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Sample records for malay eye study

  1. Impact of Visual Impairment and Eye diseases on Mortality: the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES)

    PubMed Central

    Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Gemmy Cheung, Chui Ming; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.; Ong, Peng Guan; Chow, Khuan Yew; Mitchell, Paul; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheung, Carol Y.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of visual impairment (VI) and age-related eye diseases with mortality in a prospective, population-based cohort study of 3,280 Malay adults aged 40–80 years between 2004–2006. Participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination and standardized lens and fundus photographic grading. Visual acuity was measured using logMAR chart. VI was defined as presenting (PVA) and best-corrected (BCVA) visual acuity worse than 0.30 logMAR in the better-seeing eye. Participants were linked with mortality records until 2012. During follow-up (median 7.24 years), 398 (12.2%) persons died. In Cox proportional-hazards models adjusting for relevant factors, participants with VI (PVA) had higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio[HR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.25–1.96) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality (HR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24–2.49) than participants without. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was associated with increased all-cause (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.25–2.36) and CVD mortality (HR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05–2.43). Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) was associated with increased CVD mortality (HR 3.14; 95% CI, 1.26–7.73). No significant associations were observed between cataract, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration with mortality. We conclude that persons with VI were more likely to die than persons without. DR and RVO are markers of CVD mortality. PMID:26549406

  2. Morphology in Malay-English Biliteracy Acquisition: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study examined the effect of English morphological instruction on the development of English as well as Malay morphological awareness and word reading abilities among Malay-English bilingual fourth graders in Singapore, where English is the medium of instruction. The intervention group experienced semester-long instruction in…

  3. Food ideology and eating behavior: contributions from Malay studies.

    PubMed

    Laderman, C

    1984-01-01

    A study of food ideology and eating behavior in a Malay village demonstrates that the relationship between belief and action is complex and not always predictable. Over-reliance upon stated beliefs, and generalizations derived from particular ecological settings, have influenced investigators into making universal and logical statements about Malay eating behavior and its health consequences--a logic which, however, does not always jibe with reality. Food ideology, like any other portion of a belief system, is subject to innovation, interpretation and rationalization, and contains within it 'rules to break rules' which assure the continued integrity of the symbolic system by patterning what might otherwise be seen as rifts in its fabric. An understanding of eating behavior must be based both on a knowledge of the subsidiary, as well as primary, clauses of food ideology, and on direct observation of the behaviors elicited by these beliefs and modified by the setting, the situation and the individual. PMID:6484640

  4. The Perceptions of Women's Roles and Progress: A Study of Malay Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Kalthom; Noor, Noraini M.; Wok, Saodah

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the general perceptions of women towards their roles, their interpretation of progress, as well as the facilitating factors and barriers to their progress. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,000 Malay women in Malaysia from rural and urban areas, from various age and income groups. Interviews were also carried out on the…

  5. Validation Study of the Malay Version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    SANAZ, Aazami; SYAQIRAH, Akmal; KHADIJAH, Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Work-family conflict has received increasing attention in recent decades in the area of workplace stressors, which can affect employees’ health. However, the dimensionality of the work–family conflict construct among the Malay-speaking population has not been clarified. In order to do so, it is crucial to use an instrument that is appropriate and valid for the Malay-speaking population. As such, the goal of this study was to validate and test the dimensionality of the Malay version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire. Methods: The present study conducted exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency, using Cronbach’s alpha, of the work–family conflict construct among 332 working women in Malaysia. Results: The results supported the existence of four dimensions in the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire that distinguish between time based and strain-based work-family conflict and family-work conflict. The discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency of this construct are adequately supported. Conclusion: The findings of this study supported the existence of discriminant and convergent validity, as well as adequate reliability, for the construct. Thus, the Work–Family Conflict Questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument among Malay-speaking working women. PMID:24639612

  6. Morphology of distal radius curvatures: a CT-based study on the Malaysian Malay population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Taran Singh Pall; Sadagatullah, Abdul Nawfar; Yusof, Abdul Halim

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study was to examine the differing curves of the volar distal radius of healthy Malaysian Malays, so as to obtain detailed morphological information that will further the understanding of volar plate osteosynthesis in Malaysian Malays. METHODS Computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction was performed on the wrists of 16 healthy Malaysian Malay volunteers. Profile measurements were made using a software program. A novel parameter, the pronator quadratus curve angle, was explored and introduced in this study. Interclass correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the level of agreement between the data collected by the principal investigator and that collected by an independent radiologist. RESULTS The mean ± standard deviation of the arc radii on the radial aspect was 17.50° ± 5.40°, while the median (interquartile range [IQR]) of the arc radii on the ulnar aspect was 25.27° (IQR 5.80°). The mean ± standard deviation of the curvature of the pronator quadratus line was 40.52° ± 2.48°. The arc radii on the radial aspect was significantly lower than the arc radii on the ulnar aspect (p = 0.001). Different radial and ulnar arcs were observed in 56.25% of the radii; the arc was deeper on the ulnar aspect in 93.75% of the radii. CONCLUSION Based on the findings of this study, the likelihood of achieving anatomical reduction with uniformly curved, fixed-angle volar plates is questionable. Changes in the design of these implants may be needed to optimise their usage in the Malaysian Malay population. PMID:25814075

  7. Eye tissues study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Genina, Elina A.; Lakodina, Nina A.

    2001-08-01

    Theoretical and in vitro and in vivo experimental study of spectral and polarization characteristics of the human and rabbit eye tissues are presented. The possibility of control of optical properties of eye cornea, lens and sclera is discussed and realized experimentally for glucose solution as the refractive index matching factor.

  8. A magnetic resonance imaging study on the articulatory and acoustic speech parameters of Malay vowels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined. Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production. PMID:25060583

  9. Second Language Figurative Proficiency: A Comparative Study of Malay and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charteris-Black, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Explores the potential of cognitive linguistic notions such as conceptual metaphor and conceptual metonym for comparing the figurative phraseologies of English and Malay and anticipating second language learner difficulty. A comparative analysis is undertaken that identifies six types of relationship between figurative expressions in the two…

  10. MTHFR C677T polymorphism as a risk factor of neural tube defects in Malay: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Hayati, A R; Zainal, A I; Tan, G C; Ong, L C; Khoo, T B

    2008-12-01

    Major congenital malformations occur in about 3% of newborn. Several studies have suggested that homozygosity for the C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) variant is a potential risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). It has been hypothesized that the maternal folic acid supplementation prevents NTDs by partially correcting reduced MTHFR activity associated with the variant form of the enzyme. This association has not been found in some ethnic groups. In this study, we attempted to assess the association between NTDs and MTHFR C677T in Malaysian Malay population. Results show that MTHFR 677TT genotype was absent in both patient and control groups. PMID:19803295

  11. What Indigestion Means to the Malays?

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Andrew Seng Boon

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a large ethnic group within the South-East Asia, there is a paucity of reported literatures on dyspepsia in the Malay population. Recent population-based studies indicate that uninvestigated dyspepsia, based on the Rome II criteria, is reported in 12.8% and 11.6% of Malays in the urban and rural communities respectively. Organic causes of dyspepsia including upper gastrointestinal tract cancers, its precancerous lesions, and erosive diseases are uncommon which is largely due to an exceptionally low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in this population. On the other hand, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome are relatively common in the Malays than expected. Within a primary care setting, functional dyspepsia, based on the Rome III criteria, is reported in 11.9% of Malays, of which epigastric pain syndrome is found to be more common. Married Malay females are more likely to have functional dyspepsia and psychosocial alarm symptoms. Also based on the Rome III criteria, irritable bowel syndrome, commonly overlapped with functional dyspepsia, is reported in 10.9% of Malays within a community-based setting. Rather than psychosocial symptoms, red flags are most likely to be reported among the Malays with irritable bowel syndrome despite having a low yield for organic diseases. Based upon the above observations, "proton pump inhibitor test" is probably preferable than the "test and treat H. pylori" strategy in the initial management of dyspepsia among the Malays. PMID:23875095

  12. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century. PMID:1473465

  13. Formant frequencies of Malay vowels produced by Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years.

    PubMed

    Ting, Hua-Nong; Zourmand, Alireza; Chia, See-Yan; Yong, Boon-Fei; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman

    2012-09-01

    The formant frequencies of Malaysian Malay children have not been well studied. This article investigates the first four formant frequencies of sustained vowels in 360 Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Generally, Malay female children had higher formant frequencies than those of their male counterparts. However, no significant differences in all four formant frequencies were observed between the Malay male and female children in most of the vowels and age groups. Significant differences in all formant frequencies were found across the Malay vowels in both Malay male and female children for all age groups except for F4 in female children aged 12 years. Generally, the Malaysian Malay children showed a nonsystematic decrement in formant frequencies with age. Low levels of significant differences in formant frequencies were observed across the age groups in most of the vowels for F1, F3, and F4 in Malay male children and F1 and F4 in Malay female children. PMID:22285457

  14. Malay Childhood, Temperament and Individuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Ellen

    This study of children in a Malay community assesses the cross-cultural validity of one conceptualization of temperament, identifies cultural differences in child rearing practices and beliefs, and explores parents' recognition of individual differences emerging in early childhood. The community studied consisted of three villages located about 20…

  15. Measuring Land Uses Accessibility by Using Fuzzy Majority Gis-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis Case Study: Malayer City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taravat, A.; Yari, A.; Rajaei, M.; Mousavian, R.

    2014-10-01

    Public spaces accessibility has become one of the important factors in urban planning. Therefore, considerable attention has been given to measure accessibility to public spaces on the UK, US and Canada, but there are few studies outside the anglophone world especially in developing countries such as Iran. In this study an attempt has been made to measure objective accessibility to public spaces (parks, school, library and administrative) using fuzzy majority GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis. This method is for defining the priority for distribution of urban facilities and utilities as the first step towards elimination of social justice. In order to test and demonstrate the presented model, the comprehensive plan of Malayer city has been considered for ranking in three objectives and properties in view of index per capital (Green space, sport facilities and major cultural centers like library and access index). The results can be used to inform the local planning process and the GIS approach can be expanded into other local authority domains. The results shows that the distribution of facilities in Malayer city has followed on the base of cost benefit law and the human aspect of resource allocation programming of facilities (from centre to suburbs of the city).

  16. Psychometric properties of Malay neuropsychiatry unit cognitive assessment tool among Alzheimer's disease patients in comparison to Malay Montreal Cognitive Assessment.

    PubMed

    Thong, Kai Shin; Chee, Kok Yoon; Ng, Chong Guan; Walterfang, Mark; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to establish psychometric properties of the Malay Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive Assessment Tool (Malay NuCOG) in Alzheimer's disease. NuCOG was translated to Malay language and compared with Montreal Cognitive Assessment Tool on 80 individuals. The Malay NuCOG showed good internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.895). It demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity at the cutoff score of 78.50/100. The Malay NuCOG is a valid and reliable cognitive instrument that is sensitive and specific for the detection of dementia and has clinical advantages in its ability to examine individual cognitive domains. PMID:26615809

  17. English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

  18. Understanding Arabic-Speaking Skill Learning Strategies among Selected Malay Learners: A Case-Study at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haron, Sueraya Che; Ahmad, Ismail Sheikh; Mamat, Arifin; Mohamed, Ismaiel Hassanein Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    In Malaysia, studies have shown that most Malay learners learning Arabic Language exhibit weak Arabic speaking skill despite spending years of learning the language. However, given the same learning environment and experience, some of them could be considered as good Arabic speakers as revealed by the results of Arabic Placement Test conducted by…

  19. Dissecting the genetic structure and admixture of four geographical Malay populations.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Twee-Hee Ong, Rick; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; de Silva, H Janaka; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Kato, Norihiro; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Teo, Yik-Ying; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    The Malay people are an important ethnic composition in Southeast Asia, but their genetic make-up and population structure remain poorly studied. Here we conducted a genome-wide study of four geographical Malay populations: Peninsular Malaysian Malay (PMM), Singaporean Malay (SGM), Indonesian Malay (IDM) and Sri Lankan Malay (SLM). All the four Malay populations showed substantial admixture with multiple ancestries. We identified four major ancestral components in Malay populations: Austronesian (17%-62%), Proto-Malay (15%-31%), East Asian (4%-16%) and South Asian (3%-34%). Approximately 34% of the genetic makeup of SLM is of South Asian ancestry, resulting in its distinct genetic pattern compared with the other three Malay populations. Besides, substantial differentiation was observed between the Malay populations from the north and the south, and between those from the west and the east. In summary, this study revealed that the genetic identity of the Malays comprises a mixed entity of multiple ancestries represented by Austronesian, Proto-Malay, East Asian and South Asian, with most of the admixture events estimated to have occurred 175 to 1,500 years ago, which in turn suggests that geographical isolation and independent admixture have significantly shaped the genetic architectures and the diversity of the Malay populations. PMID:26395220

  20. Dissecting the genetic structure and admixture of four geographical Malay populations

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Twee-Hee Ong, Rick; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Janaka de Silva, H.; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Kato, Norihiro; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R.; Teo, Yik-Ying; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    The Malay people are an important ethnic composition in Southeast Asia, but their genetic make-up and population structure remain poorly studied. Here we conducted a genome-wide study of four geographical Malay populations: Peninsular Malaysian Malay (PMM), Singaporean Malay (SGM), Indonesian Malay (IDM) and Sri Lankan Malay (SLM). All the four Malay populations showed substantial admixture with multiple ancestries. We identified four major ancestral components in Malay populations: Austronesian (17%–62%), Proto-Malay (15%–31%), East Asian (4%–16%) and South Asian (3%–34%). Approximately 34% of the genetic makeup of SLM is of South Asian ancestry, resulting in its distinct genetic pattern compared with the other three Malay populations. Besides, substantial differentiation was observed between the Malay populations from the north and the south, and between those from the west and the east. In summary, this study revealed that the genetic identity of the Malays comprises a mixed entity of multiple ancestries represented by Austronesian, Proto-Malay, East Asian and South Asian, with most of the admixture events estimated to have occurred 175 to 1,500 years ago, which in turn suggests that geographical isolation and independent admixture have significantly shaped the genetic architectures and the diversity of the Malay populations. PMID:26395220

  1. Acoustic characteristics of vowels by normal Malaysian Malay young adults.

    PubMed

    Ting, Hua Nong; Chia, See Yan; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman; Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah

    2011-11-01

    The acoustic characteristics of sustained vowel have been widely investigated across various languages and ethnic groups. These acoustic measures, including fundamental frequency (F(0)), jitter (Jitt), relative average perturbation (RAP), five-point period perturbation quotient (PPQ5), shimmer (Shim), and 11-point amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ11) are not well established for Malaysian Malay young adults. This article studies the acoustic measures of Malaysian Malay adults using acoustical analysis. The study analyzed six sustained Malay vowels of 60 normal native Malaysian Malay adults with a mean of 21.19 years. The F(0) values of Malaysian Malay males and females were reported as 134.85±18.54 and 238.27±24.06Hz, respectively. Malaysian Malay females had significantly higher F(0) than that of males for all the vowels. However, no significant differences were observed between the genders for the perturbation measures in all the vowels, except RAP in /e/. No significant F(0) differences between the vowels were observed. Significant differences between the vowels were reported for all perturbation measures in Malaysian Malay males. As for Malaysian Malay females, significant differences between the vowels were reported for Shim and APQ11. Multiethnic comparisons indicate that F(0) varies between Malaysian Malay and other ethnic groups. However, the perturbation measures cannot be directly compared, where the measures vary significantly across different speech analysis softwares. PMID:21429707

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of the Malay Satisfaction with Life Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is one of the most widely used scales for the measurement of subjective well-being across the globe, but no satisfactory version exists for use among Malay-speaking populations. The present study reports on the translation of a new Malay SWLS and examines its psychometric properties in a community sample of…

  3. Upper eyelid and eyebrow dimensions in Malays.

    PubMed

    Dharap, A S; Reddy, S C

    1995-12-01

    The upper eyelid crease height pretarsal skin and eyebrow height were studied in 305 Malay subjects (146 males and 159 females) varying in age from 2-80 years, who were randomly selected from the residents of Kota Bharu, Kelantan. In females, from the age of 11 years the mean pretarsal skin height increased progressively with age. In males, however, it decreased with age up to 60 years. In both sexes, subjects more than 60 years old showed highest values for pretarsal skin height. The mean eyelid crease height increased progressively with age from 11 years onwards in males but not in females. The mean eyebrow height increased with age in females but not in males. Eyebrow and eyelid measurements seem to show a definite racial variation. Besides establishing normal values for eyelid and eyebrow measurements in Malays, our findings indicate that age and sex should be taken into consideration to achieve satisfactory results in cosmetic eyelid surgery in Malays. PMID:8668060

  4. Father Involvement among Malay Muslims in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhari, Rumaya; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Talib, Mansor Abu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study of 989 fathers of school-going children aged 10 through 16 from intact families in rural and urban areas in Selangor, Malaysia. The study aims to explore the factors that affect father involvement among Malay Muslims. Results indicate that fathers' education, marital quality, and number of…

  5. Factors Influencing the Prevalence of Mental Health Problems among Malay Elderly Residing in a Rural Community: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Madihah; Abdul Rahman, Mohd Rizam; Yusof, Khairul Hazdi; Abd Aziz, Noor Azah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mental health problems are common in old age, but frequently remain undetected and untreated. Mental health problems in the elderly are the result of a complex interaction of social, psychological and biological factors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and emotional stress) and their associated factors among the Malay elderly in a rural community of Perak, Malaysia. Methods It was a cross-sectional study. The Malay elderly aged 60 years and above were selected through convenient sampling to give a total of 230 respondents. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Bivariate analyses were performed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the factors and each of the mental health statuses assessed. Results The results showed that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among the elderly respondents was 27.8%, 22.6%, and 8.7%, respectively. The significant factors for depression were single elderly (Adjusted OR = 3.27, 95%CI 1.66, 6.44), living with family (Adjusted OR = 4.98, 95%CI 2.05, 12.10), and poor general health status (Adjusted OR = 2.28, 95%CI 1.20, 4.36). Living with family was the only significant factor for anxiety (Adjusted OR = 2.68, 95%CI 1.09, 6.57). There was no significant factor for stress. Conclusions Depression and anxiety among the Malay elderly in the rural community were very worrying. More equity in health should be created or strengthened in order to intensify the opportunity to identify, diagnose, and treat those with mental health problems. Living arrangement in the rural community was an important factor that had influenced depression and anxiety. Therefore, further research is recommended for more comprehensive information, as a result of which appropriate intervention can be made

  6. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-03

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1–5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  7. Experiencing affective music in eyes-closed and eyes-open states: an electroencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lee, You-Yun; Liang, Keng-Chen; Chen, I-Ping; Tsai, Chen-Gia; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    In real life, listening to music may be associated with an eyes-closed or eyes-open state. The effect of eye state on listeners’ reaction to music has attracted some attention, but its influence on brain activity has not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) markers for the emotional valence of music in different eye states. Thirty participants listened to musical excerpts with different emotional content in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states. The results showed that participants rated the music as more pleasant or with more positive valence under an eyes-open state. In addition, we found that the alpha asymmetry indices calculated on the parietal and temporal sites reflected emotion valence in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states, respectively. The theta power in the frontal area significantly increased while listening to emotional-positive music compared to emotional-negative music under the eyes-closed condition. These effects of eye states on EEG markers are discussed in terms of brain mechanisms underlying attention and emotion. PMID:26300835

  8. Experiencing affective music in eyes-closed and eyes-open states: an electroencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lee, You-Yun; Liang, Keng-Chen; Chen, I-Ping; Tsai, Chen-Gia; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    In real life, listening to music may be associated with an eyes-closed or eyes-open state. The effect of eye state on listeners' reaction to music has attracted some attention, but its influence on brain activity has not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) markers for the emotional valence of music in different eye states. Thirty participants listened to musical excerpts with different emotional content in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states. The results showed that participants rated the music as more pleasant or with more positive valence under an eyes-open state. In addition, we found that the alpha asymmetry indices calculated on the parietal and temporal sites reflected emotion valence in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states, respectively. The theta power in the frontal area significantly increased while listening to emotional-positive music compared to emotional-negative music under the eyes-closed condition. These effects of eye states on EEG markers are discussed in terms of brain mechanisms underlying attention and emotion. PMID:26300835

  9. The Nearly Forgotten Malay Folklore: Shall We Start with the Software?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd Rahim, Normaliza

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on the nearly forgotten Malay folklore in Malaysia. The objectives of the study were to identify and discuss the types of Malay folklore among primary school learners. The samples of the study were 100 male and female students at schools in Selangor. The samples were picked at random from several schools and they were given…

  10. Sentence Analysis in Modern Malay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, M. Blanche

    The author suggest that this book, written primarily as a working textbook for second-year university students reading Malay, may also be used by those "interested in the application of a formal grammatical framework to the sentences of a language which belongs to the Austronesian family." Basing her analysis on the principles of structural…

  11. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  12. Bioethics in the Malay-Muslim Community in Malaysia: A Study on the Formulation of Fatwa on Genetically Modified Food by the National Fatwa Council.

    PubMed

    Isa, Noor Munirah; Baharuddin, Azizan; Man, Saadan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-12-01

    The field of bioethics aims to ensure that modern scientific and technological advancements have been primarily developed for the benefits of humankind. This field is deeply rooted in the traditions of Western moral philosophy and socio-political theory. With respect to the view that the practice of bioethics in certain community should incorporate religious and cultural elements, this paper attempts to expound bioethical tradition of the Malay-Muslim community in Malaysia, with shedding light on the mechanism used by the National Fatwa Council to evaluate whether an application of biological sciences is ethical or not. By using the application of the genetically modified food as a case study, this study has found that the council had reviewed the basic guidelines in the main references of shari'ah in order to make decision on the permissibility of the application. The fatwa is made after having consultation with the experts in science field. The council has taken all factors into consideration and given priority to the general aim of shari'ah which to serve the interests of mankind and to save them from harm. PMID:24750562

  13. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  14. Psychometric properties of the Drive for Muscularity Scale in Malay men.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Lau, Poh Li; Jaafar, Jas Laile

    2016-06-01

    The Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) is a widely used measure in studies of men's body image, but few studies have examined its psychometric properties outside English-speaking samples. Here, we assessed the factor structure of a Malay translation of the DMS. A community sample of 159 Malay men from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed the DMS, along with measures of self-esteem, body appreciation, and muscle discrepancy. Exploratory factor analysis led to the extraction of two factors, differentiating attitudes from behaviours, which mirrors the parent scale. Both factors also loaded on to a higher-order drive for muscularity factor. The subscales of the Malay DMS had adequate internal consistencies and good convergent validity, insofar as significant relationships were reported with self-esteem, body appreciation, muscle discrepancy, and body mass index. These results indicate that the Malay DMS has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used to assess body image concerns in Malay men. PMID:27037873

  15. A Malay Village and Malaysia; Social Values and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Peter J.

    According to the author, the aim of the report was to concentrate attention on the conduct of Malay villagers in their relationships with their outside world and on the values and attitudes that underlie this conduct. The inhabitants of the village of Jendram Hilir, who were the subjects of the study, are typical of the segment of the Malay…

  16. Malay Special Rights: "Affirmative Action" in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Mah Hui

    This paper provides an overview of Malaysia's affirmative action program, legally constituted as Malay Special Rights. An introduction defines the aim of the program as improving the economic position of Bumiputras, who consist of Malays and other indigenous communities. These, it is said, are Malaysia's most economically disadvantaged groups;…

  17. Population genetic structure of peninsular Malaysia Malay sub-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:21483678

  18. Population Genetic Structure of Peninsular Malaysia Malay Sub-Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:21483678

  19. Accuracy of Four Tooth Size Prediction Methods on Malay Population

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Belal Khaled; Abu Asab, Saifeddin Hamed I.; Taib, Haslina

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the accuracy of Moyers 50%, Tanaka and Johnston, Ling and Wong and Jaroontham and Godfrey methods in predicting the mesio-distal crown width of the permanent canines and premolars (C + P1 + P2) in Malay population. Materials and Methods. The study models of 240 Malay children (120 males and 120 females) aged 14 to 18 years, all free of any signs of dental pathology or anomalies, were measured using a digital caliper accurate to 0.01 mm. The predicted widths (C + P1 + P2) in both arches derived from the tested prediction equations were compared with the actual measured widths. Results. Moyers and Tanaka and Johnston methods showed significant difference between the actual and predicted widths of (C + P1 + P2) for both sexes. Ling and Wong method also showed statistically significant difference for males, however, there was no significant difference for females. Jaroontham and Godfrey method showed statistical significant difference for females, but the male values did not show any significant difference. Conclusion. For male Malay, the method proposed by Jaroontham and Godfrey for male Thai proved to be highly accurate. For female Malay, the method proposed by Ling and Wong for southern Chinese females proved to be highly accurate. PMID:23209918

  20. Eye Tracking Studies of Normative and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Canan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of eye tracking measures (saccades, smooth-pursuit eye movements, fixations during scene and face perception, and pupillary dilation) to study typical and clinical populations of children and adolescents and evaluates the use of these measures. The studies are evaluated with a focus on points that may be of general…

  1. [Study of cytotoxic and antiviral effects of some eye drops].

