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Sample records for male broiler chickens

  1. Experimental reproduction of enterococcal spondylitis in male broiler breeder chickens.

    PubMed

    Martin, Leslie T; Martin, Michael P; Barnes, H John

    2011-06-01

    There has been a recent emergence of epidemic spinal infections with necrosis causing lameness and mortality in male broilers and broiler breeders. Mortality in affected flocks may be as high as 15%. The disease has been called enterococcal spondylitis (ES), based on the frequent isolation of Enterococcus cecorum from the lesions and necrosis and inflammation observed in the free thoracic vertebrae (FTV) of affected birds. Male broiler breeders in an experimental setting were challenged with pure E. cecorum isolates obtained from ES-affected commercial flocks. Challenge routes included oral gavage (10(8)), intravenous (i.v.; 10(3)), and air sac (AS; 10(3)). Half the study birds in each group were chemically immunosuppressed with dexamethasone. Spinal lesions were observed grossly in birds challenged intravenously (2.9%) and birds challenged orally (6.1%). Microscopic spinal lesions consistent with ES were more frequently identified compared with gross lesions in the orally challenged group (30.3%). Chemical immunosuppression with dexamethasone was not associated with a greater incidence of ES in this study. By recreating the disease experimentally, the study design reported here may help in the further development of an experimental challenge model for future studies on risk factors, prevention, and therapeutic intervention of ES. PMID:21793445

  2. II. Evaluation of the impact of alternative light technology on male broiler chicken stress.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Allison G; Pritchett, Elizabeth M; Alphin, Robert L; Brannick, Erin M; Benson, Eric R

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the impact of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), and incandescent lamps on broiler welfare in response to recent interest in the agriculture industry to transition to more energy-efficient lighting technologies. Male Ross 708 broilers (n=672) were raised to 6 wk age in 8 light-tight modified large colony houses under identical intermittent lighting conditions using 4 unique types of lamps, which were gradually dimmed throughout the study. Incandescent lamps served as the control; experimental technologies tested were a CCFL, and 2 different LED lamps. Each technology was tested in duplicate for each of the 4 trials (8 replications total per technology) conducted across the course of one year to account for seasonal variance. Birds were removed from each house at days 7, 14, 35, and 42 to be humanely euthanized and weighed for necropsy evaluation and comparison of body mass. Blood collection via cardiac puncture was performed to obtain heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratios for evaluation of environmental stress. Birds raised under CCFLs had significantly lower body weights (2,871 g±53) than the control (3,000±33 g) by 42 d. Birds raised under CCFLs additionally had significantly higher H:L ratios (0.68±0.06) than the control (0.53±0.03), indicating that these birds may have been chronically stressed (P=0.03). There were not significant differences in the H:L ratio between LED technologies at α=0.05. A significant age and seasonal correlation in H:L ratios was observed across all technologies, along with significant differences among birds raised under the experimental technologies. This study indicates that variation in broiler body weight and stress may be attributed in part to lighting technologies implemented in broiler houses. PMID:25717091

  3. The Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Quality of Egg-Type Male Growing Chicken and White-Mini Broiler in Comparison with Commercial Broiler (Ross 308)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Eun-Jib; Kim, Hee-Sung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of the egg-type male growing chicken (EM), white-mini broiler (WB), and commercial broiler (Ross 308, CB). A total of 360 1-d-old chicks were reared together using a completely randomized design with 4 replicates for each group under the identical feeding and rearing conditions. The ADG and gain:feed were the highest in CB, intermediate in WB, and the lowest in EM (p<0.05), and the live and carcass weights of CB and EM were significantly higher than those of WB (p<0.05). The pH of breast meat from WB and CB was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that from EM with a similar body weight. The EM had the lowest moisture (p<0.05) and the highest protein content (p<0.05), whereas the fat and ash contents were not different among groups. The mystiric acid (C14:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 ω7), and oleic acid (C18:1 ω9) levels were significantly higher in breast meat from CB (p<0.05). The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content showed the highest (p<0.05) levels in CB. In contrast, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents of breast meat, including linoleic acid (C18:2 ω6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4 ω6), were higher (p<0.05) in EM and WB than in CB. In conclusion, the EM and WB had less growth performances in comparison with CB, but they each had some unique features (taste, flavor, and physiological characteristics) when raised under the identical rearing and feeding conditions. PMID:26761496

  4. Electrical waterbath stunning: influence of different waveform and voltage settings on the induction of unconsciousness and death in male and female broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Prinz, S; Van Oijen, G; Ehinger, F; Bessei, W; Coenen, A

    2012-04-01

    Stunning effectiveness of male and female broiler chickens was analyzed in response to different waveforms at 3 constant voltage levels. In total, 180 male and female broiler chickens were stunned using a sine wave alternating current (AC) of 50 Hz, rectangular AC of 70 Hz, and pulsed direct current (DC) of 70 Hz (duty-cycle 1:1) with a constant voltage of 60, 80, or 120 V, respectively. In each stunning group, 10 male and 10 female birds were stunned for 4 s. The current obtained by every bird was recorded. For stunning efficiency, the electroencephalogram (EEG) and physical reflexes were recorded and analyzed. The EEG was recorded for 120 s poststun. Simultaneously, the occurrence of spontaneous eye blinking, wing flapping, and breathing was assessed, and the corneal reflex was tested every 20 s poststun. The EEG was analyzed regarding the occurrence of a profound suppression to less than 10% of the prestun level in the 2 to 30 Hz and 13 to 30 Hz bands. Female broilers obtained a significantly lower stunning current compared with that of the males. This resulted in a lower stunning efficiency for females, when the same constant voltage was applied to males and females. The waveforms required different amounts of currents to achieve a 90% stunning efficiency. A minimum necessary stunning current of 70, 90, and 130 mA could be established for sine wave AC, rectangular AC, and pulsed DC, respectively. The low stunning efficiency of pulsed DC might be caused by the short stunning time of 4 s. This effect should be further investigated for DC stunning. Very few birds stunned with AC resumed breathing following stunning, indicating stun to kill. Pulsed DC stunning showed a lower effect on the induction of death. The level of wing flapping, indicating convulsions and possible meat quality defects, was higher for the AC treatments. PMID:22399740

  5. Effect of an evaporative cooling and dust control system on rearing environment and performance of male broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Willis, W L; Ouart, M D; Quarles, C L

    1987-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of a micromist, high pressure, evaporative cooling and dust control system on rearing environment characteristics and performance of broiler chickens. Air of rearing chambers with the cooling and dust control system had significantly lower dust concentrations than that of chambers without the system. Birds reared with the cooling and dust control system were 45 and 165 g heavier at 4 and 7 wk of age, respectively, and had significantly higher 7-wk bursa weights than those reared without the system. Presence of the cooling and dust control system had no effect on mortality or lung weights. PMID:3432185

  6. I. Evaluation of the impact of alternative light technology on male broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, and allometric characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Allison G; Pritchett, Elizabeth M; Alphin, Robert L; Brannick, Erin M; Benson, Eric R

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the impact of light-emitting diode (LED), cold cathode fluorescent (CCFL), and incandescent lamps on broiler performance. Male Ross 708 broilers (n=672) were raised to 6 wk age in 8 black-out modified large colony houses, under identical intermittent lighting conditions using 4 unique types of lamps, which were gradually dimmed throughout the study. Incandescent lamps served as the control; experimental technologies tested included CCFL and 2 different LED lamps. Each technology was tested in duplicate for each of 4 trials (8 replications total per technology) conducted across the course of one year to account for seasonal variance. Live performance for each technology was evaluated using live broiler body weight (BW), weight gain, feed conversion, and mortality. Birds were removed from each house at 7, 14, 35, and 42 d to be humanely euthanized, weighed, and necropsied for allometric tissue sample analysis. Relative to the technologies tested, results indicate that birds raised under incandescent lamps had significantly higher BW by 42 d, compared to birds raised under CCFL lamps, which had poorer BW performance (P=0.03). Birds raised under both LED technologies grew to final BWs similar to those raised under incandescent light, with significant differences in neither feed conversion nor mortality. PMID:25628420

  7. Effect of propolis supplementations on behavioral activities of heat stressed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment investigated effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavior of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four 15-day old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments containing 0, 100, 250, 500, 1000 or 3000 mg kg-1 ...

  8. Paradoxical Effects of Short Term Triiodothyronine administration to hypothyroid broiler chickens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of these experiments were to determine possible relationships among certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed methimazole to induce a kind of artificial hypothyroidism. In both experiments, male, broiler chickens growing from 14 to 28 days of age we...

  9. DIETARY AMINO ACID RESPONSES OF BROILER CHICKENS: A REVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In commercial practice, formulating diets to adequate amino acid (AA) minimums is critical to optimize live production and meat yield of broiler chickens. The modern broiler has lower feed intake per unit BW gain while having the potential to accrete more white meat than the commercial broiler of p...

  10. Effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heat shock protein 70 expression, resistance to infectious bursal disease, and growth in male broiler chickens subjected to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Liew, P K; Zulkifli, I; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R; Israf, D A

    2003-12-01

    The effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression, antibody production, resistance to infectious bursal disease (IBD), and growth of heat-stressed male broiler chickens were investigated. Chicks were divided into 4 groups: 60% feed restriction on d 4,5, and 6 (FR); exposure to 36 +/- 1 degrees C for 1 h from d 1 to 21 (HT); combination of FR and HT (FRHT); and control. From d 35 to 50, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38 +/- 1 degrees C and 80% RH for 2 h/d. On d 36, each bird was administered 10 times the normal dose of live IBD vaccine. After heat exposure, the FRHT birds had higher HSP 70 density (d 41) and weight gain (from d 35 to 49) and lower bursal histological score (BHS) (d 51) than their HT and control counterparts. The HSP 70 expression and BHS of FR birds were not significantly different from those of the other 3 groups during the heat exposure period. Heat shock protein 70 and BHS data were negatively correlated (r = -0.33, P = 0.0008). We concluded that FRHT could improve weight gain and resistance to IBD in male broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. The improved heat tolerance and disease resistance in FRHT birds could be attributed to better HSP 70 response. PMID:14717545

  11. Behavioral changes and feathering score in heat stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing different levels of propolis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavioral patterns and feather condition of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four (504) male Ross 708 broiler chicks at 15-day old were randomly allotted to six dietary tr...

  12. Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

  13. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  14. Scoliosis and tibiotarsal deformities in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Droual, R; Bickford, A A; Farver, T B

    1991-01-01

    The incidence and degree of scoliosis were investigated in broiler chickens with and without intertarsal deformities associated with slipped gastrocnemius tendons. In both groups, the incidence of scoliosis was similar and there was a significant tendency for scoliosis to be convex on the right side. However, scoliosis was significantly greater in birds with intertarsal deformities, and in a significant proportion of these the joint with a slipped tendon was on the convex side of scoliosis. In birds with deformities, inequalities between right and left tibiotarsi were significantly greater, and tibiotarsi with greater length, narrower condyles and trochleae, and shallower trochlear grooves were significantly more often on the convex side of scoliosis. Significant positive correlations were found between scoliosis and rotational and bending deformities of the distal tibiotarsus on the convex side of scoliosis. These findings suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between scoliosis and tibiotarsal deformities associated with slipped tendons. PMID:2029256

  15. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin. PMID:20548087

  16. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. PMID:26976912

  17. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection.

    PubMed

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-03-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003-2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006-2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among broiler chicken flocks. PMID:23628089

  18. Apparent Metabolizable Energy of Glycerin for Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three energy balance experiments were conducted to determine AMEn of glycerin using broiler chickens (1,104 total birds) of diverse ages. In experiment (Exp.) 1, two dietary treatments were fed from 4 to 11 d of age. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet (no added glycerin) and a diet con...

  19. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  20. Experimental inoculation of specific pathogen free broiler chickens with a thyroid homogenate, containing chicken astrovirus, which was collected from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thyroid glands were collected from field broiler chickens with clinical signs and lesions of Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), submitted for histopathology and processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using chicken Astrovirus primers. One-day-old White Rock specific pathogen free (SPF) ...

  1. Nutritional approaches to ameliorate pulmonary hypertension in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Khajali, F; Wideman, R F

    2016-02-01

    This article reviews recent nutritional approaches for counteracting the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS; ascites) in broiler chickens especially when they are reared at high altitudes. High altitudes impose the sustained stress of hypobaric hypoxia, which reduces the availability of atmospheric oxygen to red blood cells passing through the lungs, thereby causing systemic arterial hypoxaemia (undersaturation of haemoglobin with oxygen), pulmonary arterial hypertension and PHS/ascites in susceptible broilers. Proper nutritional strategies are needed to reduce metabolic activity and prevent the development of ascites especially when modern broilers are reared in regions where the existing altitudes limit the availability of atmospheric oxygen. This article also addresses controversies with regard to broiler nutrition in relation to PHS. For example, the catabolism of protein from feed ingredients incurs increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that feeding reduced-protein diets to broiler chickens may result in reduced PHS incidences. However, experimental and field data indicate that feeding reduced-protein diets to broilers subjected to hypobaric hypoxia increases the development of PHS. Controversies on the nutrition of unsaturated fat in relation to PHS are also discussed. In conclusion, hypoxia, acidosis, vasoconstriction and enhanced metabolic rate are triggers of PHS. Feeding reduced-protein diets might promote the susceptibility of broilers to PHS by decreased dietary intake of arginine, decreased uric acid production and increased lipogenesis. Feeding high-protein diets, dietary arginine supplementation, partial substitution of sodium bicarbonate for sodium chloride, feeding low-fat diets and effective feed restriction programmes can be considered as nutritional approaches to prevent PHS. PMID:25817417

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. O. S.; Salvarani, F.M.; Assis, R.A.; Martins, N.R.S.; Pires, P.S.; Lobato, F.C.F.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1%) were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant. PMID:24031355

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Silva, R O S; Salvarani, F M; Assis, R A; Martins, N R S; Pires, P S; Lobato, F C F

    2009-04-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1%) were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant. PMID:24031355

  4. Effect of indomethacin on hyperthermia induced by heat stress in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, R. L.; Macari, M.; Malheiros, E. B.; Secato, E. R.; Guerreiro, J. R.

    An investigation was carried out to verify whether the heat stress hyperthermia response of broilers is prostaglandin-dependent. Male broiler chickens of the Hubbard-Petterson strain, aged 35-49 days, were used. Chickens were injected with indomethacin (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally ) 15 min before or 2 h after heat exposure (at 35°C for 4 h), and rectal temperature was measured before injection and up to 4 h thereafter. Birds were separated into two groups with and without access to water during heat stress. The increase in rectal temperature was lower (P<0.05) in birds with access to drinking water during heat exposure. All birds injected with indomethacin exhibited an increase in rectal temperature, irrespective of whether indomethacin was administered before or in the course of the rise in temperature. The results revealed that the increase in rectal temperature during heat exposure is not prostaglandin-dependent, and that the use of cyclooxigenase inhibitors is not recommended to attenuate heat stress hyperthermia in broiler chickens.

  5. Effect of sex and dietary organic zinc on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Salim, H M; Lee, H R; Jo, C; Lee, S K; Lee, Bong Duk

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral for animal development and function. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sex and dietary organic zinc (OZ) on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-day-old male and 240 female broiler chicks (Cobb × Cobb) were assigned to two dietary levels of OZ (2 × 2 factorial) with six replicates per treatment (20 birds/replicate pen). The OZ supplementation levels were 0 and 25 ppm. Results showed that OZ supplementation did not affect the growth performance of male and female broilers, but the males showed significantly better (P < 0.05) growth performance than females did. Similarly, OZ supplementation did not affect the thickness of both the back and thigh skin of male and female broilers; however, males had thicker skin than females. Dietary OZ supplementation did not affect collagen contents in the skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher skin collagen contents than females, but no sex difference was found in meat collagen contents. OZ supplementation did not affect the shear force values of skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher shear force values of back skin than females, but not in the meat samples. Dietary OZ supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the thigh meat Zn content in both sexes. The plasma Ca content was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by dietary OZ supplementation; however, other blood parameters were not affected by dietary OZ supplementation. Males had higher plasma glucose and cholesterol content than females. It is concluded that dietary OZ supplementation at the level of 25 ppm does not affect the growth performance and skin quality of broiler chickens but increases the Zn content in thigh meat and Ca content in plasma of broiler chickens. Male broilers had better growth performance and skin quality than females. PMID:22167309

  6. Proventriculitis and Proventicular dilation of broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP) is an infectious, transmissible viral disease of chickens that results in enlarged, fragile proventriculi. TVP is characterized by specific microscopic changes that include glandular epithelial cell necrosis, ductal epithelial cell hyperplasia, and lymphocy...

  7. Broiler chickens exposed to melamine and cyanuric acid-contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Zapletal, D; Straková, E; Novák, P; Suchý, P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether melamine (MEL) is biotransformed into cyanuric acid (CYA) in male broiler chickens. The effects of the dietary addition of MEL and CYA alone and in combination on the growth performance and mortality of the chickens were also investigated. The chickens were divided into six experimental groups and were fed diets with an addition of 50 or 100 mg/kg MEL or 50 or 100 mg/kg CYA of diet, with the contaminants added separately or in combination. The control group was fed a diet without MEL or CYA. At the end of the experiment (day 40), samples of liver, kidney and breast and thigh muscles were collected from 12 birds per treatment group and were analysed for the presence of MEL and CYA. This study showed that MEL is biotransformed into CYA in broilers. Higher concentrations of MEL or CYA in the diet increased the presence of their residues in tissues, and the CYA residue concentration was several times higher in the respective tissues than the MEL residue concentration. The dietary addition of MEL and CYA did not affect the mortality rate, feed conversion ratio or body weight of the chickens. PMID:26347297

  8. Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Growth in Grain-Based Diet Improves Broiler Chicken Production.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-01-01

    Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production. PMID:25746622

  9. Vocalisation sound pattern identification in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Fontana, I; Tullo, E; Scrase, A; Butterworth, A

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we describe the monitoring of young broiler chicken vocalisation, with sound recorded and assessed at regular intervals throughout the life of the birds from day 1 to day 38, with a focus on the first week of life. We assess whether there are recognisable, and even predictable, vocalisation patterns based on frequency and sound spectrum analysis, which can be observed in birds at different ages and stages of growth within the relatively short life of the birds in commercial broiler production cycles. The experimental trials were carried out in a farm where the broiler where reared indoor, and audio recording procedures carried out over 38 days. The recordings were made using two microphones connected to a digital recorder, and the sonic data was collected in situations without disturbance of the animals beyond that created by the routine activities of the farmer. Digital files of 1 h duration were cut into short files of 10 min duration, and these sound recordings were analysed and labelled using audio analysis software. Analysis of these short sound files showed that the key vocalisation frequency and patterns changed in relation to increasing age and the weight of the broilers. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation (P<0.001) between the frequency of vocalisation and the age of the birds. Based on the identification of specific frequencies of the sounds emitted, in relation to age and weight, it is proposed that there is potential for audio monitoring and comparison with 'anticipated' sound patterns to be used to evaluate the status of farmed broiler chicken. PMID:26227085

  10. Effect of butyric acid on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Antongiovanni, M; Lee, E H

    2005-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are considered potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The efficacy of butyric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was tested in two studies. The effect of dietary butyrate on the ability to withstand coccidial oocyte challenge also was investigated. In experiment 1, male broiler chickens were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 11 ppm virginiamycin or 0.2 or 0.4% butyric acid (as mono-, di-, and triglyceride). In experiment 2, broilers were fed bacitracin methylene disalicylate or 0.1 or 0.2% butyric acid. In another trial, birds vaccinated against coccidiosis were challenged with oocytes at 21 d and examined 6 d later. In experiment 1, diet treatments had no effect on body weight gain. Feed intake of the birds fed 0.4% butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) compared with birds fed the nonmedicated diet during the starter period, whereas birds fed 0.2% butyric acid had similar feed intake to the control birds. In experiment 2, diet treatments did not affect the performance of broiler chicks while carcass weight and breast meat yield increased (P < 0.01) in birds fed 0.2% butyric acid. With oocyte challenge, birds that had received butyric acid before challenge showed higher growth rate following the challenge compared with birds that received nonmedicated feed. Bacitracin decreased (P < 0.05%) duodenal villi crypt depth, whereas villus length was similar in birds fed butyric acid or the nonmedicated control diet. These results show that 0.2% butyric acid can help to maintain the performance and carcass quality of broilers, especially in vaccinated birds challenged with coccidiosis. PMID:16206563

  11. Sources of Salmonellae in broiler chickens in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Hacking, W C; Mitchell, W R; Carlson, H C

    1978-01-01

    Sources of Salmonellae infecting broiler chicken flocks in Ontario were investigated from July, 1975 to April, 1976. Three broiler flocks were investigated on each of four farms which received chicks from a common hatchery. Samples of feed and new litter were preenriched in nonselective broth subcultured to Salmonella-selective enrichment broth and plated on Salmonella-selective differential agar.Samples of used litter, water, culled chicks, insects, mice, wild birds and environmental swabs were not cultured initially in the nonselective broth. Fecal samples from principal and occasional flock attendants were examined for Samonellae. Salmonella infection, as judged by contaminated flock litter was detected in six flocks on two of the farms while the flocks on the other farms remained negative. Salmonellae were isolated from 23 of 412 feed samples (nine serotypes), six of 35 new wood shaving samples (four serotypes), one of 29 pools of culled chick viscera (one serotype) and 44 of 267 used litter samples (14 serotypes). These results indicate that broiler chicken flocks were infected with diverse Salmonellae introduced in day old chicks, pelleted feeds, wood shavings and residual contamination from the preceding flock. PMID:743597

  12. Yeast β-d-glucans induced antimicrobial peptide expressions against Salmonella infection in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yujing; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Xiangyu; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of yeast β-d-glucans (YG) on gene expression of endogenous β-defensins (AvBDs), cathelicidins (Cath) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) in broilers challenged with Salmonella enteritidis (SE). 240 day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly assigned to 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with two levels of dietary YG (0 or 200mg/kg in diet) and two levels of SE challenge (0 or 1×10(9) SE at 7-9 days of age). The results showed SE infection reduced growth performance,and increased salmonella cecal colonization and internal organs invasion, increased concentration of intestinal specific IgA and serum specific IgG antibody, as compared to uninfected birds. SE challenge differentially regulated AvBDs, Caths and LEAP-2 gene expression in the jejunum and spleen of broiler chickens during the infection period. However, YG supplementation inhibited the growth depression by SE challenge, and further increased level of serum specific IgG and intestinal specific IgA antibody. Higher level of salmonella colonization and internal organs invasion in the SE-infected birds were reduced by YG. SE-induced differentially expression patterns of AMPs genes was inhibited or changed by YG. Results indicated YG enhance chicken's resistance to salmonella infection. PMID:26794312

  13. Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Daneshyar, M; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A

    2009-01-01

    An experiment with 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to investigate the differences of some blood parameters of cold-induced ascitic and healthy broiler chicks in a 6-wk period. The chickens were divided into 2 groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was raised in normal temperature (NT) treatment and the other in cold temperature (CT) treatment to induce ascites. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment (wk 6), 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. The heart was removed; the right ventricle was dissected away from the left ventricle and septum. Weights of right and left ventricles were determined separately. Average BW gain and average feed intake were measured weekly, and weekly average feed conversion ratio was calculated. Serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, activity of lactate dehydrogenase, as-partate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. Throughout the study, the right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio and total mortality percentage due to ascites of CT-treated birds at the end of experiment was greater (P < or = 0.05) than those of NT-treated ones. Fasting blood sugar of CT-treated birds in wk 4 and 6 was greater (P < or = 0.05) than NT-treated birds. Total blood protein of CT treatment was lower than NT-treated birds in every week and whole period, but this difference was only significant (P < or = 0.05) in wk 6. There was not a significant difference between 2 treatments for triglyceride and cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. It was concluded that cold-induced ascites could affect serum protein and fasting blood sugar of broiler chickens. PMID:19096064

  14. Impact of salinomycin on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Charlotte H; Bjerrum, Lotte; Pedersen, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Background The ionophoric coccidiostat salinomycin is widely used in chicken feed. In the near future the use of ionophore coccidiostats may be banned as has been the case for other antimicrobial growth promoters. This study was conducted to examine the effect of salinomycin on Campylobacter jejuni infection and on the composition of the caecal microflora in broiler chickens. Methods An experimental infection study was carried out in isolators and the intestinal microflora was analyzed using quantitative cultivation, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing. Results We found no effect of salinomycin on C. jejuni but salinomycin significantly affected the composition of the microflora. In addition, salinomycin significantly reduced the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens and we observed a significant increase (62%) in the mean body weight of salinomycin treated chickens compared to un-treated controls. Conclusion Termination of the use of ionophore coccidiostats will not affect food safety related to campylobacter, but will increase the risk of necrotic enteritis in the broilers. PMID:17963485

  15. Dietary Digestible Lysine Requirements of Male and Female Broilers From Forty-Nine to Sixty-Three Days of Age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate digestible (dig) Lys requirements of male and female broiler chickens from 49 to 63 d of age. A dose-response diet consisting of corn, soybean meal, and corn gluten meal was formulated to be adequate in dig amino acid concentrations with the exception of Lys. ...

  16. Necrotic enteritis predisposing factors in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Necrotic enteritis in chickens develops as a result of infection with pathogenic strains of Clostridium perfringens and the presence of predisposing factors. Predisposing factors include elements that directly change the physical properties of the gut, either damaging the epithelial surface, inducing mucus production, or changing gut transit times; factors that disrupt the gut microbiota; and factors that alter the immune status of birds. In the past research into necrotic enteritis predisposing factors was directed by the simple hypothesis that low-level colonization of C. perfringens commonly occurred within the gut of healthy chickens and the predisposing factors lead to a proliferation of those bacteria to produce disease. More recently, with an increasing understanding of the major virulence factors of C. perfringens and the application of molecular techniques to define different clades of C. perfringens strains, it has become clear that the C. perfringens isolates commonly found in healthy chickens are generally not strains that have the potential to cause disease. Therefore, we need to re-evaluate hypotheses regarding the development of disease, the origin of disease causing isolates of C. perfringens, and the importance of interactions with other C. perfringens strains and with predisposing factors. Many predisposing factors that affect the physical and immunological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract may also change the resident microbiota. Research directed towards defining the relative importance of each of these different actions of predisposing factors will improve the understanding of disease pathogenesis and may allow refinement of experiment disease models. PMID:26926926

  17. Influence of in ovo prebiotic and synbiotic administration on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, G; Sobolewska, A; Cianciullo, D; Walasik, K; Elminowska-Wenda, G; Slawinska, A; Tavaniello, S; Zylinska, J; Bardowski, J; Bednarczyk, M

    2012-11-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of in ovo injection of prebiotic and synbiotics on growth performance, meat quality traits (cholesterol content, intramuscular collagen properties, fiber measurements), and the presence of histopathological changes in the pectoral muscle (PS) of broiler chickens. On d 12 of incubation, 480 eggs were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups treated with different bioactives, in ovo injected: C, control with physiological saline; T1 with 1.9 mg of raffinose family oligosaccharides; T2 and T3 with 1.9 mg of raffinose family oligosaccharides enriched with different probiotic bacteria, specifically 1,000 cfu of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis SL1 and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris IBB SC1, respectively; T4 with commercially available synbiotic Duolac, containing 500 cfu of both Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus faecium with the addition of lactose (0.001 mg/embryo). Among the hatched chickens, 60 males were randomly chosen (12 birds for each group) and were grown to 42 d in collective cages (n = 3 birds in each 4 cages: replications for experimental groups). Broilers were fed ad libitum commercial diets according to age. In ovo prebiotic and synbiotic administration had a low effect on investigated traits, but depend on the kind of bioactives administered. Commercial synbiotic treatment (T4) reduced carcass yield percentage, and the feed conversion ratio was higher in T3 and T4 groups compared with other groups. The abdominal fat, the ultimate pH, and cholesterol of the PS were not affected by treatment. Broiler chickens of the treated groups with both slightly greater PS and fiber diameter had a significantly lower amount of collagen. The greater thickness of muscle fibers (not significant) and the lower fiber density (statistically significant), observed in treated birds in comparison with those of the C group, are not associated with histopathological changes in the PS of broilers. The incidence of

  18. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D; Bielke, Lisa R; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1-7) and grower diets (days 8-21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and 1

  19. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L.; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1–7) and grower diets (days 8–21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and

  20. Toxicokinetics and tissue distribution of nivalenol in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kongkapan, Jutamart; Giorgi, Mario; Poapolathep, Saranya; Isariyodom, Supaporn; Poapolathep, Amnart

    2016-03-01

    Nivalenol (NIV), a type B trichothecene mycotoxin, is mainly produced by the fungi of Fusarium genus, which naturally occurs in agricultural commodities. Consumers are particularly concerned over the toxicity and safety of NIV in food animal products. To evaluate the toxicokinetics and persistence of residues of NIV, NIV was administered intravenously (iv) or orally (po) to broiler chickens at a dosage of 0.8 mg/kg body weight. The concentration of NIV in the plasma and various tissues was detected using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. The plasma concentration of NIV in broilers could be measured up to 24 h and 12 h after iv and po administration, respectively. The value of elimination half-life of NIV was 5.27 ± 0.82 h and 2.51 ± 0.88 h after iv and po administration, respectively. The absolute oral bioavailability was 3.98 ± 0.08%. NIV was detected in the intestine, kidney, muscle, heart and liver after po administration. Regarding tissue residues, largest quantities of NIV were found in the small intestine. These results suggest that NIV is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with low bioavailability and it has the ability to diffuse into various tissues of broilers. PMID:26739759

  1. Acute phase proteins response to feed deprivation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Najafi, P; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Goh, Y M

    2016-04-01

    Feed deprivation in poultry farming imposes some degree of stress to the birds, and adversely affects their well -being. Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) are potential physiological indicators of stress attributed to feed deprivation. However, it has not been determined how long it takes for a measurable APP response to stressors to occur in avian species. An experiment was designed to delineate the APP and circulating levels of corticosterone responses in commercial broiler chickens to feed deprivation for 30 h. It was hypothesized that feed deprivation would elicit both APP and corticosterone (CORT) reactions within 30 h that is probably associated with stress of hunger. Twenty-one day old birds were subjected to one of 5 feed deprivation periods: 0 (ad libitum, AL), 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h. Upon completion of the deprivation period, blood samples were collected to determine serum CORT, ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations. Results showed that feed deprivation for 24 h or more caused a marked elevation in CORT (P=0.002 and P<0.0001, respectively) when compared to AL. However, increases in AGP (P=0.0005), CP (P=0.0002), and OVT (P=0.0003) were only noted following 30 h of feed deprivation. It is concluded that elicitation of AGP, CP, and OVT response may represent a more chronic stressful condition than CORT response in assessing the well-being of broiler chickens. PMID:26908886

  2. Effects of dietary antibiotics on intestinal microflora in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ohya, T; Sato, S

    1983-01-01

    Changes were examined in the intestinal microflora in broiler chickens fed a diet containing antibiotics to obtain fundamental information on the mechanisms of beneficial effect of the antibiotics upon livestock production. Three antibiotics (colistin, bacitracin, and enramycin) were employed as feed additives. Experiments were conducted with broiler chickens in two ways. In one way dietary antibiotics were fed continually at levels approved for use as feed additives for a long term. In the other they were fed the same antibiotics for a short term. Significant changes in microflora were observed mainly in such bacterial groups as aerobic bacteria and Lactobacillus. In the long term administration, three possible modes of variance in the bacterial flora were postulated: Changes directly related to the antibacterial spectrum of antibiotics. Antagonistic changes related to an ecological balance in the bacterial flora. Changes in quantitative balance of bacteria constituting each bacterial group. The change in the intestinal microflora during administration of the antibiotic diet was expressed as a complex form of these transition modes. In the short term administration, it was demonstrated that the effect of the antibiotic diet lingered even 7 days after administration. This suggests that antibiotics used as feed additives may possibly affect the stability of the intestinal microflora. PMID:6680771

  3. Acidified Litter Benefits the Intestinal Flora Balance of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Margarita Novoa; Skjervheim, Magne; Oppegaard, Hanne; Sørum, Henning

    2004-01-01

    The alterations in the balance of the normal intestinal bacterial flora of chickens exposed to acidified wood-derived litter were analyzed and compared to those of a control group exposed to nonacidified litter. A total of 1,728 broilers were divided into two groups, with six replicates in each. One group was exposed to dry wood-derived litter, and the other was exposed to dry wood-derived litter sprayed with a mixture of sodium lignosulfonate, formic acid, and propionic acid. At five different times, five chickens from each pen were killed and the intestinal contents from ileum and caeca were collected. The samples were diluted and plated onto selective media to identify coliforms, Lactobacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, and Enterococcus spp. Covariance analysis of bacterial counts showed significantly lower counts for C. perfringens in the caeca and the ileum and for Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in the ileum in chickens exposed to the acidified litter. Lactobacillus spp. showed significantly higher counts in the caeca in chickens exposed to acidified litter. There was no difference between the two litters with regard to coliforms in the ileum and the caeca or to Enterococcus spp. in the caeca. The study shows that exposing the chickens to acidified litter lowers the intestinal bacterial number, especially in the ileum, without negative consequences for the chicken's health or performance. Of special interest are the lower counts of C. perfringens and Enterococcus spp. that might reduce the risk of developing clinical or subclinical necrotic enteritis and growth depression. PMID:15345401

  4. Increased calcium deposits and decreased Ca2+ -ATPase in erythrocytes of ascitic broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Zhao, Lihong; Geng, Guangrui; Ma, Liqin; Dong, Shishan; Xu, Tong; Wang, Jianlin; Wang, Huiyu; Tian, Yong; Qiao, Jian

    2011-06-01

    The decrease of erythrocyte deformability may be one of the predisposing factors for pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. In mammals, the cytoplasmic calcium is a major regulator of erythrocyte deformability. In this study, the erythrocyte deformability was measured, and the precise locations of Ca2+ and Ca2+ -ATPase in the erythrocytes were investigated in chickens with ascites syndrome induced by low ambient temperature. The results showed that ascitic broilers had higher filtration index of erythrocyte compared with control groups, indicating a decrease in erythrocyte deformability in ascitic broilers. The more calcium deposits were observed in the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers compared with those of the age-matched control birds. The Ca2+ -ATPase reactive grains were significantly decreased on the erythrocyte membranes of ascitic broilers. Our data suggest that accumulation of intracellular calcium and inhibition of Ca2+ -ATPase might be important factors for the reduced deformability of the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers. PMID:20728193

  5. Performance and meat quality of broiler chickens that are fed diets supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2014-12-01

    This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality. PMID:25169695

  6. In vitro bile acid-binding capacity of dietary fibre sources and their effects with bile acid on broiler chicken performance and lipid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Hemati Matin, H R; Shariatmadari, F; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Chiba, L I

    2016-06-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets-containing dietary fibre (DF) sources and a source of bile acid (BA) on growth performance and lipid metabolism. In addition, in vitro BA-binding capacity of fibre sources was investigated. A total of 256 one-d-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to DF sources [maize-soybean meal (control, C), or 30 g/kg of wheat bran (WB), barley bran (BB) or soybean hulls (SH)] and BA (with or without 1.5 g Na-deoxycholate/kg). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with 8 broiler chickens per cage. The highest in vitro BA-binding capacity was observed with BB (8.76 mg/g BB). From 0 to 21 d, with the addition of BA, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C, WB or BB diets, while there was no difference with the SH diet. With added BA, the average daily gain decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C or SH diets, but it did not change in those fed on the other diets. The addition of BA decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chickens fed on the BB or WB diets, but it increased in those fed on the C or SH diets. Interaction results indicated that the apparent ileal digestibility of lipid increased in broiler chickens fed the C and other DF diets with BA compared to those fed the diets without BA. The addition of BA decreased the pancreas lipase activity (PLA) in broiler chickens fed on the C diet compared to those fed the C diet without BA, while no changes observed in those fed the DF diets with or without BA. No interaction was observed in total liver bile acid (TLBA). The WB, BB and SH with little Na-deoxycholate-binding capacity (<10 mg/g of DF) under in vitro conditions had particular effects with BA on the measured criteria in broiler chickens. The magnitude of improvement in digestibility of lipid with the addition of BA depends on the source of fibre used and the addition of BA in DF diets had little effect on growth

  7. Comparative evaluation of probiotic and salinomycin effects on performance and coccidiosis control in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Wael; Mohnl, Michaela; Teichmann, Klaus; Doupovec, Barbara; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Lumpkins, Brett; Mathis, Greg

    2014-12-01

    The annual financial loss to the poultry industry as a result of coccidiosis has been estimated at about US $3 billion. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of probiotics and salinomycin as feed additives on performance and coccidiosis control in male broilers raised to 42 d of age. The study consisted of 360 Cobb male broiler chickens randomly allocated to 4 groups each with 3 replicates. Group 1: untreated, unchallenged negative control group (NC); group 2: untreated, challenged positive control group (PC); group 3: negative control supplemented with salinomycin 66 mg/kg, challenged group (Sal); and group 4: negative control supplemented with probiotics, challenged (Prob mix). On d 15, all birds (except group 1) were challenged with approximately 75,000, 25,000, and 75,000 of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocytes, respectively, that were mixed into the feed. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were recorded throughout the experiment. On d 21 and 42, intestinal lesions and litter conditions were scored. On d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, oocyst counts were determined from 10 freshly collected fecal samples per pen. The results showed that mortality, litter, and lesion scores at d 21 and 42, and oocyst shedding at d 21 did not differ significantly between the Prob mix and the Sal groups. However on d 28, oocyst shedding was significantly lower in the Sal group than in the PC group but insignificantly lower than the Prob mix group. Body weights of the Prob mix group at d 42 were significantly lower than the Sal group; however, the feed conversion ratio values were similar between the 2 groups. The results of this study showed that probiotics supplementation could be considered as a potential strategy to control coccidiosis in broiler chickens. PMID:25332136

  8. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat

  9. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  10. Higher inclusion rate of canola meal under high ambient temperature for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Aljuobori, A; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Abdullah, N; Liang, J B; Mujahid, A

    2016-06-01

    Extruded canola meal (ECM) was included in diet of broiler chickens at 0, 10, 20, and 30% (wt/wt) from 1 to 35 days of age. A total of 240 day-old male chicks were assigned in groups of 5 to 48 battery cages in environmentally controlled chambers and diets were replicated with 12 cages/treatment. From d 29 to 35, birds from each dietary group were exposed to either thermoneutral (23 ± 1°C; unheated) or high (36 ± 1°C; heated) temperature conditions. High ambient temperature, irrespective of ECM inclusion, depressed the growth performance of birds. Inclusion of ECM increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) linearly in unheated birds during d 1 to 28 (P < 0.001) and d 29 to 35 (P = 0.001). However, no adverse effects of ECM inclusion were observed on the growth performance of heated birds. The absence of these detrimental effects could be associated with the lack of triiodothyronine (T3) elevation by ECM inclusion in heated birds. In conclusion, ECM can be fed, at least, up to 30%, without any adverse effect on growth performance of broiler chickens raised under chronic high ambient temperature. PMID:26944983

  11. Metastatic melanomas in young broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Williams, S M; Zavala, G; Hafner, S; Collett, S R; Cheng, S

    2012-03-01

    Four young broiler chickens affected by multiple melanotic tumors are described. Grossly, there were multiple tumors composed of melanocytes within the skin, skeletal muscle, and multiple visceral organs. Tumors ranged from flattened macules to masses that extensively replaced viscera. Microscopically, melanocytes were often well pigmented, and while there was moderate nuclear anisokaryosis, mitotic rates were low. Immunohistochemical staining of some melanomas with antibodies to S100 proteins, Melan-A, vimentin, or neuron-specific enolase after bleaching of tumor cells with potassium permanganate revealed lack of immunostaining of tumor cells with antibodies to S100, strong positive staining of tumor cells for neuron-specific enolase, moderate staining with antibodies to vimentin, and faint staining for Melan-A. Only neuron-specific enolase staining was evident in unbleached tumor cells. Attempts to identify exogenous avian leukosis viruses in these tumors were unsuccessful. PMID:21825310

  12. Gene expression profiling in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Hausman, Gary J; Barb, C Rick; Fairchild, Brian D; Gamble, John; Lee-Rutherford, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for gene microarray analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays (Affymetrix) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of global gene expression in chicken adipose tissue were initiated since such studies in many animal species show that adipose tissue expresses and secretes many factors that can influence growth and physiology. Microarray results indicated 333 differentially expressed adipose tissue genes between 3 and 6 wk, 265 differentially expressed genes between 4 and 6 wk and 42 differentially expressed genes between 3 and 4 wk. Enrichment scores of Gene Ontology Biological Process categories indicated strong age upregulation of genes involved in the immune system response. In addition to microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to confirm the influence of age on the expression of adipose tissue CC chemokine ligands (CCL), toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF), chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8), and several other genes. Between 3 and 6 wk of age CCL5, CCL1, and CCR8 expression increased (P = 0.0001) with age. Furthermore, TLR2, CCL19, and LITAF expression increased between 4 and 6 wk of age (P = 0.001). This is the first demonstration of age related changes in CCL, LITAF, and TLR2 gene expression in chicken adipose tissue. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of these adipose tissue genes in growth and the immune system. PMID:26317054

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia fergusonii Isolated from Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Karen; Islam, M Rashedul; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa S

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia fergusonii isolated from commercial broiler chicken farms. A total of 245 isolates from cloacal and cecal samples of 28- to 36-day-old chickens were collected from 32 farms. Isolates were identified using PCR, and their susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion assay. All isolates were susceptible to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The most common resistances were against ampicillin (75.1%), streptomycin (62.9%), and tetracycline (57.1%). Of the 184 ampicillin-resistant isolates, 127 were investigated using a DNA microarray carrying 75 probes for antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Of these 127 isolates, the β-lactamase blaCMY2, blaTEM, blaACT, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M-15 genes were detected in 120 (94.5%), 31 (24.4%), 8 (6.3%), 6 (4.7%), and 4 (3.2%) isolates, respectively. Other detected genes included those conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, strA, strB), trimethoprims (dfrV, dfrA1), tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE), and sulfonamides (sul1, sul2). Class 1 integron was found in 35 (27.6%) of the ampicillin-resistant isolates. However, our data showed that the tested E. fergusonii did not carry any carbapenemase blaOXA genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the selected ampicillin-resistant E. fergusonii isolates were genetically diverse. The present study indicates that the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria should include enteric bacteria such as E. fergusonii, which could be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. The detection of isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, in this work suggests that further investigations on the occurrence of such genes in broilers are warranted. PMID:27296596

  14. Role of Volatile Fatty Acids in Development of the Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens during Growth

    PubMed Central

    van der Wielen, Paul W. J. J.; Biesterveld, Steef; Notermans, Servé; Hofstra, Harm; Urlings, Bert A. P.; van Knapen, Frans

    2000-01-01

    It is known that volatile fatty acids can inhibit growth of species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in vitro. However, whether these volatile fatty acids affect bacterial populations in the ceca of chickens is unknown. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate if changes in volatile fatty acids in ceca of broiler chickens during growth affect bacterial populations. Results showed that members of the Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci are present in large numbers in 3-day-old broilers and start to decrease when broilers grow older. Lactobacilli are present in large numbers as well in 3-day-old broilers, but they remain stable during the growth of broilers. Acetate, butyrate, and propionate increase from undetectable levels in 1-day-old broilers to high concentrations in 15-day-old broilers, after which they stabilize. Significant negative correlations could be calculated between numbers of Enterobacteriaceae and concentrations of undissociated acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Furthermore, pure cultures of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the ceca were grown in the presence of volatile fatty acids. Growth rates and maximal optical density decreased when these strains grew in the presence of increasing volatile fatty acid concentrations. It is concluded that volatile fatty acids are responsible for the reduction in numbers of Enterobacteriaceae in the ceca of broiler chickens during growth. PMID:10831435

  15. Dietary Nisin Modulates the Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology and Enhances Growth Performance of the Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI900 and NI2700 groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement for broiler

  16. Dietary nisin modulates the gastrointestinal microbial ecology and enhances growth performance of the broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI₉₀₀ and NI₂₇₀₀ groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement

  17. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2010-12-01

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels of temperatures (low = 15.6°C; moderate = 21.1°C; high = 26.7°C) from 21 to 56 d of age and 3 levels of light intensities (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) from 8 to 56 d of age at 50% RH. A total of 540 Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 male and 30 female chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 21 (baseline), 28, 42, and 56. High ambient temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced BW, partial pressure of CO(2), bicarbonate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, K(+), and Na(+) along with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) elevated pH level, Cl(-), glucose, osmolality, and anion gap concentrations. Partial pressure of O(2) was slightly increased in response to increased ambient temperature. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during high ambient temperature and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower partial pressure of CO(2), which consequently increased blood pH because of a compensatory decrease in HCO(3)(-) concentration. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by temperature, light intensity, or their interaction. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on physiological blood variables, whereas high ambient temperature markedly affected various blood variables without inducing stress in broilers. PMID:21076106

  18. Parvovirus associated cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus in day-old broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus were detected in day-old broiler chickens. Brains of chickens evaluated at necropsy appeared to be abnormal; some were disfigured and cerebellae appeared to be smaller than normal. Histopathologic examination of brains revealed cerebellar folia that were sho...

