately more advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) than HIV mono-infected individuals (37.1 vs. 19.9%). The co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase and ALT/platelet ratio index (APRI). CD4 count was non-significantly lower in co-infected patients. Majority (61.5%) were HBeAg positive with higher HIV RNA (P<0.05), HBV DNA (P<0.001) and APRI (P<0.05) compared to those who were HBeAg negative. HBV/D was the predominant genotype (73.2%) and D2 (43.7%) was the commonest subgenotype. Interpretation & conclusions: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lower platelet count. HBeAg positive co-infected patients had higher HIV RNA and HBV DNA compared to HBeAg negative co-infected patients. Prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) all patients should be screened for HBsAg to

  16. HIV-Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection: a 'danger-couple model' of disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Esaki M; Vignesh, Ramachandran; Ellegård, Rada; Barathan, Muttiah; Chong, Yee K; Bador, M Kahar; Rukumani, Devi V; Sabet, Negar S; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Velu, Vijayakumar; Larsson, Marie

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection interfere and impact the pathogenesis phenomena of each other. Owing to atypical clinical presentations and diagnostic complications, HIV/TB co-infection continues to be a menace for healthcare providers. Although the increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a reduction in HIV-associated opportunistic infections and mortality, the concurrent management of HIV/TB co-infection remains a challenge owing to adverse effects, complex drug interactions, overlapping toxicities and tuberculosis -associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Several hypotheses have been put forward for the exacerbation of tuberculosis by HIV and vice versa supported by immunological studies. Discussion on the mechanisms produced by infectious cofactors with impact on disease pathology could shed light on how to design potential interventions that could decelerate disease progression. With no vaccine for HIV and lack of an effective vaccine for tuberculosis, it is essential to design strategies against HIV-TB co-infection. PMID:24214523

  17. Within guild co-infections influence parasite community membership: a longitudinal study in African Buffalo.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Brian; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Troskie, Milana; Gorsich, Erin; Gondhalekar, Carmen; Beechler, Brianna R; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2016-07-01

    Experimental studies in laboratory settings have demonstrated a critical role of parasite interactions in shaping parasite communities. The sum of these interactions can produce diverse effects on individual hosts as well as influence disease emergence and persistence at the population level. A predictive framework for the effects of parasite interactions in the wild remains elusive, largely because of limited longitudinal or experimental data on parasite communities of free-ranging hosts. This 4-year study followed a community of haemoparasites in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We detected infection by 11 haemoparasite species using PCR-based diagnostic techniques, and analyzed drivers of infection patterns using generalized linear mixed models to understand the role of host characteristics and season on infection likelihood. We tested for (i) effects of co-infection by other haemoparasites (within guild) and (ii) effects of parasites infecting different tissue types (across guild). We found that within guild co-infections were the strongest predictors of haemoparasite infections in the buffalo; but that seasonal and host characteristics also had important effects. In contrast, the evidence for across-guild effects of parasites utilizing different tissue on haemoparasite infection was weak. These results provide a nuanced view of the role of co-infections in determining haemoparasite infection patterns in free living mammalian hosts. Our findings suggest a role for interactions among parasites infecting a single tissue type in determining infection patterns. PMID:27084785

  18. Cutaneous Co-infected Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Perigenital Ulcers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Jason; Cannon, Sarah; Cam, Kristin; Keller, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    There is uncertainty regarding the pathogenic nature of cytomegalovirus in cutaneous lesions co-infected with herpes simplex virus. It is widely believed that herpes simplex virus is the main pathogenic factor in such lesions and that cytomegalovirus plays little if any role. There are, however, isolated case reports that describe cytomegalovirus as an important driving pathogen in such lesions. The authors present two human immunodeficiency virus patients who have cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus co-infected perigenital ulcers, one of whom improved on valacyclovir, while the other, who was already on valacyclovir for chronic herpes simplex virus suppression, showed no improvement with a single dose of cidofovir. He only showed rapid improvement when treated with valganciclovir. The latter patient underscores the viewpoint that at least in some cases, cytomegalovirus may be an important driving force behind the formation of such lesions. The authors therefore recommend that clinicians be aware of the possible pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus in these ulcers, and, in nonhealing ulcers, use anti-cytomegalovirus agents to prevent the onset of systemic disease. These results warrant further study of the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus in co-infected herpes simplex virus ulcers. PMID:24155993

  19. Microsporidian parasites feminise hosts without paramyxean co-infection: support for convergent evolution of parasitic feminisation.

    PubMed

    Ironside, Joseph Edward; Alexander, Jenna

    2015-05-01

    Feminisation of amphipod crustaceans is associated with the presence of at least three microsporidian parasites and one paramyxean parasite, suggesting that the ability to feminise has evolved multiple times in parasites of amphipods. Co-infection by a paramyxean with one of the putative microsporidian feminisers, Dictyocoela duebenum, has inspired the alternative hypothesis that all feminisation of amphipods is caused by paramyxea and that all microsporidian associations with feminisation are due to co-infection with paramyxea (Short et al., 2012). In a population of the amphipod Gammarus duebeni, breeding experiments demonstrate that the microsporidia D. duebenum and Nosema granulosis are associated with feminisation in the absence of paramyxea. Co-infection of the two microsporidia is no more frequent than expected at random and each parasite is associated with feminisation in the absence of the other. These findings support the original hypothesis that the ability to feminise amphipods has evolved in microsporidia on multiple occasions. Additionally, the occurrence of a non-feminising strain of D. duebenum in Gammarus pulex suggests that different strains vary in their feminising ability, even within microsporidian species. The presence or absence of feminising ability in a particular microsporidian strain should not therefore be generalised to the species as a whole. PMID:25747725

  20. Survival Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis Co-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Sabouri Ghannad, Masoud; Saatchi, Mohammad; Khazaei, Salman; Mirzaei, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: At present, limited clinical data is available regarding survival rates of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on the survival chances of active TB adults who disclosed their symptoms of TB in this part of Iran. Patients and Methods: The records and data of 807 patients only infected with TB and 21 co-infected patients with HIV/TB, who were admitted to primary health care units in Iran, were evaluated. Their survival time was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier Estimator, Log-rank test and SPSS version 16. Results: Cox regression analysis showed that co-infection with HIV significantly affects the survival rate of TB patients so that the rate of death was 20.7 (8.1-53) times more than TB infected patients alone. Also, married patients with tuberculosis were 2.7 times more at risk of death than single subjects. We also confirmed that in HIV/TB positive patients, married individuals were more prone to death than single subjects (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results denote the need to progress diagnostic and preventive measures in this part of Iran. PMID:25371800

  1. Impact of HIV co-infection on the evolution and transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Eldholm, Vegard; Rieux, Adrien; Monteserin, Johana; Lopez, Julia Montana; Palmero, Domingo; Lopez, Beatriz; Ritacco, Viviana; Didelot, Xavier; Balloux, Francois

    2016-01-01

    The tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is fueled by a parallel Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic, but it remains unclear to what extent the HIV epidemic has been a driver for drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Here we assess the impact of HIV co-infection on the emergence of resistance and transmission of Mtb in the largest outbreak of multidrug-resistant TB in South America to date. By combining Bayesian evolutionary analyses and the reconstruction of transmission networks utilizing a new model optimized for TB, we find that HIV co-infection does not significantly affect the transmissibility or the mutation rate of Mtb within patients and was not associated with increased emergence of resistance within patients. Our results indicate that the HIV epidemic serves as an amplifier of TB outbreaks by providing a reservoir of susceptible hosts, but that HIV co-infection is not a direct driver for the emergence and transmission of resistant strains. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16644.001 PMID:27502557

  2. Implications of co-infection of Leptomonas in visceral leishmaniasis in India.

    PubMed

    Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Ahuja, Kavita; Puri, Niti; Krishnan, Anuja

    2015-12-01

    Protozoan parasites Leishmania donovani (family: Trypanosomatidae) cause fatal visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and the infection relapses in apparently cured population as post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in the Indian subcontinent. In recent years co-infection of another Trypanosomatid parasite Leptomonas with L. donovani during VL/PKDL in this region has become prominent. The observation of clinically lesser-known insect parasite, Leptomonas in leishmaniasis is intriguing to researchers. The presence of Leishmania look alike Leptomonas in the cultures of clinical isolates of Leishmania has been worrisome to those, who prefer to work with pure Leishmania cultures for drug and vaccine development or immune response studies. The exact implications of such a co-habitation, which might lead to a delay in the diagnostics of VL and elevate mortality, need a thorough investigation. Also whether Leptomonas is involved in leishmaniasis manifestation needs to be ascertained. Thus we are currently witnessing a new paradigm of a parasitic co-infection in VL/PKDL cases in India and this review outlines various opportunities for further research in understanding such emerging co-infection. PMID:26492813

  3. Co-infection of Ticks: The Rule Rather Than the Exception

    PubMed Central

    Moutailler, Sara; Valiente Moro, Claire; Vaumourin, Elise; Michelet, Lorraine; Tran, Florence Hélène; Devillers, Elodie; Cosson, Jean-François; Gasqui, Patrick; Van, Van Tran; Mavingui, Patrick; Vourc’h, Gwenaël; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ticks are the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe, and the Ixodes ricinus tick species is able to transmit a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. Ticks may also be co-infected with several pathogens, with a subsequent high likelihood of co-transmission to humans or animals. However few data exist regarding co-infection prevalences, and these studies only focus on certain well-known pathogens. In addition to pathogens, ticks also carry symbionts that may play important roles in tick biology, and could interfere with pathogen maintenance and transmission. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of 38 pathogens and four symbionts and their co-infection levels as well as possible interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts. Methodology/principal findings A total of 267 Ixodes ricinus female specimens were collected in the French Ardennes and analyzed by high-throughput real-time PCR for the presence of 37 pathogens (bacteria and parasites), by rRT-PCR to detect the presence of Tick-Borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and by nested PCR to detect four symbionts. Possible multipartite interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts were statistically evaluated. Among the infected ticks, 45% were co-infected, and carried up to five different pathogens. When adding symbiont prevalences, all ticks were infected by at least one microorganism, and up to eight microorganisms were identified in the same tick. When considering possible interactions between pathogens, the results suggested a strong association between Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii, whereas there were no significant interactions between symbionts and pathogens. Conclusion/significance Our study reveals high pathogen co-infection rates in ticks, raising questions about possible co-transmission of these agents to humans or animals, and their consequences to human and animal health. We also demonstrated high

  4. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  5. Symptomatic co-infection with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi in patient after international exposure; a challenging case in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jabłońska, Joanna; Żarnowska-Prymek, Hanna; Stańczak, Joanna; Kozłowska, Joanna; Wiercińska-Drapało, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The report presents a well-documented case of symptomatic co-infection of Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi in a Polish immunocompetent patient after travelling to Canada and the USA. PMID:27294655

  6. Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

  7. Hepatitis B and C co-infection in HIV/AIDS population in the state of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Butt, Z A; Wilkins, M J; Hamilton, E; Todem, D; Gardiner, J C; Saeed, M

    2013-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009 in Michigan to estimate the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis co-infection and identify associated factors. The prevalence of co-infection was 4.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8-4.5]. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between co-infection and being male and: of Black race [odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6] and of Other race (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.7-7.0) compared to Hispanic race. A significant association was found between co-infection and risk categories of blood products (OR 11.1, 95% CI 6.2-20.2), injecting drug user (IDU) (OR 3.6, 95% CI 2.7-4.8) and men who have sex with men/IDU (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-4.9) in addition to two interactions; one between sex and current HIV status and the other between current HIV status and age at HIV diagnosis. Our results document the changing epidemiology of HIV-hepatitis co-infection which can guide preventive measures and interventions to reduce the prevalence of hepatitis co-infection. PMID:23481310

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi-Trypanosoma rangeli co-infection ameliorates negative effects of single trypanosome infections in experimentally infected Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jennifer K; Graham, Andrea L; Elliott, Ryan J; Dobson, Andrew P; Triana Chávez, Omar

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, co-infects its triatomine vector with its sister species Trypanosoma rangeli, which shares 60% of its antigens with T. cruzi. Additionally, T. rangeli has been observed to be pathogenic in some of its vector species. Although T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infections are common, their effect on the vector has rarely been investigated. Therefore, we measured the fitness (survival and reproduction) of triatomine species Rhodnius prolixus infected with just T. cruzi, just T. rangeli, or both T. cruzi and T. rangeli. We found that survival (as estimated by survival probability and hazard ratios) was significantly different between treatments, with the T. cruzi treatment group having lower survival than the co-infected treatment. Reproduction and total fitness estimates in the T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatments were significantly lower than in the co-infected and control groups. The T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatment group fitness estimates were not significantly different from each other. Additionally, co-infected insects appeared to tolerate higher doses of parasites than insects with single-species infections. Our results suggest that T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infection could ameliorate negative effects of single infections of either parasite on R. prolixus and potentially help it to tolerate higher parasite doses. PMID:27174360

  9. Co-infection with Plasmodium berghei and Trypanosoma brucei increases severity of malaria and trypanosomiasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi; Odeniran, Paul Olalekan

    2016-07-01

    Individuals in natural populations may be infected with multiple different parasites at a time. These parasites may interact with each other or act independently in the host, and this may result to varying outcomes on host health and survival. This study therefore aimed at investigating the health impact of co-infection of mice with Plasmodium berghei and Trypanosoma brucei. Forty Swiss albino mice (14-17g) were divided into four groups of ten. Mice in groups A and B received 10(6)P. berghei and groups B and C 10(5)T. brucei, while group D were uninfected. The co-infected mice had higher P. berghei and T. brucei parasitaemia, compared with the mono-infected mice. The co-infected mice had significantly (p<0.05) lower survival rate compared with the mono-infected mice. Co-infection of mice with P. berghei and T. brucei resulted in rapid P. berghei and T. brucei development and increased parasitaemia. The leukocyte numbers significantly (p<0.05) reduced on days 12 and 15 post infection among P. berghei infected mice, in the presence or absence of T. brucei. Anaemia and hypoglycaemia was more severe in the co-infected mice. Therefore, co-infection of mice with P. berghei and T. brucei may increase pathologic impact to the host by increasing parasitaemia. PMID:27021269

  10. Hepatitis B and/or C co-infection in HIV infected patients: A study in a tertiary care centre from south India

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Naval; Joshi, Nayana; Raju, Y.S.N.; Kumar, Ajit; Teja, Vijay D.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals results in increased hepatic complications. We undertook this study to evaluate the presence of HBV and HCV in HIV infected individuals attending a tertiary care centre in southern India. Methods: A total of 120 cases with HIV infection and 120 healthy adult control subjects were included in the study. Samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. HBsAg and anti-HCV positive serum samples were further tested for the presence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), anti-HBe antibodies, HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA. Results: The most common mode of transmission was sexual promiscuity (79%), followed by spouse positivity (15%) and history of blood transfusion (6%). HBsAg and anti-HCV were positive in 18 (15%) and 10 (8.3%) HIV infected patients; the corresponding figures in healthy controls being 2 (1.6%) 0 (0%) (P<0.0001). Among HIV infected patients, presence of HBeAg and anti-HBe antibodies was seen in 33.3 and 55.5 per cent, respectively; both HBeAg and anti-HBe antibodies were negative in 11.1 per cent. HBV DNA and HCV RNA were positive in 10 of 18 and in all anti-HCV positive samples. Triple infection with HBV, HCV and HIV was seen in three patients. CD4+ T-lymphocyte count less than 200/μl was seen in 22 of 28 co-infected cases. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study showed presence of HBV (15%) and HCV (8.3%) co-infections in HIV positive patients which was higher than that seen in HIV negative controls. Co-infection with HBV and HCV is a common problem in HIV infected patients in India. Hence, all HIV patients need to be routinely tested for markers of HBV and HCV infection. PMID:24521641

  11. Malaria and Helminth Co-Infections in School and Preschool Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Magu District, North-Western Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Kishamawe, Coleman; Vennervald, Birgitte J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria, schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are important parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of people are exposed to co-infections of more than one parasite. In Tanzania, these infections are a major public health problem particularly in school and pre-school children. The current study investigated malaria and helminth co-infections and anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. Methodology School and pre-school children were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Stool samples were examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STH infections using Kato Katz technique. Urine samples were examined for Schistosoma haematobium using the urine filtration method. Blood samples were examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin concentrations using the Giemsa stain and Haemoque methods, respectively. Principal Findings Out of 1,546 children examined, 1,079 (69.8%) were infected with one or more parasites. Malaria-helminth co-infections were observed in 276 children (60% of all children with P. falciparum infection). Malaria parasites were significantly more prevalent in hookworm infected children than in hookworm free children (p = 0.046). However, this association was non-significant on multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR = 1.320, p = 0.064). Malaria parasite density decreased with increasing infection intensity of S. mansoni and with increasing number of co-infecting helminth species. Anaemia prevalence was 34.4% and was significantly associated with malaria infection, S. haematobium infection and with multiple parasite infections. Whereas S. mansoni infection was a significant predictor of malaria parasite density, P. falciparum and S. haematobium infections were significant predictors of anaemia. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that multiple parasite infections are common in school and pre-school children in Magu district. Concurrent

  12. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. Methods A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1–4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A—F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011–2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12–24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV—Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV—bocavirus / bocavirus—influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12–24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis. PMID:26332375

  13. Gammaherpesvirus Co-infection with Malaria Suppresses Anti-parasitic Humoral Immunity.

    PubMed

    Matar, Caline G; Anthony, Neil R; O'Flaherty, Brigid M; Jacobs, Nathan T; Priyamvada, Lalita; Engwerda, Christian R; Speck, Samuel H; Lamb, Tracey J

    2015-05-01

    Immunity to non-cerebral severe malaria is estimated to occur within 1-2 infections in areas of endemic transmission for Plasmodium falciparum. Yet, nearly 20% of infected children die annually as a result of severe malaria. Multiple risk factors are postulated to exacerbate malarial disease, one being co-infections with other pathogens. Children living in Sub-Saharan Africa are seropositive for Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) by the age of 6 months. This timing overlaps with the waning of protective maternal antibodies and susceptibility to primary Plasmodium infection. However, the impact of acute EBV infection on the generation of anti-malarial immunity is unknown. Using well established mouse models of infection, we show here that acute, but not latent murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection suppresses the anti-malarial humoral response to a secondary malaria infection. Importantly, this resulted in the transformation of a non-lethal P. yoelii XNL infection into a lethal one; an outcome that is correlated with a defect in the maintenance of germinal center B cells and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the spleen. Furthermore, we have identified the MHV68 M2 protein as an important virus encoded protein that can: (i) suppress anti-MHV68 humoral responses during acute MHV68 infection; and (ii) plays a critical role in the observed suppression of anti-malarial humoral responses in the setting of co-infection. Notably, co-infection with an M2-null mutant MHV68 eliminates lethality of P. yoelii XNL. Collectively, our data demonstrates that an acute gammaherpesvirus infection can negatively impact the development of an anti-malarial immune response. This suggests that acute infection with EBV should be investigated as a risk factor for non-cerebral severe malaria in young children living in areas endemic for Plasmodium transmission. PMID:25996913

  14. Epidemiology, Co-Infections, and Outcomes of Viral Pneumonia in Adults: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Crotty, Matthew P; Meyers, Shelby; Hampton, Nicholas; Bledsoe, Stephanie; Ritchie, David J; Buller, Richard S; Storch, Gregory A; Micek, Scott T; Kollef, Marin H

    2015-12-01

    Advanced technologies using polymerase-chain reaction have allowed for increased recognition of viral respiratory infections including pneumonia. Co-infections have been described for several respiratory viruses, especially with influenza. Outcomes of viral pneumonia, including cases with co-infections, have not been well described. This was observational cohort study conducted to describe hospitalized patients with viral pneumonia including co-infections, clinical outcomes, and predictors of mortality. Patients admitted from March 2013 to November 2014 with a positive respiratory virus panel (RVP) and radiographic findings of pneumonia within 48  h of the index RVP were included. Co-respiratory infection (CRI) was defined as any organism identification from a respiratory specimen within 3 days of the index RVP. Predictors of in-hospital mortality on univariate analysis were evaluated in a multivariate model. Of 284 patients with viral pneumonia, a majority (51.8%) were immunocompromised. A total of 84 patients (29.6%) were found to have a CRI with 48 (57.6%) having a bacterial CRI. Viral CRI with HSV, CMV, or both occurred in 28 patients (33.3%). Fungal (16.7%) and other CRIs (7.1%) were less common. Many patients required mechanical ventilation (54%) and vasopressor support (36%). Overall in-hospital mortality was high (23.2%) and readmissions were common with several patients re-hospitalized within 30 (21.1%) and 90 days (36.7%) of discharge. Predictors of in-hospital mortality on multivariate regression included severity of illness factors, stem-cell transplant, and identification of multiple respiratory viruses. In conclusion, hospital mortality is high among adult patients with viral pneumonia and patients with multiple respiratory viruses identified may be at a higher risk. PMID:26683973

  15. Human Papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus co-infection in Cervical Carcinoma in Algerian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that the implication of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis and prognosis of cervical cancer is well established, the impact of a co-infection with high risk HPV (HR-HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is still not fully understood. Methods Fifty eight randomly selected cases of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix, 14 normal cervices specimens, 21 CIN-2/3 and 16 CIN-1 cases were examined for EBV and HPV infections. Detection of HR-HPV specific sequences was carried out by PCR amplification using consensus primers of Manos and by Digene Hybrid Capture. The presence of EBV was revealed by amplifying a 660 bp specific EBV sequence of BALF1. mRNA expression of LMP-1 in one hand and protein levels of BARF-1, LMP-1 and EBNA-1 in the other hand were assessed by RT-PCR and immunoblotting and/or immunohischemistry respectively. Results HR-HPV infection was found in patients with SCC (88%), low-grade (75%) and high grade (95%) lesions compared to only 14% of normal cervix cases. However, 69%, 12.5%, 38.1%, and 14% of SCC, CIN-1, CIN-2/3 and normal cervix tissues, respectively, were EBV infected. The highest co-infection (HR-HPV and EBV) was found in squamous cell carcinoma cases (67%). The latter cases showed 27% and 29% expression of EBV BARF-1 and LMP-1 oncogenes respectively. Conclusion The high rate of HR-HPV and EBV co-infection in SCC suggests that EBV infection is incriminated in cervical cancer progression. This could be taken into account as bad prognosis in this type of cancer. However, the mode of action in dual infection in cervical oncogenesis needs further investigation. PMID:24252325

  16. Gammaherpesvirus Co-infection with Malaria Suppresses Anti-parasitic Humoral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Matar, Caline G.; Anthony, Neil R.; O’Flaherty, Brigid M.; Jacobs, Nathan T.; Priyamvada, Lalita; Engwerda, Christian R.; Speck, Samuel H.; Lamb, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    Immunity to non-cerebral severe malaria is estimated to occur within 1-2 infections in areas of endemic transmission for Plasmodium falciparum. Yet, nearly 20% of infected children die annually as a result of severe malaria. Multiple risk factors are postulated to exacerbate malarial disease, one being co-infections with other pathogens. Children living in Sub-Saharan Africa are seropositive for Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) by the age of 6 months. This timing overlaps with the waning of protective maternal antibodies and susceptibility to primary Plasmodium infection. However, the impact of acute EBV infection on the generation of anti-malarial immunity is unknown. Using well established mouse models of infection, we show here that acute, but not latent murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection suppresses the anti-malarial humoral response to a secondary malaria infection. Importantly, this resulted in the transformation of a non-lethal P. yoelii XNL infection into a lethal one; an outcome that is correlated with a defect in the maintenance of germinal center B cells and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the spleen. Furthermore, we have identified the MHV68 M2 protein as an important virus encoded protein that can: (i) suppress anti-MHV68 humoral responses during acute MHV68 infection; and (ii) plays a critical role in the observed suppression of anti-malarial humoral responses in the setting of co-infection. Notably, co-infection with an M2-null mutant MHV68 eliminates lethality of P. yoelii XNL. Collectively, our data demonstrates that an acute gammaherpesvirus infection can negatively impact the development of an anti-malarial immune response. This suggests that acute infection with EBV should be investigated as a risk factor for non-cerebral severe malaria in young children living in areas endemic for Plasmodium transmission. PMID:25996913

  17. Parasite Co-Infections and Their Impact on Survival of Indigenous Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Thumbi, Samuel M.; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark de Clare; Poole, Elizabeth Jane; Kiara, Henry; Toye, Philip G.; Mbole-Kariuki, Mary Ndila; Conradie, Ilana; Jennings, Amy; Handel, Ian Graham; Coetzer, Jacobus Andries Wynand; Steyl, Johan C. A.; Hanotte, Olivier; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    In natural populations, individuals may be infected with multiple distinct pathogens at a time. These pathogens may act independently or interact with each other and the host through various mechanisms, with resultant varying outcomes on host health and survival. To study effects of pathogens and their interactions on host survival, we followed 548 zebu cattle during their first year of life, determining their infection and clinical status every 5 weeks. Using a combination of clinical signs observed before death, laboratory diagnostic test results, gross-lesions on post-mortem examination, histo-pathology results and survival analysis statistical techniques, cause-specific aetiology for each death case were determined, and effect of co-infections in observed mortality patterns. East Coast fever (ECF) caused by protozoan parasite Theileria parva and haemonchosis were the most important diseases associated with calf mortality, together accounting for over half (52%) of all deaths due to infectious diseases. Co-infection with Trypanosoma species increased the hazard for ECF death by 6 times (1.4–25; 95% CI). In addition, the hazard for ECF death was increased in the presence of Strongyle eggs, and this was burden dependent. An increase by 1000 Strongyle eggs per gram of faeces count was associated with a 1.5 times (1.4–1.6; 95% CI) increase in the hazard for ECF mortality. Deaths due to haemonchosis were burden dependent, with a 70% increase in hazard for death for every increase in strongyle eggs per gram count of 1000. These findings have important implications for disease control strategies, suggesting a need to consider co-infections in epidemiological studies as opposed to single-pathogen focus, and benefits of an integrated approach to helminths and East Coast fever disease control. PMID:24586220

  18. Parasite co-infections and their impact on survival of indigenous cattle.

    PubMed

    Thumbi, Samuel M; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark de Clare; Poole, Elizabeth Jane; Kiara, Henry; Toye, Philip G; Mbole-Kariuki, Mary Ndila; Conradie, Ilana; Jennings, Amy; Handel, Ian Graham; Coetzer, Jacobus Andries Wynand; Steyl, Johan C A; Hanotte, Olivier; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-01-01

    In natural populations, individuals may be infected with multiple distinct pathogens at a time. These pathogens may act independently or interact with each other and the host through various mechanisms, with resultant varying outcomes on host health and survival. To study effects of pathogens and their interactions on host survival, we followed 548 zebu cattle during their first year of life, determining their infection and clinical status every 5 weeks. Using a combination of clinical signs observed before death, laboratory diagnostic test results, gross-lesions on post-mortem examination, histo-pathology results and survival analysis statistical techniques, cause-specific aetiology for each death case were determined, and effect of co-infections in observed mortality patterns. East Coast fever (ECF) caused by protozoan parasite Theileria parva and haemonchosis were the most important diseases associated with calf mortality, together accounting for over half (52%) of all deaths due to infectious diseases. Co-infection with Trypanosoma species increased the hazard for ECF death by 6 times (1.4-25; 95% CI). In addition, the hazard for ECF death was increased in the presence of Strongyle eggs, and this was burden dependent. An increase by 1000 Strongyle eggs per gram of faeces count was associated with a 1.5 times (1.4-1.6; 95% CI) increase in the hazard for ECF mortality. Deaths due to haemonchosis were burden dependent, with a 70% increase in hazard for death for every increase in strongyle eggs per gram count of 1000. These findings have important implications for disease control strategies, suggesting a need to consider co-infections in epidemiological studies as opposed to single-pathogen focus, and benefits of an integrated approach to helminths and East Coast fever disease control. PMID:24586220