    PubMed

    Dediulescu, Lucreţia; Dediulescu, Daniela Florentina

    2008-01-01

    The study of the cytotoxic and antiviral effect of six commercial mixtures, eye drops type, underlined the advantages of using eye drops with Indomethacin for Herpetic Keratitis, due to the antiviral effect and also for the lack of cytotoxicity. PMID:19354165

  2. Reading Mathematics Representations: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrá, Chiara; Lindström, Paulina; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Robutti, Ornella; Sabena, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    We use eye tracking as a method to examine how different mathematical representations of the same mathematical object are attended to by students. The results of this study show that there is a meaningful difference in the eye movements between formulas and graphs. This difference can be understood in terms of the cultural and social shaping of…

  3. Fatty Fish May Curb Eye Risks for Diabetics, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160495.html Fatty Fish May Curb Eye Risks for Diabetics, Study Finds ... Aug. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Two servings of fish a week may be enough to lower the ...

  4. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque.

    PubMed

    Granero, D; Pérez-Calatayud, J; Ballester, F; Casal, E; de Frutos, J M

    2004-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with 125I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T= 1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained. PMID

  5. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de

    2004-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with {sup 125}I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained.

  6. Hair distribution on the phalanges of the hands in Malays.

    PubMed

    Dharap, A S; Varma, S L; Chary, T V

    1994-12-01

    618 Malay subjects were selected randomly to find out the frequency and patterns of hair distribution on the phalanges of their hands. Hair on the proximal phalanx was absent in 2% of the males and in 3.3% of the females. The middle phalangeal hair (MPH) was absent in 78% of the females and in 64.9% of the males. The frequency in order of MPH was found to be 4 > 3 > 5 > 2. Fifteen patterns of hair distribution on the phalanges of the hand were found. Such a large number of patterns has not been reported yet. No subject had hair on the distal phalanges. These observations when compared with earlier studies show that the Malays are similar to other Asiatic populations such as the Japanese and Nepalis. PMID:7840537

  7. Study of Light Scattering in the Human Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, I. Kelly; Bruce, N. C.; Valdos, L. R. Berriel

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present a numerical model of the human eye to be used in studies of the scattering of light in different components of the eye's optical system. Different parts of the eye are susceptible to produce scattering for different reasons; age, illness or injury. For example, cataracts can appear in the human lens or injuries or fungi can appear on the cornea. The aim of the study is to relate the backscattered light, which is what doctors measure or detect, to the forward scattered light, which is what affects the patient's vision. We present the model to be used, the raytrace procedure and some preliminary results for the image on the retina without scattering.

  8. Translation and validation of the Malay version of the Stroke Knowledge Test

    PubMed Central

    Sowtali, Siti Noorkhairina; Yusoff, Dariah Mohd; Harith, Sakinah; Mohamed, Monniaty

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, there is a lack of published studies on assessment tools to evaluate the effectiveness of stroke education programs. Methods This study developed and validated the Malay language version of the Stroke Knowledge Test research instrument. This study involved translation, validity, and reliability phases. The instrument underwent backward and forward translation of the English version into the Malay language. Nine experts reviewed the content for consistency, clarity, difficulty, and suitability for inclusion. Perceived usefulness and utilization were obtained from experts’ opinions. Later, face validity assessment was conducted with 10 stroke patients to determine appropriateness of sentences and grammar used. A pilot study was conducted with 41 stroke patients to determine the item analysis and reliability of the translated instrument using the Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach’s alpha. Results The final Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test included 20 items with good content coverage, acceptable item properties, and positive expert review ratings. Psychometric investigations suggest that Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test had moderate reliability with Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach’s alpha of 0.58. Improvement is required for Stroke Knowledge Test items with unacceptable difficulty indices. Overall, the average rating of perceived usefulness and perceived utility of the instruments were both 72.7%, suggesting that reviewers were likely to use the instruments in their facilities. Conclusions Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test was a valid and reliable tool to assess educational needs and to evaluate stroke knowledge among participants of group-based stroke education programs in Malaysia. PMID:27092192

  9. Semifluorinated Alkane Eye Drops for Treatment of Dry Eye Disease—A Prospective, Multicenter Noninterventional Study

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Dieter; Krösser, Sonja; Beckert, Michael; Cursiefen, Claus; Kaercher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Evaporation of the tear film is heavily discussed as one core reason for dry eye disease (DED). Subsequently, new artificial tear products are developed that specifically target this pathomechanism. Perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8, NovaTears®) from the family of semifluorinated alkanes is a novel substance that has been approved as a medical device, as a nonblurring wetting agent for the ocular surface. Methods: Thirty patients with hyperevaporative dry eye received F6H8 during a prospective, multicenter, observational 6-week study. Patients were advised to apply 1 drop 4 times daily in both eyes. Parameters assessed included best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, Schirmer I test, tear fluid, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), corneal staining, meibum secretion, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI©). Results: From the 30 patients recruited, 25 completed the trial per protocol. Four patients discontinued F6H8 and 1 patient did not present for follow-up. F6H8 treatment led to significant reduction of corneal staining and significant increase of Schirmer I and TFBUT. In addition, OSDI score dropped significantly from a mean of 55 (±23.0) to 34 (±22.4). Visual acuity and ocular pressure did not change. Conclusions: This prospective observational study shows significant beneficial effects in patients suffering from evaporative DED, using F6H8 in all the relevant parameters tested. The decrease of the OSDI by a mean of 21 points was particularly remarkable and clearly exceeds minimal, clinical important differences for mild or moderate and severe disease. Overall, F6H8 (NovaTears) seems to be safe and effective in treating mild to moderate hyperevaporative DED. PMID:26296040

  10. Development of Text Reading in Japanese: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jincho, Nobuyuki; Feng, Gary; Mazuka, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    This study examined age-group differences in eye movements among third-grade, fifth-grade, and adult Japanese readers. In Experiment 1, Japanese children, but not adults, showed a longer fixation time on logographic kanji words than on phonologically transparent hiragana words. Further, an age-group difference was found in the first fixation…

  11. Metric Issues in the Study of Eye Movements in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyrnis, Nikolaos

    2008-01-01

    This review provides a description of the measurement methods, task definitions and measurement parameters in the study of smooth eye pursuit and saccade-antisaccade tasks in psychiatry. The large heterogeneity in task definitions and definitions of parameters and its potential impact on the large variability of the parameter measures is…

  12. The Design of Video Games in the Implementation of Malay Language Learning among Foreign Students in an Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Fuziah; Alias, Norlidah; Rahman, Mohd Nazri Abdul; Dewitt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at reviewing the curriculum design by including video games in the implementation of the Malay language course at an Institute of Higher Learning. The objective of this study is to obtain expert opinion on the expected manner of implementation of video games in learning the Malay language. The Fuzzy Delphi technique (FDM) is used…

  13. Comparison of arch form between ethnic Malays and Malaysian Aborigines in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Xinwei, Eunice Soh; Lim, Sheh Yinn; Jamaludin, Marhazlinda; Mohamed, Nor Himazian; Yusof, Zamros Yuzaidi Mohd; Shoaib, Lily Azura; Nik Hussein, Nik Noriah

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine and compare the frequency distribution of various arch shapes in ethnic Malays and Malaysian Aborigines in Peninsular Malaysia and to investigate the morphological differences of arch form between these two ethnic groups. Methods We examined 120 ethnic Malay study models (60 maxillary, 60 mandibular) and 129 Malaysian Aboriginal study models (66 maxillary, 63 mandibular). We marked 18 buccal tips and incisor line angles on each model, and digitized them using 2-dimensional coordinate system. Dental arches were classified as square, ovoid, or tapered by printing the scanned images and superimposing Orthoform arch templates on them. Results The most common maxillary arch shape in both ethnic groups was ovoid, as was the most common mandibular arch shape among ethnic Malay females. The rarest arch shape was square. Chi-square tests, indicated that only the distribution of the mandibular arch shape was significantly different between groups (p = 0.040). However, when compared using independent t-tests, there was no difference in the mean value of arch width between groups. Arch shape distribution was not different between genders of either ethnic group, except for the mandibular arch of ethnic Malays. Conclusions Ethnic Malays and Malaysian Aborigines have similar dental arch dimensions and shapes. PMID:23112931

  14. The Chinese American Eye Study: Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Rohit; Hsu, Chunyi; Wang, Dandan; Torres, Mina; Azen, Stanley P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To summarize the study design, operational strategies and procedures of the Chinese American Eye Study (CHES), a population-based assessment of the prevalence of visual impairment, ocular disease, and visual functioning in Chinese Americans. Methods This population-based, cross-sectional study, included 4,570 Chinese, 50 years and older, residing in the city of Monterey Park, California. Each eligible participant completed a detailed interview and eye examination. The interview included an assessment of demographic, behavioral, and ocular risk factors and health-related and vision-related quality of life. The eye examination included measurements of visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual fields, fundus and optic disc photography, a detailed anterior and posterior segment examination, and measurements of blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and blood glucose levels. Results The objectives of the CHES are to obtain prevalence estimates of visual impairment, refractive error, diabetic retinopathy, open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma, lens opacities, and age-related macular degeneration in Chinese-Americans. In addition, outcomes include effect estimates for risk factors associated with eye diseases. Lastly, CHES will investigate the genetic determinates of myopia and glaucoma. Conclusion The CHES will provide information about the prevalence and risk factors of ocular diseases in one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. PMID:24044409

  15. NASA supporting studies for microgravity research on eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the work on this project was to provide support for ground-based studies on the effects of gravity on eye movements. The effects of microgravity on the optokinetic eye movements of humans are investigated. OKN was induced by having subjects watch 3.3 deg stripes moving at 35 deg/s for 45 s in a binocular, head-fixed apparatus. The field (hor., 88 deg; vert., 72 deg), was rotated about axes that were upright or tilted 45 deg or 90 deg. The head was upright or tilted 45 deg on the body. Head-horizontal (yaw axis) and head-vertical (pitch axis) components of OKN were recorded with electro-oculography (EOG). Slow phase velocity vectors were determined relative to gravity. With the head upright, the axis of eye rotation during yaw axis OKN was coincident with the stimulus axis and the spatial vertical. With the head tilted 45 deg on the body, a persistent vertical component of eye velocity developed during yaw axis stimulation, and there was an average shift of the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical of approximately 18 deg in six subjects. During oblique optokinetic stimulation with the head upright, the axis of eye rotation shifted 12 deg toward the spatial vertical. When the head was tilted, the axis of eye rotation rotated to the other side of the spatial vertical by 5.4 deg during the same oblique stimulation. This counter-rotation of the axis of eye rotation is similar to the 'Muller (E) effect', in which the perception of the upright counter-rotates to the opposite side of the spatial vertical when subjects are tilted in darkness. The data were simulated by a model of OKN. Despite the short OKAN time constants, strong horizontal to vertical cross-coupling was produced if the horizontal and vertical time constants were in proper ratio, and there was no suppression of nystagmus orthogonal to the stimulus direction. This shows that the spatial orientation of OKN can be due to a restructuring of the system matrix of velocity storage as a

  16. The Nakuru eye disease cohort study: methodology & rationale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No longitudinal data from population-based studies of eye disease in sub-Saharan-Africa are available. A population-based survey was undertaken in 2007/08 to estimate the prevalence and determinants of blindness and low vision in Nakuru district, Kenya. This survey formed the baseline to a six-year prospective cohort study to estimate the incidence and progression of eye disease in this population. Methods/Design A nationally representative sample of persons aged 50 years and above were selected between January 2007 and November 2008 through probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters, with sampling of individuals within clusters through compact segment sampling. Selected participants underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations which included: visual acuity, autorefraction, visual fields, slit lamp assessment of the anterior and posterior segments, lens grading and fundus photography. In addition, anthropometric measures were taken and risk factors were assessed through structured interviews. Six years later (2013/2014) all subjects were invited for follow-up assessment, repeating the baseline examination methodology. Discussion The methodology will provide estimates of the progression of eye diseases and incidence of blindness, visual impairment, and eye diseases in an adult Kenyan population. PMID:24886366

  17. [Anthropometric measurements in Malay children from upper class families in Kuala Lumpur].

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Suhardi, A; Khalid, B A

    1993-03-01

    This study was done to determine the anthropometric measurement patterns of Malay children from wealthy families in Malaysia and to make a comparison with NCHS reference population. A population of 900 children aged between 3-12 years old from Taman Tun Dr Ismail, Kuala Lumpur (TDI), were examined but only 871 of them were eligible for the study. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness were measured. The increment pattern of anthropometric measurements of TDI children was quite similar to NCHS except for having a lower median weight for age and height for age. There was prepubescent increase in skin folds thickness in both sexes, followed by a midpubescent decrease and a late pubescent increase. The study indicated that Malay children from a wealthy background have growth rates comparable to children in the West, hence NCHS percentile charts are suitable as a reference for comparing the nutritional status of Malay children in Malaysia. PMID:8341176

  18. Molecular Characterization of α- and β-Thalassaemia among Malay Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Yatim, Nur Fatihah; Abd. Rahim, Masitah; Menon, Kavitha; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Ahmad, Rahimah; Manocha, Anita Bhajan; Saleem, Mohamed; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Both α- and β-thalassaemia syndromes are public health problems in the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia. To molecularly characterise the α- and β-thalassaemia deletions and mutations among Malays from Penang, Gap-PCR and multiplexed amplification refractory mutation systems were used to study 13 α-thalassaemia determinants and 20 β-thalassaemia mutations in 28 and 40 unrelated Malays, respectively. Four α-thalassaemia deletions and mutations were demonstrated. −−SEA deletion and αCSα accounted for more than 70% of the α-thalassaemia alleles. Out of the 20 β-thalassaemia alleles studied, nine different β-thalassaemia mutations were identified of which βE accounted for more than 40%. We concluded that the highest prevalence of (α- and β-thalassaemia alleles in the Malays from Penang are −−SEA deletion and βE mutation, respectively. PMID:24857915

  19. [Binocular movements during pursuit and reading: eye tracking study].

    PubMed

    Boussand, F

    2012-09-01

    Detailed analysis of fine, slow ocular movements has not been the object of recent studies. With this in mind, special hardware and a simple testing protocol were developed, along with software for recording and analysis. The study of these movements, using this hardware adapted to follow both eyes, allowed the inclusion of binocularity in the precise analysis of ocular pursuit and reading. Recording the eye movements of 166 children and adults permitted identification of the main features of oculomotor development from age five years. These movements were studied during calibrated pursuit and reading. The persistence of oculomotor abnormalities during development can help to define an array of "visual immaturity" or "visual inefficiency". The study of these anomalies during reading explains some learning difficulties. PMID:22421034

  20. Translation and validation of the Malay Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined the psychometric properties of a Malay translation of the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS; Henderson-King & Henderson-King, 2005). A total of 373 Malaysian women completed the ACSS along with measures of ideal-actual weight discrepancy, body appreciation, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and demographics. Results showed that the Malay ACSS was best reduced to a two-factor solution, although an overall score of all 15 ACSS items showed the highest internal consistency. Results also showed that this overall score had good discriminant and divergent validity. It is expected that the availability of a Malay version of the ACSS will stimulate cross-cultural research on the acceptance of cosmetic surgery. PMID:20807682

  1. Predictors of Difficult Intubation Among Malay Patients in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Tantri, Aida Rosita; Firdaus, Riyadh; Salomo, Sahat Tumpal

    2016-01-01

    Background Failure to maintain an adequate airway can lead to brain damage and death. To reduce the risk of difficulty in maintaining an airway during general anesthesia, there are several known predictors of difficult intubation. People with a Malay background have different craniofacial structures in comparison with other individuals. Therefore, different predictors should be used for patients of Malay race. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx (DVL) in Malay patients based on several predictors, such as the modified Mallampati test (MMT), thyromental distance (TMD), and hyomental distance ratio (HMDR). Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study included 277 consecutive patients requiring general anesthesia. All subjects were evaluated using the MMT, TMD, and HMDR, and the cut-off points for the airway predictors were Mallampati III and IV, < 6.5 cm, and < 1.2, respectively. During direct laryngoscopy, the laryngeal view was graded using the Cormack-Lehane (CL) classification. CL grades III and IV were considered difficult visualization. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for each predictor were calculated both as sole and combined predictors. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of DVL. Results Difficulty in visualizing the larynx was found in 28 (10.1%) patients. The AUC, sensitivity, and specificity for the three airway predictors were as follows: MMT: 0.614, 10.7%, and 99.2%; HMDR: 0.743, 64.2%, and 74%; and TMD: 0.827, 82.1%, and 64.7%. The combination providing the best prediction in our study involved the MMT, HMDR, and TMD with an AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.835, 60.7%, and 88.8%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the MMT, HMDR, and TMD were independent predictors of DVL. Conclusions The TMD, with a cut-off point of 65 mm, had superior diagnostic value compared with the HMDR and

  2. Application of 3-Dimensional Printing Technology to Construct an Eye Model for Fundus Viewing Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Yuan, Dongqing; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system. Methods We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD) software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D) printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy. Results In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value. Conclusions The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus

  3. [Clinico-radiometric studies of the eye in radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlina, T N; Bazhin, A G

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of local and remote effects of radioactive substances on ocular media and development of measures to remove radionuclides from the eye. Radioactive substances getting into the eye in the form of aerosols, dust, or gaseous mixtures are unevenly distributed in it. The highest radioactivity was found on the skin of the eyelids and orbit, particularly so on the eyelashes and eyebrows, the least one on the cornea and in the conjunctival cavity. A follow-up of 8 to 17 years showed that timely removal of radionuclides from ocular surface prevented the development of specific symptoms and trophic changes of ocular media, of radiation cataracts among other things. The suggested method for washing the skin of the eyelids and orbital area from radioactive contaminants did not induce skin irritation, maceration, sense of discomfort, and is recommended for practice. PMID:8073571

  4. Crossing Borders: The Linguistic Practices of Aspiring Bilinguals in the Malay Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajadurai, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of Malay learners of English in Malaysia as they attempt to extend their use of English outside the classroom and thus participate in new linguistic practices. Using a multiple case study approach, the study examines the narrative accounts of learners generated through student journals and focus group discussions.…

  5. Assessing Body Fat of Children by Skinfold Thickness, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: A Validation Study Among Malay Children Aged 7 to 11 Years.

    PubMed

    Noradilah, Mohd Jonit; Ang, Yeow Nyin; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Deurenberg, Paul; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to validate skinfold (SKF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in determining body fat percentage (BF%) of Malay children aged 7 to 11 years. A total of 160 children had their BF% assessed using SKF and BIA, with DXA as the criterion method. Four SKF equations (SKFBray, SKFJohnston, SKFSlaughter, and SKFGoran) and 4 BIA equations (BIAManufacturer, BIAHoutkooper, BIARush, and BIAKushner) were used to estimate BF%. Mean age, weight, and height were 9.4 ± 1.1years, 30.5 ± 9.9 kg, and 131.3 ± 8.4 cm. All equations significantly underestimated BF% (P < .05). BIA equations had reasonable agreement with DXA and were independent of BF% with BIAManufacturer being the best equation. Although BIA underestimates BF% as compared with DXA, BIA was more suitable to measure BF% in a population that is similar to this study sample than SKF, suggesting a need to develop new SKF equations that are population specific. PMID:27073201

  6. Growth of the eye lens: II. Allometric studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the ontogeny and phylogeny of lens growth in a variety of species using allometry. Methods Data on the accumulation of wet and/or dry lens weight as a function of bodyweight were obtained for 40 species and subjected to allometric analysis to examine ontogenic growth and compaction. Allometric analysis was also used to compare the maximum adult lens weights for 147 species with the maximum adult bodyweight and to compare lens volumes calculated from wet and dry weights with eye volumes calculated from axial length. Results Linear allometric relationships were obtained for the comparison of ontogenic lens and bodyweight accumulation. The body mass exponent (BME) decreased with increasing animal size from around 1.0 in small rodents to 0.4 in large ungulates for both wet and dry weights. Compaction constants for the ontogenic growth ranged from 1.00 in birds and reptiles up to 1.30 in mammals. Allometric comparison of maximum lens wet and dry weights with maximum bodyweights also yielded linear plots with a BME of 0.504 for all warm blooded species except primates which had a BME of 0.25. When lens volumes were compared with eye volumes, all species yielded a scaling constant of 0.75 but the proportionality constants for primates and birds were lower. Conclusions Ontogenic lens growth is fastest, relative to body growth, in small animals and slowest in large animals. Fiber cell compaction takes place throughout life in most species, but not in birds and reptiles. Maximum adult lens size scales with eye size with the same exponent in all species, but birds and primates have smaller lenses relative to eye size than other species. Optical properties of the lens are generated through the combination of variations in the rate of growth, rate of compaction, shape and size. PMID:24715759

  7. Impact of telephone consent and potential for eye donation in the UK: the Newcastle Eye Centre study.

    PubMed

    Ting, D S J; Potts, J; Jones, M; Lawther, T; Armitage, W J; Figueiredo, F C

    2016-03-01

    AimsTo examine the impact of telephone consent introduced in 2007 on the eye donation rate and to report the changing trend and potential for improvement in eye donation in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.MethodsRelevant data were retrospectively collected from the local eye retrieval database for two separate years, namely, 2006 (before the introduction of telephone consent) and 2010. All the hospitals within Newcastle were included in the study.ResultsFrom 2006 to 2010, there was a 3.5-fold increase in eye donation from 32 (of 2479 deaths) to 111 donors per year (of 2213 deaths) in Newcastle (P<0.001). Consent was obtained via face-to-face interview in all 32 (100%) and 59 (53.2%) donors in 2006 and 2010, respectively. Introduction of telephone consent increased the donation rate by an additional 88.1% (from 59 to 111 donors) in 2010 (P<0.001). In addition, there was a significant increase in medical notes of the deceased being reviewed from 27.1% (671/2479 cases) in 2006 to 62.4% (1382/2213 cases) in 2010 (P<0.001). Acceptance rate of eye donation was 45.7% (32/70) in 2006 and 49.6% (111/224) in 2010 (P=0.575). Acceptance rate was positively associated with registration on organ donor register (P<0.001) and telephone consent (P<0.001), but not with age (P=0.883), gender (P=0.234), or location of death (P=0.984) of the potential donors.ConclusionThere has been a substantial improvement in eye donation rate in Newcastle over the recent years. Introduction of telephone consent and high-quality eye donation service serve as effective measures for increasing eye donation. PMID:26514245

  8. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome at a Singapore eye clinic

    PubMed Central

    Seng Lee, Jason Kian; Ying Wong, Elizabeth Poh; Ho, Su Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographics of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG) in a Singapore hospital eye outpatient clinic. Methods A retrospective study of 93 consecutive patients (146 eyes) with PXF was undertaken by a single ophthalmologist over a period of 37 months (July 1, 2006, to July 31, 2009). Results Ninety-three (2.8%) of 3,297 patients seen during the study period were diagnosed with PXF. Forty-three (46.2%) of the 93 PXF patients were male. Indians were 5.04 times more likely to develop PXF than Chinese (P<0.001, 95% confidence interval 3.05–8.33), while Malays were 2.22 times more likely to develop PXF as compared with Chinese (P=0.029, 95% CI 1.08–4.55). Twenty-two (23.7%) of the 93 PXF patients had PXG at the time of diagnosis. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age between PXF and PXG patients. There was a larger proportion of males with PXG than females (P<0.001). Conclusion PXF is not infrequent in elderly Singapore eye clinic patients, and is more likely to occur in Indians than in Chinese. In the Singapore eye clinic setting, males may be more likely to develop PXG, although larger studies will be required to confirm this. PMID:26366055

  9. Grief Experience of Bereaved Malay/Muslim Youths in Singapore: The Spiritual Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Murshidah; Mehta, Kalyani

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study conducted in Singapore which examined different coping mechanisms engaged by Malay/Muslim bereaved youths following parental death. The research applied the revised Transactional Model of Stress and Coping as well as the Adolescent Coping Scale as a theoretical framework for analysing findings. Of the…