  19. Incidence and tracking of Clostridium perfringens through an integrated broiler chicken operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens has been shown to be widespread in the broiler chicken hatchery, grow-out, and processing operations. In a previous study, ribotypes of certain strains of C. perfringens isolated from processed chicken carcasses were shown to match ribotypes isolated from paper pad lining tra...

  20. Partitioning of external and internal bacteria carried by broiler chickens before processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler chickens from the loading dock of a commercial processing plant were sampled to determine incidence and counts of index/indicator and pathogenic bacteria. Feathers were removed by hand from ten 6-week-old chickens from each of 7 different flocks and rinsed in 400 ml of 0.1% peptone water. ...

  1. Partioning of external and internal bacteria carried by broiler chickens before processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler chickens from the loading dock of a commercial processing plant were sampled to determine incidence and counts of index/indicator and pathogenic bacteria. Feathers were removed by hand from ten 6-week-old chickens from each of 7 different flocks and rinsed in 400 ml of 0.1% peptone water. ...

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  3. Maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with a decreased incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Zare Shahneh, A; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Nejati Javaremi, A; Rahimi Mianji, G; Mollasalehi, M R; Shojaie, H; Akhlaghi, A A; Deldar, H; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Zhandi, M

    2012-05-01

    A hypothesis was tested that providing the breeder hens with exogenous thyroxine (T(4)) would help their offspring to better survive the ascites-inducing condition during the growing period. In total, 132 broiler breeder hens were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: control (CON), hypothyroid [HYPO; 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-treated], and hyperthyroid (HYPER; T(4)-treated). The hens were artificially inseminated, and the hatching eggs (n = 1,320) were incubated. No eggs in the HYPO group hatched. The 1-d-old male chicks (n = 288) from other groups were reared for 42 d under standard or low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Blood samples were drawn from the hens, embryos, and broilers for determination of T(4) and triiodothyronine (T(3)). The hematocrit was also determined in broilers. The PTU-treated hens had an increased BW along with lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations. Plasma T(4) was higher in the HYPER hens compared with CON hens, but T(3) concentration was not different between these groups. The fertility rate was not affected by either hypo- or hyperthyroidism. The embryos in the HYPO group had lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations at d 18 of embryonic development and internal pipping. Higher plasma T(4) was recorded in the HYPER birds at internal pipping, although plasma T(3) concentration was not affected at this stage. Maternal hyperthyroidism decreased the overall incidence of ascites in the cold-exposed chickens (10.0 vs. 33.4% for HYPER and CON groups, respectively). Although the effect of maternal PTU or T(4) treatment on plasma thyroid hormones and on the right ventricle-to-total ventricular weight ratio in the broilers was not significant, the cold-exposed healthy CON chicks showed higher hematocrit values, compared with the HYPER birds. It was concluded that maternal hyperthyroidism could decrease the incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens; however, probable causal mechanisms remain to be elucidated. PMID

  4. Effect of Dietary Antimicrobials on Immune Status in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. W.; Lillehoj, H. S.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, S. I.; Park, M. S.; Bautista, D. A.; Ritter, G. D.; Hong, Y. H.; Siragusa, G. R.; Lillehoj, E. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary anticoccidial drugs plus antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on parameters of immunity in commercial broiler chickens. Day-old chicks were raised on used litter from a farm with endemic gangrenous dermatitis to simulate natural pathogen exposure and provided with diets containing decoquinate (DECX) or monensin (COBN) as anticoccidials plus bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone as AGPs. As a negative control, the chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet. Immune parameters examined were concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, intestine intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) and spleen cell subpopulations, and cytokine/chemokine mRNA levels in IELs and spleen cells. ConA-induced proliferation was decreased at 14 d post-hatch in DECX-treated chickens, and increased at 25 and 43 d in COBN-treated animals, compared with untreated controls. In DECX-treated birds, increased percentages of MHC2+ and CD4+ IELS were detected at 14 d, but decreased percentages of these cells were seen at 43 d, compared with untreated controls, while increased TCR2+ IELs were evident at the latter time. Dietary COBN was associated with decreased fractions of MHC2+ and CD4+ IELs and reduced percentages of MHC2+, BU1+, and TCR1+ spleen cells compared with controls. The levels of transcripts for interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-17F, IL-13, CXCLi2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and transforming growth factorβ4 were elevated in IELs, and those for IL-13, IL-17D, CXCLi2, and IFN-γ were increased in spleen cells, of DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with untreated controls. By contrast, IL-2 and IL-12 mRNAs in IELs, and IL-4, IL-12, and IL-17F transcripts in spleen cells, were decreased in DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with controls. These results suggest that DECX or COBN, in combination with bacitracin and roxarsone, modulate the development of the chicken post-hatch immune system. PMID:25049577

  5. A Coronavirus Associated with Runting Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Woolcock, Peter R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Runting stunting syndrome (RSS) is a disease condition that affects broilers and causes impaired growth and poor feed conversion because of enteritis characterized by pale and distended small intestines with watery contents. The etiology of the disease is multifactorial, and a large variety of viral agents have been implicated. Here we describe the detection and isolation of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) -like coronavirus from the intestines of a flock of 60,000 14-day-old brown/red broiler chicks. The birds showed typical clinical signs of RSS including stunting and uneven growth. At necropsy, the small intestines were pale and distended with watery contents. Histopathology of the intestines revealed increased cellularity of the lamina propria, blunting of villi, and cystic changes in the crypts. Negative stain electron microscopy of the intestinal contents revealed coronavirus particles. Transmission electron microscopy of the intestine confirmed coronavirus in the cytoplasm of enterocytes. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), IBV antigen was detected in the intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the proventriculus and pancreas. There were no lesions in the respiratory system, and no IBV antigen was detected in trachea, lung, air sac, conjunctiva, and cecal tonsils. A coronavirus was isolated from the intestine of chicken embryos but not from the allantoic sac inoculated with the intestinal contents of the broiler chicks. Sequencing of the S1 gene showed nucleic acid sequence identities of 93.8% to the corresponding region of IBV California 99 and of 85.7% to IBV Arkansas. Nucleic acid sequence identities to other IBV genotypes were lower. The histopathologic lesions in the intestines were reproduced after experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated in the conjunctiva and nares. Five days after infection, six of nine investigated birds showed enteritis associated with IBV antigen as detected by IHC. In contrast to the field

  6. Predicted optimum ambient temperatures for broiler chickens to dissipate metabolic heat do not affect performance or improve breast muscle quality

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, I.; Mitchell, M.A.; Hall, S.; Beard, P.M.; Gous, R.M.; De Koning, D.J.; Hocking, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens is associated with an ambient temperature that does not permit the birds to lose metabolic heat resulting in physiological heat stress and a reduction in meat quality.The experiment was performed in 4 climate chambers and was repeated in 2 trials using a total of 200 male broiler chickens. Two treatments compared the recommended temperature profile and a cool regimen. The cool regimen was defined by a theoretical model that determined the environmental temperature that would enable heat generated by the bird to be lost to the environment.There were no differences in growth rate or feed intake between the two treatments. Breast muscles from birds on the recommended temperature regimen were lighter, less red and more yellow than those from the cool temperature regimen. There were no differences in moisture loss or shear strength but stiffness was greater in breast muscle from birds housed in the cool compared to the recommended regimen.Histopathological changes in the breast muscle were similar in both treatments and were characterised by mild to severe myofibre degeneration and necrosis with regeneration, fibrosis and adipocyte infiltration. There was no difference in plasma creatine kinase activity, a measure of muscle cell damage, between the two treatments consistent with the absence of differences in muscle pathology.It was concluded that breast muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens was not the result of an inability to lose metabolic heat at recommended ambient temperatures. The results suggest that muscle cell damage and breast meat quality concerns in modern broiler chickens are related to genetic selection for muscle yields and that genetic selection to address breast muscle integrity in a balanced breeding programme is imperative. PMID:26670305

  7. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...

  8. Immunization of broiler chickens against Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, R R; Parreira, V R; Sharif, S; Prescott, J F

    2007-09-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens is caused by Clostridium perfringens. Currently, no vaccine against NE is available and immunity to NE is not well characterized. Our previous studies showed that immunity to NE followed oral infection by virulent rather than avirulent C. perfringens strains and identified immunogenic secreted proteins apparently uniquely produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates. These proteins were alpha-toxin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), fructose 1,6-biphosphate aldolase, and a hypothetical protein (HP). The current study investigated the role of each of these proteins in conferring protection to broiler chickens against oral infection challenges of different severities with virulent C. perfringens. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned and purified as histidine-tagged recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli and were used to immunize broiler chickens intramuscularly. Serum and intestinal antibody responses were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All proteins significantly protected broiler chickens against a relatively mild challenge. In addition, immunization with alpha-toxin, HP, and PFOR also offered significant protection against a more severe challenge. When the birds were primed with alpha-toxoid and boosted with active toxin, birds immunized with alpha-toxin were provided with the greatest protection against a severe challenge. The serum and intestinal washings from protected birds had high antigen-specific antibody titers. Thus, we conclude that there are certain secreted proteins, in addition to alpha-toxin, that are involved in immunity to NE in broiler chickens. PMID:17634510

  9. Effects of supplementation with L. plantarum TN8 encapsulated in alginate-chitosan in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Imen; Ktari, Naourez; Ben Slima, Sirine; Bouchaala, Kamel; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 encapsulated in sodium alginate-chitosan or a commercial blend of essential oils on total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and growth performance of broiler chickens. The results showed that the broiler chickens supplemented with encapsulated L. plantarum TN8 or essential oil has a higher growth than the control group. After 35days, the weight means were 1860 and 1880g respectively in dietary supplementation with probiotic or essential oil, while they are 1800g in the control group. The evolution of the feed consumption and feed conversion per week showed that the supplementation of encapsulated TN8 strain or essential oil in broiler chickens food has a positive influence on their appetite. Similarly, supplementation of the feed with this encapsulated strain significantly reduced the rate of cholesterol (HDL and LDL) as well as the contents of triglycerides in broiler chickens. Through our study, it appears that the use of the probiotic supplementation or essential oil to broilers were found to be better than the control group of chickens, resulting in a significant economic impact and promoting effect on health. PMID:27181580

  10. Increased calcium deposits and decreased Ca2+-ATPase in right ventricular myocardium of ascitic broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, K; Qiao, J; Zhao, L; Dong, S; Ou, D; Wang, J; Wang, H; Xu, T

    2006-11-01

    Right ventricular hypertrophy and failure is an important step in the development of ascites syndrome (AS) in broiler chickens. Cytoplasmic calcium concentration is a major regulator of cardiac contractile function and various physiological processes in cardiac muscle cells. The purpose of this study was to measure the right ventricular pressure and investigate the precise ultrastructural location of Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the right ventricular myocardium of chickens with AS induced by low ambient temperature. The results showed that the right ventricular diastolic pressure of ascitic broilers was significantly higher than that of control broilers (P < 0.01), and the maximum change ratio of right intraventricular pressure (RV +/- dp/dt(max)) of ascitic broilers was significantly lower than that of the controls (P < 0.01). Extensively increased calcium deposits were observed in the right ventricular myocardium of ascitic broilers, whereas in the age-matched control broilers, calcium deposits were much less. The Ca(2+)-ATPase reactive products were obviously found on the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial membrane of the control right ventricular myocardium, but rarely observed in the ascitic broilers. The data suggest that in ascitic broilers there is the right ventricular diastolic dysfunction, in which the overload of intracellular calcium and the decreased Ca(2+)-ATPase activity might be the important factors. PMID:17054481

  11. Effects of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P < 0.05) body weights compared with the control diet-fed counterparts. Serum nitric oxide levels were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in chickens fed the B. subtilis-enriched diet compared with those on either the salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P < 0.05) the serum levels of Eimeria-specific antibodies compared with the control group. Salinomycin, but not B. subtilis, significantly modulated (P < 0.05) the expression of cytokines encoding interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 (TNFSF15) compared with the control group. In conclusion, dietary salinomycin and B. subtilis affected serum anticoccidial antibody and intestinal cytokine expression, but failed to improve growth performance in broiler chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:25135491

  12. Nutritional characteristics of camelina meal for 3-week-old broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pekel, A Y; Kim, J I; Chapple, C; Adeola, O

    2015-03-01

    Limited information on nutritional characteristics on camelina meal for broiler chickens limits its use in diets of broiler chickens. The objectives of this study were to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of 2 different camelina meal (CM1 and CM2) samples for 3-wk-old broiler chickens using the regression method and to determine glucosinolate compounds in the camelina meal samples. The CM1 and CM2 were incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at 3 levels (0, 100, or 200 g/kg) by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. These 5 diets (reference diet, and 100 and 200 g/kg camelina meal from each of CM1 and CM2) were fed to 320 male Ross 708 broilers from d 21 to 28 post hatching with 8 birds per cage and 8 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Excreta were collected twice daily from d 25 to 28, and jejunal digesta and ileal digesta from the Meckel's diverticulum to approximately 2 cm proximal to the ileocecal junction were collected on d 28. The total glucosinolate content for CM1 and CM2 were 24.2 and 22.7 nmol/mg, respectively. Jejunal digesta viscosity was linearly increased (P<0.001) from 2.2 to 4.1 cP with increasing dietary camelina meal levels. There were linear effects (P<0.001) of CM1 and CM2 substitution on final weight, weight gain, feed intake, and G:F. The inclusion of CM1 and CM2 linearly decreased (P<0.001) ileal digestibility of DM, energy, and IDE. The supplementation of CM1 and CM2 linearly decreased (P<0.001) the retention of DM, nitrogen, and energy; ME, and MEn. By regressing the CM1 and CM2-associated IDE intake in kilocalories against kilograms of CM1 and CM2 intake, the IDE regression equation was Y=-10+1,429×CM1+2,125×CM2, r2=0.55, which indicates that IDE values were 1,429 kcal/kg of DM for CM1 and 2,125 kcal/kg of DM for CM2. The ME regression was Y=5+882×CM1+925×CM2, r2=0.54, which implies ME values of 882 kcal/kg of DM for CM1 and 925 kcal/kg of DM for CM2

  13. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  14. Antioxidant supplementation of low-protein diets reduced susceptibility to pulmonary hypertension in broiler chickens raised at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, M R; Khajali, F; Hassanpour, H

    2016-02-01

    A reduced-protein diet (designated as RPD) was prepared and its effects on growth performance and the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) were evaluated in broiler chickens compared to a normal-protein diet (designated as NPD) or to the RPD supplemented with CoQ10 alone (30 mg/kg) or in combination with vitamin E (30 mg/kg CoQ10  + 100 mg/kg vitamin E). The RPD had 30 g/kg less crude protein compared to the NPD. A total of 208 1-day-old male broilers (Ross 308 strain) were used in a 42-day trial. Serum concentrations of uric acid (UA) and nitric oxide (NO) significantly (p < 0.05) declined when chickens fed on the RPD. However, supplementing RPD with the antioxidants significantly (p < 0.05) increased the serum NO concentration. Although serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the RPD than the NDP, supplementing RPD with CoQ10 and CoQ10  + VE decreased serum MDA concentration to similar levels found in the NPD. Significant overexpression in GPX1 gene observed in the heart and lungs of broilers fed on the RPD, which was effectively restored by supplementation of CoQ10 . The right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV) was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in birds fed the RPD, which concurred with an increase in mortality from pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS). However, a significant decline in mortality from PHS was observed when birds on RPD received CoQ10 or CoQ10  + VE. In conclusion, antioxidant supplementation effectively improves pulmonary hypertensive response in broiler chicken fed of reduced-protein diets. PMID:25900413

  15. Selection for Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens Associates with Less Diet Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Jana; Coopman, Frank; Cools, An; Michiels, Joris; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Janssens, Geert P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01) negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently. PMID:26042600

  16. Cryptosporidiosis in broiler chickens in Zhejiang Province, China: molecular characterization of oocysts detected in fecal samples

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lengmei; Xue, Xue; Li, Jianqiu; Zhou, Qianjin; Yu, Yingchao; Du, Aifang

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasites in poultry, and this pathogen can infect more than 30 avian species. The present study investigated the infection rate of Cryptosporidium among broiler chicken flocks. A total of 385 fecal samples from broiler chickens in 7 regions of Zhejiang Province collected from November 2010 to January 2012 were examined by microscopy. Thirty-eight (10%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium infection, and 3 genotypes (Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and avian genotype II) were identified by PCR and sequencing. A phylogenetic tree of the isolates was analyzed. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is widespread in poultry in Zhejiang Province, and is a potential threat to public health as well as the economy. This is the first report about the infection rate and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in broiler chickens in Zhejiang. PMID:25075975

  17. Individual and combined effects of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide and fumonisin B1 in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rauber, R H; Dilkin, P; Mallmann, A O; Marchioro, A; Mallmann, C A; Borsoi, A; Nascimento, V P

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the individual and combined effects of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (sLPS) and fumonisin B(1) (FB) on performance, relative weight of liver, biological parameters, and histological evaluation of several tissues from four hundred thirty-two 1-d-old male broiler chickens divided into 9 treatments according to the dose of FB (0, 100, or 200 mg/kg, from d 1 to d 28) and sLPS (0, 250, or 500 µg/application per bird, every other day, from d 15 to 27) administered. At the end of the experiment (28 d), significant effects caused by sLPS, FB, and the interaction of sLPS × FB were observed on several parameters. Histopathological evaluations showed significant lesions in liver and kidney caused by sLPS, FB, and their association. According to these results, both sLPS and FB (isolated or in association) cause significant effects on performance and biological parameters of broilers at 28 d of age. PMID:23091133

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of enterococci isolated from faeces of broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, H; Ishimaru, M; Endoh, Y S; Kojima, A

    2000-12-01

    Enterococci were isolated from faecal droppings of chickens in broiler and layer farms and the susceptibilities to nine therapeutic antimicrobial agents and six growth-promoting antibiotics were determined by the agar dilution method. Resistance to therapeutic antimicrobial agents such as ampicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline or tylosin was more frequent in enterococcal isolates from broiler farms than in those from layer farms. Resistance to ofloxacin was rare, occurring in only one (0.7%) of the Enterococcus faecium isolates from broiler farms. Resistance to growth-promoting antibiotics such as avilamycin, salinomycin and virginiamycin was common among isolates from broiler farms. Of the E. faecium isolates from broiler farms, 12.4% were resistant to avilamycin and 27.4% were resistant to virginiamycin. Resistance to salinomycin was detected in all enterococcal species, ranging from 12.4% of E. faecium isolates to 50% of E. hirae isolates. PMID:11123550

  19. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Sosef, M P; Lourens, A; van Harn, J

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3×2 factorial design during incubation. In the second experiment, male and female chickens were reared separately until d 35 of age in floor pens. During this grow out trial, an extra group was created in which chickens obtained from clean nest eggs were mixed with chickens obtained from floor eggs, meaning that grow out period was set up as a 4×2×2 factorial design with 4 egg types, 2 breeder ages, and 2 sexes. In both experiments, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were lower in floor and washed eggs than in clean nest eggs (hatchability: experiment 1: 74.4 vs. 70.6 vs. 92.6% for floor eggs, washed floor eggs and clean nest eggs, respectively, P<0.001; experiment 2: 78.3 vs. 81.7 vs. 90.2%, respectively, P<0.001). In experiment 2, BW at d 0 of chickens obtained from clean nest eggs was higher than that of chickens from floor eggs and washed floor eggs (41.5 vs. 40.4 and 40.3 g, respectively; P<0.001). This difference disappeared during the grow out period and was absent at slaughter age at d 35 of age. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality during the grow out period were not affected by egg type. Incidence and severity of hock burns and footpad dermatitis were not affected by egg type or breeder age. Litter friability at d 35 of age tended to be lower in pens with chickens obtained from washed floor eggs compared to clean nest eggs. We conclude that incubation of floor eggs or washed floor eggs resulted in lower fertility and hatchability compared to clean nest eggs, but that performance during the grow out period was not affected. PMID:26908895

  20. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Gut Barrier Failure in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Richards, James D; Escobar, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with six chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or gut barrier failure (GBF) group. During the first 13 days, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn-soy starter diet. On day 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet, and GBF chickens were switched to rye-wheat-barley grower diet. In addition, on day 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At days 21 and 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At day 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P < 0.05) by a GBF model when compared with CON group at days 21 and 28. Duodenum of GBF birds had wider villi, longer crypt depth, and higher crypt depth/villi height ratio than CON birds. Similarly, GBF birds had longer crypt depth in jejunum and ileum when compared with CON birds. Protein levels of endotoxin and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in serum, as well as mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4, and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 6 were increased (P < 0.05) in GBF birds compared to CON birds; however, mRNA levels of FABP2, occludin, and mucin 2 (MUC2) were reduced by 34% (P < 0.05), 24% (P = 0.107), and 29% (P = 0.088), respectively, in GBF birds compared to CON birds. The results from the present study suggest that serum endotoxin and AGP, as well as, gene expression of FABP2, FABP6, IL-8, IL-1β, TGF-β4, occludin, and MUC2 in mucosa may work as potential biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens. PMID:26664943

  1. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Gut Barrier Failure in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Richards, James D.; Escobar, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with six chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or gut barrier failure (GBF) group. During the first 13 days, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn–soy starter diet. On day 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet, and GBF chickens were switched to rye–wheat–barley grower diet. In addition, on day 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At days 21 and 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At day 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P < 0.05) by a GBF model when compared with CON group at days 21 and 28. Duodenum of GBF birds had wider villi, longer crypt depth, and higher crypt depth/villi height ratio than CON birds. Similarly, GBF birds had longer crypt depth in jejunum and ileum when compared with CON birds. Protein levels of endotoxin and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in serum, as well as mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4, and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 6 were increased (P < 0.05) in GBF birds compared to CON birds; however, mRNA levels of FABP2, occludin, and mucin 2 (MUC2) were reduced by 34% (P < 0.05), 24% (P = 0.107), and 29% (P = 0.088), respectively, in GBF birds compared to CON birds. The results from the present study suggest that serum endotoxin and AGP, as well as, gene expression of FABP2, FABP6, IL-8, IL-1β, TGF-β4, occludin, and MUC2 in mucosa may work as potential biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens. PMID:26664943

  2. Incidence of Salmonellae in Dressed Broiler-Fryer Chickens1

    PubMed Central

    Woodburn, Margy

    1964-01-01

    Salmonellae were isolated from 72 of 264 broiler-fryer type chickens that had been purchased in retail stores in the Lafayette, Ind., area in 1963. Meat from the tail area and giblet portions were used in sampling. Equal numbers of dressed whole and cut-up birds were positive for salmonellae. Thirteen different serotypes were identified, the more common being Salmonella infantis, S. reading, and S. blockley. Incubation at 43 C of the blended sample in Selenite-F Enrichment broth containing cystine gave a larger number of recoveries than did incubation at 37 C. There was no significant difference between the means for the birds that yielded salmonellae and those that did not in the locally processed group, when compared for numbers of aerobic microorganisms at 37 C, coliforms, or most probable number of enterococci. In a comparison of poultry processed in-state by the five processors included in the study with that processed out-of-state, there was a general trend for a larger number of positive specimens in the locally produced group. The fall season was an exception. PMID:14239580

  3. Oligosaccharides Affect Performance and Gut Development of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Z.; Choct, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, flock uniformity and GIT development of broiler chickens were investigated. Four diets, one negative control, one positive control supplemented with zinc-bacitracin, and two test diets supplemented with mannoligosaccharide (MOS) and fructooligosaccharide (FOS), were used for the experiment. Birds given MOS or FOS had improved body weight (BW) and feed efficiency (FCR), compared to those fed the negative control diet during the 35-d trial period. The effect on FCR became less apparent when the birds got older. FOS and MOS supplementation reduced the pancreas weight as a percentage of BW, with an effect similar to that of the antibiotic, at 35 d of age. Birds given MOS tended to have a heavier bursa (p = 0.164) and lower spleen/bursa weight ratio (p = 0.102) at 35 d of age. MOS and Zn-bacitracin showed a clear improvement on flock uniformity, compared to FOS. The mortality rate was not affected by FOS or MOS. PMID:25049713

  4. Use of Vitamin D3 and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ana Flávia Quiles Marques; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Duarte, Cristiane Regina do Amaral; Rojas, Iván Camilo Ospina; Picoli, Karla Paola; Puzotti, Maíra Mangili

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1α(OH)D3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OH)D3 when compared with the other treatments (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted among the treatments (p>0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OH)D3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected. PMID:25049804

  5. The efficacy of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K-strain live vaccine in broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Noel, N M; Williams, S M

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine candidate (K-strain) was compared to commercially available vaccines in broiler-type chickens (Trial 1) and layer-type chickens (Trial 2). In Trial 1, three-week-old broiler-type chickens were vaccinated via aerosol with K-strain or an F-strain vaccine. The vaccinated chickens and 10 non-vaccinated controls were subsequently challenged with virulent R-strain via aerosol at six weeks post vaccination; both K-strain and F-strain vaccination resulted in significant protection from air sac and tracheal lesions, as well as R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). In Trial 2, commercial layer-type chickens were vaccinated with ts-11 (via eye drop) or K-strain (via aerosol) at 12 weeks of age. At 25 weeks of age these birds were challenged with R-strain via aerosol. The ts-11 and K-strain vaccinated groups both had significantly lower air sac lesion scores and a lower prevalence of ovarian regression after challenge as compared to non-vaccinated chickens (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain vaccination also prevented significant tracheal lesions and R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain shows great potential as a highly efficacious live MG vaccine in broiler and layer-type chickens for protection of the respiratory and reproductive systems as well as prevention of infection with field strains. PMID:25571953

  6. Comparison of growth performance and excreta composition in broiler chickens when ranked according to various feed efficiency metrics.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Molnár, A; Hollmann, M; Magowan, E; Hawken, R J; Lawlor, P G; Zebeli, Q

    2016-07-01

    Several feed efficiency (FE) metrics are currently used in livestock production to select for improved FE. Whether or not different FE metrics similarly estimate physiological characteristics in chickens of diverging FE has not been reported so far. This study aimed to assess potential differences in feed intake (FI), performance, and nutrient excretion in broiler chickens of diverging FE when ranked according to their residual FI (RFI), residual BW gain (RBG), RFI and BW gain (RIG), and G:F between d 7 and 35 of life. The FI was determined daily and BW was recorded once a week. The ranking of chickens into good, medium, and poor FE groups was completed separately for each FE metric. Freshly dropped excreta were collected for pH and DM measurements on d 30 to 32 of life and total excreta for determination of nutrient excretion was collected on d 34 to 36 of life. Relationships among FE metrics were evaluated using regression analysis showing that RFI, RIG, and G:F were more related to each other than to RBG. The FE values greatly varied among chickens for all FE metrics and chickens did not always cluster within the same FE group when using RFI, RIG, RBG, and G:F as the FE metrics because of the calculation approaches. Due to sex-related differences in performance, data of male and female chickens were analyzed separately. The RFI and RIG metrics showed a linear increase ( < 0.01) in total FI from good to poor FE in male and female chickens, whereas G:F showed this effect ( ≤ 0.011) only when BW gain was standardized to 1,500 g. The RBG did not clearly select chickens of enhanced total BW gain and only tended ( < 0.1) to select for greater BW gain from good to poor FE in female chickens. Excreta pH linearly decreased by 0.7 log units and DM content increased in males from good to poor FE when using RFI and RIG, respectively ( < 0.01). In both sexes, RFI ( < 0.05) and RIG metrics ( ≤ 0.06) showed a linear increase in daily nitrogen excretion from good to poor FE

  7. Quantitative Determination of Tenuazonic Acid in Pig and Broiler Chicken Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Comparative Toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; De Mil, Thomas; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska

    2015-09-30

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA) in pig and broiler chicken plasma was successfully developed and validated. Linear matrix-matched calibration curves ranged between 5 and 200 ng/mL. Correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit coefficients, and within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell well within the acceptance criteria. The limit of quantitation was 5.0 ng/mL in both pig and broiler chicken plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was applied in a comparative toxicokinetic study in both pigs and broiler chickens. TeA was completely bioavailable after oral administration in both animal species. However, absorption was deemed to be slower in broiler chickens (mean tmax 0.32 h in pigs vs 2.60 h in chickens). TeA was more slowly eliminated in broiler chickens (mean t1/2el 0.55 h in pigs vs 2.45 h in chickens after oral administration), mainly due to the significantly lower total body clearance (mean Cl 446.1 mL/h/kg in pigs vs 59.2 mL/h/kg in chickens after oral administration). Tissue residue studies and further research to elucidate the biotransformation and excretion processes of TeA in pigs, broiler chickens, and other animal species are imperative. PMID:26371380

  8. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Penned Broiler and Scavenging Local Chickens in Arusha, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rugumisa, Bernadether T; Call, Douglas R; Mwanyika, Gaspary O; Mrutu, Rehema I; Luanda, Catherine M; Lyimo, Beatus M; Subbiah, Murugan; Buza, Joram J

    2016-08-01

    We compared the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from household-level producers of broiler (commercial source breeds) and local chickens in the Arusha District of Tanzania. Households were composed of a single dwelling or residence with independent, penned broiler flocks. Free-range, scavenging chickens were mixed breed and loosely associated with individual households. A total of 1,800 E. coli isolates (1,200 from broiler and 600 from scavenging local chickens) from 75 chickens were tested for their susceptibility against 11 antibiotics by using breakpoint assays. Isolates from broiler chickens harbored a higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli relative to scavenging local chickens, including sulfamethoxazole (80.3 versus 34%), followed by trimethoprim (69.3 versus 27.7%), tetracycline (56.8 versus 20%), streptomycin (52.7 versus 24.7%), amoxicillin (49.6 versus 17%), ampicillin (49.1 versus 16.8%), ciprofloxacin (21.9 versus 1.7%), and chloramphenicol (1.5 versus 1.2%). Except for resistance to chloramphenicol, scavenging local chickens harbored fewer resistant E. coli isolates (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens harbored more isolates that were resistant to ≥7 antibiotics (P < 0.05). The higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from broiler chickens correlated with the reported therapeutic and prophylactic use of antibiotics in this poultry population. We suggest that improved biosecurity measures and increased vaccination efforts would reduce reliance on antibiotics by these households. PMID:27497131

  9. Skeletal response to diet with soya bean seeds used as primary source of protein in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, B; Charuta, A; Radzki, R; Bieńko, M; Toczko, R

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted using 120 commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The experimental diets, differing only in protein source, either solvent-extracted soya bean meal (SBM) or traditional (non-genetically modified) full-fat soya bean seeds (FFS), were prepared using practical corn-based formulation designed to meet nutritional requirements of broilers. Performance parameters were monitored weekly. Also, the subjects were evaluated daily for overt changes in skeletal anatomy and gait physiology. Randomly selected chickens from each group (seven males and seven females) were euthanized at 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks of age, and bone specimens were collected for further study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in tibiotarsal bones. Broilers fed FFS diet showed retarded growth rate and decreased feed intake (both p < 0.001). Both BMD and BMC parameters were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in bones of chickens from the FFS group in comparison with the SBM group. The chickens fed the FFS diet showed higher incidence of skeletal pathology including angular deformities and torticollis (both p < 0.01). Of note, cases of torticollis were observed only in FFS group. In many cases, skeletal abnormalities resulted in considerable changes in gait pattern, and in some instances, the pathology of leg bones was so advanced that the affected individuals were unable to walk, but this deformity was not seen in SBM group. From this study, it can be inferred that raw soya beans contain factors that have some specific detrimental effects on skeletal system of chickens. PMID:26852739

  10. Addition of a Worm Leachate as Source of Humic Substances in the Drinking Water of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Rosales, S.; de L. Angeles, M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth performance, the apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and energy, the retention of nutrients and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) in broiler chickens supplemented with increasing doses of a worm leachate (WL) as a source of humic substances (HS) in the drinking water. In Exp. 1, 140 male broilers were penned individually and assigned to four WL levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) mixed in the drinking water from 21 to 49 days of age. Water was offered in plastic bottles tied to the cage. In Exp. 2, 600 male broilers from 21 to 49 days of age housed in floor pens were assigned to three levels of WL (0%, 10%, and 20%) mixed in the drinking water. The WL was mixed with tap water in plastic containers connected by plastic tubing to bell drinkers. The results of both experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial contrasts. In Exp. 1, the daily water consumption was similar among treatments but the consumption of humic, fulvic, and total humic acids increased linearly (p<0.01) as the WL increased in the drinking water. The feed conversion (p<0.01) and the ileal digestibility of energy, the excretion of dry matter and energy, the retention of dry matter, ash and nitrogen and the AMEn showed quadratic responses (p<0.05) relative to the WL levels in drinking water. In Exp. 2, the increasing level of WL in the drinking water had quadratic effects on the final body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). The addition of WL as a source of HS in the drinking water had beneficial effects on the growth performance, ileal digestibility of energy, the retention of nutrients as well on the AMEn in broiler chickens; the best results were observed when the WL was mixed at levels of 20% to 30% in the drinking water. PMID:25557817

  11. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens. PMID:24628388

  12. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  13. Detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler breeder chickens

    PubMed Central

    Hailemariam, Zerihun; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Giap, Tan Ching

    2008-01-01

    Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protection afforded in the breeder farms is lacking in Malaysia. Hence, the present study was aimed to detect CAV from commercial broiler breeder farms and characterize CAV positive samples based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene. Results A total of 12 CAV isolates from different commercial broiler breeder farms were isolated and characterized. Detection of CAV positive embryos by the PCR assay in the range of 40 to 100% for different farms indicated high level of occurrence of vertical transmission of viral DNA to the progeny. CAV antigen was detected in the thymus and in the bone marrow but not in spleen, liver, duodenum, ovary and oviduct by indirect immunoperoxidase staining. The 12 CAV isolates were characterized based on partial sequences of VP1 gene. Six isolates (MF1A, MF3C, M3B5, NF4A, P12B and P24A) were found to have maximum homology with previously characterized Malaysian isolate SMSC-1, four isolates (M1B1, NF3A, PYT4 and PPW4) with isolate BL-5 and the remaining two (NF1D and NF2C) have maximum homology both with isolates 3-1 and BL-5. Meanwhile, seven of the isolates with amino acid profile of 75-I, 97-L, 139-Q and 144-Q were clustered together in cluster I together with other isolates from different geographical places. The remaining five isolates with amino acid profile of 75-V, 97-M, 139-K and 144-E were grouped under cluster II. All the CAV isolates demonstrated omega values (Ka/Ks) of less than one (the values ranging from 0.07 to 0.5) suggesting the occurrence of purifying (negative) selection in all the studied isolates. Conclusion The present study showed that CAV is widespread in the studied commercial broiler breeder farms. The result also indicated the occurrence of genetic variability in local CAV isolates

  14. External and internal bacterial in broiler chickens before and after defeathering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler chicken carcasses were removed from the shackle line in a commercial processing plant to determine incidence and counts of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Salmonella both before and after picking. Five carcasses were taken from each sampling location on 10 different days (n=...

  15. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages.

    PubMed

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  16. Proteomic changes in plasma of broiler chickens with femoral head necrosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The FHN selected birds showed higher bodyweights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of health...

  17. Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials augment macrophage function in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the function of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) on macrophage functions, i.e., nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytosis in broiler chickens. DFMs used in this study were eight single strains designated as Bs2084, LSSAO1, 3AP4, Bs1...

  18. Effect of varying light intensity on welfare indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of varying light-intensity on ocular, immue, fear, and leg health of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 Ross 308 chicks were randomly ...

  19. Role of water hardness in rinsing bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens was examined. Artificial hard water with a total hardness of 200 ppm (very hard water) was prepared by dissolving calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2 •6H2...

  20. Immune modulation by Bacillus subtilus-based direct-fed microbials in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct-fed microbials (DFMs), also known as probiotics, have been successfully used to improve the balance of gut microbiota. Spores of Bacillus subtilis, have been used as DFMs for food animals and humans and our previous studies showed that dietary supplementation of broiler chickens with a B. su...

  1. CARRY OVER EFFECTS OF DIETARY CRUDE PROTEIN AND METHIMAZOLE IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thyroid axis is one of the more controversial areas in growth and metabolism of the broiler chicken. Although chemical hypothyroidism decreased growth, artificial changes in thyroid hormone levels did not always change growth predictably. What is lacking from previous studies is any information ...

  2. A GENETIC COMPONENT TO THE NORMAL GROWTH OF THE ROSS 708 BROILER CHICKEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growth trial was conducted with the Ross 708 broiler chicken to corroborate the relationships between changes in the growth curve (7 to 35 days) and in vitro metabolic parameters. These in vitro parameters also included estimates of the expression of certain genes regulating proteins implicated wi...

  3. Applications of Bacteriocins in Broiler Chickens to Reduce Carriage of Campylobacter and Salmonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The paper will review studies which have used a variety of bacteriocins to treat Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enteritidis colonized broiler chickens. Antagonistic bacteria were chosen by selecting those isolates which produced zones of inhibition among confluent C. jejuni growth. From the...

  4. Correlations among metabolic enzyme activities, their mRNA's and hormone levels in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ross 708 broiler chickens were fed one of three levels of crude protein (12, 21 or 30%) from 7 to 28 days of age. Birds were then switched to either higher (12 to 30%, 21 to 30%) or lower levels of crude protein (30-12%, 21-12%). Birds were sampled three days following switches to their respective f...

  5. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment was consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a r...

  6. Electrolyte Diets, Stress, and Acid-Base Balance in Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to compare acid-base balance in broiler chickens provided diets’ containing two different dietary electrolyte balances (DEB) and administered either adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or saline. Diets were moderate (M; 174 mEq/kg) or high (H; 241 mEq/kg) DEB by altering Na-...

  7. Interactive effects of ammonia and light intensity on hematochemical variables in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the influence of atmospheric ammonia exposure, light intensity, and their interaction on blood gases, electrolytes, and acid-base balance in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions. The experiment consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arranged in a randomized comple...