  19. Deworming helminth co-infected individuals for delaying HIV disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L; Herrin, Bradley R; John-Stewart, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Background The HIV-1 pandemic has disproportionately affected individuals in resource-constrained settings where other infectious diseases, such as helminth infections, also are highly prevalent. There are biologically plausible reasons for possible effects of helminth infection in HIV-1-infected individuals, and findings from multiple studies suggest that helminth infection may adversely affect HIV-1 progression. Since initial publication of this review (Walson 2007), additional data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has become available. We sought to evaluate all currently available evidence to determine if treatment of helminth infection in HIV-1 co-infected individuals impacts HIV-1 progression. Objectives To determine if treating helminth infection in individuals with HIV-1 can reduce the progression of HIV-1 as determined by changes in CD4 count, viral load, or clinical disease progression. Search strategy In this 2008 update, we searched online for published and unpublished studies in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and AIDSEARCH. We also searched databases listing conference abstracts, scanned reference lists of articles, and contacted authors of included studies. Selection criteria We searched for RCTs and quasi-RCTs that compared HIV-1 progression as measured by changes in CD4 count, viral load, or clinical disease progression in HIV-1 infected individuals receiving anti-helminthic therapy. Data collection and analysis Data regarding changes in CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA levels, and/or clinical staging after treatment of helminth co-infection were extracted from identified studies. Main results Of 7,019 abstracts identified (6,384 from original searches plus 635 from updated searches), 17 abstracts were identified as meeting criteria for potential inclusion (15 from previous review plus an additional two RCTs). After restricting inclusion to RCTs, a total of three studies were eligible for inclusion in this updated review. All three

  20. HCV co-infection in HIV positive population in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) share some modes of transmission co-infection is not uncommon. This study used a population-based sample of HIV and HCV tested individuals to determine the prevalence of HIV/HCV co-infection, the sequence of virus diagnoses, and demographic and associated risk factors. Methods Positive cases of HIV were linked to the combined laboratory database (of negative and positive HCV antibody results) and HCV reported cases in British Columbia (BC). Results Of 4,598 HIV cases with personal identifiers, 3,219 (70%) were linked to the combined HCV database, 1,700 (53%) of these were anti-HCV positive. HCV was diagnosed first in 52% of co-infected cases (median time to HIV identification 3 1/2 years). HIV and HCV was diagnosed within a two week window in 26% of cases. Among individuals who were diagnosed with HIV infection at baseline, subsequent diagnoses of HCV infection was independently associated with: i) intravenous drug use (IDU) in males and females, Hazard Ratio (HR) = 6.64 (95% CI: 4.86-9.07) and 9.76 (95% CI: 5.76-16.54) respectively; ii) reported Aboriginal ethnicity in females HR = 2.09 (95% CI: 1.34-3.27) and iii) males not identified as men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM), HR = 2.99 (95% CI: 2.09-4.27). Identification of HCV first compared to HIV first was independently associated with IDU in males and females OR = 2.83 (95% CI: 1.84-4.37) and 2.25 (95% CI: 1.15-4.39) respectively, but not Aboriginal ethnicity or MSM. HIV was identified first in 22%, with median time to HCV identification of 15 months; Conclusion The ability to link BC public health and laboratory HIV and HCV information provided a unique opportunity to explore demographic and risk factors associated with HIV/HCV co-infection. Over half of persons with HIV infection who were tested for HCV were anti-HCV positive; half of these had HCV diagnosed first with HIV identification a median 3.5 years later. This highlights the importance of public health follow-up and

  1. Clinical Indicators for Bacterial Co-Infection in Ghanaian Children with P. falciparum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Maja Verena; Amemasor, Solomon; Agyekum, Alex; Loag, Wibke; Marks, Florian; Sarpong, Nimako; Dekker, Denise; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of infectious causes in severely ill children is essential but challenging in sub- Saharan Africa. The aim of the study was to determine clinical indicators that are able to identify bacterial co-infections in P. falciparum infected children in rural Ghana. In total, 1,915 severely ill children below the age of 15 years were recruited at Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in Ghana between May 2007 and February 2011. In 771 (40%) of the children malaria parasites were detected. This group was analyzed for indicators of bacterial co-infections using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses with 24 socio-economic variables, 16 terms describing medical history and anthropometrical information and 68 variables describing clinical symptoms. The variables were tested for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. In 46 (6.0%) of the children with malaria infection, bacterial co-infection was detected. The most frequent pathogens were non-typhoid salmonellae (45.7%), followed by Streptococcus spp. (13.0%). Coughing, dehydration, splenomegaly, severe anemia and leukocytosis were positively associated with bacteremia. Domestic hygiene and exclusive breastfeeding is negatively associated with bacteremia. In cases of high parasitemia (>10,000/μl), a significant association with bacteremia was found for splenomegaly (OR 8.8; CI 1.6–48.9), dehydration (OR 18.2; CI 2.0–166.0) and coughing (OR 9.0; CI 0.7–118.6). In children with low parasitemia, associations with bacteremia were found for vomiting (OR 4.7; CI 1.4–15.8), severe anemia (OR 3.3; CI 1.0–11.1) and leukocytosis (OR 6.8 CI 1.9–24.2). Clinical signs of impaired microcirculation were negatively associated with bacteremia. Ceftriaxone achieved best coverage of isolated pathogens. The results demonstrate the limitation of clinical symptoms to determine bacterial co-infections in P. falciparum infected children. Best clinical indicators are dependent on the

  2. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Kureljušić, Branislav; Nedorost, Nora; Matula, Bettina; Schießl, Wolfgang; Stixenberger, Daniela; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2)) and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b.), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h.), and Pasteurella multocida (P. m.)) co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases. PMID:27428002

  3. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Kureljušić, Branislav; Nedorost, Nora; Matula, Bettina; Schießl, Wolfgang; Stixenberger, Daniela; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2)) and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b.), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h.), and Pasteurella multocida (P. m.)) co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases. PMID:27428002

  4. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Dengue-Orientia tsutsugamushi co-Infection from a Tertiary Care Center in South India

    PubMed Central

    Basheer, Aneesh; Iqbal, Nayyar; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Anitha, Patricia; Nair, Shashikala; Kanungo, Reba; Kandasamy, Ravichandran

    2016-01-01

    Background Concurrent infection with multiple pathogens is common in tropics, posing diagnostic and treatment challenges. Although co-infections of dengue, malaria, leptospirosis and typhoid in various combinations have been described, data on dengue and scrub typhus co-infection is distinctly limited. Methodology This study was a retrospective analysis of dengue and scrub typhus co-infection diagnosed between January 2010 and July 2014 at a tertiary care center. Clinical and laboratory features of these cases were compared with age and gender-matched patients with isolated dengue fever and isolated scrub typhus. Positive test for dengue non-structural 1 (NS1) antigen was considered diagnostic of dengue whereas scrub typhus was diagnosed by IgM scrub antibodies demonstrated by ELISA. Results There were 6 cases of dengue-scrub co-infection during the review period which fitted clinical and laboratory profile with a mean age of 42.5 years. Fever, headache, and arthralgia were common. Normal hemoglobin, significant thrombocytopenia, transaminitis, and hypoalbuminemia were identified in these patients. Compared to patients with isolated dengue, those with co-infection had higher pulse rate, lower systolic blood pressure, normal leucocyte counts, higher levels of liver enzymes, greater prolongation of partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and lower serum albumin. Co-infection was characterized by a lower nadir platelet count compared to scrub typhus, and lesser time to nadir platelet count and longer duration of hospital stay compared to either isolated dengue or scrub typhus. Conclusion Dengue-scrub typhus co-infection may be under-diagnosed in tropics, particularly confounded during dengue epidemics. Normal leukocyte counts, early drop in platelets and hypoalbuminemia in dengue patients could be clues to concurrent scrub typhus infection. Prompt recognition and treatment of scrub typhus in such cases may reduce unnecessary hospital stay and cost. PMID:27413521

  5. Clinical Disease Severity of Respiratory Viral Co-Infection versus Single Viral Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Sandra A.; Science, Michelle E.; Tran, Dat; Smieja, Marek; Merglen, Arnaud; Mertz, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background Results from cohort studies evaluating the severity of respiratory viral co-infections are conflicting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical severity of viral co-infections as compared to single viral respiratory infections. Methods We searched electronic databases and other sources for studies published up to January 28, 2013. We included observational studies on inpatients with respiratory illnesses comparing the clinical severity of viral co-infections to single viral infections as detected by molecular assays. The primary outcome reflecting clinical disease severity was length of hospital stay (LOS). A random-effects model was used to conduct the meta-analyses. Results Twenty-one studies involving 4,280 patients were included. The overall quality of evidence applying the GRADE approach ranged from moderate for oxygen requirements to low for all other outcomes. No significant differences in length of hospital stay (LOS) (mean difference (MD) −0.20 days, 95% CI −0.94, 0.53, p = 0.59), or mortality (RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.86, 6.91, p = 0.09) were documented in subjects with viral co-infections compared to those with a single viral infection. There was no evidence for differences in effects across age subgroups in post hoc analyses with the exception of the higher mortality in preschool children (RR 9.82, 95% CI 3.09, 31.20, p<0.001) with viral co-infection as compared to other age groups (I2 for subgroup analysis 64%, p = 0.04). Conclusions No differences in clinical disease severity between viral co-infections and single respiratory infections were documented. The suggested increased risk of mortality observed amongst children with viral co-infections requires further investigation. PMID:24932493

  6. Co-Infection of Blacklegged Ticks with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi Is Higher than Expected and Acquired from Small Mammal Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, Michelle H.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; McHenry, Diana J.; Tibbetts, Michael; Brunner, Jesse L.; Killilea, Mary E.; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Keesing, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Humans in the northeastern and midwestern United States are at increasing risk of acquiring tickborne diseases – not only Lyme disease, but also two emerging diseases, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human babesiosis. Co-infection with two or more of these pathogens can increase the severity of health impacts. The risk of co-infection is intensified by the ecology of these three diseases because all three pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti) are transmitted by the same vector, blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis), and are carried by many of the same reservoir hosts. The risk of exposure to multiple pathogens from a single tick bite and the sources of co-infected ticks are not well understood. In this study, we quantify the risk of co-infection by measuring infection prevalence in 4,368 questing nymphs throughout an endemic region for all three diseases (Dutchess County, NY) to determine if co-infections occur at frequencies other than predicted by independent assortment of pathogens. Further, we identify sources of co-infection by quantifying rates of co-infection on 3,275 larval ticks fed on known hosts. We find significant deviations of levels of co-infection in questing nymphs, most notably 83% more co-infection with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi than predicted by chance alone. Further, this pattern of increased co-infection was observed in larval ticks that fed on small mammal hosts, but not on meso-mammal, sciurid, or avian hosts. Co-infections involving A. phagocytophilum were less common, and fewer co-infections of A. phagocytophilum and B. microti than predicted by chance were observed in both questing nymphs and larvae fed on small mammals. Medical practitioners should be aware of the elevated risk of B. microti/B. burgdorferi co-infection. PMID:24940999

  7. Co-infections determine patterns of mortality in a population exposed to parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, Mark E J; Thumbi, Samuel M; Jennings, Amy; Chase-Topping, Margo; Callaby, Rebecca; Kiara, Henry; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Mbole-Kariuki, Mary N; Conradie, Ilana; Handel, Ian G; Poole, E Jane; Njiiri, Evalyne; Collins, Nicola E; Murray, Gemma; Tapio, Miika; Auguet, Olga Tosas; Weir, Willie; Morrison, W Ivan; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Bronsvoort, B Mark de C; Hanotte, Olivier; Coetzer, Koos; Toye, Philip G

    2015-03-01

    Many individual hosts are infected with multiple parasite species, and this may increase or decrease the pathogenicity of the infections. This phenomenon is termed heterologous reactivity and is potentially an important determinant of both patterns of morbidity and mortality and of the impact of disease control measures at the population level. Using infections with Theileria parva (a tick-borne protozoan, related to Plasmodium) in indigenous African cattle [where it causes East Coast fever (ECF)] as a model system, we obtain the first quantitative estimate of the effects of heterologous reactivity for any parasitic disease. In individual calves, concurrent co-infection with less pathogenic species of Theileria resulted in an 89% reduction in mortality associated with T. parva infection. Across our study population, this corresponds to a net reduction in mortality due to ECF of greater than 40%. Using a mathematical model, we demonstrate that this degree of heterologous protection provides a unifying explanation for apparently disparate epidemiological patterns: variable disease-induced mortality rates, age-mortality profiles, weak correlations between the incidence of infection and disease (known as endemic stability), and poor efficacy of interventions that reduce exposure to multiple parasite species. These findings can be generalized to many other infectious diseases, including human malaria, and illustrate how co-infections can play a key role in determining population-level patterns of morbidity and mortality due to parasite infections. PMID:26601143

  8. Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection.

    PubMed

    Randall, J; Cable, J; Guschina, I A; Harwood, J L; Lello, J

    2013-10-22

    Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections. PMID:23966641

  9. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection, California, USA, 1993–2008.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, John Z; Porco, Travis C; Westenhouse, Janice; Damesyn, Mark; Facer, Matt; Hill, Julia; Xia, Qiang; Watt, James P; Hopewell, Philip C; Flood, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    To understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV co-infection in California, we cross-matched incident TB cases reported to state surveillance systems during 1993–2008 with cases in the state HIV/AIDS registry. Of 57,527 TB case-patients, 3,904 (7%) had known HIV infection. TB rates for persons with HIV declined from 437 to 126 cases/100,000 persons during 1993–2008; rates were highest for Hispanics (225/100,000) and Blacks (148/100,000). Patients co-infected with TB–HIV during 2001–2008 were significantly more likely than those infected before highly active antiretroviral therapy became available to be foreign born, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific Islander and to have pyrazinamide-monoresistant TB. Death rates decreased after highly active antiretroviral therapy became available but remained twice that for TB patients without HIV infection and higher for women. In California, HIV-associated TB has concentrated among persons from low- and middle-income countries who often acquire HIV infection in the peri-immigration period. PMID:23745218

  10. Streptococcal co-infection augments Candida pathogenicity by amplifying the mucosal inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Xu, H; Sobue, T; Thompson, A; Xie, Z; Poon, K; Ricker, A; Cervantes, J; Diaz, P I; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mitis-group streptococci are ubiquitous oral commensals that can promote polybacterial biofilm virulence. Using a novel murine oral mucosal co-infection model we sought to determine for the first time whether these organisms promote the virulence of C. albicans mucosal biofilms in oropharyngeal infection and explored mechanisms of pathogenic synergy. We found that Streptococcus oralis colonization of the oral and gastrointestinal tract was augmented in the presence of C. albicans. S. oralis and C. albicans co-infection significantly augmented the frequency and size of oral thrush lesions. Importantly, S. oralis promoted deep organ dissemination of C. albicans. Whole mouse genome tongue microarray analysis showed that when compared with animals infected with one organism, the doubly infected animals had genes in the major categories of neutrophilic response/chemotaxis/inflammation significantly upregulated, indicative of an exaggerated inflammatory response. This response was dependent on TLR2 signalling since oral lesions, transcription of pro-inflammatory genes and neutrophil infiltration, were attenuated in TLR2−/− animals. Furthermore, S. oralis activated neutrophils in a TLR2-dependent manner in vitro. In summary, this study identifies a previously unrecognized pathogenic synergy between oral commensal bacteriaand C. albicans. This is the first report of the ability of mucosal commensal bacteria to modify the virulence of an opportunistic fungal pathogen. PMID:24079976

  11. Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection, California, USA, 1993–2008

    PubMed Central

    Porco, Travis C.; Westenhouse, Janice; Damesyn, Mark; Facer, Matt; Hill, Julia; Xia, Qiang; Watt, James P.; Hopewell, Philip C.; Flood, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    To understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV co-infection in California, we cross-matched incident TB cases reported to state surveillance systems during 1993–2008 with cases in the state HIV/AIDS registry. Of 57,527 TB case-patients, 3,904 (7%) had known HIV infection. TB rates for persons with HIV declined from 437 to 126 cases/100,000 persons during 1993–2008; rates were highest for Hispanics (225/100,000) and Blacks (148/100,000). Patients co-infected with TB–HIV during 2001–2008 were significantly more likely than those infected before highly active antiretroviral therapy became available to be foreign born, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific Islander and to have pyrazinamide-monoresistant TB. Death rates decreased after highly active antiretroviral therapy became available but remained twice that for TB patients without HIV infection and higher for women. In California, HIV-associated TB has concentrated among persons from low and middle income countries who often acquire HIV infection in the peri-immigration period. PMID:23745218

  12. Plasmodium vivax and Mansonella ozzardi co-infection in north-western Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A case of co-infection with Plasmodium vivax and Mansonella ozzardi was detected in a blood sample from a person who had shown symptoms of malaria and lived in a city that was close to the Argentina/Bolivia border. The case was detected during a random revision of thick and thin smears from patients diagnosed with malaria from various towns and cities located in north-western Argentina between 1983 and 2001. Trophozoites of P. vivax were observed in the thin blood smear along with M. ozzardi microfilaria (larval form), which presented a long, slender, pointed anucleate tail and the absence of the sheath. This last characteristic is shared with Mansonella perstans, Mansonella streptocerca and Onchocerca volvulus. More rigorously controlled studies to detect other co-infection cases in the area as well as the possibility of importation from Bolivia into Argentina are currently ongoing. The relationship between the malaria parasite and microfilaria, the potential effect of malaria treatment on the development of M. ozzardi, and the possible impact of this microfilaria on the immunity of a person against P. vivax are all still unknown. This contribution constitutes a point of focus for future studies involving the interaction between the parasites and the potential risk that humans are exposed to. PMID:23866313

  13. Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Randall, J.; Cable, J.; Guschina, I. A.; Harwood, J. L.; Lello, J.

    2013-01-01

    Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections. PMID:23966641

  14. Outcomes of co-infection by two potyviruses: implications for the evolution of manipulative strategies.

    PubMed

    Salvaudon, Lucie; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have documented effects of plant viruses on host plants that appear to enhance transmission by insect vectors. But, almost no empirical work has explored the implications of such apparent manipulation for interactions among co-infecting pathogens. We examined single and mixed infections of two potyviruses, watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), that frequently co-occur in cucurbitaceae populations and share the same aphid vectors. We found that ZYMV isolates replicated at similar rates in single and mixed infections, whereas WMV strains accumulated to significantly lower levels in the presence of ZYMV. Furthermore, ZYMV induced changes in leaf colour and volatile emissions that enhanced aphid (Aphis gossypii) recruitment to infected plants. By contrast, WMV did not elicit strong effects on plant-aphid interactions. Nevertheless, WMV was still readily transmitted from mixed infections, despite fairing poorly in in-plant competition. These findings suggest that pathogen effects on host-vector interactions may well influence competition among co-infecting pathogens. For example, if non-manipulative pathogens benefit from the increased vector traffic elicited by manipulative competitors, their costs of competition may be mitigated to some extent. Conversely, the benefits of manipulation may be limited by free-rider effects in systems where there is strong competition among pathogens for host resources and/or access to vectors. PMID:23407835

  15. Chemokines responses to Plasmodium falciparum malaria and co-infections among rural Cameroonians.

    PubMed

    Che, Jane Nchangnwi; Nmorsi, Onyebiguwa Patrick Goddey; Nkot, Baleguel Pierre; Isaac, Clement; Okonkwo, Browne Chukwudi

    2015-04-01

    Malaria remains the major cause of disease morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa with complex immune responses associated with disease outcomes. Symptoms associated with severe malaria have generally shown chemokine upregulation but little is known of responses to uncomplicated malaria. Eight villages in central Cameroon of 1045 volunteers were screened. Among these, malaria-positive individuals with some healthy controls were selected for chemokine analysis using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits. Depressed serum levels of CXCL5 and raised CCL28 were observed in malarial positives when compared with healthy controls. The mean concentration of CXCL11 was higher in symptomatic than asymptomatic group, while CCL28 was lower in symptomatic individuals. Lower chemokine levels were associated with symptoms of uncomplicated malaria except for CXCL11 which was upregulated among fever-positive group. The mean CXCL5 level was higher in malaria sole infection than co-infections with HIV and Loa loa. Also, there was a raised mean level of malaria+HIV co-infection for CXCL9. This study hypothesises a situation where depressed chemokines in the face of clinical presentations could indicate an attempt by the immune system in preventing a progression process from uncomplicated to complicated outcomes with CXCL11 being identified as possible biomarker for malarial fever. PMID:25462711

  16. Plasmodium vivax and Mansonella ozzardi co-infection in north-western Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dantur Juri, María J; Veggiani Aybar, Cecilia A; Ortega, Eugenia S; Galante, Guillermina B; Zaidenberg, Mario O

    2013-01-01

    A case of co-infection with Plasmodium vivax and Mansonella ozzardi was detected in a blood sample from a person who had shown symptoms of malaria and lived in a city that was close to the Argentina/Bolivia border. The case was detected during a random revision of thick and thin smears from patients diagnosed with malaria from various towns and cities located in north-western Argentina between 1983 and 2001. Trophozoites of P. vivax were observed in the thin blood smear along with M. ozzardi microfilaria (larval form), which presented a long, slender, pointed anucleate tail and the absence of the sheath. This last characteristic is shared with Mansonella perstans, Mansonella streptocerca and Onchocerca volvulus. More rigorously controlled studies to detect other co-infection cases in the area as well as the possibility of importation from Bolivia into Argentina are currently ongoing. The relationship between the malaria parasite and microfilaria, the potential effect of malaria treatment on the development of M. ozzardi, and the possible impact of this microfilaria on the immunity of a person against P. vivax are all still unknown. This contribution constitutes a point of focus for future studies involving the interaction between the parasites and the potential risk that humans are exposed to. PMID:23866313

  17. Co-infections determine patterns of mortality in a population exposed to parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Thumbi, Samuel M.; Jennings, Amy; Chase-Topping, Margo; Callaby, Rebecca; Kiara, Henry; Oosthuizen, Marinda C.; Mbole-Kariuki, Mary N.; Conradie, Ilana; Handel, Ian G.; Poole, E. Jane; Njiiri, Evalyne; Collins, Nicola E.; Murray, Gemma; Tapio, Miika; Auguet, Olga Tosas; Weir, Willie; Morrison, W. Ivan; Kruuk, Loeske E. B.; Bronsvoort, B. Mark de C.; Hanotte, Olivier; Coetzer, Koos; Toye, Philip G.

    2015-01-01

    Many individual hosts are infected with multiple parasite species, and this may increase or decrease the pathogenicity of the infections. This phenomenon is termed heterologous reactivity and is potentially an important determinant of both patterns of morbidity and mortality and of the impact of disease control measures at the population level. Using infections with Theileria parva (a tick-borne protozoan, related to Plasmodium) in indigenous African cattle [where it causes East Coast fever (ECF)] as a model system, we obtain the first quantitative estimate of the effects of heterologous reactivity for any parasitic disease. In individual calves, concurrent co-infection with less pathogenic species of Theileria resulted in an 89% reduction in mortality associated with T. parva infection. Across our study population, this corresponds to a net reduction in mortality due to ECF of greater than 40%. Using a mathematical model, we demonstrate that this degree of heterologous protection provides a unifying explanation for apparently disparate epidemiological patterns: variable disease-induced mortality rates, age-mortality profiles, weak correlations between the incidence of infection and disease (known as endemic stability), and poor efficacy of interventions that reduce exposure to multiple parasite species. These findings can be generalized to many other infectious diseases, including human malaria, and illustrate how co-infections can play a key role in determining population-level patterns of morbidity and mortality due to parasite infections. PMID:26601143

  18. Treatment of helminth co-infection in HIV-1 infected individuals in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L; John-Stewart, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Background The HIV-1 pandemic has disproportionately affected individuals in resource-constrained settings. These areas often also have high prevalence of other infectious diseases, such as helminth infections. It is important to determine if helminth infection affects the progression of HIV-1 in these co-infected individuals. There are biologically plausible reasons for possible effects of helminth infection in HIV-1 infected individuals and findings from some observational studies suggest that helminth infection may adversely affect HIV-1 progression. We sought to evaluate the available evidence from published and unpublished studies to determine if treatment of helminth infection in HIV-1 co-infected individuals impacts HIV-1 progression. Objectives Our objective was to determine if treating helminth infection in individuals with HIV-1 can reduce the progression of HIV-1 as determined by changes in CD4 count, viral load, or clinical disease progression (including mortality). Search strategy We searched online for published and unpublished studies in The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2006), MEDLINE (November 2006), EMBASE (November 2006), CENTRAL (July 2006), AIDSEARCH (August 2006). We also searched databases listing conference abstracts, scanned reference lists of articles, and contacted authors of included studies. Selection criteria We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that compared HIV-1 progression as measured by changes in CD4 count, viral load, or clinical disease progression in HIV-1 infected individuals receiving anti-helminth therapy. Observational studies with relevant data were also included. Data collection and analysis Data regarding changes in CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA levels, clinical staging and/or mortality after treatment of helminth co-infection were extracted from the reports of the studies. Main results Of 6,384 abstracts identified, 15 met criteria for potential inclusion, of which five were eligible for inclusion. In

  19. Autophagy induction targeting mTORC1 enhances Mycobacterium tuberculosis replication in HIV co-infected human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Andersson, Blanka; Lorell, Christoffer; Raffetseder, Johanna; Larsson, Marie; Blomgran, Robert

    2016-01-01

    To survive and replicate in macrophages Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has developed strategies to subvert host defence mechanisms, including autophagy. Autophagy induction has the potential to clear Mtb, but little is known about its effect during controlled tuberculosis and HIV co-infection. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex1 (mTORC1) inhibitors were used to induce autophagy in human macrophages pre-infected with HIV-1BaL and infected with a low dose of Mtb (co-infected), or single Mtb infected (single infected). The controlled Mtb infection was disrupted upon mTOR inhibition resulting in increased Mtb replication in a dose-dependent manner which was more pronounced during co-infection. The increased Mtb replication could be explained by the marked reduction in phagosome acidification upon mTOR inhibition. Autophagy stimulation targeting mTORC1 clearly induced a basal autophagy with flux that was unlinked to the subcellular environment of the Mtb vacuoles, which showed a concurrent suppression in acidification and maturation/flux. Overall our findings indicate that mTOR inhibition during Mtb or HIV/Mtb co-infection interferes with phagosomal maturation, thereby supporting mycobacterial growth during low-dose and controlled infection. Therefore pharmacological induction of autophagy through targeting of the canonical mTORC1-pathway should be handled with caution during controlled tuberculosis, since this could have serious consequences for patients with HIV/Mtb co-infection. PMID:27302320

  20. Immunological alterations and associated diseases in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) naturally co-infected with SIV and STLV.