  10. Towards Homogeneity in Home Languages: Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil Families in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Su-Hie; Mahadhir, Mahanita

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examines the languages used by parents with their children in Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil families to find out how the similarity or dissimilarity in parents' ethnic language influenced the choice of language transmitted to children and how far standard languages have permeated the family domain in Kuching City…

  11. When Art Moves the Eyes: A Behavioral and Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Massaro, Davide; Savazzi, Federica; Di Dio, Cinzia; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, using eye-tracking technique, the influence of bottom-up and top-down processes on visual behavior while subjects, naïve to art criticism, were presented with representational paintings. Forty-two subjects viewed color and black and white paintings (Color) categorized as dynamic or static (Dynamism) (bottom-up processes). Half of the images represented natural environments and half human subjects (Content); all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment conditions (Task) (top-down processes). Results on gazing behavior showed that content-related top-down processes prevailed over low-level visually-driven bottom-up processes when a human subject is represented in the painting. On the contrary, bottom-up processes, mediated by low-level visual features, particularly affected gazing behavior when looking at nature-content images. We discuss our results proposing a reconsideration of the definition of content-related top-down processes in accordance with the concept of embodied simulation in art perception. PMID:22624007

  12. A Psychometric Properties of the Malay-version Police Stress Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    IRNIZA, Rasdi; EMILIA, Zainal Abidin; MUHAMMAD SALILUDDIN, Suhainizam; NIZAM ISHA, Ahmad Shahrul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) was developed to measure police-specific stressors. The present study was the first to have translated the PSQ to Malay. This study aims to test the reliability, construct validity, and component structure of the Malay-version PSQ. Methods: A set of survey consisted of the Malay-version PSQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Global Stress Questionnaire (GSQ) and General Self-rated Health (GSRH) were distributed to 300 traffic police officers in Kuala Lumpur and all traffic police officers in a few districts of Pahang and Negeri Sembilan. Results: The response rate was 65.5% (N = 262). The reported Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.93 for Operational PSQ (PSQ-Op) and 0.94 for Organisational PSQ (PSQ-Org). Findings indicated that the PSQ had positive construct validity with the GSRH, GSQ, and GHQ. After excluding four factors related to lifestyles, all police-specific stressors were highly loaded (0.50) in one component. Conclusion: It is confirmed that the Malay-version PSQ, excluding the four factors related to lifestyle, was uni-dimensional, reliable, and a valid questionnaire. This study proffers a potentially better instrument for assessing the stressors among Malaysian police. PMID:25977621

  13. An Intermediate-Advanced Level Malay Refresher Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Oliver; And Others

    The first unit of this eight-volume refresher course in intermediate-advanced level Malay presents a detailed description of the Malay sound system, with phonological examples in both official (Latin) orthography and phonetic transcription. The remaining units in Book I--Part One (Units 2-4) and the five units in the second volume (Book I--Part…

  14. Translation and Validation of the Malay Subjective Happiness Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren

    2008-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, "Social Indicators Research," 46, 137-155, 1999) is a brief measure for assessing subjective happiness. The reliability and validity of the Malay version of the Subjective Happiness Scale was investigated in a community sample of 290 Chinese and 227 Malays in Malaysia. Results showed that the…

  15. Using Eye Tracking to Assess Reading Performance in Patients with Glaucoma: A Within-Person Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nicholas D.; Glen, Fiona C.; Mönter, Vera M.; Crabb, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Reading is often cited as a demanding task for patients with glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss, yet reading speed varies widely between patients and does not appear to be predicted by standard visual function measures. This within-person study aimed to investigate reading duration and eye movements when reading short passages of text in a patient's worse eye (most VF damage) when compared to their better eye (least VF damage). Reading duration and saccade rate were significantly different on average in the worse eye when compared to the better eye (P < 0.001) in 14 patients with glaucoma that had median (interquartile range) between-eye difference in mean deviation (MD; a standard clinical measure for VF loss) of 9.8 (8.3 to 14.8) dB; differences were not related to the size of the difference in MD between eyes. Patients with a more pronounced effect of longer reading duration on their worse eye made a larger proportion of “regressions” (backward saccades) and “unknown” EMs (not adhering to expected reading patterns) when reading with the worse eye when compared to the better eye. A between-eye study in patients with asymmetric disease, coupled with eye tracking, provides a useful experimental design for exploring reading performance in glaucoma. PMID:24883203

  16. Eye Health in New Zealand: A Study of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Eye Health and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…

  17. Genetic association of SNPs in the FTO gene and predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Apalasamy, Y D; Ming, M F; Rampal, S; Bulgiba, A; Mohamed, Z

    2012-12-01

    The common variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been previously found to be associated with obesity in various adult populations. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks in various regions of the FTO gene are associated with predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays. Thirty-one FTO SNPs were genotyped in 587 (158 obese and 429 non-obese) Malaysian Malay subjects. Obesity traits and lipid profiles were measured and single-marker association testing, LD testing, and haplotype association analysis were performed. LD analysis of the FTO SNPs revealed the presence of 57 regions with complete LD (D' = 1.0). In addition, we detected the association of rs17817288 with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The FTO gene may therefore be involved in lipid metabolism in Malaysian Malays. Two haplotype blocks were present in this region of the FTO gene, but no particular haplotype was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity in Malaysian Malays. PMID:22911346

  18. Genetic association of SNPs in the FTO gene and predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays

    PubMed Central

    Apalasamy, Y.D.; Ming, M.F.; Rampal, S.; Bulgiba, A.; Mohamed, Z.

    2012-01-01

    The common variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been previously found to be associated with obesity in various adult populations. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks in various regions of the FTO gene are associated with predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays. Thirty-one FTO SNPs were genotyped in 587 (158 obese and 429 non-obese) Malaysian Malay subjects. Obesity traits and lipid profiles were measured and single-marker association testing, LD testing, and haplotype association analysis were performed. LD analysis of the FTO SNPs revealed the presence of 57 regions with complete LD (D' = 1.0). In addition, we detected the association of rs17817288 with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The FTO gene may therefore be involved in lipid metabolism in Malaysian Malays. Two haplotype blocks were present in this region of the FTO gene, but no particular haplotype was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity in Malaysian Malays. PMID:22911346

  19. Minimum velocity necessary for nonconventional projectiles to penetrate the eye: an experimental study using pig eyes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John W; Dahlstrom, Dean B; Powley, Kramer D

    2011-06-01

    To satisfy the Criminal Code of Canada's definition of a firearm, a barreled weapon must be capable of causing serious bodily injury or death to a person. Canadian courts have accepted the forensically established criteria of "penetration or rupture of an eye" as serious bodily injury. The minimal velocity of nonconventional ammunition required to penetrate the eye including airsoft projectiles has yet to be established. To establish minimal threshold requirements for eye penetration, empirical tests were conducted using a variety of airsoft projectiles. Using the data obtained from these tests, and previous research using "air gun" projectiles, an "energy density" parameter was calculated for the minimum penetration threshold of an eye. Airsoft guns capable of achieving velocities in excess of 99 m/s (325 ft/s) using conventional 6-mm airsoft ammunition will satisfy the forensically established criteria of "serious bodily injury." The energy density parameter for typical 6-mm plastic airsoft projectiles is 4.3 to 4.8 J/cm². This calculation also encompasses 4.5-mm steel BBs. PMID:21263287

  20. Validation of Malay Brief Pain Inventory Questionnaire to Measure Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Aisyaturridha, A; Naing, L; Nizar, AJ

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to translate and validate the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) questionnaire in the Malay language. The psychometric properties in terms of construct and concurrent validity of the Malay version of BPI were evaluated. The internal consistency and test-retest stability were also evaluated. Methodology: The original version of BPI was translated into a Malay version by the standard procedure and piloted among 35 cancer patients with pain. A total of 113 (95.0%) agreed to participate in this study out of 119 eligible patients with an age ranging from 18 to 76 years. They were interviewed between August and November 2004 for the main study to evaluate the psychometric properties of Malay version of BPI. Results: The pain intensity items demonstrated high loading with a factor whereas the pain interference items were loaded on the other factor in factor analysis. Two factors explained 62% of the variance. With Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), pain intensity scale had a moderate negative (Pearson’s) correlation (r=−0.520, p<0.001) and pain interference scale had a good negative correlation (r=−0.732, p<0.001), showing an appropriate concurrent validity. The coefficient alpha of both scales demonstrated a good internal consistency of the items. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the test-retest stability was 0.61 for the pain intensity scale and 0.88 for the pain interference scale. Conclusion: Overall, the Malay version of the BPI is a reliable and valid instrument for cancer pain assessment and it is comparable with the original version of the BPI in terms of structure and psychometric properties.

  1. Biomarkers of aging and falling: the Beaver Dam eye study

    PubMed Central

    Knudtson, Michael D.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Falls are an important cause of morbidity in older adults and are an important source of health care spending. We hypothesize that falls are associated with systemic biomarkers of aging. The following functions, measured at the 1998–2000 and 2003–05 examinations of the Beaver Dam Eye study, were considered to be biomarkers of aging (frailties): poorer visual acuity, contrast sensitivity or discrepant vision between the eyes, inability to rise from a chair, slower gait time, poorer hand grip strength, and lower peak expiratory flow rate. We found that poorer values on biomarkers of aging (frailties) at the 1998–2000 examination were associated with 2 or more reported falls in the past year at the 2003–05 examination (p < 0.05 for all markers except peak expiratory flow rate). When the markers were combined as an index of biological aging (frailty), the index was significantly associated with falls after controlling for significant confounders (odds ratio per 1 step increase in the index: 1.33; 95% confidence interval = CI = 1.13–1.57) We conclude that biomarkers of aging, including any of three measures of visual function, are associated with falls. Improvement in these functional measures may lead to decreased risk of falls. PMID:18513808

  2. Quantitative Assessment of Eye Phenotypes for Functional Genetic Studies Using Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Janani; Wang, Qingyu; Le, Thanh; Pizzo, Lucilla; Grönke, Sebastian; Ambegaokar, Surendra S.; Imai, Yuzuru; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Troisí, Beatriz Llamusí; Mardon, Graeme; Artero, Ruben; Jackson, George R.; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Partridge, Linda; Lu, Bingwei; Kumar, Justin P.; Girirajan, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    About two-thirds of the vital genes in the Drosophila genome are involved in eye development, making the fly eye an excellent genetic system to study cellular function and development, neurodevelopment/degeneration, and complex diseases such as cancer and diabetes. We developed a novel computational method, implemented as Flynotyper software (http://flynotyper.sourceforge.net), to quantitatively assess the morphological defects in the Drosophila eye resulting from genetic alterations affecting basic cellular and developmental processes. Flynotyper utilizes a series of image processing operations to automatically detect the fly eye and the individual ommatidium, and calculates a phenotypic score as a measure of the disorderliness of ommatidial arrangement in the fly eye. As a proof of principle, we tested our method by analyzing the defects due to eye-specific knockdown of Drosophila orthologs of 12 neurodevelopmental genes to accurately document differential sensitivities of these genes to dosage alteration. We also evaluated eye images from six independent studies assessing the effect of overexpression of repeats, candidates from peptide library screens, and modifiers of neurotoxicity and developmental processes on eye morphology, and show strong concordance with the original assessment. We further demonstrate the utility of this method by analyzing 16 modifiers of sine oculis obtained from two genome-wide deficiency screens of Drosophila and accurately quantifying the effect of its enhancers and suppressors during eye development. Our method will complement existing assays for eye phenotypes, and increase the accuracy of studies that use fly eyes for functional evaluation of genes and genetic interactions. PMID:26994292

  3. Quantitative Assessment of Eye Phenotypes for Functional Genetic Studies Using Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Janani; Wang, Qingyu; Le, Thanh; Pizzo, Lucilla; Grönke, Sebastian; Ambegaokar, Surendra S; Imai, Yuzuru; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Troisí, Beatriz Llamusí; Mardon, Graeme; Artero, Ruben; Jackson, George R; Isaacs, Adrian M; Partridge, Linda; Lu, Bingwei; Kumar, Justin P; Girirajan, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    About two-thirds of the vital genes in the Drosophila genome are involved in eye development, making the fly eye an excellent genetic system to study cellular function and development, neurodevelopment/degeneration, and complex diseases such as cancer and diabetes. We developed a novel computational method, implemented as Flynotyper software (http://flynotyper.sourceforge.net), to quantitatively assess the morphological defects in the Drosophila eye resulting from genetic alterations affecting basic cellular and developmental processes. Flynotyper utilizes a series of image processing operations to automatically detect the fly eye and the individual ommatidium, and calculates a phenotypic score as a measure of the disorderliness of ommatidial arrangement in the fly eye. As a proof of principle, we tested our method by analyzing the defects due to eye-specific knockdown of Drosophila orthologs of 12 neurodevelopmental genes to accurately document differential sensitivities of these genes to dosage alteration. We also evaluated eye images from six independent studies assessing the effect of overexpression of repeats, candidates from peptide library screens, and modifiers of neurotoxicity and developmental processes on eye morphology, and show strong concordance with the original assessment. We further demonstrate the utility of this method by analyzing 16 modifiers of sine oculis obtained from two genome-wide deficiency screens of Drosophila and accurately quantifying the effect of its enhancers and suppressors during eye development. Our method will complement existing assays for eye phenotypes, and increase the accuracy of studies that use fly eyes for functional evaluation of genes and genetic interactions. PMID:26994292

  4. Ultraviolet radiation and the eye: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H R

    1989-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from biochemical, animal, and epidemiologic studies suggests an association between exposure to UV-B radiation (290 nm to 320 nm) and cataract. Such an association had not been proven because it had not been possible to quantify ocular UV-B exposure of individuals or to reliably grade the type and severity of cataract in field studies. We undertook an epidemiologic survey of cataract among 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay. Their individual ocular UV-B exposure was quantified for each year of life over the age of 16, on the basis of a detailed occupational history combined with laboratory and field measurements of ocular UV-B exposure. Cataracts were graded by both type and severity through clinical and photographic means. SMD changes were ascertained by fundal photography. A general medical history was taken to discover potentially confounding factors. This study showed that people with cortical lens opacities had a 21% higher UV-B exposure at each year of life than people without these opacities. A doubling in lifetime UV-B exposure led to a 60% increase in the risk of cortical cataract, and those with a high annual UV-B exposure increased their risk of cortical cataract over threefold. Corneal changes, namely pterygium and CDK, were also strongly associated with high UV-B exposure. No association was found between nuclear lens opacities or macular degeneration and UV-B exposure. This study also indicated several simple, practical measures, such as wearing spectacles or a hat, that effectively protect the eye from UV-B exposure. Thus it is easily within the power of individuals to protect their eyes from excessive UV-B exposure and reduce their risk of cortical cataract. A program of public education in this area could be a cost-effective means of reducing this important disease. PMID:2562534

  5. Optic Disc - Fovea Angle: The Beijing Eye Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Rahul A.; Wang, Ya Xing; Yang, Hua; Li, Jian Jun; Xu, Liang; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Jonas, Jost B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the optic disc-fovea angle (defined as angle between the horizontal and the line between the optic disc center and the fovea) and to assess its relationships with ocular and systemic parameters. Methods The population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals. A detailed ophthalmic examination was carried out. Using fundus photographs, we measured the disc-fovea angle. Results Readable fundus photographs were available for 6043 eyes of 3052 (88.0%) individuals with a mean age of 63.6±9.3 years (range: 50–91 years) and a mean axial length of 23.2±1.0 mm (range: 18.96–28.87 mm). Mean disc-fovea angle was 7.76 ± 3.63° (median: 7.65°; range: -6.3° to 28.9°). The mean inter-eye difference was 4.01 ± 2.94° (median: 3.49°; range: 0.00–22.3°). In multivariate analysis, larger disc-fovea angle was associated (regression coefficient r2: 0.08) with older age (P = 0.009; standardized regression coefficient beta: 0.05), thinner RNFL in the nasal superior sector (P<0.001; beta: -0.17), superior sector (P<0.001; beta: -0.10) and temporal superior sector (P<0.001; beta: -0.11) and thicker RNFL in the inferior sector (P<001; beta: 0.13), nasal inferior sector (P<001; beta: 0.13) and nasal sector (P = 0.007; beta: 0.06), higher prevalence of retinal vein occlusion (P = 0.02; beta: 0.04), and with larger cylindrical refractive error (P = 0.04; beta: 0.04). Conclusions The optic disc-fovea angle markedly influences the regional distribution of the RNFL thickness pattern. The disc-fovea angle may routinely be taken into account in the morphological glaucoma diagnosis and in the assessment of structure-function relationship in optic nerve diseases. Future studies may address potential associations between a larger disc-fovea angle and retinal vein occlusions and between the disc-fovea angle and the neuroretinal rim shape. PMID:26545259

  6. Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness and Glaucoma. The Beijing Eye Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya Xing; Xu, Liang; Shao, Lei; Zhang, Ya Qin; Yang, Hua; Da Wang, Jin; Jonas, Jost B.; Wei, Wen Bin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in eyes with glaucoma, using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Methods The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with enhanced depth imaging for measurement of SFCT, and assessment of fundus photographs for presence of glaucoma. In addition, the group of patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) from the Beijing Eye Study (n = 37) was merged with a group of patients with chronic ACG from the Tongren hospital (n = 52). Results Assessments of SFCT and glaucoma were available for 3232 (93.2%) subjects. After adjusting for age, axial length, gender, anterior chamber and lens thickness, SFCT was not significantly associated with presence of glaucoma (P = 0.08; regression coefficient B:−15.7). As a corollary, in logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, axial length and intraocular pressure, presence of glaucoma was not significantly associated with SFCT (P = 0.20). If only open-angle glaucoma was considered, multivariate analysis revealed no significant association between SFCT and presence of open-angle glaucoma (P = 0.44). As a corollary, in logistic regression analysis, open-angle glaucoma was not significantly associated with SFCT (P = 0.91). In a similar manner if only ACG was taken into account, SFCT was not significantly associated with the presence of ACG (P = 0.27) in multivariate analysis. As a corollary in binary regression analysis, presence of ACG was not significantly associated with SFCT (P = 0.27). Conclusions In multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, axial length, gender, anterior chamber and lens thickness, neither OAG nor ACG was associated with an abnormal SFCT. PMID:25210857

  7. Eye Movement Monitoring in the Study of Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConkie, George W.

    Eye movement monitoring is useful both in the control of experiments on reading and as a source of data. Experiments using eye monitoring techniques have helped develop the following conclusions about the reading process: the region of text read during a fixation is quite small and asymmetric to the right of the center of vision, successive…

  8. Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis among Malay population

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, V. K.; Husein, A.; Mishra, N.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, size, shape, and location of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM), and to assess their sex-related and age-related differences in the Malay population. Sixty-five subjects were assessed for the presence of both tori at the School of Dental Sciences University Sains Malaysia. The prevalence of TP was 38–63% and that of TM was 1–10%. TP was frequently more common in females than males (90.9% versus 9.1%; P < 0.05) and was frequently found in medium sizes, spindle shaped, and was often located at the combined premolar to molar areas. The prevalence of TM was not significantly different in males and females (33.3% versus 66.7%; P = 0.523), occurred most commonly in bilateral multiple form, and was often located at the canine to premolar area. PMID:24478956

  9. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Nowinska, Anna K.; Teper, Sławomir J.; Janiszewska, Dominika A.; Lyssek-Boron, Anita; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Koprowski, Robert; Wylegala, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT) in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs). Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes) and 54 patients (96 eyes) diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes) were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA) were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Results. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Conclusions. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements. PMID:26457303

  10. Gender-dependent association of a β(2)-adrenergic gene variant with obesity parameters in Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Apalasamy, Yamunah Devi; Ming, Moy Foong; Rampal, Sanjay; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-03-01

    Recent findings have shown that the rs1042714 (Gln27Glu) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the β2-adrenoceptor gene may predispose to obesity. The findings from other studies carried on different populations, however, have been inconsistent. The authors investigated the association between the rs1042714 SNP with obesity-related parameters. DNA of 672 Malaysian Malays was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses revealed significant associations between rs1042714 and diastolic blood pressure in the pooled Malaysian Malay subjects under additive and recessive models. After gender stratification, however, a significant association was found between the rs1042714 and triglyceride and the rs1042714 and log-transformed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Malaysian Malay men. No significant association was found between the SNP and log-transformed body mass index. This polymorphism may have an important role in the development of obesity-related traits in Malaysian Malays. Gender is an effect modifier for the effect of the rs1042714 polymorphism on obesity-related traits in Malaysian Malays. PMID:22199155

  11. Population structure of Helicobacter pylori among ethnic groups in Malaysia: recent acquisition of the bacterium by the Malay population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture. Results Seventy eight H. pylori isolates, including 27 Chinese, 35 Indian and 16 Malay isolates from Malaysia were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes and compared with the global MLST data. STRUCTURE analysis assigned the isolates to previously identified H. pylori ancestral populations, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2 and hpEurope, and revealed a new subpopulation, hspIndia, within hpAsia2. Statistical analysis allowed us to identify population segregation sites that divide the H. pylori populations and the subpopulations. The majority of Malay isolates were found to be grouped together with Indian isolates. Conclusion The majority of the Malay and Indian H. pylori isolates share the same origin while the Malaysian Chinese H. pylori is distinctive. The Malay population, known to have a low infection rate of H. pylori, was likely to be initially H. pylori free and gained the pathogen only recently from cross infection from other populations. PMID:19538757

  12. Translation, Validation, and Adaptation of the Time Use Diary from English into the Malay Language for Use in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Asmuri, Siti Noraini; Brown, Ted; Broom, Lisa J

    2016-07-01

    Valid translations of time use scales are needed by occupational therapists for use in different cross-cultural contexts to gather relevant data to inform practice and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of translating, adapting, and validating the Time Use Diary from its current English language edition into a Malay language version. Five steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were completed: (i) translation from English into the Malay language by a qualified translator, (ii) synthesis of the translated Malay version, (iii) backtranslation from Malay to English by three bilingual speakers, (iv) expert committee review and discussion, and (v) pilot testing of the Malay language version with two participant groups. The translated version was found to be a reliable and valid tool identifying changes and potential challenges in the time use of older adults. This provides Malaysian occupational therapists with a useful tool for gathering time use data in practice settings and for research purposes. PMID:27219119

  13. Genetic associations of the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity-related metabolic traits in Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Apalasamy, Y D; Moy, F M; Rampal, S; Bulgiba, A; Mohamed, Z

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide association study showed that the tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7566605 in the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) was associated with obesity. Attempts to replicate this result in different populations have produced inconsistent findings. We aimed to study the association between the rs7566605 SNP with obesity and other metabolic parameters in Malaysian Malays. Anthropometric and obesity-related metabolic parameters and DNA samples were collected. We genotyped the rs7566605 polymorphism in 672 subjects using real-time polymerase chain reaction. No significant associations were found between the rs7566605 tagging SNP of INSIG2 with obesity or other metabolic parameters in the Malaysian Malay population. The INSIG2 rs7566605 SNP may not play a role in the development of obesity-related metabolic traits in Malaysian Malays. PMID:25062423

  14. Retinal Thickness Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes without Retinal Abnormalities: the Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Meuer, Stacy M.; Swift, Maria K.; Chandler, Charles S.; Huang, Yijun; Gangaputra, Sapna; Pak, Jeong W.; Danis, Ronald P.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine relationships of age, sex, and systemic and ocular conditions with retinal thickness measured by spectral-domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in participants without retinal disease. Design Longitudinal study. Methods Setting Population-based cohort. Study Population Persons aged 43-86 years living in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin in 1988-1990. Observation Procedures Retinal thickness was measured via SD-OCT at the Beaver Dam Eye Study examination in 2008-2010. Retinal disease was determined by ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, or SD-OCT. Main Outcome Measures Retinal thickness from the inner limiting membrane to Bruch's membrane. Results The retina was thickest in the inner circle (mean 334.5 μm) and thinnest in the center subfield (285.4 μm). Mean retinal thickness decreased with age in the inner circle (P<0.0001) and outer circle (P<0.0001). Adjusting for age, eyes in men had thicker retinas than eyes in women in the center subfield (P<0.001) and inner circle (P<0.001). Sex, axial length/corneal curvature ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate were associated with center subfield thickness. Sex and peak expiratory flow rate were associated with retinal thickness in the inner circle. Alcohol consumption, age, axial length/corneal curvature ratio, cataract surgery, ocular perfusion pressure, and peak expiratory flow rate were associated with retinal thickness in the outer circle. Conclusions This study provides data for retinal thickness measures in eyes of individuals aged 63 years and older without retinal disease. This information may be useful for clinical trials involving the effects of interventions on retinal thickness and for comparisons with specific retinal diseases affecting the macula. PMID:25461295

  15. Stemming Malay Text and Its Application in Automatic Text Categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Michiko; Lim, Hui Tian; Yokoo, Hidetoshi

    In Malay language, there are no conjugations and declensions and affixes have important grammatical functions. In Malay, the same word may function as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or, a verb, depending on its position in the sentence. Although extensively simple root words are used in informal conversations, it is essential to use the precise words in formal speech or written texts. In Malay, to make sentences clear, derivative words are used. Derivation is achieved mainly by the use of affixes. There are approximately a hundred possible derivative forms of a root word in written language of the educated Malay. Therefore, the composition of Malay words may be complicated. Although there are several types of stemming algorithms available for text processing in English and some other languages, they cannot be used to overcome the difficulties in Malay word stemming. Stemming is the process of reducing various words to their root forms in order to improve the effectiveness of text processing in information systems. It is essential to avoid both over-stemming and under-stemming errors. We have developed a new Malay stemmer (stemming algorithm) for removing inflectional and derivational affixes. Our stemmer uses a set of affix rules and two types of dictionaries: a root-word dictionary and a derivative-word dictionary. The use of set of rules is aimed at reducing the occurrence of under-stemming errors, while that of the dictionaries is believed to reduce the occurrence of over-stemming errors. We performed an experiment to evaluate the application of our stemmer in text mining software. For the experiment, text data used were actual web pages collected from the World Wide Web to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Malay stemming algorithm. The experimental results showed that our stemmer can effectively increase the precision of the extracted Boolean expressions for text categorization.

