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Sample records for malay eye study

  1. Impact of Visual Impairment and Eye diseases on Mortality: the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES)

    PubMed Central

    Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Gemmy Cheung, Chui Ming; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.; Ong, Peng Guan; Chow, Khuan Yew; Mitchell, Paul; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheung, Carol Y.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of visual impairment (VI) and age-related eye diseases with mortality in a prospective, population-based cohort study of 3,280 Malay adults aged 40–80 years between 2004–2006. Participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination and standardized lens and fundus photographic grading. Visual acuity was measured using logMAR chart. VI was defined as presenting (PVA) and best-corrected (BCVA) visual acuity worse than 0.30 logMAR in the better-seeing eye. Participants were linked with mortality records until 2012. During follow-up (median 7.24 years), 398 (12.2%) persons died. In Cox proportional-hazards models adjusting for relevant factors, participants with VI (PVA) had higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio[HR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.25–1.96) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality (HR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24–2.49) than participants without. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was associated with increased all-cause (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.25–2.36) and CVD mortality (HR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05–2.43). Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) was associated with increased CVD mortality (HR 3.14; 95% CI, 1.26–7.73). No significant associations were observed between cataract, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration with mortality. We conclude that persons with VI were more likely to die than persons without. DR and RVO are markers of CVD mortality. PMID:26549406

  2. Morphology in Malay-English Biliteracy Acquisition: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study examined the effect of English morphological instruction on the development of English as well as Malay morphological awareness and word reading abilities among Malay-English bilingual fourth graders in Singapore, where English is the medium of instruction. The intervention group experienced semester-long instruction in…

  3. Food ideology and eating behavior: contributions from Malay studies.

    PubMed

    Laderman, C

    1984-01-01

    A study of food ideology and eating behavior in a Malay village demonstrates that the relationship between belief and action is complex and not always predictable. Over-reliance upon stated beliefs, and generalizations derived from particular ecological settings, have influenced investigators into making universal and logical statements about Malay eating behavior and its health consequences--a logic which, however, does not always jibe with reality. Food ideology, like any other portion of a belief system, is subject to innovation, interpretation and rationalization, and contains within it 'rules to break rules' which assure the continued integrity of the symbolic system by patterning what might otherwise be seen as rifts in its fabric. An understanding of eating behavior must be based both on a knowledge of the subsidiary, as well as primary, clauses of food ideology, and on direct observation of the behaviors elicited by these beliefs and modified by the setting, the situation and the individual. PMID:6484640

  4. The Perceptions of Women's Roles and Progress: A Study of Malay Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Kalthom; Noor, Noraini M.; Wok, Saodah

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the general perceptions of women towards their roles, their interpretation of progress, as well as the facilitating factors and barriers to their progress. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,000 Malay women in Malaysia from rural and urban areas, from various age and income groups. Interviews were also carried out on the…

  5. Validation Study of the Malay Version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    SANAZ, Aazami; SYAQIRAH, Akmal; KHADIJAH, Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Work-family conflict has received increasing attention in recent decades in the area of workplace stressors, which can affect employees’ health. However, the dimensionality of the work–family conflict construct among the Malay-speaking population has not been clarified. In order to do so, it is crucial to use an instrument that is appropriate and valid for the Malay-speaking population. As such, the goal of this study was to validate and test the dimensionality of the Malay version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire. Methods: The present study conducted exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency, using Cronbach’s alpha, of the work–family conflict construct among 332 working women in Malaysia. Results: The results supported the existence of four dimensions in the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire that distinguish between time based and strain-based work-family conflict and family-work conflict. The discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency of this construct are adequately supported. Conclusion: The findings of this study supported the existence of discriminant and convergent validity, as well as adequate reliability, for the construct. Thus, the Work–Family Conflict Questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument among Malay-speaking working women. PMID:24639612

  6. Morphology of distal radius curvatures: a CT-based study on the Malaysian Malay population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Taran Singh Pall; Sadagatullah, Abdul Nawfar; Yusof, Abdul Halim

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study was to examine the differing curves of the volar distal radius of healthy Malaysian Malays, so as to obtain detailed morphological information that will further the understanding of volar plate osteosynthesis in Malaysian Malays. METHODS Computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction was performed on the wrists of 16 healthy Malaysian Malay volunteers. Profile measurements were made using a software program. A novel parameter, the pronator quadratus curve angle, was explored and introduced in this study. Interclass correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the level of agreement between the data collected by the principal investigator and that collected by an independent radiologist. RESULTS The mean ± standard deviation of the arc radii on the radial aspect was 17.50° ± 5.40°, while the median (interquartile range [IQR]) of the arc radii on the ulnar aspect was 25.27° (IQR 5.80°). The mean ± standard deviation of the curvature of the pronator quadratus line was 40.52° ± 2.48°. The arc radii on the radial aspect was significantly lower than the arc radii on the ulnar aspect (p = 0.001). Different radial and ulnar arcs were observed in 56.25% of the radii; the arc was deeper on the ulnar aspect in 93.75% of the radii. CONCLUSION Based on the findings of this study, the likelihood of achieving anatomical reduction with uniformly curved, fixed-angle volar plates is questionable. Changes in the design of these implants may be needed to optimise their usage in the Malaysian Malay population. PMID:25814075

  7. Eye tissues study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Genina, Elina A.; Lakodina, Nina A.

    2001-08-01

    Theoretical and in vitro and in vivo experimental study of spectral and polarization characteristics of the human and rabbit eye tissues are presented. The possibility of control of optical properties of eye cornea, lens and sclera is discussed and realized experimentally for glucose solution as the refractive index matching factor.

  8. A magnetic resonance imaging study on the articulatory and acoustic speech parameters of Malay vowels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined. Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production. PMID:25060583

  9. Second Language Figurative Proficiency: A Comparative Study of Malay and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charteris-Black, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Explores the potential of cognitive linguistic notions such as conceptual metaphor and conceptual metonym for comparing the figurative phraseologies of English and Malay and anticipating second language learner difficulty. A comparative analysis is undertaken that identifies six types of relationship between figurative expressions in the two…

  10. MTHFR C677T polymorphism as a risk factor of neural tube defects in Malay: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Hayati, A R; Zainal, A I; Tan, G C; Ong, L C; Khoo, T B

    2008-12-01

    Major congenital malformations occur in about 3% of newborn. Several studies have suggested that homozygosity for the C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) variant is a potential risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). It has been hypothesized that the maternal folic acid supplementation prevents NTDs by partially correcting reduced MTHFR activity associated with the variant form of the enzyme. This association has not been found in some ethnic groups. In this study, we attempted to assess the association between NTDs and MTHFR C677T in Malaysian Malay population. Results show that MTHFR 677TT genotype was absent in both patient and control groups. PMID:19803295

  11. What Indigestion Means to the Malays?

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Andrew Seng Boon

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a large ethnic group within the South-East Asia, there is a paucity of reported literatures on dyspepsia in the Malay population. Recent population-based studies indicate that uninvestigated dyspepsia, based on the Rome II criteria, is reported in 12.8% and 11.6% of Malays in the urban and rural communities respectively. Organic causes of dyspepsia including upper gastrointestinal tract cancers, its precancerous lesions, and erosive diseases are uncommon which is largely due to an exceptionally low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in this population. On the other hand, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome are relatively common in the Malays than expected. Within a primary care setting, functional dyspepsia, based on the Rome III criteria, is reported in 11.9% of Malays, of which epigastric pain syndrome is found to be more common. Married Malay females are more likely to have functional dyspepsia and psychosocial alarm symptoms. Also based on the Rome III criteria, irritable bowel syndrome, commonly overlapped with functional dyspepsia, is reported in 10.9% of Malays within a community-based setting. Rather than psychosocial symptoms, red flags are most likely to be reported among the Malays with irritable bowel syndrome despite having a low yield for organic diseases. Based upon the above observations, "proton pump inhibitor test" is probably preferable than the "test and treat H. pylori" strategy in the initial management of dyspepsia among the Malays. PMID:23875095

  12. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century. PMID:1473465

  13. Formant frequencies of Malay vowels produced by Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years.

    PubMed

    Ting, Hua-Nong; Zourmand, Alireza; Chia, See-Yan; Yong, Boon-Fei; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman

    2012-09-01

    The formant frequencies of Malaysian Malay children have not been well studied. This article investigates the first four formant frequencies of sustained vowels in 360 Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Generally, Malay female children had higher formant frequencies than those of their male counterparts. However, no significant differences in all four formant frequencies were observed between the Malay male and female children in most of the vowels and age groups. Significant differences in all formant frequencies were found across the Malay vowels in both Malay male and female children for all age groups except for F4 in female children aged 12 years. Generally, the Malaysian Malay children showed a nonsystematic decrement in formant frequencies with age. Low levels of significant differences in formant frequencies were observed across the age groups in most of the vowels for F1, F3, and F4 in Malay male children and F1 and F4 in Malay female children. PMID:22285457

  14. Malay Childhood, Temperament and Individuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Ellen

    This study of children in a Malay community assesses the cross-cultural validity of one conceptualization of temperament, identifies cultural differences in child rearing practices and beliefs, and explores parents' recognition of individual differences emerging in early childhood. The community studied consisted of three villages located about 20…

  15. Measuring Land Uses Accessibility by Using Fuzzy Majority Gis-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis Case Study: Malayer City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taravat, A.; Yari, A.; Rajaei, M.; Mousavian, R.

    2014-10-01

    Public spaces accessibility has become one of the important factors in urban planning. Therefore, considerable attention has been given to measure accessibility to public spaces on the UK, US and Canada, but there are few studies outside the anglophone world especially in developing countries such as Iran. In this study an attempt has been made to measure objective accessibility to public spaces (parks, school, library and administrative) using fuzzy majority GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis. This method is for defining the priority for distribution of urban facilities and utilities as the first step towards elimination of social justice. In order to test and demonstrate the presented model, the comprehensive plan of Malayer city has been considered for ranking in three objectives and properties in view of index per capital (Green space, sport facilities and major cultural centers like library and access index). The results can be used to inform the local planning process and the GIS approach can be expanded into other local authority domains. The results shows that the distribution of facilities in Malayer city has followed on the base of cost benefit law and the human aspect of resource allocation programming of facilities (from centre to suburbs of the city).

  16. Psychometric properties of Malay neuropsychiatry unit cognitive assessment tool among Alzheimer's disease patients in comparison to Malay Montreal Cognitive Assessment.

    PubMed

    Thong, Kai Shin; Chee, Kok Yoon; Ng, Chong Guan; Walterfang, Mark; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to establish psychometric properties of the Malay Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive Assessment Tool (Malay NuCOG) in Alzheimer's disease. NuCOG was translated to Malay language and compared with Montreal Cognitive Assessment Tool on 80 individuals. The Malay NuCOG showed good internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.895). It demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity at the cutoff score of 78.50/100. The Malay NuCOG is a valid and reliable cognitive instrument that is sensitive and specific for the detection of dementia and has clinical advantages in its ability to examine individual cognitive domains. PMID:26615809

  17. English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

  18. Understanding Arabic-Speaking Skill Learning Strategies among Selected Malay Learners: A Case-Study at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haron, Sueraya Che; Ahmad, Ismail Sheikh; Mamat, Arifin; Mohamed, Ismaiel Hassanein Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    In Malaysia, studies have shown that most Malay learners learning Arabic Language exhibit weak Arabic speaking skill despite spending years of learning the language. However, given the same learning environment and experience, some of them could be considered as good Arabic speakers as revealed by the results of Arabic Placement Test conducted by…

  19. Dissecting the genetic structure and admixture of four geographical Malay populations.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Twee-Hee Ong, Rick; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; de Silva, H Janaka; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Kato, Norihiro; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Teo, Yik-Ying; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    The Malay people are an important ethnic composition in Southeast Asia, but their genetic make-up and population structure remain poorly studied. Here we conducted a genome-wide study of four geographical Malay populations: Peninsular Malaysian Malay (PMM), Singaporean Malay (SGM), Indonesian Malay (IDM) and Sri Lankan Malay (SLM). All the four Malay populations showed substantial admixture with multiple ancestries. We identified four major ancestral components in Malay populations: Austronesian (17%-62%), Proto-Malay (15%-31%), East Asian (4%-16%) and South Asian (3%-34%). Approximately 34% of the genetic makeup of SLM is of South Asian ancestry, resulting in its distinct genetic pattern compared with the other three Malay populations. Besides, substantial differentiation was observed between the Malay populations from the north and the south, and between those from the west and the east. In summary, this study revealed that the genetic identity of the Malays comprises a mixed entity of multiple ancestries represented by Austronesian, Proto-Malay, East Asian and South Asian, with most of the admixture events estimated to have occurred 175 to 1,500 years ago, which in turn suggests that geographical isolation and independent admixture have significantly shaped the genetic architectures and the diversity of the Malay populations. PMID:26395220

  20. Dissecting the genetic structure and admixture of four geographical Malay populations

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Twee-Hee Ong, Rick; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Janaka de Silva, H.; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Kato, Norihiro; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R.; Teo, Yik-Ying; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    The Malay people are an important ethnic composition in Southeast Asia, but their genetic make-up and population structure remain poorly studied. Here we conducted a genome-wide study of four geographical Malay populations: Peninsular Malaysian Malay (PMM), Singaporean Malay (SGM), Indonesian Malay (IDM) and Sri Lankan Malay (SLM). All the four Malay populations showed substantial admixture with multiple ancestries. We identified four major ancestral components in Malay populations: Austronesian (17%–62%), Proto-Malay (15%–31%), East Asian (4%–16%) and South Asian (3%–34%). Approximately 34% of the genetic makeup of SLM is of South Asian ancestry, resulting in its distinct genetic pattern compared with the other three Malay populations. Besides, substantial differentiation was observed between the Malay populations from the north and the south, and between those from the west and the east. In summary, this study revealed that the genetic identity of the Malays comprises a mixed entity of multiple ancestries represented by Austronesian, Proto-Malay, East Asian and South Asian, with most of the admixture events estimated to have occurred 175 to 1,500 years ago, which in turn suggests that geographical isolation and independent admixture have significantly shaped the genetic architectures and the diversity of the Malay populations. PMID:26395220

  1. Acoustic characteristics of vowels by normal Malaysian Malay young adults.

    PubMed

    Ting, Hua Nong; Chia, See Yan; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman; Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah

    2011-11-01

    The acoustic characteristics of sustained vowel have been widely investigated across various languages and ethnic groups. These acoustic measures, including fundamental frequency (F(0)), jitter (Jitt), relative average perturbation (RAP), five-point period perturbation quotient (PPQ5), shimmer (Shim), and 11-point amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ11) are not well established for Malaysian Malay young adults. This article studies the acoustic measures of Malaysian Malay adults using acoustical analysis. The study analyzed six sustained Malay vowels of 60 normal native Malaysian Malay adults with a mean of 21.19 years. The F(0) values of Malaysian Malay males and females were reported as 134.85±18.54 and 238.27±24.06Hz, respectively. Malaysian Malay females had significantly higher F(0) than that of males for all the vowels. However, no significant differences were observed between the genders for the perturbation measures in all the vowels, except RAP in /e/. No significant F(0) differences between the vowels were observed. Significant differences between the vowels were reported for all perturbation measures in Malaysian Malay males. As for Malaysian Malay females, significant differences between the vowels were reported for Shim and APQ11. Multiethnic comparisons indicate that F(0) varies between Malaysian Malay and other ethnic groups. However, the perturbation measures cannot be directly compared, where the measures vary significantly across different speech analysis softwares. PMID:21429707

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of the Malay Satisfaction with Life Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is one of the most widely used scales for the measurement of subjective well-being across the globe, but no satisfactory version exists for use among Malay-speaking populations. The present study reports on the translation of a new Malay SWLS and examines its psychometric properties in a community sample of…

  3. Upper eyelid and eyebrow dimensions in Malays.

    PubMed

    Dharap, A S; Reddy, S C

    1995-12-01

    The upper eyelid crease height pretarsal skin and eyebrow height were studied in 305 Malay subjects (146 males and 159 females) varying in age from 2-80 years, who were randomly selected from the residents of Kota Bharu, Kelantan. In females, from the age of 11 years the mean pretarsal skin height increased progressively with age. In males, however, it decreased with age up to 60 years. In both sexes, subjects more than 60 years old showed highest values for pretarsal skin height. The mean eyelid crease height increased progressively with age from 11 years onwards in males but not in females. The mean eyebrow height increased with age in females but not in males. Eyebrow and eyelid measurements seem to show a definite racial variation. Besides establishing normal values for eyelid and eyebrow measurements in Malays, our findings indicate that age and sex should be taken into consideration to achieve satisfactory results in cosmetic eyelid surgery in Malays. PMID:8668060

  4. Father Involvement among Malay Muslims in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhari, Rumaya; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Talib, Mansor Abu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study of 989 fathers of school-going children aged 10 through 16 from intact families in rural and urban areas in Selangor, Malaysia. The study aims to explore the factors that affect father involvement among Malay Muslims. Results indicate that fathers' education, marital quality, and number of…

  5. Factors Influencing the Prevalence of Mental Health Problems among Malay Elderly Residing in a Rural Community: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Madihah; Abdul Rahman, Mohd Rizam; Yusof, Khairul Hazdi; Abd Aziz, Noor Azah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mental health problems are common in old age, but frequently remain undetected and untreated. Mental health problems in the elderly are the result of a complex interaction of social, psychological and biological factors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and emotional stress) and their associated factors among the Malay elderly in a rural community of Perak, Malaysia. Methods It was a cross-sectional study. The Malay elderly aged 60 years and above were selected through convenient sampling to give a total of 230 respondents. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Bivariate analyses were performed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the factors and each of the mental health statuses assessed. Results The results showed that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among the elderly respondents was 27.8%, 22.6%, and 8.7%, respectively. The significant factors for depression were single elderly (Adjusted OR = 3.27, 95%CI 1.66, 6.44), living with family (Adjusted OR = 4.98, 95%CI 2.05, 12.10), and poor general health status (Adjusted OR = 2.28, 95%CI 1.20, 4.36). Living with family was the only significant factor for anxiety (Adjusted OR = 2.68, 95%CI 1.09, 6.57). There was no significant factor for stress. Conclusions Depression and anxiety among the Malay elderly in the rural community were very worrying. More equity in health should be created or strengthened in order to intensify the opportunity to identify, diagnose, and treat those with mental health problems. Living arrangement in the rural community was an important factor that had influenced depression and anxiety. Therefore, further research is recommended for more comprehensive information, as a result of which appropriate intervention can be made

  6. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-03

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1–5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  7. Experiencing affective music in eyes-closed and eyes-open states: an electroencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lee, You-Yun; Liang, Keng-Chen; Chen, I-Ping; Tsai, Chen-Gia; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    In real life, listening to music may be associated with an eyes-closed or eyes-open state. The effect of eye state on listeners’ reaction to music has attracted some attention, but its influence on brain activity has not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) markers for the emotional valence of music in different eye states. Thirty participants listened to musical excerpts with different emotional content in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states. The results showed that participants rated the music as more pleasant or with more positive valence under an eyes-open state. In addition, we found that the alpha asymmetry indices calculated on the parietal and temporal sites reflected emotion valence in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states, respectively. The theta power in the frontal area significantly increased while listening to emotional-positive music compared to emotional-negative music under the eyes-closed condition. These effects of eye states on EEG markers are discussed in terms of brain mechanisms underlying attention and emotion. PMID:26300835

  8. Experiencing affective music in eyes-closed and eyes-open states: an electroencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lee, You-Yun; Liang, Keng-Chen; Chen, I-Ping; Tsai, Chen-Gia; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    In real life, listening to music may be associated with an eyes-closed or eyes-open state. The effect of eye state on listeners' reaction to music has attracted some attention, but its influence on brain activity has not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) markers for the emotional valence of music in different eye states. Thirty participants listened to musical excerpts with different emotional content in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states. The results showed that participants rated the music as more pleasant or with more positive valence under an eyes-open state. In addition, we found that the alpha asymmetry indices calculated on the parietal and temporal sites reflected emotion valence in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states, respectively. The theta power in the frontal area significantly increased while listening to emotional-positive music compared to emotional-negative music under the eyes-closed condition. These effects of eye states on EEG markers are discussed in terms of brain mechanisms underlying attention and emotion. PMID:26300835

  9. The Nearly Forgotten Malay Folklore: Shall We Start with the Software?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd Rahim, Normaliza

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on the nearly forgotten Malay folklore in Malaysia. The objectives of the study were to identify and discuss the types of Malay folklore among primary school learners. The samples of the study were 100 male and female students at schools in Selangor. The samples were picked at random from several schools and they were given…

  10. Sentence Analysis in Modern Malay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, M. Blanche

    The author suggest that this book, written primarily as a working textbook for second-year university students reading Malay, may also be used by those "interested in the application of a formal grammatical framework to the sentences of a language which belongs to the Austronesian family." Basing her analysis on the principles of structural…

  11. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  12. Bioethics in the Malay-Muslim Community in Malaysia: A Study on the Formulation of Fatwa on Genetically Modified Food by the National Fatwa Council.

    PubMed

    Isa, Noor Munirah; Baharuddin, Azizan; Man, Saadan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-12-01

    The field of bioethics aims to ensure that modern scientific and technological advancements have been primarily developed for the benefits of humankind. This field is deeply rooted in the traditions of Western moral philosophy and socio-political theory. With respect to the view that the practice of bioethics in certain community should incorporate religious and cultural elements, this paper attempts to expound bioethical tradition of the Malay-Muslim community in Malaysia, with shedding light on the mechanism used by the National Fatwa Council to evaluate whether an application of biological sciences is ethical or not. By using the application of the genetically modified food as a case study, this study has found that the council had reviewed the basic guidelines in the main references of shari'ah in order to make decision on the permissibility of the application. The fatwa is made after having consultation with the experts in science field. The council has taken all factors into consideration and given priority to the general aim of shari'ah which to serve the interests of mankind and to save them from harm. PMID:24750562

  13. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  14. Psychometric properties of the Drive for Muscularity Scale in Malay men.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Lau, Poh Li; Jaafar, Jas Laile

    2016-06-01

    The Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) is a widely used measure in studies of men's body image, but few studies have examined its psychometric properties outside English-speaking samples. Here, we assessed the factor structure of a Malay translation of the DMS. A community sample of 159 Malay men from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed the DMS, along with measures of self-esteem, body appreciation, and muscle discrepancy. Exploratory factor analysis led to the extraction of two factors, differentiating attitudes from behaviours, which mirrors the parent scale. Both factors also loaded on to a higher-order drive for muscularity factor. The subscales of the Malay DMS had adequate internal consistencies and good convergent validity, insofar as significant relationships were reported with self-esteem, body appreciation, muscle discrepancy, and body mass index. These results indicate that the Malay DMS has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used to assess body image concerns in Malay men. PMID:27037873

  15. A Malay Village and Malaysia; Social Values and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Peter J.

    According to the author, the aim of the report was to concentrate attention on the conduct of Malay villagers in their relationships with their outside world and on the values and attitudes that underlie this conduct. The inhabitants of the village of Jendram Hilir, who were the subjects of the study, are typical of the segment of the Malay…

  16. Malay Special Rights: "Affirmative Action" in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Mah Hui

    This paper provides an overview of Malaysia's affirmative action program, legally constituted as Malay Special Rights. An introduction defines the aim of the program as improving the economic position of Bumiputras, who consist of Malays and other indigenous communities. These, it is said, are Malaysia's most economically disadvantaged groups;…

  17. Population genetic structure of peninsular Malaysia Malay sub-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:21483678

  18. Population Genetic Structure of Peninsular Malaysia Malay Sub-Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:21483678

  19. Accuracy of Four Tooth Size Prediction Methods on Malay Population

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Belal Khaled; Abu Asab, Saifeddin Hamed I.; Taib, Haslina

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the accuracy of Moyers 50%, Tanaka and Johnston, Ling and Wong and Jaroontham and Godfrey methods in predicting the mesio-distal crown width of the permanent canines and premolars (C + P1 + P2) in Malay population. Materials and Methods. The study models of 240 Malay children (120 males and 120 females) aged 14 to 18 years, all free of any signs of dental pathology or anomalies, were measured using a digital caliper accurate to 0.01 mm. The predicted widths (C + P1 + P2) in both arches derived from the tested prediction equations were compared with the actual measured widths. Results. Moyers and Tanaka and Johnston methods showed significant difference between the actual and predicted widths of (C + P1 + P2) for both sexes. Ling and Wong method also showed statistically significant difference for males, however, there was no significant difference for females. Jaroontham and Godfrey method showed statistical significant difference for females, but the male values did not show any significant difference. Conclusion. For male Malay, the method proposed by Jaroontham and Godfrey for male Thai proved to be highly accurate. For female Malay, the method proposed by Ling and Wong for southern Chinese females proved to be highly accurate. PMID:23209918

  20. Eye Tracking Studies of Normative and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Canan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of eye tracking measures (saccades, smooth-pursuit eye movements, fixations during scene and face perception, and pupillary dilation) to study typical and clinical populations of children and adolescents and evaluates the use of these measures. The studies are evaluated with a focus on points that may be of general…

  1. [Study of cytotoxic and antiviral effects of some eye drops].

    PubMed

    Dediulescu, Lucreţia; Dediulescu, Daniela Florentina

    2008-01-01

    The study of the cytotoxic and antiviral effect of six commercial mixtures, eye drops type, underlined the advantages of using eye drops with Indomethacin for Herpetic Keratitis, due to the antiviral effect and also for the lack of cytotoxicity. PMID:19354165

  2. Reading Mathematics Representations: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrá, Chiara; Lindström, Paulina; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Robutti, Ornella; Sabena, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    We use eye tracking as a method to examine how different mathematical representations of the same mathematical object are attended to by students. The results of this study show that there is a meaningful difference in the eye movements between formulas and graphs. This difference can be understood in terms of the cultural and social shaping of…

  3. Fatty Fish May Curb Eye Risks for Diabetics, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160495.html Fatty Fish May Curb Eye Risks for Diabetics, Study Finds ... Aug. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Two servings of fish a week may be enough to lower the ...

  4. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque.

    PubMed

    Granero, D; Pérez-Calatayud, J; Ballester, F; Casal, E; de Frutos, J M

    2004-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with 125I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T= 1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained. PMID

  5. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de

    2004-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with {sup 125}I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained.

  6. Hair distribution on the phalanges of the hands in Malays.

    PubMed

    Dharap, A S; Varma, S L; Chary, T V

    1994-12-01

    618 Malay subjects were selected randomly to find out the frequency and patterns of hair distribution on the phalanges of their hands. Hair on the proximal phalanx was absent in 2% of the males and in 3.3% of the females. The middle phalangeal hair (MPH) was absent in 78% of the females and in 64.9% of the males. The frequency in order of MPH was found to be 4 > 3 > 5 > 2. Fifteen patterns of hair distribution on the phalanges of the hand were found. Such a large number of patterns has not been reported yet. No subject had hair on the distal phalanges. These observations when compared with earlier studies show that the Malays are similar to other Asiatic populations such as the Japanese and Nepalis. PMID:7840537

  7. Study of Light Scattering in the Human Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, I. Kelly; Bruce, N. C.; Valdos, L. R. Berriel

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present a numerical model of the human eye to be used in studies of the scattering of light in different components of the eye's optical system. Different parts of the eye are susceptible to produce scattering for different reasons; age, illness or injury. For example, cataracts can appear in the human lens or injuries or fungi can appear on the cornea. The aim of the study is to relate the backscattered light, which is what doctors measure or detect, to the forward scattered light, which is what affects the patient's vision. We present the model to be used, the raytrace procedure and some preliminary results for the image on the retina without scattering.

  8. Translation and validation of the Malay version of the Stroke Knowledge Test

    PubMed Central

    Sowtali, Siti Noorkhairina; Yusoff, Dariah Mohd; Harith, Sakinah; Mohamed, Monniaty

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, there is a lack of published studies on assessment tools to evaluate the effectiveness of stroke education programs. Methods This study developed and validated the Malay language version of the Stroke Knowledge Test research instrument. This study involved translation, validity, and reliability phases. The instrument underwent backward and forward translation of the English version into the Malay language. Nine experts reviewed the content for consistency, clarity, difficulty, and suitability for inclusion. Perceived usefulness and utilization were obtained from experts’ opinions. Later, face validity assessment was conducted with 10 stroke patients to determine appropriateness of sentences and grammar used. A pilot study was conducted with 41 stroke patients to determine the item analysis and reliability of the translated instrument using the Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach’s alpha. Results The final Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test included 20 items with good content coverage, acceptable item properties, and positive expert review ratings. Psychometric investigations suggest that Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test had moderate reliability with Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach’s alpha of 0.58. Improvement is required for Stroke Knowledge Test items with unacceptable difficulty indices. Overall, the average rating of perceived usefulness and perceived utility of the instruments were both 72.7%, suggesting that reviewers were likely to use the instruments in their facilities. Conclusions Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test was a valid and reliable tool to assess educational needs and to evaluate stroke knowledge among participants of group-based stroke education programs in Malaysia. PMID:27092192

  9. Semifluorinated Alkane Eye Drops for Treatment of Dry Eye Disease—A Prospective, Multicenter Noninterventional Study

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Dieter; Krösser, Sonja; Beckert, Michael; Cursiefen, Claus; Kaercher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Evaporation of the tear film is heavily discussed as one core reason for dry eye disease (DED). Subsequently, new artificial tear products are developed that specifically target this pathomechanism. Perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8, NovaTears®) from the family of semifluorinated alkanes is a novel substance that has been approved as a medical device, as a nonblurring wetting agent for the ocular surface. Methods: Thirty patients with hyperevaporative dry eye received F6H8 during a prospective, multicenter, observational 6-week study. Patients were advised to apply 1 drop 4 times daily in both eyes. Parameters assessed included best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, Schirmer I test, tear fluid, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), corneal staining, meibum secretion, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI©). Results: From the 30 patients recruited, 25 completed the trial per protocol. Four patients discontinued F6H8 and 1 patient did not present for follow-up. F6H8 treatment led to significant reduction of corneal staining and significant increase of Schirmer I and TFBUT. In addition, OSDI score dropped significantly from a mean of 55 (±23.0) to 34 (±22.4). Visual acuity and ocular pressure did not change. Conclusions: This prospective observational study shows significant beneficial effects in patients suffering from evaporative DED, using F6H8 in all the relevant parameters tested. The decrease of the OSDI by a mean of 21 points was particularly remarkable and clearly exceeds minimal, clinical important differences for mild or moderate and severe disease. Overall, F6H8 (NovaTears) seems to be safe and effective in treating mild to moderate hyperevaporative DED. PMID:26296040

  10. The Design of Video Games in the Implementation of Malay Language Learning among Foreign Students in an Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Fuziah; Alias, Norlidah; Rahman, Mohd Nazri Abdul; Dewitt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at reviewing the curriculum design by including video games in the implementation of the Malay language course at an Institute of Higher Learning. The objective of this study is to obtain expert opinion on the expected manner of implementation of video games in learning the Malay language. The Fuzzy Delphi technique (FDM) is used…

  11. Metric Issues in the Study of Eye Movements in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyrnis, Nikolaos

    2008-01-01

    This review provides a description of the measurement methods, task definitions and measurement parameters in the study of smooth eye pursuit and saccade-antisaccade tasks in psychiatry. The large heterogeneity in task definitions and definitions of parameters and its potential impact on the large variability of the parameter measures is…

  12. Development of Text Reading in Japanese: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jincho, Nobuyuki; Feng, Gary; Mazuka, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    This study examined age-group differences in eye movements among third-grade, fifth-grade, and adult Japanese readers. In Experiment 1, Japanese children, but not adults, showed a longer fixation time on logographic kanji words than on phonologically transparent hiragana words. Further, an age-group difference was found in the first fixation…

  13. Comparison of arch form between ethnic Malays and Malaysian Aborigines in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Xinwei, Eunice Soh; Lim, Sheh Yinn; Jamaludin, Marhazlinda; Mohamed, Nor Himazian; Yusof, Zamros Yuzaidi Mohd; Shoaib, Lily Azura; Nik Hussein, Nik Noriah

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine and compare the frequency distribution of various arch shapes in ethnic Malays and Malaysian Aborigines in Peninsular Malaysia and to investigate the morphological differences of arch form between these two ethnic groups. Methods We examined 120 ethnic Malay study models (60 maxillary, 60 mandibular) and 129 Malaysian Aboriginal study models (66 maxillary, 63 mandibular). We marked 18 buccal tips and incisor line angles on each model, and digitized them using 2-dimensional coordinate system. Dental arches were classified as square, ovoid, or tapered by printing the scanned images and superimposing Orthoform arch templates on them. Results The most common maxillary arch shape in both ethnic groups was ovoid, as was the most common mandibular arch shape among ethnic Malay females. The rarest arch shape was square. Chi-square tests, indicated that only the distribution of the mandibular arch shape was significantly different between groups (p = 0.040). However, when compared using independent t-tests, there was no difference in the mean value of arch width between groups. Arch shape distribution was not different between genders of either ethnic group, except for the mandibular arch of ethnic Malays. Conclusions Ethnic Malays and Malaysian Aborigines have similar dental arch dimensions and shapes. PMID:23112931

  14. The Chinese American Eye Study: Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Rohit; Hsu, Chunyi; Wang, Dandan; Torres, Mina; Azen, Stanley P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To summarize the study design, operational strategies and procedures of the Chinese American Eye Study (CHES), a population-based assessment of the prevalence of visual impairment, ocular disease, and visual functioning in Chinese Americans. Methods This population-based, cross-sectional study, included 4,570 Chinese, 50 years and older, residing in the city of Monterey Park, California. Each eligible participant completed a detailed interview and eye examination. The interview included an assessment of demographic, behavioral, and ocular risk factors and health-related and vision-related quality of life. The eye examination included measurements of visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual fields, fundus and optic disc photography, a detailed anterior and posterior segment examination, and measurements of blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and blood glucose levels. Results The objectives of the CHES are to obtain prevalence estimates of visual impairment, refractive error, diabetic retinopathy, open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma, lens opacities, and age-related macular degeneration in Chinese-Americans. In addition, outcomes include effect estimates for risk factors associated with eye diseases. Lastly, CHES will investigate the genetic determinates of myopia and glaucoma. Conclusion The CHES will provide information about the prevalence and risk factors of ocular diseases in one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. PMID:24044409

  15. NASA supporting studies for microgravity research on eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the work on this project was to provide support for ground-based studies on the effects of gravity on eye movements. The effects of microgravity on the optokinetic eye movements of humans are investigated. OKN was induced by having subjects watch 3.3 deg stripes moving at 35 deg/s for 45 s in a binocular, head-fixed apparatus. The field (hor., 88 deg; vert., 72 deg), was rotated about axes that were upright or tilted 45 deg or 90 deg. The head was upright or tilted 45 deg on the body. Head-horizontal (yaw axis) and head-vertical (pitch axis) components of OKN were recorded with electro-oculography (EOG). Slow phase velocity vectors were determined relative to gravity. With the head upright, the axis of eye rotation during yaw axis OKN was coincident with the stimulus axis and the spatial vertical. With the head tilted 45 deg on the body, a persistent vertical component of eye velocity developed during yaw axis stimulation, and there was an average shift of the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical of approximately 18 deg in six subjects. During oblique optokinetic stimulation with the head upright, the axis of eye rotation shifted 12 deg toward the spatial vertical. When the head was tilted, the axis of eye rotation rotated to the other side of the spatial vertical by 5.4 deg during the same oblique stimulation. This counter-rotation of the axis of eye rotation is similar to the 'Muller (E) effect', in which the perception of the upright counter-rotates to the opposite side of the spatial vertical when subjects are tilted in darkness. The data were simulated by a model of OKN. Despite the short OKAN time constants, strong horizontal to vertical cross-coupling was produced if the horizontal and vertical time constants were in proper ratio, and there was no suppression of nystagmus orthogonal to the stimulus direction. This shows that the spatial orientation of OKN can be due to a restructuring of the system matrix of velocity storage as a

  16. The Nakuru eye disease cohort study: methodology & rationale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No longitudinal data from population-based studies of eye disease in sub-Saharan-Africa are available. A population-based survey was undertaken in 2007/08 to estimate the prevalence and determinants of blindness and low vision in Nakuru district, Kenya. This survey formed the baseline to a six-year prospective cohort study to estimate the incidence and progression of eye disease in this population. Methods/Design A nationally representative sample of persons aged 50 years and above were selected between January 2007 and November 2008 through probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters, with sampling of individuals within clusters through compact segment sampling. Selected participants underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations which included: visual acuity, autorefraction, visual fields, slit lamp assessment of the anterior and posterior segments, lens grading and fundus photography. In addition, anthropometric measures were taken and risk factors were assessed through structured interviews. Six years later (2013/2014) all subjects were invited for follow-up assessment, repeating the baseline examination methodology. Discussion The methodology will provide estimates of the progression of eye diseases and incidence of blindness, visual impairment, and eye diseases in an adult Kenyan population. PMID:24886366

  17. [Anthropometric measurements in Malay children from upper class families in Kuala Lumpur].

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Suhardi, A; Khalid, B A

    1993-03-01

    This study was done to determine the anthropometric measurement patterns of Malay children from wealthy families in Malaysia and to make a comparison with NCHS reference population. A population of 900 children aged between 3-12 years old from Taman Tun Dr Ismail, Kuala Lumpur (TDI), were examined but only 871 of them were eligible for the study. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness were measured. The increment pattern of anthropometric measurements of TDI children was quite similar to NCHS except for having a lower median weight for age and height for age. There was prepubescent increase in skin folds thickness in both sexes, followed by a midpubescent decrease and a late pubescent increase. The study indicated that Malay children from a wealthy background have growth rates comparable to children in the West, hence NCHS percentile charts are suitable as a reference for comparing the nutritional status of Malay children in Malaysia. PMID:8341176

  18. Molecular Characterization of α- and β-Thalassaemia among Malay Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Yatim, Nur Fatihah; Abd. Rahim, Masitah; Menon, Kavitha; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Ahmad, Rahimah; Manocha, Anita Bhajan; Saleem, Mohamed; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Both α- and β-thalassaemia syndromes are public health problems in the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia. To molecularly characterise the α- and β-thalassaemia deletions and mutations among Malays from Penang, Gap-PCR and multiplexed amplification refractory mutation systems were used to study 13 α-thalassaemia determinants and 20 β-thalassaemia mutations in 28 and 40 unrelated Malays, respectively. Four α-thalassaemia deletions and mutations were demonstrated. −−SEA deletion and αCSα accounted for more than 70% of the α-thalassaemia alleles. Out of the 20 β-thalassaemia alleles studied, nine different β-thalassaemia mutations were identified of which βE accounted for more than 40%. We concluded that the highest prevalence of (α- and β-thalassaemia alleles in the Malays from Penang are −−SEA deletion and βE mutation, respectively. PMID:24857915

  19. [Binocular movements during pursuit and reading: eye tracking study].

    PubMed

    Boussand, F

    2012-09-01

    Detailed analysis of fine, slow ocular movements has not been the object of recent studies. With this in mind, special hardware and a simple testing protocol were developed, along with software for recording and analysis. The study of these movements, using this hardware adapted to follow both eyes, allowed the inclusion of binocularity in the precise analysis of ocular pursuit and reading. Recording the eye movements of 166 children and adults permitted identification of the main features of oculomotor development from age five years. These movements were studied during calibrated pursuit and reading. The persistence of oculomotor abnormalities during development can help to define an array of "visual immaturity" or "visual inefficiency". The study of these anomalies during reading explains some learning difficulties. PMID:22421034

  20. Translation and validation of the Malay Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined the psychometric properties of a Malay translation of the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS; Henderson-King & Henderson-King, 2005). A total of 373 Malaysian women completed the ACSS along with measures of ideal-actual weight discrepancy, body appreciation, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and demographics. Results showed that the Malay ACSS was best reduced to a two-factor solution, although an overall score of all 15 ACSS items showed the highest internal consistency. Results also showed that this overall score had good discriminant and divergent validity. It is expected that the availability of a Malay version of the ACSS will stimulate cross-cultural research on the acceptance of cosmetic surgery. PMID:20807682

  1. Predictors of Difficult Intubation Among Malay Patients in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Tantri, Aida Rosita; Firdaus, Riyadh; Salomo, Sahat Tumpal

    2016-01-01

    Background Failure to maintain an adequate airway can lead to brain damage and death. To reduce the risk of difficulty in maintaining an airway during general anesthesia, there are several known predictors of difficult intubation. People with a Malay background have different craniofacial structures in comparison with other individuals. Therefore, different predictors should be used for patients of Malay race. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx (DVL) in Malay patients based on several predictors, such as the modified Mallampati test (MMT), thyromental distance (TMD), and hyomental distance ratio (HMDR). Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study included 277 consecutive patients requiring general anesthesia. All subjects were evaluated using the MMT, TMD, and HMDR, and the cut-off points for the airway predictors were Mallampati III and IV, < 6.5 cm, and < 1.2, respectively. During direct laryngoscopy, the laryngeal view was graded using the Cormack-Lehane (CL) classification. CL grades III and IV were considered difficult visualization. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for each predictor were calculated both as sole and combined predictors. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of DVL. Results Difficulty in visualizing the larynx was found in 28 (10.1%) patients. The AUC, sensitivity, and specificity for the three airway predictors were as follows: MMT: 0.614, 10.7%, and 99.2%; HMDR: 0.743, 64.2%, and 74%; and TMD: 0.827, 82.1%, and 64.7%. The combination providing the best prediction in our study involved the MMT, HMDR, and TMD with an AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.835, 60.7%, and 88.8%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the MMT, HMDR, and TMD were independent predictors of DVL. Conclusions The TMD, with a cut-off point of 65 mm, had superior diagnostic value compared with the HMDR and

  2. Application of 3-Dimensional Printing Technology to Construct an Eye Model for Fundus Viewing Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Yuan, Dongqing; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system. Methods We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD) software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D) printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy. Results In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value. Conclusions The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus

  3. [Clinico-radiometric studies of the eye in radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlina, T N; Bazhin, A G

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of local and remote effects of radioactive substances on ocular media and development of measures to remove radionuclides from the eye. Radioactive substances getting into the eye in the form of aerosols, dust, or gaseous mixtures are unevenly distributed in it. The highest radioactivity was found on the skin of the eyelids and orbit, particularly so on the eyelashes and eyebrows, the least one on the cornea and in the conjunctival cavity. A follow-up of 8 to 17 years showed that timely removal of radionuclides from ocular surface prevented the development of specific symptoms and trophic changes of ocular media, of radiation cataracts among other things. The suggested method for washing the skin of the eyelids and orbital area from radioactive contaminants did not induce skin irritation, maceration, sense of discomfort, and is recommended for practice. PMID:8073571

  4. Crossing Borders: The Linguistic Practices of Aspiring Bilinguals in the Malay Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajadurai, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of Malay learners of English in Malaysia as they attempt to extend their use of English outside the classroom and thus participate in new linguistic practices. Using a multiple case study approach, the study examines the narrative accounts of learners generated through student journals and focus group discussions.…

  5. Assessing Body Fat of Children by Skinfold Thickness, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: A Validation Study Among Malay Children Aged 7 to 11 Years.

    PubMed

    Noradilah, Mohd Jonit; Ang, Yeow Nyin; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Deurenberg, Paul; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to validate skinfold (SKF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in determining body fat percentage (BF%) of Malay children aged 7 to 11 years. A total of 160 children had their BF% assessed using SKF and BIA, with DXA as the criterion method. Four SKF equations (SKFBray, SKFJohnston, SKFSlaughter, and SKFGoran) and 4 BIA equations (BIAManufacturer, BIAHoutkooper, BIARush, and BIAKushner) were used to estimate BF%. Mean age, weight, and height were 9.4 ± 1.1years, 30.5 ± 9.9 kg, and 131.3 ± 8.4 cm. All equations significantly underestimated BF% (P < .05). BIA equations had reasonable agreement with DXA and were independent of BF% with BIAManufacturer being the best equation. Although BIA underestimates BF% as compared with DXA, BIA was more suitable to measure BF% in a population that is similar to this study sample than SKF, suggesting a need to develop new SKF equations that are population specific. PMID:27073201

  6. Growth of the eye lens: II. Allometric studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the ontogeny and phylogeny of lens growth in a variety of species using allometry. Methods Data on the accumulation of wet and/or dry lens weight as a function of bodyweight were obtained for 40 species and subjected to allometric analysis to examine ontogenic growth and compaction. Allometric analysis was also used to compare the maximum adult lens weights for 147 species with the maximum adult bodyweight and to compare lens volumes calculated from wet and dry weights with eye volumes calculated from axial length. Results Linear allometric relationships were obtained for the comparison of ontogenic lens and bodyweight accumulation. The body mass exponent (BME) decreased with increasing animal size from around 1.0 in small rodents to 0.4 in large ungulates for both wet and dry weights. Compaction constants for the ontogenic growth ranged from 1.00 in birds and reptiles up to 1.30 in mammals. Allometric comparison of maximum lens wet and dry weights with maximum bodyweights also yielded linear plots with a BME of 0.504 for all warm blooded species except primates which had a BME of 0.25. When lens volumes were compared with eye volumes, all species yielded a scaling constant of 0.75 but the proportionality constants for primates and birds were lower. Conclusions Ontogenic lens growth is fastest, relative to body growth, in small animals and slowest in large animals. Fiber cell compaction takes place throughout life in most species, but not in birds and reptiles. Maximum adult lens size scales with eye size with the same exponent in all species, but birds and primates have smaller lenses relative to eye size than other species. Optical properties of the lens are generated through the combination of variations in the rate of growth, rate of compaction, shape and size. PMID:24715759

  7. Impact of telephone consent and potential for eye donation in the UK: the Newcastle Eye Centre study.

    PubMed

    Ting, D S J; Potts, J; Jones, M; Lawther, T; Armitage, W J; Figueiredo, F C

    2016-03-01

    AimsTo examine the impact of telephone consent introduced in 2007 on the eye donation rate and to report the changing trend and potential for improvement in eye donation in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.MethodsRelevant data were retrospectively collected from the local eye retrieval database for two separate years, namely, 2006 (before the introduction of telephone consent) and 2010. All the hospitals within Newcastle were included in the study.ResultsFrom 2006 to 2010, there was a 3.5-fold increase in eye donation from 32 (of 2479 deaths) to 111 donors per year (of 2213 deaths) in Newcastle (P<0.001). Consent was obtained via face-to-face interview in all 32 (100%) and 59 (53.2%) donors in 2006 and 2010, respectively. Introduction of telephone consent increased the donation rate by an additional 88.1% (from 59 to 111 donors) in 2010 (P<0.001). In addition, there was a significant increase in medical notes of the deceased being reviewed from 27.1% (671/2479 cases) in 2006 to 62.4% (1382/2213 cases) in 2010 (P<0.001). Acceptance rate of eye donation was 45.7% (32/70) in 2006 and 49.6% (111/224) in 2010 (P=0.575). Acceptance rate was positively associated with registration on organ donor register (P<0.001) and telephone consent (P<0.001), but not with age (P=0.883), gender (P=0.234), or location of death (P=0.984) of the potential donors.ConclusionThere has been a substantial improvement in eye donation rate in Newcastle over the recent years. Introduction of telephone consent and high-quality eye donation service serve as effective measures for increasing eye donation. PMID:26514245

  8. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome at a Singapore eye clinic

    PubMed Central

    Seng Lee, Jason Kian; Ying Wong, Elizabeth Poh; Ho, Su Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographics of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG) in a Singapore hospital eye outpatient clinic. Methods A retrospective study of 93 consecutive patients (146 eyes) with PXF was undertaken by a single ophthalmologist over a period of 37 months (July 1, 2006, to July 31, 2009). Results Ninety-three (2.8%) of 3,297 patients seen during the study period were diagnosed with PXF. Forty-three (46.2%) of the 93 PXF patients were male. Indians were 5.04 times more likely to develop PXF than Chinese (P<0.001, 95% confidence interval 3.05–8.33), while Malays were 2.22 times more likely to develop PXF as compared with Chinese (P=0.029, 95% CI 1.08–4.55). Twenty-two (23.7%) of the 93 PXF patients had PXG at the time of diagnosis. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age between PXF and PXG patients. There was a larger proportion of males with PXG than females (P<0.001). Conclusion PXF is not infrequent in elderly Singapore eye clinic patients, and is more likely to occur in Indians than in Chinese. In the Singapore eye clinic setting, males may be more likely to develop PXG, although larger studies will be required to confirm this. PMID:26366055

  9. Towards Homogeneity in Home Languages: Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil Families in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Su-Hie; Mahadhir, Mahanita

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examines the languages used by parents with their children in Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil families to find out how the similarity or dissimilarity in parents' ethnic language influenced the choice of language transmitted to children and how far standard languages have permeated the family domain in Kuching City…

  10. Grief Experience of Bereaved Malay/Muslim Youths in Singapore: The Spiritual Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Murshidah; Mehta, Kalyani

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study conducted in Singapore which examined different coping mechanisms engaged by Malay/Muslim bereaved youths following parental death. The research applied the revised Transactional Model of Stress and Coping as well as the Adolescent Coping Scale as a theoretical framework for analysing findings. Of the…

  11. When Art Moves the Eyes: A Behavioral and Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Massaro, Davide; Savazzi, Federica; Di Dio, Cinzia; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, using eye-tracking technique, the influence of bottom-up and top-down processes on visual behavior while subjects, naïve to art criticism, were presented with representational paintings. Forty-two subjects viewed color and black and white paintings (Color) categorized as dynamic or static (Dynamism) (bottom-up processes). Half of the images represented natural environments and half human subjects (Content); all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment conditions (Task) (top-down processes). Results on gazing behavior showed that content-related top-down processes prevailed over low-level visually-driven bottom-up processes when a human subject is represented in the painting. On the contrary, bottom-up processes, mediated by low-level visual features, particularly affected gazing behavior when looking at nature-content images. We discuss our results proposing a reconsideration of the definition of content-related top-down processes in accordance with the concept of embodied simulation in art perception. PMID:22624007

  12. A Psychometric Properties of the Malay-version Police Stress Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    IRNIZA, Rasdi; EMILIA, Zainal Abidin; MUHAMMAD SALILUDDIN, Suhainizam; NIZAM ISHA, Ahmad Shahrul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) was developed to measure police-specific stressors. The present study was the first to have translated the PSQ to Malay. This study aims to test the reliability, construct validity, and component structure of the Malay-version PSQ. Methods: A set of survey consisted of the Malay-version PSQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Global Stress Questionnaire (GSQ) and General Self-rated Health (GSRH) were distributed to 300 traffic police officers in Kuala Lumpur and all traffic police officers in a few districts of Pahang and Negeri Sembilan. Results: The response rate was 65.5% (N = 262). The reported Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.93 for Operational PSQ (PSQ-Op) and 0.94 for Organisational PSQ (PSQ-Org). Findings indicated that the PSQ had positive construct validity with the GSRH, GSQ, and GHQ. After excluding four factors related to lifestyles, all police-specific stressors were highly loaded (0.50) in one component. Conclusion: It is confirmed that the Malay-version PSQ, excluding the four factors related to lifestyle, was uni-dimensional, reliable, and a valid questionnaire. This study proffers a potentially better instrument for assessing the stressors among Malaysian police. PMID:25977621

  13. Translation and Validation of the Malay Subjective Happiness Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren

    2008-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, "Social Indicators Research," 46, 137-155, 1999) is a brief measure for assessing subjective happiness. The reliability and validity of the Malay version of the Subjective Happiness Scale was investigated in a community sample of 290 Chinese and 227 Malays in Malaysia. Results showed that the…

  14. An Intermediate-Advanced Level Malay Refresher Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Oliver; And Others

    The first unit of this eight-volume refresher course in intermediate-advanced level Malay presents a detailed description of the Malay sound system, with phonological examples in both official (Latin) orthography and phonetic transcription. The remaining units in Book I--Part One (Units 2-4) and the five units in the second volume (Book I--Part…

  15. Using Eye Tracking to Assess Reading Performance in Patients with Glaucoma: A Within-Person Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nicholas D.; Glen, Fiona C.; Mönter, Vera M.; Crabb, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Reading is often cited as a demanding task for patients with glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss, yet reading speed varies widely between patients and does not appear to be predicted by standard visual function measures. This within-person study aimed to investigate reading duration and eye movements when reading short passages of text in a patient's worse eye (most VF damage) when compared to their better eye (least VF damage). Reading duration and saccade rate were significantly different on average in the worse eye when compared to the better eye (P < 0.001) in 14 patients with glaucoma that had median (interquartile range) between-eye difference in mean deviation (MD; a standard clinical measure for VF loss) of 9.8 (8.3 to 14.8) dB; differences were not related to the size of the difference in MD between eyes. Patients with a more pronounced effect of longer reading duration on their worse eye made a larger proportion of “regressions” (backward saccades) and “unknown” EMs (not adhering to expected reading patterns) when reading with the worse eye when compared to the better eye. A between-eye study in patients with asymmetric disease, coupled with eye tracking, provides a useful experimental design for exploring reading performance in glaucoma. PMID:24883203

  16. Eye Health in New Zealand: A Study of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Eye Health and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…

  17. Genetic association of SNPs in the FTO gene and predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Apalasamy, Y D; Ming, M F; Rampal, S; Bulgiba, A; Mohamed, Z

    2012-12-01

    The common variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been previously found to be associated with obesity in various adult populations. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks in various regions of the FTO gene are associated with predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays. Thirty-one FTO SNPs were genotyped in 587 (158 obese and 429 non-obese) Malaysian Malay subjects. Obesity traits and lipid profiles were measured and single-marker association testing, LD testing, and haplotype association analysis were performed. LD analysis of the FTO SNPs revealed the presence of 57 regions with complete LD (D' = 1.0). In addition, we detected the association of rs17817288 with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The FTO gene may therefore be involved in lipid metabolism in Malaysian Malays. Two haplotype blocks were present in this region of the FTO gene, but no particular haplotype was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity in Malaysian Malays. PMID:22911346

  18. Genetic association of SNPs in the FTO gene and predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays

    PubMed Central

    Apalasamy, Y.D.; Ming, M.F.; Rampal, S.; Bulgiba, A.; Mohamed, Z.