    PubMed

    Souquière, Sandrine; Makuwa, Maria; Sallé, Bettina; Lepelletier, Yves; Mortreux, Franck; Hermine, Olivier; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2014-04-01

    Mandrills are naturally infected with simian T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mnd. In humans, dual infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) may worsen their clinical outcome. We evaluated the effect of co-infection in mandrills on viral burden, changes in T-cell subsets and clinical outcome. The SIV viral load was higher in SIV-infected mandrills than in co-infected animals, whereas the STLV-1 proviral load was higher in co-infected than in mono-infected groups. Dually infected mandrills had a statistically significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count, a lower proportion of naive CD8+ T cells and a higher proportion of central memory cells. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from SIV-infected animals had a lower percentage of Ki67 than those from the other groups. Co-infected monkeys had higher percentages of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Two co-infected mandrills with high immune activation and clonal integration of STLV provirus showed pathological manifestations (infective dermatitis and generalised scabies) rarely encountered in nonhuman primates. PMID:24725945

  1. Factors associated with HIV and syphilis co-infection among men who have sex with men in seven Chinese cities

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aritra; Li, Jianjun; Zhong, Fei; Ouyang, Lin; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Tang, Weiming; Fu, Gengfeng; Zhao, Jinkou; Detels, Roger

    2014-01-01

    HIV-syphilis co-infection is often cited as a major reason behind recent resurgence in syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Most published literatures explore factors associated with either HIV or syphilis, but not their co-infection. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey on MSM in seven Chinese cities. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants for the survey. Socio-demographic and behavioral predictors for HIV-syphilis mono/co-infection were examined using ordinal logistic regression. Factor scores were used to summarize; 1) HIV related knowledge, and 2) access to HIV preventive services. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and their co-infection, among 2936 self-identified MSM, were 7.7%, 14.3%, and 2.6%, respectively. In the adjusted analysis, the significant positive correlates of poorer diagnoses (co-infection vs mono- & no infection or co- & mono-infection vs no infection) were −30 to 39 years and ≥40 years age, education up to senior high school, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), recent STD symptoms, incorrect knowledge about routes of transmission, and access to preventive or counselling/testing services for HIV. For effective control of this dual epidemic, integrated HIV and syphilis surveillance and targeted intervention strategies for Chinese MSM are need of the hour. PMID:24737881

  2. Factors associated with HIV and syphilis co-infection among men who have sex with men in seven Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Das, Aritra; Li, Jianjun; Zhong, Fei; Ouyang, Lin; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Tang, Weiming; Fu, Gengfeng; Zhao, Jinkou; Detels, Roger

    2015-03-01

    HIV-syphilis co-infection is often cited as a major reason behind recent resurgence in syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men in China. Most published literatures explore factors associated with either HIV or syphilis, but not their co-infection. We analysed data from a cross-sectional survey on men who have sex with men in seven Chinese cities. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants for the survey. Socio-demographic and behavioural predictors for HIV-syphilis mono/co-infection were examined using ordinal logistic regression. Factor scores were used to summarise (1) HIV-related knowledge and (2) access to HIV preventive services. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and their co-infection, among 2936 self-identified men who have sex with men, were 7.7%, 14.3%, and 2.6%, respectively. In the adjusted analysis, the significant positive correlates of poorer diagnoses (co-infection vs mono- and no infection or co- and mono-infection vs no infection) were: 30 to 39 years and ≥40 years age, education up to senior high school, unprotected anal intercourse, recent sexually transmitted infection symptoms, incorrect knowledge about routes of transmission, and access to preventive or counselling/testing services for HIV. For effective control of this dual epidemic, integrated HIV and syphilis surveillance and targeted intervention strategies for Chinese men who have sex with men are needed urgently. PMID:24737881

  3. Predicting Avian Influenza Co-Infection with H5N1 and H9N2 in Northern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean G; Carrel, Margaret; Malanson, George P; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    Human outbreaks with avian influenza have been, so far, constrained by poor viral adaptation to non-avian hosts. This could be overcome via co-infection, whereby two strains share genetic material, allowing new hybrid strains to emerge. Identifying areas where co-infection is most likely can help target spaces for increased surveillance. Ecological niche modeling using remotely-sensed data can be used for this purpose. H5N1 and H9N2 influenza subtypes are endemic in Egyptian poultry. From 2006 to 2015, over 20,000 poultry and wild birds were tested at farms and live bird markets. Using ecological niche modeling we identified environmental, behavioral, and population characteristics of H5N1 and H9N2 niches within Egypt. Niches differed markedly by subtype. The subtype niches were combined to model co-infection potential with known occurrences used for validation. The distance to live bird markets was a strong predictor of co-infection. Using only single-subtype influenza outbreaks and publicly available ecological data, we identified areas of co-infection potential with high accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) 0.991). PMID:27608035

  4. Proteomics approach to understand reduced clearance of mycobacteria and high viral titers during HIV-mycobacteria co-infection.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Rakesh; Dhali, Snigdha; Rizvi, Arshad; Sankati, Swetha; Vemula, Mani Harika; Mahajan, Gaurang; Rapole, Srikanth; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2016-03-01

    Environmental mycobacteria, highly prevalent in natural and artificial (including chlorinated municipal water) niches, are emerging as new threat to human health, especially to HIV-infected population. These seemingly harmless non-pathogenic mycobacteria, which are otherwise cleared, establish as opportunistic infections adding to HIV-associated complications. Although immune-evading strategies of pathogenic mycobacteria are known, the mechanisms underlying the early events by which opportunistic mycobacteria establish infection in macrophages and influencing HIV infection are unclear. Proteomics of phagosome-enriched fractions from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) mono-infected and HIV-M. bovis BCG co-infected THP-1 cells by LC-MALDI-MS/MS revealed differential distribution of 260 proteins. Validation of the proteomics data showed that HIV co-infection helped the survival of non-pathogenic mycobacteria by obstructing phagosome maturation, promoting lipid biogenesis and increasing intracellular ATP equivalents. In turn, mycobacterial co-infection up-regulated purinergic receptors in macrophages that are known to support HIV entry, explaining increased viral titers during co-infection. The mutualism was reconfirmed using clinically relevant opportunistic mycobacteria, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium phlei that exhibited increased survival during co-infection, together with increase in HIV titers. Additionally, the catalogued proteins in the study provide new leads that will significantly add to the understanding of the biology of opportunistic mycobacteria and HIV coalition. PMID:26332641

  5. Prevalence of emerging porcine parvoviruses and their co-infections with porcine circovirus type 2 in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianhui; Huang, Liping; Wei, Yanwu; Wang, Yiping; Chen, Dongjie; Du, Wenjuan; Wu, Hongli; Liu, Changming

    2015-05-01

    A total of 450 samples from domestic pigs in China were tested for porcine parvoviruses (PPVs) and co-infections with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and their complete capsid genes were sequenced. The prevalence of PPV1, PPV2, PPV3, PPV4, and PCV2 was 5.56 %, 39.56 %, 45.11 %, 21.56 %, and 47.33 %, respectively, and co-infection with PCV2 occurred in 4 % (PPV1), 22.44 % (PPV2), 24 % (PPV3), and 12 % (PPV4) of the samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two main lineages for each virus, and residues that differentiated these viruses were identified. The co-infections of emerging PPVs and PCV2 were prevalent, indicating their cooperative roles in porcine circovirus-associated diseases. PMID:25742931

  6. Synergistic pathogenic effects of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuan; Zhao, Peng; Chang, Shuang; Ju, Sidi; Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Sun, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    To study interactions between avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and the effects of co-infection on pathogenicity of these viruses, 1-day-old broiler chicks were infected with ALV-J, REV or both ALV-J and REV. The results indicated that co-infection of ALV-J and REV induced more growth retardation and higher mortality rate than ALV-J or REV single infection (P < 0.05). Chickens co-infected with ALV-J and REV also showed more severe immunosuppression than those with a single infection. This was manifested by significantly lower bursa of Fabricius and thymus to body weight ratios and lower antibody responses to Newcastle disease virus and H9-avian influenza virus (P < 0.05). Perihepatitis and pericarditis related to severe infection with Escherichia coli were found in many of the dead birds. E. coli was isolated from each case of perihepatitis and pericarditis. The mortality associated with E. coli infection in the co-infection groups was significantly higher than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Among 516 tested E. coli isolates from 58 dead birds, 12 serotypes of the O-antigen were identified in two experiments. Different serotypes of E. coli strains were even isolated from the same organ of the same bird. Diversification of O-serotypes suggested that perihepatitis and pericarditis associated with E. coli infection was the most frequent secondary infection following the immunosuppression induced by ALV-J and REV co-infection. These results suggested that the co-infection of ALV-J and REV caused more serious synergistic pathogenic effects, growth retardation, immunosuppression, and secondary E. coli infection in broiler chickens. PMID:25484188

  7. Association of CMV, HBV, or HCV co-infection with vaccine response in adults with well-controlled HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Troy, S B; Rossheim, A E B; Siik, J; Cunningham, T D; Kerry, J A

    2016-05-01

    Even after CD4 count recovery on antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection is associated with decreased response to most vaccines compared to the general population. Chronic infections with viruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), which are more prevalent in HIV-infected populations, have been linked to immune dysfunction and decreased vaccine response in the general population. However, whether co-infection with these other viruses contributes to the decreased vaccine response seen in adults with well-controlled HIV infection is unknown. We conducted a secondary analysis of data and serum from adults with well-controlled HIV infection from an inactivated polio vaccine trial (224 subjects) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine study (128 subjects). We evaluated the association of CMV, HBV, or HCV co-infection with post-vaccination antibody levels using both univariate and multivariate analyses, controlling for factors such as age, race, CD4 count, comorbidities, smoking status, and baseline antibody levels. Ninety-three percent, 7%, and 14% of subjects were co-infected with CMV, HBV, and HCV respectively. On both univariate and multivariate analysis, neither CMV nor HCV co-infection were significantly associated with post-vaccination antibody levels to either vaccine. HBV co-infection was significantly associated with post-vaccination antibody concentrations for pneumococcal serotype 7F on univariate analysis and 6A on multivariate analysis, but the association was with higher antibody concentrations. In conclusion, co-infection with CMV, HBV, or HCV does not appear to contribute to the decreased vaccine response seen in adults with well-controlled HIV infection. PMID:26751638

  8. Review: HIV-Plasmodium Co-infection: Malaria in AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Maqbool, Faheem; Maqbool, Ayesha; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    Malaria and HIV are amongst the two main diseases worldwide and creating troubles of our time. Together, they grounds extra than four million deaths a year. Malaria causes around about for more than a million deaths each year, of which over 80-90 % come about in tropical Africa, somewhere malaria is the primary source of mortality in children below six years of age. Sideways as of adolescent, children, pregnant women are surrounded by the largest part exaggerated by the disease. In the wide geographical extend beyond in event and the follow-on co-infection, the interface flanked as a result of the two diseases visibly has foremost communal strength results. Thus both are dangerous for health at the same time. PMID:26408902

  9. Challenges and perspectives for improved management of HIV/Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Sester, M; Giehl, C; McNerney, R; Kampmann, B; Walzl, G; Cuchí, P; Wingfield, C; Lange, C; Migliori, G B; Kritski, A L; Meyerhans, A

    2010-12-01

    HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are two widespread and highly successful microbes whose synergy in pathogenesis has created a significant threat for human health globally. In acknowledgement of this fact, the European Union (EU) has funded a multinational support action, the European Network for global cooperation in the field of AIDS and TB (EUCO-Net), that brings together experts from Europe and those regions that bear the highest burden of HIV/MTB co-infection. Here, we summarise the main outcome of the EUCO-Net project derived from an expert group meeting that took place in Stellenbosch (South Africa) (AIDS/TB Workshop on Research Challenges and Opportunities for Future Collaboration) and the subsequent discussions, and propose priority areas for research and concerted actions that will have impact on future EU calls. PMID:21119204

  10. Co-infections in Visceral Pentastomiasis, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Sulyok, Mihály; Riu, Therese; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Babocsay, Gergely; Hardi, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Snakeborne Armillifer pentastomiasis is an emerging human parasitic infection in rural tropical areas where snake meat is eaten. After a series of severe ocular A. grandis larval infections and anecdotal abdominal infection in Sankuru District, Democratic Republic of the Congo, during 2014–2015, we systematically investigated possible pentastomid etiology in patients who underwent surgery in the region. Histologic and molecular analyses by established pentastomid 18S rDNA- and newly developed Armillifer-specific cytochrome oxidase PCRs revealed larval pentastomid lesions in 3.7% of patients. Some persons had A. armillatus and A. grandis co-infections. Another pentastomid larva, Raillietiella sp., was molecularly detected in 1 patient who had concomitant A. grandis and A. armillatus infection. The PCRs used were suitable for detecting pentastomid species even in highly necrotic tissues. Phylogenetic analyses of Armillifer cytochrome oxidase genes detected multiple local strains. PMID:27434739

  11. [Current opportunities for treatment of chronic hepatitis C in patients with HIV co-infection].

    PubMed

    Inglot, Małgorzata; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Gasiorowski, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    Liver diseases, mainly chronic viral hepatitis, recently have become the main cause of hospitalization and death in individuals with HIV infection. As HCV infection is predominant condition in this group of patients, treatment of hepatitis C is extremely important in halting hepatic injury. Large clinical trials (APRICOT, RIBAVIC, ACTG 5071) showed satisfactory efficacy and safety of therapy with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin. Other trials, searching ways to improve efficacy of chronic hepatitis C treatment in HIV co-infected individuals, are still running. Management possibilities include higher doses of ribavirin and, prolonged course of treatment. The article summarizes current state of knowledge in the field of chronic hepatitis C treatment in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. PMID:18807485

  12. Co-infections in Visceral Pentastomiasis, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Sulyok, Mihály; Riu, Therese; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Babocsay, Gergely; Hardi, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Snakeborne Armillifer pentastomiasis is an emerging human parasitic infection in rural tropical areas where snake meat is eaten. After a series of severe ocular A. grandis larval infections and anecdotal abdominal infection in Sankuru District, Democratic Republic of the Congo, during 2014-2015, we systematically investigated possible pentastomid etiology in patients who underwent surgery in the region. Histologic and molecular analyses by established pentastomid 18S rDNA- and newly developed Armillifer-specific cytochrome oxidase PCRs revealed larval pentastomid lesions in 3.7% of patients. Some persons had A. armillatus and A. grandis co-infections. Another pentastomid larva, Raillietiella sp., was molecularly detected in 1 patient who had concomitant A. grandis and A. armillatus infection. The PCRs used were suitable for detecting pentastomid species even in highly necrotic tissues. Phylogenetic analyses of Armillifer cytochrome oxidase genes detected multiple local strains. PMID:27434739

  13. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of ocular syphilis, co-infection, and therapy response

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Ozlem; Ziaei, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical presentation of patients diagnosed with presumed latent ocular syphilis and congenital ocular syphilis at tertiary referral center in Turkey, and to compare the clinical findings with patients described in other studies, specifically focusing on demographics and co-infections. Methods This is a retrospective study reviewing the medical records of patients diagnosed with ocular inflammation between January 2012 and June 2014 at a tertiary referral center in Turkey. Ocular syphilis was diagnosed on the basis of non-treponemal and treponemal antibody tests, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. All the patients diagnosed with ocular syphilis were tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes. Results A total of 1,115 patients were evaluated between January 2012 and June 2014, and 12 patients (1.07%) were diagnosed with ocular syphilis based on the inclusion criteria. None of the patients were seropositive for HIV. Two patients were seropositive for T. gondii-specific IgG. Clinical presentations include non-necrotizing anterior scleritis, non-necrotizing sclerokeratitis, anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, panuveitis, and optic neuritis. All of the patients showed clinical improvement in the level of ocular inflammation with intravenous penicillin 24 million U/day for 10 days. Three patients received additional oral methotrexate as an adjunctive therapy. Two cases received low-dose trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole. Conclusion Ocular syphilis is an uncommon cause of ocular inflammation in HIV-negative patients. Central retinochoroiditis is the most common ocular manifestation, and it is the most common cause of visual impairment. Ocular syphilis might present associated with co-infections such as T. gondii in developing countries. Oral methotrexate might be beneficial as an adjunctive therapy for ocular syphilis in resolving the residual intraocular inflammation

  14. The Impact of HIV Co-Infection on the Genomic Response to Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Huson, Michaëla A M; Scicluna, Brendon P; van Vught, Lonneke A; Wiewel, Maryse A; Hoogendijk, Arie J; Cremer, Olaf L; Bonten, Marc J M; Schultz, Marcus J; Franitza, Marek; Toliat, Mohammad R; Nürnberg, Peter; Grobusch, Martin P; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-01-01

    HIV patients have an increased risk to develop sepsis and HIV infection affects several components of the immune system involved in sepsis pathogenesis. We hypothesized that HIV infection might aggrevate the aberrant immune response during sepsis, so we aimed to determine the impact of HIV infection on the genomic host response to sepsis. We compared whole blood leukocyte gene expression profiles among sepsis patients with or without HIV co-infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and validated our findings in a cohort of patients admitted to the same ICUs in a different time frame. To examine the influence of HIV infection per se, we also determined the expression of genes of interest in a cohort of asymptomatic HIV patients. We identified a predominantly common host response in sepsis patients with or without HIV co-infection. HIV positive sepsis patients in both ICU cohorts showed overexpression of genes involved in granzyme signaling (GZMA, GZMB), cytotoxic T-cell signaling (CD8A, CD8B) and T-cell inhibitory signaling (LAG3), compared to HIV negative patients. Enhanced expression of CD8A, CD8B and LAG3 was also unmasked in asymptomatic HIV patients. Plasma levels of granzymes in sepsis patients were largely below detection limit, without differences according to HIV status. These results demonstrate that sepsis is characterized by a massive common response with few differences between HIV positive and HIV negative sepsis patients. Observed differences in granzyme signaling, cytotoxic T-cell signaling and T-cell inhibitory signaling appear to be changes commonly observed in asymptomatic HIV patients which persist during sepsis. PMID:26871709

  15. The Impact of HIV Co-Infection on the Genomic Response to Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Huson, Michaëla A. M.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; van Vught, Lonneke A.; Wiewel, Maryse A.; Hoogendijk, Arie J.; Cremer, Olaf L.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Franitza, Marek; Toliat, Mohammad R.; Nürnberg, Peter; Grobusch, Martin P.; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-01-01

    HIV patients have an increased risk to develop sepsis and HIV infection affects several components of the immune system involved in sepsis pathogenesis. We hypothesized that HIV infection might aggrevate the aberrant immune response during sepsis, so we aimed to determine the impact of HIV infection on the genomic host response to sepsis. We compared whole blood leukocyte gene expression profiles among sepsis patients with or without HIV co-infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and validated our findings in a cohort of patients admitted to the same ICUs in a different time frame. To examine the influence of HIV infection per se, we also determined the expression of genes of interest in a cohort of asymptomatic HIV patients. We identified a predominantly common host response in sepsis patients with or without HIV co-infection. HIV positive sepsis patients in both ICU cohorts showed overexpression of genes involved in granzyme signaling (GZMA, GZMB), cytotoxic T-cell signaling (CD8A, CD8B) and T-cell inhibitory signaling (LAG3), compared to HIV negative patients. Enhanced expression of CD8A, CD8B and LAG3 was also unmasked in asymptomatic HIV patients. Plasma levels of granzymes in sepsis patients were largely below detection limit, without differences according to HIV status. These results demonstrate that sepsis is characterized by a massive common response with few differences between HIV positive and HIV negative sepsis patients. Observed differences in granzyme signaling, cytotoxic T-cell signaling and T-cell inhibitory signaling appear to be changes commonly observed in asymptomatic HIV patients which persist during sepsis. PMID:26871709

  16. Helminths and malaria co-infections are associated with elevated serum IgE

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. Methods A cross sectional observational study composed of microscopically confirmed malaria positive (N = 197) and malaria negative (N = 216) apparently healthy controls with and without helminth infection was conducted at Wondo Genet Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A pre-designed structured format was utilized to collect socio-demographic and clinical data of the subjects. Detection and quantification of helminths, malaria parasites and determination of serum IgE levels were carried out following standard procedures. Results Irrespective of helminth infection, individuals infected by malaria showed significantly high levels of serum IgE compared with malaria free apparently healthy controls (with and without helminth infections). Moreover, malaria patients co-infected with intestinal helminths showed high level of serum IgE compared with those malaria patients without intestinal helminths (2198 IU/ml versus 1668 IU/ml). A strong statistically significant association was observed between malaria parasite density and elevated serum IgE levels (2047 IU/ml versus 1778 IU/ml; P = 0.001) with high and low parasitaemia (parasite density >50,000 parasite/μl of blood), respectively. Likewise, helminth egg loads were significantly associated with elevated serum IgE levels (P = 0.003). Conclusions The elevated serum IgE response in malaria patients irrespective of helminth infection and its correlation with malaria parasite density and helminth egg intensity support that malaria infection is also a strong driver of IgE production as compared to helminths. PMID:24886689

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Helminth Co-infection in Kenyan HIV-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L.; Stewart, Barclay T.; Sangaré, Laura; Mbogo, Loice W.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Piper, Benjamin K. S.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-Stewart, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Background Deworming HIV-1 infected individuals may delay HIV-1 disease progression. It is important to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1/helminth co-infection in helminth-endemic areas. Methods HIV-1 infected individuals (CD4>250 cells/ul) were screened for helminth infection at ten sites in Kenya. Prevalence and correlates of helminth infection were determined. A subset of individuals with soil-transmitted helminth infection was re-evaluated 12 weeks following albendazole therapy. Results Of 1,541 HIV-1 seropositive individuals screened, 298 (19.3%) had detectable helminth infections. Among individuals with helminth infection, hookworm species were the most prevalent (56.3%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (17.1%), Trichuris trichiura (8.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (7.1%), and Stongyloides stercoralis (1.3%). Infection with multiple species occurred in 9.4% of infections. After CD4 count was controlled for, rural residence (RR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08–1.81), having no education (RR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.07–2.30), and higher CD4 count (RR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.07–1.73) remained independently associated with risk of helminth infection. Twelve weeks following treatment with albendazole, 32% of helminth-infected individuals had detectable helminths on examination. Residence, education, and CD4 count were not associated with persistent helminth infection. Conclusions Among HIV-1 seropositive adults with CD4 counts above 250 cells/mm3 in Kenya, traditional risk factors for helminth infection, including rural residence and lack of education, were associated with co-infection, while lower CD4 counts were not. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00130910 PMID:20361031

  18. Systemic Cytokine and Interferon Responsiveness Patterns in HIV and HCV Mono and Co-Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Joshi-Barve, Swati; Ghare, Smita; Barve, Shirish; Young, Mary; Plankey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The role of host response-related factors in the fast progression of liver disease in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV viruses remains poorly understood. This study compared patterns of cytokines, caspase-1 activation, endotoxin exposure in plasma as well as interferon signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV/HCV co-infected (HIV+/HCV+), HCV mono-infected (HIV−/HCV+), HIV mono-infected (HIV+/HCV−) female patients and HIV- and HCV-uninfected women (HIV−/HCV−) who had enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). HIV+/HCV+ women had higher plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as caspase-1 compared with other groups. Both HIV+/HCV+ and HIV+/HCV− women had significantly higher sCD14 levels compared with other groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HCV mono-infected patients had reduced levels of phosphorylation of STAT1 compared with other groups as well as lower basal levels of expression of the IFN-stimulated genes, OAS1, ISG15, and USP18 (UBP43). Basal expression of USP18, a functional antagonist of ISG15, as well as USP18/ISG15 ratios were increased in the HIV+/HCV+ group compared with HIV−/HCV+ and HIV+/HCV− groups. A more pronounced systemic inflammatory profile as well as increased expression ratios of USP18 to ISG15 may contribute to the more rapid progression of liver disease in HIV+/HCV+ individuals. PMID:24955730

  19. Systemic cytokine and interferon responsiveness Patterns in HIV and HCV mono and co-infections.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Joshi-Barve, Swati; Ghare, Smita; Barve, Shirish; Young, Mary; Plankey, Michael; Bordon, Jose

    2014-11-01

    The role of host response-related factors in the fast progression of liver disease in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV viruses remains poorly understood. This study compared patterns of cytokines, caspase-1 activation, endotoxin exposure in plasma as well as interferon signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV/HCV co-infected (HIV(+)/HCV(+)), HCV mono-infected (HIV(-)/HCV(+)), HIV mono-infected (HIV(+)/HCV(-)) female patients and HIV- and HCV-uninfected women (HIV(-)/HCV(-)) who had enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). HIV(+)/HCV(+) women had higher plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as caspase-1 compared with other groups. Both HIV(+)/HCV(+) and HIV(+)/HCV(-) women had significantly higher sCD14 levels compared with other groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HCV mono-infected patients had reduced levels of phosphorylation of STAT1 compared with other groups as well as lower basal levels of expression of the IFN-stimulated genes, OAS1, ISG15, and USP18 (UBP43). Basal expression of USP18, a functional antagonist of ISG15, as well as USP18/ISG15 ratios were increased in the HIV(+)/HCV(+) group compared with HIV(-)/HCV(+) and HIV(+)/HCV(-) groups. A more pronounced systemic inflammatory profile as well as increased expression ratios of USP18 to ISG15 may contribute to the more rapid progression of liver disease in HIV(+)/HCV(+) individuals. PMID:24955730

  20. Parasite co-infection and interaction as drivers of host heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Cattadori, I M; Boag, B; Hudson, P J

    2008-03-01

    We examined the hypothesis that the interaction between concomitant infecting parasites modifies host susceptibility, parasite intensity and the pattern of parasite distribution within the host population. We used a 26 year time series of three common parasites in a natural population of rabbits: two gastrointestinal nematodes (Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Graphidium strigosum) and the immunosuppressive myxoma virus. The frequency distribution of nematodes in the host population and the relationship between host age and nematode intensity were explored in rabbits with either single or dual nematode infections and rabbits infected with the nematodes and myxoma virus. The aggregation of T. retortaeformis and G. strigosum among the rabbits varied with the nature of the co-infection both in male and female hosts. The two nematodes exhibited different age-intensity profiles: G. strigosum intensity increased exponentially with host age while T. retortaeformis intensity exhibited a convex shape. The presence of a secondary infection did not change the age-intensity profile for G. strigosum but for T. retortaeformis co-infection (either both nematodes or myxoma-nematodes) resulted in significantly greater intensities in adult hosts. Results suggest that multi-species infections contributed to aggregation of parasites in the host population and to seasonal variation in intensity, but also enhanced differences in parasitism between sexes. This effect was apparent for T. retortaeformis, which appears to elicit a strong acquired immune response but not for G. strigosum which does not produce any evident immune reaction. We concluded that concomitant infections mediated by host immunity are important in modifying host susceptibility and influencing heterogeneity amongst individual hosts. PMID:17936286

  1. Co-infection and genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer from Poland.

    PubMed

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Werszko, Joanna; Cydzik, Krystian; Bajer, Anna; Michalik, Jerzy; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2013-05-01

    Wild species are essential hosts for maintaining Ixodes ticks and the tick-borne diseases. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, the rate of co-infection with Babesia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and the molecular diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer in Poland. Almost half of the tested samples provided evidence of infection with at least 1 species. A. phagocytophilum (37.3%) was the most common and Bartonella (13.4%) the rarest infection. A total of 18.3% of all positive samples from roe deer were infected with at least 2 pathogens, and one-third of those were co-infected with A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella, and Babesia species. On the basis of multilocus molecular studies we conclude that: (1) Two different genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum, zoonotic and nonzoonotic, are widely distributed in Polish roe deer population; (2) the roe deer is the host for zoonotic Babesia (Bab. venatorum, Bab. divergens), closely related or identical with strains/species found in humans; (3) our Bab. capreoli and Bab. divergens isolates differed from reported genotypes at 2 conserved base positions, i.e., positions 631 and 663; and (4) this is the first description of Bart. schoenbuchensis infections in roe deer in Poland. We present 1 of the first complex epidemiological studies on the prevalence of Babesia, Bartonella, and A. phagocytophilum in naturally infected populations of roe deer. These game animals clearly have an important role as reservoir hosts of tick-borne pathogens, but the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of the parasite genotypes hosted by roe deer requires further detailed investigation. PMID:23473225

  2. Host Genetic Factors and Dendritic Cell Responses Associated with the Outcome of Interferon/Ribavirin Treatment in HIV-1/HCV Co-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Mohit; Zeremski, Marija; Talal, Andrew H.; Khan, Zafar K.; Capocasale, Renold; Philip, Ramila; Jain, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1/HCV co-infection is a significant health problem. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) against HIV-1 has proved to be fairly successful. On the other hand, direct acting antiviral drugs against HCV have improved cure rates but high cost and development of drug resistance are important concerns. Therefore PEGylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) still remain essential components of HCV treatment, and identification of host factors that predict IFN/RBV treatment response is necessary for effective clinical management of HCV infection. Impaired dendritic cell (DC) and T cell responses are associated with HCV persistence. It has been shown that IFN/RBV treatment enhances HCV-specific T cell functions and it is likely that functional restoration of DCs is the underlying cause. To test this hypothesis, we utilized an antibody cocktail (consisting of DC maturation, adhesion and other surface markers) to perform comprehensive phenotypic characterization of myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in a cohort of HIV-1/HCV co-infected individuals undergoing IFN/RBV treatment. Our results show that pre-treatment frequencies of mDCs are lower in non-responders (NRs) compared to responders (SVRs) and healthy controls. Although, the treatment was able to restore the frequency of mDCs in NRs, it downregulated the frequency of CCR7+, CD54+ and CD62L+ mDCs. Pre-treatment frequencies of pDCs were lower in NRs and decreased further upon treatment. Compared to SVRs, NRs exhibited higher ratio of PD-L1+/CD86+ pDCs prior to treatment; and this ratio remained high even after treatment. These findings demonstrate that enumeration and phenotypic assessment of DCs before/during therapy can help predict the treatment outcome. We also show that before treatment, PBMCs from SVRs secrete higher amounts of IFN-γ compared to controls and NRs. Upon genotyping IFNL3 polymorphisms rs12979860, rs4803217 and ss469415590, we found rs12979860 to be a better predictor of

  3. Nitrite reductase is critical for Pseudomonas aeruginosa survival during co-infection with the oral commensal Streptococcus parasanguinis.