  16. The Use of Eye Movements in the Study of Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyona, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    This commentary focuses on the use of the eye-tracking methodology to study cognitive processes during multimedia learning. First, some general remarks are made about how the method is applied to investigate visual information processing, followed by a reflection on the eye movement measures employed in the studies published in this special issue.…

  17. Stereoacuity and Related Factors: The Shandong Children Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuan-yuan; Sun, Wei; Lv, Tai-liang; Jiang, Wen-jun; Wu, Hui; Wang, Xing-rong; Bi, Hong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess stereoacuity in a population-based sample of children and to examine ocular and systemic parameters related to stereoacuity. Methods Using a random cluster sampling method, four- to 18-year-old children from kindergartens, elementary schools, junior high schools and senior high schools from a rural area and an urban area in the East Chinese province of Shandong were included in the school-based cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination including assessment of cycloplegic refraction and measurement of stereoacuity using the Titmus Stereo test. Results Out of 6364 eligible children, 5780 (90.8%) children with a mean age of 10.1 ± 3.2 years (range: 4 to 18 years) participated. Mean (± standard deviation) stereoacuity was 50.2 ± 50.6 arc seconds. Stereoacuity improved significantly (P<0.01) from the age group of 4 years to the age group of 6 to 7 years, then showed a plateau, deteriorated (P = 0.001) for both sexes from the age group of 9 years to the age group of 12 years (P<0.001), after which it improved (P = 0.001) again in the age group of 16 years or older to the pre-puberty values. In multivariate analysis, larger angle of binocular disparity (i.e., lower stereoacuity) was significantly associated with lower best corrected visual acuity (logMAR; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in refractive error (spherical equivalent) (P<0.001), higher cylindrical refractive error (P<0.001), higher refractive error (spherical value; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in best corrected visual acuity (logMAR) (P = 0.001), higher intereye difference in axial length (P = 0.001), and rural region of habitation (P = 0.006). Conclusions Stereoacuity as tested with the Titmus Stereo test improved significantly from an age of 4 years to an age of 6 and 7 years, then remained constant, temporarily deteriorated for both sexes in pre-puberty and puberty, after which it improved again to pre-puberty or better values at

  18. Insecure attachment style as a vulnerability factor for depression: recent findings in a community-based study of Malay single and married mothers.

    PubMed

    Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia

    2013-12-30

    The role of marital breakdown in women's mental health is of key concern in Malaysia and internationally. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of married and separated/divorced and widowed women examined insecure attachment style as an associated risk factor for depression among 1002 mothers in an urban community in Malaysia. A previous report replicated a UK-based vulnerability-provoking agent model of depression involving negative evaluation of self (NES) and negative elements in close relationships (NECRs) interacting with severe life events to model depression. This article reports on the additional contribution of insecure attachment style to the model using the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ). The results showed that VASQ scores were highly correlated with NES, NECR and depression. A multiple regression analysis of depression with backward elimination found that VASQ scores had a significant additional effect. Group comparisons showed different risk patterns for single and married mothers. NES was the strongest risk factor for both groups, with the 'anxious style' subset of the VASQ being the best additional predictor for married mothers and the total VASQ score (general attachment insecurity) for single mothers. The findings indicate that attachment insecurity adds to a psychosocial vulnerability model of depression among mothers cross-culturally and is important in understanding and identifying risk. PMID:24075307

  19. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  20. EYE DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This chapter provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  1. Contrast reversal of the eyes impairs infants' face processing: a near-infrared spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Otsuka, Yumiko; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2013-11-01

    Human can easily detect other's eyes and gaze from early in life. Such sensitivity is supported by the contrast polarity of human eyes, which have a white sclera contrasting with the darker colored iris (Kobayashi & Kohshima, (1997). Nature, 387, 767-768; Kobayashi & Kohshima, (2001). Journal of Human Evolution, 40, 419-435). Recent studies suggest that the contrast polarity around the eyes plays an important role in infants' face processing. Newborns preferred upright face images to inverted ones in contrast-preserved faces, but not in contrast-reversed faces (Farroni et al., (2005). Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, p. 17245-17250). Seven- to 8-month-old infants failed to discriminate between faces when the contrast polarity of eyes was reversed (Otsuka et al., (2013). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115, 598-606). Neuroimaging study with adults revealed that full-negative faces induced less activation in the right fusiform gyrus than either full-positive faces or negative faces with contrast-preserved eyes (Gilad et al., (2009). Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, p. 5353-5358). In the present study, we investigated whether contrast-reversed eyes diminish infants' brain activity related to face processing. We measured hemodynamic responses in the bilateral temporal area of 5- to 6-month-old infants. Their hemodynamic responses to faces with positive eyes and those with negative eyes were compared against the baseline activation during the presentation of object images. We found that the presentation of faces with positive eyes increased the concentration of oxy-Hb in the right temporal area and those of total-Hb in the bilateral temporal areas. No such change occurred for faces with negative eyes. Our results suggest the importance of contrast polarity of the eyes in the face-selective neural responses from early development. PMID:24012650

  2. A Comparison of Practices During the Confinement Period among Chinese, Malay, and Indian Mothers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Fok, Doris; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Ho, Jiahui; Lim, Sok Bee; Chua, Mei Chien; Pang, Wei Wei; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Yap Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Confinement (restrictions placed on diet and practices during the month right after delivery) represents a key feature of Asian populations. Few studies however, have focused specifically on ethnic differences in confinement practices. This study assesses the confinement practices of three ethnic groups in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods Participants were part of a prospective birth cohort study that recruited 1247 pregnant women (57.2% Chinese, 25.5% Malay, 17.3% Indian) during their first trimester. 1220 participants were followed up 3-weeks postpartum at home when questionnaires were administered to ascertain the frequency of adherence to the following confinement practices: showering; confinement-specific meals; going out with or without the baby; choice of caregiver assistance; and the use of massage therapy. Results Most participants reported that they followed confinement practices during the first three weeks post-partum (Chinese: 96.4%, Malay: 92.4%, Indian: 85.6%). Chinese and Indian mothers tended to eat more special confinement diets than Malay mothers (p<0.001), and Chinese mothers showered less and were more likely to depend on confinement nannies during this period than mothers from the two other ethnic groups (p<0.001 for all). Malay mothers tended to make greater use of massage therapy (p<0.001), whilst Indian mothers tended to have their mothers or mothers-in-law as assistant caregivers (p<0.001). Conclusion Most Singapore mothers follow confinement practices, but the three Asian ethnic groups differed in specific confinement practices. Future studies should examine whether ethnic differences persist in later child-rearing practices. PMID:27018256

  3. Validation of a Malay Version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale among Medical Students in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sazlly Lim, Sazlyna Mohd; Wan Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa; Foo, Yoke Loong; Hoo, Fan kee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study was initiated to determine the psychometric properties of the Smart Phone Addiction Scale (SAS) by translating and validating this scale into the Malay language (SAS-M), which is the main language spoken in Malaysia. This study can distinguish smart phone and internet addiction among multi-ethnic Malaysian medical students. In addition, the reliability and validity of the SAS was also demonstrated. Materials and Methods A total of 228 participants were selected between August 2014 and September 2014 to complete a set of questionnaires, including the SAS and the modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (IAT) in the Malay language. Results There were 99 males and 129 females with ages ranging from 19 to 22 years old (21.7±1.1) included in this study. Descriptive and factor analyses, intra-class coefficients, t-tests and correlation analyses were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SAS. Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant (p <0.01), and the Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy for the SAS-M was 0.92, indicating meritoriously that the factor analysis was appropriate. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of the SAS-M were verified (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.94). All of the subscales of the SAS-M, except for positive anticipation, were significantly related to the Malay version of the IAT. Conclusions This study developed the first smart phone addiction scale among medical students. This scale was shown to be reliable and valid in the Malay language. PMID:26431511

  4. Incidence, density and direction of hair on the dorsum of phalanges of the hands in Malays.

    PubMed

    Dharap, A S; Varma, S L; Chary, T V

    1995-09-01

    In this study 200 Malay subjects (100 males and 100 females) were randomly selected from patients attending outpatient clinics of Hospital USM, Kelantan, Malaysia, to find out the incidence, density and direction of hair on the dorsum of phalanges of the hand. These features have not been studied so far in females nor has such a study been conducted in Malays. The probability of density of hair distribution among the digits of both hands showed significant correlation on proximal phalanges (p < 0.05) in both sexes. Significant correlation was not observed, however, in the middle phalangeal hair (MPH) of the hands. The direction of proximal phalangeal hair, from little finger to the thumb, showed significant changes from ulnar to radial in both sexes (p < 0.05). Identification of isolated digits, which is of medicolegal importance, would be more accurate if the direction and the density of hair on the digits are both considered together. MPH was present in 48% of males and in 33% of females studied. Comparisons with presence of MPH in other populations show that Malays are ethnically similar to other Asiatic populations. PMID:7486886

  5. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms: differential symptom functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-08-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N=571) and Chinese (N=254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation modeling procedure. Although DSF was found for a single inattention (IA) symptom and three hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms, all these differences had low effect sizes. Controlling for these DSF, Chinese children had higher IA and HI latent factor scores. However the effect sizes were small. Together, these findings suggest adequate support for invariance of the ADHD symptoms across these ethno-cultural groups. The implications of the findings for cross-cultural invariance of the ADHD symptoms are discussed. PMID:18317918

  6. Processing of Written Irony: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakinen, Johanna K.; Olkoniemi, Henri; Kinnari, Taina; Hyönä, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    We examined processing of written irony by recording readers' eye movements while they read target phrases embedded either in ironic or non-ironic story context. After reading each story, participants responded to a text memory question and an inference question tapping into the understanding of the meaning of the target phrase. The results…

  7. Ecological Validity in Eye-Tracking: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti; Gass, Susan M.; Behney, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Eye-trackers are becoming increasingly widespread as a tool to investigate second language (L2) acquisition. Unfortunately, clear standards for methodology--including font size, font type, and placement of interest areas--are not yet available. Although many researchers stress the need for ecological validity--that is, the simulation of natural…

  8. A Case-Control Study on the Oxidative Balance of 50% Autologous Serum Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Diane; Zelanis, Samira; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Locatelli, Claudete; Nicola, Felipe; Kunzler, Ana Laura; Fernandes, Tania Regina Gatelli; Carraro, Cristina Campos; Barbosa, Luciene

    2016-01-01

    Importance. Autologous serum (AS) eye drops are recommended for severe dry eye in patients with ocular surface disease. No description of the antioxidant balance of AS eye drops has been reported in the literature. Objective. This study sought to evaluate the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in samples of 50% AS eye drops and their correlations with the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of patients with ocular surface disease and healthy controls. Design. This was a case-control study with a 3-month follow-up period. Participants. 16 patients with severe dry eye disease of different etiologies and 17 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and race were included. Results. TRAP and ROS were detected at all evaluated times. There were no differences in the mean ROS (p = 0.429) or TRAP (p = 0.475) levels between cases and controls. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of ROS or TRAPs were found at 0, 15, or 30 days (p for ROS = 0.087 and p for TRAP = 0.93). Neither the demographic characteristics nor the lifestyle habits were correlated with the oxidative balance of the 50% AS eye drops. Conclusions and Relevance. Both fresh and frozen 50% AS eye drops present antioxidant capacities and ROS in an apparently stable balance. Moreover, patients with ocular surface disease and normal controls produce equivalent AS eye drops in terms of oxidative properties.

  9. Eye Study Underscores the Long-Lasting Benefits of Controlling Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monday, June 13, 2016 Eye study underscores the long-lasting benefits of controlling diabetes NIH-funded study ... received intensive glycemic therapy in the 10-year-long Diabetes Control and Complications Trial on average had ...

  10. Study: Trained Experts Can Spot Breast Cancer in 'Blink of An Eye'

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160675.html Study: Trained Experts Can Spot Breast Cancer in 'Blink of an Eye' Skilled radiologists see ... these results suggest there are detectable signs of breast cancer that radiologists notice immediately, the study authors said. " ...

  11. Eye-to-eye with a mega-sheath fold: A case study from Wadi Mayh, northern Oman Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, M. P.; Alsop, G. I.

    2007-11-01

    Sheath folds are highly curvilinear folds, typically considered to develop by hinge rotation toward the transport direction during intense deformation. Most sheath folds are recognized on the centimeter to meter scale, with very few detailed studies of larger kilometer-scale structures. We here present evidence for a mega-scale sheath fold superbly exposed in the northern Oman Mountains. The Saih Hatat culmination consists of an exhumed high-pressure subduction zone with deep-level eclogites and garnet blueschists (As Sifah unit), epidote blueschists (Hulw unit) and carpholite-bearing metasediments (part of the “Upper plate”). Sheath folds are present at a variety of scales throughout the As Sifah, Hulw, and Upper plate tectonic packages. Curvilinear fold hinges along a 15-km-long profile outline the Wadi Mayh mega-sheath fold, which closes to the SSW and faces to the NNE. It consists of at least four secondary sheath folds with cross-sectional (y-z) eye folds measuring 200 m stacked on top of one another within Permian and Triassic shelf carbonates. These eye folds display highly elliptical geometries (Ryz > 5) and cat's-eye fold patterns consistent with simple/general shear. The sheath fold is enveloped by Ordovician and older rocks that do not show equal amounts of internal deformation. The upper bounding envelope is a detachment that has been subsequently sheath folded. The lower boundary of the sheath fold is the Upper plate-Lower plate detachment, which forms a major high-strain shear zone showing little vertical displacement but significant horizontal displacement. The sheath fold displays a SSW elongation (x axis) of at least 15 km and possibly up to 25 km, coupled with significant amounts of vertical flattening and WNW-ESE shortening.

  12. A Study on Hospital Admissions For Eye Trauma in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Movahedinejad, Tayebeh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Zahedi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Eye trauma is among the most common reasons for referral to hospital emergency departments and ophthalmologists’ offices. It also is a common cause of vision loss worldwide. However, few studies are available on the changes in the epidemiology of eye trauma in Iran in recent years. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of hospital admissions for eye trauma in Kashan from August 2011 to February 2014. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on the hospital records of all patients with eye trauma who were admitted to Kashan’s Matini hospital between August 2011 and February 2014. Having an eye trauma and being hospitalized for at least one day was selected as the criteria for inclusion in the study. The data were then recorded on a checklist devised by the researcher. After entering the data into the SPSS software, descriptive statistics (i.e., percentage, frequency, mean, and standard deviation) were calculated for all variables. Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the data. Results In total, 200 patients with eye trauma had been hospitalized in Matini Hospital between August 2011 and February 2014. Of these patients, 86% were males, 40% were in the age range of 20-39 years, 68% lived in urban areas, and 21% of those in employment were manual and industrial workers. Approximately 38.5% of eye traumas had occurred in the work place; 72.5% of patients had penetrating injuries and 98% of cases were injured in one eye. More injuries occurred in the cornea (25.5%) than elsewhere in the eye, and 75.5% of patients were treated surgically. Among all variables, only the type of trauma (P = 0.009) and cause of trauma (P = 0.004) were significantly related to the patients’ gender. Conclusions Eye trauma was prevalent among males, young people, urban residents, and manual and industrial workers. As the eyes play a vital role in daily life, communication, and work

  13. Long-range eye tracking: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, S.K.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-08-24

    The design considerations for a long-range Purkinje effects based video tracking system using current technology is presented. Past work, current experiments, and future directions are thoroughly discussed, with an emphasis on digital signal processing techniques and obstacles. It has been determined that while a robust, efficient, long-range, and non-invasive eye tracking system will be difficult to develop, such as a project is indeed feasible.

  14. Covert tracking: a combined ERP and fixational eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen; Ackerley, Rochelle; El-Deredy, Wael

    2012-01-01

    Attention can be directed to particular spatial locations, or to objects that appear at anticipated points in time. While most work has focused on spatial or temporal attention in isolation, we investigated covert tracking of smoothly moving objects, which requires continuous coordination of both. We tested two propositions about the neural and cognitive basis of this operation: first that covert tracking is a right hemisphere function, and second that pre-motor components of the oculomotor system are responsible for driving covert spatial attention during tracking. We simultaneously recorded event related potentials (ERPs) and eye position while participants covertly tracked dots that moved leftward or rightward at 12 or 20°/s. ERPs were sensitive to the direction of target motion. Topographic development in the leftward motion was a mirror image of the rightward motion, suggesting that both hemispheres contribute equally to covert tracking. Small shifts in eye position were also lateralized according to the direction of target motion, implying covert activation of the oculomotor system. The data addresses two outstanding questions about the nature of visuospatial tracking. First, covert tracking is reliant upon a symmetrical frontoparietal attentional system, rather than being right lateralized. Second, this same system controls both pursuit eye movements and covert tracking. PMID:22719893

  15. A cross-sectional study of pediatric eye care perceptions in Ghana, Honduras, and India.

    PubMed

    Ramai, Daryl; Elliott, Ryan; Goldin, Shoshanna; Pulisetty, Tejas

    2015-06-01

    Of the more than 1.4 million blind children worldwide, 75% live in developing countries. To reduce the prevalence of childhood blindness and associated diseases, attention is given to understanding the perceptions and level of awareness held by caregivers. This understanding can enable tailored health programs to reduce the global prevalence of blindness with increased efficiency. This study, which took place in Ghana, Honduras, and India, found that 95% of caregivers believed in the importance of eye exams for children, yet 66% of caregivers said that none of their children had ever received an eye exam. Participants' major reasons for not bringing their children included the belief that their child had no eye problems along with similar and unique socio-economic barriers. Further information was gained through the use of a five-question test on basic child eye care symptoms, which showed that out of the three country locations, the studied population in India had the least understanding about pediatric eye symptoms. Further analysis revealed significant gaps in understanding of general eye health while detected knowledge barriers provide evidence that fundamental misconceptions appear to be inhibiting caregivers' competence in facilitating their children's eye health. PMID:25922322

  16. Is the peripapillary retinal perfusion related to myopia in healthy eyes? A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolei; Kong, Xiangmei; Jiang, Chunhui; Li, Mengwei; Yu, Jian; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the peripapillary and parafoveal perfusion of young, healthy myopic subjects with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Design A prospective comparative study was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015. Setting Participants recruited from a population-based study performed by the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai. Participants A total of 78 Chinese normal subjects (78 eyes) with different refraction were included. Myopia was divided into 4 groups on the basis of the refractive status: 20 eyes with emmetropia (mean spherical equivalent (MSE) 0.50D to −0.50D), 20 eyes with mild myopia (MSE −0.75D to −2.75D), 20 eyes with moderate myopia (MSE −3.00D to −5.75D), and 18 eyes with high myopia (MSE≤−6.00D). Main outcome measures Peripapillary and parafoveal retinal and choroidal perfusion parameters and their relationships with axial length (AL) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness were analysed. Results Significant differences were found for the retinal flow index and vessel density in the peripapillary area among the 4 groups, but not in the parafoveal area. The high myopia group had the lowest peripapillary retinal flow index and vessel density. In addition, there was a negative correlation (β=−0.002, p=0.047) between the AL and peripapillary retinal flow index and a positive correlation between RNFL thickness and the peripapillary retinal perfusion parameters (flow index: β=0.001, p=0.006; vessel density: β=0.350, p=0.002) even after adjustment for other variables. Conclusions Highly myopic eyes have a decreased peripapillary retinal perfusion compared with emmetropic eyes. Such vascular features might increase the susceptibility to vascular-related eye diseases. PMID:26969645

  17. Retrobulbar blood flow changes in eyes with diabetic retinopathy: a 10-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Neudorfer, Meira; Kessner, Rivka; Goldenberg, Dafna; Lavie, Anat; Kessler, Ada

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We sought to assess long-term changes in the flow parameters of retrobulbar vessels in diabetic patients. Methods The retrobulbar circulation of 138 eyes was evaluated between 1994 and 1995 and 36 eyes were reevaluated between 2004 and 2008 (study group). They were divided into four groups: eyes of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR), eyes with nonproliferative DR, eyes with proliferative DR, and eyes of nondiabetic patients (controls). Color Doppler imaging was used to assess the flow velocities in the major retrobulbar vessels. The resistive index (RI) was calculated and compared among the groups and between the two time periods. Results RI values of the central retinal artery and posterior ciliary artery had increased in the two non-DR groups and in the nonproliferative DR group, with a surprising decrease measured in eyes with proliferative DR (P= nonsignificant [NS]). Combining the nonproliferative DR and proliferative DR groups resulted in a milder increase of the RI of the posterior ciliary artery (P= NS) and the central retinal artery (P=0.02) in the DR group compared to the other groups. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that an increase of the resistance in the retrobulbar vessels, as a part of DR, can lessen over time and may even be reversed. PMID:25473257

  18. The burden of care of schizophrenia in Malay families.

    PubMed

    Salleh, M R

    1994-03-01

    Deinstitutionalization has shifted much of the burden of care of chronic schizophrenia from mental institutions to the family. The aim of this study is to asses the prevalence of mental disorders among 210 primary carers of Malay schizophrenic patients, explored the burden and hardship experienced by them. This is a two-stage psychiatric screening procedure. All the cases suspected from initial screening with WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaires (SRQ-20) were called for clinical interview. Patients' behavioural problems and the burden of relatives were assessed by the Social Behaviour Schedule and the Interview Schedule respectively. It was found that about 23% of the carers developed neurotic disorders resulting from the stress; nearly half of them had neurotic depression. Despite their burden, they do not complaint about it. Neurotic carers compared with non-neurotic carers had significantly more subjective burden and distress related to the product of active psychosis. The carers were generally able to tolerate the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The number of problem behaviours and previous admissions were significantly correlated with the severity of burden. PMID:8178676

  19. Eye to Eye: An Artist/Teacher and Young Children--A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Christine

    This case study of artist/researcher Ursula Kolbe was undertaken in 1998 to extend understanding of the complexity of the process of teaching and learning in respect to children's interactions with visual arts materials. The following questions prompted the research: how does a teacher who is also an artist work with young children? and does a…

  20. In Vivo and Impression Cytology Study on the Effect of Compatible Solutes Eye Drops on the Ocular Surface Epithelial Cell Quality in Dry Eye Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lanzini, Manuela; Curcio, Claudia; Colabelli-Gisoldi, Rossella Annamaria; Mastropasqua, Alessandra; Calienno, Roberta; Agnifili, Luca; Nubile, Mario; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate in vivo and ex vivo ocular surface alterations induced by dry eye disease and modification after osmoprotective therapy. Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients suffering from dry eye have been recruited. All patients received Optive (compatible solutes) eye drops in one randomly selected eye and Hylogel (sodium hyaluronate 0,2%) in the other. Follow-up included a baseline visit and further examination 30-, 60-, and 90-day intervals (which comprises clinical evaluation, in vivo confocal microscopy—IVCM—of the ocular surface, and conjunctival impression cytology). No significant difference in Schirmer I Test, TBUT, and vital staining results was observed during the follow-up period in both groups. IVCM showed in all patients an improvement of ocular surface epithelial morphology and signs of inflammation (oedema and keratocyte activation). However, these modifications were more evident in patients treated with Optive therapy. A significant reduction of the expression of MMP9 and IL6 in Optive group was observed during the follow-up period in comparison to Hylogel treatment. Our results show that in dry eye disease therapy based on osmoprotective eye drops determines a reduction of inflammatory activation of ocular surface, with consequent improvement of the quality of corneal and conjunctival epithelium. PMID:26221061

  1. Ethnicity and Accommodation: Malay-Chinese Relations in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raybeck, Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Argues that despite antipathy toward the Chinese manifested at state and urban levels, the Malay-Chinese relations at the village level in Kelantan, Malaysia, are better than corresponding relationships in the country's more developed states. Suggests both cultural and political reasons for the success of the Chinese group. (Author/GC)

  2. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  3. Characteristics of structures and lesions of the eye in laboratory animals used in toxicity studies

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Kazumoto; Tomohiro, Masayuki; Sasaki, Shoji; Otake, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Histopathology of the eye is an essential part of ocular toxicity evaluation. There are structural variations of the eye among several laboratory animals commonly used in toxicity studies, and many cases of ocular lesions in these animals are related to anatomical and physiological characteristics of the eye. Since albino rats have no melanin in the eye, findings of the fundus can be observed clearly by ophthalmoscopy. Retinal atrophy is observed as a hyper-reflective lesion in the fundus and is usually observed as degeneration of the retina in histopathology. Albino rats are sensitive to light, and light-induced retinal degeneration is commonly observed because there is no melanin in the eye. Therefore, it is important to differentiate the causes of retinal degeneration because the lesion occurs spontaneously and is induced by several drugs or by lighting. In dogs, the tapetum lucidum, a multilayered reflective tissue of the choroid, is one of unique structures of the eye. Since tapetal cells contain reflecting crystals in which a high level of zinc has been demonstrated chemically, drug-induced tapetum degeneration is possibly related to zinc chelation. The eye of the monkey has a macula similar to that of humans. The macula consists only of cones with a high density, and light falls directly on the macula that plays an important role in visual acuity. Macular degeneration occurring in monkeys resembles histopathologically that of humans. Hence, the eye of the monkey is a suitable model to investigate macular degeneration and to assess drug-induced macular lesions. PMID:26538807

  4. Feature matching method study for uncorrected fish-eye lens image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baofeng; Jia, Yanhui; Röning, Juha; Feng, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    Because of the further from the center of image the lower resolution and the severe non-linear distortion are the characteristics of uncorrected fish-eye lens image, the traditional feature matching method can't achieve good performance in the applications of fish-eye lens, which correct distortion firstly and then matches the features in image. Center-symmetric Local Binary Pattern (CS-LBP) is a kind of descriptor based on grayscale information from neighborhood, which has high ability of grayscale invariance and rotation invariance. In this paper, CS-LBP will be combined with Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) to solve the problem of feature point matching on uncorrected fish-eye image. We first extract the interest points in the pair of fish-eye images by SIFT, and then describe the corresponding regions of the interest points through CS-LBP. Finally the similarity of the regions will be evaluated using the chi-square distance to get the only pair of points. For the specified interest point, the corresponding point in another image can be found out. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a satisfying matching performance in uncorrected fish-eye lens image. The study of this article will be useful to enhance the applications of fish-eye lens in the field of 3D reconstruction and panorama restoration.