    2012-01-01

    The common variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been previously found to be associated with obesity in various adult populations. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks in various regions of the FTO gene are associated with predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays. Thirty-one FTO SNPs were genotyped in 587 (158 obese and 429 non-obese) Malaysian Malay subjects. Obesity traits and lipid profiles were measured and single-marker association testing, LD testing, and haplotype association analysis were performed. LD analysis of the FTO SNPs revealed the presence of 57 regions with complete LD (D' = 1.0). In addition, we detected the association of rs17817288 with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The FTO gene may therefore be involved in lipid metabolism in Malaysian Malays. Two haplotype blocks were present in this region of the FTO gene, but no particular haplotype was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity in Malaysian Malays. PMID:22911346

  19. Minimum velocity necessary for nonconventional projectiles to penetrate the eye: an experimental study using pig eyes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John W; Dahlstrom, Dean B; Powley, Kramer D

    2011-06-01

    To satisfy the Criminal Code of Canada's definition of a firearm, a barreled weapon must be capable of causing serious bodily injury or death to a person. Canadian courts have accepted the forensically established criteria of "penetration or rupture of an eye" as serious bodily injury. The minimal velocity of nonconventional ammunition required to penetrate the eye including airsoft projectiles has yet to be established. To establish minimal threshold requirements for eye penetration, empirical tests were conducted using a variety of airsoft projectiles. Using the data obtained from these tests, and previous research using "air gun" projectiles, an "energy density" parameter was calculated for the minimum penetration threshold of an eye. Airsoft guns capable of achieving velocities in excess of 99 m/s (325 ft/s) using conventional 6-mm airsoft ammunition will satisfy the forensically established criteria of "serious bodily injury." The energy density parameter for typical 6-mm plastic airsoft projectiles is 4.3 to 4.8 J/cm². This calculation also encompasses 4.5-mm steel BBs. PMID:21263287

  20. Validation of Malay Brief Pain Inventory Questionnaire to Measure Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Aisyaturridha, A; Naing, L; Nizar, AJ

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to translate and validate the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) questionnaire in the Malay language. The psychometric properties in terms of construct and concurrent validity of the Malay version of BPI were evaluated. The internal consistency and test-retest stability were also evaluated. Methodology: The original version of BPI was translated into a Malay version by the standard procedure and piloted among 35 cancer patients with pain. A total of 113 (95.0%) agreed to participate in this study out of 119 eligible patients with an age ranging from 18 to 76 years. They were interviewed between August and November 2004 for the main study to evaluate the psychometric properties of Malay version of BPI. Results: The pain intensity items demonstrated high loading with a factor whereas the pain interference items were loaded on the other factor in factor analysis. Two factors explained 62% of the variance. With Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), pain intensity scale had a moderate negative (Pearson’s) correlation (r=−0.520, p<0.001) and pain interference scale had a good negative correlation (r=−0.732, p<0.001), showing an appropriate concurrent validity. The coefficient alpha of both scales demonstrated a good internal consistency of the items. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the test-retest stability was 0.61 for the pain intensity scale and 0.88 for the pain interference scale. Conclusion: Overall, the Malay version of the BPI is a reliable and valid instrument for cancer pain assessment and it is comparable with the original version of the BPI in terms of structure and psychometric properties.

  1. Biomarkers of aging and falling: the Beaver Dam eye study

    PubMed Central

    Knudtson, Michael D.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Falls are an important cause of morbidity in older adults and are an important source of health care spending. We hypothesize that falls are associated with systemic biomarkers of aging. The following functions, measured at the 1998–2000 and 2003–05 examinations of the Beaver Dam Eye study, were considered to be biomarkers of aging (frailties): poorer visual acuity, contrast sensitivity or discrepant vision between the eyes, inability to rise from a chair, slower gait time, poorer hand grip strength, and lower peak expiratory flow rate. We found that poorer values on biomarkers of aging (frailties) at the 1998–2000 examination were associated with 2 or more reported falls in the past year at the 2003–05 examination (p < 0.05 for all markers except peak expiratory flow rate). When the markers were combined as an index of biological aging (frailty), the index was significantly associated with falls after controlling for significant confounders (odds ratio per 1 step increase in the index: 1.33; 95% confidence interval = CI = 1.13–1.57) We conclude that biomarkers of aging, including any of three measures of visual function, are associated with falls. Improvement in these functional measures may lead to decreased risk of falls. PMID:18513808

  2. Quantitative Assessment of Eye Phenotypes for Functional Genetic Studies Using Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Janani; Wang, Qingyu; Le, Thanh; Pizzo, Lucilla; Grönke, Sebastian; Ambegaokar, Surendra S; Imai, Yuzuru; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Troisí, Beatriz Llamusí; Mardon, Graeme; Artero, Ruben; Jackson, George R; Isaacs, Adrian M; Partridge, Linda; Lu, Bingwei; Kumar, Justin P; Girirajan, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    About two-thirds of the vital genes in the Drosophila genome are involved in eye development, making the fly eye an excellent genetic system to study cellular function and development, neurodevelopment/degeneration, and complex diseases such as cancer and diabetes. We developed a novel computational method, implemented as Flynotyper software (http://flynotyper.sourceforge.net), to quantitatively assess the morphological defects in the Drosophila eye resulting from genetic alterations affecting basic cellular and developmental processes. Flynotyper utilizes a series of image processing operations to automatically detect the fly eye and the individual ommatidium, and calculates a phenotypic score as a measure of the disorderliness of ommatidial arrangement in the fly eye. As a proof of principle, we tested our method by analyzing the defects due to eye-specific knockdown of Drosophila orthologs of 12 neurodevelopmental genes to accurately document differential sensitivities of these genes to dosage alteration. We also evaluated eye images from six independent studies assessing the effect of overexpression of repeats, candidates from peptide library screens, and modifiers of neurotoxicity and developmental processes on eye morphology, and show strong concordance with the original assessment. We further demonstrate the utility of this method by analyzing 16 modifiers of sine oculis obtained from two genome-wide deficiency screens of Drosophila and accurately quantifying the effect of its enhancers and suppressors during eye development. Our method will complement existing assays for eye phenotypes, and increase the accuracy of studies that use fly eyes for functional evaluation of genes and genetic interactions. PMID:26994292

  3. Quantitative Assessment of Eye Phenotypes for Functional Genetic Studies Using Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Janani; Wang, Qingyu; Le, Thanh; Pizzo, Lucilla; Grönke, Sebastian; Ambegaokar, Surendra S.; Imai, Yuzuru; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Troisí, Beatriz Llamusí; Mardon, Graeme; Artero, Ruben; Jackson, George R.; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Partridge, Linda; Lu, Bingwei; Kumar, Justin P.; Girirajan, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    About two-thirds of the vital genes in the Drosophila genome are involved in eye development, making the fly eye an excellent genetic system to study cellular function and development, neurodevelopment/degeneration, and complex diseases such as cancer and diabetes. We developed a novel computational method, implemented as Flynotyper software (http://flynotyper.sourceforge.net), to quantitatively assess the morphological defects in the Drosophila eye resulting from genetic alterations affecting basic cellular and developmental processes. Flynotyper utilizes a series of image processing operations to automatically detect the fly eye and the individual ommatidium, and calculates a phenotypic score as a measure of the disorderliness of ommatidial arrangement in the fly eye. As a proof of principle, we tested our method by analyzing the defects due to eye-specific knockdown of Drosophila orthologs of 12 neurodevelopmental genes to accurately document differential sensitivities of these genes to dosage alteration. We also evaluated eye images from six independent studies assessing the effect of overexpression of repeats, candidates from peptide library screens, and modifiers of neurotoxicity and developmental processes on eye morphology, and show strong concordance with the original assessment. We further demonstrate the utility of this method by analyzing 16 modifiers of sine oculis obtained from two genome-wide deficiency screens of Drosophila and accurately quantifying the effect of its enhancers and suppressors during eye development. Our method will complement existing assays for eye phenotypes, and increase the accuracy of studies that use fly eyes for functional evaluation of genes and genetic interactions. PMID:26994292

  4. Ultraviolet radiation and the eye: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H R

    1989-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from biochemical, animal, and epidemiologic studies suggests an association between exposure to UV-B radiation (290 nm to 320 nm) and cataract. Such an association had not been proven because it had not been possible to quantify ocular UV-B exposure of individuals or to reliably grade the type and severity of cataract in field studies. We undertook an epidemiologic survey of cataract among 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay. Their individual ocular UV-B exposure was quantified for each year of life over the age of 16, on the basis of a detailed occupational history combined with laboratory and field measurements of ocular UV-B exposure. Cataracts were graded by both type and severity through clinical and photographic means. SMD changes were ascertained by fundal photography. A general medical history was taken to discover potentially confounding factors. This study showed that people with cortical lens opacities had a 21% higher UV-B exposure at each year of life than people without these opacities. A doubling in lifetime UV-B exposure led to a 60% increase in the risk of cortical cataract, and those with a high annual UV-B exposure increased their risk of cortical cataract over threefold. Corneal changes, namely pterygium and CDK, were also strongly associated with high UV-B exposure. No association was found between nuclear lens opacities or macular degeneration and UV-B exposure. This study also indicated several simple, practical measures, such as wearing spectacles or a hat, that effectively protect the eye from UV-B exposure. Thus it is easily within the power of individuals to protect their eyes from excessive UV-B exposure and reduce their risk of cortical cataract. A program of public education in this area could be a cost-effective means of reducing this important disease. PMID:2562534

  5. Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness and Glaucoma. The Beijing Eye Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya Xing; Xu, Liang; Shao, Lei; Zhang, Ya Qin; Yang, Hua; Da Wang, Jin; Jonas, Jost B.; Wei, Wen Bin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in eyes with glaucoma, using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Methods The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with enhanced depth imaging for measurement of SFCT, and assessment of fundus photographs for presence of glaucoma. In addition, the group of patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) from the Beijing Eye Study (n = 37) was merged with a group of patients with chronic ACG from the Tongren hospital (n = 52). Results Assessments of SFCT and glaucoma were available for 3232 (93.2%) subjects. After adjusting for age, axial length, gender, anterior chamber and lens thickness, SFCT was not significantly associated with presence of glaucoma (P = 0.08; regression coefficient B:−15.7). As a corollary, in logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, axial length and intraocular pressure, presence of glaucoma was not significantly associated with SFCT (P = 0.20). If only open-angle glaucoma was considered, multivariate analysis revealed no significant association between SFCT and presence of open-angle glaucoma (P = 0.44). As a corollary, in logistic regression analysis, open-angle glaucoma was not significantly associated with SFCT (P = 0.91). In a similar manner if only ACG was taken into account, SFCT was not significantly associated with the presence of ACG (P = 0.27) in multivariate analysis. As a corollary in binary regression analysis, presence of ACG was not significantly associated with SFCT (P = 0.27). Conclusions In multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, axial length, gender, anterior chamber and lens thickness, neither OAG nor ACG was associated with an abnormal SFCT. PMID:25210857

  6. Optic Disc - Fovea Angle: The Beijing Eye Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Rahul A.; Wang, Ya Xing; Yang, Hua; Li, Jian Jun; Xu, Liang; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Jonas, Jost B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the optic disc-fovea angle (defined as angle between the horizontal and the line between the optic disc center and the fovea) and to assess its relationships with ocular and systemic parameters. Methods The population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals. A detailed ophthalmic examination was carried out. Using fundus photographs, we measured the disc-fovea angle. Results Readable fundus photographs were available for 6043 eyes of 3052 (88.0%) individuals with a mean age of 63.6±9.3 years (range: 50–91 years) and a mean axial length of 23.2±1.0 mm (range: 18.96–28.87 mm). Mean disc-fovea angle was 7.76 ± 3.63° (median: 7.65°; range: -6.3° to 28.9°). The mean inter-eye difference was 4.01 ± 2.94° (median: 3.49°; range: 0.00–22.3°). In multivariate analysis, larger disc-fovea angle was associated (regression coefficient r2: 0.08) with older age (P = 0.009; standardized regression coefficient beta: 0.05), thinner RNFL in the nasal superior sector (P<0.001; beta: -0.17), superior sector (P<0.001; beta: -0.10) and temporal superior sector (P<0.001; beta: -0.11) and thicker RNFL in the inferior sector (P<001; beta: 0.13), nasal inferior sector (P<001; beta: 0.13) and nasal sector (P = 0.007; beta: 0.06), higher prevalence of retinal vein occlusion (P = 0.02; beta: 0.04), and with larger cylindrical refractive error (P = 0.04; beta: 0.04). Conclusions The optic disc-fovea angle markedly influences the regional distribution of the RNFL thickness pattern. The disc-fovea angle may routinely be taken into account in the morphological glaucoma diagnosis and in the assessment of structure-function relationship in optic nerve diseases. Future studies may address potential associations between a larger disc-fovea angle and retinal vein occlusions and between the disc-fovea angle and the neuroretinal rim shape. PMID:26545259

  7. Eye Movement Monitoring in the Study of Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConkie, George W.

    Eye movement monitoring is useful both in the control of experiments on reading and as a source of data. Experiments using eye monitoring techniques have helped develop the following conclusions about the reading process: the region of text read during a fixation is quite small and asymmetric to the right of the center of vision, successive…

  8. Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis among Malay population

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, V. K.; Husein, A.; Mishra, N.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, size, shape, and location of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM), and to assess their sex-related and age-related differences in the Malay population. Sixty-five subjects were assessed for the presence of both tori at the School of Dental Sciences University Sains Malaysia. The prevalence of TP was 38–63% and that of TM was 1–10%. TP was frequently more common in females than males (90.9% versus 9.1%; P < 0.05) and was frequently found in medium sizes, spindle shaped, and was often located at the combined premolar to molar areas. The prevalence of TM was not significantly different in males and females (33.3% versus 66.7%; P = 0.523), occurred most commonly in bilateral multiple form, and was often located at the canine to premolar area. PMID:24478956

  9. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Nowinska, Anna K.; Teper, Sławomir J.; Janiszewska, Dominika A.; Lyssek-Boron, Anita; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Koprowski, Robert; Wylegala, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT) in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs). Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes) and 54 patients (96 eyes) diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes) were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA) were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Results. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Conclusions. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements. PMID:26457303

  10. Gender-dependent association of a β(2)-adrenergic gene variant with obesity parameters in Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Apalasamy, Yamunah Devi; Ming, Moy Foong; Rampal, Sanjay; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-03-01

    Recent findings have shown that the rs1042714 (Gln27Glu) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the β2-adrenoceptor gene may predispose to obesity. The findings from other studies carried on different populations, however, have been inconsistent. The authors investigated the association between the rs1042714 SNP with obesity-related parameters. DNA of 672 Malaysian Malays was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses revealed significant associations between rs1042714 and diastolic blood pressure in the pooled Malaysian Malay subjects under additive and recessive models. After gender stratification, however, a significant association was found between the rs1042714 and triglyceride and the rs1042714 and log-transformed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Malaysian Malay men. No significant association was found between the SNP and log-transformed body mass index. This polymorphism may have an important role in the development of obesity-related traits in Malaysian Malays. Gender is an effect modifier for the effect of the rs1042714 polymorphism on obesity-related traits in Malaysian Malays. PMID:22199155

  11. Population structure of Helicobacter pylori among ethnic groups in Malaysia: recent acquisition of the bacterium by the Malay population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture. Results Seventy eight H. pylori isolates, including 27 Chinese, 35 Indian and 16 Malay isolates from Malaysia were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes and compared with the global MLST data. STRUCTURE analysis assigned the isolates to previously identified H. pylori ancestral populations, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2 and hpEurope, and revealed a new subpopulation, hspIndia, within hpAsia2. Statistical analysis allowed us to identify population segregation sites that divide the H. pylori populations and the subpopulations. The majority of Malay isolates were found to be grouped together with Indian isolates. Conclusion The majority of the Malay and Indian H. pylori isolates share the same origin while the Malaysian Chinese H. pylori is distinctive. The Malay population, known to have a low infection rate of H. pylori, was likely to be initially H. pylori free and gained the pathogen only recently from cross infection from other populations. PMID:19538757

  12. Translation, Validation, and Adaptation of the Time Use Diary from English into the Malay Language for Use in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Asmuri, Siti Noraini; Brown, Ted; Broom, Lisa J

    2016-07-01

    Valid translations of time use scales are needed by occupational therapists for use in different cross-cultural contexts to gather relevant data to inform practice and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of translating, adapting, and validating the Time Use Diary from its current English language edition into a Malay language version. Five steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were completed: (i) translation from English into the Malay language by a qualified translator, (ii) synthesis of the translated Malay version, (iii) backtranslation from Malay to English by three bilingual speakers, (iv) expert committee review and discussion, and (v) pilot testing of the Malay language version with two participant groups. The translated version was found to be a reliable and valid tool identifying changes and potential challenges in the time use of older adults. This provides Malaysian occupational therapists with a useful tool for gathering time use data in practice settings and for research purposes. PMID:27219119

  13. Genetic associations of the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity-related metabolic traits in Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Apalasamy, Y D; Moy, F M; Rampal, S; Bulgiba, A; Mohamed, Z

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide association study showed that the tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7566605 in the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) was associated with obesity. Attempts to replicate this result in different populations have produced inconsistent findings. We aimed to study the association between the rs7566605 SNP with obesity and other metabolic parameters in Malaysian Malays. Anthropometric and obesity-related metabolic parameters and DNA samples were collected. We genotyped the rs7566605 polymorphism in 672 subjects using real-time polymerase chain reaction. No significant associations were found between the rs7566605 tagging SNP of INSIG2 with obesity or other metabolic parameters in the Malaysian Malay population. The INSIG2 rs7566605 SNP may not play a role in the development of obesity-related metabolic traits in Malaysian Malays. PMID:25062423

  14. Retinal Thickness Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes without Retinal Abnormalities: the Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Meuer, Stacy M.; Swift, Maria K.; Chandler, Charles S.; Huang, Yijun; Gangaputra, Sapna; Pak, Jeong W.; Danis, Ronald P.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine relationships of age, sex, and systemic and ocular conditions with retinal thickness measured by spectral-domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in participants without retinal disease. Design Longitudinal study. Methods Setting Population-based cohort. Study Population Persons aged 43-86 years living in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin in 1988-1990. Observation Procedures Retinal thickness was measured via SD-OCT at the Beaver Dam Eye Study examination in 2008-2010. Retinal disease was determined by ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, or SD-OCT. Main Outcome Measures Retinal thickness from the inner limiting membrane to Bruch's membrane. Results The retina was thickest in the inner circle (mean 334.5 μm) and thinnest in the center subfield (285.4 μm). Mean retinal thickness decreased with age in the inner circle (P<0.0001) and outer circle (P<0.0001). Adjusting for age, eyes in men had thicker retinas than eyes in women in the center subfield (P<0.001) and inner circle (P<0.001). Sex, axial length/corneal curvature ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate were associated with center subfield thickness. Sex and peak expiratory flow rate were associated with retinal thickness in the inner circle. Alcohol consumption, age, axial length/corneal curvature ratio, cataract surgery, ocular perfusion pressure, and peak expiratory flow rate were associated with retinal thickness in the outer circle. Conclusions This study provides data for retinal thickness measures in eyes of individuals aged 63 years and older without retinal disease. This information may be useful for clinical trials involving the effects of interventions on retinal thickness and for comparisons with specific retinal diseases affecting the macula. PMID:25461295

  15. Stemming Malay Text and Its Application in Automatic Text Categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Michiko; Lim, Hui Tian; Yokoo, Hidetoshi

    In Malay language, there are no conjugations and declensions and affixes have important grammatical functions. In Malay, the same word may function as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or, a verb, depending on its position in the sentence. Although extensively simple root words are used in informal conversations, it is essential to use the precise words in formal speech or written texts. In Malay, to make sentences clear, derivative words are used. Derivation is achieved mainly by the use of affixes. There are approximately a hundred possible derivative forms of a root word in written language of the educated Malay. Therefore, the composition of Malay words may be complicated. Although there are several types of stemming algorithms available for text processing in English and some other languages, they cannot be used to overcome the difficulties in Malay word stemming. Stemming is the process of reducing various words to their root forms in order to improve the effectiveness of text processing in information systems. It is essential to avoid both over-stemming and under-stemming errors. We have developed a new Malay stemmer (stemming algorithm) for removing inflectional and derivational affixes. Our stemmer uses a set of affix rules and two types of dictionaries: a root-word dictionary and a derivative-word dictionary. The use of set of rules is aimed at reducing the occurrence of under-stemming errors, while that of the dictionaries is believed to reduce the occurrence of over-stemming errors. We performed an experiment to evaluate the application of our stemmer in text mining software. For the experiment, text data used were actual web pages collected from the World Wide Web to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Malay stemming algorithm. The experimental results showed that our stemmer can effectively increase the precision of the extracted Boolean expressions for text categorization.

  16. The Use of Eye Movements in the Study of Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyona, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    This commentary focuses on the use of the eye-tracking methodology to study cognitive processes during multimedia learning. First, some general remarks are made about how the method is applied to investigate visual information processing, followed by a reflection on the eye movement measures employed in the studies published in this special issue.…

  17. Stereoacuity and Related Factors: The Shandong Children Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuan-yuan; Sun, Wei; Lv, Tai-liang; Jiang, Wen-jun; Wu, Hui; Wang, Xing-rong; Bi, Hong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess stereoacuity in a population-based sample of children and to examine ocular and systemic parameters related to stereoacuity. Methods Using a random cluster sampling method, four- to 18-year-old children from kindergartens, elementary schools, junior high schools and senior high schools from a rural area and an urban area in the East Chinese province of Shandong were included in the school-based cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination including assessment of cycloplegic refraction and measurement of stereoacuity using the Titmus Stereo test. Results Out of 6364 eligible children, 5780 (90.8%) children with a mean age of 10.1 ± 3.2 years (range: 4 to 18 years) participated. Mean (± standard deviation) stereoacuity was 50.2 ± 50.6 arc seconds. Stereoacuity improved significantly (P<0.01) from the age group of 4 years to the age group of 6 to 7 years, then showed a plateau, deteriorated (P = 0.001) for both sexes from the age group of 9 years to the age group of 12 years (P<0.001), after which it improved (P = 0.001) again in the age group of 16 years or older to the pre-puberty values. In multivariate analysis, larger angle of binocular disparity (i.e., lower stereoacuity) was significantly associated with lower best corrected visual acuity (logMAR; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in refractive error (spherical equivalent) (P<0.001), higher cylindrical refractive error (P<0.001), higher refractive error (spherical value; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in best corrected visual acuity (logMAR) (P = 0.001), higher intereye difference in axial length (P = 0.001), and rural region of habitation (P = 0.006). Conclusions Stereoacuity as tested with the Titmus Stereo test improved significantly from an age of 4 years to an age of 6 and 7 years, then remained constant, temporarily deteriorated for both sexes in pre-puberty and puberty, after which it improved again to pre-puberty or better values at

  18. Insecure attachment style as a vulnerability factor for depression: recent findings in a community-based study of Malay single and married mothers.

    PubMed

    Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia

    2013-12-30

    The role of marital breakdown in women's mental health is of key concern in Malaysia and internationally. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of married and separated/divorced and widowed women examined insecure attachment style as an associated risk factor for depression among 1002 mothers in an urban community in Malaysia. A previous report replicated a UK-based vulnerability-provoking agent model of depression involving negative evaluation of self (NES) and negative elements in close relationships (NECRs) interacting with severe life events to model depression. This article reports on the additional contribution of insecure attachment style to the model using the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ). The results showed that VASQ scores were highly correlated with NES, NECR and depression. A multiple regression analysis of depression with backward elimination found that VASQ scores had a significant additional effect. Group comparisons showed different risk patterns for single and married mothers. NES was the strongest risk factor for both groups, with the 'anxious style' subset of the VASQ being the best additional predictor for married mothers and the total VASQ score (general attachment insecurity) for single mothers. The findings indicate that attachment insecurity adds to a psychosocial vulnerability model of depression among mothers cross-culturally and is important in understanding and identifying risk. PMID:24075307

  19. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  20. EYE DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This chapter provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  1. Contrast reversal of the eyes impairs infants' face processing: a near-infrared spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Otsuka, Yumiko; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2013-11-01

    Human can easily detect other's eyes and gaze from early in life. Such sensitivity is supported by the contrast polarity of human eyes, which have a white sclera contrasting with the darker colored iris (Kobayashi & Kohshima, (1997). Nature, 387, 767-768; Kobayashi & Kohshima, (2001). Journal of Human Evolution, 40, 419-435). Recent studies suggest that the contrast polarity around the eyes plays an important role in infants' face processing. Newborns preferred upright face images to inverted ones in contrast-preserved faces, but not in contrast-reversed faces (Farroni et al., (2005). Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, p. 17245-17250). Seven- to 8-month-old infants failed to discriminate between faces when the contrast polarity of eyes was reversed (Otsuka et al., (2013). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115, 598-606). Neuroimaging study with adults revealed that full-negative faces induced less activation in the right fusiform gyrus than either full-positive faces or negative faces with contrast-preserved eyes (Gilad et al., (2009). Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, p. 5353-5358). In the present study, we investigated whether contrast-reversed eyes diminish infants' brain activity related to face processing. We measured hemodynamic responses in the bilateral temporal area of 5- to 6-month-old infants. Their hemodynamic responses to faces with positive eyes and those with negative eyes were compared against the baseline activation during the presentation of object images. We found that the presentation of faces with positive eyes increased the concentration of oxy-Hb in the right temporal area and those of total-Hb in the bilateral temporal areas. No such change occurred for faces with negative eyes. Our results suggest the importance of contrast polarity of the eyes in the face-selective neural responses from early development. PMID:24012650

  2. Validation of a Malay Version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale among Medical Students in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sazlly Lim, Sazlyna Mohd; Wan Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa; Foo, Yoke Loong; Hoo, Fan kee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study was initiated to determine the psychometric properties of the Smart Phone Addiction Scale (SAS) by translating and validating this scale into the Malay language (SAS-M), which is the main language spoken in Malaysia. This study can distinguish smart phone and internet addiction among multi-ethnic Malaysian medical students. In addition, the reliability and validity of the SAS was also demonstrated. Materials and Methods A total of 228 participants were selected between August 2014 and September 2014 to complete a set of questionnaires, including the SAS and the modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (IAT) in the Malay language. Results There were 99 males and 129 females with ages ranging from 19 to 22 years old (21.7±1.1) included in this study. Descriptive and factor analyses, intra-class coefficients, t-tests and correlation analyses were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SAS. Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant (p <0.01), and the Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy for the SAS-M was 0.92, indicating meritoriously that the factor analysis was appropriate. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of the SAS-M were verified (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.94). All of the subscales of the SAS-M, except for positive anticipation, were significantly related to the Malay version of the IAT. Conclusions This study developed the first smart phone addiction scale among medical students. This scale was shown to be reliable and valid in the Malay language. PMID:26431511

  3. A Comparison of Practices During the Confinement Period among Chinese, Malay, and Indian Mothers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Fok, Doris; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Ho, Jiahui; Lim, Sok Bee; Chua, Mei Chien; Pang, Wei Wei; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Yap Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Confinement (restrictions placed on diet and practices during the month right after delivery) represents a key feature of Asian populations. Few studies however, have focused specifically on ethnic differences in confinement practices. This study assesses the confinement practices of three ethnic groups in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods Participants were part of a prospective birth cohort study that recruited 1247 pregnant women (57.2% Chinese, 25.5% Malay, 17.3% Indian) during their first trimester. 1220 participants were followed up 3-weeks postpartum at home when questionnaires were administered to ascertain the frequency of adherence to the following confinement practices: showering; confinement-specific meals; going out with or without the baby; choice of caregiver assistance; and the use of massage therapy. Results Most participants reported that they followed confinement practices during the first three weeks post-partum (Chinese: 96.4%, Malay: 92.4%, Indian: 85.6%). Chinese and Indian mothers tended to eat more special confinement diets than Malay mothers (p<0.001), and Chinese mothers showered less and were more likely to depend on confinement nannies during this period than mothers from the two other ethnic groups (p<0.001 for all). Malay mothers tended to make greater use of massage therapy (p<0.001), whilst Indian mothers tended to have their mothers or mothers-in-law as assistant caregivers (p<0.001). Conclusion Most Singapore mothers follow confinement practices, but the three Asian ethnic groups differed in specific confinement practices. Future studies should examine whether ethnic differences persist in later child-rearing practices. PMID:27018256

  4. Incidence, density and direction of hair on the dorsum of phalanges of the hands in Malays.

    PubMed

    Dharap, A S; Varma, S L; Chary, T V

    1995-09-01

    In this study 200 Malay subjects (100 males and 100 females) were randomly selected from patients attending outpatient clinics of Hospital USM, Kelantan, Malaysia, to find out the incidence, density and direction of hair on the dorsum of phalanges of the hand. These features have not been studied so far in females nor has such a study been conducted in Malays. The probability of density of hair distribution among the digits of both hands showed significant correlation on proximal phalanges (p < 0.05) in both sexes. Significant correlation was not observed, however, in the middle phalangeal hair (MPH) of the hands. The direction of proximal phalangeal hair, from little finger to the thumb, showed significant changes from ulnar to radial in both sexes (p < 0.05). Identification of isolated digits, which is of medicolegal importance, would be more accurate if the direction and the density of hair on the digits are both considered together. MPH was present in 48% of males and in 33% of females studied. Comparisons with presence of MPH in other populations show that Malays are ethnically similar to other Asiatic populations. PMID:7486886

  5. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms: differential symptom functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-08-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N=571) and Chinese (N=254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation modeling procedure. Although DSF was found for a single inattention (IA) symptom and three hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms, all these differences had low effect sizes. Controlling for these DSF, Chinese children had higher IA and HI latent factor scores. However the effect sizes were small. Together, these findings suggest adequate support for invariance of the ADHD symptoms across these ethno-cultural groups. The implications of the findings for cross-cultural invariance of the ADHD symptoms are discussed. PMID:18317918

  6. Processing of Written Irony: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakinen, Johanna K.; Olkoniemi, Henri; Kinnari, Taina; Hyönä, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    We examined processing of written irony by recording readers' eye movements while they read target phrases embedded either in ironic or non-ironic story context. After reading each story, participants responded to a text memory question and an inference question tapping into the understanding of the meaning of the target phrase. The results…

  7. Ecological Validity in Eye-Tracking: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti; Gass, Susan M.; Behney, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Eye-trackers are becoming increasingly widespread as a tool to investigate second language (L2) acquisition. Unfortunately, clear standards for methodology--including font size, font type, and placement of interest areas--are not yet available. Although many researchers stress the need for ecological validity--that is, the simulation of natural…

  8. A Case-Control Study on the Oxidative Balance of 50% Autologous Serum Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Diane; Zelanis, Samira; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Locatelli, Claudete; Nicola, Felipe; Kunzler, Ana Laura; Fernandes, Tania Regina Gatelli; Carraro, Cristina Campos; Barbosa, Luciene

    2016-01-01

    Importance. Autologous serum (AS) eye drops are recommended for severe dry eye in patients with ocular surface disease. No description of the antioxidant balance of AS eye drops has been reported in the literature. Objective. This study sought to evaluate the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in samples of 50% AS eye drops and their correlations with the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of patients with ocular surface disease and healthy controls. Design. This was a case-control study with a 3-month follow-up period. Participants. 16 patients with severe dry eye disease of different etiologies and 17 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and race were included. Results. TRAP and ROS were detected at all evaluated times. There were no differences in the mean ROS (p = 0.429) or TRAP (p = 0.475) levels between cases and controls. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of ROS or TRAPs were found at 0, 15, or 30 days (p for ROS = 0.087 and p for TRAP = 0.93). Neither the demographic characteristics nor the lifestyle habits were correlated with the oxidative balance of the 50% AS eye drops. Conclusions and Relevance. Both fresh and frozen 50% AS eye drops present antioxidant capacities and ROS in an apparently stable balance. Moreover, patients with ocular surface disease and normal controls produce equivalent AS eye drops in terms of oxidative properties.

  9. Eye Study Underscores the Long-Lasting Benefits of Controlling Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monday, June 13, 2016 Eye study underscores the long-lasting benefits of controlling diabetes NIH-funded study ... received intensive glycemic therapy in the 10-year-long Diabetes Control and Complications Trial on average had ...

  10. Study: Trained Experts Can Spot Breast Cancer in 'Blink of An Eye'

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160675.html Study: Trained Experts Can Spot Breast Cancer in 'Blink of an Eye' Skilled radiologists see ... these results suggest there are detectable signs of breast cancer that radiologists notice immediately, the study authors said. " ...

  11. Eye-to-eye with a mega-sheath fold: A case study from Wadi Mayh, northern Oman Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, M. P.; Alsop, G. I.

    2007-11-01

    Sheath folds are highly curvilinear folds, typically considered to develop by hinge rotation toward the transport direction during intense deformation. Most sheath folds are recognized on the centimeter to meter scale, with very few detailed studies of larger kilometer-scale structures. We here present evidence for a mega-scale sheath fold superbly exposed in the northern Oman Mountains. The Saih Hatat culmination consists of an exhumed high-pressure subduction zone with deep-level eclogites and garnet blueschists (As Sifah unit), epidote blueschists (Hulw unit) and carpholite-bearing metasediments (part of the “Upper plate”). Sheath folds are present at a variety of scales throughout the As Sifah, Hulw, and Upper plate tectonic packages. Curvilinear fold hinges along a 15-km-long profile outline the Wadi Mayh mega-sheath fold, which closes to the SSW and faces to the NNE. It consists of at least four secondary sheath folds with cross-sectional (y-z) eye folds measuring 200 m stacked on top of one another within Permian and Triassic shelf carbonates. These eye folds display highly elliptical geometries (Ryz > 5) and cat's-eye fold patterns consistent with simple/general shear. The sheath fold is enveloped by Ordovician and older rocks that do not show equal amounts of internal deformation. The upper bounding envelope is a detachment that has been subsequently sheath folded. The lower boundary of the sheath fold is the Upper plate-Lower plate detachment, which forms a major high-strain shear zone showing little vertical displacement but significant horizontal displacement. The sheath fold displays a SSW elongation (x axis) of at least 15 km and possibly up to 25 km, coupled with significant amounts of vertical flattening and WNW-ESE shortening.

  12. A Study on Hospital Admissions For Eye Trauma in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Movahedinejad, Tayebeh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Zahedi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Eye trauma is among the most common reasons for referral to hospital emergency departments and ophthalmologists’ offices. It also is a common cause of vision loss worldwide. However, few studies are available on the changes in the epidemiology of eye trauma in Iran in recent years. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of hospital admissions for eye trauma in Kashan from August 2011 to February 2014. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on the hospital records of all patients with eye trauma who were admitted to Kashan’s Matini hospital between August 2011 and February 2014. Having an eye trauma and being hospitalized for at least one day was selected as the criteria for inclusion in the study. The data were then recorded on a checklist devised by the researcher. After entering the data into the SPSS software, descriptive statistics (i.e., percentage, frequency, mean, and standard deviation) were calculated for all variables. Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the data. Results In total, 200 patients with eye trauma had been hospitalized in Matini Hospital between August 2011 and February 2014. Of these patients, 86% were males, 40% were in the age range of 20-39 years, 68% lived in urban areas, and 21% of those in employment were manual and industrial workers. Approximately 38.5% of eye traumas had occurred in the work place; 72.5% of patients had penetrating injuries and 98% of cases were injured in one eye. More injuries occurred in the cornea (25.5%) than elsewhere in the eye, and 75.5% of patients were treated surgically. Among all variables, only the type of trauma (P = 0.009) and cause of trauma (P = 0.004) were significantly related to the patients’ gender. Conclusions Eye trauma was prevalent among males, young people, urban residents, and manual and industrial workers. As the eyes play a vital role in daily life, communication, and work

  13. Long-range eye tracking: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, S.K.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-08-24

    The design considerations for a long-range Purkinje effects based video tracking system using current technology is presented. Past work, current experiments, and future directions are thoroughly discussed, with an emphasis on digital signal processing techniques and obstacles. It has been determined that while a robust, efficient, long-range, and non-invasive eye tracking system will be difficult to develop, such as a project is indeed feasible.

  14. Covert tracking: a combined ERP and fixational eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen; Ackerley, Rochelle; El-Deredy, Wael

    2012-01-01

    Attention can be directed to particular spatial locations, or to objects that appear at anticipated points in time. While most work has focused on spatial or temporal attention in isolation, we investigated covert tracking of smoothly moving objects, which requires continuous coordination of both. We tested two propositions about the neural and cognitive basis of this operation: first that covert tracking is a right hemisphere function, and second that pre-motor components of the oculomotor system are responsible for driving covert spatial attention during tracking. We simultaneously recorded event related potentials (ERPs) and eye position while participants covertly tracked dots that moved leftward or rightward at 12 or 20°/s. ERPs were sensitive to the direction of target motion. Topographic development in the leftward motion was a mirror image of the rightward motion, suggesting that both hemispheres contribute equally to covert tracking. Small shifts in eye position were also lateralized according to the direction of target motion, implying covert activation of the oculomotor system. The data addresses two outstanding questions about the nature of visuospatial tracking. First, covert tracking is reliant upon a symmetrical frontoparietal attentional system, rather than being right lateralized. Second, this same system controls both pursuit eye movements and covert tracking. PMID:22719893

  15. A cross-sectional study of pediatric eye care perceptions in Ghana, Honduras, and India.

    PubMed

    Ramai, Daryl; Elliott, Ryan; Goldin, Shoshanna; Pulisetty, Tejas

    2015-06-01

    Of the more than 1.4 million blind children worldwide, 75% live in developing countries. To reduce the prevalence of childhood blindness and associated diseases, attention is given to understanding the perceptions and level of awareness held by caregivers. This understanding can enable tailored health programs to reduce the global prevalence of blindness with increased efficiency. This study, which took place in Ghana, Honduras, and India, found that 95% of caregivers believed in the importance of eye exams for children, yet 66% of caregivers said that none of their children had ever received an eye exam. Participants' major reasons for not bringing their children included the belief that their child had no eye problems along with similar and unique socio-economic barriers. Further information was gained through the use of a five-question test on basic child eye care symptoms, which showed that out of the three country locations, the studied population in India had the least understanding about pediatric eye symptoms. Further analysis revealed significant gaps in understanding of general eye health while detected knowledge barriers provide evidence that fundamental misconceptions appear to be inhibiting caregivers' competence in facilitating their children's eye health. PMID:25922322

  16. Is the peripapillary retinal perfusion related to myopia in healthy eyes? A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolei; Kong, Xiangmei; Jiang, Chunhui; Li, Mengwei; Yu, Jian; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the peripapillary and parafoveal perfusion of young, healthy myopic subjects with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Design A prospective comparative study was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015. Setting Participants recruited from a population-based study performed by the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai. Participants A total of 78 Chinese normal subjects (78 eyes) with different refraction were included. Myopia was divided into 4 groups on the basis of the refractive status: 20 eyes with emmetropia (mean spherical equivalent (MSE) 0.50D to −0.50D), 20 eyes with mild myopia (MSE −0.75D to −2.75D), 20 eyes with moderate myopia (MSE −3.00D to −5.75D), and 18 eyes with high myopia (MSE≤−6.00D). Main outcome measures Peripapillary and parafoveal retinal and choroidal perfusion parameters and their relationships with axial length (AL) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness were analysed. Results Significant differences were found for the retinal flow index and vessel density in the peripapillary area among the 4 groups, but not in the parafoveal area. The high myopia group had the lowest peripapillary retinal flow index and vessel density. In addition, there was a negative correlation (β=−0.002, p=0.047) between the AL and peripapillary retinal flow index and a positive correlation between RNFL thickness and the peripapillary retinal perfusion parameters (flow index: β=0.001, p=0.006; vessel density: β=0.350, p=0.002) even after adjustment for other variables. Conclusions Highly myopic eyes have a decreased peripapillary retinal perfusion compared with emmetropic eyes. Such vascular features might increase the susceptibility to vascular-related eye diseases. PMID:26969645

  17. Retrobulbar blood flow changes in eyes with diabetic retinopathy: a 10-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Neudorfer, Meira; Kessner, Rivka; Goldenberg, Dafna; Lavie, Anat; Kessler, Ada

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We sought to assess long-term changes in the flow parameters of retrobulbar vessels in diabetic patients. Methods The retrobulbar circulation of 138 eyes was evaluated between 1994 and 1995 and 36 eyes were reevaluated between 2004 and 2008 (study group). They were divided into four groups: eyes of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR), eyes with nonproliferative DR, eyes with proliferative DR, and eyes of nondiabetic patients (controls). Color Doppler imaging was used to assess the flow velocities in the major retrobulbar vessels. The resistive index (RI) was calculated and compared among the groups and between the two time periods. Results RI values of the central retinal artery and posterior ciliary artery had increased in the two non-DR groups and in the nonproliferative DR group, with a surprising decrease measured in eyes with proliferative DR (P= nonsignificant [NS]). Combining the nonproliferative DR and proliferative DR groups resulted in a milder increase of the RI of the posterior ciliary artery (P= NS) and the central retinal artery (P=0.02) in the DR group compared to the other groups. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that an increase of the resistance in the retrobulbar vessels, as a part of DR, can lessen over time and may even be reversed. PMID:25473257

  18. The burden of care of schizophrenia in Malay families.

    PubMed

    Salleh, M R

    1994-03-01

    Deinstitutionalization has shifted much of the burden of care of chronic schizophrenia from mental institutions to the family. The aim of this study is to asses the prevalence of mental disorders among 210 primary carers of Malay schizophrenic patients, explored the burden and hardship experienced by them. This is a two-stage psychiatric screening procedure. All the cases suspected from initial screening with WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaires (SRQ-20) were called for clinical interview. Patients' behavioural problems and the burden of relatives were assessed by the Social Behaviour Schedule and the Interview Schedule respectively. It was found that about 23% of the carers developed neurotic disorders resulting from the stress; nearly half of them had neurotic depression. Despite their burden, they do not complaint about it. Neurotic carers compared with non-neurotic carers had significantly more subjective burden and distress related to the product of active psychosis. The carers were generally able to tolerate the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The number of problem behaviours and previous admissions were significantly correlated with the severity of burden. PMID:8178676

  19. Eye to Eye: An Artist/Teacher and Young Children--A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Christine

    This case study of artist/researcher Ursula Kolbe was undertaken in 1998 to extend understanding of the complexity of the process of teaching and learning in respect to children's interactions with visual arts materials. The following questions prompted the research: how does a teacher who is also an artist work with young children? and does a…

  20. In Vivo and Impression Cytology Study on the Effect of Compatible Solutes Eye Drops on the Ocular Surface Epithelial Cell Quality in Dry Eye Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lanzini, Manuela; Curcio, Claudia; Colabelli-Gisoldi, Rossella Annamaria; Mastropasqua, Alessandra; Calienno, Roberta; Agnifili, Luca; Nubile, Mario; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate in vivo and ex vivo ocular surface alterations induced by dry eye disease and modification after osmoprotective therapy. Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients suffering from dry eye have been recruited. All patients received Optive (compatible solutes) eye drops in one randomly selected eye and Hylogel (sodium hyaluronate 0,2%) in the other. Follow-up included a baseline visit and further examination 30-, 60-, and 90-day intervals (which comprises clinical evaluation, in vivo confocal microscopy—IVCM—of the ocular surface, and conjunctival impression cytology). No significant difference in Schirmer I Test, TBUT, and vital staining results was observed during the follow-up period in both groups. IVCM showed in all patients an improvement of ocular surface epithelial morphology and signs of inflammation (oedema and keratocyte activation). However, these modifications were more evident in patients treated with Optive therapy. A significant reduction of the expression of MMP9 and IL6 in Optive group was observed during the follow-up period in comparison to Hylogel treatment. Our results show that in dry eye disease therapy based on osmoprotective eye drops determines a reduction of inflammatory activation of ocular surface, with consequent improvement of the quality of corneal and conjunctival epithelium. PMID:26221061

  1. Ethnicity and Accommodation: Malay-Chinese Relations in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raybeck, Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Argues that despite antipathy toward the Chinese manifested at state and urban levels, the Malay-Chinese relations at the village level in Kelantan, Malaysia, are better than corresponding relationships in the country's more developed states. Suggests both cultural and political reasons for the success of the Chinese group. (Author/GC)

  2. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  3. Characteristics of structures and lesions of the eye in laboratory animals used in toxicity studies

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Kazumoto; Tomohiro, Masayuki; Sasaki, Shoji; Otake, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Histopathology of the eye is an essential part of ocular toxicity evaluation. There are structural variations of the eye among several laboratory animals commonly used in toxicity studies, and many cases of ocular lesions in these animals are related to anatomical and physiological characteristics of the eye. Since albino rats have no melanin in the eye, findings of the fundus can be observed clearly by ophthalmoscopy. Retinal atrophy is observed as a hyper-reflective lesion in the fundus and is usually observed as degeneration of the retina in histopathology. Albino rats are sensitive to light, and light-induced retinal degeneration is commonly observed because there is no melanin in the eye. Therefore, it is important to differentiate the causes of retinal degeneration because the lesion occurs spontaneously and is induced by several drugs or by lighting. In dogs, the tapetum lucidum, a multilayered reflective tissue of the choroid, is one of unique structures of the eye. Since tapetal cells contain reflecting crystals in which a high level of zinc has been demonstrated chemically, drug-induced tapetum degeneration is possibly related to zinc chelation. The eye of the monkey has a macula similar to that of humans. The macula consists only of cones with a high density, and light falls directly on the macula that plays an important role in visual acuity. Macular degeneration occurring in monkeys resembles histopathologically that of humans. Hence, the eye of the monkey is a suitable model to investigate macular degeneration and to assess drug-induced macular lesions. PMID:26538807

  4. Feature matching method study for uncorrected fish-eye lens image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baofeng; Jia, Yanhui; Röning, Juha; Feng, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    Because of the further from the center of image the lower resolution and the severe non-linear distortion are the characteristics of uncorrected fish-eye lens image, the traditional feature matching method can't achieve good performance in the applications of fish-eye lens, which correct distortion firstly and then matches the features in image. Center-symmetric Local Binary Pattern (CS-LBP) is a kind of descriptor based on grayscale information from neighborhood, which has high ability of grayscale invariance and rotation invariance. In this paper, CS-LBP will be combined with Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) to solve the problem of feature point matching on uncorrected fish-eye image. We first extract the interest points in the pair of fish-eye images by SIFT, and then describe the corresponding regions of the interest points through CS-LBP. Finally the similarity of the regions will be evaluated using the chi-square distance to get the only pair of points. For the specified interest point, the corresponding point in another image can be found out. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a satisfying matching performance in uncorrected fish-eye lens image. The study of this article will be useful to enhance the applications of fish-eye lens in the field of 3D reconstruction and panorama restoration.

  5. Comparison of self-reported quality of vision outcomes after myopic LASIK with two femtosecond lasers: a prospective, eye-to-eye study

    PubMed Central

    Sáles, Christopher S; Manche, Edward E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare self-reported quality of vision (QoV) outcomes after myopic LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) with two femtosecond lasers. Design Prospective, randomized, eye-to-eye study. Methods Consecutive myopic patients were treated with wavefront-guided LASIK bilaterally. Eyes were randomized according to ocular dominance. The flap of one eye was made with the IntraLase FS 60 kHz femtosecond laser with a conventional 70° side-cut, and the flap of the fellow eye was made with the IntraLase iFS 150 kHz femtosecond laser with an inverted 130° side-cut. Patients completed the validated, Rasch-tested, linear-scaled 30-item QoV questionnaire preoperatively and at Months 1, 3, 6, and 12. Results The study enrolled 120 fellow eyes in 60 patients. None of the measured QoV parameters exhibited statistically significant differences between the groups preoperatively or at any postoperative time point. Conclusion Creating LASIK flaps with an inverted side-cut using a 150 kHz femtosecond laser and with a conventional 70° side-cut using a 60 kHz femtosecond laser resulted in no significant differences in self-reported QoV assessed by the QoV questionnaire. PMID:27621589

  6. Structural brain MRI studies in eye diseases: are they clinically relevant? A review of current findings.

    PubMed

    Prins, Doety; Hanekamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2016-03-01

    Many eye diseases reduce visual acuity or are associated with visual field defects. Because of the well-defined retinotopic organization of the connections of the visual pathways, this may affect specific parts of the visual pathways and cortex, as a result of either deprivation or transsynaptic degeneration. For this reason, over the past several years, numerous structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have examined the association of eye diseases with pathway and brain changes. Here, we review structural MRI studies performed in human patients with the eye diseases albinism, amblyopia, hereditary retinal dystrophies, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma. We focus on two main questions. First, what have these studies revealed? Second, what is the potential clinical relevance of their findings? We find that all the aforementioned eye diseases are indeed associated with structural changes in the visual pathways and brain. As such changes have been described in very different eye diseases, in our view the most parsimonious explanation is that these are caused by the loss of visual input and the subsequent deprivation of the visual pathways and brain regions, rather than by transsynaptic degeneration. Moreover, and of clinical relevance, for some of the diseases - in particular glaucoma and AMD - present results are compatible with the view that the eye disease is part of a more general neurological or neurodegenerative disorder that also affects the brain. Finally, establishing structural changes of the visual pathways has been relevant in the context of new therapeutic strategies to restore retinal function: it implies that restoring retinal function may not suffice to also effectively restore vision. Future structural MRI studies can contribute to (i) further establish relationships between ocular and neurological neurodegenerative disorders, (ii) investigate whether brain degeneration in eye diseases is reversible, (iii) evaluate the use

  7. Chinese Eye Exercises and Myopia Development in School Age Children: A Nested Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Meng-Tian; Li, Shi-Ming; Peng, Xiaoxia; Li, Lei; Ran, Anran; Meng, Bo; Sun, Yunyun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Chinese eye exercises have been implemented in China as an intervention for controlling children's myopia for over 50 years. This nested case-control study investigated Chinese eye exercises and their association with myopia development in junior middle school children. Outcome measures were the onset and progression of myopia over a two-year period. Cases were defined as 1. Myopia onset (cycloplegic spherical equivalent ≤ -0.5 diopter in non-myopic children). 2. Myopia progression (myopia shift of ≥1.0 diopter in those who were myopic at baseline). Two independent investigators assessed the quality of Chinese eye exercises performance at the end of the follow-up period. Of 260 children at baseline (mean age was 12.7 ± 0.5 years), 201 were eligible for this study. There was no association between eye exercises and the risk of myopia-onset (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.24-2.21), nor myopia progression (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.41-1.53). The group who performed high quality exercises had a slightly lower myopia progression of 0.15 D than the children who did not perform the exercise over a period of 2 years. However, the limited sample size, low dosage and performance quality of Chinese eye exercises in children did not result in statistical significance and require further studies. PMID:27329615

  8. Chinese Eye Exercises and Myopia Development in School Age Children: A Nested Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Meng-Tian; Li, Shi-Ming; Peng, Xiaoxia; Li, Lei; Ran, Anran; Meng, Bo; Sun, Yunyun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Chinese eye exercises have been implemented in China as an intervention for controlling children’s myopia for over 50 years. This nested case-control study investigated Chinese eye exercises and their association with myopia development in junior middle school children. Outcome measures were the onset and progression of myopia over a two-year period. Cases were defined as 1. Myopia onset (cycloplegic spherical equivalent ≤ −0.5 diopter in non-myopic children). 2. Myopia progression (myopia shift of ≥1.0 diopter in those who were myopic at baseline). Two independent investigators assessed the quality of Chinese eye exercises performance at the end of the follow-up period. Of 260 children at baseline (mean age was 12.7 ± 0.5 years), 201 were eligible for this study. There was no association between eye exercises and the risk of myopia-onset (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.24–2.21), nor myopia progression (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.41–1.53). The group who performed high quality exercises had a slightly lower myopia progression of 0.15 D than the children who did not perform the exercise over a period of 2 years. However, the limited sample size, low dosage and performance quality of Chinese eye exercises in children did not result in statistical significance and require further studies. PMID:27329615

  9. Malay divorce in Peninsular Malaysia: the near-disappearance of an institution.

    PubMed

    Tan, P C; Jones, G W

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore factors affecting the sharp decline in divorce rates among the Malay population of Peninsular Malaysia during the period 1950-1985. They consider the rise in marriage age, trends away from arranged marriage and polygamy, and the contributions of Islamic reform movements and women's groups. The focus is on the changes in attitudes toward marriage and divorce. Data are from the 1981-1982 Study on Marriage and Marital Dissolution in Peninsular Malaysia. Appendixes containing laws and statutes concerning divorce are included. PMID:12317142

  10. Study on the transverse chromatic aberration of the individual eye model after LASIK refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mei; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Tong

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this research is to study the properties of the transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) after the LASIK refractive surgery based on the individual eye model involving the angle between visual axis and optical axis. According to the measurements of the corneal surfaces, the optical axis lengths and the wavefront aberrations, the individual eye models before and after LASIK refractive surgery are constructed for 15 eyes by using ZEMAX optic design software, while the angle between the visual axis and optical axis is calculated from the data of the anterior corneal surface. The constructed eye models are then used to investigate the variation of the TCA after the surgery. The statistical distributions of the magnitude of the foveal TCA for 15 eyes over the visible spectrum are provided. Finally, we investigate the influence of the TCA on the visual quality and compare the results with previous research. The TCA is an indispensable criterion to evaluate the performance of the refractive surgery. This research is very meaningful for the studies of not only foveal vision but also the peripheral vision.

  11. Randomized, Multicenter, Double–Blind Study of the Safety and Efficacy of 1%D-3-Hydroxybutyrate eye drops for Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Uchino, Miki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Yoshino, Kenichi; Shimazaki, Seika; Toda, Ikuko; Tanaka, Mari; Arai, Hiroyuki; Sakatani, Keiko; Hata, Seiichiro; Okano, Takashi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that topical D-beta-hydroxybutyrate ameliorates corneal epithelial erosion and superficial punctate keratopathy in a rat model of dry eye disease. In the current investigation, we performed a prospective, randomized, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety and efficacy of 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops in patients with dry eye disease. A total of 65 patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group, and the treatments were administered 6 times a day for 4 weeks. We then evaluated corneal fluorescein staining, corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining, tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer score, and subjective symptoms. At both 2 and 4 weeks, the corneal rose Bengal score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group. Among patients with an initial Schirmer score of ≤5 mm, the corneal fluorescein staining score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group at two weeks. Mild ocular symptoms occurred in both groups, and these spontaneously resolved. The present study suggested that 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops are safe and effective in treating ocular surface disorders in patients with tear-deficient dry eye disease. PMID:26865350

  12. Rapid eye movement-related brain activation in human sleep: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Wehrle, Renate; Czisch, Michael; Kaufmann, Christian; Wetter, Thomas C; Holsboer, Florian; Auer, Dorothee P; Pollmächer, Thomas

    2005-05-31

    In animal models, ponto-geniculo-occipital waves appear as an early sign of rapid eye movement sleep and may be functionally significant for brain plasticity processes. In this pilot study, we use a combined polysomnographic and functional magnetic resonance imaging approach, and show distinct magnetic resonance imaging signal increases in the posterior thalamus and occipital cortex in close temporal relationship to rapid eye movements during human rapid eye movement sleep. These findings are consistent with cell recordings in animal experiments and demonstrate that functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized to detect ponto-geniculo-occipital-like activity in humans. Studying intact neuronal networks underlying sleep regulation is no longer confined to animal models, but has been shown to be feasible in humans by a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalograph approach. PMID:15891584

  13. Enhancing Vocabulary Learning through Captioned Video: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Maribel Montero; Peters, Elke; Desmet, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of two attention-enhancing techniques on L2 students' learning and processing of novel French words (i.e., target words) through video with L2 subtitles or captions. A combination of eye-movement data and vocabulary tests was gathered to study the effects of Type of Captioning (full or keyword captioning) and…

  14. An Eye-Tracking Study of How Color Coding Affects Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcelik, Erol; Karakus, Turkan; Kursun, Engin; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2009-01-01

    Color coding has been proposed to promote more effective learning. However, insufficient evidence currently exists to show how color coding leads to better learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the underlying cause of the color coding effect by utilizing eye movement data. Fifty-two participants studied either a color-coded or…

  15. Unique Contributions of Eye-Tracking Research to the Study of Learning with Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The author examines the empirical, methodological, theoretical, and practical contributions of the six studies in this special issue on eye tracking as a tool to study and enhance multimedia learning. The design of learning environments involving graphics should be consistent with a research-based theory of how people learn and evidence-based…

  16. Unilateral proptosis in thyroid eye disease with subsequent contralateral involvement: retrospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this retrospective follow-up study is to evaluate the prevalence of patients with thyroid eye disease presenting with apparent unilateral proptosis and determine the occurrence of exophthalmos in contralateral non-proptotic eye over the time. Associated features with this event were evaluated. Methods A cohort of 655 consecutive patients affected by thyroid eye disease with a minimum follow-up of 10 years was reviewed. Exophthalmos was assessed by using both Hertel exophthalmometer and computed tomography (CT). The influence of age, gender, hormonal status and of different therapies such as corticosteroids, radiotherapy and surgical decompression on this disease progression was evaluated. Results A total of 89 patients (13.5%) (95% confidence interval [CI] 15%-10%) had clinical evidence of unilateral exophthalmos at the first visit. Among these, 13 patients (14%) (95% CI 22%-7%) developed subsequent contralateral exophthalmos. The increase of protrusion ranged from 2 to 7 mm (mean of 4.2). The time of onset varied from 6 months to 7 years (mean time: 29 months). Smoking status, young age and surgical decompression are significantly associated with development of contralateral proptosis (p< .05). Conclusions Asymmetric thyroid eye disease with the appearance of unilateral exophthalmos at the initial examination is a fairly frequent event, while subsequent contralateral proptosis occurs less commonly. However, physicians should be aware that young patients, particularly if smokers, undergoing orbital decompression in one eye may need further surgery on contralateral side over time. PMID:23721066

  17. Genetic mechanisms involved in the evolution of the cephalopod camera eye revealed by transcriptomic and developmental studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    embryonic pygmy squid. Conclusion We identified 156 genes positively selected in the cephalopod lineage and 1,571 genes commonly found in the cephalopod and vertebrate camera eyes from the analysis of cephalopod camera eye specificity at the expression level. Experimental validation showed that the cephalopod camera eye-specific candidate genes include those expressed in the outer part of the optic lobes, which unique to coleoid cephalopods. The results of this study suggest that changes in gene expression and in the primary structure of proteins (through positive selection) from those in the common molluscan ancestor could have contributed, at least in part, to cephalopod camera eye acquisition. PMID:21702923

  18. Migration study of 1,3-butadiene in eye-drop solutions.

    PubMed

    Pistos, Constantinos; Karampela, Sevasti; Vardakou, Ioanna; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris

    2012-07-01

    The potential deleterious effects of extractables/leachables in pharmaceutical products led the USP, EP, and JP to require extractable and toxicity testing of container/closure systems. To that, a headspace gas chromatography flame ionization detection method was developed and validated for the determination of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD) as a potential extractable residue from a pharmaceutical container/closure system into eye-drop solutions. A migration study was further applied in eight eye-drop solutions (currently marketed products) after short- and long-term exposure of these products at various temperatures. This method allows the establishment of safety-qualification thresholds for 1,3-BD being capable of monitoring eye-drop solution products for this residue. PMID:22187982

  19. Preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. III - Effects on eyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Corbett, R. L.; Black, S.; Takahashi, A.; Leaffer, D.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the eyes of eight pocket mice exposed to oxygen at partial pressures of 8, 10, or 12 psi over a period of 7 d. At the termination of the exposure, the animals were decompressed to sea-level O2, either immediately or over a period of 30, 60, or 90 min. No pathological changes were found in any of the eyes, except in the retina of one of the animals exposed to 12 psi O2. Here, only a single rod photoreceptor was found damaged, an observation not regarded as significant. Hence, an oxygen partial pressure as high as 12 psi in the canister in which pocket mice were expected to fly on Apollo XVII would probably have no deleterious effect on the eyes of the animals.