    PubMed

    Scoffield, Jessica A; Wu, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major aetiological agent of chronic pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, recent evidence suggests that the polymicrobial community of the CF lung may also harbour oral streptococci, and colonization by these micro-organisms may have a negative impact on P. aeruginosa within the CF lung. Our previous studies demonstrated that nitrite abundance plays an important role in P. aeruginosa survival during co-infection with oral streptococci. Nitrite reductase is a key enzyme involved in nitrite metabolism. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the role nitrite reductase (gene nirS) plays in P. aeruginosa survival during co-infection with an oral streptococcus, Streptococcus parasanguinis. Inactivation of nirS in both the chronic CF isolate FRD1 and acute wound isolate PAO1 reduced the survival rate of P. aeruginosa when co-cultured with S. parasanguinis. Growth of both mutants was restored when co-cultured with S. parasanguinis that was defective for H2O2 production. Furthermore, the nitrite reductase mutant was unable to kill Drosophila melanogaster during co-infection with S. parasanguinis. Taken together, these results suggest that nitrite reductase plays an important role for survival of P. aeruginosa during co-infection with S. parasanguinis. PMID:26673783

  4. A Case Report of Plasmodium Vivax, Plasmodium Falciparum and Dengue Co-Infection in a 6 Months Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pande, A; Guharoy, D

    2013-01-01

    India being a tropical country, parasitic infections especially with Plasmodium species are very common in this region. The present case report is that of Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum and dengue co-infection in a 6 months pregnant lady who was timely diagnosed and appropriately treated followed by a complete recovery along with feto-maternal well-being. PMID:24349838

  5. The relative importance of host characteristics and co-infection in generating variation in Heligmosomoides polygyrus fecundity.

    PubMed

    Luong, L T; Perkins, S E; Grear, D A; Rizzoli, A; Hudson, P J

    2010-05-01

    We examined the relative importance of intrinsic host factors and microparasite co-infection in generating variation in Heligmosomoides polygyrus fecundity, a parameter that serves as a proxy for infectiousness. We undertook extensive trapping of Apodemus flavicollis, the yellow-necked mouse in the woodlands of the Italian Alps and recorded eggs in utero from the dominant nematode species H. polygyrus, and tested for the presence of five microparasite infections. The results showed that sex and breeding status interact, such that males in breeding condition harboured more fecund nematodes than other hosts; in particular, worms from breeding males had, on average, 52% more eggs in utero than worms from non-breeding males. In contrast, we found a weak relationship between intensity and body mass, and no relationship between intensity and sex or intensity and breeding condition. We did not find any evidence to support the hypothesis that co-infection with microparasites contributed to variation in worm fecundity in this system. The age-intensity profiles for mice singly-infected with H. polygyrus and those co-infected with the nematode and at least one microparasite were both convex and not statistically different from each other. We concluded that intrinsic differences between hosts, specifically with regard to sex and breeding condition, contribute relatively more to the variation in worm fecundity than parasite co-infection status. PMID:20109249

  6. Clinical care versus ethical obligations: HIV-1 and -2 co-infection with hepatitis B in a pregnant Jehovah's Witness.

    PubMed

    Quinn, K J; McCarty, E J; Dinsmore, W M; Quah, S P

    2012-07-01

    Co-infection with HIV-1 and -2 is rare, even in west Africa. We present the case of a 38-year-old pregnant Jehovah's Witness presenting late in pregnancy with triple infection with HIV-1, HIV-2 and hepatitis B virus. There was a successful outcome in averting vertical transmission despite objections to management based on religious and cultural beliefs. PMID:22844019

  7. Antagonism between two intestinal parasites in humans: the importance of co-infection for infection risk and recovery dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Aaron D.; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Co-infection may affect transmission and recovery from infection, but remains an understudied element of disease ecology, particularly with regard to antagonism between parasites sharing a host. Helminth and giardia infections are often endemic in the same populations and both occupy the small intestine; yet few studies have examined interactions between these parasites. We report on helminth–giardia co-infections in a panel study of forager–horticulturalists in the Bolivian lowlands. Parasites were identified in faecal samples from 3275 participants, collected during 5235 medical exams over 6 years. Longitudinal co-infection patterns were examined using logistic mixed and multi-state Markov models. The most prevalent infections were hookworm (56%), Giardia lamblia (30%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (15%). Cross-sectionally, hookworm and A. lumbricoides were negatively associated with G. lamblia (OR = 0.60; OR = 0.65, respectively). Longitudinally, giardia infection was less likely in helminth-infected individuals (HR: 0.46). Infection with helminths was also less likely for individuals infected with giardia (HR: 0.71). Finally, treatment with mebendazole reduced subsequent hookworm infections, but resulted in a marginal increase in the odds of G. lamblia infection. Our results provide evidence for an antagonistic relationship between helminths and giardia, and suggest that co-infection should be considered in disease transmission models and treatment decisions. PMID:23986108

  8. The entry of cucumber mosaic virus into cucumber xylem is facilitated by co-infection with zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Nobuhara, Shinya; Nishimura, Miho; Ryang, Bo-Song; Naoe, Masaki; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Kosaka, Yoshitaka; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the synergistic effects of co-infection by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on viral distribution in the vascular tissues of cucumber. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that ZYMV was present in both the phloem and xylem tissues. ZYMV-RNA was detected in both the xylem wash and guttation fluid of ZYMV-inoculated cucumber. Steam treatment at a stem internode indicated that ZYMV enters the xylem vessels and moves through them but does not cause systemic infection in the plant. CMV distribution in singly infected cucumbers was restricted to phloem tissue. By contrast, CMV was detected in the xylem tissue of cotyledons in plants co-infected with CMV and ZYMV. Although both ZYMV-RNA and CMV-RNA were detected in the xylem wash and upper internodes of steam-treated, co-infected cucumbers grown at 24 °C, neither virus was detected in the upper leaves using an ELISA assay. Genetically modified CMV harboring the ZYMV HC-Pro gene was distributed in the xylem and phloem tissues of singly inoculated cucumber cotyledons. These results indicate that the ZYMV HC-Pro gene facilitates CMV entry into the xylem vessels of co-infected cucumbers. PMID:27400992

  9. Co-infection of mallards with low virulence Newcastle disease virus and low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterfowl are considered the natural reservoirs of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) and low virulence Newcastle disease viruses (loNDV). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of co-infections with loNDV and LPAIV on the infectivity and excretion of these viruses in ...

  10. Prevalence, Features and Risk Factors for Malaria Co-Infections amongst Visceral Leishmaniasis Patients from Amudat Hospital, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Emily R.; Mens, Pètra F.; Sentongo, Elizabeth; Mbulamberi, Dawson B.; Straetemans, Masja; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Chappuis, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background and methodology Due to geographic overlap of malaria and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), co-infections may exist but have been poorly investigated. To describe prevalence, features and risk factors for VL-malaria co-infections, a case-control analysis was conducted on data collected at Amudat Hospital, Uganda (2000–2006) by Médecins sans Frontières. Cases were identified as patients with laboratory-confirmed VL and malaria at hospital admission or during hospitalization; controls were VL patients with negative malaria smears. A logistic regression analysis was performed to study the association between patients' characteristics and the occurrence of the co-infection. Results Of 2414 patients with confirmed VL, 450 (19%) were positively diagnosed with concomitant malaria. Most co-infected patients were males, residing in Kenya (69%). While young age was identified by multivariate analysis as a risk factor for concurrent VL and malaria, particularly the age groups 0–4 (odds ratio (OR): 2.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.52–3.92) and 5–9 years (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.45-3-45), mild (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.32–0.88) and moderate (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.27–0.77) anemia negatively correlated with the co-morbidity. VL patients harboring skin infections were nearly three times less likely to have the co-infection (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.17–0.72), as highlighted by the multivariate model. Anorexia was slightly more frequent among co-infected patients (OR: 1.71; 95% CI: 0.96–3.03). The in-hospital case-fatality rate did not significantly differ between cases and controls, being 2.7% and 3.1% respectively (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.46–1.63). Conclusions Concurrent malaria represents a common condition among young VL patients living in the Pokot region of Kenya and Uganda. Although these co-morbidities did not result in a poorer prognosis, possibly due to early detection of malaria, a positive trend towards more severe symptoms was identified, indicating that

  11. Frequency of Hepatitis B and C Co-Infection in Chronic Liver Disease Patients in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kooffreh-Ada, M; Okpokam, D C; Okaormhe, Z A; Nna, V U

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (HCV) virus are becoming a significant causative factors in the aetiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) worldwide. However, the information on the frequency of HBsAg and HCV virus co-infection in CLD is sparsely reported in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the frequency of HBsAg and HCV co-infection in CLD. One hundred and eleven subjects aged 19 - 76 years, comprising of 76 CLD patients and 35 apparently healthy subjects without CLD were tested for both HBsAg and HCV virus antibodies using ELISA test kits. Out of the 111 subjects recruited for this study, 76 (68.5%) were CLD patients tested positive for HBsAg and 35 (31.5%) tested negative for HBsAg and served as control. Out of the 76 CLD patients that tested positive for HBsAg, 34 (44.7%) of them also tested positive for HCV, thus, having co-infection with HBV. Incidence of co-infection was highest in those aged 36 - 45 years, and greater in males than females. Among the control group, 4 (11.4%) of the subjects (3 males and 1 female) tested positive for HCV, while 31 (88.6%) subjects (20 males and 11 females) tested negative. This work has shown that the co-infection with HBV and HCV among chronic liver disease patients and the incidence of HCV is high in our locality. Also, some of the supposed apparently healthy subjects in this study tested positive for HCV, hence the need for improving the awareness of this virus. It is therefore necessary to give immunization and test for HBsAg and HCV in both rural and urban areas. PMID:27574763

  12. Parasite co-infections show synergistic and antagonistic interactions on growth performance of East African zebu cattle under one year.

    PubMed

    Thumbi, S M; de C Bronsvoort, B M; Poole, E J; Kiara, H; Toye, P; Ndila, M; Conradie, I; Jennings, A; Handel, I G; Coetzer, J A W; Hanotte, O; Woolhouse, M E J

    2013-12-01

    The co-occurrence of different pathogen species and their simultaneous infection of hosts are common, and may affect host health outcomes. Co-infecting pathogens may interact synergistically (harming the host more) or antagonistically (harming the host less) compared with single infections. Here we have tested associations of infections and their co-infections with variation in growth rate using a subset of 455 animals of the Infectious Diseases of East Africa Livestock (IDEAL) cohort study surviving to one year. Data on live body weight, infections with helminth parasites and haemoparasites were collected every 5 weeks during the first year of life. Growth of zebu cattle during the first year of life was best described by a linear growth function. A large variation in daily weight gain with a range of 0·03-0·34 kg, and a mean of 0·135 kg (0·124, 0·146; 95% CI) was observed. After controlling for other significant covariates in mixed effects statistical models, the results revealed synergistic interactions (lower growth rates) with Theileria parva and Anaplasma marginale co-infections, and antagonistic interactions (relatively higher growth rates) with T. parva and Theileria mutans co-infections, compared with infections with T. parva only. Additionally, helminth infections can have a strong negative effect on the growth rates but this is burden-dependent, accounting for up to 30% decrease in growth rate in heavily infected animals. These findings present evidence of pathogen-pathogen interactions affecting host growth, and we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain observed directions of interactions as well as possible modifications to disease control strategies when co-infections are present. PMID:24001119

  13. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) co-infection induced chlamydial persistence/stress does not require viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Schoborg, Robert V.; Borel, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiae may exist at the site of infection in an alternative replicative form, called the aberrant body (AB). ABs are produced during a viable but non-infectious developmental state termed “persistence” or “chlamydial stress.” As persistent/stressed chlamydiae: (i) may contribute to chronic inflammation observed in diseases like trachoma; and (ii) are more resistant to current anti-chlamydial drugs of choice, it is critical to better understand this developmental stage. We previously demonstrated that porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) co-infection induced Chlamydia pecorum persistence/stress in culture. One critical characteristic of persistence/stress is that the chlamydiae remain viable and can reenter the normal developmental cycle when the stressor is removed. Thus, we hypothesized that PEDV-induced persistence would be reversible if viral replication was inhibited. Therefore, we performed time course experiments in which Vero cells were C. pecorum/PEDV infected in the presence of cycloheximide (CHX), which inhibits viral but not chlamydial protein synthesis. CHX-exposure inhibited PEDV replication, but did not inhibit induction of C. pecorum persistence at 24 h post-PEDV infection, as indicated by AB formation and reduced production of infectious EBs. Interestingly, production of infectious EBs resumed when CHX-exposed, co-infected cells were incubated 48–72 h post-PEDV co-infection. These data demonstrate that PEDV co-infection-induced chlamydial persistence/stress is reversible and suggest that this induction (i) does not require viral replication in host cells; and (ii) does not require de novo host or viral protein synthesis. These data also suggest that viral binding and/or entry may be required for this effect. Because the PEDV host cell receptor (CD13 or aminopeptidase N) stimulates cellular signaling pathways in the absence of PEDV infection, we suspect that PEDV co-infection might alter CD13 function and induce the chlamydiae to

  14. Delayed initiation of anti-retroviral therapy in TB/HIV co-infected patients, Sanyati District, Zimbabwe, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Maponga, Brian Abel; Chirundu, Daniel; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Bangure, Donewell; Takundwa, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem and is driven by HIV. Recent studies indicate that anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiated during the first two months of anti-TB treatment (ATT) reduces risk of HIV morbidity and mortality. In Sanyati district, 14% of TB/HIV co-infected patients were initiated on ART during TB treatment, in 2010. The study was conducted to determine the magnitude and determinants of delay in ART initiation, in TB/HIV co-infected patients. Methods An analytic cross sectional study was conducted at three study sites in Sanyati district. The outcome was delayed ART initiation, being failure to be initiated on ART during the first two months of ATT. Respondents were interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires. Epi-Info™ was used to generate frequencies, means, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Stratified and logistic regression analysis was done. Results Of the 186 respondents, 63% had delayed ART initiation. Median delay from initiation of ATT to ART was 48 days (Q1=20; Q3=82). Risk factors for delayed ART initiation were: being treated for TB first time, AOR=2.23 (p=0.03); initially registered for HIV care outside Sanyati, AOR=3.08 (p<0.01); staying more than 5km from a clinic, AOR=3.29 (p<0.01). Enabling factors for early ART initiation was having a family member on ART, AOR=0.23 (p<0.01). Conclusion Significant delay and barriers to ART initiation were identified. Decentralization of ART initiation should be expedited. ART initiation should be expedited in patients with identified risk factors for delaying ART initiation. Peer support should be strengthened in families and community. Periodic evaluation of magnitude of delay and impact of early ART initiation in TB/HIV patients is recommended. PMID:26401222

  15. HIV-, HCV-, and Co-Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Drug Users in Southwestern China: A Township-Level Ecological Study Incorporating Spatial Regression

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Wang, Qi-Xing; Liang, Song; Gong, Yu-Han; Yang, Mei-xia; Nie, Shi-Jiao; Nan, Lei; Yang, Ai-Hui; Liao, Qiang; Yang, Yang; Song, Xiu-Xia; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Background The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major public health problems. Many studies have been performed to investigate the association between demographic and behavioral factors and HIV or HCV infection. However, some of the results of these studies have been in conflict. Methodology/Principal Findings The data of all entrants in the 11 national methadone clinics in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected from the national database. Several spatial regression models were used to analyze specific community characteristics associated with the prevalence of HIV and HCV infection at the township level. The study enrolled 6,417 adult patients. The prevalence of HIV infection, HCV infection and co-infection was 25.4%, 30.9%, and 11.0%, respectively. Prevalence exhibited stark geographical variations in the area studied. The four regression models showed Yi ethnicity to be associated with both the prevalence of HIV and of HIV/HCV co-infection. The male drug users in some northwestern counties had greater odds of being infected with HIV than female drug users, but the opposite was observed in some eastern counties. The ‘being in drug rehabilitation variable was found to be positively associated with prevalence of HCV infection in some southern townships, however, it was found to be negatively associated with it in some northern townships. Conclusions/Significance The spatial modeling creates better representations of data such that public health interventions must focus on areas with high frequency of HIV/HCV to prevent further transmission of both HIV and HCV. PMID:24687006

  16. New fluorescence markers to distinguish co-infecting Trypanosoma brucei strains in experimental multiple infections.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Oliver; Tostado, Cristóbal

    2006-01-01

    Multiple-genotype infections are increasingly recognized as important factors in disease evolution, parasite transmission dynamics, and the evolution of drug resistance. However, the distinction of co-infecting parasite genotypes and the tracking of their dynamics have been difficult with traditional methods based on various genotyping techniques, leaving most questions unaddressed. Here we report new fluorescence markers of various colours that are inserted into the genome of Trypanosoma brucei to phenotypically label live parasites of all life cycle stages. If different parasite strains are labelled with different colours they can be easily distinguished from each other in experimental studies. A total of 10 T. brucei strains were successfully transfected with different fluorescence markers and were monitored in culture, tsetse flies and mice, to demonstrate stability of marker expression. The use of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) allowed rapid and accurate identification of parasite strains labelled with different markers. Cell counts by FACS were virtually identical to counts by traditional microscopy (n=75, Spearman's rho: 0.91, p<0.0001) but were considerably faster and had a significantly lower sampling error (66% lower, d.f.=73, t=-17.1, p<0.0001). Co-infecting strains transfected with fluorescence genes of different colour were easily distinguished by eye and their relative and absolute densities were reliably counted by FACS in experimental multiple infections in mice. Since the FACS can simultaneously determine the population sizes of differently labelled T. brucei strains or subspecies it allows detailed and efficient tracking of multiple-genotype infections within a single host or vector individual, enabling more powerful studies on parasite dynamics. In addition, it also provides a simple way to separate genotypes after experimental mixed infections, to measure responses of the single strains to an applied treatment, thus eliminating the

  17. Does Viral Co-Infection Influence the Severity of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. Objectives To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Methods We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011–2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value < 0.001) and longer hospital length of stay (OR: 1.468; P-value < 0.001). In addition, pneumococcal vaccination was found to be a protective factor in terms of degree of respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role. PMID:27096199

  18. Detection of Different Bovine Papillomavirus Types and Co-infection in Bloodstream of Cattle.

    PubMed

    Santos, E U D; Silva, M A R; Pontes, N E; Coutinho, L C A; Paiva, S S L; Castro, R S; Freitas, A C

    2016-02-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is a diverse group of double-stranded DNA oncogenic viruses. BPVs are classically described as epitheliotropic, however, they have been detected in body fluids, such as blood and semen. The presence of BPV in these sites can have implications for the dissemination of BPV. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of BPV types in cattle blood. A total of 57 blood samples were analyzed by PCR using BPV type-specific primers to BPVs 1-6 and 8-10, and subsequent sequencing. Sequencing quality was determined using Staden package with Phred 20. Similarity analysis was performed with BioEdit and BLAST programs to assess the identity with known BPV types. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test. The results showed seven different types of BPVs in the blood, with the exception of BPV 5 and 9. This is the first study that demonstrates BPVs 3, 6, 8 and 10 DNA in cattle blood. BPVs 1 and 2 were the viral types most frequent in blood, while BPVs 4 and 10 were the least frequent types. All the samples showed co-infection by at least two BPV types. These data suggest that several BPV types may infect blood cells at the same time and demonstrate the possibility that the BPV infection in non-epithelial tissue can occur without restriction to one or two viral types. These results can contribute to future studies aimed at the control and prevention of papillomaviruses. PMID:24889887

  19. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-visceral leishmaniasis-co-infection.

    PubMed

    Naufal Spir, Patrícia Rodrigues; Zampieri D'Andrea, Lourdes Aparecida; Fonseca, Elivelton Silva; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel

    2016-04-01

    In Brazil, the rates of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased from 20% to 1-2% in some regions. However, the country contains 90% of individuals infected with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Latin America, and the west region of São Paulo state faces an alarming expansion of the disease. We describe the epidemiological aspects of the expanding infection of VL and a case report of an HIV-VL-co-infected child from the west region of São Paulo state. The patient was an AIDS-C3 with low levels of CD4, high viral load, severe diarrhea, oral and perineal candidiasis, severe thrombocytopenia, and protein-caloric malnourishment. She evolved with sepsis, renal and cardiac failure. An rK rapid diagnosis test, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and bone marrow aspirate were performed for VL. Her symptoms improved significantly after liposomal amphotericin B administration. From the 45 municipalities that compose the Regional Health Department of Presidente Prudente, Lutzomyia longipalpis vectors were found in 58% of them. VL infected dogs were found in 33% of those municipalities, infected dogs and humans were found in 29%, 20% are starting and 33% of the municipalities are preparing VL investigation. It is likely, in this patient, that VL advanced the clinical progression of the HIV disease and the development of AIDS severity. Supported by favorable conditions, the region becomes a new frontier of VL in Brazil. PMID:23834783

  20. HTLV-1 and HIV-1 co-infection: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Isache, Carmen; Sands, Michael; Guzman, Nilmarie; Figueroa, Danisha

    2016-01-01

    HTLV type 1 and 2 are both involved in actively spreading epidemics, affecting over 15 million people worldwide. HTLV-1 has been described as the more clinically significant one, being associated with diseases such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis. We report here a case of tropical spastic paraparesis in an HIV-positive patient who did not report any history of travel or residence in an HTLV endemic area. A 57 year old African-American male was admitted to the hospital due to bilateral upper and lower extremity weakness associated with stiffness. He had recently been diagnosed with HIV. His physical examination showed mild to moderate decreased motor strength, in both upper extremities and marked loss in both lower extremities. This was associated with hyperreflexia and clonus. Sensory function was intact. He looked cachectic and had several psoriatic plaques on both lower and upper extremities. Laboratory work-up showed a CD4 count decreased to 94 cells/mm3 and a HIV viral load of 273,000 copies/mL. Based on serum positivity for HTLV type 1 and the patient's clinical presentation suggestive of upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction, the diagnosis of tropical spastic paraparesis was made. HTLV and HIV share the same routes of transmission and the same tropism for T-lymphocytes. Co-infection occurs probably more frequently than we are aware, since testing for HTLV is not routinely performed in outpatient HIV clinics. PMID:27144124

  1. Co-infection with Multiple Respiratory Pathogens Contributes to Increased Mortality Rates in Algerian Poultry Flocks.

    PubMed

    Sid, Hicham; Benachour, Karine; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory infections are a common cause for increased mortality rates in poultry worldwide. To improve intervention strategies, circulating pathogens have to be identified and further characterized. Because of the lack of diagnostic tools, it was not known what pathogens contribute to the high mortality rates in association with respiratory disease in Algeria. Our objective was to determine if primary pathogens including Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), known to be present in neighboring countries, can also be detected in Algerian chicken and turkey flocks. Results demonstrate the circulation of the investigated pathogens in Algerian poultry flocks as multi-infections. Phylogenetic characterization of the Algerian IBV strains confirmed the circulation of nephropathogenic viruses that are different from the strains isolated in neighboring countries. This could suggest the existence of a new IBV genotype in North Africa. Additionally, we detected for the first time an aMPV subtype B field strain and avian influenza virus. Interestingly, all viral pathogens were present in co-infections with MG, which could exacerbate clinical disease. Additional pathogens may be present and should be investigated in the future. Our results suggest that multiple respiratory infections may be responsible for high mortality in Algerian poultry flocks and very probably also in other regions of the world, which demonstrates the need for the establishment of more comprehensive control strategies. PMID:26478165

  2. Acute Confusional State: A Manifestation of Toxoplasma and CMV Co-infection in HIV Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jehangir, Waqas; Sareen, Romil; Sen, Shuvendu; Raoof, Nazar; Yousif, Abdalla

    2014-01-01

    Context: When dealing with a patient with HIV that presents with an altered mental status, there are various infections and disease etiologies a physician has to rule out that may play a role in complicating the inherent complex nature of HIV. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) affect a large part of the world's population and lead to a varied and broad symptomatology depending upon the severity of HIV, the CD4 count and how early the infection is diagnosed. Case Report: We report an HIV+ patient in his early 50s and with a low CD4 count that presented with severe lethargy and confusion. Imaging studies that were performed after stabilizing the patient revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the brain and after further testing, a diagnosis of reactivated T. gondii with co-infection with CMV was made. Patients infected with T. gondii that are already immune-compromised deteriorate rapidly and the disease diagnosis poses several challenges. Conclusion: Clinicians have to be extremely careful about making a prompt diagnosis and initiate treatment without delay before the infection takes a deadly toll on the patient. Since our patient was not on the required prophylactic medication to prevent infection with T. gondii, it was imperative to start treatment in a timely manner and to monitor the patient for any further decline in functioning. PMID:25489570

  3. Gene Expression Profiling of Tuberculous Meningitis Co-infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ghantasala S. Sameer; Venugopal, Abhilash K.; Kashyap, Manoj Kumar; Raju, Rajesh; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Palapetta, Shyam Mohan; Subbanayya, Yashwanth; Goel, Renu; Chawla, Ankit; Dikshit, Jyoti Bajpai; Tata, Pramila; Harsha, H. C.; Maharudraiah, Jagadeesha; Ramachandra, Y. L.; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy; Prasad, T. S. Keshava; Pandey, Akhilesh; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a fatal form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system (CNS). The similarities in the clinical and radiological findings in TBM cases with or without HIV make the diagnosis very challenging. Identification of genes, which are differentially expressed in brain tissues of HIV positive and HIV negative TBM patients, would enable better understanding of the molecular aspects of the infection and would also serve as an initial platform to evaluate potential biomarkers. Here, we report the identification of 796 differentially regulated genes in brain tissues of TBM patients co-infected with HIV using oligonucleotide DNA microarrays. We also performed immunohistochemical validation and confirmed the abundance of four gene products-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A member 3 (SERPINA3), thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP/ECGF1) and heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 (HSPA8). Our study paves the way for understanding the mechanism of TBM in HIV positive patients and for further validation of potential disease biomarkers. PMID:27053842

  4. Molecular characterization of two evolutionarily distinct endornaviruses co-infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Okada, Ryo; Yong, Chee Keat; Valverde, Rodrigo A; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Aoki, Nanako; Hotate, Shunsuke; Kiyota, Eri; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Two high-molecular-mass dsRNAs of approximately 14 and 15 kbp were isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivar Black Turtle Soup. These dsRNAs did not appear to cause obvious disease symptoms, and were transmitted through seeds at nearly 100% efficiency. Sequence information indicates that they are the genomes of distinct endornavirus species, for which the names Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 (PvEV-2) are proposed. The PvEV-1 genome consists of 13,908 bp and potentially encodes a single polyprotein of 4496 aa, while that of PvEV-2 consists of 14 820 bp and potentially encodes a single ORF of 4851 aa. PvEV-1 is more similar to Oryza sativa endornavirus, while PvEV-2 is more similar to bell pepper endornavirus. Both viruses have a site-specific nick near the 5' region of the coding strand, which is a common property of the endornaviruses. Their polyproteins contain domains of RNA helicase, UDP-glycosyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which are conserved in other endornaviruses. However, a viral methyltransferase domain was found in the N-terminal region of PvEV-2, but was absent in PvEV-1. Results of cell-fractionation studies suggested that their subcellular localizations were different. Most endornavirus-infected bean cultivars tested were co-infected with both viruses. PMID:23015743

  5. [Aseptic purulent meningitis in two patients co-infected by HTLV-1 and Strongyloides stercoralis].