  8. Review of antimicrobial therapy of selected bacterial diseases in broiler chickens in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Léger, Dave; Carson, Carolee

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews common therapeutic applications of antimicrobials in broiler chicken production in relation to Canadian guidelines, surveillance data, and emerging public health concerns about antimicrobial use (AMU). Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus spp., were reviewed because of their animal health and economic significance. Enterococcus cecorum and Salmonella were included because of their importance in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. This review identified that i) antimicrobials are available in Canada to treat infections by these agents, but may be through over the counter or extra-label use, ii) prevalence rates for these diseases are unknown, iii) antimicrobial use estimates in broilers are lacking, and iv) AMR has emerged in clinical isolates, though data are very sparse. This review highlights the need for surveillance of AMU and AMR in broiler chickens in Canada. PMID:23729827

  9. Valgus-Varus Deformity of the Intertarsal Joint in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A lateral or medial angulation of the shaft of the distal tibiotarsal bone resulting in deviation of the lower part of the leg and frequently with bending of the proximal shaft of the tarsometatarsus is the most common leg deformity in broiler chickens. This lateral or medial deviation of the legs in broiler chickens, which has been described by many workers, deserves a specific name such as angular bone deformity or valgus-varus deformity of intertarsal joint, so that it may be separated from other varieties of lameness in broilers. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2A.Figure 2B.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figure 8. PMID:17422417

  10. The Impact of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on the Health and Performance of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Wageha A.; Hess, Michael; Twarużek, Magdalena; Grajewski, Jan; Kosicki, Robert; Böhm, Josef; Zentek, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of jejunum and to follow the passage of deoxynivalenol (DON) through subsequent segments of the digestive tract of broilers. A total of 45 1-d-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 males) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (15 birds/treatment): (1) control diet; (2) diet contaminated with 1 mg DON/kg feed; (3) diet contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg feed for five weeks. None of the zootechnical traits (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion) responded to increased DON levels in the diet. However, DON at both dietary levels (1 mg and 5 mg DON/kg feed) significantly altered the small intestinal morphology. In the jejunum, the villi were significantly (P < 0.01) shorter in both DON treated groups compared with the controls. Furthermore, the dietary inclusion of DON decreased (P < 0.05) the villus surface area in both DON treated groups. The absolute or relative organ weights (liver, heart, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, spleen, pancreas, colon, cecum, bursa of Fabricius and thymus) were not altered (P > 0.05) in broilers fed the diet containing DON compared with controls. DON and de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1) were analyzed in serum, bile, liver, feces and digesta from consecutive segments of the digestive tract (gizzard, cecum, and rectum). Concentrations of DON and its metabolite DOM-1 in serum, bile, and liver were lower than the detection limits of the applied liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Only about 10 to 12% and 6% of the ingested DON was recovered in gizzard and feces, irrespective of the dietary DON-concentration. However, the DON recovery in the cecum as percentage of DON-intake varied between 18 to 22% and was not influenced by dietary DON-concentration. Interestingly, in the present trial, DOM-1 did not appear in the large intestine

  11. Effect of in ovo administration of inulin and Lactococcus lactis on immune-related gene expression in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Płowiec, Arkadiusz; Sławińska, Anna; Siwek, Maria Z; Bednarczyk, Marek F

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of in ovo administration of inulin and Lactococcus lactis on immune-related gene expression in broiler chickens. ANIMALS 45 Ross broilers. PROCEDURES On day 12 of embryonic development, 360 eggs were equally allocated among 3 treatment groups and injected with 0.2 mL of a solution that contained 1.76 mg of inulin (prebiotic group) or 1.76 mg of inulin enriched with 1,000 CFUs of L lactis subsp lactis 2955 (synbiotic group), or they were injected with 0.2 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control). At 1, 14, and 35 days after hatching, 5 male birds from each group were euthanized, and the spleen and cecal tonsils were harvested for determination of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-18, cluster of differentiation 80, interferon-β, and interferon-γ expression by means of a reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay. Gene expressions in the cecal tonsils and spleens of chickens in the prebiotic and synbiotic groups were compared with those of control chickens at each tissue collection time. RESULTS Compared with control birds, immune-related gene expression was downregulated in birds in the prebiotic and synbiotic groups, and the magnitude of that downregulation was more pronounced in the cecal tonsils than in the spleen and increased with age. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that in ovo administration of a prebiotic or synbiotic to broilers was associated with downregulation of immune-related gene expression in the cecal tonsils and spleen. The magnitude of that downregulation increased with age and was most likely caused by stabilization of the gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:26512543

  12. Effects of feed deprivation on the AMPK signaling pathway in skeletal muscle of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiyi; Liu, Lei; Song, Zhigang; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Buyse, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in rapid metabolic adaptations to maintain energy homeostasis in poultry. It remains unclear if AMPK is involved in muscular energy metabolism in broiler chickens. Hence, in the present study, seven-day-old male broilers were equally divided into three groups: fed ad libitum (control); feed-deprived for 24h (S24); feed-deprived for 24h and then refed for 24h (S24R24). Compared to the control group, the plasma levels of glucose, insulin, T3 and triglycerides in the S24 group were significantly lower (P<0.05), whereas the uric acid levels were significantly higher (P<0.01). Except for glucose, refeeding for 24h reversed the fasting-induced alterations in plasma metabolite. Fasting decreased the liver kinase B1 (LKB1), AMPK alpha 2 subunit (AMPKα2), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA levels (P<0.05) in M. pectoralis major (PM). Feed deprivation did not affect the phosphorylated AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in PM (P>0.05), but upregulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) gene expression and increased phosphorylated LKB1 (0.050.05). However, refeeding after 24h of fasting increased the phosphorylated mTOR level in BF muscle which was in parallel with increased plasma insulin concentration. It was likely that increased phospho-mTOR level in the BF muscle was

  13. Kinematic Analysis Quantifies Gait Abnormalities Associated with Lameness in Broiler Chickens and Identifies Evolutionary Gait Differences

    PubMed Central

    Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Weeks, Claire A.; Colborne, G. Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with

  14. Effects of dietary combination of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids on the deposition of linoleic and arachidonic acid in broiler chicken meats.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Choi, S H; Go, G; Park, J H; Narciso-Gaytán, C; Morgan, C A; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2012-04-01

    To minimize the amount of n-6 fatty acids in broiler chicken meat, 120 Cobb × Ross male broilers were divided into 6 different groups and fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fat from 5 different lipid sources: 1) a commercial mix of animal and vegetable oil, 2) soybean oil and olive oil (2.5% each), 3) flaxseed oil and olive oil (2.5% each), 4) flaxseed oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA; n-3), and olive oil (2.45, 0.05, and 2.5% respectively; FEO), 5) flaxseed oil, docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA; n-3), and olive oil (2.45, 0.05, and 2.5% respectively; FDO), and 6) fish oil and olive oil (2.5% each; FHO). At 6 and 9 wk, one bird per pen (4 pens per treatment) was processed, and liver, breast, and thigh samples were collected and used for fatty acid profiles or Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase mRNA gene expression levels. The deposition of linoleic acid (C18:2; n-6) or arachidonic acid (C20:4; n-6) was decreased in breast and thigh muscles of chickens fed n-3 fatty acids for 9 wk compared with chickens fed animal and vegetable oil and soybean oil and olive oil diets (P < 0.05). The addition of EPA to the diet (FEO; P > 0.05) did not reduce the deposition of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid as much as DHA (FDO; P < 0.05), and it suppressed the expression of Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase. When EPA and DHA were blended (FHO) and supplied to broiler chickens for 9 wk, EPA and DHA combination effects were observed on the deposition of LA and arachidonic acid in breast and thigh muscles. Thereby, the addition of a mixed EPA and DHA to a broiler chicken diet may be recommendable to reduce arachidonic acid accumulation in both broiler chicken breast and thigh meats, providing a functional broiler chicken meat to consumers. PMID:22399741

  15. Resistance to gentamicin and vancomycin in enterococcal strains isolated from retail broiler chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuya; Mito, Yasuaki; Otsuki, Koichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2004-10-01

    A total of 137 Enterococcus strains isolated from chicken meat were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Strains with the vanCl gene were isolated from seven of nine samples of chicken meat processed in Japan and from all chickens from China and Brazil between July 2001 and April 2002. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the isolates were distinguishable from each other, suggesting that VanCl-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus is preferentially colonized in broiler chickens in these countries. The incidence of high-level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci that harbored the aac(6')-le-aph(2")-la or aph(2')-Id gene varied among the countries from which the chickens originated (Japan, 2 of 65; China, 11 of 43; Brazil, 6 of 29). Moreover, the PFGE patterns of the HLGR strains were distinguishable from each other, except for two strains obtained from chickens from Brazil. The results suggest that HLGR Enterococcus is highly prevalent in broiler chickens. PMID:15508646

  16. Apilarnil reduces fear and advances sexual development in male broilers but has no effect on growth.

    PubMed

    Altan, O; Yücel, B; Açikgöz, Z; Seremet, C; Kösoğlu, M; Turgan, N; Ozgönül, A M

    2013-06-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of stimulating sexual development at an early age in male and female broiler chickens by administration of apilarnil, a natural bee product, in the pre-pubertal period. 2. From 28 to 55 d of age, birds were given apilarnil orally. The effects of low (2.5 g/bird) and high (7.5 g/bird) doses of apilarnil on growth performance, testicular weight, secondary sexual characteristics, blood lipids, testosterone and fearful behaviour were evaluated. 3. Apilarnil administration did not cause a positive effect on growth performance of male and female broilers suggesting that apilarnil did not have an anabolic effect. 4. Apilarnil administration suppressed blood glucose and cholesterol. 5. Birds receiving apilarnil remained immobile for a shorter period in a tonic imobiliy test and showed less home-cage avoidance responses suggesting a lower level of fearfulness. 6. Increases in testicular weight, testosterone concentration and comb growth in males receiving apilarnil implied that it stimulates the sexual maturation at an early age. However, a similar stimulation of secondary sexual characteristics was not observed in females. PMID:23796118

  17. Effect of lycopene on the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Choo, Won-Don; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether dietary lycopene (LP) could prevent the copper-mediated oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL), and affect growth performance, relative organ weights, plasma and meat lipid profiles, and LP contents in plasma and tissues in broiler chickens. A total of 160 day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 16 pens with rice husk as a bedding material. Each experiment had 4 replicates, 10 chicks per replicate (n = 4 per treatment). A corn-soybean meal base diet was used as a control diet (CONT). To formulate the experimental diets, the base diet was added with LP at the levels of 10 (LP10) or 20 mg/kg (LP20), or 17 g/kg of tomato paste (TP17) which was equivalent to 5 ppm of LP. The experiment lasted 4 weeks. Growth performance and relative organ weights were not affected (p > 0.05) by any of dietary treatments. Dietary LP significantly lowered (p < 0.05) triglyceride and LDL cholesterol at 2 weeks of age, but did not affect them at 4 weeks of age. Total cholesterol in thigh meats was not altered by dietary treatments. LP was not detected in leg meats in all chicks, nor in liver or plasma of the CONT group. LP was found in liver and plasma, being the former greater in the concentration, of the chicks fed diets containing LP10, LP20, or TP17. At 2 and 4 weeks, the copper-mediated oxidation of LDL was delayed (p < 0.05) in either LP- or TP-fed chickens compared with the CONT group. In conclusion, LP lowers triglyceride and LDL cholesterol, is deposited into serum and liver, and prevents the LDL oxidation in broiler chickens, confirming the role of LP in the lipid-lowering and antioxidant properties in broiler chickens. PMID:27047715

  18. Up-regulation of endothelin-1 and endothelin type A receptor genes expression in the heart of broiler chickens versus layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Teshfam, Masood; Momtaz, Hassan; Brujeni, Gholamreza Nikbakht; Shahgholian, Lohrasb

    2010-12-01

    To compare Endothelin (ET) production and genes expression of ET-1 and ET(A) receptor (ET(A)R) between broiler and layer chickens during rearing, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme immunometric assay were performed in the heart ventricles and serum. There were gradual elevations of ET-1 and ET(A)R mRNAs in the left ventricle of broiler and layer chicken groups that were mainly significant (P<0.05) at 28, 35 and 42 days of age with compared to previous days whereas were not significant between two groups. These gradual elevations of ET-1 and ET(A)R mRNAs were also observed in the right ventricle that were significant (P<0.05) at 28, 35 and 42 days of age in broilers and 42 days of age in layers with compared to previous days. Increasing of these mRNAs in the right ventricle of broiler chickens were significantly (P<0.05) more than layer chickens at 28, 35 and 42 days. Serum ET in broilers was significantly (P<0.05) higher than layer chickens at 28 and 42 days of age. It is concluded that circulating ET and cardiac ET-1, ET(A)R genes expression is higher in broiler chickens than in layer chickens particularly after 21 days of age. It is probably that these breed differences make broiler chickens to be more susceptible to Endothelin related-cardiomyopathies such as congestive heart failure and ascites. PMID:20457459

  19. Organic trace mineral supplementation enhances local and systemic innate immune responses and modulates oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Echeverry, H; Yitbarek, A; Munyaka, P; Alizadeh, M; Cleaver, A; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Wang, P; O, K; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2016-03-01

    The effect of organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology, immune organ weights (bursa of Fabricius and spleen), expression of innate immune response related genes, blood heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, chemical metabolic panel, natural antibodies (IgG), and oxidative stress of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 1,080 day-old male broilers were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments, which included basal diet with Monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (OTM). No difference in feed conversion ratio was observed among treatments; ileum histomorphological analysis showed a lower crypt depth, higher villi height/crypt depth ratio, and lower villi width in the OTM treatment compared to control. Furthermore, OTM treatment resulted in higher uric acid and lower plasma malondehaldehyde (MDA), indicating lower oxidative stress. Gene expression analysis showed that OTM treatment resulted in up-regulations of TLR2 bin the ileum, and TLR2b, TLR4, and IL-12p35 in the bursa of Fabricius, and down-regulation of TLR2b and TLR4 in the cecal tonsils. In the spleen, OTM treatment resulted in up-regulation of IL-10. In conclusion, OTM supplementation to broiler diets may have beneficial effects on intestinal development, immune system status, and survival by improving ileum histomorphological parameters, modulation of Toll-like receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing level of MDA, which in conjunction could enhance health status. PMID:26740133

  20. The effect of supplementation of clove and agrimony or clove and lemon balm on growth performance, antioxidant status and selected indices of lipid profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, V; Marcincak, S; Popelka, P; Simkova, J; Martonova, M; Buleca, J; Marcincakova, D; Tuckova, M; Molnar, L; Kovac, G

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of diet supplementation with 1% clove flower buds powder combined with either 0.2% lemon balm extract or 0.2% agrimony extract (each of the two pulverized extracts supplied through drinking water) on body weight of broilers, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio and the carcass yield, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, EC 1.11.1.9) in blood, concentration of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin A and E, low-density lipoproteins in the blood plasma, serum cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins in broiler chickens at 42 days of age. On the day of hatching, 120 male and female broilers of Cobb 500 were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (1st group) of broilers received a basal diet (BD) without any feed and water additive. Both experimental groups of chicks were fed BD enriched with clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) powder at a dose of 10 g/kg DM for 42 days. Moreover, either lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.) extract or agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L.) extract diluted with drinking water (2:1000) was given to broilers in the 2nd and 3rd group respectively. The results indicated that feeding the diets enriched with selected herbal supplements failed to affect the growth performance of broiler chickens at 42 days of age. In addition, this supplementation had no influence on the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, concentration of vitamin A and selected lipid metabolism indices. On the other hand, we observed beneficial effects on some indices of the antioxidant status (increased concentration of -SH groups and vitamin E, decreased concentration of MDA) in the blood of broilers in both experimental groups in comparison with the control group of chickens (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a slightly better antioxidant capacity was found in the blood of broilers supplied the combination of clove and lemon balm compared

  1. Tissue Residues, Hematological and Biochemical Effects of Tilmicosin in Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Mossad; Elkomy, Ashraf; Morad, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours) after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume concentration (PCV). Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium), glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. PMID:24808972

  2. Effects of Xylo-Oligosaccharides on Broiler Chicken Performance and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    De Maesschalck, C.; Eeckhaut, V.; Maertens, L.; De Lange, L.; Marchal, L.; Nezer, C.; De Baere, S.; Croubels, S.; Daube, G.; Dewulf, J.; Haesebrouck, F.; Ducatelle, R.; Taminau, B.

    2015-01-01

    In broiler chickens, feed additives, including prebiotics, are widely used to improve gut health and to stimulate performance. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans that can be fermented by the gut microbiota. In the current study, we aimed to analyze the prebiotic properties of XOS when added to the broiler diet. Administration of XOS to chickens, in addition to a wheat-rye-based diet, significantly improved the feed conversion ratio. XOS significantly increased villus length in the ileum. It also significantly increased numbers of lactobacilli in the colon and Clostridium cluster XIVa in the ceca. Moreover, the number of gene copies encoding the key bacterial enzyme for butyrate production, butyryl-coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA):acetate CoA transferase, was significantly increased in the ceca of chickens administered XOS. In this group of chickens, at the species level, Lactobacillus crispatus and Anaerostipes butyraticus were significantly increased in abundance in the colon and cecum, respectively. In vitro fermentation of XOS revealed cross-feeding between L. crispatus and A. butyraticus. Lactate, produced by L. crispatus during XOS fermentation, was utilized by the butyrate-producing Anaerostipes species. These data show the beneficial effects of XOS on broiler performance when added to the feed, which potentially can be explained by stimulation of butyrate-producing bacteria through cross-feeding of lactate and subsequent effects of butyrate on gastrointestinal function. PMID:26092452

  3. Effect of Yeast Probiotic on Growth, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Malondialdehyde Concentration of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Aluwong, Tagang; Kawu, Mohammed; Raji, Moshood; Dzenda, Tavershima; Govwang, Felix; Sinkalu, Victor; Ayo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of yeast probiotic on body weight, and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on hybrid Hubbard broiler chickens (n = 200). Two-hundred day-old chicks were randomly selected and distributed into four groups of 50 day-old chicks each: Control, C, and treatment groups comprising T1, T2 and T3 administered with 0.25 mL, 0.5 mL and 1.0 mL yeast probiotic, respectively. Chicks were fed a commercial starter diet for the first 28 days of age, followed by pelleted finisher diet from 29 to 42 days. Chickens in T1 had a significantly (p < 0.01) higher body weight at 4th week of age when compared with the control. SOD activity in all treatment groups was not significantly (p > 0.05) different when compared with the control. GPx activity was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in T1, when compared with the control. GPx activity in T2 was higher (p < 0.01) when compared with the control. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in MDA level in all the treatment groups. In conclusion, administering yeast probiotic supplement increased body weight and enhanced serum anti-oxidant enzyme activities of broiler chickens. PMID:26784468

  4. Effects of Xylo-Oligosaccharides on Broiler Chicken Performance and Microbiota.

    PubMed

    De Maesschalck, C; Eeckhaut, V; Maertens, L; De Lange, L; Marchal, L; Nezer, C; De Baere, S; Croubels, S; Daube, G; Dewulf, J; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Taminau, B; Van Immerseel, F

    2015-09-01

    In broiler chickens, feed additives, including prebiotics, are widely used to improve gut health and to stimulate performance. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans that can be fermented by the gut microbiota. In the current study, we aimed to analyze the prebiotic properties of XOS when added to the broiler diet. Administration of XOS to chickens, in addition to a wheat-rye-based diet, significantly improved the feed conversion ratio. XOS significantly increased villus length in the ileum. It also significantly increased numbers of lactobacilli in the colon and Clostridium cluster XIVa in the ceca. Moreover, the number of gene copies encoding the key bacterial enzyme for butyrate production, butyryl-coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA):acetate CoA transferase, was significantly increased in the ceca of chickens administered XOS. In this group of chickens, at the species level, Lactobacillus crispatus and Anaerostipes butyraticus were significantly increased in abundance in the colon and cecum, respectively. In vitro fermentation of XOS revealed cross-feeding between L. crispatus and A. butyraticus. Lactate, produced by L. crispatus during XOS fermentation, was utilized by the butyrate-producing Anaerostipes species. These data show the beneficial effects of XOS on broiler performance when added to the feed, which potentially can be explained by stimulation of butyrate-producing bacteria through cross-feeding of lactate and subsequent effects of butyrate on gastrointestinal function. PMID:26092452

  5. Genome Analysis of Staphylococcus agnetis, an Agent of Lameness in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Sohita; Pummill, Jeff F.; Koon, Joseph A.; Wideman, Robert F.; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    Lameness in broiler chickens is a significant animal welfare and financial issue. Lameness can be enhanced by rearing young broilers on wire flooring. We have identified Staphylococcus agnetis as significantly involved in bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) in proximal tibia and femorae, leading to lameness in broiler chickens in the wire floor system. Administration of S. agnetis in water induces lameness. Previously reported in some cases of cattle mastitis, this is the first report of this poorly described pathogen in chickens. We used long and short read next generation sequencing to assemble single finished contigs for the genome and a large plasmid from the chicken pathogen. Comparison of the S. agnetis genome to those of other pathogenic Staphylococci shows that S.agnetis contains a distinct repertoire of virulence determinants. Additionally, the S. agnetis genome has several regions that differ substantially from the genomes of other pathogenic Staphylococci. Comparison of our finished genome to a recent draft genome for a cattle mastitis isolate suggests that future investigations focus on the evolutionary epidemiology of this emerging pathogen of domestic animals. PMID:26606420

  6. Age-related energy values of bakery meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P < 0.05) in N retention and ME. There was a linear increase in DM, N, and energy as birds' ages increased from 1 to 3 wk. Dietary bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P < 0.05) with age. Regression-derived MEn of bakery meal linearly increased (P < 0.05) as the age of birds increased, with values of 2,710, 2,820, and 2,923 kcal/kg DM for 1, 2, and 3 wk, respectively. Based on these results, utilization of energy and nitrogen in the basal diet decreased when bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens. PMID:26944962

  7. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor and leptin receptor genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chicken adipose tissue were initia...

  8. Effect of Zinc on Appetite Regulatory Peptides in the Hypothalamus of Salmonella-Challenged Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiyi; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Li, Xianlei; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Zhang, Bingkun; Song, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary Zinc (Zn) supplementation on the gene expression of appetite regulatory peptides were investigated in Salmonella-infected broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (Arbor Acres, 1 day old) were allocated randomly into 24 pens of 10 birds. The chickens from 12 pens were fed with basal diet and the other with basal diet supplemented with Zn (ZnSO4·H2O, 120 mg/kg). At 5 days of age, the chickens were divided into 4 treatments with 6 pens: basal diet; basal diet and Salmonella challenge; Zn-supplemented diet; Zn-supplemented diet and Salmonella challenge. At 42 days of age, the hypothalamus from 6 chickens per treatment (1 chicken per pen) was individually collected for gene expression determination. Results showed that dietary supplementation of Zn reduced the gene expression of hypothalamic ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P < 0.05). Salmonella infection upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and TNF-α. Zn supplementation and Salmonella inoculation were significantly correlated with the mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 2-1 (P < 0.05). However, neither dietary Zn supplementation nor Salmonella inoculation had significant effect on hypothalamic agouti-related protein, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and pro-opiomelanocortin. This study shows that dietary Zn supplementation promoted orexigenic appetite regulatory peptides and reduced the expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the hypothalamus of Salmonella-challenged broilers. PMID:26637494

  9. Pathophysiology of heart failure in broiler chickens: structural, biochemical, and molecular characteristics.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, A A

    2007-05-01

    Modern strains of fast-growing meat type poultry are highly susceptible to heart failure. Heart-related mortalities are observed predominantly in fast-growing broiler chickens, with ascites and sudden death syndrome being the most common heart-related conditions in modern broiler flocks. This paper examines the role of structural, molecular, and biochemical factors pertinent to the pathophysiology of heart failure in fast-growing broilers. Evidence explaining the pathogenesis of acute and chronic heart failure, in the context of the underlying molecular and biochemical changes in the cardiomyocytes, contractile apparatus, and extracellular matrix in the ventricular myocardium are critically evaluated and discussed with reference to the clinical signs associated with deterioration of heart pump function. The secondary pathophysiological effects on the cardiovascular system, resulting from hemodynamic changes associated with the failing heart pump, are also reviewed and critically discussed. PMID:17435038

  10. Anticoccidial effect of Piper sarmentosum extracts in experimental coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Li, Wei; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu

    2016-06-01

    To study the anticoccidial effect of Piper sarmentosum extracts (PSE) in experimental broiler coccidiosis, 270 one-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were randomly assigned to six groups, each with three replicates (n = 15). The six groups were blank control group (BC), negative control group (NC), positive control group (PC), and another three PSE addition groups. Chickens in three control groups were fed a basal diet without PSE supplementation. Chickens in the three PSE addition groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with PSE at 100 (T100), 200 (T200), and 300 (T300) mg/kg of feed, respectively. At 15 days of age, chickens in group NC, PC, and three PSE addition groups were challenged with an oral dose of 1 × 10(5) Eimeria tenella oocysts each chick. Chickens in group PC were fed with diclazuril solution in water for 5 days after 48 h with oocysts inoculation. The results showed that PSE and diclazuril improved growth performance and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased oocysts per gram in inoculated broiler chickens. PSE and diclazuril significantly (P < 0.05) decreased nitric oxide at 6 and 9 days post-inoculation relative to the NC group, respectively. At 6 and 9 days post-inoculation, PSE supplementation at 200 mg/kg in the diet increased concentration of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) (P < 0.05). PSE supplementation at 200 mg/kg in the diet significantly (P < 0.05) increased mRNA expressions of IFN-γ and IL-2 in the cecum of chickens at 9 days post-inoculation relative to the BC and NC group. The current results showed the anticoccidial properties, and beneficial effect on intestinal mucosa damage of PSE in broiler chickens that had been challenged by coccidiosis. PMID:26984597

  11. The fate and tissue disposition of deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    PRALATNET, Sasithorn; POAPOLATHEP, Saranya; IMSILP, Kanjana; TANHAN, Phanwimol; ISARIYODOM, Supaporn; KUMAGAI, Susumu; POAPOLATHEP, Amnart

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the fate of deoxynivalenol (DON) in broilers, DON was administered either intravenously or orally to broilers at a dose of 1 mg/kg BW. Concentrations of DON in plasma were measurable up to 4 hr and 2 hr after intravenous and oral administration, respectively. Following intravenous administration, the values for the elimination half-life, the volume of distribution and the clearance were 1.25 ± 0.25 hr, 7.55 ± 2.03 l/kg and 4.16 ± 0.42 l/hr/kg, respectively. The oral bioavailability was 15.46 ± 4.02%. DON was detectable in all tissues examined after oral administration. These results suggest that DON is able to penetrate into the various tissues in broilers, though poorly absorbed from their gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25843039

  12. Evaluation of Relative Bioavailability of 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol to Cholecalciferol for Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Han, J C; Chen, G H; Wang, J G; Zhang, J L; Qu, H X; Zhang, C M; Yan, Y F; Cheng, Y H

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the relative bioavailability (RBV) of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in 1- to 21-d-old broiler chickens fed with calcium (Ca)- and phosphorus (P)-deficient diets. On the day of hatch, 450 female Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to nine treatments, with five replicates of ten birds each. The basal diet contained 0.50% Ca and 0.25% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) and was not supplemented with vitamin D. Vitamin D3 was fed at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 μg/kg, and 25-OH-D3 was fed at 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 μg/kg. The RBV of 25-OH-D3 was determined using vitamin D3 as the standard source by the slope ratio method. Vitamin D3 and 25-OH-D3 intake was used as the independent variable for regression analysis. The linear relationships between the level of vitamin D3 or 25-OH-D3 and body weight gain (BWG) and the weight, length, ash weight, and the percentage of ash, Ca, and P in femur, tibia, and metatarsus of broiler chickens were observed. Using BWG as the criterion, the RBV value of 25-OH-D3 to vitamin D3 was 1.85. Using the mineralization of the femur, tibia, and metatarsus as criteria, the RBV of 25-OH-D3 to vitamin D3 ranged from 1.82 to 2.45, 1.86 to 2.52, and 1.65 to 2.05, respectively. These data indicate that 25-OH-D3 is approximately 2.03 times as active as vitamin D3 in promoting growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chicken diets. PMID:26954155

  13. Changing the incubation temperature during embryonic myogenesis influences the weight performance and meat quality of male and female broilers.

    PubMed

    Janisch, S; Sharifi, A R; Wicke, M; Krischek, C

    2015-10-01

    Eggs of broilers were initially incubated at 37.8°C, then at 38.8°C (group H) and 36.8°C (group L) between embryonic days 7 to 10 (time A) and days 10 to 13 (time B) and further incubated at 37.8°C until hatching. The chicks were fattened until day 35 and then slaughtered. The effect of treatment, time, and sex and their interactions on carcass and meat quality traits were determined. No significant impact of the "treatment time" was analysed, but "treatment" and "sex" and their interactions influenced (P < 0.05) the different parameters. After hatching, group L broilers were heavier (P < 0.05), followed by slower growth compared to group H chicken. At slaughter day, body, carcass, and leg weights of group H broiler were higher (P < 0.05) and yield results lower (P < 0.05) compared to group L animals. pH, drip loss, shear force, and lightness values of group H broiler breast muscles were higher (P < 0.05) and grill loss and redness values lower (P < 0.05) compared to group L Musculus pectoralis superficialis (MPS). Body, carcass, MPS, and leg weights, leg yields and grill loss and lightness values of the male broiler were higher (P < 0.05) and drip loss results lower (P < 0.05) than the female birds. Male group H broiler showed lower (P < 0.05) carcass and MPS yields compared to the control and group L males, whereas females group H birds had higher (P < 0.05) carcass and MPS weights and lower leg yields (P < 0.05) than the female group L animals. The study shows that an increasing incubation temperature during early embryogenesis positively influences the growth and carcass traits of the broilers, accompanied with a partly negative impact on meat quality (drip loss, shear force, lightness). The growth effects were sex-dependent, as significant weight differences could be only found in female broilers. The results indicate that incubation temperature alteration influences molecular mechanisms in the muscle and other tissues with an impact on growth after

  14. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens. PMID:27006242

  15. The identification of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in broiler chickens by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ozyigit, M O; Kahraman, M M; Sonmez, G

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 using immunohistochemistry in the ascites syndrome of broiler chickens in a salt-induced experimental model. The presence of the enzymes in the lung, heart, liver, kidney and brain was evaluated semi-quantitatively with the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase (Strep-ABC) method using commercially available primary monoclonal antibodies. Immunostaining of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was more intense and extensive in ascitic broilers than in the controls, although a decrease was seen with increasing age both in normal and ascitic chickens. The presence of MMP-9 enzyme was negatively correlated with the presence of TIMP-1 enzyme. It is suggested that MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymes might play a role in the permeability increase of vessel walls by the destruction of the basement membranes in the salt-induced experimental ascites syndrome in broiler chickens. PMID:16537168

  16. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, K M; Elhariri, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol. PMID:24761735

  17. An extra-virgin olive oil rich in polyphenolic compounds has antioxidant effects in meat-type broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito; Casalino, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in the liver of broiler chickens not subjected to any form of insult. A total of 120 male broiler chickens (Hubbard strain) were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with three isoenergetic diets from hatching until slaughter age (49 days) on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2.5% added oil or fat from three sources as follows: diet containing sunflower oil (SFO); diet containing lard (LRD), and diet containing extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The activity of the main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GS-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content, was measured in the liver of chickens. The susceptibility to undergo lipid peroxidation was assessed by exposing liver homogenate to 30 °C or to an ascorbate/iron mixture as pro-oxidant system. Dietary oil or fat type improved significantly (P < 0.05) the body weight and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed EVOO compared to those fed with the other treatments. Supplementing EVOO in the diet significantly (P < 0.05) reduced lipid peroxidation by increasing antioxidant defense system. These findings, besides adding more results on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil on liver of other experimental model other than rats and humans, could be significant for animal welfare, with consequent benefits for both producers and consumers. PMID:26606933

  18. Apple peel waste as a natural antioxidant for heat-stressed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Heidarisafar, Zahra; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali; Karimi, Ahmad; Azizi, Osman

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of processed apple peel waste (APW), alone or in combination with an enzyme, as a natural antioxidant on broiler chickens under heat stress. A total of 360 unsexed, 28-day-old broilers were assigned to 6 dietary treatments with four replicates (15 broilers per pen). The experiment consisted of a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three levels of apple peel waste (0, 50 or 100 g/kg of diet) and two levels of enzyme (0 or 500 mg/kg, ZY Multi(®)). Inclusion of 100-g APW/kg of diet decreased broiler weight gain at 42 days of age. Inclusion of 50 and 100-g APW/kg of diet increased gizzard and small intestine weights. Feeding 50 and 100-g APW/kg increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and malondialdehyde in blood serum at 49 days of age. At 49 days of age, apparent ileal protein digestibility was reduced when 50 and 100-g APW/kg were used in the diet. This study showed that feeding APW up to 50 g/kg from 28 to 49 days of age increased HDL cholesterol and decreased LDL cholesterol in serum and had no adverse effect on broiler performance. PMID:26970974

  19. Internal and external carriage of inoculated salmonella in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    External and internal persistence of inoculated Salmonella and spread to uninoculated broiler chicks in the same pens were studied by sampling ceca and rinses of feathered carcasses in two experiments. Half of the day-old chicks in pens were orally inoculated with a nalidixic-acid-resistant strain ...

  20. Epidemiological studies of congo red Escherichia coli in broiler chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Stebbins, M E; Berkhoff, H A; Corbett, W T

    1992-01-01

    This prospective cohort study was designed to confirm the association between Congo red binding Escherichia coli (CREC) and E. coli air sacculitis in commercial broilers. It was also designed to evaluate CREC as an air sacculitis risk factor and to explore the CREC relationship to other air sacculitis risk factors (poultry house temperature, air-ammonia levels, and presence of other diseases). In addition, this study was used to assess a possible role of the broiler-breeder flocks and hatchers in the spread of CREC air sacculitis. Congo red E. coli-associated airsacculitis risk was based on CREC exposure of the chicks in the hatchers. Breeder flocks with greater than 30 CREC colonies/plate from hatcher air sampling tests were placed in the high risk group; flocks with less than five CREC colonies/plate were placed in the low risk group. Increased risks of death due to air sacculitis (RR = 2.26), and increased death rates due to CREC air sacculitis (RR = 9.45) in high-risk flocks, identified CREC as an important air sacculitis risk factor. The attributable risk percent of CREC airsacculitis from hatcher exposure of CREC was 89.4%, pointing to the hatcher as the source of CREC infection. The association of specific broiler-breeder flocks to high levels of CREC in the hatchers, and subsequent air sacculitis, suggests that the broiler-breeders are the ultimate source of CREC. PMID:1423058

  1. Behavioural, brain and cardiac responses to hypobaric hypoxia in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jessica E; Christensen, Karen; Vizzier-Thaxton, Yvonne; Mitchell, Malcolm A; McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2016-09-01

    A novel approach to pre-slaughter stunning of chickens has been developed in which birds are rendered unconscious by progressive hypobaric hypoxia. Termed Low Atmospheric Pressure Stunning (LAPS), this approach involves application of gradual decompression lasting 280s according to a prescribed curve. We examined responses to LAPS by recording behaviour, electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) in individual male chickens, and interpreted these with regard to the welfare impact of the process. We also examined the effect of two temperature adjusted pressure curves on these responses. Broiler chickens were exposed to LAPS in 30 triplets (16 and 14 triplets assigned to each pressure curve). In each triplet, one bird was instrumented for recording of EEG and ECG while the behaviour of all three birds was observed. Birds showed a consistent sequence of behaviours during LAPS (ataxia, loss of posture, clonic convulsions and motionless) which were observed in all birds. Leg paddling, tonic convulsions, slow wing flapping, mandibulation, head shaking, open bill breathing, deep inhalation, jumping and vocalisation were observed in a proportion of birds. Spectral analysis of EEG responses at 2s intervals throughout LAPS revealed progressive decreases in median frequency at the same time as corresponding progressive increases in total power, followed later by decreases in total power as all birds exhibited isoelectric EEG and died. There was a very pronounced increase in total power at 50-60s into the LAPS cycle, which corresponded to dominance of the signal by high amplitude slow waves, indicating loss of consciousness. Slow wave EEG was seen early in the LAPS process, before behavioural evidence of loss of consciousness such as ataxia and loss of posture, almost certainly due to the fact that it was completely dark in the LAPS chamber. ECG recordings showed a pronounced bradycardia (starting on average 49.6s into LAPS), often associated with arrhythmia, until

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of subgroup J avian leucosis virus from broiler and native chickens in Taiwan during 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Thu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2003-03-01

    Subgroup J avian leucosis virus (ALV-J) causes great economic losses in the poultry industry. One in 3 grandparent farms was closed due to ALV-J infection in 1998 in Taiwan. The remaining 2 farms were forced to import breeding chicks from different breeding companies afterwards. We report on the ALV-J infection status among these breeders, their progeny and Taiwan native chickens during 2000-2002. The weekly mortality for the male line among the infected breeders was higher than that for the female line. Sixty-three percent (5/8) of the broiler flocks were infected with ALV-J. The surface (SU) portion of the env gene from the ALV-J field isolates was cloned and sequenced. The phylogenetic results show that all of the isolates fell into 2 clusters. Unexpectedly, the isolates from the same breeds fell into different clusters, with a cluster including isolates from different breeding companies. ALV-Js from native chickens crossbred with imported chickens were placed into the same clusters as those from the imported breeds. The high similarities observed in different ALV-J isolates suggest that different ALV-Js were mixed in the pedigree generations in different breeding lines. PMID:12679561

  3. Effect of Chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×105 colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 105 CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042

  4. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  5. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  6. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  7. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with the Combination of Zeolite and Attapulgite on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Secretion of Digestive Enzymes and Intestinal Health in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, P.; Tan, Y. Q.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, Y. M.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of basal diets supplemented with a clay product consisting of zeolite and attapulgite (ZA) at 1:1 ratio on growth performance, digestibility of feed nutrients, activities of digestive enzymes in small intestine and intestinal health in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 112 one-day-old male chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups with 8 replicates of 7 chickens each. In experiment 2, 84 one-day-old male chickens were randomly allocated into 2 groups consisting 6 replicates of 7 chickens each. The experimental diets both consisted of a maize-soybean basal control diet supplemented with 0% or 2% ZA. The diets were fed from 1 to 42 days of age. The results showed that ZA supplementation could increase body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI), but had no significant effect on feed conversion ratio. The apparent digestibility values of crude protein and gross energy were significantly increased (p<0.05) by ZA from 14 to 16 d and 35 to 37 d. Dietary ZA treatment significantly increased (p<0.05) the activities of amylase, lipase and trypsin in jejunal digesta and the activities of maltase and sucrase in jejunal mucosa on days 21 and 42. The ZA supplementation also significantly increased (p<0.05) the catalase activity, reduced (p<0.05) the malondialdehyde concentration in the jejunal mucosa. In addition, a decrease of serum diamine oxidase activity and an increase (p<0.05) in concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A in jejunal mucosa were observed in birds treated with ZA on 21 and 42 days. It is concluded that ZA supplementation (2%) could partially improve the growth performance by increasing BWG and FI. This improvement was achieved through increasing the secretion of digestive enzymes, enhancing the digestibilites of nutrients, promoting intestinal health of broiler chickens. PMID:25178375

  8. Environmental impacts of French and Brazilian broiler chicken production scenarios: an LCA approach.

    PubMed

    Prudêncio da Silva, Vamilson; van der Werf, Hayo M G; Soares, Sebastião Roberto; Corson, Michael S

    2014-01-15

    This study compared the environmental burdens of two broiler chicken production systems in Brazil and two in France. One Brazilian system represents large-scale production in the Center-West region of the country; the other is a small-scale production in the South. One of the French systems represents an extensive broiler chicken production system, known as "Label Rouge"; the other is a standard system. Life-cycle impact assessments were performed using the CML-IA characterization method. The main functional unit adopted was 1 tonne of cooled and packaged chicken, ready for distribution. For the systems and impacts studied, production scale did not affect the environmental impact, but production intensity did. The extensive Label Rouge system had the largest impact among the impact categories studied. This resulted principally from the high feed-conversion ratio of this production system (3.1 kg of feed per kg of live weight) in conjunction with the fact that the feed-production stage contributed most to the overall impact. The contribution of deforestation to the crop-production stage was significant, particularly for climate change, equaling 19% of total emissions of CO2eq per tonne of cooled and packaged chicken, in the system of the Center-West of Brazil. The French systems were also affected, since they import crops from Brazil. The system of southern Brazil had less climate change impact because there is no longer deforestation in southern Brazil for crop production. PMID:24388925

  9. Interaction of T-2 fusariotoxin and monensin in broiler chickens infected with Coccidia.

    PubMed

    Ványi, A; Sályi, G; Majoros, G; Glávits, R; Sándor, G; Bagó, G

    1989-01-01

    Field observations suggest that coccidiosis is a common cause of death in broiler chicken flocks fed diets containing sufficient amounts of ionophore antibiotics (monensin, narasin, etc.) and contaminated with mycotoxins, particularly with T-2 fusariotoxin. To study this phenomenon, broiler chickens fed diets containing different amounts of T-2 toxin and free from monensin, or containing a preventive dose (100 mg/kg of feed) of monensin, were infected experimentally with coccidian oocysts. In all groups fed a diet containing monensin plus T-2 toxin severe clinical symptoms of coccidiosis (blood-stained faeces etc). occurred. Deaths and retarded growth depended on the toxin dose and were considerable. The body mass gain of chicks fed a diet containing monensin and T-2 toxin but not infected with coccidia was inferior to that of groups fed diets which contained either monensin or T-2 toxin (experiment 2). On the basis of these findings a negative interaction of the two compounds is assumed. This seems to be supported by the results of experiment 3, i. e. the finding that the lethal dose of narasin, a compound closely related to monensin both in chemical structure and mechanism of action, proved to be much lower (LD50 = 102 mg/kg body mass) for chickens fed a diet supplemented with T-2 toxin than for the control chickens (LD50 = 176 mg/kg body mass). The present results suggest that the feeding of diets severely contaminated with T-2 toxin may alter the anticoccidial efficacy of monensin. PMID:2638811

  10. Effect of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, metabolism and microbial profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Lane; Chwalibog, Andrè; Sawosz, Ewa; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Engberg, Ricarda; Elnif, Jan; Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Filip; Gao, Yuhong; Ali, Abdalla; Moghaddam, Heshmat Sepehri

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNano) as an antimicrobial growth-promoting supplement for broiler chickens. One hundred forty-four seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed randomly to AgNano treatments at 0, 10 and 20 mg/kg (Control, Group AgNano10, and Group AgNano20, respectively) provided via the drinking water from day 7 to 36 post-hatching. Body weight and feed consumption were measured weekly. In addition, balance and respiration experiments were carried out to determine nitrogen (N) utilisation and energy retention. At days 22 and 36, blood samples and intestinal content were collected to evaluate the effects of AgNano on plasma concentration of immunoglobulins and the intestinal microflora, respectively. The provision of water solutions containing different concentrations of AgNano had no effect on postnatal growth performance and the energy metabolism of broiler chickens. However, in Group AgNano10 N intake (p = 0.05) and retention (p = 0.03) was increased, but N excretion and efficiency of utilisation was not affected. The populations of bacteria in the intestinal samples were not affected by AgNano supplementation. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgG) in the blood plasma of broilers supplemented with AgNano decreased at day 36 (p = 0.012). The results demonstrated that AgNano affects N utilisation and plasma IgG concentration; however, it does not influence the microbial populations in the digestive tract, the energy metabolism and growth performance of chickens. PMID:22889095

  11. Laboratory study of methane production from broiler-chicken litter

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.; Huang, J.J.H.

    1980-01-01

    North Carolina is one of the largest poultry-production states in the United States. Although a considerable amount of work has been done on methane production from livestock, brewery, and municipal wastes, little is known concerning poultry waste. Consequently, a laboratory study was conducted to delineate the potential for thermophilic (60/sup 0/C) methane generation from broiler litter. Broiler litter was chosen as the substrate for the following reasons: first, it is the most abundant waste of poultry production in North Carolina; second, wood chips which are used as the bedding material could be a potential source of carbon for methane biosynthesis; and third, it has a desirable nitrogen content of 3 to 4%, a level similar to that of the cattle waste..

  12. Histopathology in diagnosis of broiler chicken and layer diseases--review of cases 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Dolka, I; Sapierzyński, R; Bielecki, W; Malicka, E; Zbikowski, A; Szeleszczuk, P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the different organs in relation to the commercial-type and the age of birds (i.e. broiler chickens and layers). During the period 1999-2010 a total of 189 cases was submitted to the Division of Animal Pathomorphology, Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics at WULS. Most cases were found in broiler chickens (66.7%). The majority of the histopathological lesions were detected in the liver and lymphoid organs. In of 29% cases of hepatic injury pathognomonic lesions associated with inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) were found. The mean age of birds was 23 days. Among IBH cases proventriculitis (58%) was more often found than gizzard lesions (25.8%). Interestingly, we noted some intranuclear inclusions in the epithelial cells within the proventriculus. A low percentage of histopathological evidence of infectious bursal disease (IBD) was reported in chickens. The gastrointestinal tract was the second most frequent predilection site for histopathological lesions. Histopathological findings within the heart and lungs were less common and were more often seen in the upper respiratory tract. Cases of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) were registered in broiler chickens (3.2%, mean age 37 days) and in layers (4.8%; mean age 196 days). Lesions associated with Marek's disease, avian leukosis and fowl pox were recognized only in layers, respectively in 3.2% (mean age 176 days), 1.6% (mean age 205 days) and 1.1% (mean age 196 days) of all cases. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) was noted only in 0.5% of all cases. PMID:23390769

  13. Campylobacter jejuni Is Not Merely a Commensal in Commercial Broiler Chickens and Affects Bird Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. PMID:24987092

  14. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  15. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  16. A note on the effects of perches and litter substrate on leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Sørensen, P; Kestin, S C

    2000-09-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of availability of perches on indices of leg weakness in broiler chickens. A third trial investigated the effect of litter substrate on similar indices of leg weakness in broiler chickens. Leg weakness traits examined were walking ability and tibial dyschondroplasia, tibial curvature, foot burn, and hock burn. Body weight was also measured in all trials. The presence of perches in the rearing pens had no effect on any of the indices of leg weakness examined in either trial. There were no consistent effects of perches on BW. Litter substrate significantly affected some indices of leg weakness; birds reared on wheat straw had poorer walking ability and more foot burn than birds reared on wood shavings, and birds reared on hemp waste were intermediate between them. There was no effect of litter substrate on tibial dyschondroplasia or tibial curvature. Turning the straw litter regularly and adding fresh supplies when necessary did not significantly improve indices of leg weakness. It was concluded that wood shavings provide a better litter substrate than straw, but that perches have no beneficial effect on reducing leg weakness in broilers. PMID:11020069

  17. Adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis in a flock of broiler chickens in Kermanshah province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Morad; Minoosh Siavosh Haghighi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) has been reported in many countries in the world. The IBH or similar cases characterized by hepatitis and presence of intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes have not been reported in broiler chickens in Iran. This is the first report on outbreak of adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis in Iran. On October 2012, an onset of high acute mortality in a flock of 2 day-old broiler chickens was reported to the Veterinary Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. The birds showed lethargy, huddling, ruffled feathers, and inappetence. At necropsy the livers were the primary organ affected which were enlarged, pale yellow with necrotic foci and multiple petechial hemorrhages. Tissue samples of liver, kidneys and heart were fixed in 10% buffered formalin. They were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological studies. Significant microscopic lesions were seen in the livers. Large eosinophilic intra-nuclear inclusion bodies were seen in hepatocytes. Based on the acute high mortality, age of the broilers, gross lesions and histopathological findings (especially intra-nuclear inclusion bodies), the condition was diagnosed as adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis. PMID:25992259

  18. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  19. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  20. Comparison of an attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and an anticoccidial drug programme in commercial broiler chickens in Italy.