  20. Love is in the gaze: an eye-tracking study of love and sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Bolmont, Mylene; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2014-09-01

    Reading other people's eyes is a valuable skill during interpersonal interaction. Although a number of studies have investigated visual patterns in relation to the perceiver's interest, intentions, and goals, little is known about eye gaze when it comes to differentiating intentions to love from intentions to lust (sexual desire). To address this question, we conducted two experiments: one testing whether the visual pattern related to the perception of love differs from that related to lust and one testing whether the visual pattern related to the expression of love differs from that related to lust. Our results show that a person's eye gaze shifts as a function of his or her goal (love vs. lust) when looking at a visual stimulus. Such identification of distinct visual patterns for love and lust could have theoretical and clinical importance in couples therapy when these two phenomena are difficult to disentangle from one another on the basis of patients' self-reports. PMID:25031302

  1. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  2. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview Statistics ...

  3. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trauma A black eye is usually caused by direct trauma to the eye or face. The bruise ... can cause bruising around the eyes, even without direct injury to the eye. Sometimes, serious damage to ...

  4. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  5. Determinants and Effects of Voice Disorders among Secondary School Teachers in Peninsular Malaysia Using a Validated Malay Version of VHI-10

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Foong Ming; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Chu, Anne Hin Yee; Bulgiba, Awang; Koh, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To establish the prevalence of voice disorder using the Malay-Voice Handicap Index 10 (Malay-VHI-10) and to study the determinants, quality of life, depression, anxiety and stress associated with voice disorder among secondary school teachers in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods This study was divided into two phases. Phase I tested the reliability of the Malay-VHI-10 while Phase II was a cross-sectional study with two-stage sampling. In Phase II, a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and teaching characteristics, depression, anxiety and stress scale (Malay version of DASS-21); and health-related quality of life (Malay version of SF12-v2). Complex sample analysis was conducted using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. Results In Phase I, the Spearman correlation coefficient and Cronbach alpha for total VHI-10 score was 0.72 (p < 0.001) and 0.77 respectively; showing good correlation and internal consistency. The ICCs ranged from 0.65 to 0.78 showing fair to good reliability and demonstrating the subscales to be reliable and stable. A total of 6039 teachers participated in Phase II. They were primarily Malays, females, married, had completed tertiary education and aged between 30 to 50 years. A total of 10.4% (95% CI 7.1, 14.9) of the teachers had voice disorder (VHI-10 score > 11). Compared to Malays, a greater proportion of ethnic Chinese teachers reported voice disorder while ethnic Indian teachers were less likely to report this problem. There was a higher prevalence ratio (PR) of voice disorder among single or divorced/widowed teachers. Teachers with voice disorder were more likely to report higher rates of absenteeism (PR: 1.70, 95% CI 1.33, 2.19), lower quality of life with lower SF12-v2 physical (0.98, 95% CI 0.96, 0.99) and mental (0.97, 95% CI 0.96, 0.98) component summary scales; and higher anxiety levels (1.04, 95% CI 1.02, 1.06). Conclusions The Malay-VHI-10 is valid and reliable. Voice disorder

  6. Dry Eye Disease Incidence Associated with Chronic Graft-Host Disease: Nonconcurrent Cohort Study (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Mian, Shahzad I.; De la Parra-Colín, Paola; De Melo-Franco, Rafael; Johnson, Christopher; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with stable or progressive dry eye disease and to determine the true incidence in patients with no prior history of dry eye disease. Methods: A nonconcurrent cohort study at a single institution with 136 patients who had no previous history of dry eye disease before HSCT. Survival analysis was used to estimate dry eye disease incidence. The incidence rate was calculated using life tables as the number of observed dry eye disease cases divided by the person-time at risk accumulated by the cohort. Transition probabilities were calculated from time of transplant to time of diagnosis, and then to last recorded visit. Results: Incidence rate was 0.8 cases of dry eye disease per person-year, and half of the population at risk developed dry eye disease during the first 10 months post transplant. Time to develop dry eye disease was 2.5 months for mild dry eye disease, 9.6 months for moderate dry eye disease, and 13.2 months for severe dry eye disease. In terms of cumulative incidence, 73% of subjects developed dry eye disease (50% mild, 16% moderate, and 7% severe) at the time of diagnosis. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that dry eye disease associated with cGVHD is an extremely frequent event and shows a wide spectrum of severity, with a mild form presenting early and a moderate to severe form presenting later after HSCT. These findings need to be studied further to elucidate if these are two different pathophysiological entities or just different expressions of the same pathology. PMID:27507907

  7. Source facies and oil families of the Malay Basin, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Creaney, S.; Hussein, A.H. ); Curry, D.J.; Bohacs, K.M. ); Hassan, R. )

    1994-07-01

    The Malay Basin consists of a number of separate petroleum systems, driven exclusively by nonmarine source rocks. These systems range from lower Oligocene to middle Miocene and show a progression from lacustrine-dominated source facies in the lower Oligocene to lower Miocene section to coastal plain/delta plain coal-related sources in the lower to middle Miocene section. Two lacustrine sources are recognized in the older section, and multiple source/reservoir pairs are recognized in the younger coaly section. The lacustrine sources can be recognized using well-log analysis combined with detailed core and sidewall core sampling. Chemically, they are characterized by low pristane/phytane ratios, low oleanane contents, and a general absence of resin-derived terpanes. These sources have TOCs in the 1.0-4.0% range and hydrogen indices of up to 750. In contrast, the coal-related sources are chemically distinct with pristane/phytane ratios of up to 8, very high oleanane contents, and often abundant resinous compounds. All these sources are generally overmature in the basin center and immature toward the basin margin. The oils sourced from all sources in the Malay Basin are generally low in sulfur and of very high economic value. Detailed biomarker analysis of the oils in the Malay Basin has allowed the recognition of families associated with the above sources and demonstrated that oil migration has been largely strata parallel with little cross-stratal mixing of families.

  8. A comparative study of thermal effects of 3 types of laser in eye: 3D simulation with bioheat equation.

    PubMed

    Joukar, Amin; Nammakie, Erfan; Niroomand-Oscuii, Hanieh

    2015-01-01

    The application of laser in ophthalmology and eye surgery is so widespread that hardly can anyone deny its importance. On the other hand, since the human eye is an organ susceptible to external factors such as heat waves, laser radiation rapidly increases the temperature of the eye and therefore the study of temperature distribution inside the eye under laser irradiation is crucial; but the use of experimental and invasive methods for measuring the temperature inside the eye is typically high-risk and hazardous. In this paper, using the three-dimensional finite element method, the distribution of heat transfer inside the eye under transient condition was studied through three different lasers named Nd:Yag, Nd:Yap and ArF. Considering the metabolic heat and blood perfusion rate in various regions of the eye, numerical solution of space-time dependant Pennes bioheat transfer equation has been applied in this study. Lambert-Beer's law has been used to model the absorption of laser energy inside the eye tissues. It should also be mentioned that the effect of the ambient temperature, tear evaporation rate, laser power and the pupil diameter on the temperature distribution have been studied. Also, temperature distribution inside the eye after applying each laser and temperature variations of six optional regions as functions of time have been investigated. The results show that these radiations cause temperature rise in various regions, which will in turn causes serious damages to the eye tissues. Investigating the temperature distribution inside the eye under the laser irradiation can be a useful tool to study and predict the thermal effects of laser radiation on the human eye and evaluate the risk involved in performing laser surgery. PMID:25774029

  9. An Open Conversation on Using Eye-Gaze Methods in Studies of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venker, Courtney E.; Kover, Sara T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Eye-gaze methods have the potential to advance the study of neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their increasing use, challenges arise in using these methods with individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and in reporting sufficient methodological detail such that the resulting research is replicable and interpretable. Method: This…

  10. Factors Influencing the Use of Captions by Foreign Language Learners: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winke, Paula; Gass, Susan; Sydorenko, Tetyana

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates caption-reading behavior by foreign language (L2) learners and, through eye-tracking methodology, explores the extent to which the relationship between the native and target language affects that behavior. Second-year (4th semester) English-speaking learners of Arabic, Chinese, Russian, and Spanish watched 2 videos…

  11. The Early Development of Sight-Reading Skills in Adulthood: A Study of Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Huovinen, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of skill development on the eye movements of beginning adult sight-readers were examined, focusing on changes in the allocation of visual attention within metrical units as well as in the processing of larger melodic intervals. The participants were future elementary school teachers, taking part in a 9-month-long music…

  12. Attention to Irregular Verbs by Beginning Learners of German: An Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfroid, Aline; Uggen, Maren S.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on beginning second language learners' attention to irregular verb morphology, an area of grammar that many adults find difficult to acquire (e.g., DeKeyser, 2005; Larsen-Freeman, 2010). We measured beginning learners' eye movements during sentence processing to investigate whether or not they actually attend to…

  13. Vocabulary Acquisition without Adult Explanations in Repeated Shared Book Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…

  14. Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition "from" and "while" Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer-Sánchez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that reading is an important source of incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition. However, we still do not have a clear picture of what happens when readers encounter unknown words. Combining offline (vocabulary tests) and online (eye-tracking) measures, the incidental acquisition of vocabulary knowledge…

  15. Eye Tracking as a Measure of Noticing: A Study of Explicit Recasts in SCMC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether eye-tracking technology could be employed as a measure of noticing of corrective feedback (in the form of explicit recasts) during NS-NNS task-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Pairs of university-level learners of English (n = 18) engaged in a short chat interaction task with a native…

  16. An Eye-Tracking Study of Learning from Science Text with Concrete and Abstract Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina; Ariasi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the online process of reading and the offline learning from an illustrated science text. The authors examined the effects of using a concrete or abstract picture to illustrate a text and adopted eye-tracking methodology to trace text and picture processing. They randomly assigned 59 eleventh-grade students to 3 reading…

  17. Infant and Adult Perceptions of Possible and Impossible Body Movements: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N = 14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old…

  18. Letter Names and Alphabet Book Reading by Senior Kindergarteners: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Landry, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    The study monitored the eye movements of twenty 5-year-old children while reading an alphabet book to examine the manner in which the letters, words, and pictures were fixated and the relation of attention to print to alphabetic knowledge. Children attended little to the print, took longer to first fixate print than illustrations, and labeled…

  19. The Face Perception System becomes Species-Specific at 3 Months: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Meary, David; Pascalis, Olivier; Simion, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating own- vs. other-species preferences in 3-month-old infants. The infants' eye movements were recorded during a visual preference paradigm to assess whether they show a preference for own-species faces when contrasted with other-species faces. Human and monkey faces, equated for all low-level perceptual…

  20. Orthography and the Development of Reading Processes: An Eye-Movement Study of Chinese and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Gary; Miller, Kevin; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Houcan

    2009-01-01

    As children become proficient readers, there are substantial changes in the eye movements that subserve reading. Some of these changes reflect universal developmental factors while others may be specific to a particular writing system. This study attempts to disentangle effects of universal and script-dependent factors by comparing the development…

  1. Study of dose perturbation parameters for eye shielding in megavoltage photon beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Das, I.J.; Kase, K.R.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Ligon, D.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Shielding blocks are frequently used to minimize dose and shield sensitive organs in radiation therapy. The blocks, which are made of high atomic number materials, produce significant dose perturbations in megavoltage photon beams. The effects of these perturbations are studied with special interest in the eye shielding in the treatment of head and neck malignancies. Optimum parameters for the treatment are suggested.

  2. Narrative Comprehension and Production in Children with SLI: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Olmos, Joan Guardia; MacWhinney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5;8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5;6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and…

  3. Polymorphisms of the resistin gene and their association with obesity and resistin levels in Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Apalasamy, Yamunah Devi; Rampal, Sanjay; Salim, Agus; Moy, Foong Ming; Su, Tin Tin; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-06-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the resistin gene (RETN) are linked to obesity and resistin levels in various populations. However, results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate association between polymorphisms in the resistin gene with obesity in a homogenous Malaysian Malay population. This study is also aimed to determine association between resistin levels with certain SNPs and haplotypes of RETN. A total of 631 Malaysian Malay subjects were included in this study and genotyping was carried out using Sequenom MassARRAY. There was no significant difference found in both allelic and genotype frequencies of each of the RETN SNPs between the obese and non-obese groups after Bonferroni correction. RETN rs34861192 and rs3219175 SNPs were significantly associated with log-resistin levels. The GG genotype carriers are found to have higher levels of log-resistin compared to A allele carriers. The RETN haplotypes (CAG, CGA and GA) were significantly associated with resistin levels. However, the haplotypes of the RETN gene were not associated with obesity. Resistin levels were not correlated to metabolic parameters such as body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, and lipid parameters. RETN SNPs and haplotypes are of apparent functional importance in the regulation of resistin levels but are not correlated with obesity and related markers. PMID:25991560

  4. Validation of the Malay Version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Aziz, Aniza Abd.; Mostapa, Mohd Rosmizaki; Awang, Zainudin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC). Design. A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods. A total of 108 postpartum mothers attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia, were involved. Construct validity and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content validity, and face validity process. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 18 and Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20. Results. The final model consists of four constructs, namely, infant care, personal care, household activities, and social and community activities, with 18 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.678; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923; comparative fit index = 0.936; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.080). Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains ranged from 0.659 to 0.921 and from 0.499 to 0.628, respectively. Conclusion. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 18 items of the Malay version of IFSAC was acceptable to be used to measure functional status after childbirth because it is valid, reliable, and simple. PMID:25667932

  5. Advanced Clinical Imaging and Tissue-based Biomarkers of the Eye for Toxicology Studies in Minipigs.

    PubMed

    Atzpodien, Elke-Astrid; Jacobsen, Bjoern; Funk, Juergen; Altmann, Bernd; Silva Munoz, Manuel A; Singer, Thomas; Gyger, Cyrill; Hasler, Pascal; Maloca, Peter

    2016-04-01

    There is increased interest to use minipigs in ocular toxicology studies due to their anatomical similarities with human eyes and as a substitute for nonhuman primates. This requires adaptation of enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques and of ocular relevant immunohistochemistry (IHC) or in situ hybridization (ISH) markers to porcine eyes. In this study, OCT and OCT angiography (AngioOCT) were performed on adult Göttingen minipigs. To increase structural information on retinal and choroidal vasculature, OCT data were speckle denoized and choroidal blood vessels were segmented with threshold filtering. In addition, we established a set of IHC and ISH markers on Davidson's fixed paraffin-embedded minipig eyes: neurofilament-160, neuronal nuclei, calretinin, protein kinase C-α, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, glutamine synthetase, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1, rhodopsin, synaptophysin, postsynaptic density protein-95, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-specific protein-65, von Willebrand factor, α-smooth muscle actin, desmin, and Ki-67, thus enabling visualization of retinal neuronal and glial cells, photoreceptors, synapses, RPE, blood vessels, myocytes, macrophages, or cell proliferation. Using ISH, transcripts of vascular endothelial growth factor A, angiopoietin-2, and endothelial tyrosine kinase were visualized. This article describes for the first time in minipig eyes speckle noise-free OCT, AngioOCT, and a set of IHC/ISH markers on Davidson's fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and helps to establish the minipig for ocular toxicology and pharmacology studies. PMID:26680760

  6. Prevalence of sleep disordered breathing symptoms among Malay school children in a primary school in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Fadzil Abdullah, A A; Jamalludin, A R; Norrashidah, A W; Norzila, M Z; Asiah Kassim, K; Rus Anida, A; Hasniah, A L; Ramli, Z; Samsinah, H

    2012-04-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is increasingly being diagnosed in children. However, there is no prevalence study done in Malaysia. The study objective was to evaluate the prevalence of SDB symptoms based on parental reports and associated risk factors among Malay school children aged 6 to 10 years old in a primary school using a translated University Michigan Paediatric Sleep Questionnaire (Malay UM-PSQ). The children whose parents responded to the questionnaire and consented were examined, documenting height, weight, skin fold thickness, neck and abdominal circumference, tonsillar size, nostril examination and presence of micrognathia or retrognathia. There were 550 respondents. The prevalence of parental report of SDB symptoms was 14.9 % (95 % CI 11.9, 17.9). Two hundred and eighty-five (51.8%) school children were males with mean age of 8.5 years (SD 1.1). The associated risk factors for SDB symptoms are male, obesity, large neck and waist circumference, positive history of asthma, history of recurrent tonsillitis, enlarged tonsil (> 4+) and enlarged nasal turbinate. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender is the only significant independent risk factor of SDB symptoms PMID:22822640

  7. A Pilot Study: The Efficacy of Virgin Coconut Oil as Ocular Rewetting Agent on Rabbit Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Chinn Hooi, Ng; Safie, Nor Hasanah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO) was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P < 0.05). However, further statistical analysis had shown no significant difference at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks compared to initial measurement (P > 0.05). There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P > 0.05). Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being. PMID:25802534

  8. Twins Eye Study in Tasmania (TEST): Rationale and Methodology to Recruit and Examine Twins

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, David A; MacKinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Sun, Cong; Hammond, Christopher J; Young, Terri L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2013-01-01

    Visual impairment is a leading cause for morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow for preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: 1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited; 2); utilising the national twin registry; 3) word of mouth and local media publicity; 4) directly approaching schools; and finally 5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins. PMID:19803772

  9. Seeing things through science eyes: A case study of an exemplary elementary teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Andrea Susan

    Science-eyed elementary teachers exhibit relentless passions for replacing traditional teaching with realistic, integrated, responsible instruction with science at its core. The purpose of this study was to explore an exemplary elementary teacher's thinking about science and how it serves as a vehicle for the learning that occurs in her primary classroom. Two research questions were investigated in this study. First, what does it mean for an exemplary elementary teacher to view all learning with science eyes? Second, in what ways does the science-oriented elementary teacher use her knowledge of science content, pedagogy, and practical experience to structure her students' learning and her classroom teaching? A naturalistic methodology was employed in this research effort. Classroom observations, teacher interviews, documents, and selected artifacts were analyzed using a constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Lincoln & Guba, 1985) and the analysis tools of HyperRESEARCH (1994) in an effort to unravel the complex, intuitive knowledge of a nationally recognized first grade teacher. Data analyses provided insightful information about this exceptional teacher and how she organizes, plans, and implements effective lessons that integrate science with all subject areas. Four direct observation themes, Best Practice, Just Like a Scientist, Integrating Curriculum - A Balancing Act, and Expert Pedagogy, and six interview themes, Curriculum - What to Teach?, Instruction - How to Teach, Knowing Students, Getting Stuff, Professionalism, and Reflective Practitioner, emerged from independent analyses of two data sets. Three overall themes, Head, Heart, and Hands of an Exemplary Science Elementary Teacher, emerged from a convergent content analysis. The themes provide the foundation for a proposed model of an expert science pedagogue. Ten portrait-like, impressionistic, vignettes are included in this unique study to capture the spirit of the science-eyed elementary

  10. Learning from Concept Mapping and Hypertext: An Eye Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadieu, Franck; Salmerón, Ladislao; Cegarra, Julien; Paubel, Pierre-Vincent; Lemarié, Julie; Chevalier, Aline

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prior domain knowledge and learning sequences on learning with concept mapping and hypertext. Participants either made a concept map in a first step and then read the hypertext's contents combined with concept mapping (high activating condition), or they read the hypertext's contents first and then made a concept…

  11. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version of the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Geriatrics (M-LOTCA-G) among the Malaysian Elderly Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohd Natar, Ahmad Kamal; Nagappan, Rajendran; Ainuddin, Husna Ahmad; Masuri, Ghazali; Thanapalan, Chandra Kannan K.

    2015-01-01

    Current cognitive screening tests are difficult to use due to their deficit in cultural and conceptual significance and translation into other languages. The purpose of this study was to translate the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Geriatrics (LOTCA-G) into Malay language and test its reliability and validity for…

  13. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  14. Cross-Cultural Reading Comprehension Assessment in Malay and English as It Relates to the Dagostino-Carifio Model of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagostino, Lorraine; Carifio, James; Bauer, Jennifer D. C.; Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The review of existing literature suggests that few researchers have adopted cross-language comparisons to explore how cultural background affects the assessment of reading comprehension of students. In this present study, the researchers independently reviewed and rated all the items of two reading comprehension tests translated from Malay into…

  15. Classroom Misbehavior in the Eyes of Students: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2012-01-01

    Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed. PMID:22919316

  16. Classroom misbehavior in the eyes of students: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rachel C F; Shek, Daniel T L

    2012-01-01

    Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed. PMID:22919316

  17. Introduction of the Utrecht Tasks for Attention in Toddlers Using Eye Tracking (UTATE): A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Marjanneke; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hooge, Ignace T. C.; van Baar, Anneloes L.

    2016-01-01

    Attention capacities underlie everyday functioning from an early age onwards. Little is known about attentional processes at toddler age. A feasible assessment of attention capacities at toddler age is needed to allow further study of attention development. In this study, a test battery is piloted that consists of four tasks which intend to measure the attention systems orienting, alerting, and executive attention: the Utrecht Tasks of Attention in Toddlers using Eye tracking [UTATE]. The UTATE assesses looking behavior that may reflect visual attention capacities, by using eye-tracking methods. This UTATE was studied in 16 Dutch 18-month-old toddlers. Results showed that the instrument is feasible and generates good quality data. A first indication of sufficient reliability was found for most of the variables. It is concluded that the UTATE can be used in further studies. Further evaluation of the reliability and validity of the instrument in larger samples is worthwhile. PMID:27199880

  18. Individual Differences in Fifth Graders' Literacy and Academic Language Predict Comprehension Monitoring Development: An Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth graders' (n = 52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task,…

  19. Strong genetic population structure in the boring giant clam, Tridacna crocea, across the Indo-Malay Archipelago: implications related to evolutionary processes and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kochzius, Marc; Nuryanto, Agus

    2008-09-01

    Even though the Indo-Malay Archipelago hosts the world's greatest diversity of marine species, studies on the genetic population structure and gene flow of marine organisms within this area are rather rare. Consequently, not much is known about connectivity of marine populations in the Indo-Malay Archipelago, despite the fact that such information is important to understand evolutionary and ecological processes in the centre of marine biodiversity. This study aims to investigate the genetic population structure of the boring giant clam, Tridacna crocea. The analysis is based on a 456-bp fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene from 300 individuals collected from 15 localities across the Indo-Malay Archipelago. Tridacna crocea shows a very strong genetic population structure and isolation by distance, indicating restricted gene flow between almost all sample sites. The observed Phi(ST)-value of 0.28 is very high compared to other studies on giant clams. According to the pronounced genetic differences, the sample sites can be divided into four groups from West to East: (i) Eastern Indian Ocean, (ii) Java Sea, (iii) South China Sea, Indonesian throughflow, as well as seas in the East of Sulawesi, and (iv) Western Pacific. This complex genetic population structure and pattern of connectivity, characterised by restricted gene flow between some sites and panmixing between others can be attributed to the geological history and prevailing current regimes in the Indo-Malay Archipelago. PMID:18662232

  20. Unilateral visual impairment in rural south India–Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS)

    PubMed Central

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-01-01

    AIM To report the prevalence and causes of unilateral visual impairment (UVI) in rural population of all ages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS A population-based cross sectional study using a multi-stage cluster sampling methodology was carried out in West Godavari, Adilabad and Mahbubnagar districts in south India. A comprehensive eye examination that included presenting and best corrected visual acuity and dilated fundus examination was conducted by trained professionals. UVI is defined as presenting visual acuity <6/18 in one eye but ≥6/18 in other eye. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to test association of UVI with socio-demographic risk factors. RESULTS Data were analyzed for 6634/7771 participants after excluding those with bilateral visual impairment. The mean age of the participants was 27.4y (standard deviation: 17.9y), 51.9% were women and 49.1% were educated. The prevalence of UVI was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.2%-8.5%). Uncorrected refractive error (60.8%), cataract (17.4%) and retinal causes (6.6%) were the leading causes of UVI. On multiple logistic regression analyses, older age, not having education, living in well-off district had significantly higher odds of being associated with UVI. UVI was not associated with gender. CONCLUSION UVI is common in rural south India. Most of it is due to cataract and refractive errors, both of which can be addressed at primary and secondary levels of eye care. Burden of UVI should also be considered in planning eye care services. PMID:27275437

  1. How dogs scan familiar and inverted faces: an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi

    2014-05-01

    Faces play an important role in communication and identity recognition in social animals. Domestic dogs often respond to human facial cues, but their face processing is weakly understood. In this study, facial inversion effect (deficits in face processing when the image is turned upside down) and responses to personal familiarity were tested using eye movement tracking. A total of 23 pet dogs and eight kennel dogs were compared to establish the effects of life experiences on their scanning behavior. All dogs preferred conspecific faces and showed great interest in the eye area, suggesting that they perceived images representing faces. Dogs fixated at the upright faces as long as the inverted faces, but the eye area of upright faces gathered longer total duration and greater relative fixation duration than the eye area of inverted stimuli, regardless of the species (dog or human) shown in the image. Personally, familiar faces and eyes attracted more fixations than the strange ones, suggesting that dogs are likely to recognize conspecific and human faces in photographs. The results imply that face scanning in dogs is guided not only by the physical properties of images, but also by semantic factors. In conclusion, in a free-viewing task, dogs seem to target their fixations at naturally salient and familiar items. Facial images were generally more attractive for pet dogs than kennel dogs, but living environment did not affect conspecific preference or inversion and familiarity responses, suggesting that the basic mechanisms of face processing in dogs could be hardwired or might develop under limited exposure. PMID:24305996

  2. A new eye-safe lidar design for studying atmospheric aerosol distributions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Nianwen; Zhou, Xiaobing; Li, Shusun; Chen, Zhongrong

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents the design, eye-safe characteristics, and performance of a new eye-safe infrared lidar system for studying city fog. It includes a compact infrared (1574 nm) transmitter, a telescope receiver, and a computer to acquire, store, and process and analyze the measurement data. The development of such a system makes it possible for routine aerosol monitoring in a populated area using lidar technology. A simulation study and a field test show that the system was capable of aerosol monitoring in cities. This lidar system will be used to study the distribution of aerosol over an urban area of 100-200 km(2) and will be useful for routine multidimensional aerosol measurements with high resolution in an urban environment. PMID:19334954

  3. Evaluation of Color Settings in Aerial Images with the Use of Eye-Tracking User Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirijovsky, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of presented paper is to find the most realistic and preferred color settings for four different types of surfaces on the aerial images. This will be achieved through user study with the use of eye-movement recording. Aerial images taken by the unmanned aerial system were used as stimuli. From each image, squared crop area containing one of the studied types of surfaces (asphalt, concrete, water, soil, and grass) was selected. For each type of surface, the real value of reflectance was found with the use of precise spectroradiometer ASD HandHeld 2 which measures the reflectance. The device was used at the same time as aerial images were captured, so lighting conditions and state of vegetation were equal. The spectral resolution of the ASD device is better than 3.0 nm. For defining the RGB values of selected type of surface, the spectral reflectance values recorded by the device were merged into wider groups. Finally, we get three groups corresponding to RGB color system. Captured images were edited with the graphic editor Photoshop CS6. Contrast, clarity, and brightness were edited for all surface types on images. Finally, we get a set of 12 images of the same area with different color settings. These images were put into the grid and used as stimuli for the eye-tracking experiment. Eye-tracking is one of the methods of usability studies and it is considered as relatively objective. Eye-tracker SMI RED 250 with the sampling frequency 250 Hz was used in the study. As respondents, a group of 24 students of Geoinformatics and Geography was used. Their task was to select which image in the grid has the best color settings. The next task was to select which color settings they prefer. Respondents' answers were evaluated and the most realistic and most preferable color settings were found. The advantage of the eye-tracking evaluation was that also the process of the selection of the answers was analyzed. Areas of Interest were marked around each image in the

  4. A clinical study on “Computer vision syndrome” and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha

    PubMed Central

    Gangamma, M. P.; Poonam; Rajagopala, Manjusha

    2010-01-01

    American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as “Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use”. Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on “CVS”, 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. PMID:22131717

  5. A clinical study on "Computer vision syndrome" and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha.

    PubMed

    Gangamma, M P; Poonam; Rajagopala, Manjusha

    2010-04-01

    American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as "Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use". Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on "CVS", 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and SaptamritaLauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. PMID:22131717

  6. Current advances in invertebrate vision: insights from patch-clamp studies of photoreceptors in apposition eyes.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Roman V

    2016-08-01

    Traditional electrophysiological research on invertebrate photoreceptors has been conducted in vivo, using intracellular recordings from intact compound eyes. The only exception used to be Drosophila melanogaster, which was exhaustively studied by both intracellular recording and patch-clamp methods. Recently, several patch-clamp studies have provided new information on the biophysical properties of photoreceptors of diverse insect species, having both apposition and neural superposition eyes, in the contexts of visual ecology, behavior, and ontogenesis. Here, I discuss these and other relevant results, emphasizing differences between fruit flies and other species, between photoreceptors of diurnal and nocturnal insects, properties of distinct functional types of photoreceptors, postembryonic developmental changes, and relationships between voltage-gated potassium channels and visual ecology. PMID:27250910

  7. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of ... light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye (the retina) from its supporting layers. It is ...

  8. Eye Wear

    MedlinePlus

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  9. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  10. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  11. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  12. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work ...

  13. Child Rearing and Individuality Among Suburban Malays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, David J.; Banks, Ellen

    This study focuses on Malaysians' perceptions of individuality in their children and on general characteristics of Malaysian child training practices. Research was carried out in three adjoining villages where well over half of the income of residents is derived from wage and salaried employment in industrial towns. The study consisted of…

  14. A comparative study of Bilvadi Yoga Ashchyotana and eye drops in Vataja Abhishyanda (Simple Allergic Conjunctivitis).

    PubMed

    Udani, Jayshree; Vaghela, D B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Matalia, P D

    2012-01-01

    Simple allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergy (prevalence 5 - 22 %). It is a hypersensitivity reaction to specific airborne antigens. The disease Vataja Abhishyanda, which is due to vitiation of Vata Pradhana Tridosha is comparable with this condition. The management of simple allergic conjunctivitis in modern ophthalmology is very expensive and it should be followed lifelong and Ayurveda can provide better relief in such manifestation. This is the first research study on Vataja Abhishyanda. Patients were selected from the Outpatient Department (OPD), Inpatient Department (IPD), of the Shalakya Tantra Department and were randomly divided into two groups. In Group-A Bilvadi Ashchyotana and in Group-B Bilvadi eye drops were instilled for three months. Total 32 patients were registered and 27 patients completed the course of treatment. Bilvadi Ashchyotana gave better results in Toda, Sangharsha, Parushya, Kandu and Ragata as compared with Bilvadi Eye Drops in Vataja Abhishyanda. PMID:23049192

  15. Visual exploration patterns of human figures in action: an eye tracker study with art paintings

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Daniela; Morganti, Francesca; Cipresso, Pietro; Ruggi, Simona; Riva, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Art exploration is a complex process conditioned by factors at different levels and includes both basic visual principles and complex cognitive factors. The human figure is considered a critical factor attracting the attention in art painting. Using an eye-tracking methodology, the goal of this study was to explore different elements of the human figure performing an action (face and body parts in action) in complex social scenes characterized by different levels of social interaction between agents depicted in scenes (individual vs. social). The sample included 44 laypersons, and the stimuli consisted of 10 fine art paintings representing the figurative style of classical art. The results revealed different scanning patterns of the human figure elements related to the level of social interaction of agents depicted in the scene. The agents’ face attracted eye movements in social interaction scenes while the agents’ body parts attracted eye movements only when the agents were involved in individual actions. These processes were confirmed specifically in participants with high empathic abilities who became immediately fixated on faces to develop a mimetic engagement with other agents. Future studies integrating other measures would help confirm the results obtained and strengthen their implication for embodiment processes. PMID:26579021

  16. Genetic Association Analysis of Dopamine DRD3 Ser9Gly Polymorphism and Schizophrenia in Malay Population

    PubMed Central

    Tee, SF; Tang, PY; Loh, HC

    2011-01-01

    Background: Molecular components of the dopamine receptor (DRD3) play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). Previous studies have demonstrated an association between the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism and SCZ but the results have been inconclusive. Method: In this study, we investigated this controversial association between the Ser9Gly (A/G) polymorphism and SCZ using Malay cases-control (261 cases/157 controls) samples. PCR-RFLP was performed to genotype the distribution of the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism. Results: Both healthy control and SCHZ patient groups were in of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the analyzed genetic variability. There was a significant association between the genotype distribution DRD3 polymorphisms and SCZ (χ2= 9.359; df = 2; P = 0.009). Conclusion: We believe that further studies are required to examine the association between others dopamine-related genes and the behavioral phenotypes of SCZ. PMID:23113067

  17. Self-Face Recognition in Schizophrenia: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Bortolon, Catherine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N; Raffard, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Self-face recognition has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia (SZ), according to studies using behavioral tasks implicating cognitive demands. Here, we employed an eye-tracking methodology, which is a relevant tool to understand impairments in self-face recognition deficits in SZ because it provides a natural, continuous and online record of face processing. Moreover, it allows collecting the most relevant and informative features each individual looks at during the self-face recognition. These advantages are especially relevant considering the fundamental role played by the patterns of visual exploration on face processing. Thus, this paper aims to investigate self-face recognition deficits in SZ using eye-tracking methodology. Visual scan paths were monitored in 20 patients with SZ and 20 healthy controls. Self, famous, and unknown faces were morphed in steps of 20%. Location, number, and duration of fixations on relevant areas were recorded with an eye-tracking system. Participants performed a passive exploration task (no specific instruction was provided), followed by an active decision making task (individuals were explicitly requested to recognize the different faces). Results showed that patients with SZ had fewer and longer fixations compared to controls. Nevertheless, both groups focused their attention on relevant facial features in a similar way. No significant difference was found between groups when participants were requested to recognize the faces (active task). In conclusion, using an eye tracking methodology and two tasks with low levels of cognitive demands, our results suggest that patients with SZ are able to: (1) explore faces and focus on relevant features of the face in a similar way as controls; and (2) recognize their own face. PMID:26903833

  18. Self-Face Recognition in Schizophrenia: An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Bortolon, Catherine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N.; Raffard, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Self-face recognition has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia (SZ), according to studies using behavioral tasks implicating cognitive demands. Here, we employed an eye-tracking methodology, which is a relevant tool to understand impairments in self-face recognition deficits in SZ because it provides a natural, continuous and online record of face processing. Moreover, it allows collecting the most relevant and informative features each individual looks at during the self-face recognition. These advantages are especially relevant considering the fundamental role played by the patterns of visual exploration on face processing. Thus, this paper aims to investigate self-face recognition deficits in SZ using eye-tracking methodology. Visual scan paths were monitored in 20 patients with SZ and 20 healthy controls. Self, famous, and unknown faces were morphed in steps of 20%. Location, number, and duration of fixations on relevant areas were recorded with an eye-tracking system. Participants performed a passive exploration task (no specific instruction was provided), followed by an active decision making task (individuals were explicitly requested to recognize the different faces). Results showed that patients with SZ had fewer and longer fixations compared to controls. Nevertheless, both groups focused their attention on relevant facial features in a similar way. No significant difference was found between groups when participants were requested to recognize the faces (active task). In conclusion, using an eye tracking methodology and two tasks with low levels of cognitive demands, our results suggest that patients with SZ are able to: (1) explore faces and focus on relevant features of the face in a similar way as controls; and (2) recognize their own face. PMID:26903833

  19. Eye Movements as an Index of Pathologist Visual Expertise: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Brunyé, Tad T.; Carney, Patricia A.; Allison, Kimberly H.; Shapiro, Linda G.; Weaver, Donald L.; Elmore, Joann G.

    2014-01-01

    A pilot study examined the extent to which eye movements occurring during interpretation of digitized breast biopsy whole slide images (WSI) can distinguish novice interpreters from experts, informing assessments of competency progression during training and across the physician-learning continuum. A pathologist with fellowship training in breast pathology interpreted digital WSI of breast tissue and marked the region of highest diagnostic relevance (dROI). These same images were then evaluated using computer vision techniques to identify visually salient regions of interest (vROI) without diagnostic relevance. A non-invasive eye tracking system recorded pathologists’ (N = 7) visual behavior during image interpretation, and we measured differential viewing of vROIs versus dROIs according to their level of expertise. Pathologists with relatively low expertise in interpreting breast pathology were more likely to fixate on, and subsequently return to, diagnostically irrelevant vROIs relative to experts. Repeatedly fixating on the distracting vROI showed limited value in predicting diagnostic failure. These preliminary results suggest that eye movements occurring during digital slide interpretation can characterize expertise development by demonstrating differential attraction to diagnostically relevant versus visually distracting image regions. These results carry both theoretical implications and potential for monitoring and evaluating student progress and providing automated feedback and scanning guidance in educational settings. PMID:25084012

  20. Narrative comprehension and production in children with SLI: An eye movement study

    PubMed Central

    ANDREU, LLORENÇ; SANZ-TORRENT, MONICA; OLMOS, JOAN GUÀRDIA; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5; 8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5; 6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036

  1. Narrative comprehension and production in children with SLI: an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Llorenç; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Guàrdia Olmos, Joan; Macwhinney, Brian

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5;8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5;6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036

  2. The effect of human image in B2C website design: an eye-tracking study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Yang, Yi; Wang, Qi; Ma, Qingguo

    2014-09-01

    On B2C shopping websites, effective visual designs can bring about consumers' positive emotional experience. From this perspective, this article developed a research model to explore the impact of human image as a visual element on consumers' online shopping emotions and subsequent attitudes towards websites. This study conducted an eye-tracking experiment to collect both eye movement data and questionnaire data to test the research model. Questionnaire data analysis showed that product pictures combined with human image induced positive emotions among participants, thus promoting their attitudes towards online shopping websites. Specifically, product pictures with human image first produced higher levels of image appeal and perceived social presence, thus stimulating higher levels of enjoyment and subsequent positive attitudes towards the websites. Moreover, a moderating effect of product type was demonstrated on the relationship between the presence of human image and the level of image appeal. Specifically, human image significantly increased the level of image appeal when integrated in entertainment product pictures while this relationship was not significant in terms of utilitarian products. Eye-tracking data analysis further supported these results and provided plausible explanations. The presence of human image significantly increased the pupil size of participants regardless of product types. For entertainment products, participants paid more attention to product pictures integrated with human image whereas for utilitarian products more attention was paid to functional information of products than to product pictures no matter whether or not integrated with human image.

  3. Construct validation of SF-36 Malay version among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Bee Wah; Jannoo, Zeinab; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Ghani, Nor Azura Md.; Lazim, Mohamad Alias

    2015-02-01

    The Short Form 36 (SF-36) is one of the most widely used generic health status measure. This study used the SF-36 Health Survey instrument to investigate the functional health and well-being of Malay Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients in Malaysia. The survey was carried out in three local hospitals in Selangor. The method of questionnaire administration was both self-administered and interviewer administered. A total of 354 questionnaires was returned, but only 295 questionnaires with no missing data were analyzed. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the first-order and third-order CFA models. The higher order analyses included a third-order CFA models with two second-order factors (physical and mental component) and three second-order factors (physical, general well-being and mental health) and both showed satisfactory model fit indices. This study confirmed the multidimensional factor structure of the SF-36.

  4. The British Educational Policy for the Indigenous Community in Malaya 1870-1957: Dualistic Structure, Colonial Interests and Malay Radical Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sua, Tan Yao

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the educational policy implemented by the British for the Malays, the indigenous community of Malaya. Underpinned by the policy of divide and rule, the British implemented a dualistic system of education for the indigenous Malays: one for the Malay peasantry and another for the Malay nobility. The two systems of education…

  5. HPV-16 Detected in One-Fourth Eyes With Retinoblastoma: A Prospective Case-control Study From North India.

    PubMed

    Naru, Jasmine; Aggarwal, Ritu; Singh, Usha; Kakkar, Nandita; Bansal, Deepak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of nonfamilial retinoblastoma (RB) is believed to be higher in developing countries. The reports on association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with RB are limited and contradictory. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of HPV in RB tumor tissue. In the prospective study, consecutive eyes enucleated for RB from patients lacking a family history of RB were enrolled as cases over a 3-year period. Controls included donor eyes obtained from the eye bank. Normal retinal tissue from the donor eyes and tumor tissue from eyes with RB was subjected to DNA isolation. Polymerase chain reaction followed by dot-blot hybridization was performed to detect 21 HPV genotypes. The study cohort included 39 RB and 42 normal retinal tissues. A positive result for HPV-polymerase chain reaction was obtained in 10 (25.6%) tumor tissues and none of the control eyes. HPV-16 was the only subtype detected. Socioeconomic status (P=0.58) or maternal age (P=0.58) was not associated with presence of HPV. All HPV-positive patients had undergone a vaginal delivery (P=0.60). HPV-16 was detected in one-fourth cases of nonfamilial RB. None of the control cases (donor eyes) tested positive. Implication of the presence of HPV in RB tissue and role in carcinogenesis needs further elucidation. PMID:26989916

  6. [Study on A White-Eye Pattern in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Dong, Li-fang; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    The white-eye pattern was firstly observed and investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge system in the mixture of argon and air whose content can be varied whenever necessary, and the study shows that the white-eye cell is an interleaving of three different hexagonal sub-structures: the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots. The white-eye pattern is observed at a lower applied voltage. In this experiment, the heat capacity of water is high so that the water in water electrode is good at absorbing heat. In the process of pattern discharging the gas gap didn't increase its temperature, and the discharging phenomenon of this pattern has not changed. The temperature of the water electrodes almost keeps unchanged during the whole experiment, which is advantageous for the long-term stable measurement. Pictures recorded by ordinary camera with long exposure time in the same argon content condition show that the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots og the white-eye pattern have different brightness, which may prove that their plasma states are different. And, it is worth noting that there are obvious differences of brightness not only on the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots at the same pressure but also at the different pressure, which shows that its plasma state also changed with the variation of the pressure. Given this, in this experiment plasma temperatures of the central spot, halo, and ambient spots in a white-eye pattern at different gas pressure were studied by using optical emission spectra. The molecular vibration temperature is investigated by the emission spectra of nitrogen band of second positive system ( C3Πu --> B3Πg ). The electron excitation temperature is researched by the relative intensity ratio method of spectral lines of Ar I 763. 51 nm (2P6 --> 1S5) and Ar I 772. 42 nm (2P2 --> 1S3). The electronic density is investigated by the broadening of spectral line 696.5 nm. Through the analysis of experimental results, it

  7. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Iliya V.; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X.; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Methods Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. Results In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves dry eye symptoms in patients with glaucoma: results of a prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Vazquez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement with a combination of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye symptoms caused by chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops in patients with glaucoma. Patients and methods A total of 1,255 patients with glaucoma and dry eye symptoms related to antiglaucoma topical medication participated in an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective, and multicenter study and were instructed to take three capsules a day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudypio® 1.5 g) for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (graded as 0–3 [none to severe, respectively]), conjunctival hyperemia, tear breakup time, Schirmer I test, Oxford grading scheme, and intraocular pressure were assessed. Results After 12 weeks of administration of the dietary supplement, all dry eye symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001) (mean 1.3 vs 0.6 for scratching, 1.4 vs 0.7 for stinging sensation, 1.6 vs 0.7 for grittiness, 1.0 vs 0.4 for tired eyes, 1.1 vs 0.5 for grating sensation, and 0.8 vs 0.3 for blurry vision). The Schirmer test scores and the tear breakup time also increased significantly. There was an increase in the percentage of patients grading 0–I in the Oxford scale and a decrease in those grading IV–V. Compliance was recorded in 62.5% of patients. In compliant patients, the mean differences at 12 weeks vs baseline of dry eye symptoms were statistically significant as compared to noncompliant patients. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with Brudypio® may be a clinically valuable additional option for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops. These results require confirmation with an appropriately designed randomized controlled study. PMID:27103781

  9. Neighborhood Deprivation and Risk of Age-Related Eye Diseases: A Follow-up Study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Li, Xinjun; Tanito, Masaki; Nabika, Toru; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether there is an association between neighborhood deprivation and age-related eye diseases, particularly macular degeneration, cataract, diabetes-related eye complications, and glaucoma. Methods The study population comprised a nationwide sample of 2,060,887 men and 2,250,851 women aged 40 years or older living in Sweden who were followed from 1 January 2000 until the first hospitalization/outpatient registration for age-related eye disease during the study period, death, emigration, or the end of the study period on 31 December 2010. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the association between neighborhood deprivation and age-related eye diseases. Results In men, the odds ratio (OR) for age-related eye diseases for those living in high-deprivation neighborhoods compared to those living in low-deprivation neighborhoods remained significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors (macular degeneration, OR 1.08, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.03–1.12; cataract, OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.26–1.35; diabetes-related eye complications, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.30–1.43; glaucoma, OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.15). In women, similar patterns were observed (macular degeneration, OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07–1.15; cataract, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.31–1.40; diabetes-related eye complications, OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.42–1.59; glaucoma, OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08–1.17). Conclusion Our results suggest that neighborhood deprivation is associated with age-related eye diseases in both men and women. These results implicate that individual- as well as neighborhood-level factors are important for preventing age-related eye diseases. PMID:26395658

  10. HLA Antigens in Malay Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Association with Clinical and Autoantibody Expression

    PubMed Central

    Azizah, MR; Ainol, SS; Kong, NCT; Normaznah, Y; Rahim, MN

    2001-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that certain genes within the major histocompatibility complex predispose to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may influence clinical and autoantibody expression. Thus, we studied the frequency of HLA-DR, -DQA, -DQB and -DPB alleles in ethnic Malays with SLE to determine the role of these genes in determining disease susceptibility and their association with clinical and immunological manifestations. Methods: Fifty-six Malay SLE patients were enrolled into the study. Demographic, clinical and immunological findings were obtained from medical records. HLA-DR, DQ and DP typing were done using modified PCR-RELP. Controls were from ethnically-matched healthy individuals. Results: We found a strongly significant association of the DR2 and DQB1 *0501 and DQB1 *0601 (pcorr=0.03, rr=3.83, pcorr=0.0036, rr=4.56 and pcorr=0.0048 and rr=6.0, respectively). There was also a weak increase of DQB1 *0.201 and DPB1 *0.0901 with a weak decrease of DQA1 *0601 and DQB1 *0503 and *0301 which were not significant after corrections for multiple comparisons were made. There was a significant positive association of DR2 and DQB1 *0501 with renal involvement and DR8 with alopecia. A nonsignificant increase of DQB1 *0503 in patients with photosensitivity was noted. Significant autoantibody associations were also found: DQB1 *0601 with anti-Sm/RNP, DR2 with antiSSA (Ro)/SSB (La), and DR2, DQB1 *0501 and *0601 with antibodies to ds DNA. There was no specific DR, DQ or DP associations with age of disease onset (below 30 years or those at or above 30 years). Conclusion: Our data suggests the role of the HLA class II genes in conferring SLE susceptibility and in clinical and autoantibody expression PMID:11590899

  11. Loneliness and Hypervigilance to Social Cues in Females: An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Lodder, Gerine M. A.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Clemens, Ivar A. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether lonely individuals differ from nonlonely individuals in their overt visual attention to social cues. Previous studies showed that loneliness was related to biased post-attentive processing of social cues (e.g., negative interpretation bias), but research on whether lonely and nonlonely individuals also show differences in an earlier information processing stage (gazing behavior) is very limited. A sample of 25 lonely and 25 nonlonely students took part in an eye-tracking study consisting of four tasks. We measured gazing (duration, number of fixations and first fixation) at the eyes, nose and mouth region of faces expressing emotions (Task 1), at emotion quadrants (anger, fear, happiness and neutral expression) (Task 2), at quadrants with positive and negative social and nonsocial images (Task 3), and at the facial area of actors in video clips with positive and negative content (Task 4). In general, participants tended to gaze most often and longest at areas that conveyed most social information, such as the eye region of the face (T1), and social images (T3). Participants gazed most often and longest at happy faces (T2) in still images, and more often and longer at the facial area in negative than in positive video clips (T4). No differences occurred between lonely and nonlonely participants in their gazing times and frequencies, nor at first fixations at social cues in the four different tasks. Based on this study, we found no evidence that overt visual attention to social cues differs between lonely and nonlonely individuals. This implies that biases in social information processing of lonely individuals may be limited to other phases of social information processing. Alternatively, biased overt attention to social cues may only occur under specific conditions, for specific stimuli or for specific lonely individuals. PMID:25915656

  12. Loneliness and hypervigilance to social cues in females: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Lodder, Gerine M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Clemens, Ivar A H; Engels, Rutger C M E; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether lonely individuals differ from nonlonely individuals in their overt visual attention to social cues. Previous studies showed that loneliness was related to biased post-attentive processing of social cues (e.g., negative interpretation bias), but research on whether lonely and nonlonely individuals also show differences in an earlier information processing stage (gazing behavior) is very limited. A sample of 25 lonely and 25 nonlonely students took part in an eye-tracking study consisting of four tasks. We measured gazing (duration, number of fixations and first fixation) at the eyes, nose and mouth region of faces expressing emotions (Task 1), at emotion quadrants (anger, fear, happiness and neutral expression) (Task 2), at quadrants with positive and negative social and nonsocial images (Task 3), and at the facial area of actors in video clips with positive and negative content (Task 4). In general, participants tended to gaze most often and longest at areas that conveyed most social information, such as the eye region of the face (T1), and social images (T3). Participants gazed most often and longest at happy faces (T2) in still images, and more often and longer at the facial area in negative than in positive video clips (T4). No differences occurred between lonely and nonlonely participants in their gazing times and frequencies, nor at first fixations at social cues in the four different tasks. Based on this study, we found no evidence that overt visual attention to social cues differs between lonely and nonlonely individuals. This implies that biases in social information processing of lonely individuals may be limited to other phases of social information processing. Alternatively, biased overt attention to social cues may only occur under specific conditions, for specific stimuli or for specific lonely individuals. PMID:25915656

  13. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS): Design Implications AREDS Report No. 1

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) was initially conceived as a long-term multicenter, prospective study of the clinical course of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and age-related cataract. Data on progression rates and risk factors from the study will increase understanding of the clinical course of both conditions, generate hypotheses about etiology, and aid in the design of clinical trials of potential interventions. In addition to collecting natural history data, AREDS includes a clinical trial of high-dose vitamin and mineral supplements for AMD and a clinical trial of high-dose vitamin supplements for cataract. The clinical trials were initiated largely because of the widespread public use in the United States of commercially available pharmacologic doses of vitamins and minerals to treat these two eye conditions and the absence of definitive studies on the safety and efficacy of their use. Important design issues for the clinical trials include: defining cataract and AMD, estimating event rates, determining the type and dosage of vitamins and minerals to be tested for each condition, and identifying the parameters necessary for monitoring safety and efficacy. This paper describes the AREDS design, including the study rationale and operational structure, and the approach adopted to combine, for two diseases, clinical trials with a natural history study. PMID:10588299

  14. Prospective open-label study of the administration of two-percent voriconazole eye drops.

    PubMed

    Al-Badriyeh, Daoud; Leung, Lok; Roydhouse, Trent; Fullinfaw, Robert; Daniell, Mark; Davies, Geoffrey E; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2009-07-01

    Thirteen human subjects scheduled for elective anterior segment eye surgery received hourly 2% voriconazole eye drops 4 hours presurgery. No side effects were reported. Significantly, the voriconazole concentration in the aqueous humor of the eye was similar to that reported for the 1% voriconazole solution, suggestive of concentration-independent absorption. PMID:19433565

  15. A Review on Eye Movement Studies in Childhood and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The neural substrates of eye movement measures are largely known. Therefore, measurement of eye movements in psychiatric disorders may provide insight into the underlying neuropathology of these disorders. Visually guided saccades, antisaccades, memory guided saccades, and smooth pursuit eye movements will be reviewed in various childhood…

  16. Influence of Eye Gaze on Spoken Word Processing: An ERP Study with Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parise, Eugenio; Handl, Andrea; Palumbo, Letizia; Friederici, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    Eye gaze is an important communicative signal, both as mutual eye contact and as referential gaze to objects. To examine whether attention to speech versus nonspeech stimuli in 4- to 5-month-olds (n = 15) varies as a function of eye gaze, event-related brain potentials were used. Faces with mutual or averted gaze were presented in combination with…

  17. Ocular Axial Length and Its Associations in Chinese: The Beijing Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guo; Wang, Ya Xing; Zheng, Zhi Yun; Yang, Hua; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the normative data of ocular axial length and its associations in Chinese. Method The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 is a cross-sectional study performed in Greater Beijing. The study included 3468 individuals (1963 (56.6%) women) with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic and medical examination was performed. Axial length was measured by optical low-coherence reflectometry. Results Axial length measurements were available for 3159 (91.1%) study participants. Mean axial length was 23.25±1.14 mm (range: 18.96–30.88 mm). In multivariate analysis, axial length was significantly associated with the systemic parameters of higher age (P<0.001), higher body height (P = 0.003), higher level of education (P<0.001) and urban region of habitation (P<0.001), and with the ocular parameters of thicker central cornea (P = 0.001), higher corneal curvature radius (P<0.001), deeper anterior chamber (P<0.001), thicker lens (P<0.001), more myopic refractive error (P<0.001), larger pupil diameter (P = 0.018), and higher best corrected visual acuity (P<0.001). It was additionally and negatively associated with the lens vault (P<0.001). In highly myopic eyes, axial length was significantly associated with lower level of education (P = 0.008), more myopic refractive error (P<0.001), and lower best corrected visual acuity (P = 0.034). Conclusions Mean ocular axial length in the older adult population of Greater Beijing (23.25±1.14 mm) was similar to the value measured in other urban populations and was higher than in a rural Central Indian population. The association between axial length and older age may potentially be associated with a survival artifact. The association between axial length and body height agrees with the general association between anthropomorphic measures and eye globe size. The association with the level of education and urban region of habitation confirms with previous

  18. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was −0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = −0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5–3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment. PMID:27610269

  19. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was -0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = -0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment. PMID:27610269

  20. Miocene-Oligocene sequence stratigraphy of the Malay Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lovell, R.; Elias, M.R. ); Hill, R.E.; Feeley, M.H. )

    1994-07-01

    The Malay Basin has experienced extension of the Eocene ( ) through Oligocene, sag in the early Miocene, and compression in the middle Miocene through Pliocene-Pleistocene. The interaction of structurally induced and glacial-eustatic accommodation changes has resulted in complex, interrelated play elements, including multiple reservoirs, diverse nonmarine sources, discontinuous migration pathways, and thin seals. Extensional subbasins were filled with braided streams, associated coastal plain, lacustrine deltas, and thick lake shales (groups M-K). This initial rift fill comprises an overall second order progradational cycle punctuated by 3rd-order cycles. These 3rd-order cycles are capped by thick, source-rich, lacustrine shale packages. The lower Miocene section (groups I and J) consists of progradational to aggradational fluvial to tidally-dominated estuarine sands. Hydrocarbons are generated from interbedded coals and other coal-related lithologies.