    PubMed

    Foucan, L; Genevier, I; Lamaury, I; Strobel, M

    1997-01-01

    Occurrence of anguilluliasis always progresses to hyperinfestation or disseminated anguilluliasis with severe clinical manifestations in carriers of HTLV-1. This prognosis is further illustrated by two new cases of non-septic purulent meningitis observed in two male patients from Guadalope. Ages were 61 and 64 years. In both cases examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) demonstrated pleiocytosis with more than 3000 cells (mostly polynuclear neutrophils) per mm3, protein content greater than 3 g/l, and low sugar level. No soluble germs or antigens were found in the CSF. In both patients Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were detected in stools but not in CSF. Meningitis responded to antibiotic treatment but follow-up tests showed the persistence of larvae in stools despite treatment using thiabendazole. While similar cases of meningitis have been reported in carriers of HTLV-1, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Co-infection with Strongyloides stercoralis appears to be a predisposing factor. This association may warrant preventive anti-parasitic treatment in patients infected by HTLV-1. PMID:9513154

  6. Tuberculosis and pulmonary candidiasis co-infection present in a previously healthy patient

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez Borré, Gustavo; Gómez Camargo, Doris; Chalavé Jiménez, Neylor; Bellido Rodríguez, Javier; Cuadrado Cano, Bernarda; Navarro Gómez, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Background: The coexistance among fungal pathogens and tuberculosis pulmonary is a clinical condition that generally occurs in immunosuppressive patients, however, immunocompetent patients may have this condition less frequently. Objective: We report the case of an immunocompetent patient diagnosed with coinfection Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans. Case Description: A female patient, who is a 22-years old, with fever and a new onset of hemoptysis. Clinical findings and diagnosis: Diminished vesicular breath sounds in the apical region and basal crackling rales in the left lung base were found in the physical examination. Microbiological tests include: chest radiography and CAT scan pictograms in high resolution, Ziehl-Neelsen stain, growth medium for fungus and mycobacteria through Sabouraudís agar method with D-glucose. Medical examinations showed Candida albicans fungus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis present in the patient. Treatment and Outcome: Patient was treated with anti-tuberculosis and anti-fungal medications, which produced good responses. Clinical relevance: Pulmonary tuberculosis and fungal co-infection are not common in immunocompetent patients. However, we can suspect that there is a presence of these diseases by detecting new onset of hemoptysis in patients. PMID:27546933

  7. Host Protein Biomarkers Identify Active Tuberculosis in HIV Uninfected and Co-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Cortes, Laetitia; Croteau, Pascal; Yanofsky, Corey; Mentinova, Marija; Rajotte, Isabelle; Schirm, Michael; Zhou, Yiyong; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.; Larsen, Michelle; Allard, René; Hunter, Joanna; Paramithiotis, Eustache

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed to improve rapid TB diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify serum protein expression changes associated with TB but not latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), uninfected states, or respiratory diseases other than TB (ORD). Serum samples from 209 HIV uninfected (HIV−) and co-infected (HIV+) individuals were studied. In the discovery phase samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, and in the verification phase biologically independent samples were analyzed via a multiplex multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay. Compared to LTBI and ORD, host proteins were significantly differentially expressed in TB, and involved in the immune response, tissue repair, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker panels whose composition differed according to HIV status, and consisted of 8 host proteins in HIV− individuals (CD14, SEPP1, SELL, TNXB, LUM, PEPD, QSOX1, COMP, APOC1), or 10 host proteins in HIV+ individuals (CD14, SEPP1, PGLYRP2, PFN1, VASN, CPN2, TAGLN2, IGFBP6), respectively, distinguished TB from ORD with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.96 for HIV− TB, 0.95 for HIV+ TB). These results warrant validation in larger studies but provide promise that host protein biomarkers could be the basis for a rapid, blood-based test for TB. PMID:26501113

  8. Host Protein Biomarkers Identify Active Tuberculosis in HIV Uninfected and Co-infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Achkar, Jacqueline M; Cortes, Laetitia; Croteau, Pascal; Yanofsky, Corey; Mentinova, Marija; Rajotte, Isabelle; Schirm, Michael; Zhou, Yiyong; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Kasprowicz, Victoria O; Larsen, Michelle; Allard, René; Hunter, Joanna; Paramithiotis, Eustache

    2015-09-01

    Biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed to improve rapid TB diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify serum protein expression changes associated with TB but not latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), uninfected states, or respiratory diseases other than TB (ORD). Serum samples from 209 HIV uninfected (HIV(-)) and co-infected (HIV(+)) individuals were studied. In the discovery phase samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, and in the verification phase biologically independent samples were analyzed via a multiplex multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay. Compared to LTBI and ORD, host proteins were significantly differentially expressed in TB, and involved in the immune response, tissue repair, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker panels whose composition differed according to HIV status, and consisted of 8 host proteins in HIV(-) individuals (CD14, SEPP1, SELL, TNXB, LUM, PEPD, QSOX1, COMP, APOC1), or 10 host proteins in HIV(+) individuals (CD14, SEPP1, PGLYRP2, PFN1, VASN, CPN2, TAGLN2, IGFBP6), respectively, distinguished TB from ORD with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.96 for HIV(-) TB, 0.95 for HIV(+) TB). These results warrant validation in larger studies but provide promise that host protein biomarkers could be the basis for a rapid, blood-based test for TB. PMID:26501113

  9. Tuberculous Otitis with Proteus mirabilis Co-Infection: An Unsuspected Presentation Encountered in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Sardar, Moumita; Jadhav, Savita Vivek; Vyawahare, Chanda; Misra, Rabindranath

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis, a contagious bacterial disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primarily involves the lungs.Though Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is the commonest clinical presentation, there is a need for alertness towards uncommon presentations which involve other organs. Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is one such rare presentation seen in paediatric practice. It is characterized by painless otorrhoea which fails to respond to the routine antibacterial treatment. TOM usually occurs secondary to PTB. Here is a case of tuberculous otitis media with Proteus mirabilis co-infection, with no evidence of PTB. In the sample of ear discharge obtained from the patient, acid fast bacilli were demonstrated on direct microscopy after Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Culture done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium demonstrated slow-growing Mycobacterium. Bacteriological culture and identification helped in isolating Proteus mirabilis. PCR, followed by Line- Probe Assay for early identification and susceptibility testing to primary drugs, was done. Further, patient tested negative for the Mantoux test. Patient was enrolled in National Tuberculosis programme- RNTCP. This case emphasizes on one of the less common presentations of a common disease. A high clinical suspicion and laboratory confirmation are required for appropriate patient management. PMID:24995225

  10. Co-infection of Scedosporium apiospermum and Mycobacterium chelonae in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Seok; Choi, Misoo; Nam, Chan Hee; Kim, Jee Young; Hong, Seung Phil; Kim, Myung Hwa; Park, Byung Cheol

    2014-10-01

    A 75-year-old man presented with multiple, scaly, erythematous, grouped papules, nodules and plaques with tenderness ranging from the right forearm to hand dorsum and the right lower leg for 2-3 months. Five months prior to presentation, the patient had received an antibiotic skin test on his right forearm. Lesions appeared approximately 2-3 months after the antibiotic skin test, slowly progressing without clinical improvement. Culture for fungus on the right forearm revealed growth of Scedosporium apiospermum. The tissue acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture for the right forearm and right leg revealed growth of non-tuberculous mycobacteria which was Mycobacterium chelonae, and subsequent tissue polymerase chain reaction of both sites reported positive signs of M. chelonae. On diastase periodic acid-Schiff stain of the biopsy specimen of the right forearm, fungal hyphae were found while rod-shaped bacilli could be seen in AFB stain for the biopsy specimen of the right leg. The patient was treated with oral clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin along with an oral antifungal agent for 13 weeks. After the treatment, the lesions subsided and left a scar. We report a rare case of co-infection of S. apiospermum and M. chelonae in an immunocompetent host. PMID:25228156

  11. JC virus/human immunodeficiency virus 1 co-infection in the Brazilian Amazonian region.

    PubMed

    Cayres-Vallinoto, Izaura Maria Vieira; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Pena, Giselle Priscila Dos Anjos; Azevedo, Vânia Nakauth; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães; Ishak, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae family and is associated to a severe disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, PML, which is gradually increasing in incidence as an opportunistic infection among AIDS patients. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of JCV among HIV-1 carriers including their types and molecular subtypes and the possible association with disease. Urine samples from 66 HIV-1 infected subjects were investigated for the presence of the virus by amplifying VP1 (215bp) and IG (610bp) regions using the polymerase chain reaction. JCV was detected in 32% of the samples. The results confirmed the occurrence of type B (subtype Af2); in addition, another polyomavirus, BKV, was also detected in 1.5% of samples of the HIV-1 infected subjects. Apparently, there was no significant difference between mono- (HIV-1 only) and co-infected (HIV-1/JCV) subjects regarding their TCD4(+)/TCD8(+) lymphocyte counts or HIV-1 plasma viral load. Self admitted seizures, hearing and visual loses were not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:27266589

  12. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; De la Luz-Armendáriz, Jazmín; Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Ivan; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV. PMID:26854342

  13. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Claude M; Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Ruby, Norman F; Fox, James G

    2015-05-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. PMID:25752854

  14. Clinical and histopathological features of fatal cases with dengue and chikungunya virus co-infection in Colombia, 2014 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Marcela; Acosta-Reyes, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Pardo, Lissethe; Rico, Angélica; Campo, Alfonso; Navarro, Edgar; Viasus, Diego

    2016-06-01

    We report clinical features and histopathological findings in fatal cases with dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) co-infection identified at the Colombian National Institute of Health between September 2014 and October 2015. Seven such cases were documented. Dengue serotype 2 virus was identified in six cases. All patients were adults and comorbidities were present in four. Fever, arthralgia or myalgia was present in all cases. The frequency of rash, haemorrhage, oedema, and gastrointestinal symptoms was variable. Laboratory findings such as thrombocytopenia, renal failure, and leukocyte count were also inconsistent between cases. Post-mortem tissue examination documented focal hepatocellular coagulative necrosis in three cases, incipient acute pericarditis in one and tubulointerstitial nephritis in one. This study provides evidence of mortality in patients with DENV and CHIKV co-infection. Fatal cases were characterised by variable clinical and laboratory features. Evaluation of histopathology of autopsy tissues provided evidence of the pathological consequences of the disease. PMID:27277216

  15. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H.; McKeon, Gabriel P.; Ruby, Norman F.; Fox, James G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. PMID:25752854

  16. Influenza promotes pneumococcal growth during co-infection by providing host sialylated substrates as a nutrient source

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Steven J.; Roche, Aoife M.; Weiser, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Much of the mortality attributed to influenza virus is due to secondary bacterial pneumonia, particularly from Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, mechanisms underlying this co-infection are incompletely understood. We find that prior influenza infection enhances pneumococcal colonization of the murine nasopharynx, which in-turn promotes bacterial spread to the lungs. Influenza accelerates bacterial replication in vivo, and sialic acid, a major component of airway glycoconjugates, is identified as the host-derived metabolite that stimulates pneumococcal proliferation. Influenza infection increases sialic acid and sialylated mucin availability, and enhances desialylation of host glycoconjugates. Pneumococcal genes for sialic acid catabolism are required for influenza to promote bacterial growth. Decreasing sialic acid availability in vivo by genetic deletion of the major airway mucin Muc5ac or mucolytic treatment limits influenza-induced pneumococcal replication. Our findings suggest that higher rates of disease during co-infection could stem from influenza-provided sialic acid, which increases pneumococcal proliferation, colonization and aspiration. PMID:25011108

  17. Provider and patient correlates of provider decisions to recommend HCV treatment to HIV co-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Glenn; Osilla, Karen Chan; Garnett, Jeffrey; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Bhatti, Laveeza; Witt, Mallory; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell

    2012-01-01

    Despite low uptake of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment among HIV co-infected patients, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to provider decisions to recommend treatment. Surveys of 173 co-infected patients and their primary care providers, as well as patient chart data, were collected at 3 HIV clinics in Los Angeles; 73% of the patients had any history of being recommended HCV treatment. Multivariate predictors of being offered treatment included being Caucasian, greater HCV knowledge, receiving depression treatment if depressed, and one's provider having a lower weekly patient load and more years working at the study site. These findings suggest that provider decisions to recommend HCV treatment are influenced by patient factors including race and psychosocial treatment readiness, as well as characteristics of their own practice and treatment philosophy. With changes to HCV treatment soon to emerge, further evaluation of factors influencing treatment decisions is needed to improve HCV treatment uptake. PMID:22564797

  18. Histoplasma capsulatum and Pneumocystis spp. co-infection in wild bats from Argentina, French Guyana, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Histoplasma capsulatum and Pneumocystis organisms cause host infections primarily affecting the lung tissue. H. capsulatum is endemic in the United States of America and Latin American countries. In special environments, H. capsulatum is commonly associated with bat and bird droppings. Pneumocystis-host specificity has been primarily studied in laboratory animals, and its ability to be harboured by wild animals remains as an important issue for understanding the spread of this pathogen in nature. Bats infected with H. capsulatum or Pneumocystis spp. have been found, with this mammal serving as a probable reservoir and disperser; however, the co-infection of bats with both of these microorganisms has never been explored. To evaluate the impact of H. capsulatum and Pneumocystis spp. infections in this flying mammal, 21 bat lungs from Argentina (AR), 13 from French Guyana (FG), and 88 from Mexico (MX) were screened using nested-PCR of the fragments, employing the Hcp100 locus for H. capsulatum and the mtLSUrRNA and mtSSUrRNA loci for Pneumocystis organisms. Results Of the 122 bats studied, 98 revealed H. capsulatum infections in which 55 of these bats exhibited this infection alone. In addition, 51 bats revealed Pneumocystis spp. infection of which eight bats exhibited a Pneumocystis infection alone. A total of 43 bats (eight from AR, one from FG, and 34 from MX) were found co-infected with both fungi, representing a co-infection rate of 35.2% (95% CI = 26.8-43.6%). Conclusion The data highlights the H. capsulatum and Pneumocystis spp.co-infection in bat population’s suggesting interplay with this wild host. PMID:24495513

  19. A multiplexed nucleic acid microsystem for point-of-care detection of HIV co-infection with MTB and PCP.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingjia; Kong, Jilie

    2013-12-15

    Many individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), especially children in African countries, die of co-infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (coinfection rate: 50%) or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (coinfection rate: 81%). The present proposal describes a rapid, portable, low-cost, multiplexed point-of-care diagnostic technique for simultaneously detecting HIV, MTB, and PCP. This technique incorporates a creative micro-device (hardware) and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification strategy (software). PMID:24209377

  20. Association between chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis C/HIV co-infection and the development of colorectal adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Davis-Yadley, Ashley H.; Lipka, Seth; Vardaros, Magdalene; Shen, Huafeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Limited knowledge exists about the effects chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has in the development of colorectal adenomas (CRA). Data regarding the association between chronic HIV infection and the development of CRA is scarce as well. We aim to determine if there is an association between the development of CRA and chronic infection with HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection. Methods From July 1, 2009 to March 31, 2011 a total of 2,051 patients that underwent colonoscopy were included in our study. The population was divided into 2 study groups: those patients who tested positive for HCV, and HCV/HIC; the control groups consisted of patients whose results were negative. Fisher’s exact χ2 test for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables was used to analyze data between groups. Logistic regression was performed to obtain odds ratios (OR). Results CRA detection was higher in the HCV than in the control group (26.3% vs. 20.2%; P=1.02); Likewise, the incidence of CRA (25.5% vs. 20.8%; P=0.63) was higher in the co-infection group. However, in both of the study groups this difference was non-statistical. Conclusions A higher detection rate of CRP was seen in the HCV population; however, it failed to reach statistical significance. Whether co-infection with HIV/HCV increases the incidence of CRA and/or has a synergistic effect remains to be determined. The small sample population and the retrospective single institution nature of our study, as well as other confounders may have contributed to our negative results. However, our findings question whether HCV and HIV/HCV co-infected patients will benefit from screening colonoscopy at an earlier age. This issue merits further investigation with a large multi-center prospective study. PMID:27563452

  1. Fatal human eosinophilic meningo-encephalitis caused by CNS co-infection with Halicephalobus gingivalis and West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M A; Gokozan, H N; Ball, M K; Otero, J; McGwire, B S

    2015-10-01

    The saprophytic nematode Halicephalobus is a rare cause of fatal human meningo-encephalitis, and West Nile virus is neurotropic flavivirus implicated in a variety of clinical neurologic syndromes. Here we report a case of rapidly progressive CNS encephalopathy and death. Serologic, immuno-histochemical, histopathologic and nucleic acid studies demonstrate the presence of active Halicephalobus and West Nile virus in the CNS tissue. This is the first reported case of co-infection with these neurotropic pathogens. PMID:26050925

  2. Lower numbers of natural killer T cells in HIV-1 and Mycobacterium leprae co-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Karina I; Bruno, Fernanda R; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer E; Maeda, Solange M; Tomimori, Jane; Xavier, Marilia B; Haslett, Patrick A; Nixon, Douglas F; Kallas, Esper G

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a heterogeneous population of lymphocytes that recognize antigens presented by CD1d and have attracted attention because of their potential role linking innate and adaptive immune responses. Peripheral NKT cells display a memory-activated phenotype and can rapidly secrete large amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines upon antigenic activation. In this study, we evaluated NKT cells in the context of patients co-infected with HIV-1 and Mycobacterium leprae. The volunteers were enrolled into four groups: 22 healthy controls, 23 HIV-1-infected patients, 20 patients with leprosy and 17 patients with leprosy and HIV-1-infection. Flow cytometry and ELISPOT assays were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We demonstrated that patients co-infected with HIV-1 and M. leprae have significantly lower NKT cell frequencies [median 0.022%, interquartile range (IQR): 0.007–0.051] in the peripheral blood when compared with healthy subjects (median 0.077%, IQR: 0.032–0.405, P < 0.01) or HIV-1 mono-infected patients (median 0.072%, IQR: 0.030–0.160, P < 0.05). Also, more NKT cells from co-infected patients secreted interferon-γ after stimulation with DimerX, when compared with leprosy mono-infected patients (P = 0.05). These results suggest that NKT cells are decreased in frequency in HIV-1 and M. leprae co-infected patients compared with HIV-1 mono-infected patients alone, but are at a more activated state. Innate immunity in human subjects is strongly influenced by their spectrum of chronic infections, and in HIV-1-infected subjects, a concurrent mycobacterial infection probably hyper-activates and lowers circulating NKT cell numbers. PMID:22269018

  3. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  4. Incidence of tuberculosis and immunological profile of TB/HIV co-infected patients in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Baba Maiyaki; Musa, Babashani; Muhammed, Hamza; Ibrahim, Nashabaru; Musa, Abubakar Garbati

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We obtained estimates of the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) among patients receiving HIV Treatment. We also modeled the relationship between incident TB and change in CD4 count over the follow-up period. METHODS: We analyzed the incidence of TB over 10 years from initiation of HIV treatment among 345 HIV treatment-naïve persons, who were enrolled in a cohort in Kano, Nigeria. We used Generalized Estimating Equation [GEE] to identify determinants of TB incidence and model the relationship between the occurrences of TB with change in CD4 count over the follow-up period. We created Kaplan-Meier curves stratified by anti-retroviral therapy (ART) treatment failure status to examine the effect of first line ART treatment failure on occurrence of TB. RESULT: During the 10-year period, 47(13.62%) had TB [incidence was 7.43 per (1,000) person year)]. It is associated with decreasing age (OR = 0.98), female gender (OR = 0.83), being on first line ART other than AZT (OR = 0.87), poor adherence (OR = 1.25), change in ART regimen (OR = 2.3) and ART treatment failure (OR = 1.51). Odds of TB occurrence was also associated with CD4 increment at 10 years (OR = 0.99). Those with TB/HIV co-infection tend to have statistically significant shorter time to failing first line ART regimen compared to those with HIV infection alone. CONCLUSION: There was high incidence of TB in the studied HIV cohort with a deleterious effect on the outcome of ART treatment. There is need for early TB screening and re-screening among all HIV patients. PMID:26229561

  5. Climate Extremes Promote Fatal Co-Infections during Canine Distemper Epidemics in African Lions

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Linda; Terio, Karen A.; Kock, Richard; Mlengeya, Titus; Roelke, Melody E.; Dubovi, Edward; Summers, Brian; Sinclair, Anthony R. E.; Packer, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Extreme climatic conditions may alter historic host-pathogen relationships and synchronize the temporal and spatial convergence of multiple infectious agents, triggering epidemics with far greater mortality than those due to single pathogens. Here we present the first data to clearly illustrate how climate extremes can promote a complex interplay between epidemic and endemic pathogens that are normally tolerated in isolation, but with co-infection, result in catastrophic mortality. A 1994 canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) coincided with the death of a third of the population, and a second high-mortality CDV epidemic struck the nearby Ngorongoro Crater lion population in 2001. The extent of adult mortalities was unusual for CDV and prompted an investigation into contributing factors. Serological analyses indicated that at least five “silent” CDV epidemics swept through the same two lion populations between 1976 and 2006 without clinical signs or measurable mortality, indicating that CDV was not necessarily fatal. Clinical and pathology findings suggested that hemoparsitism was a major contributing factor during fatal epidemics. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured the magnitude of hemoparasite infections in these populations over 22 years and demonstrated significantly higher levels of Babesia during the 1994 and 2001 epidemics. Babesia levels correlated with mortalities and extent of CDV exposure within prides. The common event preceding the two high mortality CDV outbreaks was extreme drought conditions with wide-spread herbivore die-offs, most notably of Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer). As a consequence of high tick numbers after the resumption of rains and heavy tick infestations of starving buffalo, the lions were infected by unusually high numbers of Babesia, infections that were magnified by the immunosuppressive effects of coincident CDV, leading to unprecedented mortality. Such mass mortality events may

  6. CD4 lymphocyte dynamics in Tanzanian pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without hiv co-infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The interaction of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) on CD4 levels over time is complex and has been divergently reported. Methods CD4 counts were assessed from time of diagnosis till the end of TB treatment in a cohort of pulmonary TB patients with and without HIV co-infection and compared with cross-sectional data on age- and sex-matched non-TB controls from the same area. Results Of 1,605 study participants, 1,250 were PTB patients and 355 were non-TB controls. At baseline, HIV was associated with 246 (95% CI: 203; 279) cells per μL lower CD4 counts. All PTB patients had 100 cells per μL lower CD4 counts than the healthy controls. The CD4 levels were largely unchanged during a five-month of TB treatment. HIV infected patients not receiving ART at any time and those already on ART at baseline had no increase in CD4 counts after 5 months of TB treatment, whereas those prescribed ART between baseline and 2 months, and between 2 and 5 months increased by 69 (22;117) and 110 (52; 168) CD4 cells per μL after 5 months. Conclusions The increase in circulating CD4 levels observed in PTB in patients is acquired after 2 months of treatment irrespective of HIV status. Initiation of ART is the strongest factor correlated with CD4 increase during TB treatment. Trial registration number Clinical trials.gov: NCT00311298 PMID:22436147

  7. HIV-Helicobacter pylori Co-Infection: Antibiotic Resistance, Prevalence, and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nkuize, Marcel; De Wit, Stéphane; Muls, Vinciane; Delforge, Marc; Miendje Deyi, Véronique Y.; Cadière, Guy B.; Buset, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer due to the availability of more potent treatments. However, prescription of antibiotics to treat or prevent infections in these patients may increase the likelihood of co-infection with antibiotic-resistant species. Aim To compare antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients and assess risk-factors for resistance. Methods We prospectively collected data from consecutive HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients with H. pylori-positive gastric biopsies who had never received H. pylori treatment were included. Results Of the 353 patients included, 93 were HIV-positive and 260 HIV-negative. Among the HIV-positive patients, 56 (60%) had been infected for <10 years, the median CD4+ count was 493 cells/μl and median viral load was 61 copies/mL; 66 (71%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy. HIV-positive patients were more often male (p = 0.009), had a lower body mass index (p<0.0001), and had less frequently received antibiotics during the 12-months prior to the endoscopy (p<0.0001) than HIV-negative patients. HIV-positive patients were more likely to have H. pylori resistant to levofloxacin (p = 0.0004), metronidazole (p = 0.01), or multiple antibiotics (p = 0.006). HIV-positive Black Africans were more likely to have resistant strains than were HIV-negative Black Africans (p = 0.04). Ethnicity and HIV status were independent risk factors for H. pylori resistance in all patients and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sex were risk factors in HIV-positive patients. Conclusions There was a higher prevalence of primary H. pylori-resistant strains in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative patients. AIDS and sex were predictors of H. pylori resistance in HIV-positive patients. PMID:26691198

  8. Epidemiological and clinical correlates of malaria-helminth co-infections in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many areas of the world, including Ethiopia, malaria and helminths are co-endemic, therefore, co-infections are common. However, little is known how concurrent infections affect the epidemiology and/or pathogenesis of each other. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the effects of intestinal helminth infections on the epidemiology and clinical patterns of malaria in southern Ethiopia where both infections are prevalent. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006 at Wondo Genet Health Center and Bussa Clinic, southern Ethiopia. Consecutive blood film positive malaria patients (N=230) and malaria negative asymptomatic individuals (N=233) were recruited. Malaria parasite detection and quantification was diagnosed using Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films, respectively. Helminths were detected using direct microscopy and formol-ether concentration techniques. Coarse quantification of helminths ova was made using Kato Katz method. Results The over all magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection was high irrespective of malaria infection (67% among malaria positive patients versus 53.1% among malaria non-infected asymptomatic individuals). Trichuris trichiura infection was associated with increased malaria prevalence while increased worm burden of helminths as expressed by egg intensity was associated with increased malaria parasitaemia which could be a potential factor for development of severe malarial infection with the course of the disease. Majority (77%) of the subjects had multiple helminths infection. T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, and hookworm infestation accounted for 64.5, 57.7 %, 28.4%, and 12.2% of the infections, respectively. Conclusions Populations in malaria-endemic areas of southern Ethiopia are multi-parasitized with up to four helminths. Mass deworming may be a simple practical approach in endemic areas in reducing the risk of severe malarial attack particularly for those at high risk

  9. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  10. Outbreak of melioidosis and leptospirosis co-infection following a rescue operation.