    PubMed

    Williams, R B; Gobbi, L

    2002-06-01

    A live attenuated anticoccidial vaccine (Paracox) was compared with a nicarbazin-monensin anticoccidial drug shuttle programme in three crops of Italian broilers, comprising a total of 290,405 chickens. All birds received the antibiotic growth promoter avilamycin. No coccidiosis was evident during the trials, but the occurrence of oocysts in the litter demonstrated that a natural challenge was present. Vaccinated birds consistently performed at least as well as those treated with the anticoccidial drug shuttle. The final mean weights of vaccinated birds were significantly greater (P < 0.001) than those of birds treated with anticoccidial drugs, both for females at 36/37 days and males at 56 days. Feed conversion ratios, total mortality including culls, the proportion of rejects at the processing plant, and the moisture content of the litter were not significantly different between the two control methods. Growth curves showed that there was no post-vaccinal growth check in the vaccinated birds and no intolerance of the anticoccidial drug treatment. There was no overall seasonal effect, regardless of treatment, on the performance of the three crops reared from November 1997 to July 1998. These findings suggest that the use of this vaccine is likely to enable the replacement of anticoccidial drug shuttle programmes in broilers reared under conditions similar to those used in these Italian flocks. PMID:12400552

  1. Effect of dietary protein source and cereal type on the incidence of sudden death syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Blair, R; Jacob, J P; Gardiner, E E

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare the incidence of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in male Peterson by Arbor Acre broiler chickens fed diets with either corn or wheat as the grain type and meat meal or soybean meal as the main protein source. In the first two experiments, the broilers were raised in floor pens to 6 wk of age, and in the third experiment they were raised in battery-brooder cages to 4 wk of age. In both floor pen studies, total mortality and the incidence of SDS were significantly higher for wheat-fed birds, while SDS as a percentage of total mortality was not affected by cereal type. In the brooder study, neither total mortality nor mortality from SDS was significantly affected by cereal type. In the floor pen studies, the incidence of SDS as a percentage of the birds housed, was reduced by the inclusion of meat meal in the diet. In the brooder study, total mortality and the incidence of SDS were not affected by protein source, but SDS as a percentage of total mortality was reduced with the inclusion of meat meal in the diet. PMID:2235846

  2. Complex study of the physiological role of cadmium. III. Cadmium loading trials on broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bokori, J; Fekete, S; Kádár, I; Koncz, J; Vetési, F; Albert, M

    1995-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) loading trials were conducted on a total of 110 (3 x 10 and 4 x 20) broiler chickens prereared for 21 days. The control chickens received no cadmium, while chickens in the six treatment groups were given different doses of Cd as an aqueous solution of CdSO4 administered either into the crop or mixed in the feed. The chickens were kept in a climatized animal house and treated usually for 3-5 weeks (maximum 68 days), with the exception of group Cd-75 chickens which were treated up to 239 days of age. The chickens' health status, body mass and feed consumption were monitored throughout the trial. On days 14-20 and on day 42 of the trial 2 chickens per group, then at the end of trial a total of 25 chickens were killed in anaesthesia. These birds, together with chickens that died or were killed during the trial, were subjected to detailed gross pathological examination. From 11 organs (kidney, liver, spleen, testicle, brain, myocardium, skeletal muscle, lungs, digestive tract, pancreas, tubular bones) of these chickens samples were taken for assay for a total of 16 elements, as well as for light and electron microscopic examination. With the exception of groups Cd-30 and Cd-600, no abnormal clinical signs were observed in the first two weeks of the trial. Chickens of group Cd-30 died before day 8-12 of the trial among signs of complete anorexia, rapid emaciation, huddling and diarrhoea, while chickens of group Cd-600 died before day 28, showing similar clinical signs. The body mass of chickens fed a Cd-supplemented diet either remained constant or decreased substantially, in a degree proportional to the Cd load. The only exception was group Cd-2.5, in which the average body mass of birds at the end of week 8 slightly exceeded that of the controls. Four out of the 10 cockerel chicks fed a diet containing 75 ppm Cd up to 239 days of age died of intercurrent diseases; the remaining six grew well and reached a body mass of 3.8-4.3 kg. Feed conversion efficiency

  3. Effects of dietary vitamin E on mucosal maltase and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities and on the amount of mucosal malonyldialdehyde in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhifar, Seyed Hamid; Ali Jafari, Ramezan; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Fatemi Tabatabaee, Seyed Reza; Mayahi, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin E levels on mucosal maltase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activities and on the amount of mucosal malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in broiler chickens were studied in the present study. One hundred and eighty of male day old broiler chicks (Ross 308 strain) were randomly assigned into five groups, each with three replicates and 12 chicks in each replicate. Chickens in group A were fed corn-soy- based diet, while those in groups B, C, D and E were fed the same diet with 20, 60, 180, and 540 mg kg-1 vitamin E supplement (d-alpha tocopherol), respectively. Six birds were randomly chosen from each group, and were euthanized on days 10, 21, 32, and 42 of age. One segment of small intestine outset was homogenized and mucosal ALP and maltase activity were measured. Moreover, mucosal lipid peroxidate amount was measured to reveal the impact of vitamin E on oxidative stress. Maltase activity was increased with the increase of vitamin E up to 60 mg kg-1 of diet while with further levels, it was decreased. Addition of 60 mg kg-1 of vitamin E to the diet significantly increased ALP enzyme activity (p ≤ 0.001). Addition of 540 mg kg-1 of vitamin E supplement to the diet led to the minimum amount of MDA at 32 days of age. It may be concluded that supplementation of broiler's diet with 60 mg kg-1 of vitamin E can increase mucosal maltase and ALP enzyme activity. PMID:25568675

  4. Real-Time PCR Assay for Clostridium perfringens in Broiler Chickens in a Challenge Model of Necrotic Enteritis▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu-Biao; Rodgers, Nicholas; Choct, Mingan

    2011-01-01

    We compared ileal Clostridium perfringens quantification results produced by real-time PCR and culture-based methods in broiler chickens in a challenge model of necrotic enteritis. Assessment of the relative standard deviations (RSDs) revealed that the real-time PCR assay generated a smaller standard deviation and thus was more precise than the culture-based method. Linear regression analysis indicated that the bacterial counts of these two methods were highly correlated (R2 = 0.845). We suggest that real-time PCR could be a replacement of the culture method for quantifying C. perfringens in the intestinal tracts of broiler chickens. PMID:21148703

  5. Evaluation of the efficacy of Eimeria maxima oocyst immunization with different strains of day-old broiler and roaster chickens.

    PubMed

    Danforth, H D; Watkins, K; Martin, A; Dekich, M

    1997-01-01

    The performances of three different strains of male and female broiler or roaster chickens immunized at 1 day of age with a drug-resistant field isolate of Eimeria maxima were evaluated in battery and floorpen immunization trials. No difference in immunization potential was seen between these strains or sexes of day-old chickens immunized with 2500 oocysts/bird of E. maxima and challenged at 10 days of age with 25,000 oocysts/bird of the same isolate in two separate battery trials. All immunized birds showed significant protection for the parameters of weight gain and midintestinal lesion scores at 7 days post challenge (PC) when compared with nonimmunized challenged controls. In two separate floorpen trials, one broiler bird strain (designated strain 2) immunized by the same procedure and challenged at 21 days of age with the equivalent of 25,000 oocysts/bird of the same isolate showed significant protection for weight gain and lesion scores at 7 days PC when compared with nonimmunized controls. Birds in these same floorpen experiments immunized with E. maxima and then fed three different anticoccidial shuttle diets (narasin and nicarbazin 90 grams/ton (g/t) in starter feed and narasin 72 g/t + roxarsone 45.4 g/t in grower feed; nicarbazin 113 g/t in starter feed and narasin 72 g/t + roxarsone 45.4 g/t in grower feed; and monensin 100 g/t in starter and grower feed) showed no interference with elicited immunity with E. maxima challenge for the same parameters measured. No significant difference was seen between any floorpen immunized bird groups for total weight gain at trial terminations (49 days of age). PMID:9454911

  6. Functional assessment of encapsulated citral for controlling necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuexi; Wang, Qi; Diarra, Moussa S; Yu, Hai; Hua, Yufei; Gong, Joshua

    2016-04-01

    Development of viable alternatives to antibiotics to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringensis becoming urgent for chicken production due to pessures on poultry producers to limit or stop the use of antibiotics in feed. We have previously identified citral as a potential alternative to antibiotics. Citral has strong antimicrobial activity and can be encasupsulated in a powder form for protection from loss during feed processing, storage, and intestinal delivery. In the present study, encapsulated citral was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for its antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens Encapsulation did not adversely affect the antimicrobial activity of citral. In addition, encapsulated citral was superior to the unencapsulated form in retaining its antimicrobial activity after treatment with simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in the presence of chicken intestinal digesta. In addition, the higher antimicrobial activity of encapsulated citral was confirmed in digesta samples from broilers that had been gavaged with encapsulated or unencapsulated citral. In broilers infected with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsualted citral at both 250 and 650 μg/g significantly reduced intestinal NE lesions, which was comparable to the effect of bacitracin- and salinomycin-containing diets. However, supplementation with the encapsulated citral appeared to have no significant impact on the intestinal burden of Lactobacillus These data indicate that citral can be used to control NE in chickens after proper protection by encapsulation. PMID:26740132

  7. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  8. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

  9. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Kogut, Michael H; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Bottje, Walter G; Bielke, Lisa R; Faulkner, Olivia B

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

  10. The effect of Brazilian propolis on serum thyroid hormones in broilers reared under chronic heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment evaluated the effect of dietary supplement with green Brazilian propolis on serum thyroxin (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) levels in broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress for 4 wks (from 15 to 42 d of age). Five hundred and four 15-d-old, male broiler chickens (Ross 708) w...

  11. Effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and their combination on growth performance, small intestine morphology, and resident Lactobacillus of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Farnell, Y Z; Peebles, E D; Kiess, A S; Wamsley, K G S; Zhai, W

    2016-06-01

    Effects of commercial antimicrobials and the individual and combinational use of commercial prebiotics and probiotics in feed from d zero to 41 on the growth performance, small intestine size, jejunal morphology, and ileal resident bacteria population of broiler chickens were determined. A total of 1,040 one-day-old male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were randomly distributed to 80 floor pens (5 treatments, 16 replications per treatment, 13 chicks per pen). Five dietary treatments were employed: 1) a corn soybean-meal basal diet (served as a negative control diet, NC); 2) a basal diet supplemented with a commercial prebiotic product (Pre); 3) a basal diet supplemented with a probiotic product containing Bacillus subtilis spores (Pro); 4) a basal diet supplemented with both prebiotic and probiotic products (Pre + Pro); and 5) a basal diet supplemented with commercial antimicrobials (served as a positive control diet, PC). At d 14, Pre diets improved the relative level of Lactobacillus in ileal mucosa as compared to NC, Pro, or PC diets (P = 0.045) without improving broiler BW. Broilers fed PC diets exhibited the highest BW gain from d 15 to 27, the lowest duodenum, jejunum, and ileum relative weights as percentage of BW at d 27, and the highest breast weight at d 42 (P = 0.026, 0.035, 0.002, 0.025, and 0.035, respectively). Broilers fed Pro or Pre + Pro diets exhibited higher BW gain from d 28 to 41 (P = 0.005) and higher overall BW gain from d zero to 41 (P = 0.039) than those fed other diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunal morphology or ileal resident Escherichia coli level at any age. From our results, including spores of Bacillus subtilis in feed may stimulate growth at a later age and may facilitate broilers in reaching their target weight sooner. Therefore, probiotics are recommended as potential alternatives to antimicrobials in chicken diets, especially in grower and finisher feed. PMID:26944975

  12. Dietary Inulin Supplementation Modifies Significantly the Liver Transcriptomic Profile of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T.; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg−1 diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile. PMID:24915441

  13. Immunotherapeutic effects of some sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) extracts against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, M Irfan

    2011-06-01

    Present paper reports the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice and bagasse, respectively on protective immune responses in industrial broiler chickens against coccidiosis. Immunotherapeutic efficacies of the extracts were measured by evaluating their effect on body weight gain, oocyst shedding, lesion score, anti-coccidial indices, per cent protection and elicited serum antibody responses against coccidiosis. Results revealed a significantly lower (P<0.05) oocyst shedding and mortality in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to control. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05) body weight gains and antibody responses were detected in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to chickens of control group. Moreover, ethanolic extract showed higher anti-coccidia index (227.61) as compared to aqueous extract (192.32). The organ body weight ratio of the lymphoid organs of experimental and control groups were statistically non-significant (P>0.01). These results demonstrated that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of sugar cane possess immune enhancing properties and their administration in chickens augments the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:21354144

  14. Dietary inulin supplementation modifies significantly the liver transcriptomic profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥ 1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤ 0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg(-1) diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile. PMID:24915441

  15. Interaction of aflatoxin and paratyphoid infections in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Boonchuvit, B; Hamilton, P B

    1975-09-01

    There was a significant (P less than 0.05) interaction resulting in increased mortality in chickens fed aflatoxin and infected with Salmonella worthington, S. thompson, S. derby, or S. typhimurium var. copenhagen which cause paratyphoid. There was no interaction on body weight or spleen weight; however, there wan an interaction with all four Salmonella species resulting in enlarged livers from which Salmonella could be isolated with increased frequency. Aflatoxin caused a decrease in total serum proteins but a dramatic increase in anti-Salmonella agglutinins in infected birds. These results suggest that aflatoxin impairs some component of the immune system other than that forming humoral antibodies and perhaps other than the reticuloendothelial system which have been reported previously to be impaired during aflatoxicosis in the chicken. PMID:810786

  16. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the

  17. Alternatives to Antibiotics to Prevent Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens: A Microbiologist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Caly, Delphine L.; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Drider, Djamel

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2006 European ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, numerous studies have been published describing alternative strategies to prevent diseases in animals. A particular focus has been on prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens by the use of microbes or microbe-derived products. Microbes produce a plethora of molecules with antimicrobial properties and they can also have beneficial effects through interactions with their host. Here we review recent developments in novel preventive treatments against C. perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that employ yeasts, bacteria and bacteriophages or secondary metabolites and other microbial products in disease control. PMID:26648920

  18. Chicken embryo origin-like strains are responsible for Infectious laryngotracheitis virus outbreaks in Egyptian cross-bred broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Halami, Mohammad Y; Sultan, Hesham H; Abd El-Razik, Alaa G; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds. PMID:23288626

  19. Effect of poultry by-product meal on pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure and ascites in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Richard J.; Caston, Linda J.; Mirsalimi, S. Medhi; Leeson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that poultry by-product meal would produce a thermogenic response (an increased requirement for oxygen) resulting in an increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular failure and ascites in commercial broiler chickens. Four treatment groups, each with three replicates of 40 chicks, were fed a commercial broiler starter to day 21, grower to day 35, and the following experimental diets after day 35: group 1, commercial chicken broiler finisher; group 2, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry by-product meal added to replace part of the soyabean meal; group 3, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry fat added to replace the animal-vegetable (AV) fat; group 4, commercial chicken broiler finisher with both poultry by-product meal and poultry fat added to replace soyabean meal and AV fat. On day 35, pen temperature was reduced to 15°C, and on day 42 to 12°C. Mortality from ascites between days 35 and 56 was 11(9%) in group 2, 5(4%) in group 4 and 3(2.5%) in groups 1 and 3 The incidence of pulmonary hypertension, as measured by an increased right ventricle: total ventricle (RV:TV) ratio (RV:TV > 0.249) at processing on day 57, was higher in the groups receiving poultry by-product and poultry fat: 27(22.5%) in group 2, 26(21.7%) in group 3, and 20(16.7%) in group 4 compared to that of the controls 12(10%). PMID:17424018

  20. RESPONSE OF CHICKENS FROM THREE COMMERCIAL BROILER BREEDERS AND TWO EXPERIMENTAL LINES TO INFECTION WITH A FIELD STRAIN OF SUBGROUP J AVIAN LEUKOSIS VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickens from three commercial broiler breeders and two experimental lines were inoculated as embryos with strain ADOL-6803 of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). At various ages, chickens were tested for ALV-J-induced viremia, antibody and cloacal shedding; chickens were also monitored for ALV...

  1. Longitudinal monitoring for respiratory pathogens in broiler chickens reveals co-infection of Chlamydia psittaci and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Cindy; Kalmar, Isabelle; Dumont, Annelien; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is prevalent in broiler chicken production. However, the role of C. psittaci in the respiratory disease complex needs to be clarified. Our aim was to identify the time point when a C. psittaci infection appeared on a broiler farm and to examine the presence of other respiratory pathogens at that time. We focused on the 'major' respiratory pathogens occurring in Belgian broilers, namely infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae, and examined their co-occurrence with C. psittaci on three commercial broiler farms. For all farms, 1-day-old broilers showed high maternal antibody titres against C. psittaci in the presence of viable C. psittaci. Maternal antibodies seemed to protect against respiratory signs. Maternal antibodies declined and clinical outbreaks could be identified serologically even before maternal antibodies completely disappeared. Mixed infections with genotypes B/C and B/C/D were observed. Broilers with C. psittaci antibody increases showed conjunctivitis, signs of upper respiratory disease and dyspnoea. C. psittaci always preceded an O. rhinotracheale infection. Infections with aMPV, IBV or Mycoplasma spp. were not observed. Evidence was provided that C. psittaci could occur at an early age in broilers without a predisposing respiratory infection. Both C. psittaci and O. rhinotracheale should be considered when developing prevention strategies for respiratory disease in broilers. PMID:25724936

  2. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  3. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Alters Oxidative Stability and Alleviates Plasma Cholesterol Content in Meat of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kumari Ramiah, Suriya; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4°C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05). PMID:25386625

  4. Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines. PMID:25049883

  5. Polymorphism identification and cardiac gene expression analysis of the calsequestrin 2 gene in broiler chickens with sudden death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basaki, M; Asasi, K; Tabandeh, M R; Aminlari, M

    2016-04-01

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) in broilers is a cardiac disease associated with ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF); however, its pathogenesis at the molecular level is not precisely determined. Downregulation and mutations of calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2), a major intracellular Ca(2+) buffer, have been associated with VT and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in humans but in chickens there is no report describing CASQ2 abnormalities in cardiac diseases. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms predisposing the myocardium to fatal arrhythmia in broilers, the mRNA expression level of chicken CASQ2 gene (chCASQ2) in the left ventricle of dead broilers with SDS was determined and compared to healthy broilers using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). To determine the probable mutations in chCASQ2, PCR and direct sequencing were also done. Results showed a reduction in chCASQ2 expression in broilers dead by SDS. Three novel mutations (K289R, P308S, D310H) which are absent in healthy broilers were observed in chCASQ2. It is concluded that susceptibility to fatal cardiac arrhythmia in SDS may be associated with changes in intracellular Ca(2+) balance due to mutation and downregulation of chCASQ2. PMID:26953612

  6. Campylobacter jejuni is not merely a commensal in commercial broiler chickens and affects bird welfare.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom; Wigley, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. Importance: Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of food-borne bacterial diarrheal disease in the developed world. Chicken is the most common source of infection. C. jejuni infection of chickens had previously not been considered to cause disease, and it was thought that C. jejuni was part of the normal microbiota of birds. In this work, we show that modern rapidly growing chicken breeds used in intensive production systems have a strong inflammatory response to C. jejuni infection that can lead to diarrhea, which, in turn, leads to damage to the feet and legs on the birds due to standing on wet litter. The response and level of disease varied between breeds and is related to regulation of the inflammatory immune response. These findings

  7. Detection of Campylobacter on the Outer Surface of Retail Broiler Chicken Meat Packages and on product within

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare prevalence of Campylobacter on the outside of broiler meat packages to the product inside the same packages. Chicken meat products were purchased at retail. Samples comprised whole carcasses and six different cut-up part products. Fifteen packages of eac...

  8. Effect of varying light intensity on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 1-d-old Ross 308 ...

  9. Induction of Passive Immunity in Broiler Chickens Against Eimeria acervulina by Hyperimmune Egg Yolk IgY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  10. Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk IgY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  11. Supplemental dietary L-arginine attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal barrier integrity in broiler chickens undergoing coccidial challenge. The design of this study was a randomized complete block employing a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (n = 8) with 3 level of Arg (1.11,...

  12. Comparison of live Eimeria vaccination with in-feed Salinomycin on growth and immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis vaccines and coccidiostat drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. B...

  13. Effects of Direct-Fed Microbials on Growth Performance, Gut Morphometry, and Immune Characteristics in Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to compare growth performance, gut morphometry, and parameters of local and systemic immunity in broiler chickens fed for 22 consecutive days with a diet supplemented with one of eight Bacillus spp. as a direct-fed microbial (DFM), a commercial product incorporating three DF...

  14. Effects of various field coccidiosis control programs on host innate and adaptive immunity in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis control programs such as vaccines or in-feed anticoccidials are commonly practiced in poultry industry to improve growth performance and health of commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we assessed the effects of various coccidiosis control programs (e.g., in ovo vaccination, synth...

  15. Effects of direct-fed microbials on growth performance, gut morphometry, and immune characteristics in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to compare growth performance, gut morphometry, and parameters of local and systemic immunity in broiler chickens fed for 22 consecutive days with a diet supplemented with one of eight Bacillus spp. as a direct-fed microbial (DFM), a commercial product incorporating three DF...

  16. Rapid Dietary Protein Changes and Relationships among Enzyme Activities, Their RNA's and Plasma Hormone Levels in the Broiler Chicken

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ross 708 broiler chickens were fed one of three levels of crude protein (12, 21 or 30%) from 7 to 28 days of age. Birds were then switched to either higher (12 to 30%, 21 to 30%) or lower levels of crude protein (30-12%, 21-12%) and sampled three days following the switch. The purpose of these treat...

  17. Effect of heat stress and drinking water salt supplements on plasma electrolytes and aldosterone concentration in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyhim, F.; Teeter, R. G.

    1995-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing drinking water with isomolar (0.067 mol/l) KCl or NaCl on mass gain, food and water consumption, rectal temperature, and plasma concentrations of aldosterone, Na+, and K+ in broiler chickens reared in thermoneutral and cycling heat stressing environments. Heat stress decreased ( P≤0.05) mass gain, food consumption, and plasma concentrations of Na+ and K+, while increases ( P≤0.05) in plasma concentrations of aldosterone, rectal temperature, and water consumption were observed. Drinking water supplemented with either KCl or NaCl increased ( P≤0.05) broiler mass gain and water consumption, but had no effect ( P>0.1) on the other variables evaluated. The results of this study indicate that broiler chickens in a heat stress environment are under osmotic stress and supplementing drinking water with 0.067 mol/1 KCl or NaCl does not lessen this stress.

  18. Differential expression of six chicken genes associated with fatness traits in a divergently selected broiler population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianwen; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Songsong; Jin, Pengcheng; Luan, Peng; Li, Yumao; Cao, Zhiping; Leng, Li; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Shouzhi

    2016-02-01

    A genome-wide association study has shown a number of chicken (Gallus gallus) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to be significantly associated with abdominal fat content in Northeast Agricultural University (NEAU) broiler lines selected divergently for abdominal fat content (NEAUHLF). The six significant SNPs are located in the kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), tumor suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3), phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase (PPAT), exocyst complex component 1 (EXOC1), v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (avian)-like 2 (MYBL2) and KIAA1211 (undefined) genes. In this study, the expression levels of these genes were investigated in both abdominal fat and liver tissues using 32 14th generation chickens from the NEAUHLF. The levels of expression of KDR in abdominal fat and KDR and TUSC3 in liver differed significantly between the two lines. The expression level of KDR in the abdominal fat was significantly correlated with the abdominal fat weight (AFW) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP). The expression levels of KDR, TUSC3 and PPAT in liver were significantly correlated with AFW and AFP, indicating that the six genes, especially KDR and TUSC3, could be associated with fat traits in domestic chickens. This study could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the formation of abdominal fat in chickens. PMID:26746358

  19. Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins Alter the Extrinsic Component of Intestinal Barrier in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Janssens, Geert P J; De Baere, Siegrid; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Su, Shengchen; Wong, Eric A; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Verlinden, Marc; Devreese, Mathias; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Novak, Barbara; Dohnal, Ilse; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2015-12-23

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) are secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi that frequently contaminate broiler feed. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of DON and/or FBs on the intestinal barrier in broiler chickens, more specifically on the mucus layer and antioxidative response to oxidative stress. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups, each consisting of eight pens of seven birds each, and were fed for 15 days either a control diet, a DON-contaminated diet (4.6 mg DON/kg feed), a FBs-contaminated diet (25.4 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed), or a DON+FBs-contaminated diet (4.3 mg DON and 22.9 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed). DON and FBs affected the duodenal mucus layer by suppressing intestinal mucin (MUC) 2 gene expression and altering the mucin monosaccharide composition. Both mycotoxins decreased gene expression of the intestinal zinc transporter (ZnT)-1 and regulated intracellular methionine homeostasis, which are both important for preserving the cell's critical antioxidant activity. Feeding a DON- and/or FBs-contaminated diet, at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels (5 mg DON and 20 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed) changes the intestinal mucus layer and several intestinal epithelial antioxidative mechanisms. PMID:26632976

  20. Association between in vitro heterophil function and the feathering gene in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Swaggerty, Christina L; Pevzner, Igal Y; Ferro, Pamela J; Crippen, Tawni L; Kogut, Michael H

    2003-10-01

    We recently showed that in vitro heterophil functional efficiency in commercial broiler chickens is genetically controlled and may be a sex-associated trait. To further characterize the genetic mechanism(s) of heterophil functional efficiency, we wanted to determine whether the feathering gene, present on the Z sex chromosome, contributes to heterophil functional efficiency. Heterophils from two pairs of broiler lines were evaluated; each pair contained a fast feather (FF) (lines A and X) and a slow feather (SF) line (lines B and Y). On days 1 and 4 post-hatch, heterophils isolated from two sets of pure line broilers (A and B, and X and Y) were evaluated for their ability to (1) phagocytize Salmonella enteritidis, and (2) exhibit bactericidal activity against S. enteritidis. On days 1 and 4 post-hatch, heterophils isolated from the FF lines were statistically (P < or = 0.02) more proficient at phagocytizing S. enteritidis than heterophils from SF lines. Bactericidal activity was also statistically (p < or = 0.02) greater on day 1 post-hatch in the heterophils isolated from FF lines compared to heterophils isolated from SF lines. These data indicate that the presence of the FF gene locus on the Z sex chromosome contributes to heterophil function and may contribute to the early innate immune competence of a flock. PMID:14522703

  1. Growth performance and hematological traits of broiler chickens reared under assorted monochromatic light sources.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C

    2013-06-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of different monochromatic lights on growth performance and hematological response of growing broiler chickens. A total of 360 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 6 lighting treatments, which were replicated 6 times with 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light treatments include incandescent bulbs (as a control) and light-emitting diode white light, blue light, red light, green light, and yellow light (YL). The birds were provided with similar nutritional specifications and environmental management facilities, except for the lights throughout the experimental period. Growth performance was evaluated in terms of BW, BW gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio at weekly intervals. At the end of 5 wk, 2 birds from each replicate were randomly selected for blood collection to determine hematological response. The BW and feed intake was numerically higher in YL at 5 wk of age. But interestingly, this did not result in improved feed conversion ratio in YL; nevertheless, numerical values were lower in YL at 5 wk (P > 0.05). Red blood cells, blood platelet count, and percent hematocrit were numerically higher under YL, whereas white blood cell counts and percent hemoglobin remained unaffected due to light treatments. It was concluded that monochromatic light is a potential light source that might provide a beneficial effect on growth performance but is inconclusive for hematological measures of broilers. PMID:23687140

  2. Manipulation of broiler chickens sex differentiation by in ovo injection of aromatase inhibitors, and garlic and tomato extracts.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Nahid; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Mottaghitalab, Majid; Hajati, Hosna

    2015-11-01

    The influence of in ovo administration of aromatase inhibitors, clomiphen citrate, tomoxifen, and garlic and tomato extracts on sex differentiation in broiler chickens were investigated in 2 experiments. Five hundred, and 1,000 fertile eggs from Ross 308 strain were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In both experiments, eggs were divided into 5 groups: control group (DW, 0.1 mL/egg), tomoxifen (0.05 mg/egg), clomiphene citrate (0.05 mg/egg), garlic and tomato extracts (0.1 mL/egg). Eggs were sanitized and prepared for incubation in a regular automatic hatchery. Experimental preparations were injected into eggs at day 5 of the incubation period. Injection sites on the eggs were cleaned with 70% ethylic alcohol, bored by a needle, and aromatase inhibitors were injected into the white from the thin end of the eggs by insulin syringe and then sealed by melted paraffin. In experiment 1, hatched one-day-old chicks (mixed-sex) were raised till 42 days of age in 25 floor pens with a completely randomized design. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the effects of sex and treatments on the feed-to-gain ratio of broiler chicks. In experiment 2, hatched one-day-old chicks were feather sexed and raised till 42 days of age in 50 floor pens. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments (sex×treatment) was used. Gonads of the chicks were checked to determine their sex on day 42 by optic microscope to make sure feather sexing was correct. At the end of both experiments, on day 42, one bird from each pen was slaughtered for carcass analysis. In experiment 1, hatchability and the one-day-old weight of chicks showed no significant differences among treatments (P > 0.05). However, in ovo administration of garlic and tomato extracts caused the highest percentage of male chicks (P < 0.05). Also, the percentage of thighs and wings of the males were significantly higher than those of females (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, feed-to-gain ratio

  3. Influence of probiotic supplementation on blood parameters and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalf, A.; Alhaj, M.; Al-homidan, I.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of commercial probiotic (Bactocell®) on growth performance and blood parameters were evaluated. A total of 800 one day-old Ross broiler chicks were raised over 42 days. Chicks were wing-banded, weighed individually and randomly allocated into four equally major groups each having two replicates. Chicks of group 1 (control group) were fed the starter and finisher diets that did not supplemented with probiotic. The chicks of groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the control starter and finisher diets supplemented with 1.6 g, 1 g and 0.8 g of probiotic per kg feed, respectively. Weekly body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion were measured. Blood parameters at 1, 4 and 6 weeks of age including packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total protein, albumin, total lipid and cholesterol were determined. All birds were kept under similar environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. The results of the current study revealed that there was no significant change for Hb and PCV concentrations among different groups at all studied times. Also, total protein, lipids and albumin concentrations were not affected by probiotic supplementation. Chicken fed a diet containing various levels of probiotic showed a significant decrease (p ⩽ 0.05) in cholesterol concentration compared to control group. Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the body weight and daily weight gain of broiler chicks at late ages (3–6 weeks). Also, the birds fed on probiotic levels 1 and 0.8 g/kg diet exhibited higher body weight among chicken groups at 6 weeks of age. Improved feed conversion was noticed in birds fed a diet supplemented with probiotic. There was no significant difference in mortality rate among groups. We concluded that use of selected commercial probiotic resulted in improved performance parameters and reduced serum cholesterol in broiler chickens. Moreover, supplementation of the probiotic to broilers in the levels of 1 and 0.8 g/kg diet was found

  4. The effects of the dark house system on growth, performance and meat quality of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rafael Humberto; Soares, Adriana Lourenço; Grespan, Moisés; Spurio, Rafael Sanches; Coró, Fábio Augusto Garcia; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2015-02-01

    Meat production with minimum animal suffering is a humanitarian concern. Thus, the objective of this work was to observe the performance of Cobb broiler chickens from 7 to 46 days of age when raised under different installations: dark house system (DHS), conventional yellow system (CYC) and conventional blue system (CBC). The feed conversion ratio for the birds raised on the DHS was 3.8% and 2.7% lower than those for the CYC and CBC systems, respectively. Compared with the CYC and CBC systems, average daily gain under the DHS was 11.4% and 9.3% higher, respectively, and body weight at 46 days was 11.4% and 9.3% higher, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). The birds' welfare was assessed based on their stress by determining the amount of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat in the breast fillets. The CYC and CBC birds had 24.3% and 25.3% PSE meat, respectively, whereas the DHS birds had 37.0%. We concluded that the DHS has a greater potential to produce broiler chickens, with superior performance to conventional systems, despite the higher stress faced by the birds during the maneuvers just before slaughter. PMID:25187491

  5. Expression of Potential Regulatory Genes in Abdominal Adipose Tissue of Broiler Chickens during Early Development.

    PubMed

    Bohannon-Stewart, Ann; Kelley, Gary; Kimathi, Boniface; Subramanya, Sri Harsha K V; Donkor, Joseph; Darris, Carl; Tyus, James; Payne, Ashley; Byers, Shannon; Hui, Dafeng; Nahashon, Samuel; Chen, Fur-Chi; Ivy, Michael; Wang, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    The identities of genes that underlie population variation in adipose tissue development in farm animals are poorly understood. Previous studies in our laboratory have suggested that increased fat tissue involves the expression modulation of an array of genes in broiler chickens. Of special interest are eight genes, FGFR3, EPHB2, IGFBP2, GREM1, TNC, COL3A1, ACBD7, and SCD. To understand their expression regulation and response to dietary manipulation, we investigated their mRNA levels after dietary manipulation during early development. Chickens were fed either a recommended standard or a high caloric diet from hatch to eight weeks of age (WOA). The high caloric diet markedly affected bodyweight of the broiler birds. mRNA levels of the eight genes in the abdominal adipose tissue were assayed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 WOA using RT-qPCR. Results indicate that (1) FGFR3 mRNA level was affected significantly by diet, age, and diet:age interaction; (2) COL3A mRNA level was repressed by high caloric diet; (3) mRNA levels of EPHB2, ACBD7, and SCD were affected by age; (4) mRNA level of TNC was modulated by age:diet interaction; (5) changes in GREM1 and IGFBP2 mRNA levels were not statistically different. PMID:24551454

  6. Expression of Potential Regulatory Genes in Abdominal Adipose Tissue of Broiler Chickens during Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Bohannon-Stewart, Ann; Subramanya, Sri Harsha K. V.; Donkor, Joseph; Tyus, James; Hui, Dafeng; Ivy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The identities of genes that underlie population variation in adipose tissue development in farm animals are poorly understood. Previous studies in our laboratory have suggested that increased fat tissue involves the expression modulation of an array of genes in broiler chickens. Of special interest are eight genes, FGFR3, EPHB2, IGFBP2, GREM1, TNC, COL3A1, ACBD7, and SCD. To understand their expression regulation and response to dietary manipulation, we investigated their mRNA levels after dietary manipulation during early development. Chickens were fed either a recommended standard or a high caloric diet from hatch to eight weeks of age (WOA). The high caloric diet markedly affected bodyweight of the broiler birds. mRNA levels of the eight genes in the abdominal adipose tissue were assayed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 WOA using RT-qPCR. Results indicate that (1) FGFR3 mRNA level was affected significantly by diet, age, and diet:age interaction; (2) COL3A mRNA level was repressed by high caloric diet; (3) mRNA levels of EPHB2, ACBD7, and SCD were affected by age; (4) mRNA level of TNC was modulated by age:diet interaction; (5) changes in GREM1 and IGFBP2 mRNA levels were not statistically different. PMID:24551454

  7. Estimating marbofloxacin withdrawal time in broiler chickens using a population physiologically based pharmacokinetics model.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Yang, Y R; Wang, L; Huang, X H; Qiao, G; Zeng, Z L

    2014-12-01

    Residue depletion of marbofloxacin in broiler chicken after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days was studied in this study. The areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to ∞ (AUC0-∞ s) of marbofloxacin in tissues and plasma were used to calculate tissue/plasma partition coefficients (PX s). Based on PX s and the other parameters derived from published studies, a flow-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was developed to predict marbofloxacin concentrations, which were then compared with those derived from the residue depletion study so as to validate this model. Considering individual difference in drug disposition, a Monte Carlo simulation included 1000 iterations was further incorporated into the validated model to generate a population PBPK model and to estimate the marbofloxacin residue withdrawal times in edible tissues. The withdrawal periods were compared to those derived from linear regression analysis. The PBPK model presented here successfully predicted the measured concentrations in all tissues. The withdrawal times in all edible tissues derived from the population PBPK model were longer than those from linear regression analysis, and based on the residues in kidney, a withdrawal time of 4 days was estimated for marbofloxacin after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days. It was shown that population PBPK model could be used to accurately predict marbofloxacin residue withdrawal time in edible tissues in broiler chickens. PMID:24903645

  8. Developmental study of rectum in broiler chicken: A stereological and morphometrical study

    PubMed Central

    Fatahian Dehkordi, Rahmat-Allah; Ghahremani, Poria

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of the weight and the morphological development of the rectum in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens (Ross 308) were used in this experiment and they were 12, 20, 35 and 44 days of age. Samples from the rectum of chicks were sectioned in an unbiased manner and examined quantitatively using stereology. In addition, the weight of both body (BW) and rectum and also rectum weight as a proportion of BW, height and width of the villi and thickness of rectum wall were measured. The results revealed that the body and rectum weight were increased with age. The greatest rectum weight as a proportion of BW was observed on day 20. An increase in height and width of the villi during the study period were obtained. The increase was more significant on days 35 and 44 than on days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). There were significant difference in thickness of tunica mucosa, submucosa and muscular layer of the rectum on day 20 compared to day 35 (p < 0.05). The increase in the volume density of the wall, tunica mucosa and tunica muscular was greater on day 20 than on day 35. However, significant differences were observed in volume density of this layers between days 35 and 44 compared to days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). PMID:27226886

  9. Supplementation of glutamine and vitamin E on the morphometry of the intestinal mucosa in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A E; Sakamoto, M I; Natali, M R M; Souza, L M G; Franco, J R G

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of Gln and vitamin E (VE) supplementation in the diet of broiler chickens (Cobb-Vantress) on the morphometry of the intestinal mucosa. The design was completely randomized in a 2 x 3 (VE x periods of administering Gln) factorial arrangement. The levels of VE used were 10 and 500 mg/kg of diet and 3 periods of administering (1%) Gln-supplemented starter diet (for the first 7 or 14 d of life or for no added Gln), totaling 6 treatments with 5 replicates of 50 birds per experimental unit. In the growth period (d 22 to 41 posthatch), the treatments consisted only in the respective levels of VE. On d 7, 14, 21, and 41 posthatch, 2 birds per replicate were killed, and samples of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were subsequently removed, fixed in Bouin solution, and later embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The parameters analyzed were villus height and crypt depth. An ANOVA was applied to the obtained data, and the means were compared using Tukey's test (5% significance level). Greater development was observed in the duodenum, followed by the jejunum and ileum. On 41 d of life, diets with 10 mg of VE/kg supplemented with Gln (for the first 7 d of life) provided better development of the intestinal mucosa in broiler chickens. PMID:17297160

  10. Effect of Dietary Lead on Intestinal Nutrient Transporters mRNA Expression in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Idrus, Zulkifli

    2015-01-01

    Lead- (Pb-) induced oxidative stress is known to suppress growth performance and feed efficiency in broiler chickens. In an attempt to describe the specific underlying mechanisms of such phenomenon we carried out the current study. Ninety-six one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatment groups of 6 pen replicates, namely, (i) basal diet containing no lead supplement (control) and (ii) basal diet containing 200 mg lead acetate/kg of diet. Following 3 weeks of experimental period, jejunum samples were collected to examine the changes in gene expression of several nutrient transporters, antioxidant enzymes, and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that addition of lead significantly decreased feed intake, body weight gain, and feed efficiency. Moreover, with the exception of GLUT5, the expression of all sugar, peptide, and amino acid transporters was significantly downregulated in the birds under Pb induced oxidative stress. Exposure to Pb also upregulated the antioxidant enzymes gene expression together with the downregulation of glutathione S-transferase and Hsp70. In conclusion, it appears that Pb-induced oxidative stress adversely suppresses feed efficiency and growth performance in chicken and the possible underlying mechanism for such phenomenon is downregulation of major nutrient transporter genes in small intestine. PMID:25695048

  11. Growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens fed on bacterial protein grown on natural gas.

    PubMed

    Øverland, M; Schøyen, H F; Skrede, A

    2010-10-01

    1. The effects of increasing concentrations (0, 40, 80 or 120 g/kg) of bacterial protein meal (BPM) and bacterial protein autolysate (BPA) grown on natural gas on growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens were examined. 2. Adding BPM to diets reduced feed intake and improved gain: feed from 0 to 21 d and overall to 35 d, but did not significantly affect weight gain compared to the soybean meal based control diet. 3. Increasing concentrations of BPA significantly reduced growth rate, feed intake, gain: feed, carcase weight and dressing percentage, but significantly increased carcase dry matter, fat and energy content. 4. Adding BPM to diets had no effect on viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, and minor effects on litter quality, whereas BPA increased the viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, improved litter quality at 21 d, but decreased litter quality at 32 d. 5. To conclude, broiler chickens performed better on a BPM product with intact proteins than on an autolysate with ruptured cell walls and a high content of free amino acids and low molecular-weight peptides. PMID:21058073

  12. High-fibre sunflower cake affects small intestinal digestion and health in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kalmendal, R; Elwinger, K; Holm, L; Tauson, R

    2011-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate high-fibre sunflower cake (HF-SFC); a feed ingredient distinguished by large amounts of crude fibre and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (i-NSP). 2. Broiler chickens (n = 160) were fed on pelleted maize-based diets free from coccidiostats and antibiotic growth promoters between 15 and 31 d of age. Diets included 0, 10, 20 or 30% HF-SFC. Performance and small intestinal health were assessed. 3. In general, HF-SFC inclusion mediated significant linear increases in ileal digestibility of fat and protein and significant linear decreases in ileal digestibility of dry matter, ash and energy. 4. Weight gain increased linearly with HF-SFC inclusion. Feed conversion was negatively affected by 30% HF-SFC but not by 20% HF-SFC. 5. In the jejunal lumen, inclusion of HF-SFC was associated with significant decreases in colony counts of Clostridium spp. 6. HF-SFC inclusion resulted in significant linear reductions of villus height, thickness of muscularis mucosa, and the circular and longitudinal layers of muscularis in the jejunum. Crypt depth and submucosal thickness were not affected. 7. The data indicate that broiler chickens may thrive on feeds with insoluble fibre contents far exceeding those used in practice, and that HF-SFC exerts some positive effects on digestion and small intestinal health. PMID:21337203