  1. Hereditary spherocytosis in a malay patient with chronic haemolysis.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Muhammad Kamil; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd; Kaur, Gurjeet; Khan, Farhat Aziz

    2007-07-01

    This case report describes a 35-year-old lady who presented with generalized weakness and lethargy of two weeks duration and jaundice of more than 20 years duration. Her initial workup was suggestive of haemolysis and blood film showed a leucoerythoblastic picture with moderate microspherocytes. She was finally diagnosed as a case of hereditary spherocytosis after ruling out other possible causes of chronic haemolysis and supported by an abnormal osmotic fragility test, although family members refused for screening. Hereditory spherocytosis is uncommon in Malay population and presentation with jaundice of 20 years duration with leucoerythroblastic picture on blood film were interesting features in this case. Patient is being followed closely for need of splenectomy in near future as per severity of haemolysis and currently being managed with folic acid supplement. PMID:22993492

  2. Effects of anger and sadness on attentional patterns in decision making: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Xing, Cai

    2014-02-01

    Past research examining the effect of anger and sadness on decision making has associated anger with a relatively more heuristic decision-making approach. However, it is unclear whether angry and sad individuals differ while attending to decision-relevant information. An eye-tracking experiment (N=87) was conducted to examine the role of attention in links between emotion and decision making. Angry individuals looked more and earlier toward heuristic cues while making decisions, whereas sad individuals did not show such bias. Implications for designing persuasive messages and studying motivated visual processing were discussed. PMID:24765709

  3. Long-Term Follow-up Investigation of Isolated Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Without Atonia Without Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Ambra; Gabelia, David; Högl, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Stockner, Heike; Poewe, Werner; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a harbinger of synuclein-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. It is unknown if this also applies to isolated REM sleep without atonia (RWA). We performed a long-term follow-up investigation of subjects with isolated RWA. Methods: Participants were recruited from 50 subjects with isolated RWA who were identified at the sleep laboratory of the Department of Neurology at the Medical University of Innsbruck between 2003 and 2005. Eligible subjects underwent follow-up clinical examination, polysomnography, and assessment of neurodegenerative biomarkers (cognitive impairment, finger speed deficit, impaired color vision, olfactory dysfunction, orthostatic hypotension, and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). Results: After a mean of 8.6 ± 0.9 y, 1 of 14 participating subjects (7.3%) progressed to RBD. Ten of 14 RWA subjects (71.4%) were positive for at least one neurodegenerative biomarker. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and presence of mild cognitive impairment were both present in 4 of 14 subjects with isolated RWA. Electromyographic activity measures increased significantly from baseline to follow-up polysomnography (“any” mentalis and both anterior tibialis muscles: 32.5 ± 9.4 versus 52.2 ± 16.6%; p = 0.004). Conclusion: This study provides first evidence that isolated RWA is an early biomarker of synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration. These results will have to be replicated in larger studies with longer observational periods. If confirmed, these disease findings have implications for defining at-risk cohorts for Parkinson disease. Citation: Stefani A, Gabelia D, Högl B, Mitterling T, Mahlknecht P, Stockner H, Poewe W, Frauscher B. Long-term follow-up investigation of isolated rapid eye movement sleep without atonia without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1273–1279. PMID:26156949

  4. Multi-rule quality control for the age-related eye disease study.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Samuel P; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Pirkle, James L

    2008-09-10

    The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), sponsored by the National Eye Institute, was designed to study the natural history and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataract, and to evaluate the effect of high doses of antioxidants and zinc on eye disease progression. AMD and cataract are leading causes of visual impairment and blindness in the U.S., with frequency of both diseases increasing dramatically after age 65. Participants were randomly chosen to receive antioxidant or placebo tablets. Blood was drawn annually from a subset of patients, and serum concentrations of 17 different nutritional indicators were measured. Because of the complexity of the analytical methods, and possibility of instrument error due to failure of any one of many component parts, several different instruments were used for most analytes. In addition, to assure that the measurement systems were performing adequately across a wide range of concentrations, multiple control pools were monitored with analyte concentrations at low, medium, and high concentrations. We report here the multi-rule quality control system (MRQCS) used during the later part of the trial (AREDS Phase III). This system was designed to monitor systematic error and random within- and among-run error for analytical runs using 1-3 different quality control pools per run and 1-2 measurements of each pool per run. We demonstrate the features of the MRQCS using quality control (QC) data associated with vitamin C measurements. We also provide operating characteristics to demonstrate how the MRQCS responds to increases in systematic and/or random error. PMID:18344178

  5. Amblyopia resulting from penalisation: neurophysiological studies of kittens reared with atropinisation of one or both eyes.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, H.; Tremain, K. E.

    1978-01-01

    Atropinisation of the eyes--a clinical method of treating strabismus called "penalisation"--in developing kittens caused a reduction in the spatial resolving power of cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus driven by the penalised eye, regardless of whether 1 eye or both eyes had been atropinised. However, binocularity of cells in the visual cortex was reduced only in monocularly penalised cats. It appears that sharply focused foveal images are important in the development of good visual acuity but synergy of the inputs to the 2 eyes is required for the development of binocular vision. PMID:629908

  6. The association of sleep quality with dry eye disease: the Osaka study

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of dry eye disease with sleep quality. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among all the employees, mainly young and middle-aged Japanese office workers, who used visual display technology, at a company in Osaka, Japan (N=672; age range =26–64 years). The participants were classified according to the Japanese dry eye diagnosis criteria by dry eye examination results including the Schirmer test, fluorescein and lissamine green staining, tear film break-up time, and symptom questionnaire into three groups as follows: definite dry eye disease, probable dry eye disease, and no dry eye disease. To determine sleep quality, Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (global score) was implemented. The global score (range =0–21) was calculated by summing seven sleep variable scores (scale, 0–3); scores ≥5.5 indicated poor sleep. Results The total mean global score was 5.1±2.3 (completed N=383); 45% of the dry eye disease participants reported having poor sleep quality, while 34% of the no dry eye disease participants did so, with a significant difference found in the global score (P=0.002). Furthermore, a statistically significant association was observed between the global score and dry eye disease (P=0.005). Conclusion Poor sleep quality is associated with dry eye disease, especially with dry eye symptoms. PMID:27330271

  7. The formulation of argument structure in SLI: an eye-movement study

    PubMed Central

    ANDREU, LLORENÇ; SANZ-TORRENT, MÒNICA; OLMOS, JOAN GUÀRDIA; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the formulation of verb argument structure in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing age-matched controls. We compared how language production can be guided by conceptual factors, such as the organization of the entities participating in an event and knowledge regarding argument structure. Eleven children with SLI (aged 3;8 to 6;6) and eleven control children participated in an eye-tracking experiment in which participants had to describe events with different argument structure in the presence of visual scenes. Picture descriptions, latency time and eye movements were recorded and analyzed. The picture description results showed that the percentage of responses in which children with SLI substituted a non-target verb for the target verb was significantly different from that for the control group. Children with SLI made more omissions of obligatory arguments, especially of themes, as the verb argument complexity increased. Moreover, when the number of arguments of the verb increased, the children took more time to begin their descriptions, but no differences between groups were found. For verb type latency, all children were significantly faster to start describing one-argument events than two- and three-argument events. No differences in latency time were found between two- and three-argument events. There were no significant differences between the groups. Eye-movement showed that children with SLI looked less at the event zone than the age-matched controls during the first two seconds. These differences between the groups were significant for three-argument verbs, and only marginally significant for one- and two-argument verbs. Children with SLI also spent significantly less time looking at the theme zones than their age-matched controls. We suggest that both processing limitations and deficits in the semantic representation of verbs may play a role in these difficulties

  8. A preliminary study of the neuroprotective role of citicoline eye drops in glaucomatous optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Roberti, Gloria; Tanga, Lucia; Parisi, Vincenzo; Sampalmieri, Massimo; Centofanti, Marco; Manni, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study the neuroprotective effect of topical citicoline. Materials and Methods: Experimental phase to evaluate the ability of citicoline eye drops to reach the vitreous and the retina: The right eyes of 5 mice CD1 were treated with two drops per day for three days of citicoline 1% and 2% (OMK1, Omikron Italia s.r.l.), and then the vitreous was analyzed with the liquid chromatography and spectrometry mass (LC-MS/MS). Clinical phase to determine if topical citicoline is able to delay glaucoma progression, considering perimetric parameters and electro functional tests. Patients were randomized in two groups, OMK1 and OAG. The first group was treated with OMK1 three times per day, plus hypotensive therapy for two months and one month of wash out. The second group was treated only with hypotensive treatment for three months. Results: LC-MS/MS detected the molecule very well, and only OMK1 showed systemic absorption. Thirty-four patients were enrolled, 16 in the OMK1 and 18 in the OAG group. Perimetric parameters showed a positive trend in individual eyes of patients in OMK1 group, but these values were not statistically significant in the whole group. Retinal ganglion cells function improved as shown by reduced P50 latency (P = 0.04) and increased P50-N95 amplitude (P < 0.0001) of pattern electroretinogram, up to 30 days after the washout (P = 0.01; P = 0.002). Visual evoked potential and retino-cortical time improvement regressed after 30 days of washout. In OAG group, there was any change during the follow-up. No adverse reactions were reported in both groups. Conclusions: Topical citicoline seems to have a neuroprotective action. PMID:24881599

  9. A new high-speed visual stimulation method for gaze-contingent eye movement and brain activity studies.

    PubMed

    Richlan, Fabio; Gagl, Benjamin; Schuster, Sarah; Hawelka, Stefan; Humenberger, Josef; Hutzler, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Approaches using eye movements as markers of ongoing brain activity to investigate perceptual and cognitive processes were able to implement highly sophisticated paradigms driven by eye movement recordings. Crucially, these paradigms involve display changes that have to occur during the time of saccadic blindness, when the subject is unaware of the change. Therefore, a combination of high-speed eye tracking and high-speed visual stimulation is required in these paradigms. For combined eye movement and brain activity studies (e.g., fMRI, EEG, MEG), fast and exact timing of display changes is especially important, because of the high susceptibility of the brain to visual stimulation. Eye tracking systems already achieve sampling rates up to 2000 Hz, but recent LCD technologies for computer screens reduced the temporal resolution to mostly 60 Hz, which is too slow for gaze-contingent display changes. We developed a high-speed video projection system, which is capable of reliably delivering display changes within the time frame of < 5 ms. This could not be achieved even with the fastest cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors available (< 16 ms). The present video projection system facilitates the realization of cutting-edge eye movement research requiring reliable high-speed visual stimulation (e.g., gaze-contingent display changes, short-time presentation, masked priming). Moreover, this system can be used for fast visual presentation in order to assess brain activity using various methods, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The latter technique was previously excluded from high-speed visual stimulation, because it is not possible to operate conventional CRT monitors in the strong magnetic field of an MRI scanner. Therefore, the present video projection system offers new possibilities for studying eye movement-related brain activity using a combination of eye tracking and fMRI. PMID:23847475

  10. Nutrition and Age-Related Eye Diseases: The ALIENOR (Antioxydants, LIpides Essentiels, Nutrition et Maladies OculaiRes) Study

    PubMed Central

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Marie-Bénédicte, Rougier; Le Goff, Mélanie; Malet, Florence; Joseph, Colin; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Background Worldwide, degenerative eye diseases (age-related maculopathy (ARM), cataract, glaucoma) are the main causes of visual impairment and blindness, which contribute to disability in the elderly. Mainly three types of nutritional factors are investigated for their potential protection against eye ageing: antioxidants; lutein and zeaxanthin (carotenoids which accumulate specifically in the eye); omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Few epidemiological studies have been conducted in this field, particularly in Europe. Objective The Alienor (Antioxydants, Lipides Essentiels, Nutrition et maladies OculaiRes) Study aims at assessing the associations of eye diseases with nutritional factors, determined from plasma measurements and estimation of dietary intakes. Design, setting and participants Subjects were recruited in Bordeaux (France) from the ongoing population-based 3C study. In 2006–2008, 963 subjects from the 3C Study, aged 73 years or more, had an eye examination and will have follow-up eye examinations every 2 years. Measurements Vascular, genetic and nutritional factors were assessed at baseline (1999–2001) and follow-up examinations of the 3C Study. Eye diseases were classified according to international classifications. Results Nutritional status and vascular disease and risk factors were similar between participants and non participants, except for a slight difference in plasma triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. As expected, the prevalence of eye diseases was high: early and late ARM (28.4 % and 5.6 %, respectively), open-angle glaucoma and treated ocular hypertension (4.8 % and 10.0 %, respectively), cataract extraction (45.2 %), retinopathy (8.4 %), retinal vein occlusion (1.1 %), epiretinal membrane (3.9 %), current use of artificial tears (17.3 %). Conclusions This study confirms the high prevalence of eye diseases in the elderly. Its main strength is the combination of nutritional, vascular and genetic information, collected over a 7 year

  11. Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in the Malay Archipelago: Genetic signature of a bottlenecked population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cocoa pod borer (Gracillariidae: Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)) is a devastating pest of cacao (Theobroma cacao, Sterculiaceae) in Southeast Asia, particularly in the Malay Archipelago. We surveyed genetic variation at two unlinked loci, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and nuclear elonga...

  12. Light intensity-associated eye lesions of Fischer 344 rats in long-term studies.

    PubMed

    Rao, G N

    1991-01-01

    Albino rats and mice are sensitive to light and the recommended illumination of animal rooms (75-125 ft-candles) is known to cause retinal damage. When a room is illuminated by ceiling lights, animals in the cages of the top row and, to some extent, in the side columns of cage racks will be exposed to higher light intensity than those in the other cages of the rack. In 2-yr chemical carcinogenicity studies of the National Toxicology Program (previously the Carcinogenicity Bioassay Program of the National Cancer Institute), Fischer 344 rats were group-housed in hanging drawer-type clear polycarbonate cages. During the course of the chronic studies, a number of rats developed opacity of the eye. Ocular examination indicated chronic uveitis, deep interstitial keratitis, cataract formation leading to panophthalmitis, and in severe cases, phthisis bulbi. Histologic examination showed cataract and retinal degeneration. Incidences of these lesions were highest (greater than 55%) in the rats of the top rows and lowest in those of the bottom rows (less than 10%) of cages with no relation to chemical treatment, indicating an association with light intensity. The incidence of these eye lesions was markedly decreased (less than 15%) by decreasing the light intensity of the animal room to less than 50 ft-candles at 5 ft from the floor and rotating the cages in each column of a rack from top to bottom when cages or racks were changed. PMID:1663269

  13. Cue strength in second-language processing: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Tuninetti, Alba; Warren, Tessa; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking and grammaticality judgement measures to examine how second-language (L2) learners process syntactic violations in English. Participants were native Arabic and native Mandarin Chinese speakers studying English as an L2, and monolingual English-speaking controls. The violations involved incorrect word order and differed in two ways predicted to be important by the unified competition model [UCM; MacWhinney, B. (2005). A unified model of language acquisition. In J. F. Kroll & A. M. B. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 49-67). Oxford: Oxford University Press.]. First, one violation had more and stronger cues to ungrammaticality than the other. Second, the grammaticality of these word orders varied in Arabic and Mandarin Chinese. Sensitivity to violations was relatively quick overall, across all groups. Sensitivity also was related to the number and strength of cues to ungrammaticality regardless of native language, which is consistent with the general principles of the UCM. However, there was little evidence of cross-language transfer effects in either eye movements or grammaticality judgements. PMID:25379696

  14. Emotional information processing in depression and burnout: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Renzo; Laurent, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Whether burnout is a form of depression is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relevance of the burnout-depression distinction by comparing attentional processing of emotional information in burnout and depression. Eye-tracking technology was employed for assessing overt attentional deployment. The gaze of 54 human services employees was monitored as they freely viewed a series of emotional images, labeled as dysphoric, positive, anxiogenic, and neutral. Similar to depression, burnout was associated with increased attention for dysphoric stimuli and decreased attention for positive stimuli. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that burnout no longer predicted these attentional alterations when depression was controlled for and vice versa, suggesting interchangeability of the two entities in this matter. To our knowledge, this study is the first to (a) investigate emotional attention in burnout and (b) address the issue of the burnout-depression overlap at both cognitive and behavioral levels using eye movement measurement. Overall, our findings point to structural similarities between burnout and depression, thus deepening concerns regarding the singularity of the burnout phenomenon. PMID:25297694

  15. Autologous serum eyedrops for dry eyes and epithelial defects: clinical and in vitro toxicity studies

    PubMed Central

    Poon, A.; Geerling, G.; Dart, J.; Fraenkel, G.; Daniels, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Autologous serum drops have been reported to be beneficial in keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and persistent epithelial defects (PED). A clinical pilot study was carried out to examine these potential uses and in vitro toxicity testing on corneal epithelial cell cultures was performed to compare the effect of serum drops with unpreserved hypromellose (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 0.3%).
METHODS—Patients with KCS and PED, unresponsive to conventional treatment were recruited. Patients were examined before treatment, at 1 and 2 weeks after initiation, and then 2 weekly until treatment ceased. Symptoms were assessed at each visit. Clinical examination included Schirmer's test without anaesthesia, rose bengal staining, and fluorescein staining. Epithelial defects were measured with the slit beam. In the laboratory, cultured human corneal epithelial cells were exposed to serum drops and hypromellose, and their viability evaluated with fluorescent viability staining (Calcein AM ethidium homodimer) and an ATP assay.
RESULTS—Autologous serum was used in 15 eyes of 13 patients with PED and 11 eyes of nine patients with KCS. In two patients serum drops were started after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). The PKs were performed for perforations secondary to PEDs. Of the 15 eyes with PED, nine healed at a mean of 29 days and six failed. The mean duration of PED before the use of serum drops was 48.2 days. Of the 11 eyes with KCS, six had improved subjective scores and fluorescein scores, and five had improved rose bengal scores after the use of serum drops. For the two patients who used serum eyedrops post-PK, there was a stable and intact epithelium at 1 week. Cessation of serum drops during the postoperative period led to deterioration in the subjective and objective scores in both patients. One developed a PED that responded to reinstitution of serum drops. The morphology and ATP levels of cultured epithelial cells exposed to serum were

  16. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  17. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in the cells of the retina. ... from other parts of the body. Treatment for eye cancer varies by the type and by how advanced ...

  18. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  19. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  20. Conversion disorder: a case report of treatment with the Main Puteri, a Malay shamanastic healing ceremony.

    PubMed

    Razali, S M

    1999-12-01

    We report on the case of a 38-year-old Malay housewife diagnosed with conversion disorder. It was believed that 'evil spirits' caused her symptoms. The patient was eventually treated by the Main Puteri, a Malay shamanistic healing ceremony, after previous treatments failed. The patient improved on the third day of the performance, which was attributed to the departure of the spirits from her body. This case documents the potential benefits of indigenous psychotherapy. PMID:10683634

  1. Urut Melayu, the Traditional Malay Massage, as a Complementary Rehabilitative Care in Postpartum Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Anuar, Haniza Mohd; Ismail, Suhaila; Abd Ghani, Norsuria; Ahmad, Norlaili

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The case of a 32-year-old Malay woman who developed postpartum stroke is reported. Methods The patient received a series of urut Melayu, the traditional Malay massage, sessions at one of the newly established integrated hospitals in the country. Results After 14 urut Melayu sessions, she improved tremendously in her speech and fine motor skills and regained her activities of daily living. Conclusions This use of urut Melayu to complement rehabilitation care in patients poststroke is promising. PMID:22401300

  2. Comparative study of target acquisition performance between an eye-slaved helmet display and unaided human vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viljoen, Gerrit T.

    1998-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative study on the target acquisition performance of an eye-slaved helmet display system and unaided human vision. A teleoperated visual sensor system records the visual information that the human visual system can sense at a remote site, transmits the information to a remote operator, and reconstructs the information in real time on an eye-slaved helmet display system. The display system design is based on the following: the physiology of the eye shows that the density of cone cells responsible for scotopic vision reduces drastically with off-coresight angle, as well as the corresponding resolution. The human visual system can be adequately stimulated over a 60 degree field of view with only two video channels, a wide field of view for peripheral vision and a narrow field of view for foveal vision. The wide-field and narrow-field information can be displayed into separate eyes with the human brain doing the integration between the two pictures. This paper provides experimental proof of this hypothesis. The narrow field display can be made to track the human eyeball during target acquisition tasks, without unduly distracting natural vision. During target search tasks the human eye movement exhibits rapid saccadic movements after which it fixates on some feature on the picture. During and for a small time after the saccadic movement,the neural activity of the eye is inhibited. This inhabitation period can be used by a machine to track the eyeball and to slave the picture to the eyeball through a set of mirrors, without injecting conflicting information to the human visual system during the saccade. An eye-slaved helmet display system was built with a simulated monochrome target scenario. The final experiment evaluates the target acquisition performance of a number of subjects with both the eye-slaved helmet display system and direct vision on the same pre-recorded scenario. The experimental design used two different target

  3. Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Do you have diabetes, and have you noticed any changes in your vision? Yes Over time, too much glucose (sugar) in the ... eye pink, red or irritated, and are there any secretions or mucus from the eye? Yes CONJUNCTIVITIS, also called "PINK EYE," can be caused ...

  4. Eye floaters

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes are not on the surface of your eyes, but inside them. These floaters are bits of cell debris that drift around ... is the layer in the back of the eye.) If you notice a sudden increase in floaters or if you see floaters along with flashes ...

  5. Visual acuity, self-reported vision and falls in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between visual acuity (VA) and self-reported vision (SRV) in relation to falls in 8317 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye study. Methods All participants completed a health questionnaire that included a question regarding SRV and questions regarding the number of falls in the past year. Distance VA was measured using a logMAR chart for each eye. Poor SRV was defined as those reporting fair or poor distance vision. The relationship between VA and SRV and self-rated falls was analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index, chronic disease, medication use and grip strength. Results Of 8317 participants, 26.7% (95% CI 25.7% to 27.7%) had fallen in the past 12 months. Worse VA and poorer SRV were associated with one or more falls in multivariable analysis (OR for falls=1.31, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.66 and OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.61, respectively). Poorer SRV was significantly associated with falls even after adjusting for VA (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.57). Conclusions SRV was associated with falls independently of VA and could be used as a simple proxy measure for other aspects of visual function to detect people requiring vision-related falls interventions. PMID:24338086

  6. Exploring Responses to Art in Adolescence: A Behavioral and Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Savazzi, Federica; Massaro, Davide; Di Dio, Cinzia; Gallese, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a peculiar age mainly characterized by physical and psychological changes that may affect the perception of one's own and others' body. This perceptual peculiarity may influence the way in which bottom-up and top-down processes interact and, consequently, the perception and evaluation of art. This study is aimed at investigating, by means of the eye-tracking technique, the visual explorative behavior of adolescents while looking at paintings. Sixteen color paintings, categorized as dynamic and static, were presented to twenty adolescents; half of the images represented natural environments and half human individuals; all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment tasks. Participants' ratings revealed that, generally, nature images are explicitly evaluated as more appealing than human images. Eye movement data, on the other hand, showed that the human body exerts a strong power in orienting and attracting visual attention and that, in adolescence, it plays a fundamental role during aesthetic experience. In particular, adolescents seem to approach human-content images by giving priority to elements calling forth movement and action, supporting the embodiment theory of aesthetic perception. PMID:25048813

  7. Fixation-related potentials in visual search: a combined EEG and eye tracking study.

    PubMed

    Kamienkowski, Juan E; Ison, Matias J; Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    We report a study of concurrent eye movements and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings while subjects freely explored a search array looking for hidden targets. We describe a sequence of fixation-event related potentials (fERPs) that unfolds during ∼ 400 ms following each fixation. This sequence highly resembles the event-related responses in a replay experiment, in which subjects kept fixation while a sequence of images occurred around the fovea simulating the spatial and temporal patterns during the free viewing experiment. Similar responses were also observed in a second control experiment where the appearance of stimuli was controlled by the experimenters and presented at the center of the screen. We also observed a relatively early component (∼150 ms) that distinguished between targets and distractors only in the freeviewing condition. We present a novel approach to match the critical properties of two conditions (targets/distractors), which can be readily adapted to other paradigms to investigate EEG components during free eye-movements. PMID:22776848

  8. Microvascular architecture of the rabbit eye: a scanning electron microscopic study of vascular corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Inomata, Tomo; Kanemaki, Nobuyuki

    2008-09-01

    The microvasculature of the eyes of 5 rabbits was investigated using scanning electron microscopy on corrosion casts. The study revealed that the pars plana vessels draining blood from the iris and ciliary body coursed directly into the anterior vortex venous system constituting the scleral venous plexus (the venous circle of Hovius). The episcleral vasculature was found to possess a specialized morphology, with channels draining the aqueous humor. The capillaries of the third palpebral, bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva formed a single-layered capillary network approximately parallel to the epithelium and formed a well-developed venous plexus in the stroma. The retina was found to be merangiotic, meaning that vessels were present only in a small part of the retina, extending in a horizontal direction to form bands on either side of the optic disc. Channels representing the aqueous veins that drained blood mixed with aqueous humor were found to derive directly from the suprachoroidal space and communicate with the scleral venous plexus via the anterior vortex veins. The functional significance of the microvasculature of the iris, cilia, retina and choroid is discussed in this report as well. The elaborate microvasculature of the conjunctiva may be a prerequisite for the exchange of nutrients and gasses between the cornea and the vessels across the conjunctival epithelium when the eyelids are shut during sleep, and possibly for the dynamics of eye drop delivery. The scleral venous plexus in rabbits may be analogous to the scleral venous sinus (Schlemm's canal) in rats, primates and humans. PMID:18840961

  9. Does Repeated Ticking Maintain Tic Behavior? An Experimental Study of Eye Blinking in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Beetsma, Daniel J. V.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Engelhard, Iris M.; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Cath, Danielle C.

    2014-01-01

    Tics in Tourette syndrome (TS) are often preceded by “premonitory urges”: annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2 × 2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye) and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound) on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs + blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs), these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response. PMID:24899785

  10. Further studies by Christoph Scheiner concerning the optics of the eye.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1994-01-01

    The physician, mathematician and astronomer was born in 1573 in Wald near Mindelheim in Swabia, Germany. He died in 1650 in Neisse in Silesia. He discovered the sun spots and also dealt with the physiological optics of the eye. Further observations of Scheiner's are represented, i.e. from his books Oculus and Rosa Ursina, concerning the anatomy of the eye, the crossing of the beams through a small opening (Camera obscura), stenopeic effect, proof that the crossing of the visual beams takes place in the eye, description of the cataract and its treatment, Christoph Scheiner's eye model, the visual angle, the rotational centre of the eye, the comparison of the optics of the eye and the telescope. PMID:7995230

  11. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2): Study Design and Baseline Characteristics (AREDS2 Report Number 1)

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Emily Y.; Clemons, Traci; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Danis, Ronald; Domalpally, Amitha; McBee, Wendy; Sperduto, Robert; Ferris, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) demonstrated beneficial effects of oral supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals on the development of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in persons with at least intermediate AMD (bilateral large drusen with or without pigment changes). Observational data suggest that other oral nutrient supplements might further reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD. The primary purpose of Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lutein+zeaxanthin (L+Z) and/or omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation in reducing the risk of developing advanced AMD. The study will also assess the reduction in zinc and the omission of beta-carotene from original AREDS formulation. Design Multicenter phase 3 randomized controlled clinical trial Participants Persons age 50 to 85 with bilateral intermediate AMD or advanced AMD in one eye Methods All participants were randomly assigned to: 1) placebo (n=1012); 2) L+Z (10 mg/2 mg, n=1044); 3) ω-3 LCPUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [650gmg/350 mg] n=1069); or 4) the combination of L+Z and ω -3 LCPUFAs (n=1078). All participants were offered a secondary randomization to 1 of 4 variations of the original AREDS formulation keeping vitamins C (500 mg), E (400 IU), and copper (2 mg) unchanged while varying zinc and beta-carotene as follows: zinc remains at the original level (80mg), lower only zinc to 25mg, omit beta-carotene only, or lower zinc to 25 mg and omit beta-carotene. Main Outcome Measures Progression to advanced AMD determined by centralized grading of annual fundus photographs. Results 4,203 participants were enrolled at 82 clinical centers located in the U.S. Population characteristics at baseline were as follows: mean age 74 years, 57% female, 97% white, 7% current smokers, 19% with prior cardiovascular disease and 44% and 50% taking statin-class cholesterol

  12. A rapid method of grading cataract in epidemiological studies and eye surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, V; Minassian, D C

    1988-01-01

    A rapid method of grading clinically important central lens opacities has been developed for use in eye surveys and in epidemiological studies of cataract and has been field-tested in a specifically designed observer agreement study in a survey of a rural community in Central India. The grading method is based on simple measurement of the area of lens opacity that obscures the red reflex relative to the area of clear red reflex, as visualised through the undilated normal pupil. Good to almost perfect agreements were attained between two ophthalmologists and two trained ophthalmic assistants for overall grades of central lens opacity. Most disagreements were trivial in nature and were concerned with difficulties in distinguishing grade 0 from grade 1, and with hazy appearance of the red reflex in high myopes and in cases of early nuclear sclerosis. Teaching materials including video tape and slides for training survey teams and other workers are in preparation. PMID:3207653

  13. Etiology and Features of Eyes with Rubeosis Iridis among Korean Patients: A Population-Based Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yun Cheol; Hwang, Young Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the etiology and features of the eyes with rubeosis iridis among Korean patients. Materials and Methods This study is a retrospective review of 533 Korean patients with rubeosis iridis who visited an eye hospital in Seoul, Korea. We defined rubeosis iridis as visible blood vessels on the iris surface detected during a slit-lamp examination. All cases were reviewed for age at the time of diagnosis, medical history, the most likely cause of rubeosis iridis, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure. Results The most commonly observed cause of rubeosis iridis was diabetic retinopathy (DR; n = 337, 63.2%), followed by retinal vein occlusion (RVO; n = 101, 18.9%), ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS; n = 24, 4.5%), retinal detachment (n = 17, 3.2%), and uveitis (n = 15, 2.8%). The cause was classified as miscellaneous in 18 cases (3.4%); in 21 eyes (3.9%), the cause was not clear. Age at the time of rubeosis iridis diagnosis was lower in patients with DR (56.5 years) than in those with RVO (61.0 years) and OIS (64.8 years; P < 0.01). Intraocular pressure of the eyes with DR (37.3 mmHg) and RVO (39.5 mmHg) was higher than that of the eyes with OIS (25.8 mmHg; P < 0.01). Conclusion In our population-based single center study, DR was the leading cause of rubeosis iridis followed by RVO and OIS among Korean patients. The clinical characteristics of the eyes with rubeosis iridis differed according to etiology. This finding may be useful when assessing eyes with rubeosis iridis. PMID:27490797

  14. OCT Study of Mechanical Properties Associated with Trabecular Meshwork and Collector Channel Motion in Human Eyes.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chen; Johnstone, Murray; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Ruikang K

    2016-01-01

    We report the use of a high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging platform to identify and quantify pressure-dependent aqueous outflow system (AOS) tissue relationships and to infer mechanical stiffness through examination of tissue properties in ex vivo human eyes. Five enucleated human eyes are included in this study, with each eye prepared with four equal-sized quadrants, each encompassing 90 degrees of the limbal circumference. In radial limbal segments perfusion pressure within Schlemm's canal (SC) is controlled by means of a perfusion cannula inserted into the canal lumen, while the other end of the cannula leads to a reservoir at a height that can control the pressure in the cannula. The OCT system images the sample with a spatial resolution of about 5 μm from the trabecular meshwork (TM) surface. Geometric parameters are quantified from the 2D OCT images acquired from the sample subjected to controlled changes in perfusion pressures; parameters include area and height of the lumen of SC, collector channel entrances (CCE) and intrascleral collector channels (ISCC). We show that 3D OCT imaging permits the identification of 3-D relationships of the SC, CCE and ISCC lumen dimensions. Collagen flaps or leaflets are found at CCE that are attached or hinged at only one end, whilst the flaps are connected to the TM by cylindrical structures spanning SC. Increasing static SC pressures resulted in SC lumen enlargement with corresponding enlargement of the CCE and ISCC lumen. Pressure-dependent SC lumen area and height changes are significant at the 0.01 levels for ANOVA, and at the 0.05 for both polynomial curves and Tukey paired comparisons. Dynamic measurements demonstrate a synchronous increase in SC, CCE and ISCC lumen height in response to pressure changes from 0 to 10, 30 or 50 mm Hg, respectively, and the response time is within the 50-millisecond range. From the measured SC volume and corresponding IOP values, we demonstrate that an elastance

  15. Visual acuity testability and comparability in Australian preschool children: The Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    Leone, J F; Gole, G A; Mitchell, P; Kifley, A; Pai, A S-I; Rose, K A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To establish standardised protocols for vision screening, testability and comparability of three different vision tests were examined in a population-based, cross-sectional sample of preschool children (Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study). Methods Measurement of presenting monocular distance visual acuity (VA) using the Amblyopia Treatment Study (ATS) HOTV protocol, was attempted by all (1774) children aged≥24 months. In addition, in children aged≥60 months (576), VA was also tested using the logMAR retro-illuminated HOTV or Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) linear charts (CSV 1000). Children able to have both eyes tested monocularly were considered. Results Testability significantly increased with age for all VA tests. The ATS HOTV with an overall testability of 80% (females: 82%, males: 78%) was the most testable of the VA tests (P<0.0001). In children aged <3 years testability was low (≤47%) rising to≥80% in children aged≥3. In children≥60 months, testability was higher for the HOTV (94%) than the ETDRS (59%) chart. In those that did two VA tests, mean difference of the ATS HOTV compared with the HOTV(CSV) was −0.1, and compared with ETDRS was −0.12 (P<0.0001). Conclusions Children aged <3 years had poor VA testability, whereas those 3 years and above were highly testable using the ATS HOTV. The HOTV (CSV) retro-illuminated test was appropriate for children aged >5 years, and may be possible in younger children with early educational exposure. When comparing VA measures using these tests, the higher VA attained using the ATS HOTV, needs to be taken into account. PMID:22498798

  16. Removal of the eye in a tertiary care center of China: a retrospective study on 573 cases in 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Mao-Nian; Wang, Xin; Chen, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the original protopathy, direct indications, clinical characteristics, complications of orbit plants and visual conditions of eye enucleation/evisceration. METHODS A retrospective study of 573 eyes removed (573 inpatients) at Ophthalmology Department in a tertiary care center of China from January 1993 to December 2012 was completed. RESULTS Cases underwent removal of the eye accounted for 2.15% of total ophthalmology inpatients, whose annual frequency declined from 3.80% to 0.52%. There were 167 eyes (29.14%) being enucleated and 406 (70.86%) eviscerated. Annual proportion of evisceration rose from 16.67% in 1993 to 90.48% in later years. Trauma was the top one (65.62%) in original protopathies followed by neoplasm (13.44%) and ocular infections (5.76%). Phthisis bulbi (45.20%) was the most common direct indication, succeeded by malignant tumor (12.57%), loss/unreconstructed of intraocular tissues due to trauma (11.00%), untreatable inflammation (9.60%), intractable glaucoma (8.55%) and sclerocorneal staphyloma (5.24%). Exenteration was underwent in 20 (25.97%) cases (40% for recurrent carcinoma). Following evisceration, secondary prosthesis implantation was more and earlier, implant exposure occurred in less but earlier and infection and extraction/exchange of implants were more than those following enucleation. Male, phthisis bulbi, evisceration and secondary implantation meant lower risk of implant exposure; eyes removed within 24h following trauma was an independent risk factor. There were 14.37% of eyes with vision of light perception at least as been removed. In the residual contralateral eyes, low vision accounted 5.58% and blindness 3.14%. CONCLUSION Ocular trauma, tumor and infections were great threats to eyeball preservation. Early and effective controlling of any original protopathies was vital. Generally evisceration presented more superior and safe outcomes than enucleation did. Visual conditions of the sufferers should be focused

  17. Accuracy of Intraocular Lens Power Formulas Involving 148 Eyes with Long Axial Lengths: A Retrospective Chart-Review Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Xu, Xian; Miao, Yuyu; Zheng, Gaoxin; Sun, Yong; Xu, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study aims to compare the accuracy of intraocular lens power calculation formulas in eyes with long axial lengths from Chinese patients subjected to cataract surgery. Methods. A total of 148 eyes with an axial length of >26 mm from 148 patients who underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation were included. The Haigis, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, and SRK/T formulas were used to calculate the refractive power of the intraocular lenses and the postoperative estimated power. Results. Overall, the Haigis formula achieved the lowest level of median absolute error 1.025 D (P < 0.01 for Haigis versus each of the other formulas), followed by SRK/T formula (1.040 D). All formulas were least accurate when eyes were with axial length of >33 mm, and median absolute errors were significantly higher for those eyes than eyes with axial length = 26.01-30.00 mm. Absolute error was correlated with axial length for the SRK/T (r = 0.212, P = 0.010) and Hoffer Q (r = 0.223, P = 0.007) formulas. For axial lengths > 33 mm, eyes exhibited a postoperative hyperopic refractive error. Conclusions. The Haigis and SRK/T formulas may be more suitable for calculating intraocular lens power for eyes with axial lengths ranging from 26 to 33 mm. And for axial length over 33 mm, the Haigis formula could be more accurate. PMID:26793392

  18. Eye Movement Techniques in Studying Differences among Developing Readers. Technical Report No. 377.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConkie, George W.; Zola, David

    Research involving eye movement monitoring can help in understanding the nature of the mental processes involved in reading, how these develop as one learns to read, and what processing strategies or characteristics are more common in those children who fail to show normal progress in learning to read. First, eye movement records show that the…

  19. Letter names and alphabet book reading by senior kindergarteners: an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Landry, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    The study monitored the eye movements of twenty 5-year-old children while reading an alphabet book to examine the manner in which the letters, words, and pictures were fixated and the relation of attention to print to alphabetic knowledge. Children attended little to the print, took longer to first fixate print than illustrations, and labeled fewer letters than when presented with letters in isolation. After controlling for receptive vocabulary, regressions revealed that children knowing more letters were quicker to look at the featured letter on a page and spent more time looking at the featured letter, the word, and its first letter. Thus, alphabet books along with letter knowledge may facilitate entrance into the partial alphabetic stage of word recognition. PMID:19930354

  20. Pilot Study: The Role of the Hemispheric Lateralization in Mental Disorders by Use of the Limb (Eye, Hand, Foot) Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Naser; Dabbaghi, Parviz; Valipour, Habib; Vafadari, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Based on the previous studies, we know that the hemispheric lateralization defects, increase the probability of psychological disorders. We also know that dominant limb is controlled by dominant hemisphere and limb preference is used as an indicator for hemisphere dominance. In this study we attempted to explore the hemispheric dominance by the use of three limbs (hand, foot and eye). Methods: We performed this survey on two samples, psychiatric patients compared with normal population. For this purpose, knowing that the organ dominance is stabilized in adolescence, and age has no effect on the people above 15, we used 48 high school girls and 65 boys as the final samples of normal population. The patient group included 57 male and 26 female who were chronic psychiatric patients. Results: The result shows that left-eye dominance is more in patients than the normal group (P=0.000) but the handedness and footedness differences are not significance. In psychotic, bipolar and depressive disorders, eye dominance had significant difference (P=0.018). But this is not true about hand and foot dominance. Discussion: Our findings proved that generally in psychiatric patients, left-eye dominance is more common, left-eye dominance is also more in psychotic and depressive disorders. It is less common in bipolar disorders. PMID:27307954

  1. Obstacle Avoidance, Visual Detection Performance, and Eye-Scanning Behavior of Glaucoma Patients in a Driving Simulator: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Prado Vega, Rocío; van Leeuwen, Peter M.; Rendón Vélez, Elizabeth; Lemij, Hans G.; de Winter, Joost C. F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in driving performance, visual detection performance, and eye-scanning behavior between glaucoma patients and control participants without glaucoma. Glaucoma patients (n = 23) and control participants (n = 12) completed four 5-min driving sessions in a simulator. The participants were instructed to maintain the car in the right lane of a two-lane highway while their speed was automatically maintained at 100 km/h. Additional tasks per session were: Session 1: none, Session 2: verbalization of projected letters, Session 3: avoidance of static obstacles, and Session 4: combined letter verbalization and avoidance of static obstacles. Eye-scanning behavior was recorded with an eye-tracker. Results showed no statistically significant differences between patients and control participants for lane keeping, obstacle avoidance, and eye-scanning behavior. Steering activity, number of missed letters, and letter reaction time were significantly higher for glaucoma patients than for control participants. In conclusion, glaucoma patients were able to avoid objects and maintain a nominal lane keeping performance, but applied more steering input than control participants, and were more likely than control participants to miss peripherally projected stimuli. The eye-tracking results suggest that glaucoma patients did not use extra visual search to compensate for their visual field loss. Limitations of the study, such as small sample size, are discussed. PMID:24146975

  2. Applicability of standard eye-tracking technique in people with intellectual disability: methodological conclusions from a series of studies.

    PubMed

    Csákvári, Judit; Gyori, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Although considerable amount of evidence suggest that info-communication technologies have important potential to promote higher level of adaptive functioning and more efficient learning in people with intellectual disability (ID), very little is known about how people with ID scan visually the visual user interfaces of digital tools. Eye-tracking technique is widely used to study visual scanning processes and is used more and more extensively in assistive and educational technologies, too. Therefore, it is important to explore and understand the limitations and potentials of applying eye-tracking technique in people with ID. The present paper aims this by analyzing data from 4 studies (n=38/38 and n=15/30), via contrasting data from people with ID with data from neurotypical (NT) control subjects along 3 variables, indicative of the applicability of eye-tracking technique. Results strongly suggest that there are specific difficulties in using eye-tracking in people with ID, showing considerable individual variability but depending also on the nature of the actual task. Consequentially, using eye-tracking in this group expectedly requires special considerations and specific solutions. PMID:26294454

  3. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  4. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  5. Validity and reliability of the Malay version of WHOQOL-HIV BREF in patients with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Saddki, N; Noor, M M; Norbanee, T H; Rusli, M A; Norzila, Z; Zaharah, S; Sarimah, A; Norsarwany, M; Asrenee, A R; Zarina, Z A

    2009-10-01

    This study determines the validity and reliability of the Malay version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) assessment instrument in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A cross-sectional study on 157 patients with HIV seen at the Infectious Disease Unit, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kota Bharu, Kelantan was conducted. Factor analysis identified five major domains: physical needs, spirituality, social relationship, psychological, and environment. Significant correlation was found between each domain scores and the general health questions. The instrument was able to discriminate between asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV positive patients for all domain scores except for the spirituality domain. The internal consistency of the five domains ranged from 0.70 to 0.83. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.60 to 0.87 across all domains. In conclusion, the Malay version of WHOQOL-HIV BREF is a valid and reliable instrument in assessing quality of life in HIV positive patients. PMID:20024703

  6. Physico-Chemical Characterization, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry].

    PubMed

    Nunes, Polyana Campos; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; Rockenbach, Ismael Ivan; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Malay apple fruit (Syzygium malaccense) grown in Brazil with regard to the geographical origin and its peel fractions and edible portion analyzed independently. Fruit diameter, weight, yield, and centesimal composition, ascorbic acid, reductive sugars, total soluble solids, pH and fiber content were determined. Total phenolics (1293 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and total anthocyanins (1045 mg/100 g) contents were higher in the peel, with the major anthocyanin identified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as cyanidin 3-glucoside. Higher values for DPPH antiradical scavenging activity (47.52 μMol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP, 0.19 mM ferreous sulfate/g) were also observed in the peel fraction. All extracts tested showed the ability to inhibit oxidation in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. This study highlights the potential of Malay apple fruit as a good source of antioxidant compounds with potential benefits to human health. PMID:27352306

  7. Physico-Chemical Characterization, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Polyana Campos; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; Rockenbach, Ismael Ivan; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Malay apple fruit (Syzygium malaccense) grown in Brazil with regard to the geographical origin and its peel fractions and edible portion analyzed independently. Fruit diameter, weight, yield, and centesimal composition, ascorbic acid, reductive sugars, total soluble solids, pH and fiber content were determined. Total phenolics (1293 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and total anthocyanins (1045 mg/100 g) contents were higher in the peel, with the major anthocyanin identified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as cyanidin 3-glucoside. Higher values for DPPH antiradical scavenging activity (47.52 μMol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP, 0.19 mM ferreous sulfate/g) were also observed in the peel fraction. All extracts tested showed the ability to inhibit oxidation in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. This study highlights the potential of Malay apple fruit as a good source of antioxidant compounds with potential benefits to human health. PMID:27352306

  8. Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2002-01-01

    The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

  9. An accurate and portable eye movement detector for studying sleep in small animals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, Álvaro; Escudero, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Although eye movements are a highly valuable variable in attempts to precisely identify different periods of the sleep-wake cycle, their indirect measurement by electrooculography is not good enough. The present article describes an accurate and portable scleral search coil that allows the detection of tonic and phasic characteristics of eye movements in free-moving animals. Six adult Wistar rats were prepared for chronic recording of electroencephalography, electromyography and eye movements using the scleral search coil technique. We developed a miniature magnetic field generator made with two coils, consisting of 35 turns and 15 mm diameter of insulated 0.2 mm cooper wire, mounted in a frame of carbon fibre. This portable scleral search coil was fixed on the head of the animal, with each magnetic coil parallel to the eye coil and at 5 mm from each eye. Eye movements detected by the portable scleral search coil were compared with those measured by a commercial scleral search coil requiring immobilizing the head of the animal. No qualitative differences were found between the two scleral search coil systems in their capabilities to detect eye movements. This innovative portable scleral search coil system is an essential tool to detect slow changes in eye position and miniature rapid eye movements during sleep. The portable scleral search coil is much more suitable for detecting eye movements than any previously available system because of its precision and simplicity, and because it does not require immobilization of the animal's head. PMID:25590417

  10. Reduction of eye lens radiation dose by orbital bismuth shielding in pediatric patients undergoing CT of the head: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Perisinakis, Kostas; Raissaki, Maria; Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Damilakis, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2005-04-01

    Our aim in the study was to assess the eye lens dose reduction resulting from the use of radioprotective bismuth garments to shield the eyes of pediatric patients undergoing head CT. The Monte Carlo N-particle transport code and mathematical humanoid phantoms representing the average individual at different ages were used to determine eye lens dose reduction accomplished with bismuth shielding of the eye in the following simulated CT scans: (a) scanning of the orbits, (b) scanning of the whole head, and (c) 20 degrees angled scanning of the brain excluding the orbits. The effect of bismuth shielding on the eye lens dose was also investigated using an anthropomorphic phantom and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). Eye lens dose reduction achieved by bismuth shielding was measured in 16 patients undergoing multiphase CT scanning of the head. The patient's scans were divided in the following: CT examinations where the eye globes were entirely included (n=5), partly included (n=6) and excluded (n=5) from the scanned region. The eye lens dose reduction depended mainly on the scan boundaries set by an operator. The average eye lens dose reduction determined by Monte Carlo simulation was 38.2%, 33.0% and <1% for CT scans of the orbits, whole head, and brain with an angled gantry, respectively. The difference between the Monte Carlo derived eye lens dose reduction factor values and corresponding values determined directly by using the anthropomorphic phantom head was found less than 5%. The mean eye lens dose reduction achieved by bismuth shielding in pediatric patients were 34%, 20% and <2% when eye globes were entirely included, partly included and excluded from the scanned region, respectively. A significant reduction in eye lens dose may be achieved by using superficial orbital bismuth shielding during pediatric head CT scans. However, bismuth garments should not be used in children when the eyes are excluded from the primarily exposed region. PMID:15895586

  11. Reduction of eye lens radiation dose by orbital bismuth shielding in pediatric patients undergoing CT of the head: A Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Perisinakis, Kostas; Raissaki, Maria; Tzedakis, Antonis; Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Damilakis, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2005-04-01

    Our aim in the study was to assess the eye lens dose reduction resulting from the use of radioprotective bismuth garments to shield the eyes of pediatric patients undergoing head CT. The Monte Carlo N-particle transport code and mathematical humanoid phantoms representing the average individual at different ages were used to determine eye lens dose reduction accomplished with bismuth shielding of the eye in the following simulated CT scans: (a) scanning of the orbits, (b) scanning of the whole head, and (c) 20 deg. angled scanning of the brain excluding the orbits. The effect of bismuth shielding on the eye lens dose was also investigated using an anthropomorphic phantom and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). Eye lens dose reduction achieved by bismuth shielding was measured in 16 patients undergoing multiphase CT scanning of the head. The patient's scans were divided in the following: CT examinations where the eye globes were entirely included (n=5), partly included (n=6) and excluded (n=5) from the scanned region. The eye lens dose reduction depended mainly on the scan boundaries set by an operator. The average eye lens dose reduction determined by Monte Carlo simulation was 38.2%, 33.0% and <1% for CT scans of the orbits, whole head, and brain with an angled gantry, respectively. The difference between the Monte Carlo derived eye lens dose reduction factor values and corresponding values determined directly by using the anthropomorphic phantom head was found less than 5%. The mean eye lens dose reduction achieved by bismuth shielding in pediatric patients were 34%, 20% and <2% when eye globes were entirely included, partly included and excluded from the scanned region, respectively. A significant reduction in eye lens dose may be achieved by using superficial orbital bismuth shielding during pediatric head CT scans. However, bismuth garments should not be used in children when the eyes are excluded from the primarily exposed region.