  5. Comparison of self-reported quality of vision outcomes after myopic LASIK with two femtosecond lasers: a prospective, eye-to-eye study

    PubMed Central

    Sáles, Christopher S; Manche, Edward E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare self-reported quality of vision (QoV) outcomes after myopic LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) with two femtosecond lasers. Design Prospective, randomized, eye-to-eye study. Methods Consecutive myopic patients were treated with wavefront-guided LASIK bilaterally. Eyes were randomized according to ocular dominance. The flap of one eye was made with the IntraLase FS 60 kHz femtosecond laser with a conventional 70° side-cut, and the flap of the fellow eye was made with the IntraLase iFS 150 kHz femtosecond laser with an inverted 130° side-cut. Patients completed the validated, Rasch-tested, linear-scaled 30-item QoV questionnaire preoperatively and at Months 1, 3, 6, and 12. Results The study enrolled 120 fellow eyes in 60 patients. None of the measured QoV parameters exhibited statistically significant differences between the groups preoperatively or at any postoperative time point. Conclusion Creating LASIK flaps with an inverted side-cut using a 150 kHz femtosecond laser and with a conventional 70° side-cut using a 60 kHz femtosecond laser resulted in no significant differences in self-reported QoV assessed by the QoV questionnaire. PMID:27621589

  6. Structural brain MRI studies in eye diseases: are they clinically relevant? A review of current findings.

    PubMed

    Prins, Doety; Hanekamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2016-03-01

    Many eye diseases reduce visual acuity or are associated with visual field defects. Because of the well-defined retinotopic organization of the connections of the visual pathways, this may affect specific parts of the visual pathways and cortex, as a result of either deprivation or transsynaptic degeneration. For this reason, over the past several years, numerous structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have examined the association of eye diseases with pathway and brain changes. Here, we review structural MRI studies performed in human patients with the eye diseases albinism, amblyopia, hereditary retinal dystrophies, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma. We focus on two main questions. First, what have these studies revealed? Second, what is the potential clinical relevance of their findings? We find that all the aforementioned eye diseases are indeed associated with structural changes in the visual pathways and brain. As such changes have been described in very different eye diseases, in our view the most parsimonious explanation is that these are caused by the loss of visual input and the subsequent deprivation of the visual pathways and brain regions, rather than by transsynaptic degeneration. Moreover, and of clinical relevance, for some of the diseases - in particular glaucoma and AMD - present results are compatible with the view that the eye disease is part of a more general neurological or neurodegenerative disorder that also affects the brain. Finally, establishing structural changes of the visual pathways has been relevant in the context of new therapeutic strategies to restore retinal function: it implies that restoring retinal function may not suffice to also effectively restore vision. Future structural MRI studies can contribute to (i) further establish relationships between ocular and neurological neurodegenerative disorders, (ii) investigate whether brain degeneration in eye diseases is reversible, (iii) evaluate the use

  7. Chinese Eye Exercises and Myopia Development in School Age Children: A Nested Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Meng-Tian; Li, Shi-Ming; Peng, Xiaoxia; Li, Lei; Ran, Anran; Meng, Bo; Sun, Yunyun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Chinese eye exercises have been implemented in China as an intervention for controlling children's myopia for over 50 years. This nested case-control study investigated Chinese eye exercises and their association with myopia development in junior middle school children. Outcome measures were the onset and progression of myopia over a two-year period. Cases were defined as 1. Myopia onset (cycloplegic spherical equivalent ≤ -0.5 diopter in non-myopic children). 2. Myopia progression (myopia shift of ≥1.0 diopter in those who were myopic at baseline). Two independent investigators assessed the quality of Chinese eye exercises performance at the end of the follow-up period. Of 260 children at baseline (mean age was 12.7 ± 0.5 years), 201 were eligible for this study. There was no association between eye exercises and the risk of myopia-onset (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.24-2.21), nor myopia progression (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.41-1.53). The group who performed high quality exercises had a slightly lower myopia progression of 0.15 D than the children who did not perform the exercise over a period of 2 years. However, the limited sample size, low dosage and performance quality of Chinese eye exercises in children did not result in statistical significance and require further studies. PMID:27329615

  8. Chinese Eye Exercises and Myopia Development in School Age Children: A Nested Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Meng-Tian; Li, Shi-Ming; Peng, Xiaoxia; Li, Lei; Ran, Anran; Meng, Bo; Sun, Yunyun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Chinese eye exercises have been implemented in China as an intervention for controlling children’s myopia for over 50 years. This nested case-control study investigated Chinese eye exercises and their association with myopia development in junior middle school children. Outcome measures were the onset and progression of myopia over a two-year period. Cases were defined as 1. Myopia onset (cycloplegic spherical equivalent ≤ −0.5 diopter in non-myopic children). 2. Myopia progression (myopia shift of ≥1.0 diopter in those who were myopic at baseline). Two independent investigators assessed the quality of Chinese eye exercises performance at the end of the follow-up period. Of 260 children at baseline (mean age was 12.7 ± 0.5 years), 201 were eligible for this study. There was no association between eye exercises and the risk of myopia-onset (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.24–2.21), nor myopia progression (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.41–1.53). The group who performed high quality exercises had a slightly lower myopia progression of 0.15 D than the children who did not perform the exercise over a period of 2 years. However, the limited sample size, low dosage and performance quality of Chinese eye exercises in children did not result in statistical significance and require further studies. PMID:27329615

  9. Malay divorce in Peninsular Malaysia: the near-disappearance of an institution.

    PubMed

    Tan, P C; Jones, G W

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore factors affecting the sharp decline in divorce rates among the Malay population of Peninsular Malaysia during the period 1950-1985. They consider the rise in marriage age, trends away from arranged marriage and polygamy, and the contributions of Islamic reform movements and women's groups. The focus is on the changes in attitudes toward marriage and divorce. Data are from the 1981-1982 Study on Marriage and Marital Dissolution in Peninsular Malaysia. Appendixes containing laws and statutes concerning divorce are included. PMID:12317142

  10. Study on the transverse chromatic aberration of the individual eye model after LASIK refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mei; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Tong

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this research is to study the properties of the transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) after the LASIK refractive surgery based on the individual eye model involving the angle between visual axis and optical axis. According to the measurements of the corneal surfaces, the optical axis lengths and the wavefront aberrations, the individual eye models before and after LASIK refractive surgery are constructed for 15 eyes by using ZEMAX optic design software, while the angle between the visual axis and optical axis is calculated from the data of the anterior corneal surface. The constructed eye models are then used to investigate the variation of the TCA after the surgery. The statistical distributions of the magnitude of the foveal TCA for 15 eyes over the visible spectrum are provided. Finally, we investigate the influence of the TCA on the visual quality and compare the results with previous research. The TCA is an indispensable criterion to evaluate the performance of the refractive surgery. This research is very meaningful for the studies of not only foveal vision but also the peripheral vision.

  11. Randomized, Multicenter, Double–Blind Study of the Safety and Efficacy of 1%D-3-Hydroxybutyrate eye drops for Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Uchino, Miki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Yoshino, Kenichi; Shimazaki, Seika; Toda, Ikuko; Tanaka, Mari; Arai, Hiroyuki; Sakatani, Keiko; Hata, Seiichiro; Okano, Takashi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that topical D-beta-hydroxybutyrate ameliorates corneal epithelial erosion and superficial punctate keratopathy in a rat model of dry eye disease. In the current investigation, we performed a prospective, randomized, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety and efficacy of 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops in patients with dry eye disease. A total of 65 patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group, and the treatments were administered 6 times a day for 4 weeks. We then evaluated corneal fluorescein staining, corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining, tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer score, and subjective symptoms. At both 2 and 4 weeks, the corneal rose Bengal score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group. Among patients with an initial Schirmer score of ≤5 mm, the corneal fluorescein staining score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group at two weeks. Mild ocular symptoms occurred in both groups, and these spontaneously resolved. The present study suggested that 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops are safe and effective in treating ocular surface disorders in patients with tear-deficient dry eye disease. PMID:26865350

  12. Rapid eye movement-related brain activation in human sleep: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Wehrle, Renate; Czisch, Michael; Kaufmann, Christian; Wetter, Thomas C; Holsboer, Florian; Auer, Dorothee P; Pollmächer, Thomas

    2005-05-31

    In animal models, ponto-geniculo-occipital waves appear as an early sign of rapid eye movement sleep and may be functionally significant for brain plasticity processes. In this pilot study, we use a combined polysomnographic and functional magnetic resonance imaging approach, and show distinct magnetic resonance imaging signal increases in the posterior thalamus and occipital cortex in close temporal relationship to rapid eye movements during human rapid eye movement sleep. These findings are consistent with cell recordings in animal experiments and demonstrate that functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized to detect ponto-geniculo-occipital-like activity in humans. Studying intact neuronal networks underlying sleep regulation is no longer confined to animal models, but has been shown to be feasible in humans by a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalograph approach. PMID:15891584

  13. An Eye-Tracking Study of How Color Coding Affects Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcelik, Erol; Karakus, Turkan; Kursun, Engin; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2009-01-01

    Color coding has been proposed to promote more effective learning. However, insufficient evidence currently exists to show how color coding leads to better learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the underlying cause of the color coding effect by utilizing eye movement data. Fifty-two participants studied either a color-coded or…

  14. Unique Contributions of Eye-Tracking Research to the Study of Learning with Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The author examines the empirical, methodological, theoretical, and practical contributions of the six studies in this special issue on eye tracking as a tool to study and enhance multimedia learning. The design of learning environments involving graphics should be consistent with a research-based theory of how people learn and evidence-based…

  15. Enhancing Vocabulary Learning through Captioned Video: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Maribel Montero; Peters, Elke; Desmet, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of two attention-enhancing techniques on L2 students' learning and processing of novel French words (i.e., target words) through video with L2 subtitles or captions. A combination of eye-movement data and vocabulary tests was gathered to study the effects of Type of Captioning (full or keyword captioning) and…

  16. Unilateral proptosis in thyroid eye disease with subsequent contralateral involvement: retrospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this retrospective follow-up study is to evaluate the prevalence of patients with thyroid eye disease presenting with apparent unilateral proptosis and determine the occurrence of exophthalmos in contralateral non-proptotic eye over the time. Associated features with this event were evaluated. Methods A cohort of 655 consecutive patients affected by thyroid eye disease with a minimum follow-up of 10 years was reviewed. Exophthalmos was assessed by using both Hertel exophthalmometer and computed tomography (CT). The influence of age, gender, hormonal status and of different therapies such as corticosteroids, radiotherapy and surgical decompression on this disease progression was evaluated. Results A total of 89 patients (13.5%) (95% confidence interval [CI] 15%-10%) had clinical evidence of unilateral exophthalmos at the first visit. Among these, 13 patients (14%) (95% CI 22%-7%) developed subsequent contralateral exophthalmos. The increase of protrusion ranged from 2 to 7 mm (mean of 4.2). The time of onset varied from 6 months to 7 years (mean time: 29 months). Smoking status, young age and surgical decompression are significantly associated with development of contralateral proptosis (p< .05). Conclusions Asymmetric thyroid eye disease with the appearance of unilateral exophthalmos at the initial examination is a fairly frequent event, while subsequent contralateral proptosis occurs less commonly. However, physicians should be aware that young patients, particularly if smokers, undergoing orbital decompression in one eye may need further surgery on contralateral side over time. PMID:23721066

  17. Genetic mechanisms involved in the evolution of the cephalopod camera eye revealed by transcriptomic and developmental studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    embryonic pygmy squid. Conclusion We identified 156 genes positively selected in the cephalopod lineage and 1,571 genes commonly found in the cephalopod and vertebrate camera eyes from the analysis of cephalopod camera eye specificity at the expression level. Experimental validation showed that the cephalopod camera eye-specific candidate genes include those expressed in the outer part of the optic lobes, which unique to coleoid cephalopods. The results of this study suggest that changes in gene expression and in the primary structure of proteins (through positive selection) from those in the common molluscan ancestor could have contributed, at least in part, to cephalopod camera eye acquisition. PMID:21702923

  18. Preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. III - Effects on eyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Corbett, R. L.; Black, S.; Takahashi, A.; Leaffer, D.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the eyes of eight pocket mice exposed to oxygen at partial pressures of 8, 10, or 12 psi over a period of 7 d. At the termination of the exposure, the animals were decompressed to sea-level O2, either immediately or over a period of 30, 60, or 90 min. No pathological changes were found in any of the eyes, except in the retina of one of the animals exposed to 12 psi O2. Here, only a single rod photoreceptor was found damaged, an observation not regarded as significant. Hence, an oxygen partial pressure as high as 12 psi in the canister in which pocket mice were expected to fly on Apollo XVII would probably have no deleterious effect on the eyes of the animals.

  19. Migration study of 1,3-butadiene in eye-drop solutions.

    PubMed

    Pistos, Constantinos; Karampela, Sevasti; Vardakou, Ioanna; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris

    2012-07-01

    The potential deleterious effects of extractables/leachables in pharmaceutical products led the USP, EP, and JP to require extractable and toxicity testing of container/closure systems. To that, a headspace gas chromatography flame ionization detection method was developed and validated for the determination of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD) as a potential extractable residue from a pharmaceutical container/closure system into eye-drop solutions. A migration study was further applied in eight eye-drop solutions (currently marketed products) after short- and long-term exposure of these products at various temperatures. This method allows the establishment of safety-qualification thresholds for 1,3-BD being capable of monitoring eye-drop solution products for this residue. PMID:22187982

  20. Love is in the gaze: an eye-tracking study of love and sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Bolmont, Mylene; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2014-09-01

    Reading other people's eyes is a valuable skill during interpersonal interaction. Although a number of studies have investigated visual patterns in relation to the perceiver's interest, intentions, and goals, little is known about eye gaze when it comes to differentiating intentions to love from intentions to lust (sexual desire). To address this question, we conducted two experiments: one testing whether the visual pattern related to the perception of love differs from that related to lust and one testing whether the visual pattern related to the expression of love differs from that related to lust. Our results show that a person's eye gaze shifts as a function of his or her goal (love vs. lust) when looking at a visual stimulus. Such identification of distinct visual patterns for love and lust could have theoretical and clinical importance in couples therapy when these two phenomena are difficult to disentangle from one another on the basis of patients' self-reports. PMID:25031302

  1. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview Statistics ...

  2. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  3. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  4. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trauma A black eye is usually caused by direct trauma to the eye or face. The bruise ... can cause bruising around the eyes, even without direct injury to the eye. Sometimes, serious damage to ...

  5. Determinants and Effects of Voice Disorders among Secondary School Teachers in Peninsular Malaysia Using a Validated Malay Version of VHI-10

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Foong Ming; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Chu, Anne Hin Yee; Bulgiba, Awang; Koh, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To establish the prevalence of voice disorder using the Malay-Voice Handicap Index 10 (Malay-VHI-10) and to study the determinants, quality of life, depression, anxiety and stress associated with voice disorder among secondary school teachers in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods This study was divided into two phases. Phase I tested the reliability of the Malay-VHI-10 while Phase II was a cross-sectional study with two-stage sampling. In Phase II, a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and teaching characteristics, depression, anxiety and stress scale (Malay version of DASS-21); and health-related quality of life (Malay version of SF12-v2). Complex sample analysis was conducted using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. Results In Phase I, the Spearman correlation coefficient and Cronbach alpha for total VHI-10 score was 0.72 (p < 0.001) and 0.77 respectively; showing good correlation and internal consistency. The ICCs ranged from 0.65 to 0.78 showing fair to good reliability and demonstrating the subscales to be reliable and stable. A total of 6039 teachers participated in Phase II. They were primarily Malays, females, married, had completed tertiary education and aged between 30 to 50 years. A total of 10.4% (95% CI 7.1, 14.9) of the teachers had voice disorder (VHI-10 score > 11). Compared to Malays, a greater proportion of ethnic Chinese teachers reported voice disorder while ethnic Indian teachers were less likely to report this problem. There was a higher prevalence ratio (PR) of voice disorder among single or divorced/widowed teachers. Teachers with voice disorder were more likely to report higher rates of absenteeism (PR: 1.70, 95% CI 1.33, 2.19), lower quality of life with lower SF12-v2 physical (0.98, 95% CI 0.96, 0.99) and mental (0.97, 95% CI 0.96, 0.98) component summary scales; and higher anxiety levels (1.04, 95% CI 1.02, 1.06). Conclusions The Malay-VHI-10 is valid and reliable. Voice disorder

  6. Dry Eye Disease Incidence Associated with Chronic Graft-Host Disease: Nonconcurrent Cohort Study (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Mian, Shahzad I.; De la Parra-Colín, Paola; De Melo-Franco, Rafael; Johnson, Christopher; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with stable or progressive dry eye disease and to determine the true incidence in patients with no prior history of dry eye disease. Methods: A nonconcurrent cohort study at a single institution with 136 patients who had no previous history of dry eye disease before HSCT. Survival analysis was used to estimate dry eye disease incidence. The incidence rate was calculated using life tables as the number of observed dry eye disease cases divided by the person-time at risk accumulated by the cohort. Transition probabilities were calculated from time of transplant to time of diagnosis, and then to last recorded visit. Results: Incidence rate was 0.8 cases of dry eye disease per person-year, and half of the population at risk developed dry eye disease during the first 10 months post transplant. Time to develop dry eye disease was 2.5 months for mild dry eye disease, 9.6 months for moderate dry eye disease, and 13.2 months for severe dry eye disease. In terms of cumulative incidence, 73% of subjects developed dry eye disease (50% mild, 16% moderate, and 7% severe) at the time of diagnosis. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that dry eye disease associated with cGVHD is an extremely frequent event and shows a wide spectrum of severity, with a mild form presenting early and a moderate to severe form presenting later after HSCT. These findings need to be studied further to elucidate if these are two different pathophysiological entities or just different expressions of the same pathology. PMID:27507907

  7. Source facies and oil families of the Malay Basin, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Creaney, S.; Hussein, A.H. ); Curry, D.J.; Bohacs, K.M. ); Hassan, R. )

    1994-07-01

    The Malay Basin consists of a number of separate petroleum systems, driven exclusively by nonmarine source rocks. These systems range from lower Oligocene to middle Miocene and show a progression from lacustrine-dominated source facies in the lower Oligocene to lower Miocene section to coastal plain/delta plain coal-related sources in the lower to middle Miocene section. Two lacustrine sources are recognized in the older section, and multiple source/reservoir pairs are recognized in the younger coaly section. The lacustrine sources can be recognized using well-log analysis combined with detailed core and sidewall core sampling. Chemically, they are characterized by low pristane/phytane ratios, low oleanane contents, and a general absence of resin-derived terpanes. These sources have TOCs in the 1.0-4.0% range and hydrogen indices of up to 750. In contrast, the coal-related sources are chemically distinct with pristane/phytane ratios of up to 8, very high oleanane contents, and often abundant resinous compounds. All these sources are generally overmature in the basin center and immature toward the basin margin. The oils sourced from all sources in the Malay Basin are generally low in sulfur and of very high economic value. Detailed biomarker analysis of the oils in the Malay Basin has allowed the recognition of families associated with the above sources and demonstrated that oil migration has been largely strata parallel with little cross-stratal mixing of families.