  13. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  14. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  15. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of carcass and organ traits of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Venturini, G C; Cruz, V A R; Rosa, J O; Baldi, F; El Faro, L; Ledur, M C; Peixoto, J O; Munari, D P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental parameters for carcass, carcass part, and organ weights in a paternal strain of broiler chickens that was selected mainly for body weight at 42 days of age (BW42) to provide support for poultry genetic improvement programs. A total of 1448 chickens were used that resulted from the expansion of a pure paternal strain named TT, which was developed by Embrapa Suínos e Aves. The following weights were evaluated: BW42, chilled carcass, wing, drumstick meat, thigh meat, breast meat, breast fillet, back, liver, heart (HRT), and gizzard (GIZ). The variance component was estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a multi-trait animal model. The general model included the additive genetic and residual random effects and the fixed effect of the sex-hatch group (10 levels). The heritability estimates ranged from 0.27 ± 0.06 for HRT to 0.44 ± 0.08 for GIZ. These results indicated that all the traits have enough additive genetic variability to respond to selection. The genetic correlation estimates between BW42 and the carcass and carcass part weights were high and positive. However, the genetic correlation estimates between BW42 and organ weights were low. In this population, the carcass traits might respond indirectly to selection applied to BW42. It can be concluded that selection to increase BW42 is not effective in improving broiler organ weight. Therefore, to obtain suitable genetic improvement for these traits, the selection indexes for broilers should include organ weight-based criteria. PMID:25501241

  16. The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler chicken lines

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Richard A.; Watson, Kellie A.; Bilgili, S. F.; Avendano, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report providing estimates of the genetic basis of breast muscle myopathies (BMM) and their relationship with growth and yield in broiler chickens. In addition, this paper addresses the hypothesis that genetic selection for increase breast yield has contributed to the onset of BMM. Data were analyzed from ongoing recording of BMM within the Aviagen breeding program. This study focused on three BMM: deep pectoral myopathy (DPM; binary trait), white striping (WS; 4 categories) and wooden breast (WB; 3 categories). Data from two purebred commercial broiler lines (A and B) were utilized providing greater than 40,000 meat quality records per line. The difference in selection history between these two lines has resulted in contrasting breast yield (BY): 29% for Line A and 21% for Line B. Data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using a multivariate animal model including six traits: body weight (BW), processing body weight (PW), BY, DPM, WB, and WS, in addition to the appropriate fixed effects and permanent environmental effect of the dam. Results indicate similar patterns of heritability and genetic correlations for the two lines. Heritabilities (h2) of BW, PW and BY ranged from 0.271–0.418; for DPM and WB h2 <0.1; and for WS h2 ≤0.338. Genetic correlations between the BMM and BW, PW, or BY were ≤0.132 in Line A and ≤0.248 in Line B. This paper demonstrates the polygenic nature of these traits and the low genetic relationships with BW, PW, and BY, which facilitates genetic improvement across all traits in a balanced breeding program. It also highlights the importance of understanding the environmental and/or management factors that contribute greater than 65% of the variance in the incidence of white striping of breast muscle and more than 90% of the variance of the incidence of wooden breast and deep pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens. PMID:26476091

  17. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    PubMed

    Hothersall, Becky; Caplen, Gina; Parker, Richard M A; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Murrell, Joanna C

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1) and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg) and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg) (Part 2). Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167) from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold) were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1). In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further investigation

  18. Evaluation of associations between feed withdrawal and other management factors with Salmonella contamination of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Mainali, C; Gensler, G; McFall, M; King, R; Irwin, R; Senthilselvan, A

    2009-10-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most common bacterial foodborne diseases of public health concern in industrialized countries. Poultry products are considered an important source of Salmonella-related foodborne disease in humans. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between various management factors including feed withdrawal and transportation time with Salmonella contamination in crops, ceca, and carcasses of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta. Using a two-stage sampling procedure, 30 matched crop and cecal samples before evisceration and an additional 30 neck skin samples after final wash of broiler chickens were collected at slaughter. A questionnaire was administered at the time of sampling to collect information on flock management risk factors. Cecal contents were individually screened with Salmonella-specific real-time PCR to detect positive flocks, and all cecal, crop, and neck skin samples from positive flocks were processed further for Salmonella isolation and characterization. The flock prevalence of Salmonella was 57.1% and within-flock prevalence of Salmonella for positive flocks was 17.2, 8.1, and 53.9% for ceca, crops, and neck skins, respectively. Salmonella Hadar was the most common serovar identified from crops, ceca, and neck skins of broiler chickens tested. Longer transport (P = 0.04 for neck skins) and waiting time in-plant (P = 0.04 for crops, P = 0.03 for ceca) were identified as important risk factors for Salmonella contamination of broiler chickens at slaughter. Salmonella contamination of broiler chickens could potentially be minimized by reducing waiting time in-plant for flocks with longer transport time. PMID:19833047

  19. Influence of different prebiotics and mode of their administration on broiler chicken performance.

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, M; Stadnicka, K; Kozłowska, I; Abiuso, C; Tavaniello, S; Dankowiakowska, A; Sławińska, A; Maiorano, G

    2016-08-01

    In the post-antibiotics era, prebiotics are proposed as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production. The goal of this study was to compare in ovo method of prebiotic delivery with in-water supplementation and with both methods combined (in ovo+in-water) in broiler chickens. Two trials were conducted. Trial 1 was carried out to optimize the doses of two prebiotics, DN (DiNovo®, extract of beta-glucans) and BI (Bi2tos, trans-galactooligosaccharides), for in ovo delivery. The estimated parameters were hatchability and bacteriological status of the newly hatched chicks. Prebiotics were dissolved in 0.2 ml of physiological saline, at the doses: 0.18, 0.88, 3.5 and 7.0 mg/embryo; control group (C) was injected in ovo with 0.2 ml of physiological saline. Trial 2 was conducted to evaluate effects of different prebiotics (DN, BI and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO)) delivered in ovo, in-water and in a combined way (in ovo+in-water) on broiler chickens performance. The results of the Trial 1 indicated that the optimal dose of DN and BI prebiotics delivered in ovo, that did not reduce chicks' hatchability, was 0.88 mg/embryo (DN) and 3.5 mg/embryo (BI). Both prebiotics numerically increased number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in chicken feces (P>0.05). In Trial 2, all prebiotics (DN, BI and RFO) significantly increased BW gain compared with the C group (P<0.05), especially during the first 21 days of life. However, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were increased upon prebiotics delivery irrespective of method used. Injection of prebiotics in ovo combined with in-water supplementation did not express synergistic effects on broilers performance compared with in ovo injection only. Taken together, those results confirm that single in ovo prebiotics injection into the chicken embryo can successfully replace prolonged in-water supplementation post hatching. PMID:26936310

  20. Chromosome analysis of early embryonic mortality in layer and broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Thorne, M H; Collins, R K; Sheldon, B L

    1991-09-01

    1. Twenty-three lines of chickens, obtained from grandparent stocks of 4 Australian breeding companies, were analysed to determine the incidence of early embryonic mortality attributable to chromosome abnormalities. The lines included 10 layer strains, consisting of 6 White Leghorn, 2 New Hampshire and 2 Australorp lines, and 13 broiler lines. 2. A total of 10,730 eggs was examined after 3 d incubation; of these 9746 (90.8%) were fertile. Abortive embryonic development was observed in 1379 (14.1%) of the fertile eggs. This consisted of 952 (69.0%) dead and dying embryos, including 646 malformed and 427 (31.0%) membranes without embryos. 3. Early embryonic mortality was found to vary from 9.8 to 26.8% (average 16.4%) in broiler lines and from 8.0 to 27.9% (average 11.9%) in layer lines. 4. Among 898 abortive embryos analysed, 112 had abnormal chromosomes consisting of 27 haploids, 38 haploid-euploids, 24 triploids, 16 diploid-polyploids, 4 aneuploids, 2 tetraploids and 1 translocation. 5. In broilers and layers respectively, chromosome abnormalities were responsible for 4.4 to 28.1% (average 11.8%) and 7.4 to 25.0% (average 13.4%) of the early embryonic mortality. 6. The overall frequency of chromosome abnormalities in all fertile eggs varied from 0.7 to 3.7% for the broiler lines and 0.7 to 3.4% for the layer lines. PMID:1933445

  1. Evaluation of a highly soluble calcium source and phytase in the diets of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Walk, C L; Addo-Chidie, E K; Bedford, M R; Adeola, O

    2012-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of a highly soluble Ca (HSC) source on performance, bone ash and mineralization, and apparent ileal digestibility of Ca, P, N, and energy in Ross 708 broiler chickens. Dietary Ca was supplied by the HSC source and monocalcium phosphate to provide 4 levels of Ca (0.45, 0.60, 0.75, or 0.90%). Available P (aP) was maintained at 0.32% in all the diets. Each diet was supplemented with 0, 500, or 2,500 U/kg of phytase as a 4 × 3 factorial. An additional diet was formulated using limestone to contain 0.90% Ca and 0.45% aP as a positive control (PC). Diets were fed to 7 replicate cages of 8 birds per cage from d 0 to 21 posthatch. Feed intake (FI) was linearly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced, and BW gain was quadratically (P ≤ 0.05) reduced as Ca from HSC increased from 0.45 to 0.90%. Phytase supplementation linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased FI and BW gain and improved feed conversion ratio. Tibia ash and P weights were lower in birds fed 0.90% Ca from HSC compared with broilers fed 0.90% Ca from limestone. Phytase supplementation increased tibia ash and P weights in broilers fed 0.60, 0.75, or 0.90% HSC (Ca level × phytase P ≤ 0.05). Phytase supplementation linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased tibia Ca weight. Reducing HSC from 0.90 to 0.45% or increasing phytase supplementation linearly (P ≤ 0.05) improved ileal P digestibility. Ileal Ca digestibility increased linearly only in broilers fed 0.45% Ca from HSC as phytase supplementation increased (Ca level × phytase P ≤ 0.05). Nitrogen or energy digestibility were quadratically (P ≤ 0.05) influenced as HSC or phytase increased. In conclusion, feeding HSC with phytase allowed for reductions in dietary Ca while maintaining broiler performance and bone ash. In addition, P digestibility and P in the bones were increased in broilers fed reduced dietary Ca in the presence of phytase. PMID:22912460

  2. Effect of lactulose supplementation on growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbial population, and short-chain fatty acid composition of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Calik, Ali; Ergün, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary lactulose supplementation on broiler growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, cecal microflora, and cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations. A total of 245 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 5 different treatments, with 7 replicates including 7 birds each. The birds received the same basal diet based on corn--soybean meal, and lactulose was included in the diet at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8% at the expense of corn and/or soybean meal. The body weight gain (linear, P=0.027) and feed conversion (linear, P=0.003) from 0 to 21 d showed significant improvement as dietary lactulose was increased from 0.2 to 0.8%. However, dietary lactulose did not affect broiler performance at the end of the experiment (42 d). Furthermore, intestinal measurements and the goblet cell count of broilers fed a lactulose-containing diet differed from those of birds fed a diet that did not contain lactulose. In addition, a significant quadratic response in the Lactobacillus count (P≤0.001) was observed at 42 d on increasing the level of lactulose. The cecal coliform bacterial population was not affected by the dietary treatments. Supplementation with lactulose significantly increased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA measured on d 7 and d 42. In conclusion, inclusion of lactulose in the diet can enhance broiler performance and intestinal morphology by selectively stimulating intestinal microflora and increasing cecal SCFA concentrations. PMID:26188035

  3. Active immunization of broiler breeder cockerels against chicken inhibin accelerates puberty and prevents age-induced testicular involution.

    PubMed

    Satterlee, D G; Castille, S A; Fioretti, W C

    2006-06-01

    Injection of quail and breeder hens with a recombinant protein antigen (MBP-cINA521)--a fusion of the bacterical maltose-binding protein (MBP) and a fragment of the alpha-subunit of chicken inhibin (cINA521)--accelerates puberty and enhances lay. Herein, the effects of this immunogen on reproductive responses in broiler breeder males were assessed. Cockerels were subcutaneously injected with 0 (vehicular controls), 1, 3, or 5 mg of MBP-cINA521 at 13 wk of age and with one-half of these dosages (boosters) at 18 wk. Bird subsamples were weighed, blood sampled, and killed at 24, 28, and 39 wk of age to assess age and vaccination effects on BW, testes weight (TWT), TWT relative to BW (RTWT), TWT > or = 20 g (TWT20; theoretical threshold TWT for maximum fertility), and plasma testosterone. Breeder males are sexually developing, reach peak sexual activity, and show age-related reproductive decline at these ages. Because vaccine gonadal effects at 24 wk appeared to be dramatic, the size of the left testis was also scored to see if size differences could be detected by mere visual inspection. Male fighting increasingly reduced sample sizes beyond 24 wk. Because mortality was unrelated to the treatments and to insure meaningful statistical comparisons, MBP-cINA521 data were pooled. Body weight (P < 0.04), testis score (P < 0.02), TWT (P < 0.03), RTWT (P = 0.06), and plasma testosterone (P = 0.08) were elevated in immunogen-treated males at 24 wk of age, and more (P < 0.05) MBP-cINA521-treated birds than controls achieved a TWT20 at this time. These variables did not differ by treatment at 28 wk. However, by 39 wk, treatment effects reemerged as follows: TWT (P < 0.04), RTWT (P = 0.06), and TWT20 (P < 0.01) were increased in vaccinated males who also showed nearly 3-fold higher levels of plasma testosterone. We conclude that immunoneutralization of inhibin accelerates puberty and retards age-related sexual senescence that typically occurs in broiler breeder males. PMID

  4. In vitro exposure to Escherichia coli decreases ion conductance in the jejunal epithelium of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, Wageha A; Hess, Claudia; Khayal, Basel; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Hess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections are very widespread in poultry. However, little is known about the interaction between the intestinal epithelium and E. coli in chickens. Therefore, the effects of avian non-pathogenic and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) on the intestinal function of broiler chickens were investigated by measuring the electrogenic ion transport across the isolated jejunal mucosa. In addition, the intestinal epithelial responses to cholera toxin, histamine and carbamoylcholine (carbachol) were evaluated following an E. coli exposure. Jejunal tissues from 5-week-old broilers were exposed to 6×10(8) CFU/mL of either avian non-pathogenic E. coli IMT11322 (Ont:H16) or avian pathogenic E. coli IMT4529 (O24:H4) in Ussing chambers and electrophysiological variables were monitored for 1 h. After incubation with E. coli for 1 h, either cholera toxin (1 mg/L), histamine (100 μM) or carbachol (100 μM) were added to the incubation medium. Both strains of avian E. coli (non-pathogenic and pathogenic) reduced epithelial ion conductance (Gt) and short-circuit current (Isc). The decrease in ion conductance after exposure to avian pathogenic E. coli was, at least, partly reversed by the histamine or carbachol treatment. Serosal histamine application produced no significant changes in the Isc in any tissues. Only the uninfected control tissues responded significantly to carbachol with an increase of Isc, while the response to carbachol was blunted to non-significant values in infected tissues. Together, these data may explain why chickens rarely respond to intestinal infections with overt secretory diarrhea. Instead, the immediate response to intestinal E. coli infections appears to be a tightening of the epithelial barrier. PMID:24637645

  5. In ovo carbohydrate supplementation modulates growth and immunity-related genes in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bhanja, S K; Goel, A; Pandey, N; Mehra, M; Majumdar, S; Mandal, A B

    2015-02-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the role of in ovo administrated carbohydrates on the expression pattern of growth and immune-related genes. In ovo injections (n = 400) were carried out on the 14th day of incubation into the yolk sac/amnion of the broiler chicken embryos. Expression of growth-related genes: chicken growth hormone (cGH), insulin-like growth factor-I & II (IGF-I & II) and mucin were studied in hepatic and jejunum tissues of late-term embryo and early post-hatch chicks. Expression of candidate immune genes: Interleukin-2, 6, 10 and 12 (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12), Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were studied in peripheral blood monocyte cells of in ovo-injected and control birds following antigenic stimulation with sheep RBC (SRBC) or mitogen concanavalin A (Con-A). Glucose injection significantly increased the expression of IGF-II gene during embryonic period and both cGH and IGF-II in early post-hatch period, while ribose-injected chicks had higher expression of IGF-II gene during embryonic stage. Enhanced mucin gene expression was also observed in fructose-injected chicks during embryonic age. Glucose-injected chicks had higher expression of IL-6 or IL-10, while those injected with fructose or ribose had higher expression of IL-2, IL-12 and IFN gamma. It is concluded that in ovo supplementation of carbohydrates might help in improving the growth of late-term embryos and chicks. In ovo glucose could modulate humoral-related immunity, while fructose or ribose might help in improving the cellular immunity in broiler chickens. PMID:24797673

  6. In Vitro Exposure to Escherichia coli Decreases Ion Conductance in the Jejunal Epithelium of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Wageha A.; Hess, Claudia; Khayal, Basel; Aschenbach, Jörg R.; Hess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections are very widespread in poultry. However, little is known about the interaction between the intestinal epithelium and E. coli in chickens. Therefore, the effects of avian non-pathogenic and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) on the intestinal function of broiler chickens were investigated by measuring the electrogenic ion transport across the isolated jejunal mucosa. In addition, the intestinal epithelial responses to cholera toxin, histamine and carbamoylcholine (carbachol) were evaluated following an E. coli exposure. Jejunal tissues from 5-week-old broilers were exposed to 6×108 CFU/mL of either avian non-pathogenic E. coli IMT11322 (Ont:H16) or avian pathogenic E. coli IMT4529 (O24:H4) in Ussing chambers and electrophysiological variables were monitored for 1 h. After incubation with E. coli for 1 h, either cholera toxin (1 mg/L), histamine (100 μM) or carbachol (100 μM) were added to the incubation medium. Both strains of avian E. coli (non-pathogenic and pathogenic) reduced epithelial ion conductance (Gt) and short-circuit current (Isc). The decrease in ion conductance after exposure to avian pathogenic E. coli was, at least, partly reversed by the histamine or carbachol treatment. Serosal histamine application produced no significant changes in the Isc in any tissues. Only the uninfected control tissues responded significantly to carbachol with an increase of Isc, while the response to carbachol was blunted to non-significant values in infected tissues. Together, these data may explain why chickens rarely respond to intestinal infections with overt secretory diarrhea. Instead, the immediate response to intestinal E. coli infections appears to be a tightening of the epithelial barrier. PMID:24637645

  7. Influence of penicillin on microbial diversity of the cecal microbiota in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pallavi; Karimi, Ahmad; Devendra, Kshitiz; Waldroup, Park W; Cho, Kwang Keun; Kwon, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters have been used for growth promotion of chickens in poultry industry since 1940. Recently, concerns have been raised to the use of antibiotic growth promoters in livestock due to development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of penicillin supplementation in the feed on cecal microbiota of broiler chickens. Two groups (n = 30) of chickens were fed corn-soybean meal diets with and without supplementation of penicillin at the concentration of 55 mg/kg (ANT vs. CON, respectively). At 18 d of age, the ANT group had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher mean BW than the CON group (668.6 vs. 570.0 g). Cecal samples of 5 randomly selected birds were pooled from each group and used for genomic DNA isolation and PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene; 454 pyrosequencing of the amplicons resulted in 7,881 and 11,214 sequence reads for ANT and CON groups, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that penicillin supplementation in the ANT group resulted in an elevated proportion of phylum Firmicutes from 58.15 to 91.5% and a decreased proportion of phylum Bacteroidetes from 31.1 to 2.96% compared with the CON group. Recent studies conducted in humans, pigs, and mice have shown a similar shift in gut microbiota in obese individuals compared with the lean ones, indicating that this microbial shift could be responsible for the increase in energy harvest and BW. The results of this study suggest that the growth-promoting effect of penicillin supplementation in broilers may be mediated by a similar microbial process. PMID:23243258

  8. EFFECT OF BOTANICAL PROBIOTIC CONTAINING LACTOBACILLI ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND POPULATIONS OF BACTERIA IN THE CECA, CLOACA, AND CARCASS RINSE OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of feeding a botanical probiotic containing Lactobacillus on growth performance of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 d of age. At 56 d, five broilers per pen were killed and processed to determine bacteria populations in the ceca, cloaca, and carcass rinse....

  9. Effect of therapeutic supplementation of plant molecules, trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in market-age broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of food-grade plant compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) on reducing SE in commercial, market-age broiler chickens. In two separate experiments, day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly grouped into six groups of 14 birds each ...

  10. Use of rosemary, oregano, and a commercial blend of essential oils in broiler chickens: in vitro antimicrobial activities and effects on growth performance.

    PubMed

    Mathlouthi, N; Bouzaienne, T; Oueslati, I; Recoquillay, F; Hamdi, M; Urdaci, M; Bergaoui, R

    2012-03-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 3 essential oils [oregano, rosemary, and a commercial blend of essential oils (BEO)] against pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and to evaluate their effects on broiler chicken performances. The chemical composition of the essential oils was determined using the gas chromatography interfaced with a mass spectroscopy. The disc diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were applied for the determination of antimicrobial activities of essential oils. In vivo study, a total of seven hundred fifty 1-d-old male broiler chickens were assigned to 6 dietary treatment groups: basal diet (control; CON), CON + 44 mg of avilamycin/kg (A), CON + 100 mg of rosemary essential oil/kg (ROS), CON + 100 mg of oregano essential oil/kg (OR), CON + 50 mg of rosemary and 50 mg of oregano essential oils/kg (RO), and CON + 1,000 mg of BEO/kg (essential oil mixture, EOM). The essential oils isolated from rosemary and oregano were characterized by their greater content of 1,8-cineole (49.99%) and carvacrol (69.55%), respectively. The BEO was mainly represented by the aldehyde (cinnamaldehyde) and the monoterpene (1,8-cineole) chemical groups. The results of the disc diffusion method indicated that the rosemary essential oil had antibacterial activity (P ≤ 0.05) against only 3 pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (8 mm), Salmonella indiana (11 mm), and Listeria innocua (9 mm). The essential oil of oregano had antimicrobial activities (P ≤ 0.05) on the same bacteria as rosemary but also on Staphylococcus aureus (22 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (12 mm). Oregano essential oil had greater (P ≤ 0.05) antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria than rosemary essential oil but they had no synergism between them. The BEO showed an increased antimicrobial activity (P ≤ 0.05) against all studied bacteria (pathogenic and

  11. Metabolism of deoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens, pullets, roosters and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E; Fruhmann, Philipp; Dänicke, Sven; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Caha, Sylvia; Weber, Julia; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-11-01

    Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%-106% (chickens), 51%-72% (roosters), and 131%-151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine. PMID:26569307

  12. Metabolism of Deoxynivalenol and Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens, Pullets, Roosters and Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E.; Fruhmann, Philipp; Dänicke, Sven; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Caha, Sylvia; Weber, Julia; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%–106% (chickens), 51%–72% (roosters), and 131%–151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine. PMID:26569307

  13. The influence of phytoncides on the immune system of broiler chickens and turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Śmiałek, Marcin; Tykałowski, Bartłomiej; Pestka, Daria; Stenzel, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of adiSalmoSOL PF dietary supplement, given for 3 days in drinking water, on selected parameters of cell-mediated (Experiment I) and humoral (Experiment II) immunity in chicken and turkey broilers. In Experiment I, birds were randomly divided into two groups of 10 birds each. Group 1 comprised control turkeys or chickens, whereas group 2 birds were administered adiSalmoSOLPF. In Experiment II, a total of 69 chickens were divided into three groups (1-3) of 23 birds each. At the age of 25 days, group 1 was given adiSalmoSOLPF. Birds from groups 1-3 were vaccinated at 28 days of age. Group 2 was given adiSalmoSOLPF after vaccination. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and spleen, CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius and ileal mucosa and IgM + B lymphocyte in the ileal mucosa were observed in group 2 chickens. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD8+ T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils and blood, and CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and ileal mucosa was recorded in group 2 turkeys. No differences in percentages of IgM + B lymphocytes were observed between turkey groups. In Experiment II, the highest post-vaccination titers of anti-IB antibodies were observed in group 2, but it was not statistically significant. The results of our study indicate that adiSalmoSOLPF showed immunomodulatory activity in chickens and turkeys. PMID:26648771

  14. Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P < 0.05) as well as for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Similarly, antibody titer responses to all vaccines were constantly elevated (P < 0.05) by SOPE enrichment in a dose-dependent manner. Relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were unaffected by treatments. Dietary SOPE supplementation may improve the immune response and diseases resistance, indicating that it can constitute a useful additive in broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens. PMID:24990585

  15. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts. PMID:24397511

  16. Influence of broccoli extract and various essential oils on performance and expression of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kristin; Blum, Nicole M; Kluge, Holger; Mueller, Andreas S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of our present study was to examine the regulation of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes by phytogenic feed additives in the intestine and the liver of broilers. A total of 240 male Ross-308 broiler chickens (1 d old) were fed a commercial starter diet for 2 weeks. On day 15, the birds were assigned to six treatment groups of forty birds each. The control (Con) group was fed a diet without any additive for 3 weeks. The diet of group sulforaphane (SFN) contained broccoli extract providing 0.075 g/kg SFN, whereas the diets of the other four groups contained 0.15 g/kg essential oils from turmeric (Cuo), oregano (Oo), thyme and rosemary (Ro). Weight gain and feed conversion were slightly impaired by Cuo and Oo. In the jejunum SFN, Cuo and Ro increased the expression of xenobiotic enzymes (epoxide hydrolases 1 and 2 and aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase) and of the antioxidant enzyme haeme oxygenase regulated by an 'antioxidant response element' (ARE) compared to group Con. In contrast to our expectations in the liver, the expression of these enzymes was decreased by all the additives. Nevertheless, all the additives increased the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of the jejunum and the liver and reduced Fe-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver. We conclude that the up-regulation of ARE genes in the small intestine reduces oxidative stress in the organism and represents a novel mechanism by which phytogenic feed additives improve the health of farm animals. PMID:22085616

  17. Incubation temperature alters thermal preference and response to heat stress of broiler chickens along the rearing phase.

    PubMed

    Morita, V S; Almeida, V R; Matos Junior, J B; Vicentini, T I; van den Brand, H; Boleli, I C

    2016-08-01

    The current study aimed to investigate whether embryonic temperature manipulation may alter thermal preference throughout the rearing phase of broiler chickens and how this manipulation may affect response to thermal challenge, metabolism, growth rate and feed intake rate. Eggs were exposed to a constant incubation temperature [machine temperatures: 36°C (Low), 37.5°C (Control), and 39°C (High); eggshell temperature of 37.4 ± 0.08°C, 37.8 ± 0.15°C, and 38.8 ± 0.33°C, respectively] from d 13 till hatching. Low treatment chickens showed lower plasma T3 and GH levels at d 1 of age and lower T3 level at d 42 of age compared to the Control treatment. Preferred ambient, rectal temperature, T4 level, growth rate, food intake rate, and response to thermal challenge were not altered in these chickens. On the other hand, High-treatment chickens exhibited high preferred ambient temperature and rectal temperature during the first 2 wk post-hatch, lower plasma T3 level at d 21 and 42 and a delayed increase in respiratory movement in response to thermal challenge compared to the Control treatment. However, chickens subjected to the Control and High treatments did not differ in T4 and GH level and performance. We conclude that exposure to high temperature during late embryonic development has long-lasting effects on the thermoregulatory system of broiler chickens by affecting the heat tolerance of these chickens. Moreover, the preferred ambient temperature of the chickens from heat-treated eggs correspond to those recommended for the strain under study, whereas for the cold-treated and control-chickens it was 1°C below, indicating that incubation temperature might have consequences on the ambient temperature chickens require during the rearing phase. PMID:26994196

  18. Antibiotic residues distribute uniformly in broiler chicken breast muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Herrera, Ixchel; Donoghue, Dan J

    2008-01-01

    Use of antibiotics by the poultry industry has the potential to produce residues in edible tissues. In order to protect consumers, the U.S. federal government performs extensive evaluations to quantify residues in edible tissues to ensure that concentrations do not exceed the tolerance level. However, in the case of muscle tissue, the regulatory process does not differentiate between different edible muscle types in poultry. Previous studies performed by our laboratory determined higher fluoroquinolone residue concentrations in breast versus thigh muscle. Thus, if thigh tissues were used for residue monitoring, it would not accurately depict the higher concentrations. It is also possible that residue concentrations vary within tissues. To evaluate this possibility, fluoroquinolone antibiotic residues were determined for different breast sections. One hundred sixty chickens were randomly divided into four groups and dosed at 33 days of age with the fluoroquinolone antibiotic, enrofloxacin (Baytril), at either 25 ppm for 3 days, 25 ppm for 7 days, 50 ppm for 3 days, or 50 ppm for 7 days. Breast fillets were collected from each bird (n = 5 birds per day per group) during the dosing and withdrawal period. Each breast was divided into four sections (upper left, upper right, lower left, and lower right) that were analyzed as individual samples for determination of fluoroquinolone concentration. Our results indicated no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the levels of enrofloxacin residues between breast sections during the dosing or withdrawal periods. Consequently, samples can be collected from any breast section to evaluate fluoroquinolone residue concentrations during the regulatory monitoring process. PMID:18236689

  19. Insights on the host stress, fear and growth responses to the deoxynivalenol feed contaminant in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens. PMID:24498179

  20. Effect of encapsulated carvacrol on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Diarra, Moussa S; Zhang, Yonggang; Wang, Qi; Yu, Hai; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong; Gong, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    There is an urgent need to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens in chickens when antibiotics are withdrawn from feed. Carvacrol has strong antimicrobial activity and its delivery to the animal intestine can be significantly enhanced after encapsulation. The present study has investigated the potential of encapsulated carvacrol in controlling NE. In general, micro-encapsulation of carvacrol in an alginate-whey protein matrix showed no adverse effect on its antimicrobial activity towards C. perfringens in either Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth or a simulated gastrointestinal model. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of both encapsulated and un-encapsulated carvacrol were approximately 200 μl/l against C. perfringens in BHI. In a broiler infection model with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsulated carvacrol at the dose of either 250 or 650 μg/g significantly reduced NE in the chicken intestine, which was close to the degree of lesions observed in bacitracin/salinomycin treated birds. Supplementation with either bacitracin/salinomycin or encapsulated carvacrol showed no significant impact on intestinal burden of Lactobacillus. However, the treatment with bacitracin/salinomycin or the low dose of encapsulated carvacrol reduced the level of C. perfringens in the ileum of birds at 35 days of age. These results suggest that our encapsulated carvacrol can be used to combat NE disease in chickens. PMID:27245304

  1. A study of Aspergillus niger- hydrolyzed cassava peel meal as a carbohydrate source on the histology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, Adeyemi Isaiah; Sani, Alhassan; Aderibigbe, Temitayo Abosede; Abdurrasheed, Muhammed Ola; Agbolade, James Oludare

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hydrolysed cassava peel inclusion as a replacement for maize in broiler chicken feedstuff on the histology of the internal organs of broiler chickens. Thirty six, two weeks old unsexed broiler chickens were used for the study in a feeding trial of forty two days. The chickens were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments A - F using a completely randomized design. Each treatment group contained two replicates of three broiler chickens. Group A chickens (A1 and A2) were fed with the control diet (0% hydrolyzed cassava peel as main carbon source). Groups B-E (in replicates 1 and 2) were administered with experimental diets containing 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of hydrolyzed cassava peels respectively replacing maize while group F (F1 and F2) were fed with diet containing 100% unhydrolyzed cassava peels replacing maize as the main carbon source. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum for the six weeks feeding trials period. Vaccine and drugs were administered as at when due. At the end of the third week, two replicate per group were fasted for twelve hours and slaughtered. Samples of liver, kidney and heart were collected and tissue samples were taken for histological examinations. All the chickens in group F that fed on unhydrolyzed cassava peel recorded 100% mortality within the first six days of the feeding trials while those in groups A to E recorded 0% mortality. Histology of the kidney, heart and liver showed increasing mark of coagulative necrosis, degeneration of the hepatocytes and vacuolations due to the shrinking of the hepatocellular and cardiac tissues as the cassava inclusion level increases in feed. It is concluded that birds can be fed with maize replaced with up to 50% hydrolyzed cassava peel in chicken feeds without serious deleterious effects and that the wastes have useful products in animal nutrition. Also, the replacement added economic in chicken production. The hydrolysis has led to a

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Nihar Ranjan; Babu, L. K.; Kumar, A.; Pradhan, C. R.; Pati, P. K.; Mishra, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 1-day-old Vencobb broiler chickens of either sex were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each consisting of three replicates and each replicate having 30 birds for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were (1) control group with basal diet, (2) basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (at 400 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration), (3) basal diet supplemented with probiotic (at 100 g/tonne of starter ration and 50 g/tonne of finisher ration), and (4) basal diet supplemented with synbiotic(at 500 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration). The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period. Results: The highest body weight observed in asynbiotic group, which was non-significantly (p>0.05) higher than thecontrol group. Prebiotic and probiotic groups showed lower body weight than synbiotic and control groups. A total feed intake did not show any significant (p>0.05) difference between experimental groups. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens in prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic groups as compared with control group. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the carcass traits with respect to dressing percentage, carcass percentage, heart weight, liver weight and gizzard weight, wing percentage, breast percentage, back percentage, thigh percentage, and drumstick percentage in Cobb broilers under study. Conclusion: The growth performance and percentage of carcass yield did not show any significant increase by the dietary inclusion of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic compared with unsupplemented control in a commercial broiler chicken. PMID:27057118

  3. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV. PMID:26424905

  4. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV. PMID:26424905

  5. Immune Response of Salmonella Challenged Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Gallipro®, a Bacillus subtilis Probiotic.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ali Asghar; Shawrang, Parvin; Shakorzadeh, Shirin

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding a probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, on antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bursal viruses in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. One hundred and sixty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were negative control, probiotic-treated group, challenged group, and challenged probiotic treated group. Salmonella challenging decreased (P < 0.05) the relative weights of spleen and bursa. Inclusion of probiotic to diet of challenged chickens increased the relative weight of spleen, but had no effect on the relative weight of bursa. There were no differences for the antibody titers of chickens between negative control and probiotic-treated group. Salmonella challenging decreased (P < 0.05) antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bursal viruses. Improvements in the antibody titers were observed by the addition of probiotic to diet of these chickens. The results showed that dietary inclusion of probiotic had no significant effect on immune parameters of chickens at non-contaminated environment, display a greater efficacy at environment contaminated with pathogen and can improve immune responses of infected chickens. PMID:25344127

  6. Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  7. Comparison of the mineral and fatty acid profiles of ostrich, turkey and broiler chicken livers.

    PubMed

    Majewska, D; Szczerbińska, D; Ligocki, M; Bucław, M; Sammel, A; Tarasewicz, Z; Romaniszyn, K; Majewski, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mineral and lipid profiles in ostrich, turkey and broiler chicken livers. The highest concentrations of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were found in turkey livers, at 3751.50, 2153.05 and 363.98 mg/kg fresh weight (FW), respectively, whereas ostrich livers were the richest in calcium (82.77 mg/kg FW). Ostrich liver was the richest source of iron, calcium, zinc and silicon, at 947.8, 82.77, 47.50, 36.69 mg/kg FW, respectively. Ostrich livers proved to be the richest source of long-chain fatty acids (5.18% C20:4n+6, 0.48% EPA and 1.08% DHA). PMID:26963037

  8. Development of the Intestinal RNA Virus Community of Healthy Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jigna D.; Desai, Prerak T.; Zhang, Ying; Scharber, Sarah K.; Baller, Joshua; Xing, Zheng S.; Cardona, Carol J.

    2016-01-01

    Several RNA viruses such as astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus and parvovirus have been detected in both healthy and diseased commercial poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to characterize (a) the development of the RNA viral community in the small intestines of healthy broiler chickens from hatch through 6 weeks of age (market age) and (b) the contribution of the breeder source vs. bird age in development of the community structure. Intestinal tissue samples were harvested from breeders and their progeny, processed for viral RNA extraction and sequenced using Illumina Hiseq sequencing technology resulting in 100 bp PE reads. The results from this study indicated that the breeder source influenced the RNA viral community only at hatch but later environment i.e. bird age had the more significant effect. The most abundant RNA viral family detected at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age was Astroviridae, which decreased in abundance with age while the abundance of Picornaviridae increased with age. PMID:26914580

  9. Histopathological studies of the heart in three lines of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gesek, M; Otrocka-DomagaŁa, I; SokóŁ, R; PaŹdzior-Czapula, K; Lambert, B D; WiŚniewska, A M; Żechowicz, M; Mikiewicz, M; Korzeniowska, P

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the morphological lesion pattern of the heart of broiler chickens (Cobb 500, Hubbard F15 and Ross 308) during fattening with no clinical signs of disease and to determine the most susceptible period for the occurrence of morphological lesions. The most frequently diagnosed lesions in each genetic line were degeneration of the fibres with vacuolation, congestion of cardiac muscle, oedema and vacuolisation of the Purkinje cells. The highest numbers of morphological lesions were observed on d 38, 31 and 10 of life. The lesions were most numerous in the septum, followed by the left and right ventricles. Ischaemic cardiomyocytes were also most numerous on d 38 of life and in the left ventricle. Overload of cardiac muscle, prolonged hypoxia and increasing body weight on d 38 are the likely reasons for the largest number of lesions and ischaemic fibres, which may lead to heart failure. PMID:26955858

  10. Molecular characterization and clonal relationships among Escherichia coli strains isolated from broiler chickens with colisepticemia.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; de Oliveira, Aline Luísa; Tejkowski, Thiago Moreira; Pavanelo, Daniel Brisotto; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Pinheiro, Sandra Regina Schincariol; Vaz, Tânia Mara Ibelli; Nolan, Lisa K; Logue, Catherine M; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Horn, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized 52 Escherichia coli isolates from distinct diseased organs of 29 broiler chickens with clinical symptoms of colibacillosis in the Southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Thirty-eight isolates were highly virulent and 14 were virtually avirulent in 1-day-old chicks, yet all isolates harbored virulence factors characteristic of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), including those related to adhesion, iron acquisition, and serum resistance. E. coli reference collection phylogenetic typing showed that isolates belonged mostly to group D (39%), followed by group A (29%), group B1 (17%), and group B2 (15%). Phylogenetic analyses using the Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis and pulse-field gel electrophoresis methods were used to discriminate among isolates displaying the same serotype, revealing that five birds were infected with two distinct APEC strains. Among the 52 avian isolates, 2 were members of the pandemic E. coli O25:H4-B2-ST131 clone. PMID:25514382

  11. Molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens from broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al Rifai, Rami; Al-Majali, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens (Cp) causes necrotic enteritis disease in commercial poultry. Antimicrobials are used to control and treat this disease and sometimes clinical outbreaks do not respond well to certain treatments. This study was designed to isolate Cp from clinical cases, type these isolates by multiplex PCR, and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility by micro-dilution method. A total of 67 Cp isolates were obtained from 155 broiler chicken flocks. All isolates were classified as type A and non-enterotoxin producers. Lincomycin, erythromycins, and tilmicosin showed very high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 of ≥256 μg/ml. However, tylosin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin, florfenicol, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline had variable MIC₅₀ of 64, 0.5, 1, 1, 8, 4, 8, 4, 8, 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. It is recommended that Cp infections in Jordan be treated with either penicillins or tetracyclines especially amoxicillin and oxytetracycline. PMID:20969969

  12. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  13. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  14. Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli mixed infection model in broiler chickens for studying valnemulin pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, X; Zhao, D H; Yang, X; Shi, W; Deng, H; Ma, J; Zhang, S; Liu, Y H

    2014-02-01

    A Mycoplasma gallisepticum-Escherichia coli mixed infection model was developed in broiler chickens, which was applied to pharmacokinetics of valnemulin in the present experiment. The velogenic M. gallisepticum standard strain S6 was rejuvenated to establish the animal model, and the wild E. coli strain O78 was injected as supplementary inoculum to induce chronic respiratory disease in chickens. The disease model was evaluated based on its clinical signs, histopathological examination, bacteriological assay, and serum plate agglutination test. The pharmacokinetics of valnemulin in infected chickens was determined by intramuscular (i.m.) injection and oral administration (per os, p.o.) of a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW). Plasma samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The plasma concentration-time curve of valnemulin was analyzed using the noncompartmental method. After the i.m. administration, the mean values of Cmax , Tmax , AUClast , MRT, CLβ /F, Vz /F, and t1⁄2β , were 27.94 μg/mL, 1.57 h, 171.63 μg·h/mL, 4.51 h, 0.06 L/h/kg, 0.56 L/kg, and 6.50 h, respectively. By contrast, the corresponding values after p.o. administration were 5.93 μg/mL, 7.14 h, 47.60 μg·h/mL, 9.80 h, 0.22 L/h/kg, 3.35 L/kg, and 10.60 h. The disposition of valnemulin was retarded in infected chickens after both modes of extravascular administration as compared to the healthy controls. More attention should be given to monitoring the therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of mixed infection because of higher required plasma drug concentration and enlarged AUC with valnemulin treatment. PMID:23782411

  15. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health. PMID:27242676

  16. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health. PMID:27242676

  17. Broiler chicken adipose tissue dynamics during the first two weeks post-hatch.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Rice, Brittany Breon; Cline, Mark Andrew; Gilbert, Elizabeth Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Selection of broiler chickens for growth has led to increased adipose tissue accretion. To investigate the post-hatch development of adipose tissue, the abdominal, clavicular, and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots were collected from broiler chicks at 4 and 14 days post-hatch. As a percent of body weight, abdominal fat increased (P<0.001) with age. At day 4, clavicular and subcutaneous fat depots were heavier (P<0.003) than abdominal fat whereas at day 14, abdominal and clavicular weighed more (P<0.003) than subcutaneous fat. Adipocyte area and diameter were greater in clavicular and subcutaneous than abdominal fat at 4 and 14 days post-hatch (P<0.001). Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity increased (P<0.001) in all depots from day 4 to 14, and at both ages was greatest in subcutaneous, intermediate in clavicular, and lowest in abdominal fat (P<0.05). In clavicular fat, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP)α, CEBPβ, fatty acid synthase (FASN), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and NPY receptor 5 (NPYR5) mRNA increased and NPYR2 mRNA decreased from day 4 to 14 (P<0.001). Thus, there are site-specific differences in broiler chick adipose development, with larger adipocytes and greater G3PDH activity in subcutaneous fat at day 4, more rapid growth of abdominal fat, and clavicular fat intermediate for most traits. Adipose tissue expansion was accompanied by changes in gene expression of adipose-associated factors. PMID:26263851