  12. Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Malay Preschool Children in Selangor

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Poh Choo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools) and Bangi (2 comparative preschools), Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, air velocity (AV), and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P < 0.001) except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents. PMID:25984527

  13. Forensic STR loci reveal common genetic ancestry of the Thai-Malay Muslims and Thai Buddhists in the deep Southern region of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Kitpipit, Thitika; Phetpeng, Sukanya; Thanakiatkrai, Phuvadol

    2014-12-01

    Among the people living in the five deep Southern Thai provinces, Thai-Malay Muslims (MUS) constitute the majority, while the remaining are Thai Buddhists (BUD). Cultural, linguistic and religious differences between these two populations have been previously reported. However, their biological relationship has never been investigated. In this study, we aimed to reveal the genetic structure and genetic affinity between MUS and BUD by analyzing 15 autosomal short tandem repeats. Both distance and model-based clustering methods showed significant genetic homogeneity between these two populations, suggesting a common biological ancestry. After Islamization in this region during the fourteenth century AD, gradual albeit nonstatistically significant genetic changes occurred within these two populations. Cultural barriers possibly influenced these genetic changes. MUS have closer admixture to Malaysian-Malay Muslims than BUD countrywide. Admixture proportions also support certain degree of genetic dissimilarity between the two studied populations, as shown by the unequal genetic contribution from Malaysian-Malay Muslims. Cultural transformation and recent minor genetic admixture are the likely processes that shaped the genetic structure of both MUS and BUD. PMID:25339232

  14. Impact of Rating Scale Categories on Reliability and Fit Statistics of the Malay Spiritual Well-Being Scale using Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    DAHER, Aqil Mohammad; AHMAD, Syed Hassan; WINN, Than; SELAMAT, Mohd Ikhsan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have employed the item response theory in examining reliability. We conducted this study to examine the effect of Rating Scale Categories (RSCs) on the reliability and fit statistics of the Malay Spiritual Well-Being Scale, employing the Rasch model. Methods: The Malay Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) with the original six; three and four newly structured RSCs was distributed randomly among three different samples of 50 participants each. Results: The mean age of respondents in the three samples ranged between 36 and 39 years old. The majority was female in all samples, and Islam was the most prevalent religion among the respondents. The predominating race was Malay, followed by Chinese and Indian. The original six RSCs indicated better targeting of 0.99 and smallest model error of 0.24. The Infit Mnsq (mean square) and Zstd (Z standard) of the six RSCs were “1.1”and “-0.1”respectively. The six RSCs achieved the highest person and item reliabilities of 0.86 and 0.85 respectively. These reliabilities yielded the highest person (2.46) and item (2.38) separation indices compared to other the RSCs. Conclusion: The person and item reliability and, to a lesser extent, the fit statistics, were better with the six RSCs compared to the four and three RSCs. PMID:26715896

  15. Psychometric properties of the self-report Malay version of the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQLTM) 4.0 Generic Core Scales among multiethnic Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ainuddin, Husna A; Loh, Siew Yim; Chinna, Karuthan; Low, Wah Yun; Roslani, April Camilla

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence is the potential period for growth and optimal functioning, but developmental issues like time of transition from childhood to adulthood will create stress and affect the adolescent's quality of life (QOL). However, there is a lack of research tool for measuring adolescent's QOL in Malaysia. The aim of the study was to determine the validity and reliability of the self-report Malay version of the pediatric QOL (PedsQL™) 4.0 Generic Core Scales in assessing the QOL of Malaysian adolescents. A cross-sectional study design using the 23-item self-report Malay version of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales was administered on a convenient cluster sampling (n = 297 adolescent) from a secondary school. The internal consistency reliability had Cronbach's α values ranging from .70 to .89. Factor analysis reported a six-factor structure via principal axis factor analysis. In conclusion, the self-report Malay version of the pediatric QOL 4.0 Generic Core Scales is a reliable and valid tool to measure the QOL of multiethnic Malaysian adolescents. PMID:24154841

  16. Uncorrected refractive error in older British adults: the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, Justin C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the prevalence of, and demographic associations with, uncorrected refractive error (URE) in an older British population. Methods Data from 4428 participants, aged 48–89 years, who attended an eye examination in the third health check of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study and had also undergone an ophthalmic examination were assessed. URE was defined as ≥1 line improvement of visual acuity with pinhole-correction in the better eye in participants with LogMar presenting visual acuity (PVA) <0.3 (PVA <6/12). Refractive error was measured using an autorefractor without cycloplegia. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent ≤−0.5 dioptre, and hypermetropia ≥0.5 dioptre. Results Adjusted to the 2010 midyear British population, the prevalence of URE in this Norfolk population was 1.9% (95% CI 0.6% to 3.1%). Lower self-rated distance vision was correlated with higher prevalence of URE (ptrend<0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression model adjusting for age, gender, retirement status, educational level and social class, independent significant associations with URE were increasing age (ptrend<0.001) and having hypermetropic or myopic refractive error. Wearing distance spectacles was inversely associated with URE (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.55, p<0.001). There were 3063 people (69.2%) who wore spectacles/contact lenses for distance vision. Spectacle wear differed according to type of refractive error (p<0.001), and use rose with increasing severity of refractive error (ptrend<0.001). Conclusion Although refractive error is common, the prevalence of URE was found to be low in this population reflecting a low prevalence of PVA<0.3. PMID:22535330

  17. Optic Disc - Fovea Distance, Axial Length and Parapapillary Zones. The Beijing Eye Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Rahul Arvo; Wang, Ya Xing; Yang, Hua; Li, Jian Jun; Xu, Liang; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Jonas, Jost Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To measure the distance between the optic disc center and the fovea (DFD) and to assess its associations. Methods The population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals aged 50+ years. The DFD was measured on fundus photographs. Results Readable fundus photographs were available for 2836 (81.8%) individuals. Mean DFD was 4.76 ± 0.34mm (median: 4.74 mm; range: 3.76–6.53mm). In multivariate analysis, longer DFD was associated with longer axial length (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta: 0.62), higher prevalence of axially high myopia (P<0.001; beta:0.06), shallower anterior chamber depth (P<0.001; beta:-0.18), thinner lens thickness (P = 0.004; beta: -0.06), smaller optic disc-fovea angle (P = 0.02; beta: -0.04), larger parapapillary alpha zone (P = 0.008; beta: 0.05), larger parapapillary beta/gamma zone (P<0.001; beta: 0.11), larger optic disc area (P<0.001; beta: 0.08), lower degree of cortical cataract (P = 0.002; beta: -0.08), and lower prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (P = 0.001; beta: -0.06). Bruch´s membrane opening-fovea distance (DFD minus disc radius minus parapapillary beta/gamma zone width) in non-glaucomatous eyes was not significantly (P = 0.60) related with axial length in emmetropic or axially myopic eyes (axial length ≥23.5 mm), while it increased significantly (P<0.001; r: 0.32) with longer axial length in eyes with an axial length of <23.5mm. Ratio of mean DFD to disc diameter was 2.65 ± 0.30. If the ratio of disc-fovea distance to disc diameter was considered constant and if the individual disc diameter was calculated as the individual disc-fovea distance divided by the constant factor of 2.65, the resulting calculated disc diameter differed from the directly measured disc diameter by 0.16 ±0.13 mm (median: 0.13 mm, range: 0.00–0.89 mm) or 8.9 ± 7.3% (median: 7.4%; range: 0.00–70%) of the measured disc diameter. Conclusions DFD (mean: 4.76mm) increases with longer

  18. Small Drusen and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E; Lee, Kristine E; Gangnon, Ronald E; Sivakumaran, Theru A; Iyengar, Sudha K; Klein, Barbara E K

    2015-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that large areas of small hard drusen (diameter <63 μm) and intermediate drusen (diameter 63-124 μm) are associated with the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Eyes of 3344 older adults with at least 2 consecutive visits spaced 5 years apart over a 20-year period were included. A 6-level severity scale including no drusen, 4 levels of increasing area (from minimal [<2596 μm(2)] to large [>9086 μm(2)]) of only small hard drusen, and intermediate drusen was used. The 5-year incidence of AMD was 3% in eyes at the start of the interval with no, minimal, small, and moderate areas of only small drusen and 5% and 25% for eyes with large area of only small drusen and intermediate drusen, respectively. Compared to eyes with a moderate area of small drusen, the odds ratio (OR) of developing AMD in eyes with a large area of only small drusen was 1.8 (P<.001). Compared to eyes with large area of only small drusen, eyes with intermediate drusen had an OR of 5.5 (P<0.001) of developing AMD. Our results are consistent with our hypothesis that large areas of only small drusen are associated with the incidence of AMD. PMID:25905023

  19. Corneal changes induced by laser ablation: study of the visual-quality evolution by a customized eye model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, D.; Anera, R. G.; Saiz, J. M.; Jiménez, J. R.; Moreno, F.; Jiménez Del Barco, L.; González, F.

    2006-11-01

    This study focuses on the changes induced in both the asphericity and homogeneity of the cornea for a group of myopic eyes undergoing LASIK surgery. Eyes were characterized by a Kooijman-based customized eye model in which changes were introduced in the form of Gaussian-distributed refractive-index variations of given correlation length for the inhomogeneities and in the form of an expression, based on the modified Munnerlyn's paraxial formula, for the post-LASIK asphericity. Visual quality was evaluated in terms of the Modulation Transfer Function and the Point-Spread Function. The results show that, on average, the evolution of visual acuity is consistent with the change in corneal asphericity, while the evolution of contrast sensitivity requires a loss in corneal homogeneity in order to be explained. By including both effects in the model, the overall model performance in predicting visual quality is improved.

  20. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD ...

  1. [Features of clinical course and proteinase inhibitor balance in tears in eye burns of different localization (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Chesnokova, N B; Malarpv, P V; Beznos, O V

    2001-01-01

    Chemical burns of the eye of different location (cornea, corneal fragment with adjacent conjunctiva, and limbus) were studied in experiments. Clinical picture and changes in the lacrimal proteinase inhibitor balance were analyzed. Burn disease is less severe and the number of complications is less if a fragment of the cornea with adjacent conjunctiva and a fragment of the limbus are injured than in case of a corneal burn of the same depth and area. Burn of the total limbus area is a severe injury involving essential shifts in the proteinase inhibitor balance, leading to deep organic changes in the cornea and inner structures of the eye, eventuating in its subatrophy. PMID:11510165

  2. The validation of the malay version of binge eating scale: a comparison with the structured clinical interview for the DSM-IV

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Binge Eating Scale (BES) questionnaire is a self-administered instrument developed to identify binge eaters. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the Malay language version of BES as a screening instrument for binge eating. A cut-off point of 17 is taken as comparable to the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV patient version (SCID-I/P), the gold standard for the diagnosis of Binge Eating Disorder. Method The questionnaire was structured from the English version of the original scale which has 16 items. The sample was obtained from outpatients and healthy adult volunteers at a teaching hospital. After completion of BES, the participants were interviewed with the SCID-I/P. The interviewer was blinded to the BES score. Results The Malay version of BES yielded a sensitivity of 84.6%, specificity of 94.9%, a positive predictive value of 81.8%, a negative predictive value of 95.7%. Area under the curve was 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.90-0.99). The results of factor analysis indicated a two factor structure of feelings/cognition and behavioural manifestation of binge eating. Internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha was 0.89. Conclusion The BES performed satisfactorily as a valid instrument for screening of binge eating among Malay-speaking population. PMID:24999407

  3. Histopathological Study of a Mummified Eye and Optic Nerve from a Strangled Peruvian Mummy.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Jordi; Cases-Mérida, Sandra; Tortosa, Montserrat; Marzal, Berta; Fernández, Arabel; Gálvez, Cesar; Franco, Regulo; Fernández, Pedro Luis

    2015-01-01

    We present the histopathological findings of a naturally mummified eye from the Peruvian Lambayeque culture (900-1,200 AD), in which rehydration, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy allowed a detailed analysis of several eye tissues including the eyelids, sclera, and optic nerve, the latter showing evidence of hemorrhage likely related to the documented strangulation as the cause of death. We conclude that histopathological analysis of rehydrated mummified tissues can provide valuable information from fragile eye structures including the optic nerve, and these findings can be useful from a forensic point of view. PMID:26160151

  4. Eye-gaze patterns as students study worked-out examples in mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Adam D.; Mestre, Jose P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-07-01

    This study explores what introductory physics students actually look at when studying worked-out examples. Our classroom experiences indicate that introductory physics students neither discuss nor refer to the conceptual information contained in the text of worked-out examples. This study is an effort to determine to what extent students incorporate the textual information into the way they study. Student eye-gaze patterns were recorded as they studied the examples to aid them in solving a target problem. Contrary to our expectations from classroom interactions, students spent 40±3% of their gaze time reading the textual information. Their gaze patterns were also characterized by numerous jumps between corresponding mathematical and textual information, implying that they were combining information from both sources. Despite this large fraction of time spent reading the text, student recall of the conceptual information contained therein remained very poor. We also found that having a particular problem in mind had no significant effects on the gaze-patterns or conceptual information retention.

  5. Area deprivation and age related macular degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L.Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P.Y.; Broadway, David C.; Peto, Tunde; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nick; Foster, Paul J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between area deprivation, individual socio-economic status (SES) and age related macular degeneration (AMD). Study design Cross sectional study nested within a longitudinal cohort study. Methods Data were collected in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study by trained nurses, using standardized protocols and lifestyle questionnaires. The English Index of multiple deprivation 2010 (IMD) was derived from participants' postcodes. AMD was identified from standardized grading of fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between IMD, SES and AMD. Results 5344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD. Of 5182 participants with complete data, AMD was identified in 653 participants (12.60%, 95%CI = 11.7–13.5%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that people living in the most affluent 5% of areas had nearly half the odds of AMD compared to those living in comparatively more deprived areas (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36–0.89, P = 0.02), after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and smoking. Conclusions The authors found that living in the most affluent areas exerted a protective effect on AMD, independently of education and social class. Further investigation into underlying mechanisms will inform potential interventions to reduce health inequalities relating to AMD. PMID:25687711

  6. The Effectiveness of Panoramic Maps Design: a Preliminary Study Based on Mobile Eye-Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarini, R.; Murat, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets). In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical) information in ski resorts.

  7. Husband-wife communication and family planning practices among Malay married couples in Mukim Rusila, Terengganu.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Y Nor; Atiya, A S

    2003-06-01

    The role of husband-wife communication in the practice of family planning was studied among the rural Malay couples in Mukim Rusila, Terengganu. It was a cross-sectional study in which a cluster sampling was used to select the study sample. A total of 193 (100.0%) wives and 74 (38.3%) husbands responded to a face-to-face interview. Visual Analogue Scale was used to measure the level of husband-wife communication. Husband-wife communication score was lower on family planning compared to other matters. There was a significant fair agreement on the scores between the husbands and the wives (p > 0.05) on family planning. There was a significant association between husband-wife communication on family planning and the current practice of family planning (p = 0.002). The 'likelihood' that couples who had had good husband-wife communication to practice family planning was about 2.8 times higher compared to those couples with poor husband-wife communication (95% C.I.: 1.4, 5.3). Further research need to be carried out, as the study was limited by certain constraints. PMID:14569742

  8. A pilot study evaluating the use of EyeSpy video game software to perform vision screening in school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Rupal H.; Wilson, M. Edward; Peterseim, M. Millicent; Cole, Kali B.; Teed, Ronald G. W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare the vision-screening results of school-aged children tested with EyeSpy software and those of children examined by a pediatric ophthalmologist. We also compared combined results of an electronic visual acuity (EVA) tester and stereopsis testing to the results of a professional eye examination. Methods In this pilot study, all children were tested using EyeSpy, an ETDRS EVA tester/stereopsis, and examined (including cycloplegic refraction) by a pediatric ophthalmologist. The order of presentation of the EVA and EyeSpy assessments was assigned randomly. The EyeSpy test was performed twice (using occlusive eyepatch and red-blue dissociative goggles). EyeSpy registered pass or refer results for visual acuity testing at a threshold of 20/32 visual acuity and stereopsis of 300 arcsec. Similar threshold values were used in the EVA/stereopsis testing. Results The average age of 72 subjects was 11.4 ± 2.2 years. Prevalence of visual impairment was 25 of 72 (34.7%) as reported by the professional examination. The sensitivity, specificity, and conventional positive likelihood ratio was 88%, 87%, and 6.8 when EyeSpy was used using a patch; 88%, 74%, and 3.44 when EyeSpy was used with goggles; and 88%, 94%, and 13.79 for EVA/stereospsis, compared to the gold-standard professional eye examination. EyeSpy screening results using a patch were not significantly different than those of a professional examination (p = 0.508). The two results concurred in 63 of 72 (87.5%) subjects. Conclusions EyeSpy software has potential for use as a vision-screening device. EyeSpy using an occlusive patch outperformed EyeSpy using dissociative glasses. PMID:20637666

  9. Uncovering the Effect of Text Structure in Learning from a Science Text: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariasi, Nicola; Mason, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether reading a refutational or non-refutational text would induce different cognitive processing, as revealed by eye-movement analyses. Unlike a standard expository text, a refutational text acknowledges a reader's alternative conceptions about a topic, refutes them, and then introduces scientific conceptions as viable…

  10. Saccadic Eye Movements in Normal Children from 8 to 15 Years of Age: A Developmental Study of Visuospatial Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Randal G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study used saccadic eye movements to assess visuospatial attention in 53 normal children (ages 8-15). Saccadic latency, the ability to suppress extraneous saccades during fixation, and the ability to inhibit task-provoked anticipatory saccades all improved with age. Developmental patterns varied by task. Analyses of age-related changes may be…

  11. Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology—A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Borgestig, Maria; Sandqvist, Jan; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with a before and after design was conducted on 10 children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance. PMID:26496529

  12. Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology-A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Borgestig, Maria; Sandqvist, Jan; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with a before and after design was conducted on 10 children (aged 1-15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9-11 months, and after 15-20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15-20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance. PMID:26496529

  13. Sensitivity to Speaker Control in the Online Comprehension of Conditional Tips and Promises: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Andrew J.; Haigh, Matthew; Ferguson, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Statements of the form if… then… can be used to communicate conditional speech acts such as tips and promises. Conditional promises require the speaker to have perceived control over the outcome event, whereas conditional tips do not. In an eye-tracking study, we examined whether readers are sensitive to information about perceived speaker control…

  14. Marek's disease virus infection in the eye: chronological study of the lesions, virus replication, and vaccine-induced protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) infection in the eye was studied chronologically after inoculating one-day-old chickens with a very virulent MDV strain Md5. Based on the location of the lesions and the severity of the distribution, lesions could be classified as early lesions (6 to 11 days post inoculat...

  15. An Exploration of the Use of Eye-Gaze Tracking to Study Problem-Solving on Standardized Science Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Loehr, John F.; Brigham, Frederick J.

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the capacity of eye-gaze tracking to identify differences in problem-solving behaviours within a group of individuals who possessed varying degrees of knowledge and expertise in three disciplines of science (biology, chemistry and physics). The six participants, all pre-service science teachers, completed an 18-item…

  16. Implications of comorbidity for genetic studies of bipolar disorder: P300 and eye tracking as biological markers for illness.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, D H; Sharp, C W; Walker, M T; Doody, G A; Glabus, M F; Muir, W J

    1996-06-01

    In large families with affective illness, identification of a biological variable is needed that reflects brain dysfunction at an earlier point than symptom development. Eye movement disorder, a possible vulnerability marker in schizophrenia, is less clearly associated with affective illness, although a subgroup of affective disorders shows smooth-pursuit eye movement disorder. The auditory P300 event-related potential may be a useful marker for risk to schizophrenia, but a role in bipolar illness is less certain. The distribution of these two biological variables and their association with symptoms in two multiply affected bipolar families is described. In a single, five-generation family identified for linkage studies through two bipolar I (BPI) probands, 128 members (including 20 spouses) were interviewed. The 108 related individuals had diagnoses of BPI (7), bipolar II (2), cyclothymia (3), or major depressive disorder (19). Eight others had generalised anxiety (1), minor depression (5), intermittent depression (1), or alcoholism (1). Sixty-nine subjects had no psychiatric diagnosis. P300 latency (81) and eye tracking (71) were recorded from a subgroup of relatives within the pedigree. Eye tracking was abnormal in 11 of 71 relatives (15.5%) and was bimodally distributed. In these 11 relatives, clinical diagnoses included minor depression (1), alcoholism (1) and generalised anxiety disorder (1). P300 latency was normally distributed and did not differ from controls. In a second family in which five of seven siblings have BPI illness, P300 latency and eye movement disorder were found in affected relatives and in some unaffected offspring. In these large families, clinical diagnoses of general anxiety, alcoholism and minor depression, when associated with eye tracking abnormality, may be considered alternative clinical manifestations of the same trait that in other relatives is expressed as bipolar illness. PMID:8864153

  17. DNA Barcoding Reveals Cryptic Diversity within Commercially Exploited Indo-Malay Carangidae (Teleosteii: Perciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Mat Jaafar, Tun Nurul Aimi; Taylor, Martin I.; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah; de Bruyn, Mark; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA barcodes, typically focusing on the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) in many animals, have been used widely as a species-identification tool. The ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species from a range of taxa and to reveal cryptic species has been well documented. Despite the wealth of DNA barcode data for fish from many temperate regions, there are relatively few available from the Southeast Asian region. Here, we target the marine fish Family Carangidae, one of the most commercially-important families from the Indo-Malay Archipelago (IMA), to produce an initial reference DNA barcode library. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, a 652 bp region of COI was sequenced for 723 individuals from 36 putative species of Family Carangidae distributed within IMA waters. Within the newly-generated dataset, three described species exhibited conspecific divergences up to ten times greater (4.32–4.82%) than mean estimates (0.24–0.39%), indicating a discrepancy with assigned morphological taxonomic identification, and the existence of cryptic species. Variability of the mitochondrial DNA COI region was compared within and among species to evaluate the COI region's suitability for species identification. The trend in range of mean K2P distances observed was generally in accordance with expectations based on taxonomic hierarchy: 0% to 4.82% between individuals within species, 0% to 16.4% between species within genera, and 8.64% to 25.39% between genera within families. The average Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distance between individuals, between species within genera, and between genera within family were 0.37%, 10.53% and 16.56%, respectively. All described species formed monophyletic clusters in the Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree, although three species representing complexes of six potential cryptic species were detected in Indo-Malay Carangidae; Atule mate, Selar crumenophthalmus and Seriolina nigrofasciata. Conclusion/Significance This study confirms

  18. The Malay Language in Malaysia: An Applied Sociolinguistic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sick, Goh-Ngong

    This master's thesis considers the linguistic situation of Malaysia and the need for language planning to establish one language as a common link across many diverse ethnic and linguistic groups. The development of the present-day multilingual situation in Malaysia is described. The country is characterized by language islands created by a lack of…

  19. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery, called punctal cautery, is recommended to permanently close the drainage holes. The procedure helps keep the limited volume of tears on the eye for a longer period of time. In some patients with dry eye, supplements or dietary sources (such as tuna fish) of omega-3 fatty ...

  20. Eye Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cornea, which focuses light while protecting the eye. After light passes through the cornea, it travels through a ... and have them progress faster. With cataracts, the eye's clear lens clouds, blocking light. To help deal with mild cataracts, you may ...

  1. Estimation of Flavonoid Intake in Older Australians: Secondary Data Analysis of the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Kent, Katherine; Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Mitchell, Paul; Flood, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, consumed in plant-based foods, have been linked to risk reduction of cancers, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. The paucity of information on dietary sources and quantities of flavonoid intake in older adults limits interpretation of epidemiological studies that link flavonoid intake with health outcomes in this population. It was our aim to describe total flavonoid intake, including flavonoid subclasses, in older Australians and to identify rich and commonly consumed sources of flavonoids in this age group. Twelve days of weighed food record dietary data from a subsample of the Blue Mountains Eye Study baseline cohort study of older Australians (n = 79) was analyzed using the US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database. Mean intake of flavonoids was estimated to be 683 mg/day (SD = 507) of which flavan-3-ols contributed 92%, followed by flavonols (4%), flavanones (3%), and flavones (<1%). Black tea was the major flavonoid source, providing 89% of total flavonoid intake. No differences in intake between genders were identified. Dietary intake of flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses in older Australians is similar to the one other estimation of intake in Australian older adults and confirms the types of foods that contribute to flavonoid intake among this sample of older Australians. PMID:26571356

  2. Two Eyes, 3D: A New Project to Study Stereoscopy in Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; SubbaRao, M.; Wyatt, R.

    2012-01-01

    "Two Eyes, 3D" is a 3-year NSF funded research project to study the educational impacts of using stereoscopic representations in informal settings. The project funds two experimental studies. The first is focused on how children perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects displayed in static 2D and 3D formats. The second is focused on how adults perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects and processes displayed in 2D and 3D movie formats. As part of the project, two brief high-definition films about variable stars will be developed. Both studies will be mixed-method and look at prior spatial ability and other demographic variables as covariates. The project is run by the American Association of Variable Star Observers, Boston Museum of Science and the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum with consulting from the California Academy of Sciences. Early pilot results will be presented. All films will be released into the public domain, as will the assessment software designed to run on tablet computers (iOS or Android).

  3. Orienting and maintenance of attention to threatening facial expressions in anxiety--an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Holas, Pawel; Krejtz, Izabela; Cypryanska, Marzena; Nezlek, John B

    2014-12-15

    Cognitive models posit that anxiety disorders stem in part from underlying attentional biases to threat. Consistent with this, studies have found that the attentional bias to threat-related stimuli is greater in high vs. low anxious individuals. Nevertheless, it is not clear if similar biases exist for different threatening emotions or for any facial emotional stimulus. In the present study, we used eye-tracking to measure orienting and maintenance of attention to faces displaying anger, fear and disgust as threats, and faces displaying happiness and sadness. Using a free viewing task, we examined differences between low and high trait anxious (HTA) individuals in the attention they paid to each of these emotional faces (paired with a neutral face). We found that initial orienting was faster for angry and happy faces, and high trait anxious participants were more vigilant to fearful and disgust faces. Our results for attentional maintenance were not consistent. The results of the present study suggest that attentional processes may be more emotion-specific than previously believed. Our results suggest that attentional processes for different threatening emotions may not be the same and that attentional processes for some negative and some positive emotions may be similar. PMID:25107319

  4. Rapid eye movement-sleep is reduced in patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis—an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Alamili, Mahdi; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Sleep disturbances are commonly found in patients in the postoperative period. Sleep disturbances may give rise to several complications including cardiopulmonary instability, transient cognitive dysfunction and prolonged convalescence. Many factors including host inflammatory responses are believed to cause postoperative sleep disturbances, as inflammatory responses can alter sleep architecture through cytokine-brain interactions. Our aim was to investigate alteration of sleep architecture during acute infection and its relationships to inflammation and clinical symptoms. Materials & Methods. In this observational study, we included patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as a model to investigate the isolated effects of inflammatory responses on sleep. Eleven patients completed the study. Patients were admitted and treated with antibiotics for two nights, during which study endpoints were measured by polysomnography recordings, self-reported discomfort scores and blood samples of cytokines. One month later, the patients, who now were in complete remission, were readmitted and the endpoints were re-measured (the baseline values). Results. Total sleep time was reduced 4% and 7% the first (p = 0.006) and second (p = 0.014) nights of diverticulitis, compared to baseline, respectively. The rapid eye movement sleep was reduced 33% the first night (p = 0.016), compared to baseline. Moreover, plasma IL-6 levels were correlated to non-rapid eye movement sleep, rapid eye movement sleep and fatigue. Conclusion. Total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep were reduced during nights with active diverticulitis and correlated with markers of inflammation. PMID:26290799

  5. A Monte Carlo study on the effect of the orbital bone to the radiation dose delivered to the eye lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratis, Andreas; Zhang, Guozhi; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Bogaerts, Ria; Bosmans, Hilde

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of backscatter radiation from the orbital bone and the intraorbital fat on the eye lens dose in the dental CBCT energy range. To this end we conducted three different yet interrelated studies; A preliminary simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of a bony layer situated underneath a soft tissue layer on the amount of backscatter radiation. We compared the Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves in soft tissue with and without the bone layer and we estimated the depth in tissue where the decrease in backscatter caused by the presence of the bone is noticeable. In a supplementary study, an eye voxel phantom was designed with the DOSxyznrc code. Simulations were performed exposing the phantom at different x-ray energies sequentially in air, in fat tissue and in realistic anatomy with the incident beam perpendicular to the phantom. Finally, a virtual head phantom was implemented into a validated hybrid Monte Carlo (MC) framework to simulate a large Field of View protocol of a real CBCT scanner and examine the influence of scattered dose to the eye lens during the whole rotation of the paired tube-detector system. The results indicated an increase in the dose to the lens due to the fatty tissue in the surrounding anatomy. There is a noticeable dose reduction close to the bone-tissue interface which weakens with increasing distance from the interface, such that the impact of the orbital bone in the eye lens dose becomes small.

  6. Frequency and nature of spontaneous age-related eye lesions observed in a 2-year inhalation toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Wegener, A; Kaegler, M; Stinn, W

    2002-01-01

    A group of 160 Wistar rats (both sexes) from a larger chronic inhalation toxicity study was monitored at baseline and after 1 and 2 years with a photo-slitlamp microscope and a direct ophthalmoscope to record spontaneous age-related eye lesions and treatment-related eye lesions over a period of 24 months. A second group from the same study was monitored at the start and after 5 months of a 6-month posttreatment period immediately following the inhalation period. Rats were nose-only exposed for 6 h/day, 7 days/week, for 2 years to low (3 microg/l) or high (10 microg/l) total particulate matter concentrations of room-aged cigarette sidestream smoke (RASS) or diesel engine exhaust (DEE). Control animals were exposed to filtered fresh air. All ophthalmological examinations were performed in mydriasis, and relevant observations were documented on color slide film. At baseline, all animals with eye lesions were excluded from the study. After 1 year, only minor lesions were found: retrolental opacities (14%) and a few cases of corneal dryness with reddish lid margins. After 2 years, 23% of the animals had unilateral or bilateral retrolental opacities, but the most frequent eye lesions were posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSC, 32%). Water clefts and spokes were found in 11% of the lenses and mature cataracts in 6%. All other eye lesions observed were much less frequent. There were a few cases of glaucoma, corneal dryness and stromal neovascularization. The frequency and type of lesion in animals monitored from the start of the posttreatment period was comparable to what was seen after 2 years. Toward the end of this period the frequency of mature cataracts went up to 9% and that of (secondary) glaucomas to 5%. None of the eye lesions observed showed any association in frequency or severity of expression to the treatment, either RASS or DEE, or to the sex of the animals. In comparison to the (limited) literature data available, far fewer corneal lesions were found in this

  7. Role of muscle pulleys in producing eye position-dependence in the angular vestibuloocular reflex: a model-based study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurtell, M. J.; Kunin, M.; Raphan, T.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that the head and eye velocity axes do not always align during compensatory vestibular slow phases. It has been shown that the eye velocity axis systematically tilts away from the head velocity axis in a manner that is dependent on eye-in-head position. The mechanisms responsible for producing these axis tilts are unclear. In this model-based study, we aimed to determine whether muscle pulleys could be involved in bringing about these phenomena. The model presented incorporates semicircular canals, central vestibular pathways, and an ocular motor plant with pulleys. The pulleys were modeled so that they brought about a rotation of the torque axes of the extraocular muscles that was a fraction of the angle of eye deviation from primary position. The degree to which the pulleys rotated the torque axes was altered by means of a pulley coefficient. Model input was head velocity and initial eye position data from passive and active yaw head impulses with fixation at 0 degrees, 20 degrees up and 20 degrees down, obtained from a previous experiment. The optimal pulley coefficient required to fit the data was determined by calculating the mean square error between data and model predictions of torsional eye velocity. For active head impulses, the optimal pulley coefficient varied considerably between subjects. The median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.5, the pulley coefficient required for producing saccades that perfectly obey Listing's law when using a two-dimensional saccadic pulse signal. The model predicted the direction of the axis tilts observed in response to passive head impulses from 50 ms after onset. During passive head impulses, the median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.21, when roll gain was fixed at 0.7. The model did not accurately predict the alignment of the eye and head velocity axes that was observed early in the response to passive head impulses. We found that this alignment could be well predicted if

  8. Development and Validation of a Reading-Related Assessment Battery in Malay for the Purpose of Dyslexia Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah

    2008-01-01

    Malay is an alphabetic language with transparent orthography. A Malay reading-related assessment battery which was conceptualised based on the International Dyslexia Association definition of dyslexia was developed and validated for the purpose of dyslexia assessment. The battery consisted of ten tests: Letter Naming, Word Reading, Non-word…

  9. Analysis of Malay Word Structure by Pre-Service Special Education Teachers: Foundation-Level Knowledge for Remedial Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min

    2014-01-01

    Pre-service special educators' Malay word structure knowledge was assessed through their analysis of words. A total of 69 participants analysed a vocabulary list based on a set of criteria formulated from the Malay language word structure. Results indicated that they were able to count syllables and phonemes, and identify types of…

  10. Malagasy Genetic Ancestry Comes from an Historical Malay Trading Post in Southeast Borneo.

    PubMed

    Brucato, Nicolas; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Cox, Murray P; Pierron, Denis; Purnomo, Gludhug A; Adelaar, Alexander; Kivisild, Toomas; Letellier, Thierry; Sudoyo, Herawati; Ricaut, François-Xavier

    2016-09-01

    Malagasy genetic diversity results from an exceptional protoglobalization process that took place over a thousand years ago across the Indian Ocean. Previous efforts to locate the Asian origin of Malagasy highlighted Borneo broadly as a potential source, but so far no firm source populations were identified. Here, we have generated genome-wide data from two Southeast Borneo populations, the Banjar and the Ngaju, together with published data from populations across the Indian Ocean region. We find strong support for an origin of the Asian ancestry of Malagasy among the Banjar. This group emerged from the long-standing presence of a Malay Empire trading post in Southeast Borneo, which favored admixture between the Malay and an autochthonous Borneo group, the Ma'anyan. Reconciling genetic, historical, and linguistic data, we show that the Banjar, in Malay-led voyages, were the most probable Asian source among the analyzed groups in the founding of the Malagasy gene pool. PMID:27381999

  11. Structure and anti-structure in the culture-bound syndromes: The Malay case.

    PubMed

    Lee, R L

    1981-09-01

    Turner's concepts of structure and anti-structure are applied to the culture-bound syndromes to demonstrate that they are dialectical aspects of cultural reality, The Malay cases of amok, latah and possession hysteria are discussed as instances of anti-structural behaviors that dramatize role-reversals and role-enhancement. The performers of these behaviors are not subjected to the Malay code of moral conduct. The supernatural ethos in Malay culture plays an important role in shaping tolerance towards them. Although this tolerance has been gradually eroded as a result of the introduction of Western psychiatry, the anti-structural status of these syndromes has not faded away but has assumed new meanings in terms of psychopathology. PMID:7318487

  12. Malagasy Genetic Ancestry Comes from an Historical Malay Trading Post in Southeast Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Brucato, Nicolas; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Cox, Murray P.; Pierron, Denis; Purnomo, Gludhug A.; Adelaar, Alexander; Kivisild, Toomas; Letellier, Thierry; Sudoyo, Herawati; Ricaut, François-Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Malagasy genetic diversity results from an exceptional protoglobalization process that took place over a thousand years ago across the Indian Ocean. Previous efforts to locate the Asian origin of Malagasy highlighted Borneo broadly as a potential source, but so far no firm source populations were identified. Here, we have generated genome-wide data from two Southeast Borneo populations, the Banjar and the Ngaju, together with published data from populations across the Indian Ocean region. We find strong support for an origin of the Asian ancestry of Malagasy among the Banjar. This group emerged from the long-standing presence of a Malay Empire trading post in Southeast Borneo, which favored admixture between the Malay and an autochthonous Borneo group, the Ma’anyan. Reconciling genetic, historical, and linguistic data, we show that the Banjar, in Malay-led voyages, were the most probable Asian source among the analyzed groups in the founding of the Malagasy gene pool. PMID:27381999

  13. Polarimetric Studies of Solar Light Scattered by Interplanetary Dust Particles and the Eye-Sat Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Lasue, J.

    2014-12-01

    Studying intensity and linear polarization of the solar light scattered by interplanetary dust is of interest for various reasons. This so-called zodiacal light constitutes a faint polarized glow that constitutes a changing foreground for observations of faint extended astronomical sources. Besides, analysis of its polarization provides information on properties of the dust particles, such as spatial density, morphology and complex refractive index. Previous observations, mostly from the Earth and with a resolution in the 10° range, have been used to infer that the local polarization at 90° phase angle increases with increasing solar distance. Numerical simulations suggest that, in the inner solar system, interplanetary dust particles consist of a mixture of absorbing and less absorbing materials, and that radial changes originate in a decrease of organic materials with decreasing solar distance under alteration or evaporation processes. To improve the quality of data on zodiacal light polarimetry, Eye-Sat nanosat is being developed in the context of the JANUS CNES cubesats program for students. The project is now in phase C-D, for a piggy-back launch in 2016. Eye-Sat triple cubesat is anticipated to demonstrate the feasibility of a series of new on-board technologies. Moreover, during its one-year mission, zodiacal light intensity and polarization are to be measured, for the first time with a spatial resolution of about 1° over a wide portion of the sky and in four different wavelengths (visible to near-IR), leading to a better assessment of interplanetary dust properties. Finally, a significant fraction of the interplanetary dust is estimated to come from comets, the most pristine objects to be found in the inner solar system. While similarities have indeed been noticed between polarimetric properties of interplanetary and cometary dust particles, the latter being currently extensively documented by the Rosetta mission to comet 67P

  14. Hyperopia and Lens Power in an Adult Population: The Shahroud Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, Rafael; Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Morgan, Ian G.; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the relationship between lens power and refractive error in older adults following age-related hyperopic shifts. Methods: From the Shahroud Eye Cohort Study, subjects aged 55-64 years without clinically significant cataracts (with nuclear opacity of grade 0 to 1) were included to maximize the proportion of subjects with age-related hyperopic shifts that normally occur between 40 to 60 years of age, before interference from the myopic shift due to nuclear cataracts. Mean axial length (AL) values, corneal power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and lens power were analyzed and compared among three refractive groups (myopes, emmetropes, and hyperopes). Results: A total of 1,006 subjects including 496 (49.63%) male subjects were studied. Corneal power was similar in all refractive groups. Hyperopes had + 1.69 diopters higher mean spherical equivalent refractive error and − 0.50 mm shorter AL than emmetropes. Myopes had 0.67 mm longer AL than emmetropes. Hyperopes had significantly increased lens thickness as compared to emmetropes (4.42 vs. 4.39 mm respectively). In this adult sample, the hyperopic group had lower lens power (+22.29 diopters vs. +22.54 diopters in emmetropes, P = 0.132). Myopes had similar lens power as emmetropes. Conclusion: Axial length is the principal determinant of refractive errors. Lens power may have importance in determining hyperopia in adults free of cataract. PMID:27051484

  15. A Time Study of Physicians’ Work in a German University Eye Hospital to Estimate Unit Costs

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jan; McCrone, Paul; Patel, Anita; Auber, Gerd; Reinhard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Technical efficiency of hospital services is debated since performance has been heterogeneous. Staff time represents the main resource in patient care and its inappropriate allocation has been identified as a key factor of inefficiency. The aim of this study was to analyse the utilisation of physicians’ work time stratified by staff groups, tasks and places of work. A further aim was to use these data to estimate resource use per unit of output. Methods A self-reporting work-sampling study was carried during 14-days at a University Eye Hospital. Staff costs of physicians per unit of output were calculated at the wards, the operating rooms and the outpatient unit. Results Forty per cent of total work time was spent in contact with the patient. Thirty per cent was spent with documentation tasks. Time spent with documentation tasks declined monotonically with increasing seniority of staff. Unit costs were 56 € per patient day at the wards, 77 € and 20 € per intervention at the operating rooms for inpatients and outpatients, respectively, and 33 € per contact at the outpatient unit. Substantial differences in resources directly dedicated to the patient were found between these locations. Conclusion The presented data provide unprecedented units costs in inpatient Ophthalmology. Future research should focus on analysing factors that influence differences in time allocation, such as types of patients, organisation of care processes and composition of staff. PMID:25803022

  16. Sensorimotor and linguistic information attenuate emotional word processing benefits: an eye-movement study.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Naveed A; Titone, Debra A

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have reported that emotional words are processed faster than neutral words, though emotional benefits may not depend solely on words' emotionality. Drawing on an embodied approach to representation, we examined interactions between emotional, sensorimotor, and linguistic sources of information for target words embedded in sentential contexts. Using eye-movement measures for 43 native English speakers, we observed emotional benefits for negative and positive words and sensorimotor benefits for words high in concreteness, but only when target words were low in frequency. Moreover, emotional words were maximally faster than neutral words when words were low in concreteness (i.e., highly abstract), and sensorimotor benefits occurred only when words were not emotionally charged (i.e., emotionally neutral). Furthermore, emotional and concreteness benefits were attenuated by individual differences that attenuate and amplify emotional and sensorimotor information, respectively. Our results suggest that behavior is functionally modulated by embodied information (i.e., emotional and sensorimotor) when linguistic contributions to representation are not enhanced by high frequency. Furthermore, emotional benefits are maximal when words are not already embodied by sensorimotor contributions to representation (and vice versa). Our work is consistent with recent studies that have suggested that abstract words are grounded in emotional experiences, analogous to how concrete words are grounded in sensorimotor experiences. PMID:23647453

  17. Subliminally Perceived Odours Modulate Female Intrasexual Competition: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Parma, Valentina; Tirindelli, Roberto; Bisazza, Angelo; Massaccesi, Stefano; Castiello, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that subliminal odorants influence human perception and behavior. It has been hypothesized that the human sex-steroid derived compound 4,16-androstadien-3-one (androstadienone) functions as a human chemosignal. The most intensively studied steroid compound, androstadienone is known to be biologically relevant since it seems to convey information about male mate quality to women. It is unclear if the effects of androstadienone are menstrual cycle related. Methodology/Principal Findings In the first experiment, heterosexual women were exposed to androstadienone or a control compound and asked to view stimuli such as female faces, male faces and familiar objects while their eye movements were recorded. In the second experiment the same women were asked to rate the level of stimuli attractiveness following exposure to the study or control compound. The results indicated that women at high conception risk spent more time viewing the female than the male faces regardless of the compound administered. Women at a low conception risk exhibited a preference for female faces only following exposure to androstadienone. Conclusions/Significance We contend that a woman's level of fertility influences her evaluation of potential competitors (e.g., faces of other women) during times critical for reproduction. Subliminally perceived odorants, such as androstadienone, might similarly enhance intrasexual competition strategies in women during fertility phases not critical for conception. These findings offer a substantial contribution to the current debate about the effects that subliminally perceived body odors might have on behavior. PMID:22383968

  18. Using Eye Movement Analysis to Study Auditory Effects on Visual Memory Recall

    PubMed Central

    Marandi, Ramtin Zargari; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojjat

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in affective computing are focused on sensing human cognitive context using biosignals. In this study, electrooculography (EOG) was utilized to investigate memory recall accessibility via eye movement patterns. 12 subjects were participated in our experiment wherein pictures from four categories were presented. Each category contained nine pictures of which three were presented twice and the rest were presented once only. Each picture presentation took five seconds with an adjoining three seconds interval. Similarly, this task was performed with new pictures together with related sounds. The task was free viewing and participants were not informed about the task's purpose. Using pattern recognition techniques, participants’ EOG signals in response to repeated and non-repeated pictures were classified for with and without sound stages. The method was validated with eight different participants. Recognition rate in “with sound” stage was significantly reduced as compared with “without sound” stage. The result demonstrated that the familiarity of visual-auditory stimuli can be detected from EOG signals and the auditory input potentially improves the visual recall process. PMID:25436085

  19. Posterior segment eye disease in sub-Saharan Africa: review of recent population-based studies

    PubMed Central

    Bastawrous, Andrew; Burgess, Philip I; Mahdi, Abdull M; Kyari, Fatima; Burton, Matthew J; Kuper, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the burden of posterior segment eye diseases (PSEDs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods We reviewed published population-based data from SSA and other relevant populations on the leading PSED, specifically glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, as causes of blindness and visual impairment in adults. Data were extracted from population-based studies conducted in SSA and elsewhere where relevant. Results PSEDs, when grouped or as individual diseases, are a major contributor to blindness and visual impairment in SSA. PSED, grouped together, was usually the second leading cause of blindness after cataract, ranging as a proportion of blindness from 13 to 37%. Conclusions PSEDs are likely to grow in importance as causes of visual impairment and blindness in SSA in the coming years as populations grow, age and become more urban in lifestyle. African-based cohort studies are required to help estimate present and future needs and plan services to prevent avoidable blindness. PMID:24479434

  20. Face in profile view reduces perceived facial expression intensity: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kun; Shaw, Heather

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies measuring the facial expressions of emotion have focused primarily on the perception of frontal face images. As we frequently encounter expressive faces from different viewing angles, having a mechanism which allows invariant expression perception would be advantageous to our social interactions. Although a couple of studies have indicated comparable expression categorization accuracy across viewpoints, it is unknown how perceived expression intensity and associated gaze behaviour change across viewing angles. Differences could arise because diagnostic cues from local facial features for decoding expressions could vary with viewpoints. Here we manipulated orientation of faces (frontal, mid-profile, and profile view) displaying six common facial expressions of emotion, and measured participants' expression categorization accuracy, perceived expression intensity and associated gaze patterns. In comparison with frontal faces, profile faces slightly reduced identification rates for disgust and sad expressions, but significantly decreased perceived intensity for all tested expressions. Although quantitatively viewpoint had expression-specific influence on the proportion of fixations directed at local facial features, the qualitative gaze distribution within facial features (e.g., the eyes tended to attract the highest proportion of fixations, followed by the nose and then the mouth region) was independent of viewpoint and expression type. Our results suggest that the viewpoint-invariant facial expression processing is categorical perception, which could be linked to a viewpoint-invariant holistic gaze strategy for extracting expressive facial cues. PMID:25531122

  1. Seven-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error among an elderly Chinese population in Shihpai, Taiwan: The Shihpai Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Kuang, T-M; Tsai, S-Y; Liu, C J-L; Ko, Y-C; Lee, S-M; Chou, P

    2016-04-01

    PurposeTo report the 7-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error in a metropolitan Chinese elderly population.MethodsThe Shihpai Eye Study 2006 included 460/824 (55.8%) subjects (age range 72-94 years old) of 1361 participants in the 1999 baseline survey for a follow-up eye examination. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen chart, uncorrected refractive error was defined as presenting visual acuity (naked eye if without spectacles and with distance spectacles if worn) in the better eye of <6/12 that improved to no impairment (≥6/12) after refractive correction.ResultsThe 7-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error was 10.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.6-13.4%). 92.7% of participants with uncorrection and 77.8% with undercorrection were able to improve at least two lines of visual acuity by refractive correction. In multivariate analysis controlling for covariates, uncorrected refractive error was significantly related to myopia (relative risk (RR): 3.15; 95% CI: 1.31-7.58) and living alone (RR: 2.94; 95% CI 1.14-7.53), whereas distance spectacles worn during examination was protective (RR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.14-0.88).ConclusionOur study indicated that the incidence of uncorrected refractive error was high (10.5%) in this elderly Chinese population. Living alone and myopia are predisposing factors, whereas wearing distance spectacles at examination is protective. PMID:26795416

  2. The Impact of Language Opacity and Proficiency on Reading Strategies in Bilinguals: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    de León Rodríguez, Diego; Buetler, Karin A.; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Laganaro, Marina; Nyffeler, Thomas; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Müri, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Reading strategies vary across languages according to orthographic depth – the complexity of the grapheme in relation to phoneme conversion rules – notably at the level of eye movement patterns. We recently demonstrated that a group of early bilinguals, who learned both languages equally under the age of seven, presented a first fixation location (FFL) closer to the beginning of words when reading in German as compared with French. Since German is known to be orthographically more transparent than French, this suggested that different strategies were being engaged depending on the orthographic depth of the used language. Opaque languages induce a global reading strategy, and transparent languages force a local/serial strategy. Thus, pseudo-words were processed using a local strategy in both languages, suggesting that the link between word forms and their lexical representation may also play a role in selecting a specific strategy. In order to test whether corresponding effects appear in late bilinguals with low proficiency in their second language (L2), we present a new study in which we recorded eye movements while two groups of late German–French and French–German bilinguals read aloud isolated French and German words and pseudo-words. Since, a transparent reading strategy is local and serial, with a high number of fixations per stimuli, and the level of the bilingual participants’ L2 is low, the impact of language opacity should be observed in L1. We therefore predicted a global reading strategy if the bilinguals’ L1 was French (FFL close to the middle of the stimuli with fewer fixations per stimuli) and a local and serial reading strategy if it was German. Thus, the L2 of each group, as well as pseudo-words, should also require a local and serial reading strategy. Our results confirmed these hypotheses, suggesting that global word processing is only achieved by bilinguals with an opaque L1 when reading in an opaque language; the low level in the L2

  3. The Impact of Language Opacity and Proficiency on Reading Strategies in Bilinguals: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    de León Rodríguez, Diego; Buetler, Karin A; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Laganaro, Marina; Nyffeler, Thomas; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Müri, René M

    2016-01-01

    Reading strategies vary across languages according to orthographic depth - the complexity of the grapheme in relation to phoneme conversion rules - notably at the level of eye movement patterns. We recently demonstrated that a group of early bilinguals, who learned both languages equally under the age of seven, presented a first fixation location (FFL) closer to the beginning of words when reading in German as compared with French. Since German is known to be orthographically more transparent than French, this suggested that different strategies were being engaged depending on the orthographic depth of the used language. Opaque languages induce a global reading strategy, and transparent languages force a local/serial strategy. Thus, pseudo-words were processed using a local strategy in both languages, suggesting that the link between word forms and their lexical representation may also play a role in selecting a specific strategy. In order to test whether corresponding effects appear in late bilinguals with low proficiency in their second language (L2), we present a new study in which we recorded eye movements while two groups of late German-French and French-German bilinguals read aloud isolated French and German words and pseudo-words. Since, a transparent reading strategy is local and serial, with a high number of fixations per stimuli, and the level of the bilingual participants' L2 is low, the impact of language opacity should be observed in L1. We therefore predicted a global reading strategy if the bilinguals' L1 was French (FFL close to the middle of the stimuli with fewer fixations per stimuli) and a local and serial reading strategy if it was German. Thus, the L2 of each group, as well as pseudo-words, should also require a local and serial reading strategy. Our results confirmed these hypotheses, suggesting that global word processing is only achieved by bilinguals with an opaque L1 when reading in an opaque language; the low level in the L2 gives way to

  4. Eye care infrastructure and human resources for managing diabetic retinopathy in India: The India 11-city 9-state study

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Clare E.; Babu, R. Giridhara; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Anchala, Raghupathy; Shukla, Rajan; Ballabh, Pant Hira; Vashist, Praveen; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Allagh, Komal; Sagar, Jayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Murthy, G. V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information on the availability of services for diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in India. Objectives: The study was undertaken to document existing healthcare infrastructure and practice patterns for managing DR. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 cities and included public and private eye care providers. Both multispecialty and stand-alone eye care facilities were included. Information was collected on the processes used in all steps of the program, from how diabetics were identified for screening through to policies about follow-up after treatment by administering a semistructured questionnaire and by using observational checklists. Results: A total of 86 eye units were included (31.4% multispecialty hospitals; 68.6% stand-alone clinics). The availability of a dedicated retina unit was reported by 68.6% (59) facilities. The mean number of outpatient consultations per year was 45,909 per responding facility, with nearly half being new registrations. A mean of 631 persons with sight-threatening-DR (ST-DR) were registered per year per facility. The commonest treatment for ST-DR was laser photocoagulation. Only 58% of the facilities reported having a full-time retina specialist on their rolls. More than half the eye care facilities (47; 54.6%) reported that their ophthalmologists would like further training in retina. Half (51.6%) of the facilities stated that they needed laser or surgical equipment. About 46.5% of the hospitals had a system to track patients needing treatment or for follow-up. Conclusions: The study highlighted existing gaps in service provision at eye care facilities in India. PMID:27144134

  5. A comparative study of Landsat TM and RapidEye imagery for two-stage impervious surface coverage estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernat, Katarzyna; Drzewiecki, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents accuracy comparison of sub-pixel classification based on medium resolution Landsat data and high resolution RapidEye satellite images, performed using machine learning algorithms built on decision and regression trees method (C.5.0 and Cubist). The research was conducted in southern Poland for the catchment of the Dobczyce Reservoir. The aim of the study was to obtain image of percentage impervious surface coverage and assess which data sets can be more applicable for the purpose of impervious surface coverage estimation. Imperviousness index map generation was a two-stage procedure. The first step was classification, which divided the study area into two categories: a) completely permeable (imperviousness index less than 1%) and b) fully or partially impervious areas. For pixels classified as impervious, the percentage of impervious surface coverage within a single pixel was estimated. Decision and regression trees models construction was done based on training data set derived from Landsat TM pixels as well as for fragments of RapidEye images corresponding to the same Landsat TM training pixels. In order to obtain imperviousness index maps with the minimum possible error we did the estimation of models accuracy based on the results of cross-validation. The approaches guaranteeing the lowest means errors in terms of training set using C5.0 and Cubist algorithm for Landsat and RapidEye images were selected. Accuracy of the final imperviousness index maps was checked based on validation data sets. The root mean square error of determination of the percentage of the impervious surfaces within a single Landsat pixel was 9.9% for C.5.0/Cubist method. However, the root mean square error specified for RapidEye test data was 7.2%. The study has shown that better results of two-stage imperiousness index map estimation using RapidEye satellite images can be obtained.

  6. Ultraviolet light exposure and lens opacities: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, K J; Klein, B E; Klein, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Exposure to sunlight may be a risk factor for the development of cataract. The relationships between exposure to sunlight and to the ultraviolet-B (UVB) component of light and the prevalence of lens opacities were examined in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. METHODS. Persons 43 to 84 years of age residing in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, were examined using standardized photographic assessments of lens opacities. A questionnaire about medical history and exposure to light was administered. RESULTS. After adjusting for other risk factors, men who had higher levels of average annual ambient UVB light were 1.36 times more likely to have more severe cortical opacities than men with lower levels. However, UVB exposure was not found to be associated with nuclear sclerosis or posterior subcapsular opacities in men. Moreover, no associations with UVB exposure were found for women, who were less likely to be exposed to UVB. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to UVB light may be associated with the severity of cortical opacities in men. However, the lack of an association in women, the group more likely to have cortical opacities, suggests that other factors may be more important in the pathogenesis of lens opacities. PMID:1456342

  7. Comprehension of Co-Speech Gestures in Aphasic Patients: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Noëmi; Preisig, Basil C.; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Vanbellingen, Tim; Nyffeler, Thomas; Gutbrod, Klemens; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-speech gestures are omnipresent and a crucial element of human interaction by facilitating language comprehension. However, it is unclear whether gestures also support language comprehension in aphasic patients. Using visual exploration behavior analysis, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of congruence between speech and co-speech gestures on comprehension in terms of accuracy in a decision task. Method Twenty aphasic patients and 30 healthy controls watched videos in which speech was either combined with meaningless (baseline condition), congruent, or incongruent gestures. Comprehension was assessed with a decision task, while remote eye-tracking allowed analysis of visual exploration. Results In aphasic patients, the incongruent condition resulted in a significant decrease of accuracy, while the congruent condition led to a significant increase in accuracy compared to baseline accuracy. In the control group, the incongruent condition resulted in a decrease in accuracy, while the congruent condition did not significantly increase the accuracy. Visual exploration analysis showed that patients fixated significantly less on the face and tended to fixate more on the gesturing hands compared to controls. Conclusion Co-speech gestures play an important role for aphasic patients as they modulate comprehension. Incongruent gestures evoke significant interference and deteriorate patients’ comprehension. In contrast, congruent gestures enhance comprehension in aphasic patients, which might be valuable for clinical and therapeutic purposes. PMID:26735917

  8. Consciousness and cortical responsiveness: a within-state study during non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Jaakko O; Gosseries, Olivia; Massimini, Marcello; Saad, Elyana; Sheldon, Andrew D; Boly, Melanie; Siclari, Francesca; Postle, Bradley R; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive-negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma. To avoid these confounding factors, we focused on NREM sleep only and measured TMS-evoked EEG responses before awakening the subjects and asking them if they had been conscious (dreaming) or not. As shown here, when subjects reported no conscious experience upon awakening, TMS evoked a larger negative deflection and a shorter phase-locked response compared to when they reported a dream. Moreover, the amplitude of the negative deflection-a hallmark of neuronal bistability according to intracranial studies-was inversely correlated with the length of the dream report (i.e., total word count). These findings suggest that variations in the level of consciousness within the same physiological state are associated with changes in the underlying bistability in cortical circuits. PMID:27491799

  9. The embodiment of emotional words in a second language: An eye-movement study.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Naveed A; Titone, Debra

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that word representations are emotionally impoverished in a second language (L2) has variable support. However, this hypothesis has only been tested using tasks that present words in isolation or that require laboratory-specific decisions. Here, we recorded eye movements for 34 bilinguals who read sentences in their L2 with no goal other than comprehension, and compared them to 43 first language readers taken from our prior study. Positive words were read more quickly than neutral words in the L2 across first-pass reading time measures. However, this emotional advantage was absent for negative words for the earliest measures. Moreover, negative words but not positive words were influenced by concreteness, frequency and L2 proficiency in a manner similar to neutral words. Taken together, the findings suggest that only negative words are at risk of emotional disembodiment during L2 reading, perhaps because a positivity bias in L2 experiences ensures that positive words are emotionally grounded. PMID:25786993

  10. Attentional processing of other's facial display of pain: an eye tracking study.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Prkachin, Kenneth M; Mueller, Sven C

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated the role of observer pain catastrophizing and personal pain experience as possible moderators of attention to varying levels of facial pain expression in others. Eye movements were recorded as a direct and continuous index of attention allocation in a sample of 35 undergraduate students while viewing slides presenting picture pairs consisting of a neutral face combined with either a low, moderate, or high expressive pain face. Initial orienting of attention was measured as latency and duration of first fixation to 1 of 2 target images (i.e., neutral face vs pain face). Attentional maintenance was measured by gaze duration. With respect to initial orienting to pain, findings indicated that participants reporting low catastrophizing directed their attention more quickly to pain faces than to neutral faces, with fixation becoming increasingly faster with increasing levels of facial pain expression. In comparison, participants reporting high levels of catastrophizing showed decreased tendency to initially orient to pain faces, fixating equally quickly on neutral and pain faces. Duration of the first fixation revealed no significant effects. With respect to attentional maintenance, participants reporting high catastrophizing and pain intensity demonstrated significantly longer gaze duration for all face types (neutral and pain expression), relative to low catastrophizing counterparts. Finally, independent of catastrophizing, higher reported pain intensity contributed to decreased attentional maintenance to pain faces vs neutral faces. Theoretical implications and further research directions are discussed. PMID:23561271

  11. Structure Modulates Similarity-Based Interference in Sluicing: An Eye Tracking study

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jesse A.