    PubMed

    Sapian, M; Khair, M T; How, S H; Rajalingam, R; Sahhir, K; Norazah, A; Khebir, V; Jamalludin, A R

    2012-06-01

    We analyzed the epidemiological data of all people who were involved in the search and rescue operation in Lubuk Yu, a natural recreational forest with waterfall and stream. The hospital admission records of the cases who fulfilled the case definition and the environmental samples result taken at Lubuk Yu recreational area were studied. 153 people were exposed to this outbreak, 85 (55.5%) were professional rescuers from various government agencies and 68 (44.5%) were villagers. 21 fulfilled the case definition. Ten cases were confirmed melioidosis, six melioidosis alone and four coinfected with leptospirosis. There were eight deaths in this outbreak, seven were villagers and one professional rescuer. Overall case fatality was 70%. All confirmed melioidosis cases and seven who died had diabetes mellitus. The morbidity rate were higher among the villagers, 23.5% compared to professional rescuers, 5.9%. The case fatality rate were also higher in this group which was 100% compared to 33.3% in professional rescuers. The soil and water samples in Lubuk Yu recreational area were positive for leptospira and Burkholderia pseudomallei. The presence of co-infection and co-morbidities especially diabetes mellitus among the exposed led to the high mortality in this outbreak hence a high index of suspicion is important among the healthcare professionals in the management of melioidosis cases. To avoid similar incident in future, search and rescue operation should be only conducted by professional rescuers with appropriate personal protective equipment. A register of rescuers should be maintained for surveillance and follow up if necessary. PMID:23082420

  11. New Players in the Same Old Game: Disturbance of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in HIV-1 and Mycobacterium leprae Co-infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Papotto, Pedro Henrique; Maeda, Solange; Tomimori, Jane; Xavier, Marília Brasil; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Kallas, Esper Georges; Carvalho, Karina Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leprosy control is achieved through a fine-tuning of TH1 and TH2 immune response pattern balance. Given the increasing epidemiological overlay of HIV and M. leprae infections, immune response in co-infected patients consists in an important contemporary issue. Here we describe for the first time the innate lymphoid cells compartment in peripheral blood of leprosy and HIV/M. leprae co-infected patients, and show that co-infection increases group 2 innate lymphoid whilst decreasing group 1 innate lymphoid cells frequencies and function. PMID:26335023

  12. Tuberculin Skin-Test Reactions Are Unaffected by the Severity of Hyperendemic Intestinal Helminth Infections and Co-Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zevallos, Karine; Vergara, Katherine C.; Vergara, Antonio; Vidal, Carlos; Garcia, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2010-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) quantifies cell-mediated immunity to tuberculosis antigens. Helminths suppress cell-mediated immunity, so we studied the effect of helminth infection and deworming on the TST in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in an indigenous Amazon community (N = 195). Stool microscopy diagnosed helminths in 98% and co-infection with multiple species in 24% of study subjects. The TST was positive (≥ 10 mm) for 49%, and responses increased with age (P < 0.001), Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination (P = 0.01), and tuberculosis contact (P = 0.05). TST results had no association with helminth-egg concentrations, species, or co-infections (all P > 0.1). One month after deworming with albendazole (three daily 400-mg doses), helminths were reduced, but 63% remained infected with helminths. Albendazole did not cause a change in TST size (P = 0.8) or positivity (P = 0.9) relative to placebo. Thus, TST reactions were unaffected by albendazole therapy that partially cured intestinal helminth infections, and TST interpretation was unaffected by high-burden helminth infections and co-infection with multiple helminth species. PMID:20682875

  13. Co-infection with the friend retrovirus and mouse scrapie does not alter prion disease pathogenesis in susceptible mice.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Pascal; Hasenkrug, Kim; Ward, Anne; Myers, Lara; Messer, Ronald J; Alais, Sandrine; Timmes, Andrew; Priola, Suzette A; Priola, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system. An abnormally protease-resistant and insoluble form (PrP(Sc)) of the normally soluble protease-sensitive host prion protein (PrP(C)) is the major component of the infectious prion. During the course of prion disease, PrP(Sc) accumulates primarily in the lymphoreticular and central nervous systems. Recent studies have shown that co-infection of prion-infected fibroblast cells with the Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) strongly enhanced the release and spread of scrapie infectivity in cell culture, suggesting that retroviral coinfection might significantly influence prion spread and disease incubation times in vivo. We now show that another retrovirus, the murine leukemia virus Friend (F-MuLV), also enhanced the release and spread of scrapie infectivity in cell culture. However, peripheral co-infection of mice with both Friend virus and the mouse scrapie strain 22L did not alter scrapie disease incubation times, the levels of PrP(Sc) in the brain or spleen, or the distribution of pathological lesions in the brain. Thus, retroviral co-infection does not necessarily alter prion disease pathogenesis in vivo, most likely because of different cell-specific sites of replication for scrapie and F-MuLV. PMID:22295118

  14. The prevalence of Neospora caninum and co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii by PCR analysis in naturally occurring mammal populations.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J M; Williams, R H; Morley, E K; Cook, D A N; Terry, R S; Murphy, R G; Smith, J E; Hide, G

    2006-01-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related intracellular protozoan parasites associated with bovine and ovine abortion respectively. Little is known about the extent of Neospora/Toxoplasma co-infection in naturally infected populations of animals. Using nested PCR techniques, based on primers from the Nc5 region of N. caninum and SAG1 for T. gondii, the prevalence of N. caninum and its co-infection with T. gondii were investigated in populations of Mus domesticus, Rattus norvegicus and aborted lambs (Ovis aries). A low frequency of infection with N. caninum was detected in the Mus domesticus (3%) and Rattus norvegicus (4.4%) populations. A relatively high frequency of infection with N. caninum was detected in the brains of aborted lambs (18.9%). There was no significant relationship between N. caninum and T. gondii co-infection. Investigation of the tissue distribution of Neospora, in aborted lambs, showed that Neospora could not be detected in tissues other than brain and this was in contrast to Toxoplasma where the parasite could be frequently detected in a range of tissues. PMID:16393351

  15. Enhanced virulence of Histoplasma capsulatum through transfer and surface incorporation of glycans from Cryptococcus neoformans during co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Radames J. B.; Liedke, Susie Coutinho; de S. Araújo, Glauber R.; Martinez, Luis R.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Frases, Susana; Peralta, Jose Mauro; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Guimaraes, Allan J.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) and Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc) co-exist in the environment and occasionally co-infect individuals, which can lead to severe disease/lethal outcomes. We investigated specific interactions between Cn-Hc to determine the impact of synchronous infection in virulence and disease. Co-infected mice had significantly higher mortality than infection with either species or acapsular Cn-Hc. Coating of Hc with cryptococcal glycans (Cn-gly) resulted in higher pulmonary fungal burden in co-infected animals relative to control. Co-cultivation or addition of Cn-gly resulted in enhanced pellicle formation with a hybrid polysaccharide matrix with higher reactivity to GXM mAbs. Transfer and incorporation of Cn polysaccharide onto Hc surface was time and temperature dependent. Cn-gly transfer altered the zeta potential of Hc and was associated with increased resistance to phagocytosis and killing by macrophages. Mice infected with Hc and subsequently injected with purified Cn-gly died significantly more rapidly than Hc alone infected, establishing the precedent that virulence factors from one fungus can enhance the virulence of unrelated species. These findings suggest a new mechanism of microbial interaction involving the transfer of virulence traits that translates into enhanced lethality during mixed fungal infections and highlights the importance of studying heterogeneous microbial populations in the setting of infection. PMID:26908077

  16. Enhanced virulence of Histoplasma capsulatum through transfer and surface incorporation of glycans from Cryptococcus neoformans during co-infection.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Radames J B; Liedke, Susie Coutinho; de S Araújo, Glauber R; Martinez, Luis R; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Frases, Susana; Peralta, Jose Mauro; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Guimaraes, Allan J

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) and Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc) co-exist in the environment and occasionally co-infect individuals, which can lead to severe disease/lethal outcomes. We investigated specific interactions between Cn-Hc to determine the impact of synchronous infection in virulence and disease. Co-infected mice had significantly higher mortality than infection with either species or acapsular Cn-Hc. Coating of Hc with cryptococcal glycans (Cn-gly) resulted in higher pulmonary fungal burden in co-infected animals relative to control. Co-cultivation or addition of Cn-gly resulted in enhanced pellicle formation with a hybrid polysaccharide matrix with higher reactivity to GXM mAbs. Transfer and incorporation of Cn polysaccharide onto Hc surface was time and temperature dependent. Cn-gly transfer altered the zeta potential of Hc and was associated with increased resistance to phagocytosis and killing by macrophages. Mice infected with Hc and subsequently injected with purified Cn-gly died significantly more rapidly than Hc alone infected, establishing the precedent that virulence factors from one fungus can enhance the virulence of unrelated species. These findings suggest a new mechanism of microbial interaction involving the transfer of virulence traits that translates into enhanced lethality during mixed fungal infections and highlights the importance of studying heterogeneous microbial populations in the setting of infection. PMID:26908077

  17. Co-Infection Burden of Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus among Injecting Heroin Users at the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Mwatelah, Ruth S.; Lwembe, Raphael M.; Osman, Saida; Ogutu, Bernhards R.; Aman, Rashid; Kitawi, Rose C.; Wangai, Laura N.; Oloo, Florence A.; Kokwaro, Gilbert O.; Ochieng, Washingtone

    2015-01-01

    Background Injection drug use is steadily rising in Kenya. We assessed the prevalence of both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among injecting heroin users (IHUs) at the Kenyan Coast. Methods A total of 186 IHUs (mean age, 33 years) from the Omari rehabilitation center program in Malindi were consented and screened for HIV-1 and HCV by serology and PCR and their CD4 T-cells enumerated by FACS. Results Prevalence of HIV-1 was 87.5%, that of HCV was 16.4%, co-infection was 17.9% and 18/152 (11.8%) were uninfected. Only 5.26% of the HIV-1 negative injectors were HCV positive. Co-infection was higher among injectors aged 30 to 40 years (20.7%) and among males (22.1%) than comparable groups. About 35% of the injectors were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Co-infection was highest among injectors receiving D4T (75%) compared to those receiving AZT (21.6%) or TDF (10.5%) or those not on ART (10.5%). Mean CD4 T-cells were 404 (95% CI, 365 - 443) cells/mm3 overall, significantly lower for co-infected (mean, 146; 95% CI 114 – 179 cells/mm3) than HIV mono infected (mean, 437, 95% CI 386 – 487 cells/mm3, p<0.001) or uninfected (mean, 618, 95% CI 549 – 687 cells/mm3, p<0.001) injectors and lower for HIV mono-infected than uninfected injectors (p=0.002). By treatment arm, CD4 T-cells were lower for injectors receiving D4T (mean, 78; 95% CI, 0.4 – 156 cells/mm3) than TDF (mean 607, 95% CI, 196 – 1018 cells/mm3, p=0.005) or AZT (mean 474, 95% CI -377 – 571 cells/mm3, p=0.004). Conclusion Mono and dual infections with HIV-1 and HCV is high among IHUs in Malindi, but ART coverage is low. The co-infected IHUs have elevated risk of immunodeficiency due to significantly depressed CD4 T-cell numbers. Coinfection screening, treatment-as-prevention for both HIV and HCV and harm reduction should be scaled up to alleviate infection burden. PMID:26208212

  18. Serum adiponectin in HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus mono- and co-infected Kenyan injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Ndombi, Eric M; Budambula, Valentine; Webale, Mark K; Musumba, Francis O; Wesongah, Jesca O; Mibei, Erick; Ahmed, Aabid A; Lihana, Raphael; Were, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an important marker of anthropometric profiles of adipose tissue. However, association of adiponectin and adiposity in HIV mono- and co-infected and hepatitis (HCV) injection drug users (IDUs) has not been elucidated. Therefore, the relationship of total adiponectin levels with anthropometric indices of adiposity was examined in HIV mono-infected (anti-retroviral treatment, ART-naive, n=16 and -experienced, n=34); HCV mono-infected, n=36; HIV and HCV co-infected (ART-naive, n=5 and -experienced, n=13); uninfected, n=19 IDUs; and healthy controls, n=16 from coastal Kenya. Anthropometric indices of adiposity were recorded and total circulating adiponectin levels were measured in serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiponectin levels differed significantly amongst the study groups (P<0.0001). Post-hoc analyses revealed decreased levels in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs in comparison to uninfected IDUs (P<0.05) and healthy controls (P<0.05). However, adiponectin levels were elevated in HCV mono-infected IDUs relative to HIV mono-infected ART-naive (P<0.001) and -experienced (P<0.001) as well as HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive (P<0.05) IDUs. Furthermore, adiponectin correlated with weight (ρ=0.687; P=0.003) and BMI (ρ=0.598; P=0.014) in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs; waist circumference (ρ=−0.626; P<0.0001), hip (ρ=−0.561; P=0.001) circumference, and bust-to-waist ratio (ρ=0.561; P=0.001) in HIV mono-infected ART-experienced IDUs; waist girth (ρ=0.375; P=0.024) in HCV mono-infected IDUs; and waist-to-hip ratio (ρ=−0.872; P=0.048) in HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive IDUs. Altogether, these results suggest suppression of adiponectin production in treatment-naive HIV mono-infected IDUs and that circulating adiponectin is a useful surrogate marker of altered adiposity in treatment-naive and -experienced HIV and HCV mono- and co-infected IDUs. PMID:26306727

  19. Co-infection and localization of secondary symbionts in two whitefly species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Whiteflies are cosmopolitan phloem-feeding pests that cause serious damage to many crops worldwide due to direct feeding and vectoring of many plant viruses. The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) are two of the most widespread and damaging whitefly species. To complete their unbalanced diet, whiteflies harbor the obligatory bacterium Portiera aleyrodidarum. B. tabaci further harbors a diverse array of secondary symbionts, including Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Fritschea. T. vaporariorum is only known to harbor P. aleyrodidarum and Arsenophonus. We conducted a study to survey the distribution of whitefly species in Croatia, their infection status by secondary symbionts, and the spatial distribution of these symbionts in the developmental stages of the two whitefly species. Results T. vaporariorum was found to be the predominant whitefly species across Croatia, while only the Q biotype of B. tabaci was found across the coastal part of the country. Arsenophonus and Hamiltonella were detected in collected T. vaporariorum populations, however, not all populations harbored both symbionts, and both symbionts showed 100% infection rate in some of the populations. Only the Q biotype of B. tabaci was found in the populations tested and they harbored Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, Wolbachia and Cardinium, while Arsenophonus and Fritschea were not detected in any B. tabaci populations. None of the detected symbionts appeared in all populations tested, and multiple infections were detected in some of the populations. All endosymbionts tested were localized inside the bacteriocyte in both species, but only Rickettsia and Cardinium in B. tabaci showed additional localization outside the bacteriocyte. Conclusions Our study revealed unique co-infection patterns by secondary symbionts in B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum. Co-sharing of the bacteriocyte by the primary

  20. Discovery of a Novel Human Pegivirus in Blood Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection.

    PubMed

    Berg, Michael G; Lee, Deanna; Coller, Kelly; Frankel, Matthew; Aronsohn, Andrew; Cheng, Kevin; Forberg, Kenn; Marcinkus, Marilee; Naccache, Samia N; Dawson, George; Brennan, Catherine; Jensen, Donald M; Hackett, John; Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV), formerly GBV-C, are the only known human viruses in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera, respectively, of the family Flaviviridae. We present the discovery of a second pegivirus, provisionally designated human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2), by next-generation sequencing of plasma from an HCV-infected patient with multiple bloodborne exposures who died from sepsis of unknown etiology. HPgV-2 is highly divergent, situated on a deep phylogenetic branch in a clade that includes rodent and bat pegiviruses, with which it shares <32% amino acid identity. Molecular and serological tools were developed and validated for high-throughput screening of plasma samples, and a panel of 3 independent serological markers strongly correlated antibody responses with viral RNA positivity (99.9% negative predictive value). Discovery of 11 additional RNA-positive samples from a total of 2440 screened (0.45%) revealed 93-94% nucleotide identity between HPgV-2 strains. All 12 HPgV-2 RNA-positive cases were identified in individuals also testing positive for HCV RNA (12 of 983; 1.22%), including 2 samples co-infected with HIV, but HPgV-2 RNA was not detected in non-HCV-infected individuals (p<0.0001), including those singly infected by HIV (p = 0.0075) or HBV (p = 0.0077), nor in volunteer blood donors (p = 0.0082). Nine of the 12 (75%) HPgV-2 RNA positive samples were reactive for antibodies to viral serologic markers, whereas only 28 of 2,429 (1.15%) HPgV-2 RNA negative samples were seropositive. Longitudinal sampling in two individuals revealed that active HPgV-2 infection can persist in blood for at least 7 weeks, despite the presence of virus-specific antibodies. One individual harboring both HPgV-2 and HCV RNA was found to be seronegative for both viruses, suggesting a high likelihood of simultaneous acquisition of HCV and HPgV-2 infection from an acute co-transmission event. Taken together, our results indicate that HPgV-2 is a novel

  1. Discovery of a Novel Human Pegivirus in Blood Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Coller, Kelly; Frankel, Matthew; Aronsohn, Andrew; Cheng, Kevin; Forberg, Kenn; Marcinkus, Marilee; Naccache, Samia N.; Dawson, George; Brennan, Catherine; Jensen, Donald M.; Hackett, John; Chiu, Charles Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV), formerly GBV-C, are the only known human viruses in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera, respectively, of the family Flaviviridae. We present the discovery of a second pegivirus, provisionally designated human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2), by next-generation sequencing of plasma from an HCV-infected patient with multiple bloodborne exposures who died from sepsis of unknown etiology. HPgV-2 is highly divergent, situated on a deep phylogenetic branch in a clade that includes rodent and bat pegiviruses, with which it shares <32% amino acid identity. Molecular and serological tools were developed and validated for high-throughput screening of plasma samples, and a panel of 3 independent serological markers strongly correlated antibody responses with viral RNA positivity (99.9% negative predictive value). Discovery of 11 additional RNA-positive samples from a total of 2440 screened (0.45%) revealed 93–94% nucleotide identity between HPgV-2 strains. All 12 HPgV-2 RNA-positive cases were identified in individuals also testing positive for HCV RNA (12 of 983; 1.22%), including 2 samples co-infected with HIV, but HPgV-2 RNA was not detected in non-HCV-infected individuals (p<0.0001), including those singly infected by HIV (p = 0.0075) or HBV (p = 0.0077), nor in volunteer blood donors (p = 0.0082). Nine of the 12 (75%) HPgV-2 RNA positive samples were reactive for antibodies to viral serologic markers, whereas only 28 of 2,429 (1.15%) HPgV-2 RNA negative samples were seropositive. Longitudinal sampling in two individuals revealed that active HPgV-2 infection can persist in blood for at least 7 weeks, despite the presence of virus-specific antibodies. One individual harboring both HPgV-2 and HCV RNA was found to be seronegative for both viruses, suggesting a high likelihood of simultaneous acquisition of HCV and HPgV-2 infection from an acute co-transmission event. Taken together, our results indicate that HPgV-2 is a novel

  2. Characterization of three mycoviruses co-infecting the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia nivalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingde; Deng, Yue; Zhou, Ziliang; He, Guoyuan; Chen, Weidong; Li, Guoqing

    2016-09-01

    Two dsRNAs of approximately 6.0-kb and 3.0-kb in length were detected in strain SsSn-1 of Sclerotinia nivalis. Genomic analysis showed that the 6.0-kb dsRNA was a victorivirus, named as Sclerotinia nivalis victorivirus 1 (SnVV1). The genome of SnVV1 is 5162bp in length containing two large open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2. ORF1 was deduced to encode a coat protein (CP) showing homology to CPs of viruses belonging to the family Totiviridae. The stop codon of ORF1 overlaps the start codon of ORF2 in the tetranucleotide sequence AUGA. ORF2 was predicted to encode for a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that was very similar to the RdRps of victoriviruses. The 3.0-kb dsRNA was consisted of two species of mitoviruses, named as Sclerotinia nivalis mitovirus 1/SsSn-1 (SnMV1/SsSn-1) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mitovirus 3/SsSn-1 (SsMV3/SsSn-1). The genomes of SnMV1/SsSn-1 and SsMV3/SsSn-1 were 2720nt and 2583nt in length, respectively. Both mitoviruses were AU-rich and deduced to contain a major large ORF encoding a mitoviral RdRp with the fungal mitochondrial codon usages. SnMV1/SsSn-1 was most closely related to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mitovirus 4 (SsMV4/NZ1) and shared 76.5% and 80.1% identity with SsMV4/NZ1 for nucleotide and RdRp sequences, respectively. In addition, the nucleotide and RdRp sequences of SsMV3/SsSn-1 were 90.6% and 95.9% identical to the nucleotide and RdRp sequences of SsMV3/NZ1, respectively. Considering their nucleotide and RdRp sequence identities with other mitoviruses, SnMV1/SsSn-1 may belong to the genus Mitovirus, whereas SsMV3/SsSn-1 is possibly a strain of SsMV3. Both SnMV1/SsSn-1 and SsMV3/SsSn-1 were transmitted to a recipient virus-free colony faster than was SnVV1 through hyphal anastomosis. Co-infection by these mycoviruses had no apparent effects on growth and pathogenicity of S. nivalis. PMID:27343823

  3. Investigation of Pathogenesis of H1N1 Influenza Virus and Swine Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Co-Infection in Pigs by Microarray Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian; Huang, Canhui; Shi, Jian; Wang, Ruifang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaokun; Zhao, Lianzhong; Jin, Meilin

    2015-01-01

    Swine influenza virus and Streptococcus suis are two important contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex, and both have significant economic impacts. Clinically, influenza virus and Streptococcus suis co-infections in pigs are very common, which often contribute to severe pneumonia and can increase the mortality. However, the co-infection pathogenesis in pigs is unclear. In the present study, co-infection experiments were performed using swine H1N1 influenza virus and Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2). The H1N1-SS2 co-infected pigs exhibited more severe clinical symptoms, serious pathological changes, and robust apoptosis of lungs at 6 days post-infection compared with separate H1N1 and SS2 infections. A comprehensive gene expression profiling using a microarray approach was performed to investigate the global host responses of swine lungs against the swine H1N1 infection, SS2 infection, co-infection, and phosphate-buffered saline control. Results showed 457, 411, and 844 differentially expressed genes in the H1N1, SS2, and H1N1-SS2 groups, respectively, compared with the control. Noticeably, genes associated with the immune, inflammatory, and apoptosis responses were highly overexpressed in the co-infected group. Pathway analysis indicated that the cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, MAPK, toll-like receptor, complement and coagulation cascades, antigen processing and presentation, and apoptosis pathway were significantly regulated in the co-infected group. However, the genes related to these were less regulated in the separate H1N1 and SS2 infection groups. This observation suggested that a certain level of synergy was induced by H1N1 and SS2 co-infection with significantly stronger inflammatory and apoptosis responses, which may lead to more serious respiratory disease syndrome and pulmonary pathological lesion. PMID:25906258

  4. Hepatitis B and C Co-Infection in HIV Patients from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database: Analysis of Risk Factors and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Marcelo; Wong, Wing-Wai; Law, Matthew G.; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Yunihastuti, Evy; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Lim, Poh Lian; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Lee, Man Po; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Ditangco, Rossana; Sim, Benedict L. H.; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Pujari, Sanjay; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Zhang, Fujie; Pham, Thuy Thanh; Choi, Jun Yong; Oka, Shinichi; Kantipong, Pacharee; Mustafa, Mahiran; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Durier, Nicolas; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Background We assessed the effects of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection on outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), a multi-center cohort of HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody (Ab) positive within enrollment into TAHOD were considered HBV or HCV co-infected. Factors associated with HBV and/or HCV co-infection were assessed by logistic regression models. Factors associated with post-ART HIV immunological response (CD4 change after six months) and virological response (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml after 12 months) were also determined. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test. Results A total of 7,455 subjects were recruited by December 2012. Of patients tested, 591/5656 (10.4%) were HBsAg positive, 794/5215 (15.2%) were HCVAb positive, and 88/4966 (1.8%) were positive for both markers. In multivariate analysis, HCV co-infection, age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, and HIV-1 subtype were associated with immunological recovery. Age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, ART regimen, prior ART and HIV-1 subtype, but not HBV or HCV co-infection, affected HIV RNA suppression. Risk factors affecting mortality included HCV co-infection, age, CDC stage, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA and prior mono/dual ART. Shortest survival was seen in subjects who were both HBV- and HCV-positive. Conclusion In this Asian cohort of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection, but not HBV co-infection, was associated with lower CD4 cell recovery after ART and increased mortality. PMID:26933963

  5. Unique and differential protein signatures within the mononuclear cells of HIV-1 and HCV mono-infected and co-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pathogenesis of liver damage in patients with HIV and HCV co-infection is complex and multifactorial. Although global awareness regarding HIV-1/HCV co-infection is increasing little is known about the pathophysiology that mediates the rapid progression to hepatic disease in the co-infected individuals. Results In this study, we investigated the proteome profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-1 mono-, HCV mono-, and HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients. The results of high-resolution 2D gel electrophoresis and PD quest software quantitative analysis revealed that several proteins were differentially expressed in HIV-1, HCV, and HIV-1/HCV co-infection. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and Mascot database matching (LC-MS/MS analysis) successfully identified 29 unique and differentially expressed proteins. These included cytoskeletal proteins (tropomyosin, gelsolin, DYPLSL3, DYPLSL4 and profilin-1), chaperones and co-chaperones (HSP90-beta and stress-induced phosphoprotein), metabolic and pre-apoptotic proteins (guanosine triphosphate [GTP]-binding nuclear protein Ran, the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor (Rho-GDI), proteins involved in cell prosurvival mechanism, and those involved in matrix synthesis (collagen binding protein 2 [CBP2]). The six most significant and relevant proteins were further validated in a group of mono- and co-infected patients (n = 20) at the transcriptional levels. Conclusions The specific pro- and anti- apoptotic protein signatures revealed in this study could facilitate the understanding of apoptotic and protective immune-mediated mechanisms underlying HIV-1 and HCV co-infection and their implications on liver disease progression in co-infected patients. PMID:22958358

  6. Increased expression and dysregulated association of restriction factors and type I interferon in HIV, HCV mono- and co-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Wu; Liu, Feng-Liang; Mu, Dan; Deng, De-Yao; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-06-01

    Host restriction factors and type I interferon are important in limiting HIV and HCV infections, yet the role of HIV, HCV mono- and co-infection in regulating these antiviral genes expression is not clear. In this study, we measured the levels of TRIM5α, TRIM22, APOBEC3G, and IFN-α, -β mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 43 HIV mono-infected, 70 HCV mono-infected and 64 HIV/HCV co-infected patients along with 98 healthy controls. We also quantified HIV and HCV viral loads in mono- and co-infected patients. The results showed that HCV, HIV mono- and co-infection differentially increased TRIM22, APOBEC3G, and IFN-α, -β mRNA expression while the mRNA expression of TRIMα was upregulated only by HCV-mono infection. HIV/HCV co-infection was associated with higher viral load, compared to either HIV or HCV mono-infection. Additionally, we showed TRIMα and TRIM22 positively correlated with IFN-α, -β, which could be dysregulated by HIV, HCV mono- and co-infection. Furthermore, we found TRIM22 negatively correlated with HCV viral load in mono-infected patients and APOBEC3G positively correlated with HCV viral load in co-infected patients. Collectively, our findings suggest the potential role of restriction factors in restricting HIV, HCV mono- and co-infection in vivo, which appears to be a therapeutic target for potential drug discovery. J. Med. Virol. 88:987-995, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26519943

  7. Transcription analysis on response of porcine alveolar macrophages to co-infection of the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Du, Luping; Xu, Xiangwei; Sun, Bing; Yu, Zhengyu; Feng, Zhixin; Liu, Maojun; Wei, Yanna; Wang, Haiyan; Shao, Guoqing; He, Kongwang

    2015-01-22

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is of great concern economically, for swine producers worldwide. Co-infections with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) are considered the major causative agents of PRDC, and responsible for mass mortality in pigs. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying the host factors involved in pathogenesis and persistent infection have not been clearly established because of a lack of information regarding host responses following co-infection. In the current study, high throughput cDNA microarray assays were employed to evaluate host responses of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) to co-infection with highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and Mhp. A total of 2152 and 1760 genes were identified as being differentially expressed between the control group and PRRSV+Mhp co-infected group at 6 and 15 h post infection, respectively. The DE genes were involved in many vital functional classes, including inflammatory response, immune response, apoptosis, defense response, signal transduction. The pathway analysis demonstrated that the most significant pathways were associated with chemokine signaling pathway, cytokine, TLR, RLR and NLR signaling pathways and Jak-STAT signaling pathway. STRING analysis demonstrated that IL-1β is an integral gene in co-infections with PRRSV and Mhp. The present study is the first to document the response of PAMs to co-infection with HP-PRRSV and Mhp. The observed gene expression profile could help with the screening of potential host agents for reducing the prevalence of co-infections, and to further develop our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis associated with PRRSV and Mhp co-infection in pigs. PMID:25445346

  8. Concurrent loss of co-stimulatory molecules and functional cytokine secretion attributes leads to proliferative senescence of CD8(+) T cells in HIV/TB co-infection.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Alireza; Chong, Yee K; Yong, Yean K; Tan, Hong Y; Barathan, Muttiah; Rajarajeswaran, Jayakumar; Sabet, Negar S; Sekaran, Shamala D; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Che, Karlhans F; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie; Shankar, Esaki M

    2015-09-01

    The role of T-cell immunosenescence and functional CD8(+) T-cell responses in HIV/TB co-infection is unclear. We examined and correlated surrogate markers of HIV disease progression with immune activation, immunosenescence and differentiation using T-cell pools of HIV/TB co-infected, HIV-infected and healthy controls. Our investigations showed increased plasma viremia and reduced CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio in HIV/TB co-infected subjects relative to HIV-infected, and also a closer association with changes in the expression of CD38, a cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase and CD57, which were consistently expressed on late-senescent CD8(+) T cells. Up-regulation of CD57 and CD38 were directly proportional to lack of co-stimulatory markers on CD8(+) T cells, besides diminished expression of CD127 (IL-7Rα) on CD57(+)CD4(+) T cells. Notably, intracellular IFN-γ, perforin and granzyme B levels in HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells of HIV/TB co-infected subjects were diminished. Intracellular CD57 levels in HIV gag p24-specific CD8(+) T cells were significantly increased in HIV/TB co-infection. We suggest that HIV-TB co-infection contributes to senescence associated with chronic immune activation, which could be due to functional insufficiency of CD8(+) T cells. PMID:26071876

  9. The British HIV Association national audit on the management of subjects co-infected with HIV and hepatitis B/C.

    PubMed

    Garvey, L; Curtis, H; Brook, G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to survey current service provision and adherence to the British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines for the management of HIV and hepatitis B/C co-infected patients in the UK. Sites were invited to complete a survey of local care arrangements for co-infected patients. A case-note audit of all co-infected attendees during a six-month period in 2009 was performed. Data including demographics, clinical parameters, hepatitis disease status, antiretroviral and hepatitis B/C therapy were collected. Using BHIVA guidelines as audit standards, the proportion of sites and subjects meeting each standard was calculated. One-hundred and forty sites (75%) responded and data from 973 eligible co-infected patients were submitted. Approximately a third of sites reported not re-checking hepatitis serology or vaccination titres annually. Of all co-infected patients, 122 (13%) were neither vaccinated nor immune to hepatitis A and 26 (5%) of patients with hepatitis C were neither vaccinated nor naturally immune to hepatitis B. Of HBsAg-positive subjects, 25 (6%) were receiving lamivudine as the sole drug with antihepatitis B activity. In the UK, the management of HIV and hepatitis B/C co-infection remains highly variable. Optimizing the care of this high-risk patient group is a priority. PMID:21464457