  8. A comparative study of thermal effects of 3 types of laser in eye: 3D simulation with bioheat equation.

    PubMed

    Joukar, Amin; Nammakie, Erfan; Niroomand-Oscuii, Hanieh

    2015-01-01

    The application of laser in ophthalmology and eye surgery is so widespread that hardly can anyone deny its importance. On the other hand, since the human eye is an organ susceptible to external factors such as heat waves, laser radiation rapidly increases the temperature of the eye and therefore the study of temperature distribution inside the eye under laser irradiation is crucial; but the use of experimental and invasive methods for measuring the temperature inside the eye is typically high-risk and hazardous. In this paper, using the three-dimensional finite element method, the distribution of heat transfer inside the eye under transient condition was studied through three different lasers named Nd:Yag, Nd:Yap and ArF. Considering the metabolic heat and blood perfusion rate in various regions of the eye, numerical solution of space-time dependant Pennes bioheat transfer equation has been applied in this study. Lambert-Beer's law has been used to model the absorption of laser energy inside the eye tissues. It should also be mentioned that the effect of the ambient temperature, tear evaporation rate, laser power and the pupil diameter on the temperature distribution have been studied. Also, temperature distribution inside the eye after applying each laser and temperature variations of six optional regions as functions of time have been investigated. The results show that these radiations cause temperature rise in various regions, which will in turn causes serious damages to the eye tissues. Investigating the temperature distribution inside the eye under the laser irradiation can be a useful tool to study and predict the thermal effects of laser radiation on the human eye and evaluate the risk involved in performing laser surgery. PMID:25774029

  9. Orthography and the Development of Reading Processes: An Eye-Movement Study of Chinese and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Gary; Miller, Kevin; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Houcan

    2009-01-01

    As children become proficient readers, there are substantial changes in the eye movements that subserve reading. Some of these changes reflect universal developmental factors while others may be specific to a particular writing system. This study attempts to disentangle effects of universal and script-dependent factors by comparing the development…

  10. Vocabulary Acquisition without Adult Explanations in Repeated Shared Book Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…

  11. Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition "from" and "while" Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer-Sánchez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that reading is an important source of incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition. However, we still do not have a clear picture of what happens when readers encounter unknown words. Combining offline (vocabulary tests) and online (eye-tracking) measures, the incidental acquisition of vocabulary knowledge…

  12. Eye Tracking as a Measure of Noticing: A Study of Explicit Recasts in SCMC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether eye-tracking technology could be employed as a measure of noticing of corrective feedback (in the form of explicit recasts) during NS-NNS task-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Pairs of university-level learners of English (n = 18) engaged in a short chat interaction task with a native…

  13. An Open Conversation on Using Eye-Gaze Methods in Studies of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venker, Courtney E.; Kover, Sara T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Eye-gaze methods have the potential to advance the study of neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their increasing use, challenges arise in using these methods with individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and in reporting sufficient methodological detail such that the resulting research is replicable and interpretable. Method: This…

  14. Factors Influencing the Use of Captions by Foreign Language Learners: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winke, Paula; Gass, Susan; Sydorenko, Tetyana

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates caption-reading behavior by foreign language (L2) learners and, through eye-tracking methodology, explores the extent to which the relationship between the native and target language affects that behavior. Second-year (4th semester) English-speaking learners of Arabic, Chinese, Russian, and Spanish watched 2 videos…

  15. The Early Development of Sight-Reading Skills in Adulthood: A Study of Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Huovinen, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of skill development on the eye movements of beginning adult sight-readers were examined, focusing on changes in the allocation of visual attention within metrical units as well as in the processing of larger melodic intervals. The participants were future elementary school teachers, taking part in a 9-month-long music…

  16. Attention to Irregular Verbs by Beginning Learners of German: An Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfroid, Aline; Uggen, Maren S.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on beginning second language learners' attention to irregular verb morphology, an area of grammar that many adults find difficult to acquire (e.g., DeKeyser, 2005; Larsen-Freeman, 2010). We measured beginning learners' eye movements during sentence processing to investigate whether or not they actually attend to…

  17. The Face Perception System becomes Species-Specific at 3 Months: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Meary, David; Pascalis, Olivier; Simion, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating own- vs. other-species preferences in 3-month-old infants. The infants' eye movements were recorded during a visual preference paradigm to assess whether they show a preference for own-species faces when contrasted with other-species faces. Human and monkey faces, equated for all low-level perceptual…

  18. Study of dose perturbation parameters for eye shielding in megavoltage photon beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Das, I.J.; Kase, K.R.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Ligon, D.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Shielding blocks are frequently used to minimize dose and shield sensitive organs in radiation therapy. The blocks, which are made of high atomic number materials, produce significant dose perturbations in megavoltage photon beams. The effects of these perturbations are studied with special interest in the eye shielding in the treatment of head and neck malignancies. Optimum parameters for the treatment are suggested.

  19. Narrative Comprehension and Production in Children with SLI: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Olmos, Joan Guardia; MacWhinney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5;8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5;6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and…

  20. An Eye-Tracking Study of Learning from Science Text with Concrete and Abstract Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina; Ariasi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the online process of reading and the offline learning from an illustrated science text. The authors examined the effects of using a concrete or abstract picture to illustrate a text and adopted eye-tracking methodology to trace text and picture processing. They randomly assigned 59 eleventh-grade students to 3 reading…

  1. Infant and Adult Perceptions of Possible and Impossible Body Movements: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N = 14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old…

  2. Letter Names and Alphabet Book Reading by Senior Kindergarteners: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Landry, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    The study monitored the eye movements of twenty 5-year-old children while reading an alphabet book to examine the manner in which the letters, words, and pictures were fixated and the relation of attention to print to alphabetic knowledge. Children attended little to the print, took longer to first fixate print than illustrations, and labeled…

  3. Validation of the Malay Version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Aziz, Aniza Abd.; Mostapa, Mohd Rosmizaki; Awang, Zainudin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC). Design. A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods. A total of 108 postpartum mothers attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia, were involved. Construct validity and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content validity, and face validity process. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 18 and Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20. Results. The final model consists of four constructs, namely, infant care, personal care, household activities, and social and community activities, with 18 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.678; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923; comparative fit index = 0.936; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.080). Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains ranged from 0.659 to 0.921 and from 0.499 to 0.628, respectively. Conclusion. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 18 items of the Malay version of IFSAC was acceptable to be used to measure functional status after childbirth because it is valid, reliable, and simple. PMID:25667932

  4. Polymorphisms of the resistin gene and their association with obesity and resistin levels in Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Apalasamy, Yamunah Devi; Rampal, Sanjay; Salim, Agus; Moy, Foong Ming; Su, Tin Tin; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-06-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the resistin gene (RETN) are linked to obesity and resistin levels in various populations. However, results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate association between polymorphisms in the resistin gene with obesity in a homogenous Malaysian Malay population. This study is also aimed to determine association between resistin levels with certain SNPs and haplotypes of RETN. A total of 631 Malaysian Malay subjects were included in this study and genotyping was carried out using Sequenom MassARRAY. There was no significant difference found in both allelic and genotype frequencies of each of the RETN SNPs between the obese and non-obese groups after Bonferroni correction. RETN rs34861192 and rs3219175 SNPs were significantly associated with log-resistin levels. The GG genotype carriers are found to have higher levels of log-resistin compared to A allele carriers. The RETN haplotypes (CAG, CGA and GA) were significantly associated with resistin levels. However, the haplotypes of the RETN gene were not associated with obesity. Resistin levels were not correlated to metabolic parameters such as body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, and lipid parameters. RETN SNPs and haplotypes are of apparent functional importance in the regulation of resistin levels but are not correlated with obesity and related markers. PMID:25991560

  5. Advanced Clinical Imaging and Tissue-based Biomarkers of the Eye for Toxicology Studies in Minipigs.

    PubMed

    Atzpodien, Elke-Astrid; Jacobsen, Bjoern; Funk, Juergen; Altmann, Bernd; Silva Munoz, Manuel A; Singer, Thomas; Gyger, Cyrill; Hasler, Pascal; Maloca, Peter

    2016-04-01

    There is increased interest to use minipigs in ocular toxicology studies due to their anatomical similarities with human eyes and as a substitute for nonhuman primates. This requires adaptation of enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques and of ocular relevant immunohistochemistry (IHC) or in situ hybridization (ISH) markers to porcine eyes. In this study, OCT and OCT angiography (AngioOCT) were performed on adult Göttingen minipigs. To increase structural information on retinal and choroidal vasculature, OCT data were speckle denoized and choroidal blood vessels were segmented with threshold filtering. In addition, we established a set of IHC and ISH markers on Davidson's fixed paraffin-embedded minipig eyes: neurofilament-160, neuronal nuclei, calretinin, protein kinase C-α, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, glutamine synthetase, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1, rhodopsin, synaptophysin, postsynaptic density protein-95, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-specific protein-65, von Willebrand factor, α-smooth muscle actin, desmin, and Ki-67, thus enabling visualization of retinal neuronal and glial cells, photoreceptors, synapses, RPE, blood vessels, myocytes, macrophages, or cell proliferation. Using ISH, transcripts of vascular endothelial growth factor A, angiopoietin-2, and endothelial tyrosine kinase were visualized. This article describes for the first time in minipig eyes speckle noise-free OCT, AngioOCT, and a set of IHC/ISH markers on Davidson's fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and helps to establish the minipig for ocular toxicology and pharmacology studies. PMID:26680760

  6. Prevalence of sleep disordered breathing symptoms among Malay school children in a primary school in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Fadzil Abdullah, A A; Jamalludin, A R; Norrashidah, A W; Norzila, M Z; Asiah Kassim, K; Rus Anida, A; Hasniah, A L; Ramli, Z; Samsinah, H

    2012-04-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is increasingly being diagnosed in children. However, there is no prevalence study done in Malaysia. The study objective was to evaluate the prevalence of SDB symptoms based on parental reports and associated risk factors among Malay school children aged 6 to 10 years old in a primary school using a translated University Michigan Paediatric Sleep Questionnaire (Malay UM-PSQ). The children whose parents responded to the questionnaire and consented were examined, documenting height, weight, skin fold thickness, neck and abdominal circumference, tonsillar size, nostril examination and presence of micrognathia or retrognathia. There were 550 respondents. The prevalence of parental report of SDB symptoms was 14.9 % (95 % CI 11.9, 17.9). Two hundred and eighty-five (51.8%) school children were males with mean age of 8.5 years (SD 1.1). The associated risk factors for SDB symptoms are male, obesity, large neck and waist circumference, positive history of asthma, history of recurrent tonsillitis, enlarged tonsil (> 4+) and enlarged nasal turbinate. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender is the only significant independent risk factor of SDB symptoms PMID:22822640

  7. A Pilot Study: The Efficacy of Virgin Coconut Oil as Ocular Rewetting Agent on Rabbit Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Chinn Hooi, Ng; Safie, Nor Hasanah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO) was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P < 0.05). However, further statistical analysis had shown no significant difference at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks compared to initial measurement (P > 0.05). There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P > 0.05). Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being. PMID:25802534

  8. Twins Eye Study in Tasmania (TEST): Rationale and Methodology to Recruit and Examine Twins

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, David A; MacKinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Sun, Cong; Hammond, Christopher J; Young, Terri L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2013-01-01

    Visual impairment is a leading cause for morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow for preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: 1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited; 2); utilising the national twin registry; 3) word of mouth and local media publicity; 4) directly approaching schools; and finally 5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins. PMID:19803772

  9. Seeing things through science eyes: A case study of an exemplary elementary teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Andrea Susan

    Science-eyed elementary teachers exhibit relentless passions for replacing traditional teaching with realistic, integrated, responsible instruction with science at its core. The purpose of this study was to explore an exemplary elementary teacher's thinking about science and how it serves as a vehicle for the learning that occurs in her primary classroom. Two research questions were investigated in this study. First, what does it mean for an exemplary elementary teacher to view all learning with science eyes? Second, in what ways does the science-oriented elementary teacher use her knowledge of science content, pedagogy, and practical experience to structure her students' learning and her classroom teaching? A naturalistic methodology was employed in this research effort. Classroom observations, teacher interviews, documents, and selected artifacts were analyzed using a constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Lincoln & Guba, 1985) and the analysis tools of HyperRESEARCH (1994) in an effort to unravel the complex, intuitive knowledge of a nationally recognized first grade teacher. Data analyses provided insightful information about this exceptional teacher and how she organizes, plans, and implements effective lessons that integrate science with all subject areas. Four direct observation themes, Best Practice, Just Like a Scientist, Integrating Curriculum - A Balancing Act, and Expert Pedagogy, and six interview themes, Curriculum - What to Teach?, Instruction - How to Teach, Knowing Students, Getting Stuff, Professionalism, and Reflective Practitioner, emerged from independent analyses of two data sets. Three overall themes, Head, Heart, and Hands of an Exemplary Science Elementary Teacher, emerged from a convergent content analysis. The themes provide the foundation for a proposed model of an expert science pedagogue. Ten portrait-like, impressionistic, vignettes are included in this unique study to capture the spirit of the science-eyed elementary

  10. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  11. Learning from Concept Mapping and Hypertext: An Eye Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadieu, Franck; Salmerón, Ladislao; Cegarra, Julien; Paubel, Pierre-Vincent; Lemarié, Julie; Chevalier, Aline

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prior domain knowledge and learning sequences on learning with concept mapping and hypertext. Participants either made a concept map in a first step and then read the hypertext's contents combined with concept mapping (high activating condition), or they read the hypertext's contents first and then made a concept…

  12. Cross-Cultural Reading Comprehension Assessment in Malay and English as It Relates to the Dagostino-Carifio Model of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagostino, Lorraine; Carifio, James; Bauer, Jennifer D. C.; Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The review of existing literature suggests that few researchers have adopted cross-language comparisons to explore how cultural background affects the assessment of reading comprehension of students. In this present study, the researchers independently reviewed and rated all the items of two reading comprehension tests translated from Malay into…

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version of the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Geriatrics (M-LOTCA-G) among the Malaysian Elderly Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohd Natar, Ahmad Kamal; Nagappan, Rajendran; Ainuddin, Husna Ahmad; Masuri, Ghazali; Thanapalan, Chandra Kannan K.

    2015-01-01

    Current cognitive screening tests are difficult to use due to their deficit in cultural and conceptual significance and translation into other languages. The purpose of this study was to translate the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Geriatrics (LOTCA-G) into Malay language and test its reliability and validity for…

  14. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  15. Classroom Misbehavior in the Eyes of Students: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2012-01-01

    Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed. PMID:22919316

  16. Classroom misbehavior in the eyes of students: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rachel C F; Shek, Daniel T L

    2012-01-01

    Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed. PMID:22919316

  17. Introduction of the Utrecht Tasks for Attention in Toddlers Using Eye Tracking (UTATE): A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Marjanneke; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hooge, Ignace T. C.; van Baar, Anneloes L.

    2016-01-01

    Attention capacities underlie everyday functioning from an early age onwards. Little is known about attentional processes at toddler age. A feasible assessment of attention capacities at toddler age is needed to allow further study of attention development. In this study, a test battery is piloted that consists of four tasks which intend to measure the attention systems orienting, alerting, and executive attention: the Utrecht Tasks of Attention in Toddlers using Eye tracking [UTATE]. The UTATE assesses looking behavior that may reflect visual attention capacities, by using eye-tracking methods. This UTATE was studied in 16 Dutch 18-month-old toddlers. Results showed that the instrument is feasible and generates good quality data. A first indication of sufficient reliability was found for most of the variables. It is concluded that the UTATE can be used in further studies. Further evaluation of the reliability and validity of the instrument in larger samples is worthwhile. PMID:27199880

  18. Individual Differences in Fifth Graders' Literacy and Academic Language Predict Comprehension Monitoring Development: An Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth graders' (n = 52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task,…

  19. How dogs scan familiar and inverted faces: an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi

    2014-05-01

    Faces play an important role in communication and identity recognition in social animals. Domestic dogs often respond to human facial cues, but their face processing is weakly understood. In this study, facial inversion effect (deficits in face processing when the image is turned upside down) and responses to personal familiarity were tested using eye movement tracking. A total of 23 pet dogs and eight kennel dogs were compared to establish the effects of life experiences on their scanning behavior. All dogs preferred conspecific faces and showed great interest in the eye area, suggesting that they perceived images representing faces. Dogs fixated at the upright faces as long as the inverted faces, but the eye area of upright faces gathered longer total duration and greater relative fixation duration than the eye area of inverted stimuli, regardless of the species (dog or human) shown in the image. Personally, familiar faces and eyes attracted more fixations than the strange ones, suggesting that dogs are likely to recognize conspecific and human faces in photographs. The results imply that face scanning in dogs is guided not only by the physical properties of images, but also by semantic factors. In conclusion, in a free-viewing task, dogs seem to target their fixations at naturally salient and familiar items. Facial images were generally more attractive for pet dogs than kennel dogs, but living environment did not affect conspecific preference or inversion and familiarity responses, suggesting that the basic mechanisms of face processing in dogs could be hardwired or might develop under limited exposure. PMID:24305996

  20. Unilateral visual impairment in rural south India–Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS)

    PubMed Central

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-01-01

    AIM To report the prevalence and causes of unilateral visual impairment (UVI) in rural population of all ages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS A population-based cross sectional study using a multi-stage cluster sampling methodology was carried out in West Godavari, Adilabad and Mahbubnagar districts in south India. A comprehensive eye examination that included presenting and best corrected visual acuity and dilated fundus examination was conducted by trained professionals. UVI is defined as presenting visual acuity <6/18 in one eye but ≥6/18 in other eye. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to test association of UVI with socio-demographic risk factors. RESULTS Data were analyzed for 6634/7771 participants after excluding those with bilateral visual impairment. The mean age of the participants was 27.4y (standard deviation: 17.9y), 51.9% were women and 49.1% were educated. The prevalence of UVI was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.2%-8.5%). Uncorrected refractive error (60.8%), cataract (17.4%) and retinal causes (6.6%) were the leading causes of UVI. On multiple logistic regression analyses, older age, not having education, living in well-off district had significantly higher odds of being associated with UVI. UVI was not associated with gender. CONCLUSION UVI is common in rural south India. Most of it is due to cataract and refractive errors, both of which can be addressed at primary and secondary levels of eye care. Burden of UVI should also be considered in planning eye care services. PMID:27275437

  1. Strong genetic population structure in the boring giant clam, Tridacna crocea, across the Indo-Malay Archipelago: implications related to evolutionary processes and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kochzius, Marc; Nuryanto, Agus

    2008-09-01

    Even though the Indo-Malay Archipelago hosts the world's greatest diversity of marine species, studies on the genetic population structure and gene flow of marine organisms within this area are rather rare. Consequently, not much is known about connectivity of marine populations in the Indo-Malay Archipelago, despite the fact that such information is important to understand evolutionary and ecological processes in the centre of marine biodiversity. This study aims to investigate the genetic population structure of the boring giant clam, Tridacna crocea. The analysis is based on a 456-bp fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene from 300 individuals collected from 15 localities across the Indo-Malay Archipelago. Tridacna crocea shows a very strong genetic population structure and isolation by distance, indicating restricted gene flow between almost all sample sites. The observed Phi(ST)-value of 0.28 is very high compared to other studies on giant clams. According to the pronounced genetic differences, the sample sites can be divided into four groups from West to East: (i) Eastern Indian Ocean, (ii) Java Sea, (iii) South China Sea, Indonesian throughflow, as well as seas in the East of Sulawesi, and (iv) Western Pacific. This complex genetic population structure and pattern of connectivity, characterised by restricted gene flow between some sites and panmixing between others can be attributed to the geological history and prevailing current regimes in the Indo-Malay Archipelago. PMID:18662232

  2. A new eye-safe lidar design for studying atmospheric aerosol distributions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Nianwen; Zhou, Xiaobing; Li, Shusun; Chen, Zhongrong

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents the design, eye-safe characteristics, and performance of a new eye-safe infrared lidar system for studying city fog. It includes a compact infrared (1574 nm) transmitter, a telescope receiver, and a computer to acquire, store, and process and analyze the measurement data. The development of such a system makes it possible for routine aerosol monitoring in a populated area using lidar technology. A simulation study and a field test show that the system was capable of aerosol monitoring in cities. This lidar system will be used to study the distribution of aerosol over an urban area of 100-200 km(2) and will be useful for routine multidimensional aerosol measurements with high resolution in an urban environment. PMID:19334954

  3. Evaluation of Color Settings in Aerial Images with the Use of Eye-Tracking User Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirijovsky, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of presented paper is to find the most realistic and preferred color settings for four different types of surfaces on the aerial images. This will be achieved through user study with the use of eye-movement recording. Aerial images taken by the unmanned aerial system were used as stimuli. From each image, squared crop area containing one of the studied types of surfaces (asphalt, concrete, water, soil, and grass) was selected. For each type of surface, the real value of reflectance was found with the use of precise spectroradiometer ASD HandHeld 2 which measures the reflectance. The device was used at the same time as aerial images were captured, so lighting conditions and state of vegetation were equal. The spectral resolution of the ASD device is better than 3.0 nm. For defining the RGB values of selected type of surface, the spectral reflectance values recorded by the device were merged into wider groups. Finally, we get three groups corresponding to RGB color system. Captured images were edited with the graphic editor Photoshop CS6. Contrast, clarity, and brightness were edited for all surface types on images. Finally, we get a set of 12 images of the same area with different color settings. These images were put into the grid and used as stimuli for the eye-tracking experiment. Eye-tracking is one of the methods of usability studies and it is considered as relatively objective. Eye-tracker SMI RED 250 with the sampling frequency 250 Hz was used in the study. As respondents, a group of 24 students of Geoinformatics and Geography was used. Their task was to select which image in the grid has the best color settings. The next task was to select which color settings they prefer. Respondents' answers were evaluated and the most realistic and most preferable color settings were found. The advantage of the eye-tracking evaluation was that also the process of the selection of the answers was analyzed. Areas of Interest were marked around each image in the

  4. A clinical study on “Computer vision syndrome” and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha

    PubMed Central

    Gangamma, M. P.; Poonam; Rajagopala, Manjusha

    2010-01-01

    American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as “Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use”. Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on “CVS”, 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. PMID:22131717

  5. A clinical study on "Computer vision syndrome" and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha.

    PubMed

    Gangamma, M P; Poonam; Rajagopala, Manjusha

    2010-04-01

    American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as "Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use". Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on "CVS", 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and SaptamritaLauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. PMID:22131717

  6. Current advances in invertebrate vision: insights from patch-clamp studies of photoreceptors in apposition eyes.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Roman V

    2016-08-01

    Traditional electrophysiological research on invertebrate photoreceptors has been conducted in vivo, using intracellular recordings from intact compound eyes. The only exception used to be Drosophila melanogaster, which was exhaustively studied by both intracellular recording and patch-clamp methods. Recently, several patch-clamp studies have provided new information on the biophysical properties of photoreceptors of diverse insect species, having both apposition and neural superposition eyes, in the contexts of visual ecology, behavior, and ontogenesis. Here, I discuss these and other relevant results, emphasizing differences between fruit flies and other species, between photoreceptors of diurnal and nocturnal insects, properties of distinct functional types of photoreceptors, postembryonic developmental changes, and relationships between voltage-gated potassium channels and visual ecology. PMID:27250910

  7. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  8. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of ... light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye (the retina) from its supporting layers. It is ...

  9. Eye Wear

    MedlinePlus

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  10. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  11. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  12. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work ...

  13. Child Rearing and Individuality Among Suburban Malays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, David J.; Banks, Ellen

    This study focuses on Malaysians' perceptions of individuality in their children and on general characteristics of Malaysian child training practices. Research was carried out in three adjoining villages where well over half of the income of residents is derived from wage and salaried employment in industrial towns. The study consisted of…

  14. A comparative study of Bilvadi Yoga Ashchyotana and eye drops in Vataja Abhishyanda (Simple Allergic Conjunctivitis).

    PubMed

    Udani, Jayshree; Vaghela, D B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Matalia, P D

    2012-01-01

    Simple allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergy (prevalence 5 - 22 %). It is a hypersensitivity reaction to specific airborne antigens. The disease Vataja Abhishyanda, which is due to vitiation of Vata Pradhana Tridosha is comparable with this condition. The management of simple allergic conjunctivitis in modern ophthalmology is very expensive and it should be followed lifelong and Ayurveda can provide better relief in such manifestation. This is the first research study on Vataja Abhishyanda. Patients were selected from the Outpatient Department (OPD), Inpatient Department (IPD), of the Shalakya Tantra Department and were randomly divided into two groups. In Group-A Bilvadi Ashchyotana and in Group-B Bilvadi eye drops were instilled for three months. Total 32 patients were registered and 27 patients completed the course of treatment. Bilvadi Ashchyotana gave better results in Toda, Sangharsha, Parushya, Kandu and Ragata as compared with Bilvadi Eye Drops in Vataja Abhishyanda. PMID:23049192

  15. Visual exploration patterns of human figures in action: an eye tracker study with art paintings

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Daniela; Morganti, Francesca; Cipresso, Pietro; Ruggi, Simona; Riva, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Art exploration is a complex process conditioned by factors at different levels and includes both basic visual principles and complex cognitive factors. The human figure is considered a critical factor attracting the attention in art painting. Using an eye-tracking methodology, the goal of this study was to explore different elements of the human figure performing an action (face and body parts in action) in complex social scenes characterized by different levels of social interaction between agents depicted in scenes (individual vs. social). The sample included 44 laypersons, and the stimuli consisted of 10 fine art paintings representing the figurative style of classical art. The results revealed different scanning patterns of the human figure elements related to the level of social interaction of agents depicted in the scene. The agents’ face attracted eye movements in social interaction scenes while the agents’ body parts attracted eye movements only when the agents were involved in individual actions. These processes were confirmed specifically in participants with high empathic abilities who became immediately fixated on faces to develop a mimetic engagement with other agents. Future studies integrating other measures would help confirm the results obtained and strengthen their implication for embodiment processes. PMID:26579021

  16. Genetic Association Analysis of Dopamine DRD3 Ser9Gly Polymorphism and Schizophrenia in Malay Population

    PubMed Central

    Tee, SF; Tang, PY; Loh, HC

    2011-01-01

    Background: Molecular components of the dopamine receptor (DRD3) play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). Previous studies have demonstrated an association between the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism and SCZ but the results have been inconclusive. Method: In this study, we investigated this controversial association between the Ser9Gly (A/G) polymorphism and SCZ using Malay cases-control (261 cases/157 controls) samples. PCR-RFLP was performed to genotype the distribution of the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism. Results: Both healthy control and SCHZ patient groups were in of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the analyzed genetic variability. There was a significant association between the genotype distribution DRD3 polymorphisms and SCZ (χ2= 9.359; df = 2; P = 0.009). Conclusion: We believe that further studies are required to examine the association between others dopamine-related genes and the behavioral phenotypes of SCZ. PMID:23113067

  17. Self-Face Recognition in Schizophrenia: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Bortolon, Catherine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N; Raffard, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Self-face recognition has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia (SZ), according to studies using behavioral tasks implicating cognitive demands. Here, we employed an eye-tracking methodology, which is a relevant tool to understand impairments in self-face recognition deficits in SZ because it provides a natural, continuous and online record of face processing. Moreover, it allows collecting the most relevant and informative features each individual looks at during the self-face recognition. These advantages are especially relevant considering the fundamental role played by the patterns of visual exploration on face processing. Thus, this paper aims to investigate self-face recognition deficits in SZ using eye-tracking methodology. Visual scan paths were monitored in 20 patients with SZ and 20 healthy controls. Self, famous, and unknown faces were morphed in steps of 20%. Location, number, and duration of fixations on relevant areas were recorded with an eye-tracking system. Participants performed a passive exploration task (no specific instruction was provided), followed by an active decision making task (individuals were explicitly requested to recognize the different faces). Results showed that patients with SZ had fewer and longer fixations compared to controls. Nevertheless, both groups focused their attention on relevant facial features in a similar way. No significant difference was found between groups when participants were requested to recognize the faces (active task). In conclusion, using an eye tracking methodology and two tasks with low levels of cognitive demands, our results suggest that patients with SZ are able to: (1) explore faces and focus on relevant features of the face in a similar way as controls; and (2) recognize their own face. PMID:26903833

  18. Self-Face Recognition in Schizophrenia: An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Bortolon, Catherine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N.; Raffard, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Self-face recognition has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia (SZ), according to studies using behavioral tasks implicating cognitive demands. Here, we employed an eye-tracking methodology, which is a relevant tool to understand impairments in self-face recognition deficits in SZ because it provides a natural, continuous and online record of face processing. Moreover, it allows collecting the most relevant and informative features each individual looks at during the self-face recognition. These advantages are especially relevant considering the fundamental role played by the patterns of visual exploration on face processing. Thus, this paper aims to investigate self-face recognition deficits in SZ using eye-tracking methodology. Visual scan paths were monitored in 20 patients with SZ and 20 healthy controls. Self, famous, and unknown faces were morphed in steps of 20%. Location, number, and duration of fixations on relevant areas were recorded with an eye-tracking system. Participants performed a passive exploration task (no specific instruction was provided), followed by an active decision making task (individuals were explicitly requested to recognize the different faces). Results showed that patients with SZ had fewer and longer fixations compared to controls. Nevertheless, both groups focused their attention on relevant facial features in a similar way. No significant difference was found between groups when participants were requested to recognize the faces (active task). In conclusion, using an eye tracking methodology and two tasks with low levels of cognitive demands, our results suggest that patients with SZ are able to: (1) explore faces and focus on relevant features of the face in a similar way as controls; and (2) recognize their own face. PMID:26903833

  19. Eye Movements as an Index of Pathologist Visual Expertise: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Brunyé, Tad T.; Carney, Patricia A.; Allison, Kimberly H.; Shapiro, Linda G.; Weaver, Donald L.; Elmore, Joann G.