    2015-01-01

    In cue-based content-addressable approaches to memory, a target and its competitors are retrieved in parallel from memory via a fast, associative cue-matching procedure under a severely limited focus of attention. Such a parallel matching procedure could in principle ignore the serial order or hierarchical structure characteristic of linguistic relations. I present an eye tracking while reading experiment that investigates whether the sentential position of a potential antecedent modulates the strength of similarity-based interference, a well-studied effect in which increased similarity in features between a target and its competitors results in slower and less accurate retrieval overall. The manipulation trades on an independently established Locality bias in sluiced structures to associate a wh-remnant (which ones) in clausal ellipsis with the most local correlate (some wines), as in The tourists enjoyed some wines, but I don't know which ones. The findings generally support cue-based parsing models of sentence processing that are subject to similarity-based interference in retrieval, and provide additional support to the growing body of evidence that retrieval is sensitive to both the structural position of a target antecedent and its competitors, and the specificity or diagnosticity of retrieval cues. PMID:26733893

  12. Infant and adult perceptions of possible and impossible body movements: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N=14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old infants and adults spent more time looking at the elbows during impossible compared with possible arm movements, irrespective of the appearance of the actor. These results suggest that by 12 months of age, infants recognize biomechanical constraints on how arms move, and they extend this knowledge to humanoid robots. Adults exhibited more pupil dilation in response to the human's impossible arm movements compared with the possible ones, but 9- and 12-month-old infants showed no differential pupil dilation to the same actions. This finding suggests that the processing of human body movements might still be immature in 12-month-olds, as they did not show an emotional response to biomechanically impossible body movements. We discuss these findings in relation to the hypothesis that perception of others' body movements relies upon the infant's own sensorimotor experience. PMID:22906302

  13. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Hyönä, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers’ eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech. PMID:27003410

  14. Studies on activated cytostatic fluorouracil as photosensitizer: to use in eye tumor treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Carstocea, Benone D.; Brezeanu, Mihail; Voicu, Letitia; Staicu, Angela; Gazdaru, Doina M.; Pascu, Ruxandra A.

    2004-09-01

    Hydroxypyrimidine 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) belongs to the cytostatics group known as antimetabolites. The effect of UV irradiation on 5-FU was investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The study of the photosensitizer properties of 5-FU was made since their effects could be enhanced by exposure to UV radiation at different doses. Solutions 2.5x10-4M in natural saline water (0.8% NaCl), irradiated with optical beams emitted by N2 laser and UV Hg classic lamp, were used. The 5-FU was chosen due to its strong absorption along a large spectral range which makes possible the fluorescence excitation in UV. The absorption spectra exhibit bands between 250 - 450 nm. The emission fluorescence was measured in the 400-550 nm spectral range, with λex=320 and 350 nm for samples irradiated with Hg lamp and with λex=360 nm for samples irradiated with N2 laser. The excitation fluorescence was measured in the spectral range 200-400 nm, with λem=440 nm for samples irradiated with N2 laser. The spectra reveal a fluorescence enhancement with the exposure time, with a maximum at 3 min due to the transformation of 5-FU molecule into a fluorescent tautomeric form. The destruction more rapid than usual of the neovascularisation was observed for conjunctive of rabbit eyes, when they are impregnated with 5-FU solution and exposed to incoherent UV and visible light.

  15. Infants' perception of actions and situational constraints: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Birgit; Pfeifer, Caroline; Parker, Charlene; Hauf, Petra

    2013-10-01

    Rational action understanding requires that infants evaluate the efficiency of a movement in achieving a goal with respect to situational constraints. In contrast, recent accounts have highlighted the impact of perceptual characteristics of the demonstrated movement or constraints to explain infants' behavior in so-called rational imitation tasks. The current study employed eye tracking to investigate how 13- to 15-month-old infants distribute their visual attention to different aspects of an action demonstration. In three tasks (touchlight, house, and obstacle), infants watched videos in which a model performed an unusual action while she was or was not restricted by situational constraints. Infants' overall looking to the demonstration as well as looking to four segments of the video (initial segment, constraint demonstration, action performance, and final segment) and to specific areas (constraint area of interest [AOI] and action AOI) was analyzed. Overall, infants looked longer at the demonstration in the constraint condition compared with the no-constraint condition. The condition differences occurred in the two video segments where the constraint or action was displayed and were especially profound for the constraint AOI. These findings indicate that infants processed the situational constraints. However, the pattern of condition differences varied slightly in the three tasks. In sum, the data imply that infants process perceptual characteristics of the movement or constraints and that low-level perceptual processes interact with higher level cognitive processes in infants' action perception. PMID:23410481

  16. Novel Models for Studying the Blood-Brain and Blood-Eye Barriers in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pinsonneault, Robert L.; Mayer, Nasima; Mayer, Fahima; Tegegn, Nebiyu; Bainton, Roland J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary In species as varied as humans and flies, humoral/central nervous system barrier structures are a major obstacle to the passive penetration of small molecules including endogenous compounds, environmental toxins and drugs. In vivo measurement of blood brain physiologic function in vertebrate animal models is difficult and current ex vivo models for more rapid experimentation using, for example, cultured brain epithelial cells, only partially reconstitute the anatomy and physiology of a fully intact BBB. To address these problems, we and others continue to develop in vivo assays for studying the complex physiologic function of CNS barriers using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm). These methods involve the introduction of small molecule reporters of BBB physiology into the fly humoral compartment by direct injection. Since these reporters must cross the Dm BBB in order to be visible in the eye, we can directly assess genetic or chemical modulators of BBB function by monitoring retinal fluorescence. This assay has the advantage of utilizing a physiologically intact BBB in a model organism that is economical and highly amenable to genetic manipulation. In combination with other approaches outlined here, such as brain dissection and behavioral assessment, one can produce a fuller picture of BBB biology and physiology. In this chapter, we will provide detailed methods for examining BBB biology in the fly, including a Dm visual assay to screen for novel modulators of the BBB. PMID:21082381

  17. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    Hyönä, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers' eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech. PMID:27003410

  18. Association of ADIPOQ gene with obesity and adiponectin levels in Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Apalasamy, Yamunah Devi; Rampal, Sanjay; Salim, Agus; Moy, Foong Ming; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-05-01

    Studies have shown that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the ADIPOQ gene have been linked with obesity and with adiponectin levels in various populations. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of ADIPOQ rs17366568 and rs3774261 SNPs with obesity and with adiponectin levels in Malaysian Malays. Obesity parameters and adiponectin levels were measured in 574 subjects. Genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Sequenom MassARRAY. A significant genotypic association was observed between ADIPOQ rs17366568 and obesity. The frequencies of AG and AA genotypes were significantly higher in the obese group (11%) than in the non-obese group (5%) (P=0.024). The odds of A alleles occurring among the obese group were twice those among the non-obese group (odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval 1.13-4.09). However, no significant association was found between allelic frequencies of ADIPOQ rs17366568 and obesity after Bonferroni correction (P>0.025) or between ADIPOQ rs3774261 and obesity both at allelic and genotypic levels. ADIPOQ SNPs were not significantly associated with log-adiponectin levels. GA, GG, and AG haplotypes of the ADIPOQ gene were not associated with obesity. We confirmed the previously reported association of ADIPOQ rs17366568 with the risk of obesity. ADIPOQ SNPs are not important modulators of adiponectin levels in this population. PMID:24449366

  19. Prospect evaluation of shallow I-35 reservoir of NE Malay Basin offshore, Terengganu, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjua, Osama Akhtar; Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Rahman, M. Nasir B. A.

    2016-02-01

    A potential accumulation of hydrocarbon that describes significant and conceivable drilling target is related to prospect. Possibility of success estimation, assuming discovery of hydrocarbons and the potential recoverable quantities range under a commercial development program are the basis of Prospect evaluation activities. The objective was to find the new shallow prospects in reservoir sandstone of I -Formation in Malay basin. The prospects in the study area are mostly consisting of faulted structures and stratigraphic channels. The methodology follows seismic interpretation and mapping, attribute analysis, evaluation of nearby well data i.e., based on well - log correlation. The petrophysical parameters analogue to nearby wells was used as an input parameter for volumetric assessment. Based on analysis of presence and effectiveness, the prospect has a complete petroleum system. Two wells have been proposed to be drilled near the major fault and stratigraphic channel in I-35 reservoir that is O-1 and O-2 prospects respectively. The probability of geological success of prospect O-1 is at 35% while for O-2 is 24%. Finally, for hydrocarbon in place volumes were calculated which concluded the best estimate volume for oil in O-1 prospect is 4.99 MMSTB and O-2 prospect is 28.70 MMSTB while for gas is 29.27 BSCF and 25.59 BSCF respectively.

  20. [[Changes in population and households in a Malay village, 1971-1991

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Y

    1992-09-01

    "The Malay village of Galok in Kelantan was revisited [in]...1991 to investigate the changes in the population and households in the 20 years since the first intensive community study was conducted there in 1970/71. Major economic activities in 1970/71 were paddy cultivation in rain-fed fields, small scale rubber tapping, and newly introduced tobacco cultivation. The village's population increased from 690 in 1971 to 1,100 in 1991, and the number of households from 145 to 211. Despite the increase in population and households, the households cultivating paddy decreased from 71 to 36, those tapping rubber from 94 to 53, and those growing tobacco from 124 to 40, while regular employment, irregular wage labor in the surrounding areas, and temporary migratory work in Singapore increased remarkably. Many people moved out of the village and many others moved in. Though the former exceed the latter in number, the village population is still increasing owing to the high fertility...." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12157850

  1. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of Pont's index predictability for Malay population in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Shahid, Fazal; Purmal, Kathiravan; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, three-dimensional (3D) dental casts has a significant role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate Pont's index predictability in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: Premolar arch width, molar arch width and mesiodistal width of the maxillary incisors were measured three-dimensionally to assess shape of dental arches. The data source was cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) high volumetric data acquisitions from Malay ethnic background. Arch widths were measured and recorded from 53 subjects (32 male and 21 female with the mean age, 25.81), both the maxillary and mandibular arches, to obtain CBCT high volumetric data. All measurements were obtained through CBCT Planmeca Romexis TM Software 2.3.1.R (Helsinki, Finland). Results: Pont's formula overestimated the upper and lower interpremolar distance, with mean differences of 8.35 ± 3 mm and 12.02 ± 3.20 mm, respectively. Furthermore, the formula overestimated the upper and lower intermolar distance, with mean differences of 7.87 ± 3 mm and 16.14 ± 5.86 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that Pont's index is not practical for use with the Malaysian population since the index overestimated interpremolar and intermolar widths. This raises questions whether the index is a true predictor of arch width measurements. PMID:26604597

  2. Equivalence and practice effect of alternate forms for Malay version of Auditory Verbal Learning Test (MAVLT)

    PubMed Central

    Munjir, Norulsuhada; Othman, Zahiruddin; Zakaria, Rahimah; Shafin, Nazlahshaniza; Hussain, Noor Aini; Desa, Anisah Mat; Ahmad, Asma Hayati

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop two alternate forms for Malay version of Auditory Verbal Learning Test (MAVLT) and to determine their equivalency and practice effect. Ninety healthy volunteers were subjected to the following neuropsychological tests at baseline, and at one month interval according to their assigned group; group 1 (MAVLT - MAVLT), group 2 (MAVLT – Alternate Form 1 - Alternate Form 1), and group 3 (MAVLT - Alternate Form 2 - Alternate Form 2). There were no significant difference in the mean score of all the trials at baseline among the three groups, and most of the mean score of trials between MAVLT and Alternate Form 1, and between MAVLT and Alternate Form 2. There was significant improvement in the mean score of each trial when the same form was used repeatedly at the interval of one month. However, there was no significant improvement in the mean score of each trial when the Alternate Form 2 was used during repeated neuropsychological testing. The MAVLT is a reliable instrument for repeated neuropsychological testing as long as alternate forms are used. The Alternate Form 2 showed better equivalency to MAVLT and less practice effects. PMID:26600750

  3. Microtopography of the eye surface of the crab Carcinus maenas: an atomic force microscope study suggesting a possible antifouling potential.

    PubMed

    Greco, G; Lanero, T Svaldo; Torrassa, S; Young, R; Vassalli, M; Cavaliere, A; Rolandi, R; Pelucchi, E; Faimali, M; Davenport, J

    2013-07-01

    Marine biofouling causes problems for technologies based on the sea, including ships, power plants and marine sensors. Several antifouling techniques have been applied to marine sensors, but most of these methodologies are environmentally unfriendly or ineffective. Bioinspiration, seeking guidance from natural solutions, is a promising approach to antifouling. Here, the eye of the green crab Carcinus maenas was regarded as a marine sensor model and its surface characterized by means of atomic force microscopy. Engineered surface micro- and nanotopography is a new mechanism found to limit biofouling, promising an effective solution with much reduced environmental impact. Besides giving a new insight into the morphology of C. maenas eye and its characterization, our study indicates that the eye surface probably has antifouling/fouling-release potential. Furthermore, the topographical features of the surface may influence the wettability properties of the structure and its interaction with organic molecules. Results indicate that the eye surface micro- and nanotopography may lead to bioinspired solutions to antifouling protection. PMID:23635491

  4. Microtopography of the eye surface of the crab Carcinus maenas: an atomic force microscope study suggesting a possible antifouling potential

    PubMed Central

    Greco, G.; Lanero, T. Svaldo; Torrassa, S.; Young, R.; Vassalli, M.; Cavaliere, A.; Rolandi, R.; Pelucchi, E.; Faimali, M.; Davenport, J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine biofouling causes problems for technologies based on the sea, including ships, power plants and marine sensors. Several antifouling techniques have been applied to marine sensors, but most of these methodologies are environmentally unfriendly or ineffective. Bioinspiration, seeking guidance from natural solutions, is a promising approach to antifouling. Here, the eye of the green crab Carcinus maenas was regarded as a marine sensor model and its surface characterized by means of atomic force microscopy. Engineered surface micro- and nanotopography is a new mechanism found to limit biofouling, promising an effective solution with much reduced environmental impact. Besides giving a new insight into the morphology of C. maenas eye and its characterization, our study indicates that the eye surface probably has antifouling/fouling-release potential. Furthermore, the topographical features of the surface may influence the wettability properties of the structure and its interaction with organic molecules. Results indicate that the eye surface micro- and nanotopography may lead to bioinspired solutions to antifouling protection. PMID:23635491

  5. Risk of Flood-Related Diseases of Eyes, Skin and Gastrointestinal Tract in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ling-Ya; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Floods are known to cause serious environmental damage and health impacts. Studies on flood-related diseases have been primarily on individual events, and limited evidence could be drawn on potential health impacts from floods using large population data. This study used reimbursement records of one million people of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to compare incident diseases of the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with floods. Incidence rates for the selected diseases were calculated according to outpatient/emergency visit data. The incidence rates were evaluated by flood status: in 10 days before floods, during floods and within 10 days after the floods receded. Outpatient/emergency visit rates for the eye, skin and GI tract diseases were highest after floods and lowest during floods. Results from multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that, when compared with the incidence in 10 days before floods, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of diseases within 10 days after floods were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10–1.20) for eyes, 1.08 (95% C.I. = 1.05–1.10) for skin, and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08–1.14) for GI tract, after controlling for covariates. All risks increased with ambient temperature. V-shaped trends were found between age and eye diseases, and between age and GI tract diseases. In contrast, the risk of skin diseases increased with age. In conclusion, more diseases of eyes, skin and GI tract could be diagnosed after the flood. PMID:27171415

  6. Electron dose distributions caused by the contact-type metallic eye shield: Studies using Monte Carlo and pencil beam algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Hwang, Taejin; Park, Soah; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Han, Tae Jin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-01-01

    A metallic contact eye shield has sometimes been used for eyelid treatment, but dose distribution has never been reported for a patient case. This study aimed to show the shield-incorporated CT-based dose distribution using the Pinnacle system and Monte Carlo (MC) calculation for 3 patient cases. For the artifact-free CT scan, an acrylic shield machined as the same size as that of the tungsten shield was used. For the MC calculation, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc were used for the 6-MeV electron beam of the Varian 21EX, in which information for the tungsten, stainless steel, and aluminum material for the eye shield was used. The same plan was generated on the Pinnacle system and both were compared. The use of the acrylic shield produced clear CT images, enabling delineation of the regions of interest, and yielded CT-based dose calculation for the metallic shield. Both the MC and the Pinnacle systems showed a similar dose distribution downstream of the eye shield, reflecting the blocking effect of the metallic eye shield. The major difference between the MC and the Pinnacle results was the target eyelid dose upstream of the shield such that the Pinnacle system underestimated the dose by 19 to 28% and 11 to 18% for the maximum and the mean doses, respectively. The pattern of dose difference between the MC and the Pinnacle systems was similar to that in the previous phantom study. In conclusion, the metallic eye shield was successfully incorporated into the CT-based planning, and the accurate dose calculation requires MC simulation. PMID:25724475

  7. Risk of Flood-Related Diseases of Eyes, Skin and Gastrointestinal Tract in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling-Ya; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Floods are known to cause serious environmental damage and health impacts. Studies on flood-related diseases have been primarily on individual events, and limited evidence could be drawn on potential health impacts from floods using large population data. This study used reimbursement records of one million people of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to compare incident diseases of the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with floods. Incidence rates for the selected diseases were calculated according to outpatient/emergency visit data. The incidence rates were evaluated by flood status: in 10 days before floods, during floods and within 10 days after the floods receded. Outpatient/emergency visit rates for the eye, skin and GI tract diseases were highest after floods and lowest during floods. Results from multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that, when compared with the incidence in 10 days before floods, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of diseases within 10 days after floods were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.20) for eyes, 1.08 (95% C.I. = 1.05-1.10) for skin, and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08-1.14) for GI tract, after controlling for covariates. All risks increased with ambient temperature. V-shaped trends were found between age and eye diseases, and between age and GI tract diseases. In contrast, the risk of skin diseases increased with age. In conclusion, more diseases of eyes, skin and GI tract could be diagnosed after the flood. PMID:27171415

  8. Electron dose distributions caused by the contact-type metallic eye shield: Studies using Monte Carlo and pencil beam algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Hwang, Taejin; Park, Soah; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Jin Han, Tae; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Ju Kim, Kyoung Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-10-01

    A metallic contact eye shield has sometimes been used for eyelid treatment, but dose distribution has never been reported for a patient case. This study aimed to show the shield-incorporated CT-based dose distribution using the Pinnacle system and Monte Carlo (MC) calculation for 3 patient cases. For the artifact-free CT scan, an acrylic shield machined as the same size as that of the tungsten shield was used. For the MC calculation, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc were used for the 6-MeV electron beam of the Varian 21EX, in which information for the tungsten, stainless steel, and aluminum material for the eye shield was used. The same plan was generated on the Pinnacle system and both were compared. The use of the acrylic shield produced clear CT images, enabling delineation of the regions of interest, and yielded CT-based dose calculation for the metallic shield. Both the MC and the Pinnacle systems showed a similar dose distribution downstream of the eye shield, reflecting the blocking effect of the metallic eye shield. The major difference between the MC and the Pinnacle results was the target eyelid dose upstream of the shield such that the Pinnacle system underestimated the dose by 19 to 28% and 11 to 18% for the maximum and the mean doses, respectively. The pattern of dose difference between the MC and the Pinnacle systems was similar to that in the previous phantom study. In conclusion, the metallic eye shield was successfully incorporated into the CT-based planning, and the accurate dose calculation requires MC simulation.

  9. Genome-wide association studies of quantitatively measured skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in four European populations.

    PubMed

    Candille, Sophie I; Absher, Devin M; Beleza, Sandra; Bauchet, Marc; McEvoy, Brian; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Li, Jun Z; Myers, Richard M; Barsh, Gregory S; Tang, Hua; Shriver, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly stratified along axes of European genetic differentiation. The country of sampling explains approximately 35% of the variation in skin pigmentation, 31% of the variation in hair pigmentation, and 40% of the variation in eye pigmentation. All three quantitative phenotypes are correlated with each other. In our two-stage association study, we reproduce the association of rs1667394 at the OCA2/HERC2 locus with eye color but we do not identify new genetic determinants of skin and hair pigmentation supporting the lack of major genes affecting skin and hair color variation within Europe and suggesting that not only careful phenotyping but also larger cohorts are required to understand the genetic architecture of these complex quantitative traits. Interestingly, we also see that in each of these four populations, men are more lightly pigmented in the unexposed skin of the inner arm than women, a fact that is underappreciated and may vary across the world. PMID:23118974

  10. A summary report of the COLIPA international validation study on alternatives to the draize rabbit eye irritation test.

    PubMed

    Brantom, P G; Bruner, L H; Chamberlain, M; De Silva, O; Dupuis, J; Earl, L K; Lovell, D P; Pape, W J; Uttley, M; Bagley, D M; Baker, F W; Bracher, M; Courtellemont, P; Declercq, L; Freeman, S; Steiling, W; Walker, A P; Carr, G J; Dami, N; Thomas, G; Harbell, J; Jones, P A; Pfannenbecker, U; Southee, J A; Tcheng, M; Argembeaux, H; Castelli, D; Clothier, R; Esdaile, D J; Itigaki, H; Jung, K; Kasai, Y; Kojima, H; Kristen, U; Larnicol, M; Lewis, R W; Marenus, K; Moreno, O; Peterson, A; Rasmussen, E S; Robles, C; Stern, M

    1997-01-01

    The principal goal of this study was to determine whether the results from a set of selected currently available alternative methods as used by cosmetics companies are valid for predicting the eye irritation potential of cosmetics formulations and ingredients and, as a consequence, could be valid replacements for the Draize eye irritation test. For the first time in a validation study, prediction models (PMs) that convert the in vitro data from an assay to a prediction of eye irritation were developed for each alternative method before the study began. The PM is an unequivocal description of the relationship between the in vitro and the in vivo data and allows an objective assessment of the reliability and relevance of the alternative methods. In this study, 10 alternative methods were evaluated using 55 test substances selected as representative of substances commonly used in the cosmetics industry (23 ingredients and 32 formulations). Twenty of the single ingredients were common to the European Commission/British Home Office (EC/HO) eye irritation validation study (Balls et al., 1995b). The test substances were coded and supplied to the participating laboratories. The results were collected centrally and analysed independently, using statistical methods that had been agreed before the testing phase began. Each alternative method was then evaluated for reliability and relevance in assessing eye irritation potential. Using the criteria of both reliability and relevance as defined in the study, the preliminary results indicate that none of the alternative methods evaluated could be confirmed as a valid replacement for the Draize eye irritation test across the full irritation scale. However, three alternative methods-the fluorescein leakage test, the red blood cell assay (classification model) and the tissue equivalent assay-each satisfied one criterion of reliability or relevance. Further investigation of the decoded data from this study to explore more fully the

  11. Location and composition of haptics of posterior chamber intraocular lenses. Histopathologic study of postmortem eyes.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, P J; Champion, R; Green, W R

    1987-02-01

    Of 110 eyes with posterior chamber intraocular lenses (IOLs) examined postmortem, 37% had both haptics outside of the capsular bag; 57% had one haptic in the capsular bag and the other haptic outside of the bag. Typically, these optics were decentered by 1 to 2 mm. Only six eyes (5%) had both haptics within the capsular bag. Erosion into the ciliary sulcus produced obliteration of the major arterial circle of the iris in 12 eyes (11%). The local tissue response to eroding haptics was similar for haptics composed of polypropylene and haptics composed of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The authors found considerable discrepancy between the actual location of haptics and the surgeon's desired location (i.e., capsular bag or ciliary sulcus). Most of these cases were clinically successful. PMID:3574878

  12. Spatial interference between gaze direction and gaze location: a study on the eye contact effect.

    PubMed

    Cañadas, Elena; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Perceived gaze in faces is an important social cue that influences spatial orienting of attention. In three experiments, we examined whether the social relevance of gaze direction modulated spatial interference in response selection, using three different stimuli: faces, isolated eyes, and symbolic eyes (Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Each experiment employed a variant of the spatial Stroop paradigm in which face location and gaze direction were put into conflict. Results showed a reverse congruency effect between face location to the right or left of fixation and gaze direction only for stimuli with a social meaning to participants (Experiments 1 and 2). The opposite was observed for the nonsocial stimuli used in Experiment 3. Results are explained as facilitation in response to eye contact. PMID:22530703

  13. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training and Jobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  14. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD Mar. 01, 2015 Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that occurs when the ... with tearing and burning. Unlike bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis is not spread from person to ...

  15. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and there is a good chance of recovery. Alkaline substances -- such as lime, lye, drain cleaners, and ... at high speed by machining, grinding, or hammering metal have the highest risk of injuring the eye. ...

  16. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  17. Black Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aug 30, 2016 Toddlers Most at Risk of Chemical Burns to Eyes Aug 26, 2016 Firework Blinds Teenager, Severs Hand Jun 29, ... at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  18. Relation of smoking to the incidence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Klein, R; Klein, B E; Moss, S E

    1998-01-15

    To date, a number of reports have been published on the relation of cigarette smoking to age-related maculopathy, an important cause of blindness in the United States. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking and the incidence of age-related maculopathy. In this report, the authors examine this association in persons aged 43-86 years (n = 3,583) at baseline who were participants in the baseline examination and 5-year follow-up of the Beaver Dam Eye Study, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin (1988-1990 and 1993-1995). Exposure data on cigarette smoking were obtained from questions about present and past smoking, duration of smoking, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Age-related maculopathy status was determined by grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System. After controlling for age, sex, vitamin supplement use, and beer consumption, men who smoked greater amounts of cigarettes were more likely to develop early age-related maculopathy (odds ratio (OR) per 10 pack-years smoked = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.13, p = 0.06) than men who had smoked less. This association was not observed in women. Men (OR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.09-9.45) and women (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.04-4.66) who were current smokers at the time of the baseline examination had significantly higher odds of developing large drusen (> or = 250 microns in diameter) after 5 years than those who had never smoked or who quit before the baseline study. Current or past history of cigarette smoking was not related to the incidence of retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation. The authors conclude that smoking appears to be related to the incidence of some lesions associated with early age-related maculopathy. PMID:9456998

  19. Visual Attention to Emotional Face in Schizophrenia: An Eye Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Asgharpour, Mania; Ahmadi, Mehrnoosh; Moshki, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Deficits in the processing of facial emotions have been reported extensively in patients with schizophrenia. To explore whether restricted attention is the cause of impaired emotion processing in these patients, we examined visual attention through tracking eye movements in response to emotional and neutral face stimuli in a group of patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. We also examined the correlation between visual attention allocation and symptoms severity in our patient group. Method: Thirty adult patients with schizophrenia and 30 matched healthy controls participated in this study. Visual attention data were recorded while participants passively viewed emotional-neutral face pairs for 500 ms. The relationship between the visual attention and symptoms severity were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in the schizophrenia group. Repeated Measures ANOVAs were used to compare the groups. Results: Comparing the number of fixations made during face-pairs presentation, we found that patients with schizophrenia made fewer fixations on faces, regardless of the expression of the face. Analysis of the number of fixations on negative-neutral pairs also revealed that the patients made fewer fixations on both neutral and negative faces. Analysis of number of fixations on positive-neutral pairs only showed more fixations on positive relative to neutral expressions in both groups. We found no correlations between visual attention pattern to faces and symptom severity in schizophrenic patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the facial recognition deficit in schizophrenia is related to decreased attention to face stimuli. Finding of no difference in visual attention for positive-neutral face pairs between the groups is in line with studies that have shown increased ability to positive emotional perception in these patients. PMID:26005475

  20. Corneal Epithelial Immune Dendritic Cell Alterations in Subtypes of Dry Eye Disease: A Pilot In Vivo Confocal Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Rahimi Darabad, Raheleh; Cruzat, Andrea; Hajrasouliha, Amir Reza; Witkin, Deborah; Wong, Nadia; Dana, Reza; Hamrah, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate density and morphology of corneal epithelial immune dendritic cells (DCs) in different subtypes of dry eye disease (DED) using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods This retrospective study included 59 eyes of 37 patients with DED and 40 eyes of 20 age-matched healthy controls. Based on clinical tests, eyes with DED were categorized into two subtypes: aqueous-deficient (n = 35) and evaporative (n = 24). For all subjects, images of laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) of the central cornea were analyzed for DC density and DC morphology (DC size, number of dendrites, and DC field). These DC parameters were compared among all dry eye and control groups. Results Compared with the controls, patients with DED had significantly higher DC density, larger DC size, higher number of dendrites, and larger DC field (all P < 0.001). Comparison between aqueous-deficient and evaporative subtypes demonstrated that DC density was significantly higher in aqueous-deficient subtype (189.8 ± 36.9 vs. 58.9 ± 9.4 cells/mm2, P = 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in morphologic parameters between DED subtypes. When aqueous-deficient DED with underlying systemic immune disease (Sjögren's syndrome and graft versus host disease) were compared with nonimmune conditions, the immunologic subgroup showed significantly higher DC density, DC size, and number of dendrites (all P < 0.05). Conclusions Corneal IVCM demonstrated differential changes in DC density and morphologic DC parameters between subtypes of DED. These changes, which reflect the degree of immune activation and inflammation in DED, can be used for clinical practice and endpoints in clinical trials. PMID:26540656

  1. Aging and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Eyes Heath and Aging Aging and Your Eyes Steps to Protect Your Eyesight Common Eye Problems ... weight can also help protect your vision. Common Eye Problems The following common eye problems can be ...

  2. A pilot study to evaluate incorporating eye care for children into reproductive and child health services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: a historical comparison study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many blinding eye conditions of childhood are preventable or treatable, particularly in developing countries. However, primary eye care (PEC) for children is poorly developed, leading to unnecessary visual loss. Activities for control by health workers entail interventions for systemic conditions (measles, vitamin A deficiency), identification and referral of children with sight threatening conditions and health education for caregivers. This pilot study evaluated integrating a package of activities to promote child eye health into Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Design: historical comparison study. Fifteen Clinical Officers and 15 nurses in 15 randomly selected RCH clinics were trained in PEC for children in July 2010. They were given educational materials (poster and manual) and their supervisors were orientated. Knowledge and practices were assessed before and 3 weeks after training. One year later their knowledge and practices were compared with a different group of 15 Clinical Officers and 15 nurses who had not been trained. Results Before training staff had insufficient knowledge to identify, treat and refer children with eye diseases, even conjunctivitis. Some recommended harmful practices or did not know that cataract requires urgent referral. Eye examination, vitamin A supplementation of mothers after delivery and cleaning the eyes at birth with instillation of antibiotics (Crede’s prophylaxis) were not routine, and there were no eye-specific educational materials. Three weeks after training several clinics delivering babies started Crede’s prophylaxis, vitamin A supplementation of women after delivery increased from 83.7% to 100%, and all staff included eye conditions in health education sessions. At one year, trained staff were more likely to correctly describe, diagnose and treat conjunctivitis (z=2.34, p=0.04)(30%-vs-60.7%). Mystery mothers observed health education sessions in 7/10 RCH

  3. Desired and Undesired Effects of Energy Labels--An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Waechter, Signe; Sütterlin, Bernadette; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Saving energy is an important pillar for the mitigation of climate change. Electric devices (e.g., freezer and television) are an important player in the residential sector in the final demand for energy. Consumers' purchase decisions are therefore crucial to successfully reach the energy-efficiency goals. Putting energy labels on products is often considered an adequate way of empowering consumers to make informed purchase decisions. Consequently, this approach should contribute to reducing overall energy consumption. The effectiveness of its measurement depends on consumers' use and interpretation of the information provided. Despite advances in energy efficiency and a mandatory labeling policy, final energy consumption per capita is in many countries still increasing. This paper provides a systematic analysis of consumers' reactions to one of the most widely used eco-labels, the European Union (EU) energy label, by using eye-tracking methodology as an objective measurement. The study's results partially support the EU's mandatory policy, showing that the energy label triggers attention toward energy information in general. However, the energy label's effect on consumers' actual product choices seems to be rather low. The study's results show that the currently used presentation format on the label is insufficient. The findings suggest that it does not facilitate the integration of energy-related information. Furthermore, the current format can attract consumers to focus more on energy-efficiency information, leading them to disregard information about actual energy consumption. As a result, the final energy consumption may increase because excellent ratings on energy efficiency (e.g., A++) do not automatically imply little consumption. Finally, implications for policymakers and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:26231028

  4. Visual acuity and associated factors. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    PubMed

    Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B; Sinha, Ajit; Gupta, Rajesh; Agarwal, Shubhra

    2011-01-01

    Visual acuity is a major parameter for quality of vision and quality of life. Information on visual acuity and its associated factors in rural societies almost untouched by any industrialization is mostly non-available. It was, therefore, the purpose of our study to determine the distribution of visual acuity and its associated factors in a rural population not marked influenced by modern lifestyle. The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years), who underwent a detailed ophthalmologic examination including visual acuity measurement. Visual acuity measurements were available for 4706 subjects with a mean age of 49.5±13.4 years (range: 30-100 years). BCVA decreased significantly (P<0.001) from the moderately hyperopic group (0.08±0.15 logMAR) to the emmetropic group (0.16±0.52 logMAR), the moderately myopic group (0.28±0.33 logMAR), the highly hyperopic group (0.66±0.62 logMAR) and finally the highly myopic group (1.32±0.92 logMAR). In multivariate analysis, BCVA was significantly associated with the systemic parameters of lower age (P<0.001), higher level of education (P<0.001), higher body stature (P<0.001) and higher body mass index (P<0.001), and with the ophthalmic parameters of more hyperopic refractive error (spherical equivalent) (P<0.001), shorter axial length (P<0.001), lower degree of nuclear cataract (P<0.001), and lower intraocular pressure (P = 0.006). The results suggest that in the rural population of Central India, major determinants of visual acuity were socioeconomic background, body stature and body mass index, age, refractive error, cataract and intraocular pressure. PMID:21829503

  5. Link between interplanetary & cometary dust: Polarimetric observations and space studies with Rosetta & Eye-Sat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Gaboriaud, Alain; Buil, Christian; Ressouche, Antoine; Lasue, J.; Palun, Adrien; Apper, Fabien; Elmaleh, Marc

    Intensity and linear polarization observations of the solar light scattered by interplanetary dust, the so-called zodiacal light, provide information on properties of the dust particles, such as their spatial density, local changes, morphology and albedo. Earth-based polarimetric observations, with a resolution of 5° or more, have been used to derive the polarization phase curve of interplanetary dust particles and to establish that the polarization at 90° phase angle increases with increasing solar distance, at least up to 1.5 au in the ecliptic, while the albedo decreases [1, 2]. Analysis of such studies will be revisited. Numerical simulations of the polarimetric behavior of interplanetary dust particles strongly suggest that, in the inner solar system, interplanetary dust particles consist of absorbing (e.g., organic compounds) and less absorbing (e.g., silicates) materials, that radial changes originate in a decrease of organics with decreasing solar distance (probably due to alteration processes), and that a significant fraction of the interplanetary dust is of cometary origin, in agreement with dynamical studies [3, 4]. The polarimetric behaviors of interplanetary dust and cometary dust particles seem to present striking similarities. The properties of cometary dust particles, as derived from remote polarimetric observations of comets including 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the target of the Rosetta rendezvous mission, at various wavelengths, will be summarized [5, 6]. The ground truth expected from Rosetta dust experiments, i.e., MIDAS, COSIMA, GIADA, about dust particles’ morphology, composition, and evolution (with distance to the nucleus before Philae release and with distance to the Sun before and after perihelion passage) over the year and a half of nominal mission, will be discussed. Finally, the Eye-Sat nanosatellite will be presented. This triple cubesat, developed by students from engineering schools working as interns at CNES, is to be launched

  6. Age Differences in Online Processing of Video: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Keen, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements were recorded while sixty-two 1-year-olds, 4-year-olds, and adults watched television. Of interest was the extent to which viewers looked at the same place at the same time as their peers because high similarity across viewers suggests systematic viewing driven by comprehension processes. Similarity of gaze location increased with…

  7. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio M.; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications. PMID:27200376

  8. Effects of Saccadic Bilateral Eye Movements on Memory in Children and Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on true and false memory in adults and children were investigated. Both adults and children encoded lists of associated words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm followed by a test of recognition memory. Just prior to retrieval, participants were asked to engage in 30 s of bilateral…

  9. NIH Study Provides Clarity on Supplements for Protection Against Blinding Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov . NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® References AREDS2 Research Group. “Lutein/Zeaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The Age-Related Eye Disease ...

  10. Effects of chondroitin sulfate on trabecular meshwork in rabbit eyes: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Fei, P F; Yue, B Y; Tso, M O

    1984-11-01

    The intraocular pressure of four New Zealand albino rabbit eyes was elevated when we replaced the aqueous humor of these eyes repeatedly with a chondroitin sulfate solution. Seen by electron microscopy, the trabecular meshwork of these eyes showed moderately increased collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and fine fibrils, and thickening of basement membrane. The amount of extracellular material present was markedly increased when compared with control eyes. Three types of basement membranes were noted. Compact multilaminated basement membrane and placoid accumulations of filamentous material with a granular background were found adjacent to the endothelial cells of the trabecular meshwork, and fine fibrils were observed around the angular aqueous veins. The ultrastructural alterations we observed were similar to those seen in some human glaucoma cases. The metabolism of trabecular meshwork cells may be affected by the long-term chondroitin sulfate treatment. As a result, extracellular matrix material appears to be accumulated in the trabecular meshwork, which may then contribute to an increased outflow resistance and a mild intraocular pressure elevation. PMID:6440803

  11. Hidden Communicative Competence: Case Study Evidence Using Eye-Tracking and Video Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Andrew; Emerson, Anne; Howard-Jones, Patricia; O'Neil, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    A facilitated communication (FC) user with an autism spectrum disorder produced sophisticated texts by pointing, with physical support, to letters on a letterboard while their eyes were tracked and while their pointing movements were video recorded. This FC user has virtually no independent means of expression, and is held to have no literacy…

  12. Eye-Movement Patterns of Readers with Down Syndrome during Sentence-Processing: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl; Zardan, Nathalie; Colas, Annie; Ghio, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Eye movements were examined to determine how readers with Down syndrome process sentences online. Participants were 9 individuals with Down syndrome ranging in reading level from Grades 1 to 3 and a reading-level-matched control group. For syntactically simple sentences, the pattern of reading times was similar for the two groups, with longer…

  13. How Young Children View Mathematical Representations: A Study Using Eye-Tracking Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, David; Barmby, Patrick; Raine, Stephanie; Gardner, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that mathematical representations can aid children's understanding of mathematical concepts but that children can sometimes have difficulty in interpreting them correctly. New advances in eye-tracking technology can help in this respect because it allows data to be gathered concerning children's focus of…

  14. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Fea, Antonio M; Aragno, Vittoria; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications. PMID:27200376

  15. Semantic Preview Benefit in Eye Movements during Reading: A Parafoveal Fast-Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenstein, Sven; Laubrock, Jochen; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2010-01-01

    Eye movements in reading are sensitive to foveal and parafoveal word features. Whereas the influence of orthographic or phonological parafoveal information on gaze control is undisputed, there has been no reliable evidence for early parafoveal extraction of semantic information in alphabetic script. Using a novel combination of the gaze-contingent…

  16. Measurement of nicotine withdrawal symptoms: linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) in Malay

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods A seven-member translation committee conducted the translation process using the following methodology: production of two independent forward translations; comparison and reconciliation of the translations; backward translation of the first reconciled version; comparison of the original WSWS and the backward version leading to the production of the second reconciled version; pilot testing and review of the translation, and finalization. Results Linguistic and conceptual issues arose during the process of translating the instrument, particularly pertaining to the title, instructions, and some of the items of the scale. In addition, the researchers had to find culturally acceptable equivalents for some terms and idiomatic phrases. Notable among these include expressions such as "irritability", "feeling upbeat", and "nibbling on snacks", which had to be replaced by culturally acceptable expressions. During cognitive debriefing and clinician's review processes, the Malay translated version of WSWS was found to be easily comprehensible, clear, and appropriate for the smoking withdrawal symptoms intended to be measured. Conclusions We applied a rigorous translation method to ensure conceptual equivalence and acceptability of WSWS in Malay prior to its utilization in research and clinical practice. However, to complete the cultural adaptation process, future psychometric validation is planned to be conducted among Malay speakers. PMID:20492717

  17. Malay in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore: Three Faces of a National Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenberg, Peter

    Malay's long use as the dominant linga franca throughout modern Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore is partly responsible for its current status as the national language of all three countries. However, political and economic developments during and since the colonial era have created sociolinguistic contexts, motives, and results of the language's…

  18. Metalinguistic Awareness and Semi-Syllabic Scripts: Children's Spelling Errors in Malay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liow, Susan J. Rickard; Lee, Lay Choo

    2004-01-01

    The Malay language has a transparent morphological system and, unlike English, it is written in a very shallow alphabetic-syllabic script. We predicted that beginner spellers (six-to eight-year-olds) of this Rumi script would encode words at the level of the syllable and morpheme, rather than the phoneme. Using the results of a 75-item spelling…

  19. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

  20. Proposing a Web-Based Tutorial System to Teach Malay Language Braille Code to the Sighted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wah, Lee Lay; Keong, Foo Kok

    2010-01-01

    The "e-KodBrailleBM Tutorial System" is a web-based tutorial system which is specially designed to teach, facilitate and support the learning of Malay Language Braille Code to individuals who are sighted. The targeted group includes special education teachers, pre-service teachers, and parents. Learning Braille code involves memorisation…

  1. Acquisition of Malay Word Recognition Skills: Lessons from Low-Progress Early Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both…

  2. Upholding the Malay Language and Strengthening the English Language Policy: An Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamat, Hamidah; Umar, Nur Farita Mustapa; Mahmood, Muhammad Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Today's global economy and dependency on technology has led to educational reforms in Malaysia, which includes language policies; namely the Upholding the Malay Language, and Strengthening the English Language ("MBMMBI") policy. This policy underpins the project presented and discussed in this paper; on the development of a bilingual…

  3. Dry Eye Syndrome Risks in Patients With Fibromyalgia: A National Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Hsien; Yang, Tse-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Chia-Nan; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of fibromyalgia (FM) and dry eye syndrome (DES) has been previously reported. However, there are few studies on how patients with FM may develop concomitant DES. Patients with chronic widespread pain, like FM, chronic fatigue syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), was concerned for the rheumatic or psychosomatic disorders which might adequately reflect the long-term risk of DES. We retrieved data on FM patients from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan covering the years 2000 to 2011. Our FM population consisted of 25,777 patients versus 103,108 patients in the non-FM group: the overall incidence of DES in these populations was 7.37/10,000 and 4.81/10,000, respectively. Male FM patients had a higher incidence of DES, with a 1.39-fold DES risk for males and a 1.45-fold for females after adjustment for confounding factor. Notably, FM patients aged ≤49 years had an elevated 80% risk of DES compared with the non-FM group. Without comorbidities, FM patients had an approximately 1.40-fold risk of DES than those without FM. The additive effects of FM and IBS or FM and sleep disturbance were pointed out that the risk for DES would be elevated when the FM patients with IBS or sleep disturbance. FM patients have a higher incidence of DES than that of non-FM patients. They carry long-term DES risks from a relatively young age, particularly those with psychiatric problems. Risk stratification for a timely psychiatric medication intervention and risk modifications are not intended. PMID:26825913

  4. Processing multi-digit numbers: a translingual eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Bahnmueller, Julia; Huber, Stefan; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Göbel, Silke M; Moeller, Korbinian

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the underlying cognitive processes and language specificities of three-digit number processing. More specifically, it was intended to clarify whether the single digits of three-digit numbers are processed in parallel and/or sequentially and whether processing strategies are influenced by the inversion of number words with respect to the Arabic digits [e.g., 43: dreiundvierzig ("three and forty")] and/or by differences in reading behavior of the respective first language. Therefore, English- and German-speaking adults had to complete a three-digit number comparison task while their eye-fixation behavior was recorded. Replicating previous results, reliable hundred-decade-compatibility effects (e.g., 742_896: hundred-decade compatible because 7 < 8 and 4 < 9; 362_517: hundred-decade incompatible because 3 < 5 but 6 > 1) for English- as well as hundred-unit-compatibility effects for English- and German-speaking participants were observed, indicating parallel processing strategies. While no indices of partial sequential processing were found for the English-speaking group, about half of the German-speaking participants showed an inverse hundred-decade-compatibility effect accompanied by longer inspection time on the hundred digit indicating additional sequential processes. Thereby, the present data revealed that in transition from two- to higher multi-digit numbers, the homogeneity of underlying processing strategies varies between language groups. The regular German orthography (allowing for letter-by-letter reading) and its associated more sequential reading behavior may have promoted sequential processing strategies in multi-digit number processing. Furthermore, these results indicated that the inversion of number words alone is not sufficient to explain all observed language differences in three-digit number processing. PMID:26669690

  5. Bacterial Keratitis in a Tertiary Eye Centre in Iran: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Firoozeh; Hashemian, Mohammad Nasser; Khosravi, Amir; Moradi, Golnaz; Bamdad, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the characteristics and laboratory findings of 182 patients with bacterial keratitis diagnosed at Farabi Eye Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, data were collected on demographics, risk factors, location, size and depth of the ulcer, height of the hypopyon, uncorrected visual acuity, results of smear and culture tests, and antibiotic sensitivity of cultured bacteria. Results: There were 110 (60.4%) males and 72 (39.6%) females with an average age of 56.0 ± 2.3 years. Ocular trauma (17.6%) and positive history of corneal surgery (14.3%) were major risk factors. The mean age of contact lens users was 22.5 ± 7.7 years. Sixty patients (33%) used topical antibiotics, 21 (11.5%) patients utilized topical steroid, and 26 (14.3%) cases used both topical antibiotic and steroid at presentation. Culture results were, 81 (44.5%) cases were Gram-positive, 63 (34.6%) were Gram-negative, 10 (5.5%) were mixed bacteria and in 28 (15.4%) cases had detected growth. The isolated bacterial species from the corneal ulcers were less resistant to ceftazidime (6%) and amikacin (6%). The majority of patients were treated with medical therapy; however, 81 cases (44.5%) received at least one surgical procedure. Conclusion: Among the patients with bacterial corneal ulcers, trauma was the most common risk factor. Over-the-counter antibiotic and steroid were commonly used in the majority of patients. The most common bacteria isolated were Gram-positives, and they were less resistant to ceftazidime and amikacin. Penetrating keratoplasty was the most common surgical procedure in patient who required surgery. PMID:25949085

  6. What Checkers Actually Check: An Eye Tracking Study of Inhibitory Control and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Harkin, Ben; Miellet, Sebastien; Kessler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Background Not only is compulsive checking the most common symptom in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with an estimated prevalence of 50–80% in patients, but approximately ∼15% of the general population reveal subclinical checking tendencies that impact negatively on their performance in daily activities. Therefore, it is critical to understand how checking affects attention and memory in clinical as well as subclinical checkers. Eye fixations are commonly used as indicators for the distribution of attention but research in OCD has revealed mixed results at best. Methodology/Principal Finding Here we report atypical eye movement patterns in subclinical checkers during an ecologically valid working memory (WM) manipulation. Our key manipulation was to present an intermediate probe during the delay period of the memory task, explicitly asking for the location of a letter, which, however, had not been part of the encoding set (i.e., misleading participants). Using eye movement measures we now provide evidence that high checkers’ inhibitory impairments for misleading information results in them checking the contents of WM in an atypical manner. Checkers fixate more often and for longer when misleading information is presented than non-checkers. Specifically, checkers spend more time checking stimulus locations as well as locations that had actually been empty during encoding. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that these atypical eye movement patterns directly reflect internal checking of memory contents and we discuss the implications of our findings for the interpretation of behavioural and neuropsychological data. In addition our results highlight the importance of ecologically valid methodology for revealing the impact of detrimental attention and memory checking on eye movement patterns. PMID:23049755

  7. Increased Focus on the Mouth among Infants in the First Year of Life: A Longitudinal Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Shah, Rajesh J.; Sobel, David M.; Malle, Bertram F.; Morgan, James L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines face-scanning behaviors of infants at 6, 9, and 12 months as they watched videos of a woman describing an object in front of her. The videos were created to vary information in the mouth (speaking vs. smiling) and the eyes (gazing into the camera vs. cueing the infant with head turn or gaze direction to an object being…

  8. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) System for Classifying Cataracts From Photographs: AREDS Report No. 4

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    • PURPOSE: To describe the system for grading cataracts from photographs in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). • METHODS: The system for grading cataracts in AREDS uses photographs taken in a standardized fashion with specially modified cameras at 11 clinical centers. The photographs are evaluated by graders for quality and cataract severity at a central reading center. The area of lens involvement is used to assess the severity of cortical and posterior subcapsular opacities. Optical density of nuclear opacity is graded against a series of seven standard photographs. Contemporaneous variability in grading is evaluated periodically by having a second examiner regrade a subset of the photographs. Temporal variability is assessed by annually regrading a subset of photographs. • RESULTS: Photographs of 925 eyes, most with no or early lens opacities, were regraded to assess intergrader reliability. For cortical opacities, there was an absolute difference of 10% or greater of area involved in 1.9% of the replicate gradings. For posterior subcapsular opacities an absolute difference of 5% of area involved was noted in 2.8% of the regraded photographs. For nuclear opacities, absolute differences of 1.5 or more steps were observed in 0.6% of eyes. There was little evidence of temporal drift in grading any of the three types of opacity during four annual regrades. • CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a high degree of reliability in grading the severity of lens opacities in a large study cohort with mostly early lens changes, the type of cohort most likely to be entered in clinical trials involving cataract prevention. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study System for Classifying Cataracts From Photographs could be useful in studies where there is a need to standardize data collection over time and across different data collection sites. Limitations of the system include the cost of implementation and, currently, the limited amount of data on grading

  9. Seasonal circulations in the Malay Peninsula Eastern continental shelf from a wave-tide-circulation coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangang, Fredolin T.; Xia, Changsui; Qiao, Fangli; Juneng, Liew; Shan, Feng

    2011-09-01

    A wave-tide-circulation coupled model based on Princeton Ocean Model is established to study the seasonal circulation in the Malay Peninsula Eastern Continental Shelf region. The model successfully reconstructs the observed seasonal variation of the circulation in the region, as well as the main currents. The simulated tidal harmonic constants, sea surface temperature, and sea surface height anomaly agree with the observations well. The model results show that the upper-layer circulation in the region is mainly controlled by the monsoon winds, while there are two transitions in spring and fall. An anti-cyclonic eddy is present off the Peninsular Malaysia's east coast in summer, centered at 5°N and 105.5°E, both in the TOPEX/Poseidon data and in the model. Numerical experiments show that the wind stress curl and bathymetry steering are responsible for its formation.

  10. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-09-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  11. Effect of Various Eye Exercise Techniques along with Pranayama on Visual Reaction Time: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gosewade, Nitin B.; Shende, Vinod S.; Kashalikar, Shriniwas J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We depend on eyesight more than any other of our senses to maneuver through the space around us. In a fraction of a second, our eyes work with our brain to tell us the size, shape, colour, and texture of an object. Our eyes are body’s most highly developed sensory organs. The use of computers and television in the era of information technology has given new heights to the professional success rate and it saves time but on the other hand, it has led to an increase in the number of patients with ocular complaints. Aims: The objective of the study was to study the effect of eye exercise techniques along with kapalbhati pranayama on Visual Reaction Time (VRT). Material & Methods: Total 60 subjects in an age group of 18–30 were recruited in the study. All the subjects were divided into two equal groups (study group and control group) containing 30 subjects (18 male & 12 female) each. Both the male and female subjects were selected on the basis of their voluntary involvement. Visual reaction time for red and green light was recorded from all 60 subjects before the start of the study. Study group subjects were trained to practice various eye exercise techniques and kapalbhati pranayama for 8 weeks regularly whereas control group were busy with their routine activities. After 8 weeks, visual reaction time was measured for red and green light from all 60 subjects. Statistical Analysis: Data expressed as Mean ± S.D, Student t –test was applied for analysis of data, p value <0.05 is taken as statistically significant. Results: Statistical analysis of data shows that there is a significant decrease in the visual reaction time for red and green light after intervention in study group (p value <0.05). Whereas there is no significant decrease in VRT in control group (p value >0.05). Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that simple eye exercises along with pranayama helps in improvement of visual reaction time. PMID:24179885

  12. Effect of Korean Red Ginseng supplementation on dry eye syndrome in glaucoma patients – A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyoung Won; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sangah; Kim, Minkyo; Lee, Naeun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients with glaucoma have difficulty using antiglaucoma eye drops because of dry eye symptom. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the effect of Korean Red Ginseng on dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma treated with antiglaucoma eye drops. Methods Forty-nine participants were allocated to the Korean Red Ginseng (3 g/day; n = 24) or placebo (n = 25) groups for 8 weeks. Tear film stability, fluorescein corneal staining, conjunctival hyperemia, tear production, grade of meibomian gland dysfunction, and dry eye questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index) were evaluated at baseline and on completion of the treatment. Results Almost all patients displayed dry eye symptoms and signs at baseline. After the 8-week intervention, Korean Red Ginseng supplementation significantly improved the tear film stability and total Ocular Surface Disease Index score, as compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Conclusion Korean Red Ginseng supplementation may provide an additional treatment option for dry eye and patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops. PMID:25535471

  13. Eye tracker.

    PubMed

    Pruehsner, W; Enderle, J D

    1999-01-01

    A device that records saccadic eye movements, the Eye Tracker, is presented in this paper. The Eye Tracker utilizes infra-red technology mounted on fully adjustable goggles to follow eye movements targeted by either a goggles mounted HUD type display or a wall mounted light bank. Output from the goggles is remotely sent to a PC type computer, which leads to device portability. The goggles can also maintain output data in an internal memory for latter download. The user interface is Windows based with the output from the goggles represented as a trace map or plotted points. This output can also be saved or printed for future reference. The user interface can be used on any PC type computer. The device is designed with reference to standard ISO design methodology. Safety in design and final product usage has also been addressed with reference to standard ISO type procedures. Device accuracy is maintained by precise construction of the IR units in the goggles and tight control of cross talk between each IR device plus filtering of ambient light signals. Also, a reset feature is included to maintain equal baseline control. An automatic switching device is included in the goggles to allow the Eye Tracker to "warm up," assuring that equal IR power is delivered for each subject tested. The IR units in the goggles are also modular in case replacement is required. PMID:11143354

  14. Preliminary study on differentiation between glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous eyes on stereo fundus images using cup gradient models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hatanaka, Yuji; Ishida, Kyoko; Sawada, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in Japan and the US. One of the indices for diagnosis of glaucoma is the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR). We have been developing a computerized method for measuring CDR on stereo fundus photographs. Although our previous study indicated that the method may be useful, cup determination was not always successful, especially for the normal eyes. In this study, we investigated a new method to quantify the likelihood of glaucomatous disc based on the similarity scores to the glaucoma and non-glaucoma models. Eighty-seven images, including 40 glaucomatous eyes, were used in this study. Only one eye from each patient was used. Using a stereo fundus camera, two images were captured from different angles, and the depth image was created by finding the local corresponding points. One of the characteristics of a glaucomatous disc can be not only that the cup is enlarged but it has an acute slope. On the other hand, a non-glaucomatous cup generally has a gentle slope. Therefore, our models were constructed by averaging the depth gradient images. In order to account for disc size, disc outline was automatically detected, and all images were registered by warping the disc outline to a circle with a predetermined diameter using thin plate splines. Similarity scores were determined by multiplying a test case with both models. At the sensitivity of 90.0%, the specificity was improved from 83.0% using the CDR to 97.9% by the model-based method. The proposed method may be useful for differentiation of glaucomatous eyes.