  18. Protection Against Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens by Regulated Delayed Lysis Salmonella Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanlong; Mo, Hua; Willingham, Crystal; Wang, Shifeng; Park, Jie-Yeun; Kong, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-12-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Gram-positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains, has gained more attention in the broiler industry due to governmental restrictions affecting the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in feed. To date, there is only one commercial NE vaccine available, based on the C. perfringens alpha toxin. However, recent work has suggested that the NetB toxin, not alpha toxin, is the most critical virulence factor for causing NE. These findings notwithstanding, it is clear from prior research that immune responses against both toxins can provide some protection against NE. In this study, we delivered a carboxyl-terminal fragment of alpha toxin and a GST-NetB fusion protein using a novel attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain designed to lyse after 6-10 rounds of replication in the chicken host. We immunized birds with vaccine strains producing each protein individually, a mixture of the two strains, or with a single vaccine strain that produced both proteins. Immunization with strains producing either of the single proteins was not protective, but immunization with a mixture of the two or with a single strain producing both proteins resulted in protective immunity. The vaccine strain synthesizing both PlcC and GST-NetB was able to elicit strong production of intestinal IgA, IgY, and IgM antibodies and significantly protect broilers against C. perfringens challenge against both mild and severe challenges. Although not part of our experimental plan, the broiler chicks we obtained for these studies were apparently contaminated during transit from the hatchery with group D Salmonella. Despite this drawback, the vaccines worked well, indicating applicability to real-world conditions. PMID:26629620

  19. The contribution of systemic Escherichia coli infection to the early mortalities of commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kemmett, K; Williams, N J; Chaloner, G; Humphrey, S; Wigley, P; Humphrey, T

    2014-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are a substantial burden to the global poultry industry. APEC cause a syndromic poultry infection known as colibacillosis, which has been previously associated with broiler chickens over 2 weeks old. We recently reported that the intestinal tract of 1-day-old broilers harbours a rich reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli. Prior infections of the reproductive tract of breeders, egg hygiene and transportation all contribute to early colonization of the neonatal gut. Up to one-half of all flock deaths occur in the first week of production, but few data are available describing the contribution of E. coli. In the present study, all dead birds collected on the first daily welfare walk 48 and 72 h after chick placement underwent post-mortem examination. Diseased tissues were selectively cultured for E. coli and isolates subsequently virulotyped using 10 APEC virulence-associated genes (VAGs): astA, iss, irp2, iucD, papC, tsh, vat, cvi, sitA and ibeA. Approximately 70% of birds displayed signs of colibacillosis. Thirty distinct virulence profiles were identified among 157 E. coli. Isolates carried between zero and seven VAGs; ∼ 30% of E. coli isolates carried five to seven VAGs, with 12.7% sharing the same VAG profile (astA, iss, irp2, iucD, tsh, cvi and sitA). Overall, this study demonstrates the significant contribution of E. coli infections to early broiler mortalities. The identification of a diverse E. coli population is unsurprising based on our previous findings. This work emphasizes the need for an effective vaccination programme and provides preliminary data for vaccine production. PMID:24328462

  20. Nutritional Value of electron beam irradiated cottonseed meal in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Nayefi, M; Salari, S; Sari, M; Behgar, M

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of electron beam-irradiated cottonseed meal on performance, carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of broiler chicks. Treatments were cottonseed meal (CSM) at levels of 12% and 24% (raw and irradiated at 30 kGy) and corn-soya bean meal diet (as control, without CSM and without irradiation) that used with five dietary treatments, four replicates and 10 birds of each for 42 days in completely randomized design. Feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were recorded weekly. At 42 days of age, two birds per pen were randomly selected for the determination of carcass characteristics and blood parameters. BWG decreased with increasing levels of dietary CSM during the experiment (p < 0.05). In addition, radiation had significant positive effect in broilers fed 12% compared with those fed 24% CSM. FI in chicks fed control and diet containing 24% CSM were increased significantly in starter period. But FI was significantly decreased in broilers consumed CSM compare to the control in grower and during the experiment. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased with increasing levels of CSM in the diets. Relative weights of liver, gastrointestinal tract (GI), pancreas, gizzard and abdominal fat were increased by increasing levels of CSM in the diet (p < 0.05). Glucose, cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride and phosphorous concentrations increased, and LDL concentration decreased as the dietary CSM levels increased (p < 0.05). But radiation had not significant effect on blood parameters. Electron irradiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the nutritional quality of CSM, but it seems higher dose of it was needed to improve performance of chickens. PMID:26621476

  1. Identification of genes involved in regulatory mechanism of pigments in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tarique, T M; Yang, S; Mohsina, Z; Qiu, J; Yan, Z; Chen, G; Chen, A

    2014-01-01

    Chicken is an important model organism that unites the evolutionary gap between mammals and other vertebrates and provide major source of protein from meat and eggs for all over the world population. However, specific genes underlying the regulatory mechanism of broiler pigmentation have not yet been determined. In order to better understand the genes involved in the mechanism of pigmentation in the muscle tissues of broilers, the Affymetrix microarray hybridization experiment platform was used to identify gene expression profiles at 7 weeks of age. Broilers fed canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII pigments (100 mg/kg) were used to explore gene expression profiles). Our data showed that the 7th week of age was a very important phase with regard to gene expression profiles. We identified a number of differentially expressed genes; in canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII, there were 54 (32 upregulated and 22 downregulated), 23 (15 upregulated and 8 downregulated), and 7 (5 upregulated and 2 downregulated) known genes, respectively. Our data indicate that the numbers of differentially expressed genes were more upregulated than downregulated, and several genes showed conserved signaling to previously known functions. Thus, functional characterization of differentially expressed genes revealed several categories that are involved in important biological processes, including pigmentation, growth, molecular mechanisms, fat metabolism, cell proliferation, immune response, lipid metabolism, and protein synthesis and degradation. The results of the present study demonstrate that the genes associated with canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII are key regulatory genes that control the regulatory mechanisms of pigmentation. PMID:25222226

  2. Genogroup I avian picobirnavirus detected in Brazilian broiler chickens: a molecular epidemiology study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Silva, René; Bezerra, Delana Andreza Melo; Kaiano, Jane Haruko Lima; Oliveira, Darleise de Souza; Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) belongs to the family Picobirnaviridae. Picobirnaviruses contain a bisegmented dsRNA genome that is non-enveloped. A total of 85 pooled faecal samples were collected from the poultry of 37 farms from the Metropolitan Mesoregion of Belém (MMB), Pará state, Brazil. The viral RNA from each sample was analysed by PAGE and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). For each county affected, at least one positive sample was selected, cloned and sequenced. The samples showed a positivity of 15.3 % (13/85) by PAGE and 49.4 % (42/85) by RT-PCR. Sequencing of these strains demonstrated a considerable RdRp gene heterogeneity that ranged from 56.1 to 100 % at the nucleotide level compared with prototypes of different species and water sewage, and from 50.3 to 100 % among themselves. Avian picobirnavirus (AvPBV) was detected in MMB broiler farms and showed a heterogeneous relationship with the prototypes used. This report includes what is believed to be the first gene sequencing of AvPBV in Brazilian broiler chickens. PMID:24108140

  3. Evaluation of Phytate-Degrading Lactobacillus Culture Administration to Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Askelson, Tyler E.; Campasino, Ashley; Lee, Jason T.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been demonstrated to promote growth, stimulate immune responses, and improve food safety of poultry. While widely used, their effectiveness is mixed, and the mechanisms through which they contribute to poultry production are not well understood. Microbial phytases are increasingly supplemented in feed to improve digestibility and reduce antinutritive effects of phytate. The microbial origin of these exogenous enzymes suggests a potentially important mechanism of probiotic functionality. We investigated phytate degradation as a novel probiotic mechanism using recombinant Lactobacillus cultures expressing Bacillus subtilis phytase. B. subtilis phyA was codon optimized for expression in Lactobacillus and cloned into the expression vector pTRK882. The resulting plasmid, pTD003, was transformed into Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, and Lactobacillus gasseri. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein in the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus pTD003 transformants with a molecular weight similar to that of the B. subtilis phytase. Expression of B. subtilis phytase increased phytate degradation of L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, and L. gallinarum approximately 4-, 10-, and 18-fold over the background activity of empty-vector transformants, respectively. Phytase-expressing L. gallinarum and L. gasseri were administered to broiler chicks fed a phosphorus-deficient diet. Phytase-expressing L. gasseri improved weight gain of broiler chickens to a level comparable to that for chickens fed a control diet adequate in phosphorus, demonstrating proof of principle that administration of phytate-degrading probiotic cultures can improve performance of livestock animals. This will inform future studies investigating whether probiotic cultures are able to provide both the performance benefits of feed enzymes and the animal health and food safety benefits traditionally associated with probiotics. PMID:24271165

  4. Digestibility of solvent-treated Jatropha curcas kernel by broiler chickens in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Nesseim, Thierry Daniel Tamsir; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy; Ndiaye, Saliou; Hornick, Jean-Luc

    2015-12-01

    Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The kernel contains approximately 60 % lipid in dry matter, and the meal obtained after oil extraction could be an exceptional source of protein for family poultry farming, in the absence of curcin and, especially, some diterpene derivatives phorbol esters that are partially lipophilic. The nutrient digestibility of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM), obtained after partial physicochemical deoiling was thus evaluated in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens, 6 weeks old, were maintained in individual metabolic cages and divided into four groups of five animals, according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design where deoiled JKM was incorporated into grinded corn at 0, 4, 8, and 12 % levels (diets 0, 4, 8, and 12 J), allowing measurement of nutrient digestibility by the differential method. The dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility of diets was affected to a low extent by JKM (85 and 86 % in 0 J and 81 % in 12 J, respectively) in such a way that DM and OM digestibility of JKM was estimated to be close to 50 %. The ether extract (EE) digestibility of JKM remained high, at about 90 %, while crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) digestibility were largely impacted by JKM, with values closed to 40 % at the highest levels of incorporation. J. curcas kernel presents various nutrient digestibilities but has adverse effects on CP and CF digestibility of the diet. The effects of an additional heat or biological treatment on JKM remain to be assessed. PMID:26255184

  5. Efficacy of narasin in the prevention of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Brennan, J; Bagg, R; Barnum, D; Wilson, J; Dick, P

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of narasin in the control of necrotic enteritis (NE) was investigated in a floor pen study of 2000 broiler chickens using a Clostridium perfringens feed inoculum challenge model. Treatments were 1) nonmedicated, nonchallenged; 2) nonmedicated, challenged; 3) narasin, nonchallenged; 4) narasin, challenged. Narasin was administered at 70 ppm in the feed from day 0 to trial termination on day 41. Challenge inoculum contained approximately 1 x 10(8) colony-forming units CP/ml and was administered from day 14 to day 16. In the unmedicated groups, challenged birds had significantly (P < 0.05) lower mean body weight and reduced feed efficiency at day 21 and significantly (P < 0.01) higher cumulative NE mortality at day 41 compared with unchallenged. Similarly, among unmedicated birds, those challenged had a significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean NE score on day 17 and significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean huddling scores on days 15-17 than unchallenged. Among challenged birds, those fed narasin had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean body weight and improved feed efficiency at days 21 and 41 and significantly (P < 0.01) lower cumulative NE mortality at day 41 than unmedicated. Similarly, among challenged birds, those receiving narasin had a lower mean NE score on day 17 (P > 0.05) and significantly (P < 0.05) lower huddling scores on days 16 and 17 than unmedicated. Coccidiosis lesion scores were zero for birds euthanatized from all treatment groups on day 17, suggesting that the beneficial effects of narasin were not due to prevention of coccidiosis. This study thus provides evidence that narasin is effective in the prevention of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. PMID:11332485

  6. Evaluating interventions against Salmonella in broiler chickens: applying synthesis research in support of quantitative exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Bucher, O; Fazil, A; Rajić, A; Farrar, A; Wills, R; McEwen, S A

    2012-05-01

    A scoping study and systematic review-meta-analyses (SR-MAs) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions for Salmonella in broiler chicken, from grow-out farm to secondary processing. The resulting information was used to inform a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA) comparing various control options within the context of broiler chicken production in Ontario, Canada. Multiple scenarios, including use of two separate on-farm interventions (CF3 competitive exclusion culture and a 2% lactose water additive), a package of processing interventions (a sodium hydroxide scald water disinfectant, a chlorinated post-evisceration spray, a trisodium phosphate pre-chill spray and chlorinated immersion chilling) a package consisting of these farm and processing interventions and a hypothetical scenario (reductions in between-flock prevalence and post-transport concentration), were simulated and compared to a baseline scenario. The package of on-farm and processing interventions was the most effective in achieving relative reductions (compared to baseline with no interventions) in the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella by the end of chilling ranging from 89·94% to 99·87% and 43·88% to 87·78%, respectively. Contaminated carcasses entering defeathering, reductions in concentration due to scalding and post-evisceration washing, and the potential for cross-contamination during chilling had the largest influence on the model outcomes under the current assumptions. Scoping study provided a transparent process for mapping out and selecting promising interventions, while SR-MA was useful for generating more precise and robust intervention effect estimates for QEA. Realization of the full potential of these methods was hampered by low methodological soundness and reporting of primary research in this area. PMID:21781371

  7. Evaluation of phytate-degrading Lactobacillus culture administration to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Askelson, Tyler E; Campasino, Ashley; Lee, Jason T; Duong, Tri

    2014-02-01

    Probiotics have been demonstrated to promote growth, stimulate immune responses, and improve food safety of poultry. While widely used, their effectiveness is mixed, and the mechanisms through which they contribute to poultry production are not well understood. Microbial phytases are increasingly supplemented in feed to improve digestibility and reduce antinutritive effects of phytate. The microbial origin of these exogenous enzymes suggests a potentially important mechanism of probiotic functionality. We investigated phytate degradation as a novel probiotic mechanism using recombinant Lactobacillus cultures expressing Bacillus subtilis phytase. B. subtilis phyA was codon optimized for expression in Lactobacillus and cloned into the expression vector pTRK882. The resulting plasmid, pTD003, was transformed into Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, and Lactobacillus gasseri. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein in the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus pTD003 transformants with a molecular weight similar to that of the B. subtilis phytase. Expression of B. subtilis phytase increased phytate degradation of L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, and L. gallinarum approximately 4-, 10-, and 18-fold over the background activity of empty-vector transformants, respectively. Phytase-expressing L. gallinarum and L. gasseri were administered to broiler chicks fed a phosphorus-deficient diet. Phytase-expressing L. gasseri improved weight gain of broiler chickens to a level comparable to that for chickens fed a control diet adequate in phosphorus, demonstrating proof of principle that administration of phytate-degrading probiotic cultures can improve performance of livestock animals. This will inform future studies investigating whether probiotic cultures are able to provide both the performance benefits of feed enzymes and the animal health and food safety benefits traditionally associated with probiotics. PMID:24271165

  8. Longitudinal Molecular Epidemiological Study of Thermophilic Campylobacters on One Conventional Broiler Chicken Farm▿

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, Anne M.; Morris, Victoria K.; Cawthraw, Shaun A.; Ellis-Iversen, Johanne; Harris, Jillian A.; Kennedy, Emma M.; Newell, Diane G.; Allen, Vivien M.

    2011-01-01

    Improved understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Campylobacter in the poultry farm environment is key to developing appropriate farm-based strategies for preventing flock colonization. The sources of Campylobacter causing broiler flock colonization were investigated on one poultry farm and its environment, from which samples were obtained on three occasions during each of 15 crop cycles. The farm was adjacent to a dairy farm, with which there was a shared concreted area and secondary entrance. There was considerable variation in the Campylobacter status of flocks at the various sampling times, at median ages of 20, 26, and 35 days, with 3 of the 15 flocks remaining negative at slaughter. Campylobacters were recoverable from various locations around the farm, even while the flock was Campylobacter negative, but the degree of environmental contamination increased substantially once the flock was positive. Molecular typing showed that strains from house surroundings and the dairy farm were similar to those subsequently detected in the flock and that several strains intermittently persisted through multiple crop cycles. The longitudinal nature of the study suggested that bovine fecal Campylobacter strains, initially recovered from the dairy yard, may subsequently colonize poultry. One such strain, despite being repeatedly recovered from the dairy areas, failed to colonize the concomitant flock during later crop cycles. The possibility of host adaptation of this strain was investigated with 16-day-old chickens experimentally exposed to this strain naturally present in, or spiked into, bovine feces. Although the birds became colonized by this infection model, the strain may preferentially infect cattle. The presence of Campylobacter genotypes in the external environment of the poultry farm, prior to their detection in broiler chickens, confirms the horizontal transmission of these bacteria into the flock and highlights the risk from multispecies farms. PMID

  9. Efficacy of diclazuril in comparison with chemical and ionophorous anticoccidials against Eimeria spp. in broiler chickens in floor pens.

    PubMed

    Conway, D P; Mathis, G F; Johnson, J; Schwartz, M; Baldwin, C

    2001-04-01

    Two 42-d floor pen studies were conducted with commercial broiler chickens to measure the efficacy of 1 ppm diclazuril in the starter or grower diet in shuttle programs with 66 ppm salinomycin. Study 1 compared a salinomycin to diclazuril (starter to grower diet) shuttle treatment with salinomycin to salinomycin, salinomycin to 100 ppm monensin, salinomycin to 99.8 ppm lasalocid, and unmedicated treatments. Study 2 compared a diclazuril to salinomycin (starter to grower) shuttle treatment with 125 ppm nicarbazin to salinomycin, 79.2 ppm narasin + nicarbazin to salinomycin, 125 ppm zoalene to salinomycin, and unmedicated treatments. Fifty 1-d-old chicks were randomly allotted to each of 10 pens per treatment in each study using a randomized complete block design. Starter (Days 0 to 21) and grower (Days 22 to 37) diets in each study contained 55 ppm bacitracin methylene disalicylate. The finisher diet (Days 38 to 42) in each study was unmedicated. Birds were inoculated via their feed on Day 22 (Study 1) or Day 15 (Study 2) with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Four birds per pen (two male and two female) were randomly selected in each study for coccidial lesion scores on Day 6 postinoculation. These studies demonstrated that the use of 1 ppm diclazuril in shuttle programs was highly efficacious against a mixed inoculum of Eimeria spp. in comparison with nicarbazin, narasin + nicarbazin, and zoalene in starter diets and salinomycin, monensin, and lasalocid in grower diets. PMID:11297280

  10. The effects of increasing levels of dietary garlic bulb on growth performance, systolic blood pressure, hematology, and ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Varmaghany, Saifali; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Lotfollahian, Houshang; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The effects of dietary garlic bulb were studied separately on hematological parameters, ascites incidence, and growth performance of an ascites susceptible broiler hybrid under both standard temperature conditions ( STC: ) and cold temperature conditions ( CTC: ). A total of 336 one-day-old male broiler chickens were allocated to 4 experimental groups with 4 replicates of 21 birds each under STC. In addition, the same grouping with another 336 birds was used for CTC. Under CTC, the birds were exposed to cold temperatures for induction of ascites. Experimental groups were defined by the inclusion of 0 (control), 5, 10 or 15 g/kg garlic bulbs in the diets under both STC and CTC. Growth performance, systolic blood pressure (as a measure of systemic arterial blood pressure), physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as ascites indices (right ventricle [ RV: ], total ventricle [ TV: ] weights, and RV/TV: ) were evaluated. Systolic blood pressure was determined using an indirect method with a sphygmomanometer, a pediatric cuff, and a Doppler device. The final body weight decreased quadratically (P = 0.003), with increasing garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. The feed conversion ratio showed no significant differences among all groups under both STC and CTC. No significant differences were observed in total mortality and ascites-related mortality in all groups under STC, although total mortality (L: P = 0.01; Q: P = 0.001) and ascites-related mortality (L: P = 0.007; Q: P = 0.001) were significantly different among the diets under CTC. Under STC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, RV, TV, and RV/TV did not vary significantly among the diets. However, red blood cell count and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased linearly (P < 0.005) with increasing garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. Under CTC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased

  11. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin in healthy and E. coli-infected broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Ela, F I; Radi, A M; El-Banna, H A; El-Gendy, A A M; Tohamy, M A

    2014-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of difloxacin were investigated in healthy and E. coli-infected broiler chickens following intravenous and oral administration of a single dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight. 2. After intravenous injection of difloxacin, the serum concentration-time curves were best described by a two-compartment open model. The distribution and elimination half-lives (t0.5α) and (t0.5el), respectively, were 0.10 ± 0.016 h and 3.7 ± 0.08 h in healthy chickens compared with 0.05 ± 0.005 h and 6.42 ± 0.71 h in E. coli-infected birds. The volumes of distribution Vdss were 3.14 ± 0.11 and 9.25 ± 0.43 l/kg, with total body clearance (Cltot) of 0.65 ± 0.018 and 1.14 ± 0.1 ml/kg/h, respectively. 3. Following oral administration, difloxacin was absorbed with t0.5(ab) of 0.57 ± 0.06 and 0.77 ± 0.04 h and was eliminated with t0.5(el) of 4.7 ± 0.34 and 3.42 ± 0.19, respectively, in normal and infected chickens. The peak serum concentrations were 1.34 ± 0.09 and 1.05 ± 0.06 µg/ml and attained a Tmax of 2.27 ± 0.07 and 2.43 ± 0.06 h, respectively. The systemic bioavailability of difloxacin following oral administration was 86.2% in healthy chickens and 90.6% in E. coli-infected birds. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of difloxacin against the field strain of E. coli O78 in vitro were 0.02 µg and 0.04 µg/ml, respectively. 4. These results show that administration of a therapeutic dose of difloxacin is effective in the treatment of E. coli infection in chickens. The serum concentration of the drug was much higher than the MIC of the E. coli O78 strain in both healthy and infected chickens. PMID:25229385

  12. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  13. Molecular detection of chicken parvovirus in broilers with enteric disorders presenting curving of duodenal loop, pancreatic atrophy, and mesenteritis.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, L F N; Sá, L R M; Parra, S H S; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Carranza, C; Ferreira, A J P

    2016-04-01

    Enteric disorders are an important cause of economic losses in broiler chickens worldwide. Several agents have been associated with enteric problems, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. In this study, broiler chickens showing signs of enteric disorders were subjected to molecular diagnosis for several viral agents and also for pathological examination for elucidating this problem. Thus, the chickens were screened for avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian rotavirus (ArtV), avian reovirus (AReoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fowl adenovirus group I (FAdV-1), and chicken parvovirus (ChPV). Postmortem examinations revealed a curving of the duodenal loop (J-like appearance) and intestines filled with liquid and gaseous content. Histopathological analysis of the duodenal loop showed pancreatic atrophy, acute mesenteritis, and enteritis. PCR results showed that ChPV was the sole viral agent detected in samples with lesions such as the curved duodenal loop and pancreatic atrophy. Molecular characterization of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity with other strains of ChPV from Brazil, Canada, United States, Europe, and Asia. These findings suggest an association between ChPV and the development of enteritis, pancreatitis, and pancreatic atrophy, which may lead to curling of the duodenal loop. Together, these alterations may disrupt the normal functioning of the digestive system, diminishing digestion and the absorption of dietary nutrients and consequently leading to reduced weight gain, flock impairment, dwarfism, and an elevated feed conversion rate. PMID:26908891

  14. Effect of dietary dehydrated pasture and citrus pulp on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mourão, J L; Pinheiro, V M; Prates, J A M; Bessa, R J B; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Ponte, P I P

    2008-04-01

    Some feedstuffs containing significant levels of fiber may be a good source of bioactive compounds that may contribute to improving broiler meat quality. However, high fiber level can have a negative impact on broiler performance. A study was undertaken to investigate the impact of incorporating citrus pulp (5 or 10%) or dehydrated pasture (5 or 10%) on the performance, carcass yield, and characteristics of broiler chickens. A diet containing neither citrus pulp nor dehydrated pasture was used as control. The results on growth performances showed that daily weight gain was reduced by 26% in birds of the 10% citrus pulp treatment (P<0.05). Compared with the control treatment, increases in feed intake occurred in birds consuming diets with 5 or 10% citrus pulp, which resulted in significantly higher feed conversion rates with the 10% level. Under the same incorporation rate, dehydrated pasture had effects less evident on the performances of broiler chicken. In addition, diets containing citrus pulp, displaying higher percentages of soluble nonstarch polysaccharides, increased small intestine relative length, and reduced carcass yield. Inclusion of 10% dehydrated pasture in diets resulted in improved breast skin yellowness (P<0.05). Finally, the results revealed that incorporation of the nonstarch polysaccharide-rich feedstuffs had a major impact on the fatty acid profile (affected 16 of 21 fatty acids) of broiler meat. Polyunsaturated fatty acids content in meat was higher in birds consuming the highest levels of both citrus pulp and dehydrated pasture, leading to increased ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids. Together, the results suggest that incorporation of moderate levels of dehydrated pastures in poultry diets has a minor impact on broiler performance and can contribute significantly to improve breast skin yellowness and fatty acid composition of meat. PMID:18339996

  15. The Functions of Antioxidants and Heat Shock Proteins Are Altered in the Immune Organs of Selenium-Deficient Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Ci; Zheng, Weijia; Teng, Xiaohua; Li, Shu

    2016-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence indicating the essential involvement of selenium (Se) in the immune system, the effect of Se deficiency on the regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) in broiler chickens is still unclear. In the present study, we established an exudative diathesis (ED) broiler chicken model caused by Se deficiency. We then analyzed histological observations and detected the expression levels of Hsps and antioxidant indexes in immune tissues. The antioxidant function declined remarkably, and most of the Hsp expression levels increased significantly in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the broiler chicks with ED (except the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Hsp27, Hsp40, and Hsp70, which decreased in thymus tissues from the treatment groups); therefore, constitutive oxidation resistance and higher Hsps in broiler chicks with ED caused defects in immune organ morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal histological structures: red pulp broadening and lymphocytes in the cortex and medulla of the thymic lobule decreased distinctly and distributed loosely. These results underscore the importance of Se in establishing an immune organ microenvironment conducive to normal function. PMID:26123162

  16. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (p<0.05) during the heat stress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; p<0.05), which was earlier than the time of increase in layer-type roosters. Based on a chicken 44 K oligo microarray, 163 genes were found to be expressed significantly different in the testes of the heat-stressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration. PMID:25932638

  17. Effects of feeding different lipid sources on hepatic histopathology features and growth traits of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Perillo, Antonella; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-10-01

    The effects of different dietary lipid sources on growth traits and hepatic histopathology of broiler chickens were investigated. Hubbard strain one-day old chickens (n=120) were kept in pens and were fed one of the three corn-soybean meal-based diets until 49 days of age. The dietary treatments consisted of 2.5% added oil or fat from three sources as follows: SFO diet containing sunflower oil; LRD diet containing lard, and EVOO diet containing extra-virgin olive oil. Dietary oil or fat type improved significantly body weight and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed EVOO compared to those fed the other treatments. Based on our findings, after the whole experimental feeding period it was possible to observe relevant injuries to the liver of the chicks fed with lard, whereas the hepatic histopathological changes appeared less marked or absent in the chicks fed vegetable oils from sunflower or olive. Thus, we can conclude that dietary lipid source affected chicks performance and hepatic histopathology especially when chicks fed diet containing animal fats; whereas feeding extra-virgin olive oil supported positively growth traits and did not result in hepatic histopathological effects. PMID:26277050

  18. Proteomic Changes in the Plasma of Broiler Chickens with Femoral Head Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O; Okimoto, Ronald; Rath, Narayan C

    2016-01-01

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens, where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The selected birds with FHN showed higher body weights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of healthy and FHN-affected chickens were explored using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to prospect for protein biomarkers. We isolated two differentially expressed low molecular weight proteins and identified them by MALDI peptide mass fingerprinting as fibrinogen- and fetuin-derived peptides, respectively. These peptides were reduced in birds susceptible to femoral head problems. Quantitation of LC-MS/MS spectra showed elevated levels of gallinacin-9, apolipoprotein A1, and hemoglobin and reduced levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin, and SPINK7 proteins in FHN. These results suggest that the bodyweight and the lipid profiles along with the above proteins can be useful as noninvasive biomarkers of FHN. PMID:27147818

  19. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds' glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology. PMID:27170597

  20. Isolation and Metagenomic Identification of Avian Leukosis Virus Associated with Mortality in Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate. PMID:27597865

  1. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology.

  2. Nd:YAG laser in experimentally induced chronic degenerative osteoarthritis in broiler chickens: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Cardillo, Ilaria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    The Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been widely tested in arthritis disorders, but there is still some disagreement in the results, therefore in this study we have investigated High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT). The degenerative arthritis was induced in 18 chickens by intra-articular inoculation of Freund's complete adjuvant. Clinical studies were carried out (weight increase and grades of lameness) as well as morphological (macroscopic and histological) tests and seroassay (C Reactive Protein). The Nd:YAG pulsed wave was employed. The serologic data revealed the anti-inflammatory effect on the laser, with a highly significant difference between those treated and the control group. No lesion on the skin, i.e. burn, or in depth has been observed in the Treated group. Heavyline of broiler chickens in growing age has been revealed a good animal model of O.A.. The Nd:YAG Pulsed Wave it is safe on these structures. The anti-inflammatory effect of the HILT it seems to contrast the destructive degenerative process.

  3. Effects of feeding plant-derived agents on the colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kurekci, Cemil; Al Jassim, Rafat; Hassan, Errol; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Padmanabha, Jagadish; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to test the potential use of plant-derived extracts and compounds to control Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. Over a 7-wk feeding period, birds were fed a commercial diet with or without plant extracts (Acacia decurrens, Eremophila glabra), essential oil [lemon myrtle oil (LMO)], plant secondary compounds [terpinene-4-ol and α-tops (including α-terpineol, cineole, and terpinene-4-ol)], and the antibiotic virginiamycin. Traditional culture and real-time quantitative PCR techniques were used to enumerate the numbers of C. jejuni in chicken fecal and cecal samples. In addition, BW and feed intake were recorded weekly for the calculation of BW gain and feed conversion ratio. The mean log10 counts of C. jejuni were similar (P > 0.05) across treatments. However, significantly lower levels of fecal Campylobacter counts (P < 0.05) were recorded at d 41 for the α-tops treatment by culture methods. No differences (P > 0.05) in BW gain were obtained for dietary supplementation, except for the E. glabra extract, which had a negative impact (P < 0.001) on BW, resulting in sporadic death. Results from this study suggest that supplemental natural compounds used in the current study did not reduce the shedding of C. jejuni to desired levels. PMID:25002548

  4. Proteomic Changes in the Plasma of Broiler Chickens with Femoral Head Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O.; Okimoto, Ronald; Rath, Narayan C.

    2016-01-01

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens, where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The selected birds with FHN showed higher body weights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of healthy and FHN-affected chickens were explored using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to prospect for protein biomarkers. We isolated two differentially expressed low molecular weight proteins and identified them by MALDI peptide mass fingerprinting as fibrinogen- and fetuin-derived peptides, respectively. These peptides were reduced in birds susceptible to femoral head problems. Quantitation of LC-MS/MS spectra showed elevated levels of gallinacin-9, apolipoprotein A1, and hemoglobin and reduced levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin, and SPINK7 proteins in FHN. These results suggest that the bodyweight and the lipid profiles along with the above proteins can be useful as noninvasive biomarkers of FHN. PMID:27147818

  5. In-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens from commercial turkey and broiler chicken origin.

    PubMed

    Watkins, K L; Shryock, T R; Dearth, R N; Saif, Y M

    1997-02-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of eight antibiotics and two anticoccidial agents were determined for Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from 26 commercial broiler farms and 22 commercial turkey farms. Isolates were obtained from the intestines of birds on the farm or as the processing plant using standard culture and identification techniques. The microbroth dilution test was used to determine the MIC for each compound. Most isolates from chickens had MICs in the range of 2-16 mg/L for tilmicosin, tylosin and virginiamycin, whereas the MICs for avilamycin, avoparcin, monensin, narasin and penicillin were < or = 1 mg/L. Most strains from chickens had high MICs (> or = 64 mg/L) and appeared to be resistant to bacitracin and lincomycin. Most turkey isolates had MICs in the range of 2-16 mg/L for bacitracin, tilmicosin, tylosin and virginiamycin, with strains exhibiting MICs < or = 1 mg/L for avilamycin, avoparcin, monensin, narasin and penicillin. Several turkey isolates had MICs > or = 64 mg/L to lincomycin. No attempt was made to associate farm usage of a particular antibiotic to the antibiograms. PMID:9057262

  6. The effects of bee pollen extracts on the broiler chicken's gastrointestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Rovná, Katarína; Arpášová, Henrieta; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Haščík, Peter; Cuboň, Juraj; Pavelková, Adriana; Chlebo, Róbert; Bobková, Alica; Stričík, Michal

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bee pollen ethanolic extracts on the in vivo gastrointestinal tract microflora colonization of broiler chickens. A completely randomized experiment based on six treatments (different concentrations of bee pollen - 0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 g kg(-1) diet) was used during 7 weeks. The highest count of faecal Enterococci was found in the experimental group with the addition of 15 g of pollen (8.85 ± 0.87 log CFU g(-1)) per 1 kg of feed mixture. The highest count of Lactobacilli was detected in the experimental group with 35 g of pollen per 1 kg of feed mixture and the highest number of the Enterobacteriaceae genera count was found in the control group (8.43 ± 0.15 log CFU g(-1)). Moreover, the MALDI TOF MS Biotyper identified the following genera: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, as well as Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. fermentum and L. salivarius from the Lactobacilli group and Enterococcus avium, E. casseliflavus, E. cecorum, E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. gallinarum, E. hirae and E. malodoratus from the Enterococci group. Additionally, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of pollen against five bacteria species isolated from gastrointestinal tracts of chickens were tested. The best antimicrobial effect of the pollen extract was detected against K. oxytoca. PMID:23548478

  7. Isolation and Metagenomic Identification of Avian Leukosis Virus Associated with Mortality in Broiler Chicken.

    PubMed

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate. PMID:27597865

  8. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology. PMID:27170597

  9. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2011-01-01

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in all of the treatment groups that were supplemented with Aloe vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p < 0.05) than the unsupplemented group following infection. The findings of this study suggest that Aloe vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis. PMID:20723543

  10. Mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of the feed contaminant deoxynivalenol on glucose absorption in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Zentek, J

    2014-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a major contaminant of cereals and grains, is of public health concern worldwide and has been shown to reduce the electrogenic transport of glucose. However, the full effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on nutrient absorption are still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether decreased nutrient absorption was due to specific effects on transporter trafficking in the intestine and whether inhibition of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) affected the electrogenic jejunal transport of glucose. Jejunal mucosa of 6-week-old broiler chickens were mounted in Ussing chambers and treated with DON, wortmannin (a specific inhibitor of PI-3-kinase), DON + wortmannin, phlorizin and cytochalasin B. DON was found to decrease the short-circuit current (Isc) after glucose addition. A similar decline in Isc after glucose addition was observed following pre-application of wortmannin, or phlorizin (Na(+)/glucose co-transporter, SGLT1 inhibitor). The results indicate that DON decreased glucose absorption in the absence of wortmannin or phlorizin but had no additional effect on glucose absorption in their presence. Glucose transport was not affected by cytochalasin B (facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT2 inhibitor). The study provides evidence that the suppressive effect of DON on the electrogenic transport of glucose may be due to an inhibitory activity of the PI3 kinase pathway and intestinal SGLT1. Furthermore, the effect of cytochalasin B on glucose transport in chicken tissues differs from that in mammals. PMID:25011710

  11. Mass spectrometric analysis of muscle samples to detect potential antibiotic growth promoter misuse in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R; Cooper, K M; Kennedy, D G; Elliott, C T

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods were developed and validated for the analysis in chicken muscle of a range of antibiotic growth promoters: spiramycin, tylosin, virginiamycin and bacitracin, and separately for two marker metabolites of carbadox (quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid and 1,4-bisdesoxycarbadox), and a marker metabolite of olaquindox (3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid). The use of these compounds as antibiotic growth promoters has been banned by the European Commission. This study aimed to develop methods to detect their residues in muscle samples as a means of checking for the use of these drugs during the rearing of broiler chickens. When fed growth-promoting doses for 6 days, spiramycin (31.4 µg kg(-1)), tylosin (1.0 µg kg(-1)), QCA (6.5 µg kg(-1)), DCBX (71.2 µg kg(-1)) and MQCA (0.2 µg kg(-1)) could be detected in the muscle 0 days after the withdrawal of fortified feed. Only spiramycin could consistently be detected beyond a withdrawal period of 1 day. All analytes showed stability to a commercial cooking process, therefore raw or cooked muscle could be used for monitoring purposes. PMID:22784097

  12. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseedmeal in the diets of broiler chickens*

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Cun-xi; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Yong-qiang; Liu, Yan-feng; Ge, Wen-xia; Liu, Jian-cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid metabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets. PMID:26055906

  13. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Organic Acids on Performance, Intestinal Histomorphology, and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Adil, Sheikh; Banday, Tufail; Bhat, Gulam Ahmad; Mir, Masood Saleem; Rehman, Manzoor

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of organic acids on the performance, intestinal histomorphology, and blood biochemistry of broiler chicken. The birds in the control (T1) group were fed the basal diet whereas in other treatment groups basal diet was supplemented with 2% butyric acid (T2), 3% butyric acid (T4), 2% fumaric acid (T4), 3% fumaric acid (T5), 2% lactic acid (T6), and 3% lactic acid (T7). Broiler chicken fed diets supplemented with organic acids had significantly (P < .05) improved body weight gains and feed conversion ratio. No effect (P < .05) on cumulative feed consumption was observed. The addition of organic increased villus height in the small intestines but the differences were not significant (P < .05) in case of the ileum. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were increased (P < .05) but no effect (P < .05) on the concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) was observed. The results indicated that the organic acid supplementation, irrespective of type and level of acid used, had a beneficial effect on the performance of broiler chicken. PMID:20613998

  14. Mortality from heat stress in broiler chickens influenced by anticoccidial drugs.

    PubMed

    McDougald, L R; McQuistion, T E

    1980-11-01

    The relationship of anticoccidial drug to heat stress mortality in broilers was studied in a replicated floor-pen experiment during a period of hot weather in Georgia. Overall mortality during the 8-week study averaged 6% in unmedicated and monensin-medicated birds or lasalocid-medicated birds, 10% in arprinocid-medicated birds, and 36% in nicarbazin-medicated birds. Most of the death losses were attributed to heat stress. Maximum death losses coincided with three periods of hot weather, when the birds were 22, 33, or 49 days old. Of 114 dead birds in the nicarbazin treatment, 68 were male and 46 were female. PMID:7465511

  15. Comparison of different anticoccidials on processing characteristics and parts yield of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Izat, A L; Colberg, M; Reiber, M A; Adams, M H; Skinner, J T; Cabel, M C; Stilborn, H L; Waldroup, P W

    1991-06-01

    Broilers were grown to 42 days of age on diets supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg), monensin (99 mg/kg), or halofuginone (3 mg/kg) and continued on unmedicated diets to 49 days of age. There were no significant (P greater than .05) differences among anticoccidials in final body weight, feed conversion, or mortality rates. Samples of birds were processed for dressing percentage and parts yield. Both males and females fed salinomycin had significantly higher breast meat yield as a percentage of postchill weight than those fed halofuginone but not those fed monensin; differences were not significant for breast meat yield of males or females fed monensin or halofuginone. Males fed halofuginone had significantly heavier leg quarters than those fed salinomycin but not those fed monensin. Females fed salinomycin had significantly higher water uptake during chill than those fed monensin or halofuginone. Results of the present study indicate that the anticoccidial used in growing broilers may influence some carcass yield parameters. PMID:1886848

  16. Effect of genotype, gender and feed restriction on growth, meat quality and the occurrence of white striping and wooden breast in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Trocino, A; Piccirillo, A; Birolo, M; Radaelli, G; Bertotto, D; Filiou, E; Petracci, M; Xiccato, G

    2015-12-01

    Due to their importance for the control of meat quality in broiler chickens, the present study aimed at identifying the factors associated with the occurrence of myopathies and characterizing the meat properties when affected by myopathies. To this aim, a total of 768 broiler chickens were reared until slaughter (46 d) to evaluate the effect of genotype, gender, and feeding regime (ad libitum vs. restricted rate, 80% from 13 to 21 d of age) on performance and meat quality. Standard broilers were heavier (3,270 vs. 3,139 g; P<0.001) and showed lower feed conversion (1.56 vs. 1.61; P<0.001) than the high-yield broilers. Males showed higher final live weight (3,492 vs. 2,845 g) and lower feed conversion (1.54 vs. 1.63) than females (P<0.001). Feed restriction decreased final live weight (3,194 vs. 3,142 g; P<0.01) and feed conversion (1.60 vs. 1.57; P<0.01) compared to ad libitum feeding. At gross examination, feed restriction tended to increase white-striped breasts (69.5 vs. 79.5%; P<0.10), whereas females showed less wooden breasts than males (8.0 vs. 16.3%; P<0.05). White-striped fillets had higher pHu (5.87 vs. 5.83), and lower a* (-0.81 vs. -0.59) and b* color indexes (13.7 vs. 14.5) (P<0.05), whereas wooden breast fillets exhibited higher cooking losses (25.6 vs. 22.1%) and AK-shear force (4.23 vs. 2.84 kg/g) compared with normal fillets (P<0.001). At histological examination, 3.1% of pectoralis major were normal, 26.6% mildly degenerated, 45.3% moderately degenerated, and 25.0% severely degenerated. In conclusion, genotype had a moderate effect on growth without modifying myopathy occurrence. In contrast, gender and feed restriction affected performance, meat quality, and breast abnormalities. PMID:26475069

  17. Discrepancy between the occurrence of Arcobacter in chickens and broiler carcass contamination.

    PubMed

    Van Driessche, E; Houf, K

    2007-04-01

    Both Campylobacter and Arcobacter are commonly present on broiler carcasses. For Campylobacter, the superficial contamination originates predominantly from fecal contamination during slaughter. In contrast with Campylobacter, the source of the Arcobacter contamination is not clear. In several studies, arcobacters have been isolated in poultry processing plants from the carcasses and slaughter equipment, but not from the intestinal content. In literature, contradictory reports about the Arcobacter colonization of the chicken gut have been published. In most of those studies, arcobacters were not isolated from cecal content nor from litter or the feathers, though some studies reported the isolation of arcobacters from cloacal swab samples. The present study assessed if arcobacters are part of the chicken intestine, skin, or feather flora. Because no isolation protocol has been validated for poultry intestinal content, a previously developed Arcobacter isolation procedure for feces from livestock animals was first validated. With this method, a good repeatability, in-lab reproducibility and sensitivity, and a good suppression of the chicken fecal accompanying flora were achieved when 125 mg/L of 5-fluorouracil, 10 mg/L of amphotericine B, 100 mg/L of cycloheximide, 16 mg/L of cefoperazone, 64 mg/L of novobiocine, and 64 mg/L of trimethoprim were applied. The validated method was used to examine the presence of arcobacters in and on living chickens of 4 flocks at slaughter age. Because arcobacters were not isolated from the intestinal tract nor from the skin or feathers of the birds, this study was not able to identify arcobacters as part of the intestinal or skin flora, nor could confirm the role of process water as reservoir. However, the results clearly demonstrated that the time period for processing the samples and the way of sample collection are crucial in the interpretation of epidemiological studies. As the reservoir of the carcass contamination remains

  18. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment. PMID:23815735

  19. Effect of plant extracts derived from thyme on male broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Fahimeh; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Golian, Abolghasem; Nassiri-Moghaddam, Hassan

    2015-11-01

    The effect of dietary thyme-oil extract (TOE) supplementation on immune functions of broilers were assessed by feeding graded levels (50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm) of TOE to male broiler chicks during a 42-d feeding trial compared with negative- or positive-control diets. Dietary control treatments included a negative-control diet with no feed-additive supplementation and 2 positive-control groups supplemented with either virginiamycin or zinc bacitracin. In total, 300 1-day-old Ross × Ross male broilers were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments that consisted of 5 replicates of 10 birds each. On d 21 and 42, 2 birds from each replicate were killed by cervical cutting to measure the relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius. At 25 d of age, chicks were injected with 0.5 mL of 10% SRBC suspension. Broilers fed with 200 ppm of TOE had heavier weights of bursa of Fabricius than those fed other dietary treatments at d 42 of age. Furthermore, dietary inclusion of 100 ppm of TOE resulted in higher (P < 0.05) total immunoglobulin response in primary antibody titer against sheep erythrocytes compared with other dietary treatments. On the other hand, diet modifications had no significant effect on blood leukocyte subpopulations and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with TOE, especially at the level of 100 ppm, can improve immunological responses of broiler chicks. PMID:26362978

  20. Replication of recombinant herpesvirus of turkey expressing genes of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in specific pathogen free and broiler chickens following in ovo and subcutaneous vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L; Guy, James S; Turpin, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Replication of a recombinant herpesvirus of turkey vaccine expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus genes (rHVT-LT) was evaluated in specific pathogen free (SPF) and commercial broiler chickens after various vaccination protocols (amniotic route at embryonation day [ED] 18; intra-embryonic route at ED 19; and subcutaneous at 1 day of age [s.c.]). Three experiments were conducted: in the first experiment, replication of rHVT-LT vaccine was chronologically evaluated and compared with the replication of herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) in SPF chickens; in the second experiment, the effect of different in ovo vaccination procedures on rHVT-LT vaccine replication was evaluated in SPF chickens; and in the third experiment, the effect of different in ovo vaccination procedures on rHVT-LT vaccine replication was evaluated in commercial broiler chickens with maternal antibodies against HVT and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (LTV). rHVT-LT vaccine replicated in chickens after in ovo (ED 18 and ED 19) or s.c. administration at a similar level. In vivo replication of rHVT-LT vaccine was slower than HVT vaccine. However, in vivo both rHVT-LT and HVT vaccines replicated at similar levels. Both vaccines were consistently detected in the spleen and feather pulp and at lower frequency in the lung. The frequency of samples with detectable levels of rHVT-LT DNA was lower in broiler chickens than in SPF chickens, probably due to interactions with maternal antibodies. Differences between SPF chickens and broiler chickens were found also in the transcription of the LTV glycoprotein I gene (gI). In SPF chickens, in ovo inoculation resulted in a higher number of spleen samples with detectable gI transcripts than s.c. inoculation. In broiler chickens, however, no differences in the level of gI transcripts in spleen samples were found between chickens vaccinated in ovo and those vaccinated by the s.c. route. Transcription of LTV gI gene in lung samples was very low in both SPF and

  1. Treatment with PPARα Agonist Clofibrate Inhibits the Transcription and Activation of SREBPs and Reduces Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Liver of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Shenghua; Shangguan, Mingjun; Xue, Lina; Zhang, Bianying; Ding, Fuxiang; Hui, Dequan; Liang, Aihua; He, Dongchang

    2015-01-01

    PPARα agonist clofibrate reduces cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in rodent liver by an inhibition of SREBP-dependent gene expression. In present study we investigated the regulation mechanisms of the triglyceride- and cholesterol-lowering effect of the PPARα agonist clofibrate in broiler chickens. We observed that PPARα agonist clofibrate decreases the mRNA and protein levels of LXRα and the mRNA and both precursor and nuclear protein levels of SREBP1 and SREBP2 as well as the mRNA levels of the SREBP1 (FASN and GPAM) and SREBP2 (HMGCR and LDLR) target genes in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group, whereas the mRNA level of INSIG2, which inhibits SREBP activation, was increased in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group. Taken together, the effects of PPARα agonist clofibrate on lipid metabolism in liver of broiler chickens involve inhibiting transcription and activation of SREBPs and SREBP-dependent lipogenic and cholesterologenic gene expression, thereby resulting in a reduction of the triglyceride and cholesterol levels in liver of broiler chickens. PMID:26693219

  2. Mating behavior and fertility of broiler breeder males reared on shortened growth cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the more difficult tasks when raising broiler breeder cockerels is controlling weight gain in the rearing house without inflicting excess stress. This is a period of time for the young male when many portions of reproductive system are in the formative stages and, if neglected, can have lif...