  10. Tick-borne pathogens and associated co-infections in ticks collected from domestic animals in central China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks can transmit a number of pathogens to humans and domestic animals. Tick borne diseases (TBDs), which may lead to organ failure and death have been recently reported in China. 98.75% of the total cases (>1000) in Henan provinces have been reported in Xinyang city. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the fauna of ticks and detect the potential pathogens in ticks in Xinyang, the region of central China. Methods Ticks were collected from 10 villages of Xinyang from April to December 2012, from domestic animals including sheep, cattle and dogs. Then identification of ticks and detection of tick-borne pathogens, including Babesia spp., Theileria spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, were undertaken by using polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) and sequence analysis. Moreover, the co-infection patterns of various pathogens were compared among locations where ticks were collected. Results A total of 308 ticks were collected. Two species of Ixodidae were found, namely Haemaphysalis longicornis (96.75%) and Rhipicephalus microplus (3.25%). Five genera of pathogens, namely Theileria spp. (3.25%), Anaplasma spp. (2.92%), Babesia spp. (1.95%), Ehrlichia spp. (2.92%) and Rickettsia spp. (0.65%), were detected in 7 villages. Co-infections by two pathogens were diagnosed in 11.11% of all infected ticks. Conclusions Both human and animal pathogens were abundant in ticks in the study areas. Humans and animals in these regions were at a high risk of exposure to piroplasmosis, since piroplasm had the highest rates of infection and co-infection in positive ticks. PMID:24886497

  11. Impact of porcine group A rotavirus co-infection on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus pathogenicity in piglets.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Seung; Song, Dae-Sub

    2008-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine group A rotavirus (PGAR) are the main causative agents of acute diarrhea in piglets. In South Korea, PGAR is prevalent in piglets naturally infected with PEDV. Piglets naturally co-infected with PEDV and PGAR appeared to have severe and prolonged diarrhea that was distinct from that commonly observed. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of PGAR co-infection on PEDV pathogenicity in piglets. Thirty-six colostrum-deprived, one-day old, Large White-Duroc crossbred pigs were randomly divided into four equal groups: PEDV, PEDV/PGAR, PGAR, and control groups. The piglets were euthanized at 1, 2, or 3 days post-inoculation (DPI) to measure the villous height:crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio and to collect fecal samples for RT-PCR and virus isolation. No significant differences in mean VH:CD ratio and clinical symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and anorexia) were observed between the PEDV/PGAR-infected and PEDV-infected groups of piglets at 1, 2 and 3 DPI; however, at 2 and 3 DPI, PGAR was detected in all fecal samples by RT-PCR and virus isolation. These findings failed to detect any interaction between PEDV and porcine rotavirus in the small intestines of piglets, suggesting that concurrent infection of PGAR may not synergistically enhance intestinal villous atrophy of piglets with PEDV disease. We propose that the severe diarrhea exhibited in PEDV and PGAR co-infected piglets may be more associated with the immunity level of the host rather than to any synergistic effect of PGAR on PEDV enteritis. PMID:17727905

  12. Schistosomiasis japonicum diagnosed on liver biopsy in a patient with hepatitis B co-infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic hepatitis B virus and schistosomiasis are independently associated with significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite much geographic overlap between these conditions and no reason why co-infection should not exist, we present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first published report of a proven histological diagnosis of hepatic Schistosomiasis japonicum and chronic hepatitis B co-infection. A single case of hepatitis B and hepatic Schistosomiasis mansoni diagnosed by liver biopsy has previously been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 38-year-old Chinese man with known chronic hepatitis B virus infection presented with malaise, nausea and headache. Blood tests revealed increased transaminases and serology in keeping with hepatitis B virus e-antigen seroconversion. A liver biopsy was performed because some investigations, particularly transient elastography, suggested cirrhosis. Two schistosome ova were seen on liver histology, identified as S. japonicum, probably acquired in China as a youth. His peripheral eosinophil count was normal, schistosomal serology and stool microscopy for ova, cysts and parasites were negative. Conclusion Hepatic schistosomiasis co-infection should be considered in patients with hepatitis B virus infection who are from countries endemic for schistosomiasis. Screening for schistosomiasis using a peripheral eosinophil count, schistosomal serology and stool microscopy may be negative despite infection, therefore presumptive treatment could be considered. Transient elastography should not be used to assess liver fibrosis during acute flares of viral hepatitis because readings are falsely elevated. The impact of hepatic schistosomiasis on the sensitivity and specificity of transient elastography measurement for the assessment of hepatitis B is as yet unknown. PMID:24521427

  13. Co-infection of human parvovirus B19 with Plasmodium falciparum contributes to malaria disease severity in Gabonese patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 (B19V) coinfection with Plasmodium falciparum has been previously reported. However, the impact of B19V-infection on the clinical course of malaria is still elusive. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and clinical significance of B19V co-infection in Gabonese children with malaria. Methods B19V prevalence was analyzed in serum samples of 197 Gabonese children with P. falciparum malaria and 85 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and direct DNA-sequencing. Results B19V was detected in 29/282 (10.28%) of Gabonese children. B19V was observed more frequently in P. falciparum malaria patients (14.21%) in comparison to healthy individuals (1.17%) (P<0.001). Notably, the mild-malaria group revealed significantly lower hematocrit levels in B19V/P. falciparum co-infection than in P. falciparum mono-infection (P<0.05). Genetic analysis revealed a predominance of B19V genotype-1 (71.43%) in the studied population. However, B19V-genotype 2 was observed significantly more often in children with severe-malaria than in mild-malaria (P=0.04). Conclusion Our findings reveal that B19V-infection is frequent in Gabonese children with P. falciparum malaria and signifies a possible contribution of B19V on the clinical course of malaria in a genotype-dependent manner. B19V co-infection should be considered as a additional diagnostic measure in malaria patients with life threatening anemia. PMID:23945350

  14. Albendazole treatment of HIV-1 and helminth co-infection: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Mbuchi, Margaret; Richardson, Barbra A.; Lohman-Payne, Barbara; Macharia, Steve Wanyee; Overbaugh, Julie; Berkley, James; Sanders, Eduard J.; Chung, Michael; John-Stewart, Grace C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Several co-infections have been shown to impact the progression of HIV-1 infection. We sought to determine if treatment of helminth co-infection in HIV-1 infected adults impacted markers of HIV-1 disease progression. DESIGN To date there have been no randomized trials to examine the effects of soil-transmitted helminth eradication on markers of HIV-1 progression. METHODS A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of albendazole (400mg daily for three days) in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 infected adults (CD4 >200 cells/mm3) with soil-transmitted helminth infection was conducted at ten sites in Kenya (Clinical Trials.gov NCT00130910). CD4 and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels at 12 weeks following randomization were compared in the trial arms using linear regression, adjusting for baseline values. RESULTS Of 1,551 HIV-1 infected individuals screened for helminth-infection, 299 were helminth-infected. 234 adults were enrolled and underwent randomization and 208 individuals were included in intent-to-treat analyses. Mean CD4 count was 557 cells/mm3 and mean plasma viral load was 4.75 log10 copies/mL at enrolment. Albendazole therapy resulted in significantly higher CD4 counts among individuals with Ascaris lumbricoides infection after 12 weeks of follow up (+109 cells/mm3; 95% CI +38.9 to +179.0, p=0.003) and a trend for 0.54 log10 lower HIV-1 RNA levels (p=0.09). These effects were not seen with treatment of other species of soil-transmitted helminths. CONCLUSIONS Treatment of A. lumbricoides with albendazole in HIV-1 co-infected adults resulted in significantly increased CD4 counts during 3-month follow-up. Given the high prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection worldwide, deworming may be an important potential strategy to delay HIV-1 progression. PMID:18670219

  15. Hyperbilirubinaemia in HIV–HCV co-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy: drug effect or liver disease severity?

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Matthew B; Sterling, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hyperbilirubinaemia (HB) is common in HIV and hepatitis C virus (HIV–HCV) co-infected patients and poses a unique challenge in management as it may be due to medications such as the protease inhibitors (PIs) or to hepatic dysfunction. There are no data on the relationship of HB to liver histology and PI use in this population. Clinicians caring for these patients are faced with the difficult task of determining whether increasing serum bilirubin is due to drug effects or progression of liver disease. Methods To address this gap in knowledge, we performed a retrospective analysis of 344 consecutive HIV–HCV co-infected patients undergoing liver biopsy to identify factors associated with HB. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data were collected. Advanced fibrosis was defined as bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis. Those with hepatitis B virus, hepatic decompensation or hepatocellular carcinoma were excluded. Results The prevalence of HB (range 1.3–9.4) was 33% and more common in those on a PI (46%) than those who were not (10%; p≤0.001) and mostly in those on indinavir (40%) or atazanavir (46%). Of the patients on these PIs, HB was not associated with fibrosis grade, demographics, or other clinical variables. Conversely, in those not on a PI, HB was associated with fibrosis grade (p≤0.0001) after adjusting for other clinical and demographic variables. Conclusions In the setting of indinavir or atazanavir use, HB is common and unrelated to underlying disease severity and the medications can be continued safely. Conversely, HB in HIV–HCV co-infected patients not on a PI is due to their underlying liver disease and suggests these patients require closer monitoring. PMID:26966552

  16. HPV genotypes distribution in Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection in a large cohort of women from north-east Italy.

    PubMed

    Seraceni, Silva; Campisciano, Giuseppina; Contini, Carlo; Comar, Manola

    2016-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are pathogens with oncogenic potential associated with persistent infections. Epidemiological data on C. trachomatis infection status, C. trachomatis/HPV co-infection and the relationship between HPV genotypes in Italian women are only preliminary. The aim of the present study was to characterize the relationship between HPV genotypes and C. trachomatis in an extending cohort of asymptomatic immunocompetent women from an area of north-east Italy. A retrospective study was conducted using Luminex technology on cervical swabs from asymptomatic immunocompetent women, comprising 921 attending the prevention centre for the Cervical Cancer Program and 6214 who had been referred to the Sexually Transmitted Infections Center, with clinical indications of HPV and C. trachomatis infections. A quantitative real-time PCR was performed to assess chronic C. trachomatis infection by heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60) gene expression. The overall prevalence of the investigated pathogens was 39 % (359/921) for HPV and 4 % (251/6214) for C. trachomatis. The Hsp60 gene was detected in 57 % of the women infected with C. trachomatis. HPV co-infection was present in 58 % of C. trachomatis-infected women. A high prevalence of co-infection was found in women with chronic C. trachomatis infection (68 %, P = 0.0002), especially in women ≤ 25 years (72 %) where HPV multiple infections were found in 78 % (P = 0.022). HPV genotype distribution showed that uncommon low-risk genotypes were associated with C. trachomatis. These results indicate a high frequency of co-detection of multiple HPV genotypes in chronically infected young women and suggest that the expression of the C. trachomatis Hsp60 gene may favour HPV infection. PMID:26944507

  17. Clinical course of disseminated Kaposi sarcoma in a HIV and hepatitis B co-infected heterosexual male

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, Manoj Kumar; George, Renu; Sudarsanam, Thambu David; Chacko, Raju Titus; Thomas, Meera; Nair, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    AIDS associated Kaposi sarcoma (AIDS-KS) was first reported from India in 1993. Since then only 16 cases have been reported. Three of them had proven Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection. We report a case of disseminated KS in a heterosexual male from India with HIV, hepatitis B and HHV-8 infection. He was given six cycles of chemotherapy with liposomal doxorubicin over three months to which he showed a good response. The case highlights the clinical course and management of a HHV-8 positive disseminated KS in a patient co-infected with Hepatitis B and HIV. PMID:26225336

  18. Matrine displayed antiviral activity in porcine alveolar macrophages co-infected by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Sun, Panpan; Lv, Haipeng; Sun, Yaogui; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Zhirui; Luo, Tiantian; Wang, Shaoyu; Li, Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    The co-infection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is quite common in clinical settings and no effective treatment to the co-infection is available. In this study, we established the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) cells model co-infected with PRRSV/PCV2 with modification in vitro, and investigated the antiviral activity of Matrine on this cell model and further evaluated the effect of Matrine on virus-induced TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway. The results demonstrated PAM cells inoculated with PRRSV followed by PCV2 2 h later enhanced PRRSV and PCV2 replications. Matrine treatment suppressed both PRRSV and PCV2 infection at 12 h post infection. Furthermore, PRRSV/PCV2 co- infection induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation as well as the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus indicating that PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection induced NF-κB activation. Matrine treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TNF-α although it, to some extent, suppressed p-IκBα expression, suggesting that TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway play an important role of Matrine in combating PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection. It is concluded that Matrine possesses activity against PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection in vitro and suppression of the TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway as an important underlying molecular mechanism. These findings warrant Matrine to be further explored for its antiviral activity in clinical settings. PMID:27080155

  19. Symptoms and Immune Markers in Plasmodium/Dengue Virus Co-infection Compared with Mono-infection with Either in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Eric S.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Sihuincha, Moises; Lescano, Andres G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria and dengue are two of the most common vector-borne diseases in the world, but co-infection is rarely described, and immunologic comparisons of co-infection with mono-infection are lacking. Methodology and Principal Findings We collected symptom histories and blood specimens from subjects in a febrile illness surveillance study conducted in Iquitos and Puerto Maldonado, Peru, between 2002–2011. Nineteen symptoms and 18 immune markers at presentation were compared among those with co-infection with Plasmodium/dengue virus (DENV), Plasmodium mono-infection, and DENV mono-infection. Seventeen subjects were identified as having Plasmodium/DENV co-infection and were retrospectively matched with 51 DENV mono-infected and 44 Plasmodium mono-infected subjects. Those with Plasmodium mono-infection had higher levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A, IFN-γ, and MIP1-α/CCL3 compared with DENV mono-infection or co-infection; those with Plasmodium mono-infection had more cough than those with DENV mono-infection. Subjects with DENV mono-infection had higher levels of TGF-β1 and more myalgia than those with Plasmodium mono-infection. No symptom was more common and no immune marker level was higher in the co-infected group, which had similar findings to the DENV mono-infected subjects. Conclusions/Significance Compared with mono-infection with either pathogen, Plasmodium/DENV co-infection was not associated with worse disease and resembled DENV mono-infection in both symptom frequency and immune marker level. PMID:27128316

  20. Matrine displayed antiviral activity in porcine alveolar macrophages co-infected by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Na; Sun, Panpan; Lv, Haipeng; Sun, Yaogui; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Zhirui; Luo, Tiantian; Wang, Shaoyu; Li, Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    The co-infection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is quite common in clinical settings and no effective treatment to the co-infection is available. In this study, we established the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) cells model co-infected with PRRSV/PCV2 with modification in vitro, and investigated the antiviral activity of Matrine on this cell model and further evaluated the effect of Matrine on virus-induced TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway. The results demonstrated PAM cells inoculated with PRRSV followed by PCV2 2 h later enhanced PRRSV and PCV2 replications. Matrine treatment suppressed both PRRSV and PCV2 infection at 12 h post infection. Furthermore, PRRSV/PCV2 co- infection induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation as well as the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus indicating that PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection induced NF-κB activation. Matrine treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TNF-α although it, to some extent, suppressed p-IκBα expression, suggesting that TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway play an important role of Matrine in combating PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection. It is concluded that Matrine possesses activity against PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection in vitro and suppression of the TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway as an important underlying molecular mechanism. These findings warrant Matrine to be further explored for its antiviral activity in clinical settings. PMID:27080155

  1. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Swayne, David

    2015-01-01

    Infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in many parts of the world. However, it’s not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the amount of virus shed, and transmission of the viruses. In this study we infected domestic ducks with a virulent NDV virus (vNDV) and either a LPAIV or a HPAIV by giving the viruses individually, simultaneously, or sequentially two days apart. No clinical signs were observed in ducks infected or co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV, but co-infection decreased the number of ducks shedding vNDV and the amount of virus shed (P <0.01) at 4 days post inoculation (dpi). Co-infection didn’t affect the number of birds shedding LPAIV, but more LPAIV was shed at 2 dpi (P <0.0001) from ducks inoculated with only LPAIV compared to ducks co-infected with vNDV. Ducks that received the HPAIV with the vNDV simultaneously survived fewer days (P <0.05) compared to the ducks that received the vNDV two days before the HPAIV. Co-infection also reduced transmission of vNDV to naïve contact ducks housed with the inoculated ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks can become co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV with no effect on clinical signs but with reduction of virus shedding and transmission. These findings indicate that infection with one virus can interfere with replication of another, modifying the pathogenesis and transmission of the viruses. PMID:25759292

  2. PKDL and Other Dermal Lesions in HIV Co-infected Patients with Leishmaniasis: Review of Clinical Presentation in Relation to Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Zijlstra, Eduard E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Co-infection of leishmaniasis and HIV is increasingly reported. The clinical presentation of leishmaniasis is determined by the host immune response to the parasite; as a consequence, this presentation will be influenced by HIV-induced immunosuppression. As leishmaniasis commonly affects the skin, increasing immunosuppression changes the clinical presentation, such as in post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL); dermal lesions are also commonly reported in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and HIV co-infection. Methods We reviewed the literature with regard to dermal manifestations in leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection, in three clinical syndromes, according to the primary presentation: PKDL, VL, or CL. Results A wide variety of descriptions of dermal leishmaniasis in HIV co-infection has been reported. Lesions are commonly described as florid, symmetrical, non-ulcerating, nodular lesions with atypical distribution and numerous parasites. Pre-existing, unrelated dermal lesions may become parasitized. Parasites lose their tropism and no longer exclusively cause VL or CL. PKDL in HIV co-infected patients is more common and more severe and is not restricted to Leishmania donovani. In VL, dermal lesions occur in up to 18% of patients and may present as (severe) localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (DL) or diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL); there may be an overlap with para-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. In CL, dissemination in the skin may occur resembling DL or DCL; subsequent spread to the viscera may follow. Mucosal lesions are commonly found in VL or CL and HIV co-infection. Classical mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is more severe. Immune reconstitution disease (IRD) is uncommon in HIV co-infected patients with leishmaniasis on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Conclusion With increasing immunosuppression, the clinical syndromes of CL, VL, and PKDL become more severe and may overlap. These

  3. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    May, K; Jordan, D; Fingerle, V; Strube, C

    2015-12-01

    To obtain initial data on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in Hamburg, Germany, 1400 questing ticks were collected by flagging at 10 different public recreation areas in 2011 and analysed using probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The overall rate of infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was 34.1%; 30.0% of adults were infected (36.7% of females and 26.0% of males), as were 34.5% of nymphs. Significant differences in tick infection rates were observed between the spring and summer/autumn months, as well as among sampling locations. Borrelia genospecies identification by reverse line blotting was successful in 43.6% of positive tick samples. The most frequent genospecies was Borrelia garinii/Borrelia bavariensis, followed by Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia lusitaniae. Based on previously published data, co-infection of Borrelia and Rickettsiales spp. was determined in 25.8% of ticks. Overall, 22.9% of ticks were co-infected with Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), 1.7% with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 1.2% with both pathogens. Study results show a high prevalence of Borrelia-positive ticks in recreation areas in the northern German city of Hamburg and the potential health risk to humans in these areas should not be underestimated. PMID:26096626

  4. Identification of Unique Blood and Urine Biomarkers in Influenza Virus and Staphylococcus aureus Co-infection: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Meagan A; Pastey, Manoj K

    2010-01-01

    Each year, there are estimated to be approximately 200,000 hospitalizations and 36,000 deaths due to influenza in the United States. Reports have indicated that most deaths are not directly due to influenza virus, but to secondary bacterial pneumonia, predominantly staphylococcal in origin. Here we identify the presence of candidate blood and urine biomarkers in mice with Staphyococcus aureus and influenza virus co-infection. In this pilot study, mice were grouped into four treatments: co-infected with influenza virus and S. aureus, singly infected with influenza virus or S. aureus, and a control group of uninfected mice (PBS treated). Gene expression changes were identified by DNA-microarrays from blood samples taken at day five post infection. Proteomic changes were obtained from urine samples collected at three and five days post infection using 2-D DIGE followed by protein ID by mass spectrometry. Differentially expressed genes and/or proteins were identified as candidate biomarkers for future validation in larger studies. PMID:21151588

  5. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa co-infection is associated with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes and poor clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Limoli, D H; Yang, J; Khansaheb, M K; Helfman, B; Peng, L; Stecenko, A A; Goldberg, J B

    2016-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) patients suffer from accelerated rates of pulmonary decline compared to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). However, the mechanisms underlying this difference are unknown. While CFRD is associated with increased respiratory infections, a link between infection and enhanced pulmonary dysfunction remains unclear. The development of glucose intolerance is spectral, resulting in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) prior to the diagnosis of CFRD. Inclusion of IGT patients within the NGT group may diminish the ability to identify correlations with CFRD. With this in mind, this study aimed to determine if the association between CFRD and respiratory infections is correlated with pulmonary decline. Respiratory cultures from 234 CF patients with confirmed diagnosis of NGT or CFRD were analyzed to measure rates of infection, focusing on the two most prevalent bacteria in CF, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infection status was correlated with pulmonary function and confounding clinical variables including age, gender, blood glucose levels, and CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) phenotype were considered in multivariate analyses. CFRD patients, particularly those with extremely high blood glucose levels, were more likely than NGT patients to be co-infected with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, compared to infection with only one pathogen. Co-infection was associated with decreased lung function and increased frequency of pulmonary exacerbations, even after adjustment for confounding variables. Alterations in the microbial community composition, as opposed to the presence of a single pathogen, may account for greater pulmonary decline in CFRD patients. PMID:26993289

  6. Co-infection patterns and geographic distribution of a complex pathosystem targeted by pathogen-resistant plants.

    PubMed

    Biddle, J M; Linde, C; Godfree, R C

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, pathogen-resistant (PR) plants are being developed to reduce the agricultural impacts of disease. However PR plants also have the potential to result in increased invasiveness of nontarget host populations and so pose a potential threat to nontarget ecosystems. In this paper we use a new framework to investigate geographical variation in the potential risk associated with unintended release of genetically modified alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV)-resistant Trifolium repens (white clover) into nontarget host populations containing AMV, clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV), and white clover mosaic virus (WCIMV) in southeastern Australia. Surveys of 213 sites in 37 habitat types over a 300 000-km2 study region showed that T. repens is a significant weed of many high-conservation-value habitats in southeastern Australia and that AMV, ClYVV, and WClMV occur in 15-97% of nontarget host populations. However, T. repens abundance varied with site disturbance, habitat conservation value, and proximity to cropping, and all viral pathogens had distinct geographic distributions and infection patterns. Virus species frequently co-infected host plants and displayed nonindependent distributions within host populations, although co-infection patterns varied across the study region. Our results clearly illustrate the complexity of conducting environmental risk assessments that involve geographically widespread, invasive pasture species and demonstrate the general need for targeted, habitat- and pathosystem-specific studies prior to the process of tiered risk assessment. PMID:22471074

  7. MicroRNAs, Hepatitis C Virus, and HCV/HIV-1 Co-Infection: New Insights in Pathogenesis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Archana; Swaminathan, Gokul; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Navas-Martin, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can exert a profound effect on Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. The interaction of HCV with the highly liver-enriched miRNA, miR-122 represents one such unique example of viruses having evolved mechanism(s) to usurp the host miRNA machinery to support viral life cycle. Furthermore, HCV infection can also trigger changes in the cellular miRNA profile, which may ultimately contribute to the outcome of viral infection. Accumulating knowledge on HCV-host miRNA interactions has ultimately influenced the design of therapeutic interventions against chronic HCV infection. The importance of microRNA modulation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) replication has been reported, albeit only in the context of HIV-1 mono-infection. The development of HCV infection is dramatically influenced during co-infection with HIV-1. Here, we review the current knowledge on miRNAs in HCV mono-infection. In addition, we discuss the potential role of some miRNAs, identified from the analyses of public data, in HCV/HIV-1 co-infection. PMID:23202492

  8. Treatment of Helminth Co-Infection in Individuals with HIV-1: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L.; John-Stewart, Grace

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives The HIV-1 pandemic has disproportionately affected individuals in resource-constrained settings. It is important to determine if other prevalent infections affect the progression of HIV-1 in co-infected individuals in these settings. Some observational studies suggest that helminth infection may adversely affect HIV-1 progression. We sought to evaluate existing evidence on whether treatment of helminth infection impacts HIV-1 progression. Review Methods This review was conducted using the HIV/AIDS Cochrane Review Group (CRG) search strategy and guidelines. Published and unpublished studies were obtained from The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2006), MEDLINE (November 2006), EMBASE (November 2006), CENTRAL (July 2006), and AIDSEARCH (August 2006). Databases listing conference abstracts and scanned reference lists were searched, and authors of included studies were contacted. Data regarding changes in CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA levels, clinical staging and/or mortality were extracted and compared between helminth-treated and helminth-untreated or helminth-uninfected individuals. Results Of 6,384 abstracts identified, 15 met criteria for potential inclusion, of which 5 were eligible for inclusion. In the single randomized controlled trial (RCT) identified, HIV-1 and schistosomiasis co-infected individuals receiving treatment for schistosomiasis had a significantly lower change in plasma HIV-1 RNA over three months (−0.001 log10 copies/mL) compared to those receiving no treatment (+0.21 log10 copies/mL), (p = 0.03). Four observational studies met inclusion criteria, and all of these suggested a possible beneficial effect of helminth eradication on plasma HIV-1 RNA levels when compared to plasma HIV-1 RNA changes prior to helminth treatment or to helminth-uninfected or persistently helminth-infected individuals. The follow-up duration in these studies ranged from three to six months. The reported magnitude of effect on HIV-1 RNA was variable

  9. Neglected Tropical Diseases among Two Indigenous Subtribes in Peninsular Malaysia: Highlighting Differences and Co-Infection of Helminthiasis and Sarcocystosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Ching; Ngui, Romano; Tan, Tiong Kai; Muhammad Aidil, Roslan; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian

    2014-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been documented among these minority groups since 1938. However the prevalence of STH is still high among these communities. Most studies tend to consider the Orang Asli (indigenous) as a homogenous group. In contrary, different subtribes have their own cultural practices. To understand this variation better, we studied the prevalence and associated factors of STH and other gut parasitic infections among two common subtribes (i.e. Temuan and Temiar). Results showed that the prevalence of the overall STH infections was higher in the Temuan subtribe (53.2% of 171) compared to the Temiar subtribe (52.7% of 98). Trichuris trichiura (46.2%) was the most prevalent parasite in the Temuan subtribe, followed by Ascaris spp. (25.7%) and hookworm (4.1%). In contrast, Ascaris spp. (39.8%) was more prevalent among the Temiar subtribe, preceded by T. trichiura (35.7%) and finally hookworm (8.3%). There were also co-infections of helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa among both Temuan and Temiar subtribes with rates being three times higher among the Temiar compared to Temuan. The most common co-infection was with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 24; 24.5%, 16.0–33.0), followed by Giardia spp. (n = 3; 3.1%, −0.3–6.5). In Temuan, STH infection individuals were also infected with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 11; 6.4%, 5.0–13.8), Cryptosporidium spp. (n = 3, 1.8%, −0.2–3.8) and Giardia spp. (n = 2, 1.2%, −0.4–2.8). In comparison, there was no Cryptosporidium spp. detected among the Temiar. However, it was interesting to note that there was an occurrence of co-infection of intestinal helminthiasis and sarcocystosis (intestinal) in a Temiar individual. The last report of sarcocystosis (muscular) among the Orang Asli was in 1978. The present study highlighted the importance of understanding the variation of infections amongst the different Orang Asli subtribes. It is vital

  10. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections among antiretroviral-naive and -experienced HIV co-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Manyazewal, Tsegahun; Sisay, Zufan; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku

    2014-05-01

    Most HIV positive people have not been tested for viral hepatitis and their treatments have not been optimized for possible co-infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the serological pattern of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among antiretroviral (ARV)-naive and -experienced HIV co-infected adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 500 frozen HIV positive serum and plasma samples collected from ARV-naive (n = 250) and -experienced (n = 250) adults were randomly selected and screened for HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg and anti-HCV using rapid two-site sandwich immunochromatographic assay. The test was performed at Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University. Positive specimens for HBsAg and anti-HCV markers were further confirmed using third generation ELISA. Of the 500 specimens tested, 15 (3 %), 58 (11.6 %), 3 (0.6 %), 18 (3.6 %), 3 (0.6 %) and 1 (0.2 %) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HCV, HBsAg and HBeAg, and HBsAg and anti-HBs markers, respectively. No specimen tested positive for both HBeAg and anti-HBs, and 442 (88.4 %) individuals were non-immune to HBV. Of the 250 ARV-naive individuals, 8 (3.2 %), 33 (13.2 %), 2 (0.8 %), 10 (4 %), 2 (0.8 %), and 1 (0.4 %) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HCV, HBsAg and HBeAg, and HBsAg and anti-HBs markers, respectively. Of the 250 ARV-experienced individuals, 7 (2.8 %), 25 (10 %), 1 (0.4 %), 8 (3.2 %), 1 (0.4 %), and 0 (0 %) were positive for HBsAg, Anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HCV, HBsAg and HBeAg, and HBsAg and anti-HBs markers, respectively. In summary, seroprevalence of HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infections was lower in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, than in Sub-Saharan Africa and globally. HBV and HCV infections were not significantly different between HIV positive subjects who were or who were not on ARV. This suggests that the two groups have equal chance of being infected with these two viruses; despite