  15. Breastfeeding prevalence and practices among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian mothers.

    PubMed

    Foo, L L; Quek, S J S; Ng, S A; Lim, M T; Deurenberg-Yap, M

    2005-09-01

    The National Breastfeeding Survey 2001 was the first comprehensive study on breastfeeding conducted on a national level in Singapore. It aimed to establish the prevalence of breastfeeding among Chinese, Malay and Indian mothers and to identify factors influencing breastfeeding. A total of 2098 mothers were interviewed in this two-phase study, with the first interview conducted 2 months after delivery and the second interview 6 months after birth among mothers who were still breastfeeding at 2 months. Frequency distributions of breastfeeding prevalence and types of breastfeeding practices at different time intervals (from birth to 6 months) were produced. Multivariate logistic regression was carried out to construct a model with predictive information on factors which influence continued breastfeeding till 2 months and 6 months after delivery respectively. The study found that about 94.5% of the mothers attempted breastfeeding. At 1 month, 71.6% were still breastfeeding, 49.6% continued to do so at 2 months, and 29.8% persisted till 4 months. By 6 months, the breastfeeding prevalence rate fell to 21.1%. The results of this study show higher breastfeeding prevalence rates compared to past studies in Singapore. Despite this, exclusive breastfeeding is still not a common practice. Various factors were found to be significant in influencing mothers' decision to breastfeed. Factors such as ethnicity, age, educational attainment, religion and baby's sex are non-modifiable in the short term or at an individual level. However, factors such as awareness of breastfeeding benefits, advice from health professionals and previous breastfeeding experience are potentially modifiable. Efforts aimed at promoting breastfeeding in Singapore need to take these modifiable factors into consideration so as to better tailor health promotion efforts on breastfeeding to women. PMID:15814526

  16. Individual differences in fifth graders’ reading and language predict their comprehension monitoring development: An eye-movement study

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth-graders’ (n=52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation, and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children read two sentences; the second included either a plausible or implausible word in the context of the first sentence. Stronger readers had shorter reading times overall suggesting faster processing of text. Generally fifth-graders reacted to the implausible word (i.e., longer gaze duration on the implausible v. the plausible word, which reflects lexical access). Students with stronger academic language, compared to those with weaker academic language, generally spent more time re-reading the implausible target compared to the plausible target. This difference increased from fall to spring. Results support the centrality of academic language for meaning integration, setting standards of coherence, and utilizing comprehension repair strategies. PMID:27065721

  17. The influences of working memory representations on long-range regression in text reading: an eye-tracking study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Teppei; Sugimoto, Masashi; Tanida, Yuki; Saito, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) capacity and long-range regression (i.e., word relocation) processes in reading. We analyzed eye movements during a “whodunit task”, in which readers were asked to answer a content question while original text was being presented. The eye movements were more efficient in relocating a target word when the target was at recency positions within the text than when it was at primacy positions. Furthermore, both verbal and visuospatial WM capacity partly predicted the efficiency of the initial long-range regression. The results indicate that WM representations have a strong influence at the first stage of long-range regression by driving the first saccade movement toward the correct target position, suggesting that there is a dynamic interaction between internal WM representations and external actions during text reading. PMID:25324760

  18. Psychophysiological Responsivity to Script-Driven Imagery: An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Eye Movements on Public Speaking Flashforwards

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Michelle; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2015-01-01

    A principle characteristic of public speaking anxiety relates to intrusive mental images of potential future disasters. Previous research has found that the self-reported emotionality of such “flashforwards” can be reduced by a cognitively demanding, dual-task (e.g., making eye movements) performed whilst holding the mental image in-mind. The outcome measure in these earlier studies was participants’ self-reported emotional intensity of the mental image. The current study (N = 34) explored whether an objective measure of emotionality would yield similar results in students with public speaking anxiety. A script-driven imagery procedure was used to measure psychophysiological responsivity to an audio script depicting a feared (public speaking) scenario before and after an eye movement intervention. Relative to the control condition (imagery only), those who made eye movements whilst holding a mental image of this scenario in-mind demonstrated a significant decrease in heart rate, which acted as a measure of emotionality. These findings add to a previous body of research demonstrating the beneficial qualities of dual-tasks and their potential for treatment of both past and future-oriented anxieties. PMID:26321964

  19. A randomised, double-masked comparison study of diquafosol versus sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solutions in dry eye patients

    PubMed Central

    Takamura, Etsuko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Aims To compare the efficacy and safety of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution with those of 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution in dry eye patients, using mean changes in fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores as endpoints. Trial design and methods In this multicenter, randomised, double-masked, parallel study of 286 dry eye patients with fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores of ≥3 were randomised to the treatment groups in a 1 : 1 ratio. Efficacy and safety were evaluated after drop-wise instillation of the study drug, six times daily for 4 weeks. Results After 4 weeks, the intergroup difference in the mean change from baseline in fluorescein staining score was −0.03; this verified the non-inferiority of diquafosol. The mean change from baseline in rose bengal staining score was significantly lower in the diquafosol group (p=0.010), thus verifying its superiority. The incidence of adverse events was 26.4% and 18.9% in the diquafosol and sodium hyaluronate groups, respectively, with no significant difference. Conclusions Diquafosol (3%) and sodium hyaluronate (0.1%) exhibit similar efficacy in improving fluorescein staining scores of dry eye patients, whereas, diquafosol exhibits superior efficacy in improving rose bengal staining scores. Diquafosol has high clinical efficacy and is well tolerated with a good safety profile. PMID:22914501

  20. Selenium Preferentially Accumulates in the Eye Lens Following Embryonic Exposure: A Confocal X-ray Fluorescence Imaging Study

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Sanjukta; Thomas, Jith; Sylvain, Nicole J.; Ponomarenko, Olena; Gordon, Robert A.; Heald, Steve M.; Janz, David M.; Krone, Patrick H.; Coulthard, Ian; George, Graham N.; Pickering, Ingrid J.

    2015-02-17

    Maternal transfer of elevated selenium (Se) to offspring is an important route of Se exposure for fish in the natural environment. However, there is a lack of information on the tissue specific spatial distribution and speciation of Se in the early developmental stages of fish, which provide important information about Se toxicokinetics. The effect of maternal transfer of Se was studied by feeding adult zebrafish a Se-elevated or a control diet followed by collection of larvae from both groups. Novel confocal synchrotron-based techniques were used to investigate Se within intact preserved larvae. Confocal X-ray fluorescence imaging was used to compare Se distributions within specific planes of an intact larva from each of the two groups. The elevated Se treatment showed substantially higher Se levels than the control; Se preferentially accumulated to highest levels in the eye lens, with lower levels in the retina, yolk and other tissues. Confocal X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to determine that the speciation of Se within the eye lens of the intact larva was a selenomethionine-like species. Preferential accumulation of Se in the eye lens may suggest a direct cause-and-effect relationship between exposure to elevated Se and Se-induced ocular impairments reported previously. This study illustrates the effectiveness of confocal X-ray fluorescence methods for investigating trace element distribution and speciation in intact biological specimens

  1. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  2. Efficacy and safety of 1% forskolin eye drops in open angle glaucoma – An open label study

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Muhammed; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Natarajan, Sankaran; Vaidyanathan, Priti; Karri, Suresh Kumar; Jose, Jyolsna Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Current treatment for glaucoma includes beta-blockers and prostaglandin analogues which have their own disadvantages. Thus a need exists for new ocular hypotensive agents that are more efficacious and have fewer side effects. Therefore, forskolin eye drops 1%, through herbal product; a clinical trial was carried out for the safety and efficacy in the treatment of open angle glaucoma. Methods Ninety adult male/female patients of 18–60 years of age, of either sex, suffering from open angle glaucoma with an intraocular pressure (IOP) of more than 24 mm Hg were enrolled in the study. Patients were advised to instill 2 drops thrice a day (8:00 h, 14:00 h and 20:00 h) and tonometric readings were recorded on baseline visit and on Visit 2, i.e. end of 1st week, Visit 3–2nd week, Visit 4–3rd week, and Visit 5–4th week. The reduction in IOP across each time point from untreated baseline visit and reduction in IOP across various study visits were measured. Results The mean (95% CI) difference in reduction in IOP was 4.5 mm Hg (P < 0.05) in the right eye and was 5.4 mm Hg (p < 0.05) in the left eye from baseline visit (Visit 1) to final visit (Visit 5). Conclusions Forskolin 1% eye drops can be a safe alternative to beta blockers in glaucoma patients having concomitant asthma. PMID:26155078

  3. A comparative study of complications of cataract surgery with phacoemulsification in eyes with high and normal axial length

    PubMed Central

    Fesharaki, Hamid; Peyman, Alireza; Rowshandel, Mehdi; Peyman, Mohammadreza; Alizadeh, Pegah; Akhlaghi, Mohammadreza; Ashtari, AliReza

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study performed to assess the safety of cataract extraction with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with high axial length compared with patients with normal axial length. Materials and Methods: A total of 866 eyes were enrolled in this study; all subjects underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation for treatment of cataract. Seven hundred and nine eyes fell in the normal group with axial lengths ranging between 21 and 24.5 mm, and 157 eyes were considered myopic with axial length equal or greater than 26 mm. The two groups were compared regarding intraoperative surgical complications, such as vitreous loss, posterior capsular rupture, nucleolus drop, and undesirable implantation of IOL in the anterior chamber. Results: Age was a risk factor in both groups, with each year increase of age, the chance of incidence of intraoperative complications increased 1.04-folds (P = 0.03). And with 1 mm increase in axial length, the incidence of complications raised 1.22-folds (P = 0.007). There was no significant correlation between axial length and incidence of vitreous loss, although the incidence of posterior capsular rupture and nucleus fragment drops increased with increment in the axial length. Sex of the patients and side of the left or right eye were not found to be significant risk factors. Conclusions: As the results illustrate, in this survey, age and high axial length were statistically significant risk factors for incidence of intraoperative complications of cataract surgery with phacoemulsification technique. Anticipation of these complications and also preparation and prophylactic measures may decrease incidence of these complications. PMID:23326797

  4. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness in Central Iran; The Yazd Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Katibeh, Marzieh; Pakravan, Mohammad; Yaseri, Mehdi; Pakbin, Mojgan; Soleimanizad, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment (VI) in Yazd, central Iran. Methods: This population-based, cross-sectional study was performed on adults aged 40–80 years, residing in Yazd district, in 2010–2011. Eligible subjects were selected using cluster random sampling. Each participant underwent an interview and complete ophthalmologic examination. Blindness and VI were defined as best-corrected visual acuity (VA) <3/60 and < 6/18 in the better eye, respectively. Results: Out of 2,320 eligible individuals, 2,098 participated in the study (90.4% response rate), of whom, 2,023 subjects completed all evaluations. The standardized prevalence of blindness and VI were 0.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3–1.0%) and 4.4% (95% CI, 3.3–5.4%), respectively which was significantly associated with older age (odd ratio [OR] = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.9–5.2 and OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 2.3–4.2, respectively) and female sex (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1–12.3 and OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–2.5, respectively). The proportion of avoidable causes of blindness and VI were 92.9% (95% CI: 80.0-100.0%) and 76.6% (95% CI: 69.2-85.0%), respectively. Major causes of blindness were diabetic retinopathy (50.0%), glaucoma (21.4%) and cataracts (14.3%) whereas main causes of VI were cataracts (41.5%), diabetic retinopathy (17.0%) and age-related macular degeneration (13.8%). Conclusions: Diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, cataract and age-related macular degeneration were the leading causes of blindness and VI in Yazd, most of which are avoidable. Planning for prevention of blindness is highly recommended to decrease the proportion of avoidable blindness. PMID:26730314

  5. Distribution of tissue plasminogen activator in human and monkey eyes. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, B J; Geanon, J D; Tripathi, R C

    1987-11-01

    The authors examined various structures of human and rhesus monkey eyes for the presence of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) by using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunohistochemical technique with a monoclonal antibody specific for human t-PA. Positive staining for t-PA was observed both intracellularly and in the extracellular matrix of many tissues in both species. The tissues which stained intensely for t-PA included the corneal endothelium, corneal epithelium, trabecular meshwork, lens epithelium, peripheral vitreous, uveal tract, inner retina, and all vascular endothelia. The apparent minor difference in staining intensity between human and monkey eyes may be related to the time-dependent degradation of t-PA, to variations in the tissue content of t-PA, or to the difference in animal species. The discussion includes a consideration of the fibrinolytic activity of t-PA and of its emerging role in the destructive remodeling of the extracellular matrix in various ocular structures. PMID:3120076

  6. Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Abd Manaf, Zahara; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the PrG (73.2%) and ExG (47.6%), respectively. In addition, the ExG showed a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and both interventions did not alter either lipid or protein oxidation. In conclusion, the exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia. PMID:24143082

  7. Modelling sea level data from China and Malay-Thailand to estimate Holocene ice-volume equivalent sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Sarah L.; Milne, Glenn A.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Zong, Yongqiang

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a new model of Holocene ice-volume equivalent sea level (ESL), extending a previously published global ice sheet model (Bassett et al., 2005), which was unconstrained from 10 kyr BP to present. This new model was developed by comparing relative sea level (RSL) predictions from a glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model to a suite of Holocene sea level index points from China and Malay-Thailand. Three consistent data-model misfits were found using the Bassett et al. (2005) model: an over-prediction in the height of maximum sea level, the timing of this maximum, and the temporal variation of sea level from the time of the highstand to present. The data-model misfits were examined for a large suite of ESL scenarios and a range of earth model parameters to determine an optimum model of Holocene ESL. This model is characterised by a slowdown in melting at ∼7 kyr BP, associated with the final deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, followed by a continued rise in ESL until ∼1 kyr BP of ∼5.8 m associated with melting from the Antarctic Ice Sheet. It was not possible to identify an earth viscosity model that provided good fits for both regions; with the China data preferring viscosity values in the upper mantle of less than 1.5 × 1020 Pa s and the Malay-Thailand data preferring greater values. We suggest that this inference of a very weak upper mantle for the China data originates from the nearby subduction zone and Hainan Plume. The low viscosity values may also account for the lack of a well-defined highstand at the China sites.

  8. A correlation study of eye lens dose and personal dose equivalent for interventional cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Farah, J; Struelens, L; Dabin, J; Koukorava, C; Donadille, L; Jacob, S; Schnelzer, M; Auvinen, A; Vanhavere, F; Clairand, I

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the dosimetry part of the European ELDO project, funded by the DoReMi Network of Excellence, in which a method was developed to estimate cumulative eye lens doses for past practices based on personal dose equivalent values, H(p)(10), measured above the lead apron at several positions at the collar, chest and waist levels. Measurement campaigns on anthropomorphic phantoms were carried out in typical interventional settings considering different tube projections and configurations, beam energies and filtration, operator positions and access routes and using both mono-tube and biplane X-ray systems. Measurements showed that eye lens dose correlates best with H(p)(10) measured on the left side of the phantom at the level of the collar, although this correlation implicates high spreads (41 %). Nonetheless, for retrospective dose assessment, H(p)(10) records are often the only option for eye dose estimates and the typically used chest left whole-body dose measurement remains useful. PMID:23858492

  9. A Relationship Between Visual Complexity and Aesthetic Appraisal of Car Front Images: An Eye-Tracker Study.

    PubMed

    Chassy, Philippe; Lindell, Trym A E; Jones, Jessica A; Paramei, Galina V

    2015-01-01

    Image aesthetic pleasure (AP) is conjectured to be related to image visual complexity (VC). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether (a) two image attributes, AP and VC, are reflected in eye-movement parameters; and (b) subjective measures of AP and VC are related. Participants (N=26) explored car front images (M=50) while their eye movements were recorded. Following image exposure (10 seconds), its VC and AP were rated. Fixation count was found to positively correlate with the subjective VC and its objective proxy, JPEG compression size, suggesting that this eye-movement parameter can be considered an objective behavioral measure of VC. AP, in comparison, positively correlated with average dwelling time. Subjective measures of AP and VC were related too, following an inverted U-shape function best-fit by a quadratic equation. In addition, AP was found to be modulated by car prestige. Our findings reveal a close relationship between subjective and objective measures of complexity and aesthetic appraisal, which is interpreted within a prototype-based theory framework. PMID:26562922

  10. Macular Bruch´s Membrane Length and Axial Length. The Beijing Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yi; Xu, Liang; Wei, Wen Bin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether macular Bruch´s membrane gets lengthened in axial myopia. Methods Using the enhanced depth imaging mode of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and examining a subgroup of participants of the population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study, we measured the length of Bruch´s membrane (“MacBMLength”) from the fovea to the temporal edge of parapapillary gamma zone, and the distance between the fovea and the temporal optic disc border. Parapapillary gamma zone was defined as the parapapillary region without Bruch´s membrane. We additionally measured ocular biometric parameters and assessed non-ophthalmologic variables. Results Measurements of MacBMLength were performed on 322 individuals. MacBMLength (mean: 3.99±0.33 mm; range: 3.17–4.93 mm) was not significantly associated with any systemic parameter or ocular biometric parameter. Gamma zone width (mean: 0.18±0.30mm; range: 0.00–2.61mm) was associated (multivariate analysis; correlation coefficient r:0.80) with longer axial length (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta: 0.60; non-standardized correlation coefficient B:0.11; 95%CI: 0.09,0.14) and with longer fovea-optic disc border distance (P<0.001; beta:0.28; B:0.19; 95%CI:0.14,0.25), but not with MacBMLength (P = 0.42). Fovea-temporal disc border distance (mean: 4.16±0.44mm; range: 3.17–5.86mm) was associated (overall correlation coefficient: 0.68) with longer axial length (P<0.001; beta: 0.36; B: 0.10; 95%CI: 0.06, 0.13), after adjusting for flatter anterior chamber depth (P = 0.003; beta:-0.14; B:-0.14; 95%CI: -0.23,-0.05) and wider parapapillary gamma zone (P<0.001; beta:0.42; B:0.62; 95%CI:0.44,0.81). Conclusions In contrast to parapapillary gamma zone width and fovea-disc border distance, MacBMLength was not significantly associated with axial length. Axial elongation associated increase in fovea-disc distance may predominantly occur through development or elongation of parapapillary gamma zone

  11. Adverse reactions following routine anticholinergic eye drops in a paediatric population: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    van Minderhout, Helena M; Joosse, Maurits V; Grootendorst, Diana C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the presence, nature and relationship to age, sex, ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) of adverse reactions following routine cycloplegic eye drops in children. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Ophthalmology outpatient clinic Dutch metropolitan hospital; February, March and April 2009. Participants Children aged 3–14-year-old children receiving two drops of cyclopentolate 1% (C+C) or one drop of cyclopentolate 1% and one drop of tropicamide 1% (C+T). Patients were categorised by age (3–6, 7–10 and 11–14 years), sex, ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) (low, normal or high). Outcome measures Rate and nature of adverse reactions reported at 45 min following treatment. Crude and adjusted ORs for reporting an adverse reaction using stepwise regression analysis with BMI, age, ethnicity and sex. Results 912 of 915 eligible patients participated (99.7%). Adverse reactions were reported for C+C in 10.3% and in C+T in 4.8% (42/408 and 24/504, p=0.002), respectively. Central effects were present in 95% in C+C and in 92% in C+T. Compared to C+T, an increased risk was present in C+C (crude OR 2.3 (1.4 to 3.9), p=0.002). Forward adjustment showed BMI to be an influencing factor in treatment (OR 3.1 (1.7 to 5.6), p<0.001). In a multivariate model, a dose of cyclopentolate remained associated with adverse reactions. Analysis per BMI and regime and age category and regime, indicated associations with low BMI (OR C+C 21.4 (6.7 to 67.96), p<0.001, respectively, C+T 5.2 (2.1 to 12.8), p<0.001) and young age (OR C+C 8.1 (2.7 to 24.8), p<0.001). Conclusions Adverse reactions were common and almost exclusively involved the central nervous system. Both presence and severity were associated with repeated instillation of cyclopentolate 1%, low BMI and young age. In specific paediatric populations, a single dose of cyclopentolate must be considered. Vital function monitoring facilities are advisable. Adjustment of guidelines is

  12. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  13. A prospective, multicenter, noninterventional study of Optive Plus® in the treatment of patients with dry eye: the prolipid study

    PubMed Central

    Kaercher, Thomas; Thelen, Ulrich; Brief, Gerrett; Morgan-Warren, Robert J; Leaback, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of Optive Plus®, an artificial tear containing castor oil, in patients with dry eye, in a routine clinical setting. Methods This was a prospective, noninterventional study of patients with dry eye who switched from a prior therapy or who were naïve to treatment (n=1,209). Patients were issued Optive Plus® artificial tears. Dry eye severity, tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer score, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, and patient assessment of symptoms were recorded at baseline and at the follow-up visit (4 weeks after starting Optive Plus®). Results The cause of dry eye was determined to be aqueous deficiency, lipid deficiency, or a mixture of aqueous and lipid deficiency (in 19.5%, 20.1%, and 47.8%, respectively, of the total study population). The severity of dry eye decreased from baseline to the follow-up visit, showing a decrease of the more severe levels (2–4) and a concurrent increase in mild level (1) of the rating scale. Patients reported an improvement in dry eye symptoms over the duration of the study, specifically 74.2% (n=152), 85.4% (n=182), and 82.4% (n=417) of patients in the aqueous-deficient, lipid-deficient, and mixed-deficiency groups, respectively. TBUT was measured in 475 patients. Baseline measurements for mean and standard deviation were 9.0±3.5, 7.1±3.6, and 6.6±3.0 seconds for the aqueous-deficient, lipid-deficient, and mixed-deficiency groups, respectively. These increased to 10.5±3.5, 10.0±3.6, and 9.2±3.1 seconds at the final visit. Overall, 92.5% of all patients were satisfied with the use of Optive Plus®, and 86% said they would purchase Optive Plus®. Ten percent of patients reported adverse events, and 1.8% of all patients experienced treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion Optive Plus® was well tolerated and effective in reducing the signs and symptoms of all types of dry eye but is recommended for lipid-deficient dry eye patients. PMID:24970993

  14. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  15. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  16. Petrographic and reservoir features of Hauterivian (Lower Cretaceous) Shatlyk horizon in the Malay gas field, Amu-Darya basin, east Turkmenia

    SciTech Connect

    Naz, H.; Ersan, A.

    1996-08-01

    Malay gas field in Amu-Darya basin, eastern Turkmenia, is located on the structural high that is on the Malay-Bagadzha arch north of the Repetek-Kelif structure zone. With 500 km{sup 2} areal coverage, 16 producing wells and 200 billion m{sup 3} estimated reserves, the field was discovered in 1978 and production began in 1987 from 2400-m-deep Hauterivian-age (Early Cretaceous) Shatlyk horizon. The Shatlyk elastic sequence shows various thickness up to 100 m in the Malay structural closure and is studied through E-log, core, petrographic data and reservoir characteristics. The Shatlyk consists of poorly indurated, reddish-brown and gray sandstones, and sandy gray shales. The overall sand-shale ratio increases up and the shales interleave between the sand packages. The reservoir sandstones are very fine to medium grained, moderately sorted, compositionally immature, subarkosic arenites. The framework grains include quartz, feldspar and volcanic lithic fragments. Quartz grains are monocrystalline in type and most are volcanic in origin. Feldspars consist of K- Feldspar and plagioclase. The orthoclases are affected by preferential alteration. The sandstones show high primary intergranular porosity and variations in permeability. Patch-like evaporate cement and the iron-rich grain coatings are reducing effects in permeability. The coats are pervasive in reddish-brown sandstones but are not observed in the gray sandstones. The evaporate cement is present in all the sandstone samples examined and, in places, follows the oxidation coats. The petrographic evidences and the regional facies studies suggest the deposition in intersection area from continental to marine nearshore deltaic environment.

  17. Stages in third molar development and eruption to estimate the 18-year threshold Malay juvenile.

    PubMed

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yusmiaidil Putera; Cauwels, Rita; Martens, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Age 18 years is considered as the age of majority by most countries. To ascertain the age of interest, both third molar development (TMD) and eruption (TME) staging scores are beneficial without needing multiple imaging modalities. This study aimed to assess the chronological course of TMD and TME in a Malay sub-adult population and evaluate predictions when specific stage(s) of TMD and TME have been attained that are pertinent to the age group of interest (<18 years or ≥18 years). A sample of 714 digital panoramic images for subjects stratified by age between 14.1 and 23.9 years was retrospectively collected. The techniques described by Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Kohler) and Olze were employed to stage TMD and TME, respectively. A binary logistic regression was performed to predict the 18-year threshold with staging score as predictors. Stages 4-6 (TMD) and A-B (TME) for males and stages 4 (TMD) and A (TME) for females were found to discriminate the <18-year group. For both genders, stages 9-10 (TMD) and D (TME) can be used as reference stages to estimate whether a subject is likely to be ≥18 years, with 94.74-100% and 85.88-96.38% correct predictions, respectively. Stages 4 (TMD) and A (TME) can also be used to identify juveniles (<18 years) with a high degree of correct predictions, 100%. The juvenility of an individual is easily anticipated by using the specific staging scores of both third molar variables (TMD and TME) without complex calculations. PMID:26276268

  18. Macular Pigment Imaging in AREDS2 Participants: An Ancillary Study of AREDS2 Subjects Enrolled at the Moran Eye Center

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Paul S.; Ahmed, Faisal; Liu, Aihua; Allman, Susan; Sheng, Xiaoming; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor; Gellermann, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) is a randomized, placebo-controlled study designed to determine whether supplementation with 10 mg of lutein and 2 mg of zeaxanthin per day can slow the rate of progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although some biomarkers of response to carotenoid supplementation such as serum concentrations are part of the AREDS2 protocol, measurement of carotenoid concentrations in the eye and other tissues is not. In this approved ancillary study, macular pigment optical density (MPOD), macular pigment distributions, and skin carotenoid levels at enrollment and at each annual visit were measured to assess baseline carotenoid status and to monitor response to assigned interventions. Methods. All subjects enrolled at the Moran Eye Center had MPOD and macular pigment spatial distributions measured by dual-wavelength autofluorescence imaging and total skin carotenoids measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Results. Baseline MPOD in enrolled subjects was unusually high relative to an age-matched control group that did not consume carotenoid supplements regularly, consistent with the high rate of habitual lutein and zeaxanthin consumption in Utah AREDS2 subjects prior to enrollment. MPOD did not correlate with serum or skin carotenoid measurements. Conclusions. Useful information is provided through this ancillary study on the ocular carotenoid status of AREDS2 participants in the target tissue of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation: The macula. When treatment assignments are unmasked at the conclusion of the study, unique tissue-based insights will be provided on the progression of AMD in response to long-term, high-dose carotenoid supplementation versus diet alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00345176.) PMID:22879423

  19. Development of online use of theory of mind during adolescence: An eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Symeonidou, Irene; Dumontheil, Iroise; Chow, Wing-Yee; Breheny, Richard

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the development of theory of mind use through eye-tracking in children (9-13years old, n=14), adolescents (14-17.9years old, n=28), and adults (19-29years old, n=23). Participants performed a computerized task in which a director instructed them to move objects placed on a set of shelves. Some of the objects were blocked off from the director's point of view; therefore, participants needed to take into consideration the director's ignorance of these objects when following the director's instructions. In a control condition, participants performed the same task in the absence of the director and were told that the instructions would refer only to items in slots without a back panel, controlling for general cognitive demands of the task. Participants also performed two inhibitory control tasks. We replicated previous findings, namely that in the director-present condition, but not in the control condition, children and adolescents made more errors than adults, suggesting that theory of mind use improves between adolescence and adulthood. Inhibitory control partly accounted for errors on the director task, indicating that it is a factor of developmental change in perspective taking. Eye-tracking data revealed early eye gaze differences between trials where the director's perspective was taken into account and those where it was not. Once differences in accuracy rates were considered, all age groups engaged in the same kind of online processing during perspective taking but differed in how often they engaged in perspective taking. When perspective is correctly taken, all age groups' gaze data point to an early influence of perspective information. PMID:26723471

  20. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ... Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  1. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  2. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  3. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  4. Study on warning radius of diffuse reflection laser warning based on fish-eye lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bolin; Zhang, Weian

    2013-09-01

    The diffuse reflection type of omni-directional laser warning based on fish-eye lens is becoming more and more important. As one of the key parameters of warning system, the warning radius should be put into investigation emphatically. The paper firstly theoretically analyzes the energy detected by single pixel of FPA detector in the system under complicated environment. Then the least energy detectable by each single pixel of the system is computed in terms of detector sensitivity, system noise, and minimum SNR. Subsequently, by comparison between the energy detected by single pixel and the least detectable energy, the warning radius is deduced from Torrance-Sparrow five-parameter semiempirical statistic model. Finally, a field experiment was developed to validate the computational results. It has been found that the warning radius has a close relationship with BRDF parameters of the irradiated target, propagation distance, angle of incidence, and detector sensitivity, etc. Furthermore, an important fact is shown that the experimental values of warning radius are always less than that of theoretical ones, due to such factors as the optical aberration of fish-eye lens, the transmissivity of narrowband filter, and the packing ratio of detector.

  5. Reading during the composition of multi-sentence texts: an eye-movement study.

    PubMed

    Torrance, Mark; Johansson, Roger; Johansson, Victoria; Wengelin, Åsa

    2016-09-01

    Writers composing multi-sentence texts have immediate access to a visual representation of what they have written. Little is known about the detail of writers' eye movements within this text during production. We describe two experiments in which competent adult writers' eye movements were tracked while performing short expository writing tasks. These are contrasted with conditions in which participants read and evaluated researcher-provided texts. Writers spent a mean of around 13 % of their time looking back into their text. Initiation of these look-back sequences was strongly predicted by linguistically important boundaries in their ongoing production (e.g., writers were much more likely to look back immediately prior to starting a new sentence). 36 % of look-back sequences were associated with sustained reading and the remainder with less patterned forward and backward saccades between words ("hopping"). Fixation and gaze durations and the presence of word-length effects suggested lexical processing of fixated words in both reading and hopping sequences. Word frequency effects were not present when writers read their own text. Findings demonstrate the technical possibility and potential value of examining writers' fixations within their just-written text. We suggest that these fixations do not serve solely, or even primarily, in monitoring for error, but play an important role in planning ongoing production. PMID:26120046

  6. Stereo-PIV study of flow inside an eye under cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Jun; Yamashita, Masaki; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kaji, Yuichi; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2012-04-01

    We measured velocity distributions in the anterior chamber of porcine eyes under simulated cataract surgery using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (stereo-PIV). The surface of the cornea was detected based on the images of laser-induced fluorescent light emitted from fluorescent dye solution introduced in a posterior chamber. A coaxial phacoemulsification procedure was simulated with standard size (standard coaxial phacoemulsification) and smaller (micro coaxial phacoemulsification) surgical instruments. In both cases, an asymmetric flow rate of irrigation was observed, although both irrigation ports had the same dimensions prior to insertion into the eye. In cases where the tip of the handpiece was placed farther away from the top of the cornea, i.e., closer to the crystalline lens, direct impingement of irrigation flow onto the cornea surface was avoided and the flow turned back toward the handpiece along the surface of the corneal endothelium. Viscous shear stress on the corneal endothelium was computed based on the measured mean velocity distribution. The maximum shear stress for most cases exceeded 0.1 Pa, which is comparable to the shear stress that caused detachment of the corneal endothelial cells reported by Kaji et al. in Cornea 24:S55-S58, (2005). When direct impingement of the irrigation flow was avoided, the shear stress was reduced considerably.

  7. Elasticity of the eye's crystalline lens: A Brillouin light scattering study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S.; Gump, J.; Sooryakumar, R.; Jayaprakash, C.; Venkiteshwar, M. S.; Bullimore, M.; Twa, M.

    2009-03-01

    Focusing the eye on a near object results in an increase in its optical power brought about by contraction of the ciliary muscles and an increase in the lens surface curvature. Distant vision occurs when the muscular force flattens the lens. Central to the ability of the lens to alter shape are its mechanical properties. Thus, given that hardening of the lens would impede deformation and reduce its ability to undergo the changes required for accommodation, a noninvasive approach to measure the elastic properties of the lens is valuable. We present results of Brillouin scattering from bovine and human lenses (from the organ donor program at The Ohio State University) that measure their high frequency acoustic response. These measurements are conducted with a few milli-watts of laser power and, in the case of bovine lenses, from entire intact eye globes, allow the stiffness of the lens to be mapped across its cross-section. The results will be compared to values of the shear- and bulk-moduli determined from other techniques and the implications of differences in these moduli discussed.

  8. Processing Control Information in a Nominal Control Construction: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined the processing of the nominal control construction. Participants' eye-movements were monitored while they read sentences that included either giver control nominals (e.g. promise in Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph himself) or recipient control nominals (e.g. plea in Luke's plea to Sophia to photograph herself). In order to examine both the initial access of control information, and its later use in on-line processing, we combined a manipulation of nominal control with a gender match/mismatch paradigm. Results showed that there was evidence of processing difficulty for giver control sentences (relative to recipient control sentences) at the point where the control dependency was initially created, suggesting that control information was accessed during the early parsing stages. This effect is attributed to a recency preference in the formation of control dependencies; the parser prefers to assign a recent antecedent to PRO. In addition, readers slowed down after reading a reflexive pronoun that mismatched with the gender of the antecedent indicated by the control nominal (e.g. Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph herself). The mismatch cost suggests that control information of the nominal control construction was used to constrain dependency formation involving a controller, PRO and a reflexive, confirming the use of control information in on-line interpretation. PMID:25980968

  9. What Are You Looking At? Moving toward an Attentional Timeline in Insomnia: A Novel Semantic Eye Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Heather Cleland; Scheepers, Christoph; Ross, K. A.; Espie, Colin A.; Biello, Stephany M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To date, cognitive probe paradigms have been used in different guises to obtain reaction time measurements suggestive of an attention bias towards sleep in insomnia. This study adopts a methodology which is novel to sleep research to obtain a continual record of where the eyes—and therefore attention—are being allocated with regard to sleep and neutral stimuli. Design: A head mounted eye tracker (Eyelink II,SR Research, Ontario, Canada) was used to monitor eye movements in respect to two words presented on a computer screen, with one word being a sleep positive, sleep negative, or neutral word above or below a second distracter pseudoword. Probability and reaction times were the outcome measures. Participants: Sleep group classification was determined by screening interview and PSQI (> 8 = insomnia, < 3 = good sleeper) score. Measurements and Results: Those individuals with insomnia took longer to fixate on the target word and remained fixated for less time than the good sleep controls. Word saliency had an effect with longer first fixations on positive and negative sleep words in both sleep groups, with largest effect sizes seen with the insomnia group. Conclusions: This overall delay in those with insomnia with regard to vigilance and maintaining attention on the target words moves away from previous attention bias work showing a bias towards sleep, particularly negative, stimuli but is suggestive of a neurocognitive deficit in line with recent research. Citation: Woods; HC; Scheepers C; Ross KA; Espie CA; Biello SM. What are you looking at? Moving toward an attentional timeline in insomnia: a novel semantic eye tracking study. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1491-1499. PMID:24082308

  10. Development of the conceptual framework for the Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ©) in glaucoma using a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Nordmann, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Philippe; Vigneux, Marc; Trudeau, Elyse; Guillemin, Isabelle; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Background Compliance is a major issue in glaucoma care. It is usually poor in glaucomatous patients, and may ultimately result in an acceleration of the disease progression and a risk of blindness. Reasons for this poor compliance are complex and multifactorial, amongst which patient satisfaction can be counted. The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment. Methods A qualitative study was carried out to develop the questionnaire. An interview guide was developed based on a literature review. Structured interviews of fifteen French and English patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or intraocular hypertension were conducted by trained interviewers of the native language of the interviewees. General concepts and subconcepts were identified from the transcripts. The questionnaire was developed using the patient verbatim, and submitted to six patients (French and English) for cognitive debriefing. Following patients' comments, items were modified and restructured, and a pilot questionnaire was designed. Results Analysis of data from the interviews with patients and clinicians resulted in the elicitation of concepts related to patient satisfaction and compliance with glaucomatous treatment. These were further refined and used to generate a test questionnaire, which consisted of 46 items grouped into 6 domains: patient characteristics, treatment characteristics, patient-clinician relationship, patient experience with the disease and the treatment, interaction between the patient and the treatment, and patient knowledge of the disease and the treatment. Conclusion The Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ) conceptual framework and items were developed simultaneously in French and in English. This questionnaire could be used to evaluate patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment and would facilitate the identification of patients at risk of being non-compliant prior

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus) with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer’s test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as an adjuvant therapy to conventional artificial tear therapy for patients with DES. PMID:27274185

  12. Gastric precancerous lesions are associated with gene variants in Helicobacter pylori-susceptible ethnic Malays

    PubMed Central

    Maran, Sathiya; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Xu, Shuhua; Rajab, Nur-Shafawati; Hasan, Norhazrini; Syed Abdul Aziz, Syed Hassan; Majid, Noorizan Abdul; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To identify genes associated with gastric precancerous lesions in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-susceptible ethnic Malays. METHODS: Twenty-three Malay subjects with H. pylori infection and gastric precancerous lesions identified during endoscopy were included as “cases”. Thirty-seven Malay subjects who were H. pylori negative and had no precancerous lesions were included as “controls”. Venous blood was collected for genotyping with Affymetrix 50K Xba1 kit. Genotypes with call rates < 90% for autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were excluded. For each precancerous lesion, associated SNPs were identified from Manhattan plots, and only SNPs with a χ2 P value < 0.05 and Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium P value > 0.5 was considered as significant markers. RESULTS: Of the 23 H. pylori-positive subjects recruited, one sample was excluded from further analysis due to a low genotyping call rate. Of the 22 H. pylori-positive samples, atrophic gastritis only was present in 50.0%, complete intestinal metaplasia was present in 18.25%, both incomplete intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia was present in 22.7%, and dysplasia only was present in 9.1%. SNPs rs9315542 (UFM1 gene), rs6878265 (THBS4 gene), rs1042194 (CYP2C19 gene) and rs10505799 (MGST1 gene) were significantly associated with atrophic gastritis, complete intestinal metaplasia, incomplete metaplasia with foci of dysplasia and dysplasia, respectively. Allele frequencies in “cases” vs “controls” for rs9315542, rs6878265, rs1042194 and rs10505799 were 0.4 vs 0.06, 0.6 vs 0.01, 0.6 vs 0.01 and 0.5 vs 0.02, respectively. CONCLUSION: Genetic variants possibly related to gastric precancerous lesions in ethnic Malays susceptible to H. pylori infection were identified for testing in subsequent trials. PMID:23801863

  13. Pathology of a lepromatous eye.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, G J; Daniel, E

    2000-03-01

    Histopathological examination of an enucleated eye from a lepromatous leprosy patient showed the cornea, ciliary body, and part of the choroid to be infiltrated by macrophages filled with Mycobacterium leprae. The walls of blood vessels in the sclera, ciliary body and the anterior choroid demonstrated the presence of M. leprae, giving credence to the blood-borne entry of M. leprae into the eye. Unlike the eyes of experimental animals infected with M. leprae, histopathological study of this eye from a lepromatous leprosy patient demonstrated that M. leprae, although demonstrable in the anterior choroid, could not be found in the posterior parts of the eye, substantiating the claim that leprosy does not affect the posterior parts of the eye directly. PMID:10834066

  14. The Relationship of Cataract and Cataract Extraction to Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara E. K.; Howard, Kerri P.; Lee, Kristine E.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Klein, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of cataract and cataract surgery with early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) over a 20-year interval. Design Longitudinal population-based study of age-related eye diseases. Participants: Beaver Dam Eye Study participants. Methods All persons 43-84 years of age were recruited in 1987-1988. Participants were followed up at five year intervals after the baseline examination in 1988-1990. Examinations consisted of ocular examination with lens and fundus photography, medical history, measurements of blood pressure, height, and weight. Values of risk variables were updated, and incidences of early and late AMD were calculated for each 5-year interval. Odds ratios were computed using discrete linear logistic regression modeling with generalized estimating equation methods to account for correlation between the eyes and multiple intervals. Main Outcome Measures AMD. Results After controlling for age and sex, neither cataract nor cataract surgery was associated with increased odds for developing early AMD. Further controlling for high risk gene alleles (CFH and ARMS2) and other possible risk factors did not materially affect the odds ratio (OR). However, cataract surgery was associated with incidence of late AMD (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.28, 2.90). This OR was not materially altered by further controlling for high risk alleles (CFH Y402H, ARMS2) or for other risk factors. The OR for late AMD was higher for cataract surgery performed 5 or more years prior as compared to less than 5 years prior. Conclusions These data strongly support the past findings of an association of cataract surgery with late AMD independent of other risk factors including high risk genetic status, and suggest the importance of considering these findings when counseling patients regarding cataract surgery. These findings should provide further impetus for the search for measures to prevent or delay the development of age-related cataract. PMID:22578823

  15. National Burden of Eye Diseases in Iran, 1990–2010; Findings from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    Hatef, Elham; Mohammadi, Seyed-Farzad; Alinia, Cyrus; Ashrafi, Elham; Mohammadi, S-Mehrdad; Lashay, Alireza; Sadeghi-Tari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost due to eye diseases and trends in DALYs in Iran has not been previously reported. The object of this study is to report the burden of eye diseases in Iran and to compare changes from 1990 to 2010 based on age and gender. Methods: Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) are used to report DALYs for cataract, refraction/accommodation (functional) disorders, macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Results: Cataract, refraction/accommodation (functional) disorders, macular degeneration, and glaucoma were the 84th, 87th, 138th, and 151st causes of DALY in 1990 and the 89th, 72nd, 99th, and 137th in 2010, respectively. Cataract accounted for 0.085% of national DALY in 1990 and 0.09% in 2010, refraction/accommodation (functional) disorders accounted for 0.42% in 1990 and 0.47% in 2010, macular degeneration accounted for 0.017% in 1990 and 0.071% in 2010 and glaucoma accounted for 0.0099% in 1990 and 0.025% in 2010. There was a steady increase in DALY with age for each eye disease for both genders and dichotomized for males and females from 1990 to 2010. Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is reflected in major ophthalmic and blinding diseases in the GBD data for Iran. The burden of macular degeneration is rising, followed by glaucoma. The burden of presbyopia affected individuals past their middle age. The burden of cataract manifested as a slower increase that could be attributable to better access to treatment. PMID:26957846

  16. Second-phase validation study of short time exposure test for assessment of eye irritation potency of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Omori, Takashi; Otoizumi, Takuya; Sozu, Takashi; Kuwahara, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Mayumi; Toyoda, Akemi; Goto, Haruka; Watanabe, Shinichi; Ahiko, Kyoko; Nakamura, Tsuneaki; Morimoto, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    A Short Time Exposure (STE) test is a cytotoxicity test that uses SIRC cells (rabbit corneal cell line) to assess eye irritation potency following a 5-min chemical exposure. This second-phase validation study assessed the predictive capacity of the STE test using 40 coded test substances at three laboratories. A Validation Management Team (VMT) then evaluated the predictivity of the STE test for United Nation (UN) Globally Harmonized System (GHS) categories using 63 test substances including the results of the first-phase validation study. The STE test can assess not only the severe or corrosive ocular irritants (corresponding to the UN GHS Category 1) but also non-irritant (corresponding to UN GHS Non Category) from other toxicity classes, especially for limited types of test substances. The predictivity by STE test, however, was insufficient for identification of UN GHS categories (Category 1, Category 2, or Non Category). These results suggest that the STE test can be recommended as an initial step in a top-down approach to identification of severe irritants and test substances that require classification for eye irritation (UN GHS Category 1) as well as an initial step in a bottom-up approach to identification of test substances that do not require classification for eye irritation (UN GHS Non Category) from other toxicity classes, especially for limited types of test substances. On the other hand, the STE test is not considered adequate for the identification of mild or moderate irritants (i.e., UN GHS Categories 2A and 2B) and severe irritants (UN GHS Category 1). PMID:23747838

  17. Acquisition of Malay word recognition skills: lessons from low-progress early readers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both syllable awareness and phoneme blending were significant predictors of word recognition, suggesting that both syllable and phonemic grain-sizes are important in Malay word recognition. Item analysis revealed a hierarchical pattern of difficulty based on the syllable and the phonic structure of the words. Error analysis identified the sources of errors to be errors due to inefficient syllable segmentation, oversimplification of syllables, insufficient grapheme-phoneme knowledge and inefficient phonemic code assembly. Evidence also suggests that direct instruction in syllable segmentation, phonemic awareness and grapheme-phoneme correspondence is necessary for low-progress readers to acquire word recognition skills. Finally, a logical sequence to teach grapheme-phoneme decoding in Malay is suggested. PMID:21241030

  18. Development of an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire as a tool to study eye diseases patients in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Nizar Saleh; Amgad, Mohamed; Salama, Ahmed A; Israel, Marina E; Elhawary, Ghada A; Radwan, Ahmed E; Elgayar, Mohamed M; EL Nakhal, Tamer M; Elkhateb, Islam T; Hashem, Heba A; Embaby, Doha K; Elabd, Amira A; Elwy, Reem K; Yacoub, Magdi S; Salem, Hamdy; Abdel-Baqy, Mohamed; Kassem, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    AIM To develop and test an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25). METHODS NEI-VFQ-25 was translated into Arabic according to WHO translation guidelines. We enrolled adult consenting patients with bilateral chronic eye diseases who presented to 14 hospitals across Egypt from October to December 2012, and documented their clinical findings. Psychometric properties were then tested using STATA. RESULTS We recruited 379 patients, whose mean age was (54.5±15)y. Of 46.2% were males, 227 had cataract, 31 had glaucoma, 23 had retinal detachment, 37 had diabetic retinopathy, and 61 had miscellaneous visual defects. Non-response rate and the floor and ceiling numbers of the Arabic version (ARB-VFQ-25) were calculated. Internal consistency was high in all subscales (except general health), with Cronbach-α ranging from 0.702-0.911. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.79). CONCLUSION ARB-VFQ-25 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing visual functions of Arabic speaking patients. However, some questions had high non-response rates and should be substituted by available alternatives. Our results support the importance of including self-reported visual functions as part of routine ophthalmologic examination. PMID:25349812

  19. The Fixation Distance to the Stimulus Influences ERP Quality: An EEG and Eye Tracking N400 Study.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Martínez, Estefanía; Parise, Eugenio; Strandvall, Tommy; Reid, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    In a typical visual Event Related Potential (ERP) study, the stimulus is presented centrally on the screen. Normally an ERP response will be measured provided that the participant directs their gaze towards the stimulus. The aim of this study was to assess how the N400 component of an ERP was affected when the stimulus was presented in the foveal, parafoveal or peripheral vision of the participant's visual field. Utilizing stimuli that have previously produced an N400 response to action incongruities, the same stimuli sequences were presented at 0°, 4°, 8° and 12° of visual angle from a fixation location. In addition to the EEG data, eye tracking data were recorded to act as a fixation control method and to allow for eye artifact detection. The results show a significant N400 effect in the right parieto-temporal electrodes within the 0° visual angle condition. For the other conditions, the N400 effect was reduced (4°) or not present (8° and 12°). Our results suggest that the disappearance of the N400 effect with eccentricity is due to the fixation distance to the stimulus. However, variables like attentional allocation could have also had an impact on the results. This study highlights the importance of presenting a stimulus within the foveal vision of the participant in order to maximize ERP effects related to higher order cognitive processes. PMID:26222059

  20. Chitosan coated PLA nanoparticles for ophthalmic delivery: characterization, in-vitro and in-vivo study in rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Nagarwal, Ramesh C; Singh, P N; Kant, S; Maiti, P; Pandit, J K

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop a poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PLA) nano-carrier for topical ocular applications. PLA nanoparticles (PLA-NPs) with 5-fluorouracil were prepared using varying concentration and molecular weight of PLA to regulate the particle size. The dimension and shape of nanoparticles were verified by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ex-vivo permeation study was conducted by goat and rabbit excised cornea. In-vivo experiment was conducted in rabbit eye and 5-FU concentration was measured in aqueous and vitreous humor by HPLC. In-vitro experiments indicated a diffusion controlled release of 5-FU. No significant interaction was observed in between mucin and PLA NPs that measured in terms of viscosity change. Ex-vivo permeation was significantly higher with rabbit cornea as compared to goat cornea. PLA and CH-PLA DNPs showed increased level of 5-FU as comparison to 5-FU solution. In-vivo study showed significantly higher concentration in case of uncoated and CH coated PLA nanoparticles in rabbit eye as compared to free 5-FU solution. PLA nanoparticle was found non-irritant in nature by modified Draize test. PMID:21361129

  1. The Fixation Distance to the Stimulus Influences ERP Quality: An EEG and Eye Tracking N400 Study

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Martínez, Estefanía; Parise, Eugenio; Strandvall, Tommy; Reid, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    In a typical visual Event Related Potential (ERP) study, the stimulus is presented centrally on the screen. Normally an ERP response will be measured provided that the participant directs their gaze towards the stimulus. The aim of this study was to assess how the N400 component of an ERP was affected when the stimulus was presented in the foveal, parafoveal or peripheral vision of the participant’s visual field. Utilizing stimuli that have previously produced an N400 response to action incongruities, the same stimuli sequences were presented at 0°, 4°, 8° and 12° of visual angle from a fixation location. In addition to the EEG data, eye tracking data were recorded to act as a fixation control method and to allow for eye artifact detection. The results show a significant N400 effect in the right parieto-temporal electrodes within the 0° visual angle condition. For the other conditions, the N400 effect was reduced (4°) or not present (8° and 12°). Our results suggest that the disappearance of the N400 effect with eccentricity is due to the fixation distance to the stimulus. However, variables like attentional allocation could have also had an impact on the results. This study highlights the importance of presenting a stimulus within the foveal vision of the participant in order to maximize ERP effects related to higher order cognitive processes. PMID:26222059

  2. Attentional Biases in Currently Depressed Children: An Eye-Tracking Study of Biases in Sustained Attention to Emotional Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ashley Johnson; Gibb, Brandon E

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories state attentional biases contribute to the development and maintenance of depression. Like depressed adults, there is growing evidence for the presence of attentional biases to sad stimuli in depressed youth. Although the direction of this bias among children remains unclear, preliminary evidence indicates attentional avoidance of sad stimuli in children. This is the first known sudy to use eye-tracking to investigate the exact nature of attention biases among depressed children. To assess sustained attention, the current study used eye-tracking and a passive viewing task in which children viewed a series of four facial expressions (angry, happy, sad, neutral) presented simultatiously for 20 s on a computer screen. The current study compared the attentional allocation of currently depressed children (n = 19; M age = 11.21) to a group of never depressed children (n = 22; M age = 10.82). Consistent with earlier research with children, we found that children with current major or minor depression, compared to children with no history of depression, exhibited attentional avoidance of sad facial stimuil as well as some evidence for preferential attention to happy faces. This study provides additional evidence that although depressed children demonstrate mood congruent attentional biases like that observed depressed adults, the nature of these biases may reflect attentional avoidance of sad stimuli, rather than preferential attention. PMID:25010145

  3. Capabilities of the bathymetric Hawk Eye LiDAR for coastal habitat mapping: A case study within a Basque estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chust, Guillem; Grande, Maitane; Galparsoro, Ibon; Uriarte, Adolfo; Borja, Ángel

    2010-10-01

    The bathymetric LiDAR system is an airborne laser that detects sea bottom at high vertical and horizontal resolutions in shallow coastal waters. This study assesses the capabilities of the airborne bathymetric LiDAR sensor (Hawk Eye system) for coastal habitat mapping in the Oka estuary (within the Biosphere Reserve of Urdaibai, SE Bay of Biscay, northern Spain), where water conditions are moderately turbid. Three specific objectives were addressed: 1) to assess the data quality of the Hawk Eye LiDAR, both for terrestrial and subtidal zones, in terms of height measurement density, coverage, and vertical accuracy; 2) to compare bathymetric LiDAR with a ship-borne multibeam echosounder (MBES) for different bottom types and depth ranges; and 3) to test the discrimination potential of LiDAR height and reflectance information, together with multi-spectral imagery (three visible and near infrared bands), for the classification of 22 salt marsh and rocky shore habitats, covering supralittoral, intertidal and subtidal zones. The bathymetric LiDAR Hawk Eye data enabled the generation of a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Oka estuary, at 2 m of horizontal spatial resolution in the terrestrial zone (with a vertical accuracy of 0.15 m) and at 4 m within the subtidal, extending a water depth of 21 m. Data gaps occurred in 14.4% of the area surveyed with the LiDAR (13.69 km 2). Comparison of the LiDAR system and the MBES showed no significant mean difference in depth. However, the Root Mean Square error of the former was high (0.84 m), especially concentrated upon rocky (0.55-1.77 m) rather than in sediment bottoms (0.38-0.62 m). The potential of LiDAR topographic variables and reflectance alone for discriminating 15 intertidal and submerged habitats was low (with overall classification accuracy between 52.4 and 65.4%). In particular, reflectance retrieved for this case study has been found to be not particularly useful for classification purposes. The combination of the Li

  4. Age Differences in Online Processing of Video: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Keen, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Eye movements were recorded while 62 one-year-olds, four-year-olds, and adults watched television. Of interest was the extent to which viewers looked at the same place at the same time as their peers because high similarity across viewers suggests systematic viewing driven by comprehension processes. Similarity of gaze location increased with age. This was particularly true immediately following a cut to a new scene, partly because older viewers (but not infants) tended to fixate the center of the screen following a cut. Conversely, infants appear to require several seconds to orient to a new scene. Results are interpreted in the context of developing attention skills. Findings have implications for the extent to which infants comprehend and learn from commercial video. PMID:22288510

  5. On forward inferences of fast and slow readers. An eye movement study

    PubMed Central

    Hawelka, Stefan; Schuster, Sarah; Gagl, Benjamin; Hutzler, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Unimpaired readers process words incredibly fast and hence it was assumed that top-down processing, such as predicting upcoming words, would be too slow to play an appreciable role in reading. This runs counter the major postulate of the predictive coding framework that our brain continually predicts probable upcoming sensory events. This means, it may generate predictions about the probable upcoming word during reading (dubbed forward inferences). Trying to asses these contradictory assumptions, we evaluated the effect of the predictability of words in sentences on eye movement control during silent reading. Participants were a group of fluent (i.e., fast) and a group of speed-impaired (i.e., slow) readers. The findings indicate that fast readers generate forward inferences, whereas speed-impaired readers do so to a reduced extent - indicating a significant role of predictive coding for fluent reading. PMID:25678030

  6. Sources of variation in developmental language disorders: evidence from eye-tracking studies of sentence production

    PubMed Central

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2014-01-01

    Skilled sentence production involves distinct stages of message conceptualization (deciding what to talk about) and message formulation (deciding how to talk about it). Eye-movement paradigms provide a mechanism for observing how speakers accomplish these aspects of production in real time. These methods have recently been applied to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (LI) in an effort to reveal qualitative differences between groups in sentence production processes. Findings support a multiple-deficit account in which language production is influenced not only by lexical and syntactic constraints, but also by variation in attention control, inhibition and social competence. Thus, children with ASD are especially vulnerable to atypical patterns of visual inspection and verbal utterance. The potential to influence attentional focus and prime appropriate language structures are considered as a mechanism for facilitating language adaptation and learning. PMID:24324237