  3. Genome-wide RNA-Seq analysis of breast muscles of two broiler chicken groups differing in shear force.

    PubMed

    Piórkowska, K; Żukowski, K; Nowak, J; Połtowicz, K; Ropka-Molik, K; Gurgul, A

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a whole transcriptome analysis of breast muscles was conducted in broiler chicken groups differing in shear force. Shear force is a determinant of tenderness, which in turn is one of the most important parameters of meat quality in chickens. In our analysis, a total of 11,560 transcripts and 9824 genes per sample were identified. In chickens with more tender meat, up-regulation of 19 genes and down-regulation of 49 genes was observed. The up-regulated gene group included the ASB2 gene, which is probably involved in the meat conversion process, as its product results in the degradation of filamins, proteins which form muscle fibres. In the down-regulated gene group, genes which play a role in lipogenesis (THRSP, PLIN1) and in collagen synthesis (P4HA3, LEPREL4, PCOLCE2, COL16A1, COL20A1, VWA1) were detected. Their presence suggests the involvement of the extracellular matrix in the determination of meat tenderness. Thus, our study identified a pool of genes that may participate in the tenderisation process in broiler chickens. PMID:26592359

  4. Kitchen practices used in handling broiler chickens and survival of Campylobacter spp. on cutting surfaces in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wanyenya, Irene; Muyanja, Charles; Nasinyama, George William

    2004-09-01

    Cross-contamination during food preparation has been identified as an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. Handling practices used during preparation of broiler chickens in 31 fast-food restaurants and 86 semisettled street stands (street vendors) were assessed by use of a standard checklist. These establishments used wood, plastic, or metal cutting surfaces during the preparation of broiler chickens. The survival of Campylobacter spp. on kitchen cutting surfaces was determined by inoculating approximately 10(6) CFU of Campylobacter jejuni onto sterile plastic, wooden, and metal cutting boards. The concentrations of the organisms were then assessed in triplicate on each type of cutting board over a 3-h period using standard microbiological methods for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. In 87% of food establishments, the same work area was used for preparation of raw and cooked chicken, and in 68% of these establishments the same cutting boards were used for raw and cooked chicken. None of the establishments applied disinfectants or sanitizers when washing contact surfaces. Campylobacter spp. survived on wooden and plastic but not on metal cutting boards after 3 h of exposure. The handling practices in food preparation areas, therefore, provide an opportunity for cross-contamination of Campylobacter spp. to ready-to-eat foods. PMID:15453589

  5. Influence of enrofloxacin traces in drinking water to doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetics in healthy and infected by Mycoplasma gallisepticum broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Posyniak, Andrzej; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Sell, Bartosz; Gajda, Anna; Sawicka, Anna; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Bladek, Tomasz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Zmudzki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens., Two experimental groups, received of enrofloxacin in water and all groups, received 20 mg kg(-1) bw of doxycycline. The compounds concentrations in muscles and livers were determined by LC-MS/MS. The maximum drug tissue concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline was highest in liver obtained from infected chickens which, received enrofloxacin traces (ENR + DC/MG). It was about 40% higher than in healthy chickens from group I which received only doxycycline. It was found that the concentration-time curve AUC(0-t) values in group ENR + DC/MG were almost 75% higher than in the group (DC) and 35% higher than in group (ENR + DC) which also received enrofloxacin traces. The constant exposure of broiler chickens on enrofloxacin traces as well as infection, may significantly influenced on doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetic profile. PMID:26875641

  6. Nutrition and immunity: the effects of the combination of arginine and tryptophan on growth performance, serum parameters and immune response in broiler chickens challenged with infectious bursal disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Emadi, M; Jahanshiri, F; Kaveh, K; Hair-Bejo, M; Ideris, A; Alimon, A R

    2011-02-01

    To explore the effects of the combination of tryptophan (Trp) and arginine (Arg) on growth performance, serum parameters and immune response of broiler chickens challenged with intermediate plus strain of infectious bursal disease virus vaccine, an in vivo experiment was conducted. A corn-soybean meal-based diet containing different levels of Arg and Trp was used. Cobb500 male broiler chickens from 0 to 49 days of age were subjected to a diet supplemented with the combination of Trp and Arg. Growth performance parameters and serum parameters were measured at 27 and 49 days of age. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of the combination of Trp and Arg on the challenged chickens, we measured the serum levels of interferon-α, interferon-γ and immunoglobulin G at 27, 35, 42, and 49 days of age. The results showed that the three evaluated immune system parameters including interferon-α, interferon-γ and immunoglobulin G were significantly enhanced after treatment. This enhancement resulted in the recovery of infectious bursal disease virus-infected chickens compared with controls as confirmed by histopathological examinations. Moreover, serum parameters such as albumin and total protein increased, whereas the treatment decreased (P<0.05) the feed:gain ratio, aspartate amino-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, triglyceride and cholesterol. These findings suggest that the combination of Arg and Trp has a regulatory effect on growth performance. Moreover, it modulates the systemic immune response against infectious bursal disease. PMID:21331949

  7. Daily energy intake of broiler chickens is altered by proximate nutrient content and form of the diet.

    PubMed

    Latshaw, J D

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was designed to test the ability of broiler chickens to equalize daily energy intake when proximate components of the diet were changed. A factorial arrangement was used to test effects of protein, fat, and fiber content in the diet. The simplest diet contained only corn and soybean meal to provide energy and protein. Protein contents were calculated to be 16.4, 18.2, and 20.0%, with added protein from a combination of corn gluten meal, fish meal, and peanut meal. Hydrolyzed fat was added at 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% of the diets. A combination of alfalfa meal, oats, and wheat middlings was used to increase the fiber of the corn soy diet by approximately 2 and 4%. The 36 combinations were fed as mash. In addition, 8 of the diets were fed as pellets. All diets were fed for 12 d from the time broilers reached approximately 1.2 kg. A total excreta collection was used to determine ME, and carcass analysis provided fat and energy content. When fed mash, only sex had a significant effect on grams of feed eaten per day. Sex and dietary fat content affected gain per day. Sex, fat, and fiber altered the kcal of ME eaten per day. Broilers fed 5% added fat ate approximately 10% more energy per day than those fed no added fat, and broilers fed 4% added fiber ate approximately 20% less ME than those fed no added fiber. A comparison of results from mash and pellets showed that only sex and form affected gain per day, feed per day, and kilocalories of ME eaten per day. For the mash and pellets, protein, fat, fiber, and several interactions affected the ME per gram; however, the ME per gram was similar for pellets and mash. The results suggest that the diet composition and form have a significant effect on the energy intake of broiler chickens. PMID:18079455

  8. Pathway underlying small intestine apoptosis by dietary nickel chloride in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bangyuan; Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Huang, Jianying

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the pathways which dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) affects small intestine apoptosis in broiler chickens by observing the ultrastructure, and bcl-2, bax, and caspase-3 protein expression and mRNA expression, and cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression of the small intestine. A total of 240 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed a corn-soybean basal diet as the control diet or three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Ultrastructurally, the microvilli were apparently exfoliated, and the mitochondria were swollen and the number of lysosomes increased in the intestinal cells of three experimental groups. As measured by TUNEL and flow cytometry (FCM), the percentage of apoptotic cells in the small intestine and the lymphocytes in the ileum were significantly increased in three experimental groups when compared with those of the control group. Meanwhile, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) tests showed that the protein expression, mRNA expression levels were decreased in the bcl-2, whereas those of bax and caspase-3, and the cytochrome C, bak and caspase-9 mRNA expression levels were increased in three experimental groups. The abovementioned results show that pathway of dietary NiCl2-induced small intestine apoptosis is related to the mitochondrial damage and promotion of the cytochrome C release from mitochondria, which activates the mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis pathway. PMID:26585591

  9. Fumonisins affect the intestinal microbial homeostasis in broiler chickens, predisposing to necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Croubels, Siska; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Devreese, Mathias; Verlinden, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Antlinger, Birgit; Novak, Barbara; Martel, An; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi. This study aimed to investigate the effect of these feed contaminants on the intestinal morphology and microbiota composition, and to evaluate whether FBs predispose broilers to necrotic enteritis. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into a group fed a control diet, and a group fed a FBs contaminated diet (18.6 mg FB1+FB2/kg feed). A significant increase in the plasma sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in the FBs-treated group (0.21 ± 0.016) compared to the control (0.14 ± 0.014) indicated disturbance of the sphingolipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, villus height and crypt depth of the ileum was significantly reduced by FBs. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed a shift in the microbiota composition in the ileum in the FBs group compared to the control. A reduced presence of low-GC containing operational taxonomic units in ileal digesta of birds exposed to FBs was demonstrated, and identified as a reduced abundance of Candidatus Savagella and Lactobaccilus spp. Quantification of total Clostridium perfringens in these ileal samples, previous to experimental infection, using cpa gene (alpha toxin) quantification by qPCR showed an increase in C. perfringens in chickens fed a FBs contaminated diet compared to control (7.5 ± 0.30 versus 6.3 ± 0.24 log10 copies/g intestinal content). After C. perfringens challenge, a higher percentage of birds developed subclinical necrotic enteritis in the group fed a FBs contaminated diet as compared to the control (44.9 ± 2.22% versus 29.8 ± 5.46%). PMID:26394675

  10. Calcium sources and their interaction with the different levels of non-phytate phosphorus affect performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, M; Solà-Oriol, D; Davin, R; Perez, J F

    2015-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of different Ca sources (limestone, Ca chloride, and Lipocal, a fat-encapsulated tricalcium phosphate, TCP) in conjunction with 4 dietary levels of non-phytate P (NPP) on performance, ileal digestibility of Ca and P, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens. Calcium sources were also evaluated in vitro to measure acid-binding capacity (ABC) and Ca solubility at different pH values. Ca chloride showed the highest solubility of Ca, with TCP showing the highest ABC. Ross male broiler-chicks were sorted by BW at 1 d post-hatch and assigned to 5 cages per diet with 5 birds per cage. Twelve diets were arranged in a 3×4 factorial of the 3 Ca sources and 4 levels of NPP (0.3%, 0.35%, 0.4% or 0.45%) consisting of 4 added P levels (Ca(H2PO4)2) with a high dose of phytase (1,150 U/kg) in all diets. On d 14 post-hatch, 3 birds were euthanized, and ileal digesta and the right tibia were collected to determine ileal Ca and P digestibility and bone mineralization, respectively. Feed intake (FI) and weight gain (WG) on d 14 was higher (P<0.01) with TCP and limestone than with Ca chloride. Added P increased the tibia weight and tibia ash content in chicks fed TCP up to 0.4% NPP and limestone up to 0.35% NPP. Calcium ileal digestibility was higher (P<0.01) with Ca chloride (73.7%) than with limestone (67.1%) or TCP (66.8%), which increased (P<0.05) with added levels of P from monocalcium phosphate. Phosphorus ileal digestibility was not affected by the Ca source and increased (P<0.001) with added levels of NPP. It can be concluded that starting broilers responded better to low-soluble Ca sources compared to high-soluble sources. A level of 0.35%-0.40% NPP with a high dose of phytase (1,150 U/kg) in diets including limestone or TCP is sufficient to guarantee performance and bone formation for broiler chickens from d 0 to d 14. PMID:25638469

  11. Effects of prolonged oral administration of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Del Bianchi, M; Oliveira, C A F; Albuquerque, R; Guerra, J L; Correa, B

    2005-12-01

    The effects of prolonged oral administration of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) mycotoxins were evaluated in broiler chickens from 21 to 42 d of age. A total of 192 birds were housed in experimental batteries and assigned to 32 cages, 6 birds per cage. The following treatments were applied: 1) 0 mycotoxins (control), 2) 10 mg of FB1, 3) 50 microg of AFB1, 4) 50 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1, 5) 350 microg of AFB1, 6) 350 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1, 7) 2,450 microg of AFB1, 8) 2,450 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1/kg of feed. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 6 birds each. At the end of the trial, blood samples from 12 birds per treatment were collected, and the birds were necropsied. Compared with controls, the percentage of heterophils was lower (P < 0.05) in birds from groups receiving 50 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/ kg and 2450 microg of AFB1/kg alone or in combination with FB1. A higher percentage of lymphocytes (P < 0.05) was observed in birds fed 50 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/ kg, 350 microg of AFB1/kg, and 2,450 microg of AFB1/kg. A decrease in plasma albumin was observed only in birds fed 2,450 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/kg. The liver of AFB1-treated birds had focal areas of necrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. In birds fed rations containing only 10 mg of FB1/kg, bile duct hyperplasia with fibrosis and a mononuclear infiltrate accompanied by trabecular derangement were observed. In contrast, in treatments in which FB1 was administered in combination, hepatic vacuolar degeneration was observed, and renal tissue presented corpuscles with increased cellular agglomeration, characterizing glomerulonephritis, and a clearly visible tubular epithelium with areas of degeneration and necrosis. The FB1 residues were detected in liver and in excreta of all FB1-treated groups, at levels that ranged from 0.013 to 0.051 mg/kg and from 1.19 to 2.79 mg/kg, respectively. Results indicated that FB1 and AFB1, singly or in combination

  12. Metal ion-oxytetracycline pharmacokinetic interactions after oral co-administration in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowski, H; Jasiecka, A; Zuśka-Prot, M; Przybysz, J; Grabowski, T; Jaroszewski, J J

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the composition of calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), and iron (Fe(3+)) ions in two concentration levels (low-500 mg/L of CaCl2, 125 mg/L of MgCl2, and 10 mg/L of FeCl3 and high-2,500 mg/L of CaCl2, 625 mg/L of MgCl2, and 50 mg/L of FeCl3) contained in water on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oxytetracycline (OTC) was determined. OTC hydrochloride was administered at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight to broiler chickens divided into four groups of nine birds each, including 3 oral groups (in deionized water -control, in water with low ion concentration, and in water with high ion concentration) and 1 intravenous group. OTC concentrations in plasma were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, after which non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted.The absolute bioavailability of OTC in the group of birds exposed to higher ions concentration was reduced (8.68% ± 2.56) as compared to the control (13.71% ± 2.60). Additionally, in this group, decrease in PK parameters such as: area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (15.36 μg × h/mL ± 4.36), from 0 to t (14.78 μg × h/mL ± 4.37), area under the first moment of curve from 0 to t (107.54 μg × h/mL ± 36.48), and maximum plasma concentration (2.13 μg/mL ± 0.32) were also observed. It is noteworthy, all mentioned parameters demonstrated a downward trend with high correlation coefficient (P = 0.004, P = 0.002, P = 0.005, P = 0.004, P = 0.011, respectively), reflecting the influence of increasing concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Fe(3+) ions on the decreasing absorption rate of OTC.Based on the current research results, it can be assumed that high concentrations of several ions applied concomitantly are able to decrease the absorption of OTC from gastrointestinal tract in broiler chickens. This occurrence might impair the drug's clinical efficacy toward some pathogenic microorganisms. It implies that using OTC on a farm may require

  13. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M M; Iji, P A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase. PMID:26194227

  14. Energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal and corn-based diets supplemented with xylanase.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Carvalho, P S; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased levels of a β-xylanase on energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soy diets. A total of 480 slow feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 10 treatments having 8 replicates of 6 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until 25 d. Two experimental diets, a conventional corn/soy-based basal diet (CS) and the basal diet in which 40% of the diet was displaced by corn (CN), were fed as-is or supplemented with 50, 100, 150, or 200 fungal β-xylanase units (FXU)/kg. Dietary treatments were distributed factorially as a 2 × 5 arrangement. Samples of feed, excreta, and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy, and total tract retention of protein and lipid. No interactions between diet and xylanase were observed. The CS diets had higher (P < 0.05) energy utilization and nutrient digestibility when compared to the CN diets. AMEn and IDE were improved (P < 0.05) by 192 and 145 kcal/kg, respectively, when diets were supplemented with 100 FXU/kg xylanase. The xylanase added to the CN diet led to quadratic increases (P < 0.05) in IDE (Y = - 0.014x(2) + 2.570x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.60) and in AMEn (Y = - 0.016x(2) + 3.982x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.68). Crude protein digestibility and AMEn were linearly increased (P < 0.05) when xylanase was added to the CN diet. In conclusion, energy utilization and digestibility of crude protein and dry matter increased with xylanase supplementation in corn/soy-based diets. When xylanase was tested in the CS diet, 92 and 124 FXU/kg maximized the energy release effect; however, the maximum energy response in the CN diet or corn was not achieved until 200 FXU/kg. PMID:26976897

  15. Floor space covered by broiler chickens kept at stocking densities according to Council Directive 2007/43/EC.

    PubMed

    Giersberg, M F; Hartung, J; Kemper, N; Spindler, B

    2016-07-30

    It is controversially discussed whether the stocking densities set by the EU Directive 2007/43/EC allow a species-appropriate housing of broiler chickens. To calculate the exact area broilers occupy due to their physical size and shape, planimetric measurements using a colour-contrast method were carried out. In total, 1949 photographs of standing and 1482 of squatting chickens, taken from a top view, were analysed. A computer program counted the pixels representing the previously weighed animal in the photograph and calculated the animal area. The average area covered by chickens with 400 g live weight was 116.64±13.12 cm(2) in a standing and 138.61±12.92 cm(2) in a squatting position. These areas increased linearly as a function of live weight to 452.57±58.89 cm(2) (R(2)=0.90 standing) and 513.54±42.70 cm(2) (R(2)=0.82 squatting) at the end of the study (3200 g live weight). Squatting chickens occupied more space compared with a standing position in most of the tested weight classes (P<0.05). Depending on target weights, stocking densities and body positions, broilers occupied 48.5-77.7 per cent of 1 m(2) Thus, from a physical point of view, simultaneous resting is possible at any stocking density provided by the EU Directive and at common target weights. PMID:27377394

  16. On-farm euthanasia of broiler chickens: effects of different gas mixtures on behavior and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Gerritzen, M A; Lambooij, B; Reimert, H; Stegeman, A; Spruijt, B

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of gas mixtures for euthanasia of groups of broilers in their housing by increasing the percentage of CO2. The suitability was assessed by the level of discomfort before loss of consciousness, and the killing rate. The gas mixtures injected into the housing were 1) 100% CO2, 2) 50% N2 + 50% CO2, and 3) 30% O2 + 40% CO2 + 30% N2, followed by 100% CO2. At 2 and 6 wk of age, groups of 20 broiler chickens per trial were exposed to increasing CO2 percentages due to the injection of these gas mixtures. Behavior and killing rate were examined. At the same time, 2 broilers per trial equipped with brain electrodes were observed for behavior and brain activity. Ten percent of the 2-wk-old broilers survived the increasing CO2 percentage due to the injection of 30% O2 + 40% CO2 + 30% N2 mixture, therefore this mixture was excluded for further testing at 6 wk of age. At 6 wk of age, 30% of the broilers survived in the 50% N2 + 50% CO2 group. The highest level of CO2 in the breathing air (42%) was reached by the injection of the 100% CO2 mixture, vs. 25% for the other 2 mixtures. In all 3 gas mixtures, head shaking, gasping, and convulsions were observed before loss of posture. Loss of posture and suppression of electrical activity of the brain (n = 7) occurred almost simultaneously. The results of this experiment indicate that euthanasia of groups of 2- and 6-wk-old broilers by gradually increasing the percentage of CO2 in the breathing air up to 40% is possible. PMID:15339003

  17. β-1,3/1,6-Glucan alleviated intestinal mucosal barrier impairment of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yujing; Guo, Yuming; Wang, Zhong

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of β-1,3/1,6-glucan on gut morphology, intestinal epithelial tight junctions, and bacterial translocation of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Ninety Salmonella-free Arbor Acre male broiler chickens were randomly divided into 3 groups: negative control group (NC), Salmonella Typhimurium-infected positive group (PC), and the Salmonella Typhimurium-infected group with dietary 100 mg/kg of β-1,3/1,6-glucan supplementation (T) to determine the effect of β-1,3/1,6-glucan on intestinal barrier function. Salmonella Typhimurium challenge alone significantly decreased villus height (P < 0.001), villus height/crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05), and the number of goblet cells (P < 0.001) in the jejunum at 14 d postinfection (dpi), but significantly increased the number of intestinal secretory IgA (sIgA)-expressing cells at 14 dpi (P < 0.01) and total sIgA levels in the jejunum at 7 (P < 0.05) and 14 dpi (P < 0.01) compared with the unchallenged birds (NC). Dietary β-1,3/1,6-glucan supplementation not only significantly increased villus height, villus height/crypt depth ratio, and the number of goblet cells (P < 0.01), but also increased the number of sIgA-expressing cells (P < 0.05) and sIgA content in the jejunum at 14 dpi (P < 0.01) in birds challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium in comparison with Salmonella Typhimurium challenge alone. β-1,3/1,6-Glucan addition had significant inhibitory effects (P < 0.05) on cecal Salmonella colonization levels and liver Salmonella invasion of the Salmonella Typhimurium-infected birds compared with the PC group. Intestinal tight junction proteins claudin-1, claudin-4, and occludin mRNA expression in the jejunum at 14 dpi was significantly decreased by Salmonella Typhimurium challenge alone (P < 0.01) compared with that of the NC group, whereas β-1,3/1,6-glucan supplementation significantly increased claudin-1 and occludin mRNA expression (P < 0.01) at

  18. Blood volume increase in salt-induced pulmonary hypertension, heart failure and ascites in broiler and White Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Mirsalimi, S M; O'Brien, P J; Julian, R J

    1993-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that excess dietary salt produces an expansion of extracellular fluid volume which may be associated with pulmonary hypertension-induced right ventricular failure in chickens with rapid growth rates. One-week-old broiler and White Leghorn chickens were given 0.5% salt in their drinking water for three weeks. Saline water had a minimal effect on White Leghorns. The hypothesis appears to be correct since salt-treatment in broilers resulted in up to 30% expansion in blood volume and there was 50% mortality from pulmonary hypertension-induced right ventricular failure and ascites. There was marked (up to 88% in some broilers) right ventricular hypertrophy, an indicator of pulmonary hypertension. There was less left ventricular hypertrophy as shown by an increase in the ratio of the right to total ventricle weight. There was up to 32% decrease in growth rate. There was renal hypertrophy in the salt-treated birds as shown by a higher kidney to body weight ratio. PMID:8490804

  19. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  20. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  1. Comparison of postprandial lipaemia between native and palm random esterified acid oils in two different monogastric species (dogs and broiler chickens).

    PubMed

    Fragua, V; Vilarrasa, E; Manzanilla, E G; Villaverde, C; Barroeta, A C

    2013-05-01

    It has been reported that applying a chemical reesterification process to a native fat results in a new fat source with different physicochemical properties due to their different fatty acid (FA) positional distribution within the glycerol moiety and their different proportions of mono (MAG)-, di (DAG)- and triacylglycerides (TAG). Thus, this reesterification could affect fat digestion, absorption and metabolism; and this effect could vary among species given their differences in fat metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of feeding two different random esterified acid oils (REAO), presenting different MAG, DAG and TAG proportions, with their corresponding native oil on postprandial lipaemia in broiler chickens and dogs. For this purpose, 18 dogs and 54 broiler chickens were fed a basal diet supplemented with palm native oil, palm REAO low MAG or palm REAO high MAG. The inclusion level of the oils was 10% of the diet in dogs and 6% in broiler chickens. Serum postprandial TAG concentration (mg/dl) after feeding a single meal was measured at different time points during 12 h in dogs and 3 h in chickens. Although fasting serum TAG concentration values were similar for both species (47 ± 2.4 mg/dl for dogs and 44 ± 3.0 mg/dl for broilers; p = 0.522), postprandial TAG concentrations tended to be higher in broilers than in dogs (p = 0.058). Treatment had no effect on TAG concentration at any time point in any species (p = 0.768 for dogs, p = 0.947 for broilers). However, the postprandial TAG curves were very different between species; in broiler chickens, TAG concentration returned to the fasting values 3 h after feeding while in dogs, the TAG concentration still had not returned to basal levels 12 h after feeding. PMID:23639020

  2. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin given by the oral, intravenous and intramuscular routes in broiler chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Bugyei, K; Black, W D; McEwen, S

    1999-01-01

    Enrofloxacin was given to broiler chickens, 3 groups of 6 birds each, at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Routes of administration were intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral (p.o.) and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein for determination of serum drug levels over a 54-hour period after administration. Drug levels were determined using Bacillus subtilis spore suspension on Meuller-Hinton antibiotic medium. Intravenous administration produced drug levels which followed a bi-exponential decay according to the model C = 101e(-1.84(t)) + 1.30e(-0.06(t)). After i.m. administration, the mean Cmax observed (2.01 microg/mL) occurred at 1 h and levels were detected for up to 48 h. The mean time to maximum concentration (Tmax) for the birds occurred at 0.79 h. The model describing serum concentrations after i.m. administration was C = 1.35e(-0.48(t)) + 1.27e(-0.07(t)) - 2.06e(-2.1(t)). Serum concentrations after oral administration were lower and the mean +/- standard error of mean, of the maximum concentrations (Cmax) was 0.99 microg/mL at 2 h after administration. The mean residence times after the 3 routes of administration were not significantly different and ranged from 12.5-13.7 h. Bioavailability by the oral route was 80.1%. Dialysis of chicken plasma vs saline indicated that the protein binding was 22.7%. PMID:10480461

  3. Effects of Functional Oils on Coccidiosis and Apparent Metabolizable Energy in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, A. E.; Eyng, C.; Torrent, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a mixture of functional oils (Essential, Oligo Basics Agroind. Ltda) on performance response of chickens challenged with coccidiosis and the determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), the coefficients of protein and ether extract digestibility and intestinal morphology of broilers fed with diets containing Essential. In Exp. 1, a completely randomized design (CRD) was used, with one control diet without Essential inclusion with coccidiosis (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella) challenged birds and two different inclusion rates of Essential (1.5 kg/ton and 2 kg/ton) with coccidiosis-challenged and non-challenged birds for each inclusion rate, using 10 replicates and 50 birds per experimental unit. After 7 d of coccidiosis challenge, the livability was approximately 10% lower (p<0.05) for the control group. Intestinal lesion scores were lower (p<0.05) in the anterior intestine and the cecum for the chickens supplemented. Feed efficiency and growth rate were improved in birds supplemented with Essential (p<0.05) before the coccidiosis challenge and during the first 7 d post infection. In Exp. 2, a CRD was used, with one control diet without Essential inclusion and one diet with inclusion of Essential (1.5 kg/ton), using nine replications and 33 chicks per pen. The diets with Essential yielded approximately 4% higher AME (p = 0.003) and AMEn (p = 0.001). Essential supplementation increased villus height in the jejunum on d 14 (p<0.05). Villus height:crypt depth ratio for the supplemented birds was larger (p<0.05) in the jejunum on d 7, larger (p<0.05) in the jejunum and ileum on d 14. In conclusion, these functional oils improved the energy utilization and the livability and decreased lesions caused by coccidiosis in supplemented birds. PMID:25050040

  4. Simultaneous detection of astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus and adenovirus type I in broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Roussan, D A; Shaheen, I A; Khawaldeh, G Y; Totanji, W S; Al-Rifai, R H

    2012-01-01

    Enteric diseases cause substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Astroviruses, rotaviruses, reoviruses, and adenovirus type 1 have been reported as a significant cause of intestinal symptoms in poultry. In the present study, intestinal samples from 70 commercial broiler chicken flocks were examined for the presence of astroviruses, rotavirus, and reovirus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and for the presence of group I adenovirus by polymerase chain reaction. Astroviruses were identified in 38.6% of samples tested. Both avian nephritis virus and chicken astrovirus were identified in the astrovirus positive flocks, where 74.1% of these flocks were positive for only one type of astrovirus, whereas, 25.9% of these flocks were positive for both types of astrovirus. Reoviruses, rotaviruses, and adenoviruses were identified in 21.4, 18.6, and 14.3% of these flocks, respectively. Concomitant infection with two or more viruses in the same flock were also prominent, where 5.7, 5.7, 2.9, 2.9, 1.4, and 1.4% of these flocks were positive with both astrovirus and rotavirus; astrovirus and adenovirus; astrovirus and reovirus; rotavirus and adenovirus; rotavirus and reovirus; and reovirus and adenovirus respectively. Moreover, 4.3 and 2.7% of these flocks were positive for astrovirus, reovirus, and adenovirus; and astrovirus, reovirus, and rotavirus, respectively. Further studies will focus on identifying specific viral factors or subtypes/subgroups associated with disease through pathogenesis studies, economic losses caused by infections and co-infections of these pathogens, and the costs and benefits of countermeasures. PMID:22844713

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli isolated from growing chickens on commercial broiler farms.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hiroichi; Esaki, Hidetake; Takemoto, Kouhei; Ikeda, Akira; Nakatani, Yasutaka; Someya, Azusa; Hirayama, Norio; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2011-05-12

    To investigate the effects of rearing practices of commercial broiler chickens on the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates, fecal E. coli isolates obtained in 4 farms were screened for anitimicrobial resistance. Ten E. coli isolates were recovered from each of the fecal samples collected from 10 birds in the farms at the ages of 2 days, 14-17 days, and 47-50 days. In 2 out of the 4 farms, no antimicrobials were used during the rearing period. In the other two farms, following collection of the fecal samples at 14 and 15 days of age, oxytetracycline (OTC), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), and tylosin were given to birds on one farm and SDMX was used in the other. Isolates resistant to ampicillin and OTC that were obtained from an untreated flock at different sampling times were closely related to each other by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns (PFGE) of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA. PFGE analysis together with in vitro conjugation experiments suggested that diversity of resistance phenotypes within a clone may be resulted from the acquisition and loss of R-plasmids in an untreated and a treated flock. The numbers of resistance phenotypes observed among fecal isolates increased during the growth of the chickens in all the farms. The results in the present study suggest that persistence of commensal E. coli strains resistant to antimicrobials even in the absence of antimicrobial administration. It is also hypothesized that horizontal transmission of resistance determinants resulted in the emergence of different resistance phenotypes in those farms. PMID:21232883

  6. Ameliorative effects of melatonin administration and photoperiods on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkalu, Victor O.; Ayo, Joseph O.; Adelaiye, Alexander B.; Hambolu, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were performed with the aim of determining the effect of melatonin administration on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature (CT) of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season. Birds in group I (12L:12D cycle) were raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation, while those in group II (LL) were kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Broiler chickens in group III (LL + melatonin) were raised under 24-h continuous lighting, with melatonin supplementation at 0.5 mg/kg per os. The cloacal temperatures of 15 labeled broiler chickens from each group were measured at 6:00, 13:00, and 19:00 h, 7 days apart, from days 14-42. Temperature-humidity index was highest at day 14 of the study, with the value of 36.72 ± 0.82 °C but lowest at day 28 with the value of 30.91 ± 0.80 °C ( P < 0.0001). The overall mean hourly cloacal temperature value of 41.51 ± 0.03 °C obtained in the 12L:12D cycle birds was significantly higher ( P < 0.001) than the value of 41.16 ± 0.03 °C recorded in the melatonin-treated group but lower than that of 41.65 ± 0.03 °C obtained in the LL birds. Mortality due to hyperthermia commenced at day 28 in both 12L:12D cycle and LL broiler chickens but was delayed till day 42 in LL + MEL broiler chickens. In conclusion, melatonin administration alleviated the deleterious effects of heat stress on broiler chickens by maintaining their cloacal temperature at relatively low values.

  7. Genomic Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Hadar and Kentucky Isolates from Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Dhanani, Akhilesh S.; Block, Glenn; Dewar, Ken; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Topp, Edward; Beiko, Robert G.; Diarra, Moussa S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, associated with different foods including poultry products, are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The colonization of the chicken gut by S. enterica could result in the contamination of the environment and food chain. The aim of this study was to compare the genomes of 25 S. enterica serovars isolated from broiler chicken farms to assess their intra- and inter-genetic variability, with a focus on virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics. Methodology/Principal Finding The genomes of 25 S. enterica isolates covering five serovars (ten Typhimurium including three monophasic 4,[5],12:i:, four Enteritidis, three Hadar, four Heidelberg and four Kentucky) were sequenced. Most serovars were clustered in strongly supported phylogenetic clades, except for isolates of serovar Enteritidis that were scattered throughout the tree. Plasmids of varying sizes were detected in several isolates independently of serovars. Genes associated with the IncF plasmid and the IncI1 plasmid were identified in twelve and four isolates, respectively, while genes associated with the IncQ plasmid were found in one isolate. The presence of numerous genes associated with Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) was also confirmed. Components of the type III and IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS) varied in different isolates, which could explain in part, differences of their pathogenicity in humans and/or persistence in broilers. Conserved clusters of genes in the T3SS were detected that could be used in designing effective strategies (diagnostic, vaccination or treatments) to combat Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance genes (CMY, aadA, ampC, florR, sul1, sulI, tetAB, and srtA) and class I integrons were detected in resistant isolates while all isolates carried multidrug efflux pump systems regardless of their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Conclusions/Significance This study showed that the predominant

  8. Effects of a diet containing genetically modified rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) on broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Zeyang; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Minhong; Feng, Jinghai; Xiong, Yandan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein on broiler chicken. The genetically modified (GM) Bt rice was compared with the corresponding non-GM rice regarding performance of feeding groups, their health status, relative organ weights, biochemical serum parameters and occurrence of Cry1Ab/1Ac gene fragments. One hundred and eighty day-old Arbor Acres female broilers with the same health condition were randomly allocated to the two treatments (6 replicate cages with 15 broilers in each cage per treatment). They received diets containing GM rice (GM group) or its parental non-GM rice (non-GM group) at 52-57% of the air-dried diet for 42 days. The results show that the transgenic rice had a similar nutrient composition as the non-GM rice and had no adverse effects on chicken growth, biochemical serum parameters and necropsy during the 42-day feeding period. In birds fed the GM rice, no transgenic gene fragments were detected in the samples of blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, jejunum, ileum, duodenum and muscle tissue. In conclusion, the results suggest that Bt rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein has no adverse effects on broiler chicken. Therefore, it can be considered as safe and used as feed source for broiler chicken. PMID:26414482

  9. Assessment of bagging GBLUP for whole-genome prediction of broiler chicken traits.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R; Morota, G; Valente, B D; Kranis, A; Rosa, G J M; Gianola, D

    2015-06-01

    Bootstrap aggregation (bagging) is a resampling method known to produce more accurate predictions when predictors are unstable or when the number of markers is much larger than sample size, because of variance reduction capabilities. The purpose of this study was to compare genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) with bootstrap aggregated sampling GBLUP (Bagged GBLUP, or BGBLUP) in terms of prediction accuracy. We used a 600 K Affymetrix platform with 1351 birds genotyped and phenotyped for three traits in broiler chickens; body weight, ultrasound measurement of breast muscle and hen house egg production. The predictive performance of GBLUP versus BGBLUP was evaluated in different scenarios consisting of including or excluding the TOP 20 markers from a standard genome-wide association study (GWAS) as fixed effects in the GBLUP model, and varying training sample sizes and allelic frequency bins. Predictive performance was assessed via five replications of a threefold cross-validation using the correlation between observed and predicted values, and prediction mean-squared error. GBLUP overfitted the training set data, and BGBLUP delivered a better predictive ability in testing sets. Treating the TOP 20 markers from the GWAS into the model as fixed effects improved prediction accuracy and added advantages to BGBLUP over GBLUP. The performance of GBLUP and BGBLUP at different allele frequency bins and training sample sizes was similar. In general, results of this study confirm that BGBLUP can be valuable for enhancing genome-enabled prediction of complex traits. PMID:25727456

  10. Susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains from broiler chickens to antibiotics and anticoccidials.