  11. Pharmacodynamics of PEG-IFN alpha-2a in HIV/HCV co-infected patients: Implications for treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dahari, Harel; Affonso de Araujo, Evaldo S.; Haagmans, Bart L.; Layden, Thomas J.; Cotler, Scott J.; Barone, Antonio A.; Neumann, Avidan U.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pegylated-interferon-α-2a (PEG-IFN) have not been described in HCV/HIV co-infected patients. We sought to estimate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PEG-IFN and determine whether these parameters predict treatment outcome. Methods Twenty-six HCV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-co-infected patients were treated with a 48-week regimen of PEG-IFN (180 µg/week) plus ribavirin (11 mg/kg/day). HCV-RNA and PEG-IFN concentrations were obtained from samples collected until week 12. A modeling framework that includes pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters was developed. Results Five patients discontinued treatment. Seven patients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR). PEG-IFN concentrations at day 8 were similar to steady-state levels (p = 0.15) and overall pharmacokinetic parameters were similar in SVRs and non-SVRs. The maximum PEG-IFN effectiveness during the first PEG-IFN dose and the HCV-infected cell loss rate (δ), was significantly higher in SVRs compared to non-SVRs (median 95% vs 86% [p = 0.013], 0.27 vs 0.11 day−1 [p = 0.006], respectively). Patients infected with HCV genotype-1 had a significantly lower average first-week PEG-IFN effectiveness (median 70% vs. 88% [p = 0.043]), however, 4- to 12-week PEG-IFN effectiveness was not significantly different compared to those with genotype-3 (p = 0.114). Genotype-1 had a significantly lower δ compared to genotype-3 (median 0.14 vs. 0.23 day−1 [p = 0.021]). The PEG-IFN concentration that decreased HCV production by 50% (EC50) was lower in genotype-3 compared to genotype-1 (median 1.3 vs. 3.4 [p = 0.034]). Conclusions Both the HCV infected cell loss rate (δ) and the maximum effectiveness of the first dose of PEG-IFN-α-2a distinguished HIV co-infected patients and were highly predictive of SVR. Further studies are needed to validate these viral kinetic parameters as early on-treatment prognosticators of response in

  12. Incidence of Co-Infections of HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and Syphilis in a Large Cohort of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Zixin; Qi, Xiao; Ruan, Yuhua; Zhou, Yunhua; Li, Chunrong; Luo, Fengji; Lau, Joseph T. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The HIV-epidemic among MSM in China has worsened. In this key population, prevalence of HSV-2 and syphilis infection and co-infection with HIV is high. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted (n = 962) in Beijing, China, with three overlapping cohorts (n = 857, 757 and 760) consisting of MSM that were free from pairs of infections of concern (i.e. HIV-HSV-2, HIV-syphilis, HSV-2-syphilis) at baseline to estimate incidence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and those of co-infection. Results The incidence of HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis in the overall cohort was 3.90 (95% CI = 2.37, 5.43), 7.87 (95% CI = 5.74, 10.00) and 6.06 (95% CI = 4.18, 7.94) cases per 100 person-years (PYs), respectively. The incidence of HIV-HSV-2, HIV-Syphilis and HSV-2-Syphilis co-infections was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.29, 0.88), 1.02 (95% CI = 0.13, 2.17) and 1.41 (95% CI: 0.04, 2.78) cases per 100 PYs, respectively, in the three sub-cohorts constructed for this study. Conclusions The incidence of HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis was very high and those of their co-infections were relatively high. Such co-infections have negative impacts on the HIV/STI epidemics. Prevention practices need to take such co-infections into account. PMID:26820145

  13. Hepatitis C virus/human T lymphotropic virus 1/2 co-infection: Regional burden and virological outcomes in people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Erika; Roger, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This review analyses current data concerning co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1/2 in people who inject drugs (PWID), with a particular focus on disease burden and global implications for virological outcome. In addition, the available treatment options for HTLV-1/2 are summarized and the ongoing and likely future research challenges are discussed. The data in this review was obtained from 34 articles on HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection in PWID retrieved from the PubMed literature database and published between 1997 and 2015. Despite unavailable estimates of the burden of HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection in general, the epidemiologic constellation of HTLV-1/2 shows high incidence in PWID with history of migration, incarceration, and other blood-borne infectious diseases such as HCV or human immunodeficiency virus. The most recent research data strongly suggest that HTLV-1 co-infection can influence HCV viral load, HCV sustained virological response to α-interferon treatment, and HCV-related liver disease progression. In short, outcome of HCV infection is worse in the context of HTLV-1 co-infection, yet more studies are needed to gain accurate estimations of the burden of HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infections. Moreover, in the current era of new direct-acting antiviral treatments for HCV and proven HTLV-1/2 treatment options, prospective clinical and treatment studies should be carried out, with particular focus on the PWID patient population, with the aim of improving virological outcomes. PMID:27175351

  14. Attrition of TCR Vα7.2+ CD161++ MAIT cells in HIV-tuberculosis co-infection is associated with elevated levels of PD-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Alireza; Tien Tien, Vicky L; Al-Batran, Rami; Al-Darraji, Haider A; Tan, Hong Y; Yong, Yean K; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Barathan, Muttiah; Rukumani, Devi V; Ansari, Abdul W; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie; Shankar, Esaki M

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial MR1-restricted CD8(+) T cells co-expressing the semi-invariant TCR Vα7.2, and are numerous in the blood and mucosal tissues of humans. MAIT cells appear to undergo exhaustion in chronic viral infections. However, their role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mono-infection and HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infection have seldom been elaborately investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the frequencies and phenotypes of CD161(++)CD8(+) T cells among anti-retroviral therapy (ART)/anti-TB therapy (ATT) treatment-naïve HIV/TB co-infected, ART/TB treated HIV/TB co-infected, ART naïve HIV-infected, ART-treated HIV-infected patients, and HIV negative healthy controls (HCs) by flow cytometry. Our data revealed that the frequency of MAIT cells was severely depleted in HIV mono- and HIV/TB co-infections. Further, PD-1 expression on MAIT cells was significantly increased in HIV mono- and HIV-TB co-infected patients. The frequency of MAIT cells did not show any significant increase despite the initiation of ART and/or ATT. Majority of the MAIT cells in HCs showed a significant increase in CCR6 expression as compared to HIV/TB co-infections. No marked difference was seen with expressions of chemokine co-receptor CCR5 and CD103 among the study groups. Decrease of CCR6 expression appears to explain why HIV-infected patients display weakened mucosal immune responses. PMID:25894562

  15. Attrition of TCR Vα7.2+ CD161++ MAIT Cells in HIV-Tuberculosis Co-Infection Is Associated with Elevated Levels of PD-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Alireza; Tien Tien, Vicky L.; Al-Batran, Rami; Al-Darraji, Haider A.; Tan, Hong Y.; Yong, Yean K.; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Barathan, Muttiah; Rukumani, Devi V.; Ansari, Abdul W.; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie; Shankar, Esaki M.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial MR1-restricted CD8+ T cells co-expressing the semi-invariant TCR Vα7.2, and are numerous in the blood and mucosal tissues of humans. MAIT cells appear to undergo exhaustion in chronic viral infections. However, their role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mono-infection and HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infection have seldom been elaborately investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the frequencies and phenotypes of CD161++CD8+ T cells among anti-retroviral therapy (ART)/anti-TB therapy (ATT) treatment-naïve HIV/TB co-infected, ART/TB treated HIV/TB co-infected, ART naïve HIV-infected, ART-treated HIV-infected patients, and HIV negative healthy controls (HCs) by flow cytometry. Our data revealed that the frequency of MAIT cells was severely depleted in HIV mono- and HIV/TB co-infections. Further, PD-1 expression on MAIT cells was significantly increased in HIV mono- and HIV-TB co-infected patients. The frequency of MAIT cells did not show any significant increase despite the initiation of ART and/or ATT. Majority of the MAIT cells in HCs showed a significant increase in CCR6 expression as compared to HIV/TB co-infections. No marked difference was seen with expressions of chemokine co-receptor CCR5 and CD103 among the study groups. Decrease of CCR6 expression appears to explain why HIV-infected patients display weakened mucosal immune responses. PMID:25894562

  16. Identification of a 251 Gene Expression Signature That Can Accurately Detect M. tuberculosis in Patients with and without HIV Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dawany, Noor; Showe, Louise C.; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Chang, Celia; Ive, Prudence; Conradie, Francesca; Stevens, Wendy; Sanne, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Background Co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. However, diagnosis of TB, especially in the presence of an HIV co-infection, can be limiting due to the high inaccuracy associated with the use of conventional diagnostic methods. Here we report a gene signature that can identify a tuberculosis infection in patients co-infected with HIV as well as in the absence of HIV. Methods We analyzed global gene expression data from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples of patients that were either mono-infected with HIV or co-infected with HIV/TB and used support vector machines to identify a gene signature that can distinguish between the two classes. We then validated our results using publically available gene expression data from patients mono-infected with TB. Results Our analysis successfully identified a 251-gene signature that accurately distinguishes patients co-infected with HIV/TB from those infected with HIV only, with an overall accuracy of 81.4% (sensitivity = 76.2%, specificity = 86.4%). Furthermore, we show that our 251-gene signature can also accurately distinguish patients with active TB in the absence of an HIV infection from both patients with a latent TB infection and healthy controls (88.9–94.7% accuracy; 69.2–90% sensitivity and 90.3–100% specificity). We also demonstrate that the expression levels of the 251-gene signature diminish as a correlate of the length of TB treatment. Conclusions A 251-gene signature is described to (a) detect TB in the presence or absence of an HIV co-infection, and (b) assess response to treatment following anti-TB therapy. PMID:24587128

  17. Hepatitis C virus/human T lymphotropic virus 1/2 co-infection: Regional burden and virological outcomes in people who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Castro, Erika; Roger, Elena

    2016-05-12

    This review analyses current data concerning co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1/2 in people who inject drugs (PWID), with a particular focus on disease burden and global implications for virological outcome. In addition, the available treatment options for HTLV-1/2 are summarized and the ongoing and likely future research challenges are discussed. The data in this review was obtained from 34 articles on HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection in PWID retrieved from the PubMed literature database and published between 1997 and 2015. Despite unavailable estimates of the burden of HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection in general, the epidemiologic constellation of HTLV-1/2 shows high incidence in PWID with history of migration, incarceration, and other blood-borne infectious diseases such as HCV or human immunodeficiency virus. The most recent research data strongly suggest that HTLV-1 co-infection can influence HCV viral load, HCV sustained virological response to α-interferon treatment, and HCV-related liver disease progression. In short, outcome of HCV infection is worse in the context of HTLV-1 co-infection, yet more studies are needed to gain accurate estimations of the burden of HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infections. Moreover, in the current era of new direct-acting antiviral treatments for HCV and proven HTLV-1/2 treatment options, prospective clinical and treatment studies should be carried out, with particular focus on the PWID patient population, with the aim of improving virological outcomes. PMID:27175351

  18. A comparative hospital-based observational study of mono- and co-infections of malaria, dengue virus and scrub typhus causing acute undifferentiated fever.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S; Dhar, M; Mittal, G; Bhat, N K; Shirazi, N; Kalra, V; Sati, H C; Gupta, V

    2016-04-01

    Positive serology for dengue and/or scrub typhus infection with/without positive malarial smear (designated as mixed or co-infection) is being increasingly observed during epidemics of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs). We planned to study the clinical and biochemical spectrum of co-infections with Plasmodium sp., dengue virus and scrub typhus and compare these with mono-infection by the same organisms. During the period from December 2012 to December 2013, all cases presenting with AUFIs to a single medical unit of a referral centre in Garhwal region of the north Indian state of Uttarakhand were retrospectively selected and categorised aetiologically as co-infections, malaria, dengue or scrub typhus. The groups thus created were compared in terms of demographic, clinical, biochemical and outcome parameters. The co-infection group (n = 49) was associated with milder clinical manifestations, fewer, milder and non-progressive organ dysfunction, and lesser need for intensive care, mechanical ventilation and dialysis as compared to mono-infections. When co-infections were sub-grouped and compared with the relevant mono-infections, there were differences in certain haematological and biochemical parameters; however, this difference did not translate into differential outcomes. Scrub typhus mono-infection was associated with severe disease in terms of both morbidity and mortality. Malaria, dengue and scrub typhus should be routinely tested in all patients with AUFIs. Co-infections, whether true or due to serological cross-reactivity, appear to be a separate entity so far as presentation and morbidity is concerned. Further insight is needed into the mechanism and identification of the protective infection. PMID:26851948

  19. Zidovudine-induced nail hyper-pigmentation in 45-year-old women prescribed for HIV/tuberculosis co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Vishal R.; Sadiq, Shamiya; Khajuria, Vijay; Mahajan, Annil; Sharma, Sudhaa; Gillani, Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Zidovudine is an important component of first-line antiretroviral treatment regimens used to manage HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection. Nail pigmentation is documented both in adult as well as pediatric HIV patients, but to the best of our knowledge, it has not been reported in 45-year-old women of HIV/TB co-infection. Such an adverse drugs reactions (ADR), although is harmless and reversible, psychological aspects of such ADR may be immense to the extent that it can negatively affect the compliance and result in therapeutic failure. Thus, it is worth reporting. PMID:27134481

  20. Infection and Co-infection with Helminths and Plasmodium among School Children in Côte d’Ivoire: Results from a National Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yapi, Richard B.; Hürlimann, Eveline; Houngbedji, Clarisse A.; Ndri, Prisca B.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Soro, Gotianwa; Kouamé, Ferdinand N.; Vounatsou, Penelope; Fürst, Thomas; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Helminth infection and malaria remain major causes of ill-health in the tropics and subtropics. There are several shared risk factors (e.g., poverty), and hence, helminth infection and malaria overlap geographically and temporally. However, the extent and consequences of helminth-Plasmodium co-infection at different spatial scales are poorly understood. Methodology This study was conducted in 92 schools across Côte d’Ivoire during the dry season, from November 2011 to February 2012. School children provided blood samples for detection of Plasmodium infection, stool samples for diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni infections, and urine samples for appraisal of Schistosoma haematobium infection. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data. Multinomial regression models were utilized to determine risk factors for STH-Plasmodium and Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Principal Findings Complete parasitological and questionnaire data were available for 5,104 children aged 5-16 years. 26.2% of the children were infected with any helminth species, whilst the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 63.3%. STH-Plasmodium co-infection was detected in 13.5% and Schistosoma-Plasmodium in 5.6% of the children. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that boys, children aged 10 years and above, and activities involving close contact to water were significantly and positively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection. Boys, wells as source of drinking water, and water contact were significantly and positively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Access to latrines, deworming, higher socioeconomic status, and living in urban settings were negatively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection; whilst use of deworming drugs and access to modern latrines were negatively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Conclusions/Significance More than 60% of the

  1. Critical Illness from 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus and Bacterial Co-Infection in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Todd W.; Rubinson, Lewis; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Vaughn, Frances L.; John, Benjamin B.; Miller, Russell R.; Higgs, Elizabeth; Randolph, Adrienne G.; Smoot, B Elizabeth; Thompson, B. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Objective The contribution of bacterial co-infection to critical illness associated with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) [pH1N1] virus infection remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine if bacterial co-infection increased the morbidity and mortality of pH1N1. Design Retrospective and Prospective cohort study Setting 35 adult U.S. intensive care units over the course of one year Patients 683 critically ill adults with confirmed or probable pH1N1 Interventions None Measurements and Main Results A confirmed or probable case was defined as a positive pH1N1 test result or positive test for influenza A that was otherwise not subtyped. Bacterial co-infection was defined as documented bacteremia or any presumed bacterial pneumonia with or without positive respiratory tract culture within 72 hours of ICU admission. The mean age was 45±16 years, mean BMI 32.5±11.1 kg/m2, and mean APACHE II score 21±9, with 76% having at least one co-morbidity. Of 207 (30.3%) patients with bacterial co-infection on ICU admission, 154 had positive cultures with Staphylococcus aureus (n=57) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=19) the most commonly identified pathogens. Bacterial co-infected patients were more likely to present with shock (21 vs. 10%; P=0.0001), require mechanical ventilation at the time of ICU admission (63 vs. 52%; P=0.005) and have longer duration of ICU care (median 7 vs. 6 days; P=0.05). Hospital mortality was 23%; 31% in bacterial co-infected patients and 21% in patients without co-infection (P=0.002). Immunosuppression (RR 1.57; 95% CI 1.20–2.06; P=0.0009) and Staphylococcus aureus at admission (RR 2.82; 95% CI: 1.76–4.51; P<0.0001) were independently associated with increased mortality. Conclusions Among ICU patients with pH1N1, bacterial co-infection diagnosed within 72 hours of admission, especially with Staphylococcus aureus, was associated with significantly higher morbidity and mortality. PMID:22511131

  2. A severe case of co-infection with Enterovirus 71 and vaccine-derived Poliovirus type II.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shaohui; Du, Zengqing; Feng, Min; Che, Yanchun; Li, Qihan

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is often identified as the primary pathogen that directly leads to severe cases of HFMD, whereas the association between other enteroviruses and EV71 infection remains largely unclear. Here we report a rare case of a 5-year-old boy co-infected with EV71 and vaccine-derived Poliovirus (VDPV) type II, which were identified based on PCR and sequence analysis results and clinical symptoms and were characterized on CT. We determined that the EV71 strain belongs to the C4 subtype, and the VDPV II strain was closely genetically related to the reference Sabin type II strain. This report may improved our understanding of the clinical significance of the associations between clinical signs and the infectious properties of the involved pathogens. PMID:26361010

  3. Hepatitis C virus quasispecies and pseudotype analysis from acute infection to chronicity in HIV-1 co-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Ferns, R Bridget; Tarr, Alexander W; Hue, Stephane; Urbanowicz, Richard A; McClure, C Patrick; Gilson, Richard; Ball, Jonathan K; Nastouli, Eleni; Garson, Jeremy A; Pillay, Deenan

    2016-05-01

    HIV-1 infected patients who acquire HCV infection have higher rates of chronicity and liver disease progression than patients with HCV mono-infection. Understanding early events in this pathogenic process is important. We applied single genome sequencing of the E1 to NS3 regions and viral pseudotype neutralization assays to explore the consequences of viral quasispecies evolution from pre-seroconversion to chronicity in four co-infected individuals (mean follow up 566 days). We observed that one to three founder viruses were transmitted. Relatively low viral sequence diversity, possibly related to an impaired immune response, due to HIV infection was observed in three patients. However, the fourth patient, after an early purifying selection displayed increasing E2 sequence evolution, possibly related to being on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Viral pseudotypes generated from HCV variants showed relative resistance to neutralization by autologous plasma but not to plasma collected from later time points, confirming ongoing virus escape from antibody neutralization. PMID:26971243

  4. Tuberculous Drug-induced Liver Injury and Treatment Re-challenge in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Costiniuk, Cecilia T.; Gosnell, Bernadett I.; Manzini, Thandekile C.; Du Plessis, Camille N.; Moosa, Mahomed Yunus S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (TB-DILI) is the most common adverse event necessitating therapy interruption. The optimal re-challenge strategy for antituberculous therapy (ATT) remains unclear, especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected individuals in high-prevalence settings such as South Africa. Objective: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for the recurrence of TB-DILI with different ATT re-challenge strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients managed for TB-DILI from 2005 to 2013 at King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban, South Africa. Relevant clinical and laboratory data at the presentation of TB-DILI, time to recovery of liver function, method of ATT re-challenge and outcome of re-challenge were documented. Results: 1016 charts were reviewed, and 53 individuals with TB-DILI (48 HIV-co-infected) were identified. Following discontinuation of ATT, the median time to alanine aminotransferase normalization was 28 days (interquartile range 13-43). Forty-two subjects were re-challenged (30 regimen re-challenges and 12 step-wise re-challenges). 5 (12%) cases of recurrent TB-DILI were noted. Recurrences were not associated with the method of re-challenge. Conclusion: Based on the data available, it appears that full ATT can be safely restarted in the majority of subjects with a recurrence of DILI occurring in about 12% of subjects. The method of re-challenge did not appear to impact on the risk of recurrence. Ideally, a prospective randomized trial is needed to determine the best method of re-challenge. PMID:26752869

  5. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16–29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11 months (interquartile range: 11–12). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.69–1.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.36–2.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence. PMID:26194784

  6. The Impact of Asymptomatic Helminth Co-Infection in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis in North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Ebba; Belayneh, Meseret; Gelaw, Aschalew; Idh, Jonna; Getachew, Assefa; Alemu, Shitaye; Diro, Ermias; Fikre, Nigussu; Britton, Sven; Elias, Daniel; Aseffa, Abraham; Stendahl, Olle; Schön, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Areas endemic of helminth infection, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV are to a large extent overlapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic helminth infection on the immunological response among TB patients with and without HIV, their house hold contacts and community controls. Methodology Consecutive smear positive TB patients (n = 112), their household contacts (n = 71) and community controls (n = 112) were recruited in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Stool microscopy, HIV serology, serum IgE level, eosinophil and CD4 counts were performed and tuberculosis patients were followed up for 3 months after initiation of anti-TB treatment. Results Helminth co-infection rate was 29% in TB patients and 21% in both community control and household contacts (p = 0.3) where Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. In TB patients the seroprevalence of HIV was 47% (53/112). Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level were significantly associated with asymptomatic helminth infection. During TB treatment, the worm infection rate of HIV+/TB patients declined from 31% (10/32) at week 0 to 9% (3/32) at week 2 of TB treatment, whereas HIV−/TB patients showed no change from baseline to week 2, 29% (13/45) vs. 22.2% (10/45). This trend was stable at week 8 and 12 as well. Conclusion One third of smear positive TB patients were infected with helminths. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level correlated with asymptomatic worm infection, indicating an effect on host immunity. The rate of worm infection declined during TB treatment in HIV+/TB co-infected patients whereas no decline was seen in HIV−/TB group. PMID:22952620

  7. Adherence to Concurrent Tuberculosis Treatment and Antiretroviral Treatment among Co-Infected Persons in South Africa, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Webb Mazinyo, Ernesha; Kim, Lindsay; Masuku, Sikhethiwe; Lancaster, Joey L.; Odendaal, Ronel; Uys, Margot; Podewils, Laura Jean; Van der Walt, Martie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment and antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces morbidity and mortality among persons co-infected with TB/HIV. We measured adherence and determined factors associated with non-adherence to concurrent TB treatment and ART among co-infected persons in two provinces in South Africa. Methods A convenience sample of 35 clinics providing integrated TB/HIV care was included due to financial and logistic considerations. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted among persons who received concurrent TB treatment and ART and who had a TB treatment outcome recorded during 1 January 2008–31 December 2010. Adherence to concurrent TB and HIV treatment was defined as: (1) taking ≥80% of TB prescribed doses by directly observed therapy (DOT) as noted in the patient card; and (2) taking >90% ART doses as documented in the ART medical record during the concurrent treatment period (period of time when the patient was prescribed both TB treatment and ART). Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to identify factors associated with non-adherence. Results Of the 1,252 persons receiving concurrent treatment, 138 (11.0%) were not adherent. Non-adherent persons were more likely to have extrapulmonary TB (RR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.60) and had not disclosed their HIV status (RR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.76). Conclusions The majority of persons with TB/HIV were adherent to concurrent treatment. Close monitoring and support of persons with extrapulmonary TB and for persons who have not disclosed their HIV status may further improve adherence to concurrent TB and antiretroviral treatment. PMID:27442440

  8. A novel vaccine against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) co-infection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-xing; Ma, Zhe; Yang, Xu-qiu; Fan, Hong-jie; Lu, Cheng-ping

    2014-06-25

    To develop a vaccine against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) co-infection, the genes of porcine IL-18, capsid protein (Cap) of PCV2 and M-like protein (SzP) of SEZ were inserted into the swinepox virus (SPV) genome by homologous recombination. The recombinant swinepox virus rSPV-ICS was verified by PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays. To evaluate the immunogenicity of rSPV-ICS, 28 PCV2 and SEZ seronegative Bama minipigs were immunized with rSPV-ICS (n=8), commercial PCV2 vaccine and SEZ vaccine (n=8) or wild type SPV (n=8). The results showed that SzP-specific antibody and PCV2 neutralizing antibody of the rSPV-ICS immunized group increased significantly compared to the wild type SPV treated group after vaccination and increased continuously over time. The levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the rSPV-ICS immunized group were significantly higher than the other three groups, respectively. After been co-challenged with PCV2 and SEZ, 87.5% piglets in rSPV-ICS immunized group were survived. Significant reductions in gross lung lesion score, histopathological lung lesion score, and lymph node lesion score were noticed in the rSPV-ICS immunized group compared with the wtSPV treated group. The results suggested that the recombinant rSPV-ICS provided piglets with significant protection against PCV2-SEZ co-infection; thus, it offers proof-of-principle for the development of a vaccine for the prevention of these swine diseases. PMID:24726504

  9. Dynamics, co-infections and characteristics of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in Hokkaido small mammals, Japan.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed; Taylor, Kyle; Nakao, Ryo; Shimozuru, Michito; Sashika, Mariko; Rosà, Roberto; Thu, May June; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    Many of the emerging infectious diseases originate in wildlife and many of them are caused by vector-borne pathogens. In Japan, zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are frequently detected in both ticks and wildlife. Here, we studied the infection rates of potentially zoonotic species, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neoehrlichia and Babesia spp., in Hokkaido's most abundant small mammals as they relate to variable extrinsic factors that might affect the infection rates of these pathogens. A total of 412 small mammals including 64 Apodemus argenteus, 219 Apodemus speciosus, 78 Myodes rufocanus, 41 Myodes rutilus, 6 Myodes rex and 4 Sorex unguiculatus were collected from Furano and Shari sites in Hokkaido, Japan, in 2010 and 2011 and were examined by multiplex PCR for TBPs. A reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) was then developed for the specific detection of 13 potentially zoonotic TBPs. A total of 4 TBPs were detected: Anaplasma sp. AP-sd, Ehrlichia muris, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Babesia microti. The infection rates were 4.4% (18/412), 1.2% (5/412), 13.1% (54/412) and 17.2% (71/412), respectively. The infection rates of each of the detected TBPs were significantly correlated with host small mammal species. A total of 22 (two triple and 20 double) co-infection cases were detected (5.3%). The most frequent co-infection cases occurred between Candidatus N. mikurensis and B. microti 68.2% (15/22). Further studies are required to examine human exposure to these zoonotic TBPs in Hokkaido. PMID:27166277

  10. Human papillomaviruses prevalence and genital co-infections in HIV-seropositive women in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Sagna, T; Djigma, F; Zeba, M; Bisseye, C; Karou, S D; Ouermi, D; Pietra, V; Gnoula, C; Sanogo, K; Nikiema, J B; Simpore, J

    2010-10-01

    The vaginal swabs among HIV-positive women in Africa often revealed opportunistic infections such as human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Mycoplasma that induce respectively cervix cancer and diseases such as vaginosis, abortions, infertility in through salpingitis. The purposes of this study were to: (1) seek for, the prevalence of pathogens such as HPV and Mycoplasma; (2) characterize the strains of HPV and estimate their prevalence; (3) identify among these women, those who were co-infected by these pathogens in order to cure them. From February 2009 to January 2010, 156 HIV-positive women attending our medical centers and aged from 19-45 years (mean age 33.65 +/- 5.75 years) had voluntarily accepted vaginal specimen's tests. PCR, ELISA and molecular hybridization were used for the identification and characterization of these pathogens. The results revealed the presence of Mycoplasma and HPV in 25.64 and 58.33% cases, respectively. The following HPV genotypes and the following prevalence were recorded: HPV-50'S (24.11%), HPV-18 (21.28%), HPV-30'S (18.44%) and HPV-16 (5.67%). The study also enable the identification of co-infections such as HPV-18 strains with HPV-30'S (5.67%) and HPV-30'S with HPV-50'S (3.55%). Other germs infecting the female genital tract including Candida albicans (20.51%), Escherichia coli (12.18%), Treponema pallidum (3.85%), Streptococcus agalactiae (3.21%) and Staphylococcus aureus (1.92%) were isolated. This preliminary research work showed the incidence of several genital pathogens, this could be a springboard for nationwide epidemiological study on HPV strains circulating in Burkina Faso. PMID:21313918