  7. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    PubMed

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory. PMID:12929791

  8. [Study of non-visually induced smooth pursuit eye movements and their predictability using pseudorandom target motion].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Hashiba, M

    1997-12-01

    It has been found that the smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are elicited by not only visual stimuli but also non-visual information such as the subject's fingertip movement and a moving sound source. We have already reported the quantitative analysis of SPEM which were induced by somatosensory and acoustic information. In the previous study, we used a sinusoidal waveform that could be highly predictable. Since it is wellknown that predictive control has an important role in the normal SPEM, we expect the predictive control to function in non-visually induced SPEM (NVSPEM). We quantitatively analyzed NVSPEM and normal SPEM evoked by pseudorandom target motion in ten human subjects who had no ocular, oculomotor or vestibular disorders. NVSPEM were induced by the following two non-visual targets: 1, subjects' fingertip motion as a somatosensory target ("Somato"), 2, a small loudspeaker (3-cm diameter.) generating white noise with an intensity of about 60 dB (A) as an acoustic target ("Acoustic"). A servo-controlled swing arm of 50cm was used to drive the subject's fingertip and the acoustic target of the small loudspeaker. The horizontal motion of the swing arm was controlled by a personal computer. The pseudorandom target motion was generated by mixing four sinusoids (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 Hz) of which the phases were randomly selected and the peak velocities were equally set at 19 deg/s. The mean peak velocity of the target was 26.2 deg/s and the amplitude was limited within 15 deg. Horizontal eye movements were recorded by DC electro-oculography and on an analogue datatape. The experiment was performed for 30 s in complete darkness so that the subjects' fingertip and loudspeaker as such remain invisible to the subject. Signals from the data recorder were smoothed by a low pass analogue filter of 20Hz, after digitization with a sampling frequency of 200 Hz and precision of 12 bits, and stored on a computer. The slow and quick eye movement components, both of which

  9. Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye

    PubMed Central

    Oros, Sarah M.; Tare, Meghana; Kango-Singh, Madhuri; Singh, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Axial patterning is crucial for organogenesis. During Drosophila eye development, dorso-ventral (DV) axis determination is the first lineage restriction event. The eye primordium begins with a default ventral fate, on which the dorsal eye fate is established by expression of the GATA-1 transcription factor pannier (pnr). Earlier, it was suggested that loss of pnr function induces enlargement in the dorsal eye due to ectopic equator formation. Interestingly, we found that in addition to regulating DV patterning, pnr suppresses the eye fate by downregulating the core retinal determination genes eyes absent (eya), sine oculis (so) and dacshund (dac) to define the dorsal eye margin. We found that pnr acts downstream of Ey and affect the retinal determination pathway by suppressing eya. Further analysis of the “eye suppression” function of pnr revealed that this function is likely mediated through suppression of the homeotic gene teashirt (tsh) and is independent of homothorax (hth), a negative regulator of eye. Pnr expression is restricted to the peripodial membrane on the dorsal eye margin, which gives rise to head structures around the eye, and pnr is not expressed in the eye disc proper that forms the retina. Thus, pnr has dual function, during early developmental stages pnr is involved in axial patterning whereas later it promotes the head specific fate. These studies will help in understanding the developmental regulation of boundary formation of the eye field on the dorsal eye margin. PMID:20691679

  10. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action. PMID:27187230

  11. Studies of the Ability to Hold the Eye in Eccentric Gaze: Measurements in Normal Subjects with the Head Erect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Leigh, R. John; Wood, Scott J.; Paloski, William H.; Kornilova, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    We studied the ability to hold the eyes in eccentric horizontal or vertical gaze angles in 68 normal humans, age range 19-56. Subjects attempted to sustain visual fixation of a briefly flashed target located 30 in the horizontal plane and 15 in the vertical plane in a dark environment. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting centripetal eye drifts by exponential curves and calculating the time constant (t(sub c)) of these slow phases of gazeevoked nystagmus. Although the distribution of time-constant measurements (t(sub c)) in our normal subjects was extremely skewed due to occasional test runs that exhibited near-perfect stability (large t(sub c) values), we found that log10(tc) was approximately normally distributed within classes of target direction. Therefore, statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of z identical with log10t(sub c). Subjects showed considerable variation in their eyedrift performance over repeated trials; nonetheless, statistically significant differences emerged: values of tc were significantly higher for gaze elicited to targets in the horizontal plane than for the vertical plane (P less than 10(exp -5), suggesting eccentric gazeholding is more stable in the horizontal than in the vertical plane. Furthermore, centrifugal eye drifts were observed in 13.3, 16.0 and 55.6% of cases for horizontal, upgaze and downgaze tests, respectively. Fifth percentile values of the time constant were estimated to be 10.2 sec, 3.3 sec and 3.8 sec for horizontal, upward and downward gaze, respectively. The difference between horizontal and vertical gazeholding may be ascribed to separate components of the velocity position neural integrator for eye movements, and to differences in orbital mechanics. Our statistical method for representing the range of normal eccentric gaze stability can be readily applied in a clinical setting to patients who were exposed to environments

  12. Joint Effects of Intraocular Pressure and Myopia on Risk of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Yih-Chung; Aung, Tin; Fan, Qiao; Saw, Seang-Mei; Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Wong, Tien Y.; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    We examined the joint effects of intraocular pressure (IOP) and myopia on the risk of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a multi-ethnic Asian population. A total of 9,422 participants (18,469 eyes) in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study were included. Of them, 213 subjects (273 eyes) had POAG. All participants underwent standardised examinations. The independent and joint effects of IOP and myopia on POAG were examined using logistic regression models. Generalised estimating equation models were used to account for correlation between eyes. Higher IOP, longer axial length, and more negative spherical equivalent were independently associated with POAG, after adjusting for relevant covariates (all P ≤ 0.005). Significant interaction between IOP and myopia on POAG was observed (P interaction = 0.025). Eyes with moderate-to-high myopia (<−3.0 dioptres) with high IOP (≥20 mmHg) were 4.27 times (95% CI, 2.10–8.69) likely to have POAG, compared to eyes without myopia (>−0.5 dioptres) and with IOP <20 mmHg. Eyes with AL of ≥25.5 mm and high IOP (≥20 mmHg) were 16.22 times (95% CI, 7.73 to 34.03) likely to have POAG, compared to eyes with shorter AL (<23.5 mm) and lower IOP (<20 mmHg). These findings may provide additional insights into the pathophysiology of POAG and are particularly relevant for Asian populations. PMID:26758554

  13. Joint Effects of Intraocular Pressure and Myopia on Risk of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

    PubMed

    Tham, Yih-Chung; Aung, Tin; Fan, Qiao; Saw, Seang-Mei; Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Wong, Tien Y; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    We examined the joint effects of intraocular pressure (IOP) and myopia on the risk of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a multi-ethnic Asian population. A total of 9,422 participants (18,469 eyes) in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study were included. Of them, 213 subjects (273 eyes) had POAG. All participants underwent standardised examinations. The independent and joint effects of IOP and myopia on POAG were examined using logistic regression models. Generalised estimating equation models were used to account for correlation between eyes. Higher IOP, longer axial length, and more negative spherical equivalent were independently associated with POAG, after adjusting for relevant covariates (all P ≤ 0.005). Significant interaction between IOP and myopia on POAG was observed (P interaction = 0.025). Eyes with moderate-to-high myopia (<-3.0 dioptres) with high IOP (≥20 mmHg) were 4.27 times (95% CI, 2.10-8.69) likely to have POAG, compared to eyes without myopia (>-0.5 dioptres) and with IOP <20 mmHg. Eyes with AL of ≥25.5 mm and high IOP (≥20 mmHg) were 16.22 times (95% CI, 7.73 to 34.03) likely to have POAG, compared to eyes with shorter AL (<23.5 mm) and lower IOP (<20 mmHg). These findings may provide additional insights into the pathophysiology of POAG and are particularly relevant for Asian populations. PMID:26758554

  14. The role of the eyes in processing an intact face and its scrambled image: a dense array ERP and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) study.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Marco; Aceto, Paola; Altavilla, Daniela; Palumbo, Letizia; Lai, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the eyes of an intact face produced a specific brain response compared to the mouth, nose, or hair and whether their specificity was also maintained in a scrambled face. Fifteen subjects were asked to focus visual attention on global and single elements in intact faces and in their scrambled image. EEG data were recorded from 256-Hydrocel Geodesic Sensor-Net200. Event-related potentials (ERPs) analyses showed a difference between the intact face and the scrambled face from N170 component until 600 ms on the occipito-temporal montage and at 400-600 ms on the frontal montage. Only the eyes showed a difference between conditions (intact/scrambled face) at 500 ms. The most activated source detected by sLORETA was the right middle temporal gyrus (BA21) for both conditions and for all elements. Left BA21 resulted in significantly more activation in response to eyes in the intact face compared to the eyes in the scrambled face at 500 ms. The left BA21 has a central role in high-level visual processing and in understanding others' intentions. These findings suggest a specificity of the eyes and indicate that the eyes play the social and communicative role of comprehending the nonverbal intentions of others only when inserted in an intact face. PMID:23706064

  15. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

    2014-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data

  16. Hand Washing Induces a Clean Slate Effect in Moral Judgments: A Pupillometry and Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Kai; Krapp, Vanessa; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Physical cleansing is commonly understood to protect us against physical contamination. However, recent studies showed additional effects on moral judgments. Under the heading of the “Macbeth effect” direct links between bodily cleansing and one’s own moral purity have been demonstrated. Here we investigate (1) how moral judgments develop over time and how they are altered by hand washing, (2) whether changes in moral judgments can be explained by altered information sampling from the environment, and (3) whether hand washing affects emotional arousal. Using a pre-post control group design, we found that morality ratings of morally good and bad scenes acquired more extreme values in the control group over time, an effect that was fully counteracted by intermediate hand washing. This result supports the notion of a clean slate effect by hand washing. Thereby, eye-tracking data did not uncover differences in eye movement behavior that may explain differences in moral judgments. Thus, the clean slate effect is not due to altered information sampling from the environment. Finally, compared to the control group, pupil diameter decreased after hand washing, thus demonstrating a direct physiological effect. The results shed light on the physiological mechanisms behind this type of embodiment phenomenon. PMID:25994083

  17. Hand washing induces a clean slate effect in moral judgments: a pupillometry and eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Kai; Krapp, Vanessa; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Physical cleansing is commonly understood to protect us against physical contamination. However, recent studies showed additional effects on moral judgments. Under the heading of the "Macbeth effect" direct links between bodily cleansing and one's own moral purity have been demonstrated. Here we investigate (1) how moral judgments develop over time and how they are altered by hand washing, (2) whether changes in moral judgments can be explained by altered information sampling from the environment, and (3) whether hand washing affects emotional arousal. Using a pre-post control group design, we found that morality ratings of morally good and bad scenes acquired more extreme values in the control group over time, an effect that was fully counteracted by intermediate hand washing. This result supports the notion of a clean slate effect by hand washing. Thereby, eye-tracking data did not uncover differences in eye movement behavior that may explain differences in moral judgments. Thus, the clean slate effect is not due to altered information sampling from the environment. Finally, compared to the control group, pupil diameter decreased after hand washing, thus demonstrating a direct physiological effect. The results shed light on the physiological mechanisms behind this type of embodiment phenomenon. PMID:25994083

  18. [Scintigraphic study of the lymphatic drainage of the anterior chamber of the mouse eye and its pathophysiological implications].

    PubMed

    Guignier, B; Bourahla, K; Bekaert, V; Brasse, D; Gaucher, D; Speeg-Schatz, C; Bourcier, T

    2013-12-01

    For many years, the intraocular lymphatic system and particularly the drainage of the aqueous humor by this system have been considered non-existant. Our study is the first to demonstrate, in a dynamic in vivo fashion, the existence of lymphatic drainage in the mouse eye. This has become possible with lymphoscintigraphy with nano-molecules of rhenium sulphide, marked by technetium-99m and injected into the anterior chamber of the mouse eye. Readings were taken using an experimental gamma camera specially built for the small animal. The hypothesis of a "uveolymphatic" drainage pathway within the ciliary body, contributing to aqueous outflow, has recently been highlighted by new improvements in microbiology (discovery of lymphatic endothelial-specific markers) and imaging. This new pathway may lead to many prospects: the development of techniques for visualization and quantification of this in vivo lymphatic flow may help to increase our understanding of the physiopathology and perhaps treatment of chronic glaucoma as well as neoplastic conditions. PMID:24099697

  19. Attentional biases toward emotional images in the different episodes of bipolar disorder: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    García-Blanco, Ana; Salmerón, Ladislao; Perea, Manuel; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2014-03-30

    Attentional biases toward emotional information may represent vulnerability and maintenance factors in bipolar disorder (BD). The present experimental study examined the processing of emotional information in BD patients using the eye-tracking technology. Bipolar patients in their different states (euthymia, mania, depression) simultaneously viewed four pictures with different emotional valence (happy, neutral, sad, threatening) for 20s while their eye movements were monitored. A group of healthy individuals served as the control. The data revealed the following: (i) a decrease in attention to happy images in BD patients in their depressive episodes compared to healthy individuals, and (ii) an increase in attention to threatening images in BD patients (regardless of their episode) relative to the healthy controls. These biases appeared in the late stages of information processing and were sustained over the 20s interval. Thus, the present findings reveal that attentional biases toward emotional information can be a key feature of BD, in that: (i) an anhedonic lack of sensitivity to positive stimuli during the bipolar depressive episode may be considered a maintaining factor of this clinical state, and (ii) the trait-bias toward threat, even in asymptomatic patients, may reflect a marker of vulnerability in BD. PMID:24439518

  20. The IMPACT study: a prospective evaluation of the effects of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% on ocular surface staining and visual performance in patients with dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Stonecipher, Karl G; Torkildsen, Gail L; Ousler, George W; Morris, Scot; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% on ocular surface staining and visual performance in patients with dry eye. Methods This was a single-center, 6-month, open-label, Phase IV study. Patients with bilateral dry eye disease and a symptom score of ≥2 on the Ocular Discomfort and 4-Symptom Questionnaire, an Ocular Surface Disease Index score of >12, at least one eye with Schirmer’s score <10 mm/5 minutes, and central corneal staining graded as ≥2 on the Ora Calibra™ Corneal and Conjunctival Staining Scale were enrolled. Cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis®) was instilled twice daily in each eye. The primary efficacy endpoints were ocular surface staining and visual function at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures included Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, symptoms, and adverse events. Results A total of 40 patients with the mean age of 59.4 years (range, 40–78 years) were enrolled; 35 (87.5%) were female and 37 (92.5%) completed the study. At 6 months, inferior corneal, central corneal, total corneal, and total ocular surface fluorescein staining were significantly improved from baseline in both eyes (P<0.001). Patient responses on the Ocular Surface Disease Index showed significant improvement in blurred vision and visual function related to reading, driving at night, working with a computer or bank machine, and watching television (P≤0.041). At 6 months, 35.1% of patients achieved ≥5 mm improvement and 18.9% achieved ≥10 mm improvement in the average eye Schirmer score. Mean tear film breakup time improved by >50% in both eyes (P>0.001). Patients reported significant improvement in ocular discomfort and dry eye symptoms (P<0.001). No patients discontinued treatment because of stinging or any other ocular adverse event. Conclusion Dry eye patients with difficulties with day-to-day visual function demonstrated improvement in both signs and symptoms of dry eye and

  1. Ciliary body and choroidal melanomas treated by proton beam irradiation. Histopathologic study of eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Seddon, J.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Albert, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    Proton beam irradiation resulted in clinical and/or histopathological regression of large ciliary body and choroidal melanomas in three eyes. Enucleations were performed 6 1/2 weeks, five months, and 11 months after irradiation for angle-closure glaucoma from total retinal detachment, increase in retinal detachment, and neovascular glaucoma, respectively. A direct relationship was found between the length of the interval from irradiation to enucleation and the degree of histologic changes. Vascular changes in the tumors included endothelial cell swelling and decreased lumen size, basement membrane thickening, collapse of sinusoidal vessels, and thrombosis of vessels. Although apparently unaltered tumor cells remained, degenerative changes occurred in some melanoma cells, including lipid vacuoles in cytoplasm, pyknotic nuclei, and balloon cell formation. Patchy areas of necrosis and proteinaceous exudate were present. Pigment-laden macrophages were found near tumor vessels and all had a substantial chronic inflammatory infiltrate. The effect of proton beam irradiation on tumor vessels probably plays an important role in uveal melanoma regression.

  2. Effects of Four Formulations of Prostaglandin Analogs on Eye Surface Cells. A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Roca, Fernando; Rodrigo-Morales, Esther; Garzón, Ingrid; Oliveira, Ana-Celeste; Martín-Piedra, Miguel-Ángel; Carriel, Víctor; Ortiz-Pérez, Ana-Isabel; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; Campos, Antonio; Alaminos, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of four prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) used to treat glaucoma. First we established primary cultures of conjunctival stromal cells from healthy donors. Then cell cultures were incubated with different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100%) of commercial formulations of bimatoprost, tafluprost, travoprost and latanoprost for increasing periods (5 and 30 min, 1 h, 6 h and 24 h) and cell survival was assessed with three different methods: WST-1, MTT and calcein/AM-ethidium homodimer-1 assays. Our results showed that all PGAs were associated with a certain level of cell damage, which correlated significantly with the concentration of PGA used, and to a lesser extent with culture time. Tafluprost tended to be less toxic than bimatoprost, travoprost and latanoprost after all culture periods. The results for WST-1, MTT and calcein/AM-ethidium homodimer-1 correlated closely. When the average lethal dose 50 was calculated, we found that the most cytotoxic drug was latanoprost, whereas tafluprost was the most sparing of the ocular surface in vitro. These results indicate the need to design novel PGAs with high effectiveness but free from the cytotoxic effects that we found, or at least to obtain drugs that are functional at low dosages. The fact that the commercial formulation of tafluprost used in this work was preservative-free may support the current tendency to eliminate preservatives from eye drops for clinical use. PMID:26067827

  3. Benefits of early development of eye-hand coordination: evidence from the LOOK longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Telford, R D; Cunningham, R B; Telford, R M; Olive, L S; Byrne, D G; Abhayaratna, W P

    2013-10-01

    We investigated longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between eye-hand coordination (EHC) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multistage run), physical activity (pedometers), percent body fat (%BF, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), body image, and organized sport participation (questionnaires) in 406 boys and 384 girls at 8 and 10 years of age. EHC was measured by a throw and wall-rebound catch test involving 40 attempts of increasing difficulty. Median EHC improved during two years from 18 to 32 (boys) and 9 to 24 (girls), and gender differences and improvements were both significant (P < 0.001). Cross-sectional analyses showed that boys and girls with better EHC were fitter (P < 0.001), and a longitudinal relationship showed that girls who improved their EHC over the two years became fitter (P < 0.001). There was also evidence that children with better EHC possessed a more positive body image (P = 0.05 for combined sex data), but there was no evidence of any relationships between EHC and %BF or PA (both P > 0.3). Finally, even at age 8 years, boys and girls participating in organized sport possessed better EHC than non-participants. These data provide evidence for the premise that early acquisition of this single motor skill promotes the development of a child's fitness, body image, and participation in sport. PMID:23614667

  4. An eye movement study on the role of the visual field defect in pure alexia.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Tobias; Wolfer, Sascha A; Hachmann, Wibke; Lagrèze, Wolf A; Konieczny, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Pure alexia is a severe impairment of word reading which is usually accompanied by a right-sided visual field defect. Patients with pure alexia exhibit better preserved writing and a considerable word length effect, claimed to result from a serial letter processing strategy. Two experiments compared the eye movements of four patients with pure alexia to controls with simulated visual field defects (sVFD) when reading single words. Besides differences in response times and differential effects of word length on word reading in both groups, fixation durations and the occurrence of a serial, letter-by-letter fixation strategy were investigated. The analyses revealed quantitative and qualitative differences between pure alexic patients and unimpaired individuals reading with sVFD. The patients with pure alexia read words slower and exhibited more fixations. The serial, letter-by-letter fixation strategy was observed only in the patients but not in the controls with sVFD. It is argued that the VFD does not cause pure alexic reading. PMID:24999811

  5. An Eye Movement Study on the Role of the Visual Field Defect in Pure Alexia

    PubMed Central

    Bormann, Tobias; Wolfer, Sascha A.; Hachmann, Wibke; Lagrèze, Wolf A.; Konieczny, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Pure alexia is a severe impairment of word reading which is usually accompanied by a right-sided visual field defect. Patients with pure alexia exhibit better preserved writing and a considerable word length effect, claimed to result from a serial letter processing strategy. Two experiments compared the eye movements of four patients with pure alexia to controls with simulated visual field defects (sVFD) when reading single words. Besides differences in response times and differential effects of word length on word reading in both groups, fixation durations and the occurrence of a serial, letter-by-letter fixation strategy were investigated. The analyses revealed quantitative and qualitative differences between pure alexic patients and unimpaired individuals reading with sVFD. The patients with pure alexia read words slower and exhibited more fixations. The serial, letter-by-letter fixation strategy was observed only in the patients but not in the controls with sVFD. It is argued that the VFD does not cause pure alexic reading. PMID:24999811

  6. The processing of raising and nominal control: an eye-tracking study

    PubMed Central

    Sturt, Patrick; Kwon, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment, Dillon et al. (2013) found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g., “John seemed to Tom to be kind to himself…”), or nominal control (e.g., “John's agreement with Tom to be kind to himself…”). We hypothesized that dependencies involving raising would (a) be processed more quickly, and (b) be less subject to retrieval interference, relative to those involving nominal control. This is due to the fact that the interpretation of raising is structurally constrained, while the interpretation of nominal control depends crucially on lexical properties of the control nominal. The results showed evidence of interference when the reflexive-antecedent dependency was mediated by raising or nominal control, but very little evidence that could be interpreted in terms of interference for direct reflexive-antecedent dependencies that did not involve raising or control. However, there was no evidence either for greater interference, or for quicker dependency formation, for raising than for nominal control. PMID:25852629

  7. Histopathological changes in the eyes in systemic lupus erythematosus: an electron microscope and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Nag, T C; Wadhwa, S

    2005-04-01

    This paper reports the histopathological findings in the eyes of a 26-year-old female patient diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with peripheral neuropathy. The patient had no significant ocular problems. She died of pneumonia after two years of suffering. The eyeballs were procured at autopsy and the retina, choroid and optic nerve processed for light and electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry for immunoglobulin G (IgG), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calbindin and parvalbumin. Histologically, there was haemorrhaging in the retinal nerve fibre layer. Ultrastructurally, the axons of this layer were swollen, and contained an unusual accumulation of microtubules and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. There were degenerative changes in the pericytes and smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. The capillary lumen was partially obliterated, and contained IgG, which was also detected throughout the choroid and wall of choroidal arterioles. The latter and Bruch's membrane showed fibrin deposits. The optic nerve showed infiltrated mononuclear cells near the degenerated axons, these axons lacked immunoreactivity to calbindin and parvalbumin. Compared to the control, the connective tissue sheaths of the central retinal vessels possessed a vast number of proliferated fibroblast cells, and trichrome staining showed transmural vessel scarring. Dense GFAP immunoreactivity was observed surrounding the vessel wall. These pathological changes are due to impaired blood circulation caused by haemorrhaging and vasculitis, and vessel occlusion by fibrin. The nature of the changes observed tends to indicate that a regular, thorough ophthalmic examination should be conducted even in the absence of significant ocular symptoms in SLE. PMID:15736040

  8. Great apes generate goal-based action predictions: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Kano, Fumihiro; Call, Josep

    2014-09-01

    To examine great apes' on-line prediction of other individuals' actions, we used an eye-tracking technique and an experimental paradigm previously used to test human infants. Twenty-two great apes, including bonobos, chimpanzees, and orangutans, were familiarized to movie clips of a human hand reaching to grasp one of two objects. Then the objects' locations were swapped, and in the test event, the hand made an incomplete reach between the objects. In a control condition, a mechanical claw performed the same actions. The apes predictively looked at the familiarized goal object rather than the familiarized location when viewing the hand action in the test event. However, they made no prediction when viewing the claw action. These results are similar to those reported previously for human infants, and predictive looking did not differ among the three species of great apes. Thus, great apes make on-line goal-based predictions about the actions of other individuals; this skill is not unique to humans but is shared more widely among primates. PMID:25022278

  9. Consciousness and cortical responsiveness: a within-state study during non-rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Gosseries, Olivia; Massimini, Marcello; Saad, Elyana; Sheldon, Andrew D.; Boly, Melanie; Siclari, Francesca; Postle, Bradley R.; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS–EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive–negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma. To avoid these confounding factors, we focused on NREM sleep only and measured TMS-evoked EEG responses before awakening the subjects and asking them if they had been conscious (dreaming) or not. As shown here, when subjects reported no conscious experience upon awakening, TMS evoked a larger negative deflection and a shorter phase-locked response compared to when they reported a dream. Moreover, the amplitude of the negative deflection—a hallmark of neuronal bistability according to intracranial studies—was inversely correlated with the length of the dream report (i.e., total word count). These findings suggest that variations in the level of consciousness within the same physiological state are associated with changes in the underlying bistability in cortical circuits. PMID:27491799

  10. Histological study of frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser trabeculoplasty on monkey eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zi-kui; Wang, Kang-sun; Shi, Hai-yun

    1998-11-01

    Two eyes of a rhesus monkey subject to frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser LTP were examined by light and electron microscopy twenty-four hours and four weeks postoperatively. Light microscopy demonstrated trabecular meshwork edema, acute inflammatory changes such as the presence of polymorphonuclears and amorphous eosinphilous substance of the Schlemm's canal in the specimen 24 hours after surgery, otherwise, membrane-like extension over the surface of uveal meshwork was found in the tissue four weeks after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy of the specimens excited at earlier stage after irradiation revealed evidences of disruption, coalescence of the trabecular beams and the exudation of deformed erythrocytes among intertrabecular spaces; the specimens excited at later stage showed partial or total occlusion of intertrabecular spaces at laser burn site by a membrane like layer which probably originate from so called trabecular stem cell near the Schwalbe's line. Transmission electron microscopy of the tissue excited at 24 hours post laser showed necrosis of the trabecular cells, collagen fibrils edema, as well a macrophages and pigment cells among intertrabecular spaces; the tissues excited at 4 weeks post laser showed degenerated collagen fibrils and denuded collagen core without superficial trabecular cells.

  11. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... catch problems early if you get regular eye exams. ... diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam every 1 to 2 years by an eye ... problems with your vision. Many can do screening exams for damage from diabetes. Once you have eye ...

  12. The metabolic syndrome in Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians. Factor analysis of data from the 1998 Singapore National Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Ang, Li Wei; Ma, Stefan; Cutter, Jeffery; Chew, Suok Kai; Tan, Chee Eng; Tai, E Shyong

    2005-01-01

    We used factor analysis to define and compare the manner in which the various features of the metabolic syndrome are linked or clustered in Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians. One thousand nine hundred and fifty seven men (1324 Chinese, 391 Malays and 261 Asian Indians) and 2308 women (1622 Chinese, 391 Malays and 296 Asian Indians) were examined. Anthropometry, blood pressure, serum glucose, lipid concentrations, and serum insulin were measured for all subjects. These data were then subjected to factor analysis which reduced the variables examined to three factors in all ethnic groups and both genders. The first (dyslipidemia) factor was positively loaded for obesity, insulin resistance (IR), fasting triglyceride and negatively loaded for HDL-cholesterol. The second (hyperglycemia) factor was positively loaded for IR and blood glucose. The third (hypertension) factor was positively loaded for obesity and blood pressure. IR was positively loaded in the hypertension factor in Malay women but not in others. Rather than a single entity causally associated with insulin resistance (IR), our findings support a concept in which the metabolic syndrome represents several distinct entities (dyslipidemia, hypertension and hyperglycemia). It appears that Malay females may be more prone to develop hypertension in association with IR. PMID:15620434

  13. A New Safety Concern for Glaucoma Treatment Demonstrated by Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Benzalkonium Chloride Distribution in the Eye, an Experimental Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  14. A thermographic study on eyes affected by Age-related Macular Degeneration: Comparison among various forms of the pathology and analysis of risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Biagini, Ilaria; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Sodi, Andrea; Corvi, Andrea; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate (1) the ocular thermographic profiles in eyes affected by Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities that could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, (2) whether any risk factors associated with the disease could affect the development of a form of AMD rather than another. Thirty-four eyes with Age-Related Maculopathy (ARM), 41 eyes with dry AMD, 60 eyes affected by wet AMD, and 74 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included in the study. The control group consisted of 48 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, systemic diseases and a body temperature higher than 37.5 °C. A total of 210 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The Ocular Surface Temperature (OST) of five ocular areas was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test, one-way ANOVA test and multivariate analysis were used for statistical analyses. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P-value > 0.05), however, OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P-value < 0.0001). Smokers showed higher possibility (P-value = 0.012) of developing wet AMD instead of dry AMD. Infrared thermography may be a helpful, non-invasive and not time-consuming method to be used in the management of patients with this common degenerative maculopathy.

  15. Eye-rima oris distance and its relation to the vertical dimension of occlusion measured by two methods: Anthropometric study in a sample of Yemeni dental students

    PubMed Central

    Alhajj, Mohammed Nasser; Khalifa, Nadia; Amran, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the distance measured from the distal outer of the eye to the parting line of the lips and the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) measured by two methods. Methods: One hundred and fourteen dental students (76 males and 38 females) were recruited for this study with mean age (22.34 ± 1.83) years. The distance from distal canthus of the eye to rima oris (eye-RO) was compared with two different measurements of the OVD (nasal [N] to gnathion [Gn], and subnasal [Sn] to menton [Me]). All distances were measured using modified digital caliper. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient test for correlations and paired samples t-test for differences were used with a significant level of (P < 0.05). There was a positive significant correlation between the eye-RO distance and the two measurements of the OVD. However, this correlation was stronger between eye-RO and the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin than that between eye-RO and the distance from the septum of the nose to the under of the chin (r = 0.313 with P = 0.0007, r = 0.296 with P = 0.0014), respectively. Conclusion: The distance from the outer canthus of the eye to the parting of the lips seems to be a reliable method in predicting the OVD and should relate to the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin. PMID:27011736

  16. Individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing: an eye movement study of sentence reading.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Georgie; Sheikh, Naveed A; Côté-Lecaldare, Marilena; Häuser, Katja; Baum, Shari R; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension. We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1. When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors). Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal), and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented. PMID:25628557

  17. Desired and Undesired Effects of Energy Labels—An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Waechter, Signe; Sütterlin, Bernadette; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Saving energy is an important pillar for the mitigation of climate change. Electric devices (e.g., freezer and television) are an important player in the residential sector in the final demand for energy. Consumers’ purchase decisions are therefore crucial to successfully reach the energy-efficiency goals. Putting energy labels on products is often considered an adequate way of empowering consumers to make informed purchase decisions. Consequently, this approach should contribute to reducing overall energy consumption. The effectiveness of its measurement depends on consumers’ use and interpretation of the information provided. Despite advances in energy efficiency and a mandatory labeling policy, final energy consumption per capita is in many countries still increasing. This paper provides a systematic analysis of consumers’ reactions to one of the most widely used eco-labels, the European Union (EU) energy label, by using eye-tracking methodology as an objective measurement. The study’s results partially support the EU’s mandatory policy, showing that the energy label triggers attention toward energy information in general. However, the energy label’s effect on consumers’ actual product choices seems to be rather low. The study’s results show that the currently used presentation format on the label is insufficient. The findings suggest that it does not facilitate the integration of energy-related information. Furthermore, the current format can attract consumers to focus more on energy-efficiency information, leading them to disregard information about actual energy consumption. As a result, the final energy consumption may increase because excellent ratings on energy efficiency (e.g., A++) do not automatically imply little consumption. Finally, implications for policymakers and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:26231028

  18. A wavelet based method for automatic detection of slow eye movements: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Magosso, Elisa; Provini, Federica; Montagna, Pasquale; Ursino, Mauro

    2006-11-01

    Electro-oculographic (EOG) activity during the wake-sleep transition is characterized by the appearance of slow eye movements (SEM). The present work describes an algorithm for the automatic localisation of SEM events from EOG recordings. The algorithm is based on a wavelet multiresolution analysis of the difference between right and left EOG tracings, and includes three main steps: (i) wavelet decomposition down to 10 detail levels (i.e., 10 scales), using Daubechies order 4 wavelet; (ii) computation of energy in 0.5s time steps at any level of decomposition; (iii) construction of a non-linear discriminant function expressing the relative energy of high-scale details to both high- and low-scale details. The main assumption is that the value of the discriminant function increases above a given threshold during SEM episodes due to energy redistribution toward higher scales. Ten EOG recordings from ten male patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were used. All tracings included a period from pre-sleep wakefulness to stage 2 sleep. Two experts inspected the tracings separately to score SEMs. A reference set of SEM (gold standard) were obtained by joint examination by both experts. Parameters of the discriminant function were assigned on three tracings (design set) to minimize the disagreement between the system classification and classification by the two experts; the algorithm was then tested on the remaining seven tracings (test set). Results show that the agreement between the algorithm and the gold standard was 80.44+/-4.09%, the sensitivity of the algorithm was 67.2+/-7.37% and the selectivity 83.93+/-8.65%. However, most errors were not caused by an inability of the system to detect intervals with SEM activity against NON-SEM intervals, but were due to a different localisation of the beginning and end of some SEM episodes. The proposed method may be a valuable tool for computerized EOG analysis. PMID:16497535

  19. Individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing: an eye movement study of sentence reading

    PubMed Central

    Columbus, Georgie; Sheikh, Naveed A.; Côté-Lecaldare, Marilena; Häuser, Katja; Baum, Shari R.; Titone, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension. We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1. When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors). Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal), and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented. PMID:25628557

  20. Increased Burden of Vision Impairment and Eye Diseases in Persons with Chronic Kidney Disease — A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chee Wai; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheung, Gemmy Chui Ming; Tai, E. Shyong; Wong, Tien Y.; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to be associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), leading causes of blindness in elderly adults in previous studies. However, the association of CKD with visual impairment (VI) is not clear. We aimed to examine the association of CKD with VI and other age-related ocular diseases in a population-based sample of Asian adults. Methods We analyzed data from 10,033 adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED, 2004–11) Study. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 from serum creatinine. VI was defined as best-corrected visual acuity < 20/40 in the better eye. Cataract, retinopathy, DR, glaucoma and AMD were assessed using standardized ocular examination, retinal photography and visual field assessments. The associations of CKD with VI and ocular conditions were examined using logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol intake, education status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease. Findings The prevalence of VI and ocular disease were significantly higher in participants with CKD (36.1% and 84.7%) than in those without (12.9% and 54.3%, both p < 0.001). In multivariable models, CKD was significantly associated with VI (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.34 [1.14–1.58]), any ocular disease (1.28 [1.03–1.61]), cataract (1.24 [1.01–1.52]), any retinopathy (1.77 [1.45–2.15]), and DR (1.94 [1.47–2.54]). Interpretation The burden of VI and eye diseases is high among persons with CKD. Our findings suggest that it may be useful to screen for ocular disease and VI in persons with CKD. PMID:27077127

  1. Topics on distance correlation, feature screening and lifetime expectancy with application to Beaver Dam eye study data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jing

    This thesis includes 4 pieces of work. In Chapter 1, we present the work with a method for examining mortality as it is seen to run in families, and lifestyle factors that are also seen to run in families, in a subpopulation of the Beaver Dam Eye Study that has died by 2011. We find significant distance correlations between death ages, lifestyle factors, and family relationships. Considering only sib pairs compared to unrelated persons, distance correlation between siblings and mortality is, not surprisingly, stronger than that between more distantly related family members and mortality. Chapter 2 introduces a feature screening procedure with the use of distance correlation and covariance. We demonstrate a property for distance covariance, which is incorporated in a novel feature screening procedure based on distance correlation as a stopping criterion. The approach is further implemented to two real examples, namely the famous small round blue cell tumors data and the Cancer Genome Atlas ovarian cancer data Chapter 3 pays attention to the right censored human longevity data and the estimation of lifetime expectancy. We propose a general framework of backward multiple imputation for estimating the conditional lifetime expectancy function and the variance of the estimator in the right censoring setting and prove the properties of the estimator. In addition, we apply the method to the Beaver Dam eye study data to study human longevity, where the expected human lifetime are modeled with smoothing spline ANOVA based on the covariates including baseline age, gender, lifestyle factors and disease variables. Chapter 4 compares two imputation methods for right censored data, namely the famous Buckley-James estimator and the backward imputation method proposed in Chapter 3 and shows that backward imputation method is less biased and more robust with heterogeneity.

  2. The impact of various protective tools on the dose reduction in the eye lens in an interventional cardiology-clinical study.

    PubMed

    Domienik, J; Bissinger, A; Grabowicz, W; Jankowski, Ł; Kręcki, R; Makowski, M; Masiarek, K; Plewka, M; Lubiński, A; Peruga, J Z

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to check, in clinical practice, the potential for the dose reduction of lead eyewear and a ceiling-suspended shield used to protect the eye lens of physicians working in interventional cardiology. To this end, for the lead eyewear, the dose reduction factors were derived to correct the readings from a dosimeter used routinely outside the glasses. Four types of lead eyewear with attached loose thermoluminescent dosimeters and EYE-D dosimeters were worn by physicians in two clinical centres, for two-month periods, during coronary angiography (CA), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and pacemaker procedures. In order to analyse, separately, how a ceiling-suspended lead screen absorbs the scattered radiation, a series of measurements was carried out during single CA/PCI procedures performed with and without the protection. The lead eyewear may reduce the doses to the eye closest to the x-ray tube by a factor between 1.1 and 3.4, depending on its model and the physician's position. The effectiveness of the eyewear may, however, vary-even for the same model and physician-almost twofold between different working periods. The ceiling-suspended shield decreases the doses in clinical practice by a factor of 2.3. The annual eye lens doses without the eyewear estimated from routine measurements are high-above or close to the new eye lens dose limit established by the recent EU Basic Safety Standards, even though the ceiling-suspended shield was used. Therefore, to comply with the new dose limit that is set in the Directive, protection of the eyes of physicians with high workloads might require the use of both the eyewear and the ceiling-suspended shield. PMID:27183002

  3. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000111.htm Eye muscle repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that ...

  4. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  5. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  6. Fluorescent eye test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The fluorescent eye test is useful in determining if there is a scratch or other problem with the surface ... has thoroughly covered the eye a cobalt blue light is then directed on the eye. The light ...

  7. Dosimetric study on eye's exposure to wide band radio frequency electromagnetic fields: variability by the ocular axial length.

    PubMed

    Li, Congsheng; Chen, Qinghua; Xie, Yi; Wu, Tongning

    2014-07-01

    This paper evaluates the variability of specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human eye. This variability results from changes in ocular axial length (OAL), which is common in many ophthalmologic and vision abnormalities, including myopia. A generic eye model was reconstructed according to published data. The feasibility of using the generic model in numerical research of electromagnetic fields (EMF) was demonstrated by means of comparative simulations with eye models reconstructed from magnetic resonance (MR) scans. Free-form deformation (FFD) was used to deform the OAL of the generic eye model. Thus, 64 deformed eyes were created and were categorized according to the OAL increase. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied in the simulations. The results revealed that changing the OAL does not increase EMF absorption in the eyes or the eye tissues. No additional induced temperature rise was produced by the changes of OAL. The results also indicated that the non-pathological increment of the OAL, which is inevitable during the childhood, does not increase the SAR in the eyes. PMID:24619721

  8. [PCR study of the human herpes virus type 6 and other viruses of the herpes group in eye diseases].

    PubMed

    Slepowa, O S; Svetlova, E V; Kovaleva, L A; Makarov, P V; Kugusheva, A E; Denisova, E V; Vahova, E S; Zaharova, G Yu; Kondrat'eva, Yu A; Andryushin, A E; Demkin, V V

    2015-01-01

    To study the role of the HHV-6 type in the development of eye diseases PCR tests of blood (152), cornea biopsies (61), and intraocular fluids (11) for HHV-6 and other viruses of the herpes group (HSV type 1 and 2, CMV, EBV) were conducted. It was found that the HHV-6, along with other representatives of the Herpesviridae, can be detected in patients with different clinical forms of ophthalmopathology (174 patients were surveyed). Viral DNA was detected in blood, cornea, and in the anterior chamber fluid. The obtained data allow that the HHV-6 to be suggested as a possible cause of the ophthalmic herpes along with the other viruses of this group. It makes finding the virus DNA an essential step towards setting the etiologic diagnosis of the ophthalmological patients. PMID:27024918

  9. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  10. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Eye Poking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Souza, Geri

    1995-01-01

    Four studies analyzed eye poking behavior of a youth with profound disabilities. Results demonstrated substantive reductions in the frequency of eye poking when goggles were worn and when a video game was provided as a competing source of visual stimulation and as a reinforcer. Music was less effective in reducing eye poking. (Author/DB)

  11. Efficiency of radiation protection equipment in interventional radiology: a systematic Monte Carlo study of eye lens and whole body doses.

    PubMed

    Koukorava, C; Farah, J; Struelens, L; Clairand, I; Donadille, L; Vanhavere, F; Dimitriou, P

    2014-09-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were used to investigate the efficiency of radiation protection equipment in reducing eye and whole body doses during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Eye lens doses were determined considering different models of eyewear with various shapes, sizes and lead thickness. The origin of scattered radiation reaching the eyes was also assessed to explain the variation in the protection efficiency of the different eyewear models with exposure conditions. The work also investigates the variation of eye and whole body doses with ceiling-suspended shields of various shapes and positioning. For all simulations, a broad spectrum of configurations typical for most interventional procedures was considered. Calculations showed that 'wrap around' glasses are the most efficient eyewear models reducing, on average, the dose by 74% and 21% for the left and right eyes respectively. The air gap between the glasses and the eyes was found to be the primary source of scattered radiation reaching the eyes. The ceiling-suspended screens were more efficient when positioned close to the patient's skin and to the x-ray field. With the use of such shields, the Hp(10) values recorded at the collar, chest and waist level and the Hp(3) values for both eyes were reduced on average by 47%, 37%, 20% and 56% respectively. Finally, simulations proved that beam quality and lead thickness have little influence on eye dose while beam projection, the position and head orientation of the operator as well as the distance between the image detector and the patient are key parameters affecting eye and whole body doses. PMID:24938591

  12. The Malay version of the brief questionnaire on smoking urge: translation and psychometric properties of the questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Blebil, Ali Qais; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Dujaili, Juman Abdulelah; Zin, Alfian Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Malay translated version of the brief questionnaire of smoking urges (QSU-Brief). The translation procedure was done following the standard guidelines. The reliability and validity of the Malaysian version scale were evaluated based on the data collected from 133 Malaysian smokers. The internal consistency was calculated to assess the reliability. Factor analysis and construct validity were performed to validate psychometric properties of the scale. Total Cronbach's alpha of the scale was 0.806. The exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors that accounted for 66.15% of the explained total variance. The first component consisted of items 1, 3, 6, 7, and 10, while the second component included the rest. The QSU-Brief total score had a significant positive relationship with exhaled CO level (r=0.24; P=0.005), number of cigarettes smoked per day (r=0.30; P<0.001) and other clinical factors. Items 2 and 5 loaded strongly on factor 2, whereas both items loaded ambivalently on two factors in the previous studies. This discrepancy might be clarified by language differences. The Malaysian QSU-Brief is a good candidate for evaluating urge to smoke in both clinical practice and clinical trials. PMID:25700919

  13. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    MUHAMMAD, Noor Azimah; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; OMAR, Khairani; SHAH, Shamsul Azhar; MOHD AMIN, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. Methods: The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Results: Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (< 0.32). Out of the final 20 items of the PBI-M, there were 10 items for the care factor, five items for the autonomy factor and five items for the overprotection factor. All the items loaded positively on their respective factors. Conclusion: The Malaysian population favoured positive items in answering questions. The PBI-M confirmed the three-factor model that consisted of care, autonomy and overprotection. The PBI-M is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the Malaysian parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Keywords: Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity PMID:25977634

  14. Multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (MARMS) for the detection of β-globin gene mutations among the transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia Malay patients in Kelantan, Northeast of Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hanafi, Sarifah; Hassan, Rosline; Bahar, Rosnah; Abdullah, Wan Zaidah; Johan, Muhammad Farid; Rashid, Noor Diana; Azman, Nurul Fatihah; Nasir, Ariffin; Hassan, Syahzuwan; Ahmad, Rahimah; Othman, Azizah; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Sukeri, Surianti; Sulong, Sarina; Yusoff, Surini; Mohamad, Nor Sarwany; Hussein, Adil; Hassan, Rozita; Yusoff, Narazah; Yahaya, Badrul Hisyam; Ismail, Endom; Yussof, Nik Khairuddin Nik; Salleh, Sinari; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt MARMS with some modifications to detect beta mutation in our cohort of thalassemia patients. We focused only on transfusion-dependent thalassemia Malay patients, the predominant ethnic group (95%) in the Kelantanese population. Eight mutations were identified in 46 out of 48 (95.83%) beta thalassemia alleles. Most of the patients (54.2%) were compound heterozygous with co-inheritance Cd 26 (G>A). The frequencies of spectrum beta chain mutation among these patients are presented in Table 2. Among the transfusion dependent beta thalassemia Malay patients studied, 26 patients were found to be compound heterozygous and the main alleles were Cd 26 (G>A). Compound heterozygous mutation of Cd 26 (G>A) and IVS 1-5 (G>C) were 12 (46.2%), Cd 26 (G>A) and Cd 41/42 (TTCT) were 9 (34.6%), Cd 26 (G>A) and IVS 1-1 (G>C) were 2 (7.7%) respectively. Meanwhile the minority were made of a single compound heterozygous of Cd 26 (G>A) and Cd 71/72, Cd 26 (>A) and Cd 17 (A>T), Cd 26 (G>A) and -28 (G>A) respectively. Twenty out of forty six patients were shown to have homozygous of IVS 1-5 (G>C) were 2 (10.0%), Cd 26 (G>A) were 15 (75.0%), Cd 19 (A>G) were 1 (5.0%), and IVS 1-1 (G>T) were 2 (10.0%). The beta chain mutations among the Kelantanese Malays followed closely the distribution of beta chain mutations among the Thais and the Malays of the Southern Thailand. The G-C transition at position 5 of the IVS 1-5 mutation was predominant among the Malay patients. In conclusion, this method has successfully identified the mutation spectrum in our cohort of transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia patients, and this method is equally effective in screening for mutation among thalassemia patients. PMID:25232503

  15. Eyeing Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter casts a baleful eye toward the moon Ganymede in this enhanced-contrast image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

    Jupiter's 'eye', the Great Red Spot, was captured just before disappearing around the eastern edge of the planet. The furrowed eyebrow above and to the left of the spot is a turbulent wake region caused by westward flow that has been deflected to the north and around the Red Spot. The smallest features visible are about 240 kilometers (150 miles) across.

    Within the band south of the Red Spot are a trio of white ovals, high pressure counterclockwise-rotating regions that are dynamically similar to the Red Spot. The dark filamentary features interspersed between white ovals are probably cyclonic circulations and, unlike the ovals, are rotating clockwise.

    Jupiter's equatorial zone stretching across the planet north of the Spot appears bright white, with gigantic plume clouds spreading out from the equator both to the northeast and to the southeast in a chevron pattern. This zone looks distinctly different than it did during the Voyager flyby 21 years ago. Then, its color was predominantly brown and the only white plumes conspicuous against the darker material beneath them were oriented southwest-to-northeast.

    Ganymede is Jupiter's largest moon, about 50 percent larger than our own Moon and larger than the planet Mercury. The visible details in this image are different geological terrains. Dark areas tend to be older and heavily cratered; brighter areas are younger and less cratered. Cassini images of Ganymede and Jupiter's other large moons taken near closest approach on Dec. 30 will have resolutions about four times better than that seen here.

    This image is a color composite of ones taken with different filters by Cassini's narrow-angle camera on Nov. 18, 2000, processed to enhance contrast. Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of

  16. Identification of hemoglobin AC heterozygote status in a Malay family: a decision between hemoglobin electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromotography.

    PubMed

    Rosline, H; Roshan, T M; Ahmed, S A; Ilunihayati, I

    2007-05-01

    Thalassemia is a common public health problem among Malays. Hemoglobin C (Hb C) is a hemoglobin beta variant resulting from a single base mutation at the 6th position of the beta-globin gene leading to the substitution of glycine for glutamic acid. Hb C is commonly detected in West Africans and in African American but has not been reported in Malaysia. It can be falsely diagnosed as HbE trait in the Malaysian Thalassemia Screening Program which utilizes cellulose acetate hemoglobin electrophoresis. This is the first reported case of Hb AC heterozygote status in a Malay family, with unusual splenomegaly in one of the family members. PMID:17877232

  17. Longitudinal trends in use of targeted therapies for treatment of malignant neoplasms of the eye: a population-based study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jason C; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis A; Lu, Vicky H; Lu, Christine Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the recent trend in use and costs of antineoplastic agents for treatment of eye malignancies in Taiwan from 2009 to 2012. We also forecasted use and costs of targeted therapies up to and including year 2016 based on the current patterns. Design Retrospective observational study focusing on the usage of targeted therapies for treatment of eye malignancy. Setting The monthly claims data for eye malignancy-related antineoplastic agents were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (2009–2012). Main outcome measures We calculated the number of prescriptions and costs for each class of medications, and analysed their time trends. In addition, using a time series design with ARIMA models, we estimated the market share by prescription volume and the proportion of costs for targeted therapies for year 2016. Results The market share by prescription volume of targeted therapies grew from 1.56% in 2009 to 9.98% in 2012 among all antineoplastic agents, and the proportion of costs for targeted therapies rose from 15.12% in 2009 to 58.88% in 2012. Especially, the proportion of costs for protein kinase inhibitors grew from 25.62% to 45.28% among all antineoplastic agents between 2010 and 2012. The market share by prescription volume and the proportion of costs for targeted therapies for treatment of eye malignancies were predicted to reach 27.33% and 91.39% by the fourth quarter in 2016, respectively. Conclusions This is the first study that examined and forecasted use and costs of targeted therapies for treatment of eye malignancies in Taiwan. Our findings indicate that, compared with other classes of drugs, targeted therapies are having a more and more relevant share among all treatment strategies for eye malignancies in Taiwan, and due to their high costs they are likely to cause great economic burden. PMID:27235298

  18. Cabergoline: Pharmacology, ocular hypotensive studies in multiple species, and aqueous humor dynamic modulation in the Cynomolgus monkey eyes.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Najam A; McLaughlin, Marsha A; Kelly, Curtis R; Katoli, Parvaneh; Drace, Colene; Husain, Shahid; Crosson, Craig; Toris, Carol; Zhan, Gui-Lin; Camras, Carl

    2009-03-01

    The aims of the current studies were to determine the in vitro and in vivo ocular and non-ocular pharmacological properties of cabergoline using well documented receptor binding, cell-based functional assays, and in vivo models. Cabergoline bound to native and/or human cloned serotonin-2A/B/C (5HT(2A/B/C)), 5HT(1A), 5HT(7), alpha(2B), and dopamine-2/3 (D(2/3)) receptor subtypes with nanomolar affinity. Cabergoline was an agonist at human recombinant 5HT(2), 5HT(1A) and D(2/3) receptors but an antagonist at 5HT(7) and alpha(2) receptors. In primary human ciliary muscle (h-CM) and trabecular meshwork (h-TM) cells, cabergoline stimulated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis (EC(50)=19+/-7 nM in TM; 76 nM in h-CM) and intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) mobilization (EC(50)=570+/-83 nM in h-TM; EC(50)=900+/-320 nM in h-CM). Cabergoline-induced [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization in h-TM and h-CM cells was potently antagonized by a 5HT(2A)-selective antagonist (M-100907, K(i)=0.29-0.53 nM). Cabergoline also stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization more potently via human cloned 5HT(2A) (EC(50)=63.4+/-10.3 nM) than via 5HT(2B) and 5HT(2C) receptors. In h-CM cells, cabergoline (1 microM) stimulated production of pro-matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -3 and synergized with forskolin to enhance cAMP production. Cabergoline (1 microM) perfused through anterior segments of porcine eyes caused a significant (27%) increase in outflow facility. Topically administered cabergoline (300-500 microg) in Dutch-belted rabbit eyes yielded 4.5 microMM and 1.97 microM levels in the aqueous humor 30 min and 90 min post-dose but failed to modulate intraocular pressure (IOP). However, cabergoline was an efficacious IOP-lowering agent in normotensive Brown Norway rats (25% IOP decrease with 6 microg at 4h post-dose) and in conscious ocular hypertensive cynomolgus monkeys (peak reduction of 30.6+/-3.6% with 50 microg at 3h post-dose; 30.4+/-4.5% with 500 microg at 7h post-dose). In ketamine-sedated monkeys, IOP was

  19. Provider Behavior Under Global Budgeting and Policy Responses: An Observational Study on Eye Care Services in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chao-Kai; Xirasagar, Sudha; Chen, Brian; Hussey, James R; Wang, I-Jong; Chen, Jen-Chieh; Lian, Ie-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Third-party payer systems are consistently associated with health care cost escalation. Taiwan's single-payer, universal coverage National Health Insurance (NHI) adopted global budgeting (GB) to achieve cost control. This study captures ophthalmologists' response to GB, specifically service volume changes and service substitution between low-revenue and high-revenue services following GB implementation, the subsequent Bureau of NHI policy response, and the policy impact. De-identified eye clinic claims data for the years 2000, 2005, and 2007 were analyzed to study the changes in Simple Claim Form (SCF) claims versus Special Case Claims (SCCs). The 3 study years represent the pre-GB period, post-GB but prior to region-wise service cap implementation period, and the post-service cap period, respectively. Repeated measures multilevel regression analysis was used to study the changes adjusting for clinic characteristics and competition within each health care market. SCF service volume (low-revenue, fixed-price patient visits) remained constant throughout the study period, but SCCs (covering services involving variable provider effort and resource use with flexibility for discretionary billing) increased in 2005 with no further change in 2007. The latter is attributable to a 30% cap negotiated by the NHI Bureau with the ophthalmology association and enforced by the association. This study demonstrates that GB deployed with ongoing monitoring and timely policy responses that are designed in collaboration with professional stakeholders can contain costs in a health insurance-financed health care system. PMID:26324511

  20. Haplotype diversity of 16 Y-chromosomal STRs in three main ethnic populations (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuet Meng; Perumal, Revathi; Keat, Phoon Yoong; Kuehn, Daniel L C

    2007-03-22

    We have analyzed 16 Y-STR loci (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635 or Y-GATA C4, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448) from the non-recombining region of the human Y-chromosome in 980 male individuals from three main ethnic populations in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian) using the AmpFlSTR((R)) Y-filertrade mark (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The observed 17-loci haplotypes and the individual allele frequencies for each locus were estimated, whilst the locus diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were calculated in the three ethnic populations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that 88.7% of the haplotypic variation is found within population and 11.3% is between populations (fixation index F(ST)=0.113, p=0.000). This study has revealed Y-chromosomes with null alleles at several Y-loci, namely DYS458, DYS392, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS439, DYS448 and Y-GATA H4; and several occurrences of duplications at the highly polymorphic DYS385 loci. Some of these deleted loci were in regions of the Y(q) arm that have been implicated in the occurrence of male infertility. PMID:16457976