    2014-01-01

    A pilot study examined the extent to which eye movements occurring during interpretation of digitized breast biopsy whole slide images (WSI) can distinguish novice interpreters from experts, informing assessments of competency progression during training and across the physician-learning continuum. A pathologist with fellowship training in breast pathology interpreted digital WSI of breast tissue and marked the region of highest diagnostic relevance (dROI). These same images were then evaluated using computer vision techniques to identify visually salient regions of interest (vROI) without diagnostic relevance. A non-invasive eye tracking system recorded pathologists’ (N = 7) visual behavior during image interpretation, and we measured differential viewing of vROIs versus dROIs according to their level of expertise. Pathologists with relatively low expertise in interpreting breast pathology were more likely to fixate on, and subsequently return to, diagnostically irrelevant vROIs relative to experts. Repeatedly fixating on the distracting vROI showed limited value in predicting diagnostic failure. These preliminary results suggest that eye movements occurring during digital slide interpretation can characterize expertise development by demonstrating differential attraction to diagnostically relevant versus visually distracting image regions. These results carry both theoretical implications and potential for monitoring and evaluating student progress and providing automated feedback and scanning guidance in educational settings. PMID:25084012

  20. Narrative comprehension and production in children with SLI: An eye movement study

    PubMed Central

    ANDREU, LLORENÇ; SANZ-TORRENT, MONICA; OLMOS, JOAN GUÀRDIA; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5; 8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5; 6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036

  1. The effect of human image in B2C website design: an eye-tracking study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Yang, Yi; Wang, Qi; Ma, Qingguo

    2014-09-01

    On B2C shopping websites, effective visual designs can bring about consumers' positive emotional experience. From this perspective, this article developed a research model to explore the impact of human image as a visual element on consumers' online shopping emotions and subsequent attitudes towards websites. This study conducted an eye-tracking experiment to collect both eye movement data and questionnaire data to test the research model. Questionnaire data analysis showed that product pictures combined with human image induced positive emotions among participants, thus promoting their attitudes towards online shopping websites. Specifically, product pictures with human image first produced higher levels of image appeal and perceived social presence, thus stimulating higher levels of enjoyment and subsequent positive attitudes towards the websites. Moreover, a moderating effect of product type was demonstrated on the relationship between the presence of human image and the level of image appeal. Specifically, human image significantly increased the level of image appeal when integrated in entertainment product pictures while this relationship was not significant in terms of utilitarian products. Eye-tracking data analysis further supported these results and provided plausible explanations. The presence of human image significantly increased the pupil size of participants regardless of product types. For entertainment products, participants paid more attention to product pictures integrated with human image whereas for utilitarian products more attention was paid to functional information of products than to product pictures no matter whether or not integrated with human image.

  2. Narrative comprehension and production in children with SLI: an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Llorenç; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Guàrdia Olmos, Joan; Macwhinney, Brian

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5;8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5;6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036

  3. Construct validation of SF-36 Malay version among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Bee Wah; Jannoo, Zeinab; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Ghani, Nor Azura Md.; Lazim, Mohamad Alias

    2015-02-01

    The Short Form 36 (SF-36) is one of the most widely used generic health status measure. This study used the SF-36 Health Survey instrument to investigate the functional health and well-being of Malay Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients in Malaysia. The survey was carried out in three local hospitals in Selangor. The method of questionnaire administration was both self-administered and interviewer administered. A total of 354 questionnaires was returned, but only 295 questionnaires with no missing data were analyzed. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the first-order and third-order CFA models. The higher order analyses included a third-order CFA models with two second-order factors (physical and mental component) and three second-order factors (physical, general well-being and mental health) and both showed satisfactory model fit indices. This study confirmed the multidimensional factor structure of the SF-36.

  4. The British Educational Policy for the Indigenous Community in Malaya 1870-1957: Dualistic Structure, Colonial Interests and Malay Radical Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sua, Tan Yao

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the educational policy implemented by the British for the Malays, the indigenous community of Malaya. Underpinned by the policy of divide and rule, the British implemented a dualistic system of education for the indigenous Malays: one for the Malay peasantry and another for the Malay nobility. The two systems of education…

  5. HPV-16 Detected in One-Fourth Eyes With Retinoblastoma: A Prospective Case-control Study From North India.

    PubMed

    Naru, Jasmine; Aggarwal, Ritu; Singh, Usha; Kakkar, Nandita; Bansal, Deepak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of nonfamilial retinoblastoma (RB) is believed to be higher in developing countries. The reports on association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with RB are limited and contradictory. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of HPV in RB tumor tissue. In the prospective study, consecutive eyes enucleated for RB from patients lacking a family history of RB were enrolled as cases over a 3-year period. Controls included donor eyes obtained from the eye bank. Normal retinal tissue from the donor eyes and tumor tissue from eyes with RB was subjected to DNA isolation. Polymerase chain reaction followed by dot-blot hybridization was performed to detect 21 HPV genotypes. The study cohort included 39 RB and 42 normal retinal tissues. A positive result for HPV-polymerase chain reaction was obtained in 10 (25.6%) tumor tissues and none of the control eyes. HPV-16 was the only subtype detected. Socioeconomic status (P=0.58) or maternal age (P=0.58) was not associated with presence of HPV. All HPV-positive patients had undergone a vaginal delivery (P=0.60). HPV-16 was detected in one-fourth cases of nonfamilial RB. None of the control cases (donor eyes) tested positive. Implication of the presence of HPV in RB tissue and role in carcinogenesis needs further elucidation. PMID:26989916

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves dry eye symptoms in patients with glaucoma: results of a prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Vazquez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement with a combination of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye symptoms caused by chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops in patients with glaucoma. Patients and methods A total of 1,255 patients with glaucoma and dry eye symptoms related to antiglaucoma topical medication participated in an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective, and multicenter study and were instructed to take three capsules a day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudypio® 1.5 g) for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (graded as 0–3 [none to severe, respectively]), conjunctival hyperemia, tear breakup time, Schirmer I test, Oxford grading scheme, and intraocular pressure were assessed. Results After 12 weeks of administration of the dietary supplement, all dry eye symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001) (mean 1.3 vs 0.6 for scratching, 1.4 vs 0.7 for stinging sensation, 1.6 vs 0.7 for grittiness, 1.0 vs 0.4 for tired eyes, 1.1 vs 0.5 for grating sensation, and 0.8 vs 0.3 for blurry vision). The Schirmer test scores and the tear breakup time also increased significantly. There was an increase in the percentage of patients grading 0–I in the Oxford scale and a decrease in those grading IV–V. Compliance was recorded in 62.5% of patients. In compliant patients, the mean differences at 12 weeks vs baseline of dry eye symptoms were statistically significant as compared to noncompliant patients. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with Brudypio® may be a clinically valuable additional option for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops. These results require confirmation with an appropriately designed randomized controlled study. PMID:27103781

  7. Neighborhood Deprivation and Risk of Age-Related Eye Diseases: A Follow-up Study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Li, Xinjun; Tanito, Masaki; Nabika, Toru; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether there is an association between neighborhood deprivation and age-related eye diseases, particularly macular degeneration, cataract, diabetes-related eye complications, and glaucoma. Methods The study population comprised a nationwide sample of 2,060,887 men and 2,250,851 women aged 40 years or older living in Sweden who were followed from 1 January 2000 until the first hospitalization/outpatient registration for age-related eye disease during the study period, death, emigration, or the end of the study period on 31 December 2010. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the association between neighborhood deprivation and age-related eye diseases. Results In men, the odds ratio (OR) for age-related eye diseases for those living in high-deprivation neighborhoods compared to those living in low-deprivation neighborhoods remained significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors (macular degeneration, OR 1.08, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.03–1.12; cataract, OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.26–1.35; diabetes-related eye complications, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.30–1.43; glaucoma, OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.15). In women, similar patterns were observed (macular degeneration, OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07–1.15; cataract, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.31–1.40; diabetes-related eye complications, OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.42–1.59; glaucoma, OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08–1.17). Conclusion Our results suggest that neighborhood deprivation is associated with age-related eye diseases in both men and women. These results implicate that individual- as well as neighborhood-level factors are important for preventing age-related eye diseases. PMID:26395658

  8. [Study on A White-Eye Pattern in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Dong, Li-fang; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    The white-eye pattern was firstly observed and investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge system in the mixture of argon and air whose content can be varied whenever necessary, and the study shows that the white-eye cell is an interleaving of three different hexagonal sub-structures: the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots. The white-eye pattern is observed at a lower applied voltage. In this experiment, the heat capacity of water is high so that the water in water electrode is good at absorbing heat. In the process of pattern discharging the gas gap didn't increase its temperature, and the discharging phenomenon of this pattern has not changed. The temperature of the water electrodes almost keeps unchanged during the whole experiment, which is advantageous for the long-term stable measurement. Pictures recorded by ordinary camera with long exposure time in the same argon content condition show that the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots og the white-eye pattern have different brightness, which may prove that their plasma states are different. And, it is worth noting that there are obvious differences of brightness not only on the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots at the same pressure but also at the different pressure, which shows that its plasma state also changed with the variation of the pressure. Given this, in this experiment plasma temperatures of the central spot, halo, and ambient spots in a white-eye pattern at different gas pressure were studied by using optical emission spectra. The molecular vibration temperature is investigated by the emission spectra of nitrogen band of second positive system ( C3Πu --> B3Πg ). The electron excitation temperature is researched by the relative intensity ratio method of spectral lines of Ar I 763. 51 nm (2P6 --> 1S5) and Ar I 772. 42 nm (2P2 --> 1S3). The electronic density is investigated by the broadening of spectral line 696.5 nm. Through the analysis of experimental results, it

  9. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Iliya V.; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X.; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Methods Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. Results In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the

  10. HLA Antigens in Malay Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Association with Clinical and Autoantibody Expression

    PubMed Central

    Azizah, MR; Ainol, SS; Kong, NCT; Normaznah, Y; Rahim, MN

    2001-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that certain genes within the major histocompatibility complex predispose to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may influence clinical and autoantibody expression. Thus, we studied the frequency of HLA-DR, -DQA, -DQB and -DPB alleles in ethnic Malays with SLE to determine the role of these genes in determining disease susceptibility and their association with clinical and immunological manifestations. Methods: Fifty-six Malay SLE patients were enrolled into the study. Demographic, clinical and immunological findings were obtained from medical records. HLA-DR, DQ and DP typing were done using modified PCR-RELP. Controls were from ethnically-matched healthy individuals. Results: We found a strongly significant association of the DR2 and DQB1 *0501 and DQB1 *0601 (pcorr=0.03, rr=3.83, pcorr=0.0036, rr=4.56 and pcorr=0.0048 and rr=6.0, respectively). There was also a weak increase of DQB1 *0.201 and DPB1 *0.0901 with a weak decrease of DQA1 *0601 and DQB1 *0503 and *0301 which were not significant after corrections for multiple comparisons were made. There was a significant positive association of DR2 and DQB1 *0501 with renal involvement and DR8 with alopecia. A nonsignificant increase of DQB1 *0503 in patients with photosensitivity was noted. Significant autoantibody associations were also found: DQB1 *0601 with anti-Sm/RNP, DR2 with antiSSA (Ro)/SSB (La), and DR2, DQB1 *0501 and *0601 with antibodies to ds DNA. There was no specific DR, DQ or DP associations with age of disease onset (below 30 years or those at or above 30 years). Conclusion: Our data suggests the role of the HLA class II genes in conferring SLE susceptibility and in clinical and autoantibody expression PMID:11590899

  11. Loneliness and Hypervigilance to Social Cues in Females: An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Lodder, Gerine M. A.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Clemens, Ivar A. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether lonely individuals differ from nonlonely individuals in their overt visual attention to social cues. Previous studies showed that loneliness was related to biased post-attentive processing of social cues (e.g., negative interpretation bias), but research on whether lonely and nonlonely individuals also show differences in an earlier information processing stage (gazing behavior) is very limited. A sample of 25 lonely and 25 nonlonely students took part in an eye-tracking study consisting of four tasks. We measured gazing (duration, number of fixations and first fixation) at the eyes, nose and mouth region of faces expressing emotions (Task 1), at emotion quadrants (anger, fear, happiness and neutral expression) (Task 2), at quadrants with positive and negative social and nonsocial images (Task 3), and at the facial area of actors in video clips with positive and negative content (Task 4). In general, participants tended to gaze most often and longest at areas that conveyed most social information, such as the eye region of the face (T1), and social images (T3). Participants gazed most often and longest at happy faces (T2) in still images, and more often and longer at the facial area in negative than in positive video clips (T4). No differences occurred between lonely and nonlonely participants in their gazing times and frequencies, nor at first fixations at social cues in the four different tasks. Based on this study, we found no evidence that overt visual attention to social cues differs between lonely and nonlonely individuals. This implies that biases in social information processing of lonely individuals may be limited to other phases of social information processing. Alternatively, biased overt attention to social cues may only occur under specific conditions, for specific stimuli or for specific lonely individuals. PMID:25915656

  12. Loneliness and hypervigilance to social cues in females: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Lodder, Gerine M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Clemens, Ivar A H; Engels, Rutger C M E; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether lonely individuals differ from nonlonely individuals in their overt visual attention to social cues. Previous studies showed that loneliness was related to biased post-attentive processing of social cues (e.g., negative interpretation bias), but research on whether lonely and nonlonely individuals also show differences in an earlier information processing stage (gazing behavior) is very limited. A sample of 25 lonely and 25 nonlonely students took part in an eye-tracking study consisting of four tasks. We measured gazing (duration, number of fixations and first fixation) at the eyes, nose and mouth region of faces expressing emotions (Task 1), at emotion quadrants (anger, fear, happiness and neutral expression) (Task 2), at quadrants with positive and negative social and nonsocial images (Task 3), and at the facial area of actors in video clips with positive and negative content (Task 4). In general, participants tended to gaze most often and longest at areas that conveyed most social information, such as the eye region of the face (T1), and social images (T3). Participants gazed most often and longest at happy faces (T2) in still images, and more often and longer at the facial area in negative than in positive video clips (T4). No differences occurred between lonely and nonlonely participants in their gazing times and frequencies, nor at first fixations at social cues in the four different tasks. Based on this study, we found no evidence that overt visual attention to social cues differs between lonely and nonlonely individuals. This implies that biases in social information processing of lonely individuals may be limited to other phases of social information processing. Alternatively, biased overt attention to social cues may only occur under specific conditions, for specific stimuli or for specific lonely individuals. PMID:25915656

  13. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS): Design Implications AREDS Report No. 1

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) was initially conceived as a long-term multicenter, prospective study of the clinical course of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and age-related cataract. Data on progression rates and risk factors from the study will increase understanding of the clinical course of both conditions, generate hypotheses about etiology, and aid in the design of clinical trials of potential interventions. In addition to collecting natural history data, AREDS includes a clinical trial of high-dose vitamin and mineral supplements for AMD and a clinical trial of high-dose vitamin supplements for cataract. The clinical trials were initiated largely because of the widespread public use in the United States of commercially available pharmacologic doses of vitamins and minerals to treat these two eye conditions and the absence of definitive studies on the safety and efficacy of their use. Important design issues for the clinical trials include: defining cataract and AMD, estimating event rates, determining the type and dosage of vitamins and minerals to be tested for each condition, and identifying the parameters necessary for monitoring safety and efficacy. This paper describes the AREDS design, including the study rationale and operational structure, and the approach adopted to combine, for two diseases, clinical trials with a natural history study. PMID:10588299

  14. A Review on Eye Movement Studies in Childhood and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The neural substrates of eye movement measures are largely known. Therefore, measurement of eye movements in psychiatric disorders may provide insight into the underlying neuropathology of these disorders. Visually guided saccades, antisaccades, memory guided saccades, and smooth pursuit eye movements will be reviewed in various childhood…

  15. Influence of Eye Gaze on Spoken Word Processing: An ERP Study with Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parise, Eugenio; Handl, Andrea; Palumbo, Letizia; Friederici, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    Eye gaze is an important communicative signal, both as mutual eye contact and as referential gaze to objects. To examine whether attention to speech versus nonspeech stimuli in 4- to 5-month-olds (n = 15) varies as a function of eye gaze, event-related brain potentials were used. Faces with mutual or averted gaze were presented in combination with…

  16. Prospective open-label study of the administration of two-percent voriconazole eye drops.

    PubMed

    Al-Badriyeh, Daoud; Leung, Lok; Roydhouse, Trent; Fullinfaw, Robert; Daniell, Mark; Davies, Geoffrey E; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2009-07-01

    Thirteen human subjects scheduled for elective anterior segment eye surgery received hourly 2% voriconazole eye drops 4 hours presurgery. No side effects were reported. Significantly, the voriconazole concentration in the aqueous humor of the eye was similar to that reported for the 1% voriconazole solution, suggestive of concentration-independent absorption. PMID:19433565

  17. Ocular Axial Length and Its Associations in Chinese: The Beijing Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guo; Wang, Ya Xing; Zheng, Zhi Yun; Yang, Hua; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the normative data of ocular axial length and its associations in Chinese. Method The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 is a cross-sectional study performed in Greater Beijing. The study included 3468 individuals (1963 (56.6%) women) with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic and medical examination was performed. Axial length was measured by optical low-coherence reflectometry. Results Axial length measurements were available for 3159 (91.1%) study participants. Mean axial length was 23.25±1.14 mm (range: 18.96–30.88 mm). In multivariate analysis, axial length was significantly associated with the systemic parameters of higher age (P<0.001), higher body height (P = 0.003), higher level of education (P<0.001) and urban region of habitation (P<0.001), and with the ocular parameters of thicker central cornea (P = 0.001), higher corneal curvature radius (P<0.001), deeper anterior chamber (P<0.001), thicker lens (P<0.001), more myopic refractive error (P<0.001), larger pupil diameter (P = 0.018), and higher best corrected visual acuity (P<0.001). It was additionally and negatively associated with the lens vault (P<0.001). In highly myopic eyes, axial length was significantly associated with lower level of education (P = 0.008), more myopic refractive error (P<0.001), and lower best corrected visual acuity (P = 0.034). Conclusions Mean ocular axial length in the older adult population of Greater Beijing (23.25±1.14 mm) was similar to the value measured in other urban populations and was higher than in a rural Central Indian population. The association between axial length and older age may potentially be associated with a survival artifact. The association between axial length and body height agrees with the general association between anthropomorphic measures and eye globe size. The association with the level of education and urban region of habitation confirms with previous

  18. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was −0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = −0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5–3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment. PMID:27610269

  19. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was -0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = -0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment. PMID:27610269

  20. Miocene-Oligocene sequence stratigraphy of the Malay Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lovell, R.; Elias, M.R. ); Hill, R.E.; Feeley, M.H. )

    1994-07-01

    The Malay Basin has experienced extension of the Eocene ( ) through Oligocene, sag in the early Miocene, and compression in the middle Miocene through Pliocene-Pleistocene. The interaction of structurally induced and glacial-eustatic accommodation changes has resulted in complex, interrelated play elements, including multiple reservoirs, diverse nonmarine sources, discontinuous migration pathways, and thin seals. Extensional subbasins were filled with braided streams, associated coastal plain, lacustrine deltas, and thick lake shales (groups M-K). This initial rift fill comprises an overall second order progradational cycle punctuated by 3rd-order cycles. These 3rd-order cycles are capped by thick, source-rich, lacustrine shale packages. The lower Miocene section (groups I and J) consists of progradational to aggradational fluvial to tidally-dominated estuarine sands. Hydrocarbons are generated from interbedded coals and other coal-related lithologies.

  1. Hereditary spherocytosis in a malay patient with chronic haemolysis.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Muhammad Kamil; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd; Kaur, Gurjeet; Khan, Farhat Aziz

    2007-07-01

    This case report describes a 35-year-old lady who presented with generalized weakness and lethargy of two weeks duration and jaundice of more than 20 years duration. Her initial workup was suggestive of haemolysis and blood film showed a leucoerythoblastic picture with moderate microspherocytes. She was finally diagnosed as a case of hereditary spherocytosis after ruling out other possible causes of chronic haemolysis and supported by an abnormal osmotic fragility test, although family members refused for screening. Hereditory spherocytosis is uncommon in Malay population and presentation with jaundice of 20 years duration with leucoerythroblastic picture on blood film were interesting features in this case. Patient is being followed closely for need of splenectomy in near future as per severity of haemolysis and currently being managed with folic acid supplement. PMID:22993492

  2. Effects of anger and sadness on attentional patterns in decision making: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Xing, Cai

    2014-02-01

    Past research examining the effect of anger and sadness on decision making has associated anger with a relatively more heuristic decision-making approach. However, it is unclear whether angry and sad individuals differ while attending to decision-relevant information. An eye-tracking experiment (N=87) was conducted to examine the role of attention in links between emotion and decision making. Angry individuals looked more and earlier toward heuristic cues while making decisions, whereas sad individuals did not show such bias. Implications for designing persuasive messages and studying motivated visual processing were discussed. PMID:24765709

  3. Long-Term Follow-up Investigation of Isolated Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Without Atonia Without Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Ambra; Gabelia, David; Högl, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Stockner, Heike; Poewe, Werner; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a harbinger of synuclein-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. It is unknown if this also applies to isolated REM sleep without atonia (RWA). We performed a long-term follow-up investigation of subjects with isolated RWA. Methods: Participants were recruited from 50 subjects with isolated RWA who were identified at the sleep laboratory of the Department of Neurology at the Medical University of Innsbruck between 2003 and 2005. Eligible subjects underwent follow-up clinical examination, polysomnography, and assessment of neurodegenerative biomarkers (cognitive impairment, finger speed deficit, impaired color vision, olfactory dysfunction, orthostatic hypotension, and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). Results: After a mean of 8.6 ± 0.9 y, 1 of 14 participating subjects (7.3%) progressed to RBD. Ten of 14 RWA subjects (71.4%) were positive for at least one neurodegenerative biomarker. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and presence of mild cognitive impairment were both present in 4 of 14 subjects with isolated RWA. Electromyographic activity measures increased significantly from baseline to follow-up polysomnography (“any” mentalis and both anterior tibialis muscles: 32.5 ± 9.4 versus 52.2 ± 16.6%; p = 0.004). Conclusion: This study provides first evidence that isolated RWA is an early biomarker of synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration. These results will have to be replicated in larger studies with longer observational periods. If confirmed, these disease findings have implications for defining at-risk cohorts for Parkinson disease. Citation: Stefani A, Gabelia D, Högl B, Mitterling T, Mahlknecht P, Stockner H, Poewe W, Frauscher B. Long-term follow-up investigation of isolated rapid eye movement sleep without atonia without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1273–1279. PMID:26156949

  4. Multi-rule quality control for the age-related eye disease study.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Samuel P; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Pirkle, James L

    2008-09-10

    The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), sponsored by the National Eye Institute, was designed to study the natural history and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataract, and to evaluate the effect of high doses of antioxidants and zinc on eye disease progression. AMD and cataract are leading causes of visual impairment and blindness in the U.S., with frequency of both diseases increasing dramatically after age 65. Participants were randomly chosen to receive antioxidant or placebo tablets. Blood was drawn annually from a subset of patients, and serum concentrations of 17 different nutritional indicators were measured. Because of the complexity of the analytical methods, and possibility of instrument error due to failure of any one of many component parts, several different instruments were used for most analytes. In addition, to assure that the measurement systems were performing adequately across a wide range of concentrations, multiple control pools were monitored with analyte concentrations at low, medium, and high concentrations. We report here the multi-rule quality control system (MRQCS) used during the later part of the trial (AREDS Phase III). This system was designed to monitor systematic error and random within- and among-run error for analytical runs using 1-3 different quality control pools per run and 1-2 measurements of each pool per run. We demonstrate the features of the MRQCS using quality control (QC) data associated with vitamin C measurements. We also provide operating characteristics to demonstrate how the MRQCS responds to increases in systematic and/or random error. PMID:18344178

  5. Amblyopia resulting from penalisation: neurophysiological studies of kittens reared with atropinisation of one or both eyes.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, H.; Tremain, K. E.

    1978-01-01

    Atropinisation of the eyes--a clinical method of treating strabismus called "penalisation"--in developing kittens caused a reduction in the spatial resolving power of cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus driven by the penalised eye, regardless of whether 1 eye or both eyes had been atropinised. However, binocularity of cells in the visual cortex was reduced only in monocularly penalised cats. It appears that sharply focused foveal images are important in the development of good visual acuity but synergy of the inputs to the 2 eyes is required for the development of binocular vision. PMID:629908

  6. The association of sleep quality with dry eye disease: the Osaka study

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of dry eye disease with sleep quality. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among all the employees, mainly young and middle-aged Japanese office workers, who used visual display technology, at a company in Osaka, Japan (N=672; age range =26–64 years). The participants were classified according to the Japanese dry eye diagnosis criteria by dry eye examination results including the Schirmer test, fluorescein and lissamine green staining, tear film break-up time, and symptom questionnaire into three groups as follows: definite dry eye disease, probable dry eye disease, and no dry eye disease. To determine sleep quality, Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (global score) was implemented. The global score (range =0–21) was calculated by summing seven sleep variable scores (scale, 0–3); scores ≥5.5 indicated poor sleep. Results The total mean global score was 5.1±2.3 (completed N=383); 45% of the dry eye disease participants reported having poor sleep quality, while 34% of the no dry eye disease participants did so, with a significant difference found in the global score (P=0.002). Furthermore, a statistically significant association was observed between the global score and dry eye disease (P=0.005). Conclusion Poor sleep quality is associated with dry eye disease, especially with dry eye symptoms. PMID:27330271

  7. The formulation of argument structure in SLI: an eye-movement study

    PubMed Central

    ANDREU, LLORENÇ; SANZ-TORRENT, MÒNICA; OLMOS, JOAN GUÀRDIA; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the formulation of verb argument structure in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing age-matched controls. We compared how language production can be guided by conceptual factors, such as the organization of the entities participating in an event and knowledge regarding argument structure. Eleven children with SLI (aged 3;8 to 6;6) and eleven control children participated in an eye-tracking experiment in which participants had to describe events with different argument structure in the presence of visual scenes. Picture descriptions, latency time and eye movements were recorded and analyzed. The picture description results showed that the percentage of responses in which children with SLI substituted a non-target verb for the target verb was significantly different from that for the control group. Children with SLI made more omissions of obligatory arguments, especially of themes, as the verb argument complexity increased. Moreover, when the number of arguments of the verb increased, the children took more time to begin their descriptions, but no differences between groups were found. For verb type latency, all children were significantly faster to start describing one-argument events than two- and three-argument events. No differences in latency time were found between two- and three-argument events. There were no significant differences between the groups. Eye-movement showed that children with SLI looked less at the event zone than the age-matched controls during the first two seconds. These differences between the groups were significant for three-argument verbs, and only marginally significant for one- and two-argument verbs. Children with SLI also spent significantly less time looking at the theme zones than their age-matched controls. We suggest that both processing limitations and deficits in the semantic representation of verbs may play a role in these difficulties

  8. A preliminary study of the neuroprotective role of citicoline eye drops in glaucomatous optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Roberti, Gloria; Tanga, Lucia; Parisi, Vincenzo; Sampalmieri, Massimo; Centofanti, Marco; Manni, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study the neuroprotective effect of topical citicoline. Materials and Methods: Experimental phase to evaluate the ability of citicoline eye drops to reach the vitreous and the retina: The right eyes of 5 mice CD1 were treated with two drops per day for three days of citicoline 1% and 2% (OMK1, Omikron Italia s.r.l.), and then the vitreous was analyzed with the liquid chromatography and spectrometry mass (LC-MS/MS). Clinical phase to determine if topical citicoline is able to delay glaucoma progression, considering perimetric parameters and electro functional tests. Patients were randomized in two groups, OMK1 and OAG. The first group was treated with OMK1 three times per day, plus hypotensive therapy for two months and one month of wash out. The second group was treated only with hypotensive treatment for three months. Results: LC-MS/MS detected the molecule very well, and only OMK1 showed systemic absorption. Thirty-four patients were enrolled, 16 in the OMK1 and 18 in the OAG group. Perimetric parameters showed a positive trend in individual eyes of patients in OMK1 group, but these values were not statistically significant in the whole group. Retinal ganglion cells function improved as shown by reduced P50 latency (P = 0.04) and increased P50-N95 amplitude (P < 0.0001) of pattern electroretinogram, up to 30 days after the washout (P = 0.01; P = 0.002). Visual evoked potential and retino-cortical time improvement regressed after 30 days of washout. In OAG group, there was any change during the follow-up. No adverse reactions were reported in both groups. Conclusions: Topical citicoline seems to have a neuroprotective action. PMID:24881599

  9. A new high-speed visual stimulation method for gaze-contingent eye movement and brain activity studies.

    PubMed

    Richlan, Fabio; Gagl, Benjamin; Schuster, Sarah; Hawelka, Stefan; Humenberger, Josef; Hutzler, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Approaches using eye movements as markers of ongoing brain activity to investigate perceptual and cognitive processes were able to implement highly sophisticated paradigms driven by eye movement recordings. Crucially, these paradigms involve display changes that have to occur during the time of saccadic blindness, when the subject is unaware of the change. Therefore, a combination of high-speed eye tracking and high-speed visual stimulation is required in these paradigms. For combined eye movement and brain activity studies (e.g., fMRI, EEG, MEG), fast and exact timing of display changes is especially important, because of the high susceptibility of the brain to visual stimulation. Eye tracking systems already achieve sampling rates up to 2000 Hz, but recent LCD technologies for computer screens reduced the temporal resolution to mostly 60 Hz, which is too slow for gaze-contingent display changes. We developed a high-speed video projection system, which is capable of reliably delivering display changes within the time frame of < 5 ms. This could not be achieved even with the fastest cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors available (< 16 ms). The present video projection system facilitates the realization of cutting-edge eye movement research requiring reliable high-speed visual stimulation (e.g., gaze-contingent display changes, short-time presentation, masked priming). Moreover, this system can be used for fast visual presentation in order to assess brain activity using various methods, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The latter technique was previously excluded from high-speed visual stimulation, because it is not possible to operate conventional CRT monitors in the strong magnetic field of an MRI scanner. Therefore, the present video projection system offers new possibilities for studying eye movement-related brain activity using a combination of eye tracking and fMRI. PMID:23847475

  10. Nutrition and Age-Related Eye Diseases: The ALIENOR (Antioxydants, LIpides Essentiels, Nutrition et Maladies OculaiRes) Study

    PubMed Central

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Marie-Bénédicte, Rougier; Le Goff, Mélanie; Malet, Florence; Joseph, Colin; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Background Worldwide, degenerative eye diseases (age-related maculopathy (ARM), cataract, glaucoma) are the main causes of visual impairment and blindness, which contribute to disability in the elderly. Mainly three types of nutritional factors are investigated for their potential protection against eye ageing: antioxidants; lutein and zeaxanthin (carotenoids which accumulate specifically in the eye); omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Few epidemiological studies have been conducted in this field, particularly in Europe. Objective The Alienor (Antioxydants, Lipides Essentiels, Nutrition et maladies OculaiRes) Study aims at assessing the associations of eye diseases with nutritional factors, determined from plasma measurements and estimation of dietary intakes. Design, setting and participants Subjects were recruited in Bordeaux (France) from the ongoing population-based 3C study. In 2006–2008, 963 subjects from the 3C Study, aged 73 years or more, had an eye examination and will have follow-up eye examinations every 2 years. Measurements Vascular, genetic and nutritional factors were assessed at baseline (1999–2001) and follow-up examinations of the 3C Study. Eye diseases were classified according to international classifications. Results Nutritional status and vascular disease and risk factors were similar between participants and non participants, except for a slight difference in plasma triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. As expected, the prevalence of eye diseases was high: early and late ARM (28.4 % and 5.6 %, respectively), open-angle glaucoma and treated ocular hypertension (4.8 % and 10.0 %, respectively), cataract extraction (45.2 %), retinopathy (8.4 %), retinal vein occlusion (1.1 %), epiretinal membrane (3.9 %), current use of artificial tears (17.3 %). Conclusions This study confirms the high prevalence of eye diseases in the elderly. Its main strength is the combination of nutritional, vascular and genetic information, collected over a 7 year

  11. Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in the Malay Archipelago: Genetic signature of a bottlenecked population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cocoa pod borer (Gracillariidae: Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)) is a devastating pest of cacao (Theobroma cacao, Sterculiaceae) in Southeast Asia, particularly in the Malay Archipelago. We surveyed genetic variation at two unlinked loci, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and nuclear elonga...

  12. Light intensity-associated eye lesions of Fischer 344 rats in long-term studies.

    PubMed

    Rao, G N

    1991-01-01

    Albino rats and mice are sensitive to light and the recommended illumination of animal rooms (75-125 ft-candles) is known to cause retinal damage. When a room is illuminated by ceiling lights, animals in the cages of the top row and, to some extent, in the side columns of cage racks will be exposed to higher light intensity than those in the other cages of the rack. In 2-yr chemical carcinogenicity studies of the National Toxicology Program (previously the Carcinogenicity Bioassay Program of the National Cancer Institute), Fischer 344 rats were group-housed in hanging drawer-type clear polycarbonate cages. During the course of the chronic studies, a number of rats developed opacity of the eye. Ocular examination indicated chronic uveitis, deep interstitial keratitis, cataract formation leading to panophthalmitis, and in severe cases, phthisis bulbi. Histologic examination showed cataract and retinal degeneration. Incidences of these lesions were highest (greater than 55%) in the rats of the top rows and lowest in those of the bottom rows (less than 10%) of cages with no relation to chemical treatment, indicating an association with light intensity. The incidence of these eye lesions was markedly decreased (less than 15%) by decreasing the light intensity of the animal room to less than 50 ft-candles at 5 ft from the floor and rotating the cages in each column of a rack from top to bottom when cages or racks were changed. PMID:1663269

  13. Emotional information processing in depression and burnout: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Renzo; Laurent, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Whether burnout is a form of depression is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relevance of the burnout-depression distinction by comparing attentional processing of emotional information in burnout and depression. Eye-tracking technology was employed for assessing overt attentional deployment. The gaze of 54 human services employees was monitored as they freely viewed a series of emotional images, labeled as dysphoric, positive, anxiogenic, and neutral. Similar to depression, burnout was associated with increased attention for dysphoric stimuli and decreased attention for positive stimuli. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that burnout no longer predicted these attentional alterations when depression was controlled for and vice versa, suggesting interchangeability of the two entities in this matter. To our knowledge, this study is the first to (a) investigate emotional attention in burnout and (b) address the issue of the burnout-depression overlap at both cognitive and behavioral levels using eye movement measurement. Overall, our findings point to structural similarities between burnout and depression, thus deepening concerns regarding the singularity of the burnout phenomenon. PMID:25297694

  14. Cue strength in second-language processing: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Tuninetti, Alba; Warren, Tessa; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking and grammaticality judgement measures to examine how second-language (L2) learners process syntactic violations in English. Participants were native Arabic and native Mandarin Chinese speakers studying English as an L2, and monolingual English-speaking controls. The violations involved incorrect word order and differed in two ways predicted to be important by the unified competition model [UCM; MacWhinney, B. (2005). A unified model of language acquisition. In J. F. Kroll & A. M. B. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 49-67). Oxford: Oxford University Press.]. First, one violation had more and stronger cues to ungrammaticality than the other. Second, the grammaticality of these word orders varied in Arabic and Mandarin Chinese. Sensitivity to violations was relatively quick overall, across all groups. Sensitivity also was related to the number and strength of cues to ungrammaticality regardless of native language, which is consistent with the general principles of the UCM. However, there was little evidence of cross-language transfer effects in either eye movements or grammaticality judgements. PMID:25379696

  15. Autologous serum eyedrops for dry eyes and epithelial defects: clinical and in vitro toxicity studies

    PubMed Central

    Poon, A.; Geerling, G.; Dart, J.; Fraenkel, G.; Daniels, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Autologous serum drops have been reported to be beneficial in keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and persistent epithelial defects (PED). A clinical pilot study was carried out to examine these potential uses and in vitro toxicity testing on corneal epithelial cell cultures was performed to compare the effect of serum drops with unpreserved hypromellose (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 0.3%).
METHODS—Patients with KCS and PED, unresponsive to conventional treatment were recruited. Patients were examined before treatment, at 1 and 2 weeks after initiation, and then 2 weekly until treatment ceased. Symptoms were assessed at each visit. Clinical examination included Schirmer's test without anaesthesia, rose bengal staining, and fluorescein staining. Epithelial defects were measured with the slit beam. In the laboratory, cultured human corneal epithelial cells were exposed to serum drops and hypromellose, and their viability evaluated with fluorescent viability staining (Calcein AM ethidium homodimer) and an ATP assay.
RESULTS—Autologous serum was used in 15 eyes of 13 patients with PED and 11 eyes of nine patients with KCS. In two patients serum drops were started after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). The PKs were performed for perforations secondary to PEDs. Of the 15 eyes with PED, nine healed at a mean of 29 days and six failed. The mean duration of PED before the use of serum drops was 48.2 days. Of the 11 eyes with KCS, six had improved subjective scores and fluorescein scores, and five had improved rose bengal scores after the use of serum drops. For the two patients who used serum eyedrops post-PK, there was a stable and intact epithelium at 1 week. Cessation of serum drops during the postoperative period led to deterioration in the subjective and objective scores in both patients. One developed a PED that responded to reinstitution of serum drops. The morphology and ATP levels of cultured epithelial cells exposed to serum were

  16. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in the cells of the retina. ... from other parts of the body. Treatment for eye cancer varies by the type and by how advanced ...

  17. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  18. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  19. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  20. Urut Melayu, the Traditional Malay Massage, as a Complementary Rehabilitative Care in Postpartum Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Anuar, Haniza Mohd; Ismail, Suhaila; Abd Ghani, Norsuria; Ahmad, Norlaili

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The case of a 32-year-old Malay woman who developed postpartum stroke is reported. Methods The patient received a series of urut Melayu, the traditional Malay massage, sessions at one of the newly established integrated hospitals in the country. Results After 14 urut Melayu sessions, she improved tremendously in her speech and fine motor skills and regained her activities of daily living. Conclusions This use of urut Melayu to complement rehabilitation care in patients poststroke is promising. PMID:22401300

  1. Conversion disorder: a case report of treatment with the Main Puteri, a Malay shamanastic healing ceremony.

    PubMed

    Razali, S M

    1999-12-01

    We report on the case of a 38-year-old Malay housewife diagnosed with conversion disorder. It was believed that 'evil spirits' caused her symptoms. The patient was eventually treated by the Main Puteri, a Malay shamanistic healing ceremony, after previous treatments failed. The patient improved on the third day of the performance, which was attributed to the departure of the spirits from her body. This case documents the potential benefits of indigenous psychotherapy. PMID:10683634

  2. Comparative study of target acquisition performance between an eye-slaved helmet display and unaided human vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viljoen, Gerrit T.

    1998-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative study on the target acquisition performance of an eye-slaved helmet display system and unaided human vision. A teleoperated visual sensor system records the visual information that the human visual system can sense at a remote site, transmits the information to a remote operator, and reconstructs the information in real time on an eye-slaved helmet display system. The display system design is based on the following: the physiology of the eye shows that the density of cone cells responsible for scotopic vision reduces drastically with off-coresight angle, as well as the corresponding resolution. The human visual system can be adequately stimulated over a 60 degree field of view with only two video channels, a wide field of view for peripheral vision and a narrow field of view for foveal vision. The wide-field and narrow-field information can be displayed into separate eyes with the human brain doing the integration between the two pictures. This paper provides experimental proof of this hypothesis. The narrow field display can be made to track the human eyeball during target acquisition tasks, without unduly distracting natural vision. During target search tasks the human eye movement exhibits rapid saccadic movements after which it fixates on some feature on the picture. During and for a small time after the saccadic movement,the neural activity of the eye is inhibited. This inhabitation period can be used by a machine to track the eyeball and to slave the picture to the eyeball through a set of mirrors, without injecting conflicting information to the human visual system during the saccade. An eye-slaved helmet display system was built with a simulated monochrome target scenario. The final experiment evaluates the target acquisition performance of a number of subjects with both the eye-slaved helmet display system and direct vision on the same pre-recorded scenario. The experimental design used two different target

  3. Eye floaters

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes are not on the surface of your eyes, but inside them. These floaters are bits of cell debris that drift around ... is the layer in the back of the eye.) If you notice a sudden increase in floaters or if you see floaters along with flashes ...

  4. Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Do you have diabetes, and have you noticed any changes in your vision? Yes Over time, too much glucose (sugar) in the ... eye pink, red or irritated, and are there any secretions or mucus from the eye? Yes CONJUNCTIVITIS, also called "PINK EYE," can be caused ...

  5. Fixation-related potentials in visual search: a combined EEG and eye tracking study.

    PubMed

    Kamienkowski, Juan E; Ison, Matias J; Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    We report a study of concurrent eye movements and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings while subjects freely explored a search array looking for hidden targets. We describe a sequence of fixation-event related potentials (fERPs) that unfolds during ∼ 400 ms following each fixation. This sequence highly resembles the event-related responses in a replay experiment, in which subjects kept fixation while a sequence of images occurred around the fovea simulating the spatial and temporal patterns during the free viewing experiment. Similar responses were also observed in a second control experiment where the appearance of stimuli was controlled by the experimenters and presented at the center of the screen. We also observed a relatively early component (∼150 ms) that distinguished between targets and distractors only in the freeviewing condition. We present a novel approach to match the critical properties of two conditions (targets/distractors), which can be readily adapted to other paradigms to investigate EEG components during free eye-movements. PMID:22776848

  6. Microvascular architecture of the rabbit eye: a scanning electron microscopic study of vascular corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Inomata, Tomo; Kanemaki, Nobuyuki

    2008-09-01

    The microvasculature of the eyes of 5 rabbits was investigated using scanning electron microscopy on corrosion casts. The study revealed that the pars plana vessels draining blood from the iris and ciliary body coursed directly into the anterior vortex venous system constituting the scleral venous plexus (the venous circle of Hovius). The episcleral vasculature was found to possess a specialized morphology, with channels draining the aqueous humor. The capillaries of the third palpebral, bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva formed a single-layered capillary network approximately parallel to the epithelium and formed a well-developed venous plexus in the stroma. The retina was found to be merangiotic, meaning that vessels were present only in a small part of the retina, extending in a horizontal direction to form bands on either side of the optic disc. Channels representing the aqueous veins that drained blood mixed with aqueous humor were found to derive directly from the suprachoroidal space and communicate with the scleral venous plexus via the anterior vortex veins. The functional significance of the microvasculature of the iris, cilia, retina and choroid is discussed in this report as well. The elaborate microvasculature of the conjunctiva may be a prerequisite for the exchange of nutrients and gasses between the cornea and the vessels across the conjunctival epithelium when the eyelids are shut during sleep, and possibly for the dynamics of eye drop delivery. The scleral venous plexus in rabbits may be analogous to the scleral venous sinus (Schlemm's canal) in rats, primates and humans. PMID:18840961

  7. Visual acuity, self-reported vision and falls in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between visual acuity (VA) and self-reported vision (SRV) in relation to falls in 8317 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye study. Methods All participants completed a health questionnaire that included a question regarding SRV and questions regarding the number of falls in the past year. Distance VA was measured using a logMAR chart for each eye. Poor SRV was defined as those reporting fair or poor distance vision. The relationship between VA and SRV and self-rated falls was analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index, chronic disease, medication use and grip strength. Results Of 8317 participants, 26.7% (95% CI 25.7% to 27.7%) had fallen in the past 12 months. Worse VA and poorer SRV were associated with one or more falls in multivariable analysis (OR for falls=1.31, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.66 and OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.61, respectively). Poorer SRV was significantly associated with falls even after adjusting for VA (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.57). Conclusions SRV was associated with falls independently of VA and could be used as a simple proxy measure for other aspects of visual function to detect people requiring vision-related falls interventions. PMID:24338086

  8. Exploring Responses to Art in Adolescence: A Behavioral and Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Savazzi, Federica; Massaro, Davide; Di Dio, Cinzia; Gallese, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a peculiar age mainly characterized by physical and psychological changes that may affect the perception of one's own and others' body. This perceptual peculiarity may influence the way in which bottom-up and top-down processes interact and, consequently, the perception and evaluation of art. This study is aimed at investigating, by means of the eye-tracking technique, the visual explorative behavior of adolescents while looking at paintings. Sixteen color paintings, categorized as dynamic and static, were presented to twenty adolescents; half of the images represented natural environments and half human individuals; all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment tasks. Participants' ratings revealed that, generally, nature images are explicitly evaluated as more appealing than human images. Eye movement data, on the other hand, showed that the human body exerts a strong power in orienting and attracting visual attention and that, in adolescence, it plays a fundamental role during aesthetic experience. In particular, adolescents seem to approach human-content images by giving priority to elements calling forth movement and action, supporting the embodiment theory of aesthetic perception. PMID:25048813

  9. Does Repeated Ticking Maintain Tic Behavior? An Experimental Study of Eye Blinking in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Beetsma, Daniel J. V.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Engelhard, Iris M.; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Cath, Danielle C.

    2014-01-01

    Tics in Tourette syndrome (TS) are often preceded by “premonitory urges”: annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2 × 2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye) and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound) on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs + blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs), these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response. PMID:24899785

  10. Further studies by Christoph Scheiner concerning the optics of the eye.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1994-01-01

    The physician, mathematician and astronomer was born in 1573 in Wald near Mindelheim in Swabia, Germany. He died in 1650 in Neisse in Silesia. He discovered the sun spots and also dealt with the physiological optics of the eye. Further observations of Scheiner's are represented, i.e. from his books Oculus and Rosa Ursina, concerning the anatomy of the eye, the crossing of the beams through a small opening (Camera obscura), stenopeic effect, proof that the crossing of the visual beams takes place in the eye, description of the cataract and its treatment, Christoph Scheiner's eye model, the visual angle, the rotational centre of the eye, the comparison of the optics of the eye and the telescope. PMID:7995230