    PubMed

    Martel, A; Devriese, L A; Cauwerts, K; De Gussem, K; Decostere, A; Haesebrouck, F

    2004-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens strains isolated in 2002 from the intestines of broiler chickens from 31 different farms located in Belgium were tested for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis. All strains were uniformly sensitive to the ionophore antibiotics monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramycin and narasin. All were sensitive to avilamycin, tylosin and amoxicillin, while flavomycin (bambermycin) showed low or no activity. Chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline were active at very low concentrations, but low-level acquired resistance was detected in 66% of the strains investigated. Fifty percent of these strains carried the tetP(B) resistance gene, while the tet(Q) gene was detected in only one strain. One strain with high-level resistance against tetracyclines carried the tet(M) gene. Sixty-three percent of the strains showed low-level resistance to lincomycin. The lnu(A) and lnu(B) genes were each only found in one strain. Compared with a similar investigation carried out in 1980, an increase was seen in resistance percentages with lincomycin (63% against 49%) and a slight decrease with tetracycline (66% against 74%). PMID:14681061

  11. Changes in variance explained by top SNP windows over generations for three traits in broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Fragomeni, Breno de Oliveira; Misztal, Ignacy; Lourenco, Daniela Lino; Aguilar, Ignacio; Okimoto, Ronald; Muir, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the set of genomic regions inferred as accounting for the majority of genetic variation in quantitative traits remain stable over multiple generations of selection. The data set contained phenotypes for five generations of broiler chicken for body weight, breast meat, and leg score. The population consisted of 294,632 animals over five generations and also included genotypes of 41,036 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for 4,866 animals, after quality control. The SNP effects were calculated by a GWAS type analysis using single step genomic BLUP approach for generations 1–3, 2–4, 3–5, and 1–5. Variances were calculated for windows of 20 SNP. The top ten windows for each trait that explained the largest fraction of the genetic variance across generations were examined. Across generations, the top 10 windows explained more than 0.5% but less than 1% of the total variance. Also, the pattern of the windows was not consistent across generations. The windows that explained the greatest variance changed greatly among the combinations of generations, with a few exceptions. In many cases, a window identified as top for one combination, explained less than 0.1% for the other combinations. We conclude that identification of top SNP windows for a population may have little predictive power for genetic selection in the following generations for the traits here evaluated. PMID:25324857

  12. Differential Proteome Analysis of Breast and Thigh Muscles between Korean Native Chickens and Commercial Broilers

    PubMed Central

    De Liu, Xian; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Yeonkuk; Jung, Samooel; Kang, Bo Seok; Heo, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    The Korean native chickens (Woorimotdak™, KNC) and commercial broilers (Ross, CB) show obvious differences in meat flavor after cooking. To understand the contribution of protein and peptide for meat flavor, 2-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was performed. A total of 16 protein spots were differentially expressed in the breast and thigh meat between the two breeds. A total of seven protein spots were represented by different levels between KNC and CB for breast meat. Among them three protein spots (TU39149, TU40162 and TU39598) showed increases in their expressions in KNC while other four protein spots (BU40125, BU40119, BU40029 and BU39904) showed increases in CB. All nine protein spots that were represented by different levels between KNC and CB for thigh meat showed increases in their expression in KNC. Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM 1), myosin heavy chain (MyHC), heat shock protein B1 (HSP27), cytochrome c reductase (Enzyme Q), Glyoxylase 1, DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNA MTase 3) were identified as the main protein spots by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. These results can provide valuable basic information for understanding the molecular mechanism responsible for breed specific differences in meat quality, especially the meat flavour. PMID:25049642

  13. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

  14. Synbiotic enhances immune responses against infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Alireza; Amani, Amir; Pourmahmod, Masoud; Saghaei, Poya; Rezaie, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility of birds to avian pathogens in intensive husbandry system has emphasized on necessity of improvement of innate and specific immune responses of birds by the fast establishment of a beneficial microflora and immune stimulator factors to guarantee healthy and low-price products. During this study, 192 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-380) in four groups with three replicates per group were used to investigate effectiveness of synbiotic Biomin Imbo on immune responses of the chickens following routine vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). The results of this study indicated that supplementation of Biomin Imbo in diet enhanced humoral immune responses significantly in the case of ND, IB, IBD (p = 0.049, p = 0.020, p = 0.036, respectively), but insignificantly in the case of AI (p = 0.160) following vaccination of the chickens against these most common important viral poultry diseases. It was more effective following vaccination with live than killed vaccines. In conclusion, application of synbiotic Biomin Imbo, as a feed-additive adjuvant promotes acquired humoral immune responses of broiler chickens. PMID:26893807

  15. Synbiotic enhances immune responses against infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Alireza; Amani, Amir; Pourmahmod, Masoud; Saghaei, Poya; Rezaie, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility of birds to avian pathogens in intensive husbandry system has emphasized on necessity of improvement of innate and specific immune responses of birds by the fast establishment of a beneficial microflora and immune stimulator factors to guarantee healthy and low-price products. During this study, 192 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-380) in four groups with three replicates per group were used to investigate effectiveness of synbiotic Biomin Imbo on immune responses of the chickens following routine vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). The results of this study indicated that supplementation of Biomin Imbo in diet enhanced humoral immune responses significantly in the case of ND, IB, IBD (p = 0.049, p = 0.020, p = 0.036, respectively), but insignificantly in the case of AI (p = 0.160) following vaccination of the chickens against these most common important viral poultry diseases. It was more effective following vaccination with live than killed vaccines. In conclusion, application of synbiotic Biomin Imbo, as a feed-additive adjuvant promotes acquired humoral immune responses of broiler chickens. PMID:26893807

  16. The use of blends of cassava flour and extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Waldroup, P W; Ritchie, S J; Reese, G L; Ramsey, B E

    1984-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of blending different levels of a low-prussic acid cassava flour with extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for growing broiler chickens. The full-fat soybeans contribute oil which increases the energy content of the diet, aids in overcoming the dusty nature of cassava, and provide high-quality protein. One-third, two-thirds, and all of the maize was replaced by cassava in diets with none, 12.5 and 25% extruded full-fat soybeans. Diets were fed in pelleted form to broiler chickens for a 47-day feeding trial. Replacement of one-third of the maize with cassava had no adverse effects on body weight gains in this study with a reduction in weight at higher levels at the conclusion of the study. Feed utilization was reduced more severely than was anticipated. However, growth rate on the higher levels of cassava was reasonably good, indicating that producers might feed these diets for a slightly longer period of time and produce chickens more economically if cassava meal were available at a cost significantly less than that of maize. PMID:6544063

  17. Phytate utilization and phosphorus excretion by broiler chickens fed diets containing cereal grains varying in phytate and phytase content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor digestibility of phytate P by poultry leads to supplementation of poultry diets with inorganic P thereby increasing feed costs and also increasing the excretion of P by the birds. In order to quantify phytate utilization and P excretion by poultry, eighty, 12 day-old, male broiler chicks, weig...

  18. Effect of selenium and Ascaridia galli infection on antioxidant biomarkers in broiler chickens: a mathematical model for parasite reduction and host growth.

    PubMed

    Gabrashanska, M; Galvez-Morros, M; Teodorova, S E; Ermidou-Pollet, S; Pollet, S

    2007-12-01

    The activity of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX), liver concentration of vitamin E, and plasma and liver selenium levels were used for estimation of the antioxidant status of broiler chickens infected with Ascaridia galli. These biomarkers were recorded in an experiment covering 70 days p.i. At the same time the establishment rate of A. galli in chicken intestines, gain in the host body weight and chicken survival were studied. Broiler chickens (Cobb hybrids) were infected with 1450 embryonated A. galli eggs and treated with Sel-plex. A mathematical model was applied to determine the rate of nematode reduction and the relative rate of gain of host body weight, which are essential kinetic parameters of parasite-host interaction. The activity of GPX increased with both elevated selenium and reduced infection levels. The concentrations of selenium and vitamin E, and the GPX activity in the infected chickens demonstrated a similar pattern of change with time after day 30 p.i. The supplementation of the broilers with dietary selenium in the form of Sel-plex improved their antioxidant status. Increases by 29% in vitamin E concentration, 15% in GPX activity, and 22% in liver selenium concentration, respectively, were recorded in the infected and treated, compared to infected and untreated broilers. PMID:18062833

  19. Controlled atmosphere stunning of broiler chickens. II. Effects on behaviour, physiology and meat quality in a commercial processing plant.

    PubMed

    McKeegan, D E F; Abeyesinghe, S M; McLeman, M A; Lowe, J C; Demmers, T G M; White, R P; Kranen, R W; van Bemmel, H; Lankhaar, J A C; Wathes, C M

    2007-08-01

    1. The effects of controlled atmosphere stunning on behavioural and physiological responses, and carcase and meat quality of broiler chickens were studied experimentally in a full scale processing plant. 2. The gas mixtures tested were a single phase hypercapnic anoxic mixture of 60% Ar and 30% CO(2) in air with <2% O(2), and a biphasic hypercapnic hyperoxygenation mixture, comprising an anaesthetic phase, 40% CO(2), 30% O(2), 30% N(2), followed by an euthanasia phase, 80% CO(2), 5% O(2), 15% N(2). 3. Birds stunned with Ar + CO(2) were more often observed to flap their wings earlier, jump, paddle their legs, twitch and lie dorsally (rather than ventrally) than those stunned with CO(2) + O(2). These behaviours indicate a more agitated response with more severe convulsions during hypercapnic anoxia, thereby introducing greater potential for injury. 4. Heart rate during the first 100 s of gas stunning was similar for both gases, after which it remained constant at approximately 230 beats/min for CO(2) + O(2) birds whereas it declined gently for Ar + CO(2) birds. 5. In terms of carcase and meat quality, there appeared to be clear advantages to the processor in using CO(2) + O(2) rather than Ar + CO(2) to stun broiler chickens, for example, a much smaller number of fractured wings (1.6 vs. 6.8%) with fewer haemorrhages of the fillet. 6. This study supports the conclusions of both laboratory and pilot scale experiments that controlled atmosphere stunning of broiler chickens based upon a biphasic hypercapnic hyperoxygenation approach has advantages, in terms of welfare and carcase and meat quality, over a single phase hypercapnic anoxic approach employing 60% Ar and 30% CO(2) in air with <2% O(2). PMID:17701496

  20. Comparison of prophylactic or therapeutic dietary administration of capsaicin for reduction of Salmonella in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Orndorff, B W; Novak, C L; Pierson, F W; Caldwell, D J; McElroy, A P

    2005-12-01

    In three experiments the effects of prophylactic or therapeutic dietary inclusion of capsaicin, the pungent component of peppers, were evaluated as a nonantibiotic alternative for reduction of Salmonella in broiler chickens through culture and morphologic assessment of cecal tissue. Expt. 1 evaluated the effects of 0 or 10 ppm purified capsaicin (CAP) in the starter phase (days 1-16) on chicks challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) on day of age. Therapeutic inclusion of 10 ppm purified CAP increased (P < 0.05) liver/spleen (L/S) and ceca positive results for SE. In Expt. 2, capsaicin oleoresin (CO) was included in the finisher diet (days 30-37) at 0, 5, or 20 ppm with SE challenge on day 31. Inclusion of 5 ppm CO increased ceca positive results for SE, and a linear decrease in cecal lamina propria thickness of SE-challenged birds was observed with increased CO concentration in the diet. Expt. 3 evaluated prophylactic CO treatment at 0, 5, or 20 ppm in starter, grower, and finisher diets for resistance to SE or Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) challenge on day 14 or 29. With challenge on day 14, 5 and 20 ppm prophylactic CO feeding reduced ceca SE positive results by 37% and 26%, respectively, and ST culture rate was reduced similarly with 5 ppm CO. Lamina propria thickness of the ceca increased with 5 ppm CO feeding in SE-challenged birds, whereas a decrease was observed in nonchallenged birds fed 5 ppm CO. Challenge on day 29 of birds fed 20 ppm CO resulted in reduced L/S positive results for SE. Lamina propria thickness decreased with 5 ppm CO and SE or ST challenge compared with nonchallenged birds fed 5 ppm. An increase was observed in ST- or SE-challenged birds fed 20 ppm CO compared with nonchallenged birds fed 20 ppm CO. No differences were observed in mast cell number in either Expt. 2 or 3. These data provide evidence that prophylactic or therapeutic dietary capsaisin differentially affects broiler susceptibility to Salmonella. PMID:16404994

  1. Dietary L-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianzhuang; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Yuming; Applegate, Todd J; Eicher, Susan D

    2014-04-28

    In the present study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on the inflammatory response and innate immunity of broiler chickens. Expt 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n 8 cages/treatment; n 6 birds/cage) with three dietary Arg concentrations (1.05, 1.42 and 1.90%) and two immune treatments (injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline) given at an interval of 48 h between 14 and 21 d of age. In Expt 2, correlation between dietary Arg concentration (0.99, 1.39, 1.76, 2.13 or 2.53%) and percentage of circulating B cells (percentage of circulating lymphocytes) was determined. In Expt 1, LPS injection decreased body-weight gain and feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio of the challenged broilers (14-21 d; P< 0.05). LPS injection suppressed (P< 0.05) the percentages of splenic CD11+ and B cells (percentages of splenic lymphocytes) and phagocytic activity of splenic heterophils and macrophages; Arg supplementation linearly decreased the percentages of CD11+, CD14+ and B cells in the spleen (P< 0.10). LPS injection increased (P< 0.05) the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA in the spleen and caecal tonsils. Arginine supplementation decreased (P< 0.05) the expression of IL-1β, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and PPAR-γ mRNA in the spleen and IL-1β, IL-10, TLR4 and NF-κB mRNA in the caecal tonsils. In Expt 2, increasing dietary Arg concentrations linearly and quadratically reduced the percentage of circulating B cells (P< 0.01). Collectively, Arg supplementation attenuated the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines probably through the suppression of the TLR4 pathway and CD14+ cell percentage. Furthermore, excessive Arg supplementation (1.76%) suppressed the percentages of circulating and splenic B cells. PMID:24330949

  2. Phytogenic Feed Additives as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Syed, Basharat; Haldar, Sudipto; Pender, Chasity

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432-day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen). The chicks were fed a corn–soybean meal-based control (CON), CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g), or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom® Poultry) until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the PFA-fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05). Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05). The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA-fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA-fed birds. Overall, both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05). Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy

  3. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Kumar, Sarvan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP), albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1) as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1) suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. PMID:27047040

  4. Phytogenic Feed Additives as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Syed, Basharat; Haldar, Sudipto; Pender, Chasity

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432-day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen). The chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal-based control (CON), CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g), or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom(®) Poultry) until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the PFA-fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05). Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05). The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA-fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA-fed birds. Overall, both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05). Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy

  5. Effects of nicarbazin on the blood glucose and liver glycogen statuses of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Bafundo, K W; Womack, S K; Zhai, W; Pulikanti, R; Bennett, L W

    2012-09-01

    Nicarbazin (NCZ), an effective anticoccidial widely used by the global broiler industry, is known to produce some side effects in broilers. Recent field observations have suggested that NCZ could be associated with spiking mortality syndrome, a disease of uncertain etiology that is most commonly characterized by hypoglycemia. In turn, 2 trials were conducted to investigate the effects of NCZ on the blood glucose levels and liver glycogen content of Ross × Ross 708 male broilers. In 6 of 12 pens beginning at 1 d of age, NCZ was added to basal broiler diets at a rate of 125 mg/kg, and the other 6 pens were control pens in which birds received salinomycin instead of NCZ, at a rate of 66 mg/kg. Feed and water were provided ad libitum, feed was closely monitored in all pens to avoid shortages, no coccidial challenge was imposed, and room temperature never exceeded 29.4°C. At the end of the second trial, a photoperiod increase from 8L:16D to 24L:0D was imposed in an effort to induce stress due to feed engorgement. In response to NCZ in trial 1, 0 to 28 d feed conversion and relative liver weights on d 21 and 28 were higher, whereas 0 to 28 d cumulative BW gain was lower. In response to NCZ in trial 2, 0 to 13 d feed conversion was higher, whereas 0 to 13 d cumulative BW gain was lower. The added NCZ increased blood glucose on d 13 in trial 2, but did not affect at any time the liver constituents analyzed in both trials. In conclusion, the uninterrupted feeding of NCZ at 125 mg/kg in the starter and grower diets of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers increased feed conversion and reduced BW gain, but despite an increase in relative liver weight on d 21 and 28 posthatch, liver glucose and glycogen concentrations were not affected. PMID:22912452

  6. Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.; Chen, Y. P.; Wu, D. W.; Wen, C.; Zhou, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI) on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group) or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at 100°C for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05). Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05). The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05). Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP), and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05). It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth performance of

  7. Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Chen, Y P; Wu, D W; Wen, C; Zhou, Y M

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI) on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group) or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at 100°C for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05). Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05). The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05). Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP), and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05). It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth performance of

  8. Short-term effects of triiodothyronine on hypothyroid chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    These experiments determined relationships among certain indices of lipid metabolism and gene expression in chickens fed methimazole. Male, broiler chickens were fed diets containing 18% crude protein and either 0 or 1 g methimazole per kg of diet. At 28 days, these two groups were further subdivide...

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Post-Hatch Breast Muscle in Legacy and Modern Broiler Chickens Reveals Enrichment of Several Regulators of Myogenic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Richard V. N.; Lamont, Susan J.; Rothschild, Max F.; Persia, Michael E.; Ashwell, Chris M.; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers. PMID:25821972

  10. Effect of a potential probiotics Lactococcus garvieae B301 on the growth performance, immune parameters and caecum microflora of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Xie, J; Zhang, M; Fu, N; Zhang, Y

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a novel Lactococcus garvieae B301 was isolated from the intestinal tract of a healthy piglet. L. garvieae B301 was tolerant to acid pH, simulated gastric and small intestinal transit juices, indicating that it was capable of surviving in the gastrointestinal tract. L. garvieae B301 was safe and beneficial to broilers, as broiler chickens supplemented with L. garvieae B301 had lower diarrhoea incidence and mortality than the Control. Moreover, supplementation of broiler diets with L. garvieae B301 resulted in an increase in body weight and the number of caecum lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp., and decrease in feed-to-gain ratio and the number of caecum coliforms. It also had a positive effect on the thymus index and bursa of Fabricius index and enhanced serum levels of immune globulins. All these results showed that L. garvieae B301 could enhance the growth performance of broiler chickens and improve their health. Thus, L. garvieae B301 could be a promising feed additive for broiler chickens. PMID:26331590

  11. Direct effects of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) acetone leaf extract on broiler chickens naturally infected with Eimeria species.

    PubMed

    Ola-Fadunsin, Shola David; Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi

    2013-08-01

    Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of all broiler mortalities worldwide. The control of this disease relies mainly on the use of anticoccidial drugs. However, herbal preparations could be an alternative for the treatment against coccidiosis in chickens. The direct effects of Moringa oleifera acetone extracts on broiler chickens naturally infected with mixed Eimeria species was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the extracts against coccidiosis in birds. The investigations were carried out in seven groups (ten chickens per group). The birds were given various doses (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) of acetone extract of leaves of M. toltrazuril (positive control) and untreated (negative control). The extract was evaluated for anticoccidial activity by means of inhibition of oocyst output in faeces, faecal score, weight gain and mortality. Haematological indices were evaluated by standard methods. The group treated with 1.0 g/ kg body weight Moringa oleifera extract produced the least inhibitory effect on oocyst shed in the faeces (96.4%), while the groups treated with 2.0 g/kg, 3.0 g/kg, 4.0 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg body weight of the extract produced 97.4, 98.7, 99.1 and 99.8%, respectively. Body weight gains of infected chickens treated with the extract significantly improved (p < 0.05), and faecal scores were milder. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood count of the treated birds were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the infected untreated group. Moringa oleifera leaves could find application in the treatment of avian coccidiosis in veterinary practice. PMID:23440591

  12. Effect of Supplementing Organic Forms of Zinc, Selenium and Chromium on Performance, Anti-Oxidant and Immune Responses in Broiler Chicken Reared in Tropical Summer.

    PubMed

    Rao, S V Rama; Prakash, B; Raju, M V L N; Panda, A K; Kumari, R K; Reddy, E Pradeep Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of supplementing organic forms of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and chromium (Cr) on performance, anti-oxidant activities and immune responses in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age, which were reared in cyclic heat-stressed condition under tropical summer in open-sided poultry house. A total of 200 (experiment I) and 450-day-old (experiment II) broiler male chicks (Cobb 400) were randomly distributed in stainless steel battery brooders (610 mm × 762 mm × 475 mm) at the rate of five birds per pen. A maize-soybean meal-based control diet (CD) containing recommended (Vencobb 400, Broiler Management Guide) concentrations of inorganic trace minerals and other nutrients was prepared. The CD was supplemented individually with organic form of selenium (Se, 0.30 mg/kg), chromium (Cr, 2 mg/kg) and zinc (Zn, 40 mg/kg) in experiment I. In experiment II, two concentrations of each Zn (20 and 40 mg/kg), Se (0.15 and 0.30 mg/kg) and Cr (1 and 2 mg/kg) were supplemented to the basal diet in 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. A group without supplementing inorganic trace minerals was maintained as control group in both experiments. Each diet was allotted randomly to ten replicates in both experiments and fed ad libitum from 1 to 21 days of age. At 19th day of age, blood samples were collected for estimation of anti-oxidant and immune responses. Supplementation of Se, Cr and Zn increased (P < 0.05) body mass gain (BMG) and feed intake compared to those fed the CD in experiment I. The feed efficiency (FE) in Cr-fed group was higher (P < 0.05) compared to the CD-fed group. Se or Cr supplementation reduced lipid peroxidation (LP) compared to broilers fed the CD. In experiment II, BMG was not affected (P > 0.05) by the interaction between levels of Zn, Se and Cr in broiler diet. The FE improved (P < 0.05) with supplementation of the trace minerals tested at both concentrations except in group

  13. Duplex PCR Methods for the Molecular Detection of Escherichia fergusonii Isolates from Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Karen; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Vaillancourt, Rolland; Malouin, François; Topp, Edward; Delaquis, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia fergusonii is an emerging pathogen that has been isolated from a wide range of infections in animals and humans. Primers targeting specific genes, including yliE (encoding a conserved hypothetical protein of the cellulose synthase and regulator of cellulose synthase island), EFER_1569 (encoding a hypothetical protein, putative transcriptional activator for multiple antibiotic resistance), and EFER_3126 (encoding a putative triphosphoribosyl-dephospho-coenzyme A [CoA]), were designed for the detection of E. fergusonii by conventional and real-time PCR methods. Primers were screened by in silico PCR against 489 bacterial genomic sequences and by both PCR methods on 55 reference and field strains. Both methods were specific and sensitive for E. fergusonii, showing amplification only for this bacterium. Conventional PCR required a minimum bacterial concentration of approximately 102 CFU/ml, while real-time PCR required a minimum of 0.3 pg of DNA for consistent detection. Standard curves showed an efficiency of 98.5%, with an R2 value of 0.99 for the real-time PCR assay. Cecal and cloacal contents from 580 chickens were sampled from broiler farms located in the Fraser Valley (British Columbia, Canada). Presumptive E. fergusonii isolates were recovered by enrichment and plating on differential and selective media. Of 301 total presumptive isolates, 140 (46.5%) were identified as E. fergusonii by biochemical profiling with the API 20E system and 268 (89.0%) using PCR methods. E. fergusonii detection directly from cecal and cloacal samples without preenrichment was achieved with both PCR methods. Hence, the PCR methods developed in this work significantly improve the detection of E. fergusonii. PMID:24441160

  14. Diversity and succession of the intestinal bacterial community of the maturing broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiangrang; Idris, Umelaalim; Harmon, Barry; Hofacre, Charles; Maurer, John J; Lee, Margie D

    2003-11-01

    The diversity of bacterial floras in the ilea and ceca of chickens that were fed a vegetarian corn-soy broiler diet devoid of feed additives was examined by analysis of 1,230 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Nearly 70% of sequences from the ileum were related to those of Lactobacillus, with the majority of the rest being related to Clostridiaceae (11%), Streptococcus (6.5%), and Enterococcus (6.5%). In contrast, Clostridiaceae-related sequences (65%) were the most abundant group detected in the cecum, with the other most abundant sequences being related to Fusobacterium (14%), Lactobacillus (8%), and Bacteroides (5%). Statistical analysis comparing the compositions of the different 16S rRNA libraries revealed that population succession occurred during some sampling periods. The significant differences among cecal libraries at 3 and 7 days of age, at 14 to 28 days of age, and at 49 days of age indicated that successions occurred from a transient community to one of increasing complexity as the birds aged. Similarly, the ileum had a stable bacterial community structure for birds at 7 to 21 days of age and between 21 to 28 days of age, but there was a very unique community structure at 3 and 49 days of age. It was also revealed that the composition of the ileal and cecal libraries did not significantly differ when the birds were 3 days old, and in fact during the first 14 days of age, the cecal microflora was a subset of the ileal microflora. After this time, the ileum and cecum had significantly different library compositions, suggesting that each region developed its own unique bacterial community as the bird matured. PMID:14602645

  15. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chicken flocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ashraf H M; Ghanem, Ibrahim A I; Eid, Amal A M; Ali, Mohamed A; Sherwood, Julie S; Li, Ganwu; Nolan, Lisa K; Logue, Catherine M

    2013-09-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infection is responsible for great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide and there is increasing evidence of its zoonotic importance. In this study, 219 E. coli isolates from 84 poultry flocks in Egypt, including 153 APEC, 30 avian fecal E. coli (AFEC), and 36 environmental E. coli, were subjected to phylogenetic grouping and virulence genotyping. Additionally, 50 of these isolates (30 APEC from colisepticemia and 20 AFEC) were subjected to a more-extensive characterization which included serogrouping, antimicrobial susceptibility analysis, screening for seven intestinal E. coli virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, espP, KatP, hlyA, and fliCh7), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and in vivo virulence testing. More than 90% of the total APEC examined possessed iroN, ompT, hlyF, iss, and iutA, indicating that Egyptian APECs, like their counterparts from the United States, harbor plasmid pathogenicity islands (PAIs). The majority of APEC and AFEC were of phylogenetic groups A, B1, and D. For the 50-isolate subgroup, more than 70% of APEC and 80% ofAFEC were multidrug resistant. Among the subgroup of APEC, MLST analysis identified 11 sequence types (ST) while seven STs were found among AFEC. Based on PFGE, the genetic relatedness of APEC and AFEC ranged from 50%-100% and clustered into four primary groups at 50% similarity. Two of the eight APEC strains tested in chickens were able to induce 25% mortality in 1-day-old chicks. APECs were distinguished from AFECs and environmental E. coli by their content of plasmid PAI genes, whereas APEC isolated from colisepticemia and AFEC were not distinguishable based on their antimicrobial resistance patterns, as both groups were multidrug resistant. Avian E. coli strains from broiler flocks in Egypt show similar sequence types to E. coli associated with human infection. PMID:24283125

  16. Passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization and transmission in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterium-mediated diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Poultry products are considered the most important source of C. jejuni infections in humans but to date no effective strategy exists to eradicate this zoonotic pathogen from poultry production. Here, the potential use of passive immunization to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broiler chicks was examined. For this purpose, laying hens were immunized with either a whole-cell lysate or the hydrophobic protein fraction of C. jejuni and their eggs were collected. In vitro tests validated the induction of specific ImmunoglobulinY (IgY) against C. jejuni in the immunized hens’ egg yolks, in particular. In seeder experiments, preventive administration of hyperimmune egg yolk significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bacterial counts of seeder animals three days after oral inoculation with approximately 104 cfu C. jejuni, compared with control birds. Moreover, transmission to non-seeder birds was dramatically reduced (hydrophobic protein fraction) or even completely prevented (whole-cell lysate). Purified IgY promoted bacterial binding to chicken intestinal mucus, suggesting enhanced mucosal clearance in vivo. Western blot analysis in combination with mass spectrometry after two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis revealed immunodominant antigens of C. jejuni that are involved in a variety of cell functions, including chemotaxis and adhesion. Some of these (AtpA, EF-Tu, GroEL and CtpA) are highly conserved proteins and could be promising targets for the development of subunit vaccines. PMID:24589217

  17. Differential gene expression profiles of ß-defensins in the crop, intestine, and spleen using a necrotic enteritis model in two commercial broiler chicken lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in the expression levels of avian ß-defensin (AvBD) mRNAs were evaluated in necrotic enteritis (NE) disease model in two genetically disparate commercial broiler chicken lines, R and C. NE was initiated in the intestinal track by a previously established co-infection model using oral Eimer...

  18. Temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, with an underlying assumption that at minimum ambient temperatures, flies (Musca domestica) play a role in the epidemiology and seasonality of...

  19. Characterization of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Isolates Obtained From Broiler Breeders, Turkeys, and Prairie Chickens Located in Various Geographical Regions in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens located in three different geographical regions in the USA, and three isolates obtained from known contaminated live-virus vaccines were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) a...

  20. Evaluation of changes in serum chemistry in association with feed withdrawal or high dose oral gavage with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) induced gut leakage in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...

  1. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor (GHR) and leptin receptor (LPR) genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for real time RT-PCR analysis with custom-designed primers and probes. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chick...

  2. Comparison of Cumulative Drip Sampling to Whole Carcass Rinses for Estimation of Campylobacter spp. and Quality Indicator Organisms from Processed Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The whole carcass rinse (WCR) procedure is routinely used as a sampling method for determining the presence and number of quality-indicator organisms and pathogens associated with broiler chicken carcasses in processing facilities. Collection of a cumulative drip sample by placing co...

  3. Comparison of cumulative drip sampling to whole carcass rinses for estimation of Campylobacter spp. and quality indicator organisms associated with processed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whole carcass rinse (WCR) procedure is routinely used as a sampling method for determining the presence and number of quality-indicator organisms and pathogens associated with broiler chicken carcasses in processing facilities. Collection of a cumulative drip sample by placing collection vessel...

  4. Vaccination with Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins in combination with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant increases protection against experimental necrotic enteritis in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to compare four Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins as vaccine candidates using the Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Broiler chickens were immunized with clostridial recombinant proteins with ISA 71 VG, and intestinal le...

  5. AMP-activated protein kinase and carbohydrate response element binding protein: A study of two potential regulatory factors in the hepatic lipogenic program of broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of fasting and refeeding on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) mRNA, protein and activity levels; as well as the expression of lipogenic genes involved in regulating lipid synthesis in broiler chicken liv...

  6. Caprylic acid reduces Salmonella Enteritidis populations in various segments of digestive tract and internal organs of three- and six-week-old broiler chickens, therapeutically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid, a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In two separate 3- and 6-wk trials, day-old straight run (N=70 per trial), chicks were assigned to 5 treatment groups ...

  7. Influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; Péron, A; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, V

    2011-02-01

    1. The aim of the present experiment was to examine the influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils (EO; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) supplementation on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens. 2. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two wheat forms (ground wheat [GW] and whole wheat [WW]; 100 and 200 g/kg WW replacing GW during starter [1 to 21 d] and finisher [22 to 35 d] diets respectively) and two levels of EO inclusion (0 or 100 g/tonne diet). All dietary treatments were supplemented with 2000 xylanase units/kg feed. Broiler starter and finisher diets based on wheat and soybean meal were formulated and each diet fed ad libitum to 6 pens of 8 male broilers. 3. During the trial period (1-35 d), wheat form had no significant effect on weight gain or feed intake. However, WW inclusion tended (P = 0.06) to improve feed per gain. Essential oil supplementation significantly improved weight gain in both diets, but the improvements were greater in the GW diet as indicated by a significant wheat form × EO interaction. 4. Main effects of wheat form and EO on the relative weight, length and digesta content of various segments of the digestive tract were not significant. Significant interactions, however, were found for relative gizzard and caecal weights. Essential oil supplementation significantly increased the relative gizzard weight and lowered relative caecal weight in birds fed on the GW based diet, but had no effect in those fed on the WW based diet. 5. Whole wheat inclusion and EO supplementation significantly improved apparent ileal nitrogen digestibility. Apparent ileal digestible energy was not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments. 6. Ileal microbiota profiling, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, showed that the ileal microbiota composition was influenced by feed form. The mean numbers of

  8. Effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based Direct-fed Microbial on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Intestinal Morphology and Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xinjian; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Zhang, Hongyu; Péron, Alexandre; Zhang, Huifang

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal morphology and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. A total of two hundred and eighty eight 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allocated to one of four experimental treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was fed to eight replicate cages, with nine birds per cage. Dietary treatments were composed of an antibiotic-free basal diet (control), and the basal diet supplemented with either 15 mg/kg of virginiamycin as antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), 30 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 30) or 60 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 60). Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 1 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42). Growth performance, nutrient utilization, morphological parameters of the small intestine and cecal microbial populations were measured at the end of the starter (d 21) and finisher (d 42) phases. During the starter phase, DFM and virginiamycin supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR; p<0.01) compared with the control group. For the finisher phase and the overall experiment (d 1 to 42) broilers fed diets with the DFM had better body weight gain (BWG) and FCR than that of control (p<0.05). Supplementation of virginiamycin and DFM significantly increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), dry matter (DM) and gross energy during both starter and finisher phases (p<0.05) compared with the control group. On d 21, villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were significantly increased for the birds fed with the DFM diets as compared with the control group (p<0.05). The DFM 30, DFM 60, and AGP groups decreased the Escherichia coli population in cecum at d 21 and d 42 compared with control group

  9. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    PubMed Central

    Paião, F.G.; Arisitides, L.G.A.; Murate, L.S.; Vilas-Bôas, G.T.; Vilas-Boas, L.A.; Shimokomaki, M.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 °C for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised. PMID:24159281

  10. A genome-wide scan of selective sweeps in two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. Results A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (P<0.01), respectively. A number of genes in the significant core regions, including RB1, BBS7, MAOA, MAOB, EHBP1, LRP2BP, LRP1B, MYO7A, MYO9A and PRPSAP1, were detected. These genes may be important for AF deposition in chickens. Conclusions We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress. PMID:23241142

  11. Dietary supplementation of a mixture of Lactobacillus strains enhances performance of broiler chickens raised under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Wesam Altaher, Yassir; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Idrus, Zulkifli; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Liang, Juan Boo

    2016-07-01

    High ambient temperature is a major problem in commercial broiler production in the humid tropics because high producing broiler birds consume more feed, have higher metabolic activity, and thus higher body heat production. To evaluate the effects of two previously isolated potential probiotic strains ( Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ITA44) on broilers growing under heat stress condition, a total of 192 chicks were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 48 chickens each as follows: CL, birds fed with basal diet raised in 24 °C; PL, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 24 °C; CH, birds fed with basal diet raised in 35 °C; and PH, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 35 °C. The effects of probiotic mixture on the performance, expression of nutrient absorption genes of the small intestine, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial population of cecal contents, antioxidant capacity of liver, and fatty acid composition of breast muscle were investigated. Results showed that probiotic positively affected the final body weight under both temperature conditions (PL and PH groups) compared to their respective control groups (CL and CH). Probiotic supplementation numerically improved the average daily gain (ADG) under lower temperature, but significantly improved ADG under the higher temperature ( P < 0.05) by sustaining high feed intake. Under the lower temperature environment, supplementation of the two Lactobacillus strains significantly increased the expression of the four sugar transporter genes tested (GLUT2, GLUT5, SGLT1, and SGLT4) indicating probiotic enhances the absorption of this nutrient. Similar but less pronounced effect was also observed under higher temperature (35 °C) condition. In addition, the probiotic mixture improved bacterial population of the cecal contents, by increasing beneficial bacteria and decreasing Escherichia coli population, which could be

  12. Dietary supplementation of a mixture of Lactobacillus strains enhances performance of broiler chickens raised under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Wesam Altaher, Yassir; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Idrus, Zulkifli; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Liang, Juan Boo

    2016-07-01

    High ambient temperature is a major problem in commercial broiler production in the humid tropics because high producing broiler birds consume more feed, have higher metabolic activity, and thus higher body heat production. To evaluate the effects of two previously isolated potential probiotic strains (Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ITA44) on broilers growing under heat stress condition, a total of 192 chicks were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 48 chickens each as follows: CL, birds fed with basal diet raised in 24 °C; PL, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 24 °C; CH, birds fed with basal diet raised in 35 °C; and PH, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 35 °C. The effects of probiotic mixture on the performance, expression of nutrient absorption genes of the small intestine, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial population of cecal contents, antioxidant capacity of liver, and fatty acid composition of breast muscle were investigated. Results showed that probiotic positively affected the final body weight under both temperature conditions (PL and PH groups) compared to their respective control groups (CL and CH). Probiotic supplementation numerically improved the average daily gain (ADG) under lower temperature, but significantly improved ADG under the higher temperature (P < 0.05) by sustaining high feed intake. Under the lower temperature environment, supplementation of the two Lactobacillus strains significantly increased the expression of the four sugar transporter genes tested (GLUT2, GLUT5, SGLT1, and SGLT4) indicating probiotic enhances the absorption of this nutrient. Similar but less pronounced effect was also observed under higher temperature (35 °C) condition. In addition, the probiotic mixture improved bacterial population of the cecal contents, by increasing beneficial bacteria and decreasing Escherichia coli population, which could

  13. Dietary supplementation of a mixture of Lactobacillus strains enhances performance of broiler chickens raised under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Wesam Altaher, Yassir; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Idrus, Zulkifli; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Liang, Juan Boo

    2015-11-01

    High ambient temperature is a major problem in commercial broiler production in the humid tropics because high producing broiler birds consume more feed, have higher metabolic activity, and thus higher body heat production. To evaluate the effects of two previously isolated potential probiotic strains (Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ITA44) on broilers growing under heat stress condition, a total of 192 chicks were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 48 chickens each as follows: CL, birds fed with basal diet raised in 24 °C; PL, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 24 °C; CH, birds fed with basal diet raised in 35 °C; and PH, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 35 °C. The effects of probiotic mixture on the performance, expression of nutrient absorption genes of the small intestine, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial population of cecal contents, antioxidant capacity of liver, and fatty acid composition of breast muscle were investigated. Results showed that probiotic positively affected the final body weight under both temperature conditions (PL and PH groups) compared to their respective control groups (CL and CH). Probiotic supplementation numerically improved the average daily gain (ADG) under lower temperature, but significantly improved ADG under the higher temperature (P < 0.05) by sustaining high feed intake. Under the lower temperature environment, supplementation of the two Lactobacillus strains significantly increased the expression of the four sugar transporter genes tested (GLUT2, GLUT5, SGLT1, and SGLT4) indicating probiotic enhances the absorption of this nutrient. Similar but less pronounced effect was also observed under higher temperature (35 °C) condition. In addition, the probiotic mixture improved bacterial population of the cecal contents, by increasing beneficial bacteria and decreasing Escherichia coli population, which could be

  14. Histomorphological studies of broiler chicken fed diets supplemented with either raw or enzyme treated dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Saim; Banday, Mohammed Tufail; Shakeel, Irfan; Adil, Sheikh; Mir, Masood Saleem; Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Amin, Umar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Herbal plants and their derived products are extensively used particularly in many Asian, African, and other countries of the world as they are considered as ideal feed additives because of their non-residual effect and ability to influence the ecosystem of gastrointestinal microbiota in a positive way. Further, the enzymatic treatment of these herbs helps in their efficient utilization by the host. Dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds have been reported to have positive effect in terms of improving the performance of broiler chicken, but not much literature is available regarding their effect on gut histomorphology; therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the effect of these herbs either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment on histomorphology of liver and small intestine of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: To achieve the envisaged objective, 273-day-old commercial broiler chicks were procured from a reputed source and reared together until 7 days of age. On the 7th day, the chicks were individually weighed, distributed randomly into 7 groups of 3 replicates with 13 chicks each. Birds in the control group were fed diets without additives (T1). The other six treatment groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% dandelion leaves (T2), 1% fenugreek seeds (T3), combination of 0.5% dandelion leaves and 1% fenugreek seeds (T4), enzyme treated dandelion leaves 0.5% (T5), enzyme treated fenugreek seeds 1% (T6), and combination of enzyme treated dandelion leaves (0.5%) and (1%) fenugreek seeds (T7). The histomorphological study of liver and small intestines was conducted among different treatment groups. Results: The results revealed the hepato-protective nature of both dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment when compared with the control group. Moreover, the histomorphological findings of jejunum revealed the beneficial effect of dandelion leaves, fenugreek

  15. Effects of dietary essential oil components on growth performance, digestive enzymes and lipid metabolism in female broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Everts, H; Kappert, H J; Frehner, M; Losa, R; Beynen, A C

    2003-07-01

    1. The present experiment was conducted to describe the effects of thymol, cinnamaldehyde and a commercial preparation of essential oil components (CRINA Poultry), in female broilers. Feed and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. 2. Feed intake, weight gain and feed:gain ratio were not different among the treatments. Water intake was significantly lowered by cinnamaldehyde. Relative liver weight (g/100 g of body weight) was highest in birds given thymol, but this was seen only at the age of 21 d and not at 40 d. Patterns of digestive enzymes in pancreatic tissue were similar for the 4 treatments. 3. Amylase activity in intestinal digesta was highest in chickens given CRINA Poultry for 21 d, but the effect had disappeared after 40 d. Ileal digestibility coefficients for starch and protein were high and identical for all treatments. 4. Fatty acid composition of diet was reflected in that of adipose tissue. Plasma lipid concentrations were not changed by any dietary treatment. 5. Thus, the present results show no effect of essential oil constituents on growth performance in female broiler chickens, but it cannot be excluded that positive effects would have been observed under less hygienic environmental conditions or when using a less digestible diet. PMID:12964629

  16. Investigation of Enrofloxacin and Chloramphenicol Residues in Broiler Chickens Carcasses Collected From Local Markets of Tabriz, Northwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Vahideh; Mesgari Abbasi, Mehran; Abedimanesh, Nasim; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Gorbani, Abolfazl

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed to determine the residual amounts of chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin in broiler chickens muscle and liver sam­ples gathered from local markets of Tabriz City, northwestern Iran. Methods: Ninety broiler chickens carcasses were collected from different local markets of Tabriz, during July/August 2013. Random samples of thigh and breast muscle and liver were gathered and kept at -80°C until analyzes. The samples were then assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to the protocol of each antibiotic kit. Data were statistically analyzed using the computer program SAS 9.1. Results: Eighty two samples (91/1 %) contained residues of enrofloxacin, alt­hough mean (±SD)of enrofloxacin concentration was lower than the European Union maximum residue limits(MRLs) value (P<0.001). Moreover, 28 (31/1 %) had detectable concentrations of chloramphenicol while it was not defined any MRLs value for chloramphenicol because its using has been forbidden in food animals. Conclusion: The frequency of contamination with enrofloxacin was considerable for the analyzed samples. Furthermore, the existence of chloramphenicol in almost one third of samples seems to be a public health threat due to its illegal use in food animals including poultry. PMID:25648045

  17. Integrative analysis of transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of ascites syndrome in broiler chickens induced by low temperature.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shourong; Shen, Yiru; Zhao, Zhenhua; Hou, Zhuocheng; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Huaijun; Zou, Jianmin; Guo, Yuming

    2014-11-01

    Ascites syndrome (AS) still has an unacceptably high incidence rate in both humans and animals although there have been many studies on AS. To continue our previous pathological and biochemical investigation on the underlying mechanisms of AS incidence in broiler chickens, cutting-edge technologies including RNA-seq and metabolimics were used by directly comparing AS chickens and healthy controls. The RNA-seq analysis in the liver identified 390 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), among which 212 genes were up-regulated and 178 genes were down-regulated in the AS group compared to the control. For the down-regulated DEGs, further gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that lipid metabolism, cell differentiation, enzyme linked receptor protein signaling pathway and steroid biosynthesis pathway were significantly enriched. For up-regulated DEGs, the cholesterol metabolic process has the lowest p value (0.000966) of fold enrichment while the cholesterol biosynthetic process has the highest fold enrichment (46.67). The metabolomic analysis of serum revealed statistically significant changes in the concentrations of LysoPC(20 : 4), LysoPC(16 : 0), LysoPC(18 : 0), LysoPC(18 : 1), LysoPC(18 : 2), PC(14 : 1/20 : 1), PC(20 : 4/18 : 0), PC(14 : 1/22 : 1), dihydroxyacetone, indoleacrylic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, l-valine, and l-tryptophan. The integrative analysis of transcriptome and metabolome indicated that two biological pathways of tryptophan biosynthesis and metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism may contribute to the induction of AS in broilers. These findings have provided novel insights into our understanding of molecular mechanisms of AS incidence in broilers. PMID:25178933

  18. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken. PMID:27536035

  19. Short term changes in the expression of lipogenic genes in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of these experiments were to determine possible relationships between certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed graded levels of dietary crude protein. Male, broiler chickens growing from 7 to 28 days of age were fed diets containing 12 or 30% prote...

  20. METHIMZOLE, THYROID HORMONE REPLACEMENT AND LIPOGENIC ENZYME GENE EXPRESSION IN BROILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the possible relationship between certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed methimazole to produce a kind of artificial hypothyroidism. Male, broiler chickens growing from 7 to 28 days of age were fed diets contai...

  1. Further studies on short term adaptations in the expression of lipogenic genes in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to determine possible relationships between certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed graded levels of dietary crude protein. Male, broiler chickens growing from 7 to 28 days of age were fed diets containing 12 or 30% protein ad li...

  2. Performance in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil Lippia berlandieri Schauer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) in the broiler diet on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol) and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacro...

  3. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  4. Effects of yeast cell wall-derived mannan-oligosaccharides on jejunal gene expression in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Xiao, R; Power, R F; Mallonee, D; Routt, K; Spangler, L; Pescatore, A J; Cantor, A H; Ao, T; Pierce, J L; Dawson, K A

    2012-07-01

    The use of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) has gained in popularity in recent years due to regulatory restrictions of using AGP in food animal production. Benefits of MOS usage include improvement on animal performance, feed efficiency, and gastrointestinal health. The molecular mechanisms of these functions however are not clear. The goal of the current study was to use a transcriptomics approach to investigate the effects of MOS on the intestinal gene expression profile of young broilers and characterize biological gene pathways responsible for the actions of MOS. One hundred and twenty 1-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 2 groups and were fed either a standard wheat-soybean meal-based (control) diet or the same diet supplemented with 2.2 g/kg of MOS (Bio-Mos, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) for 3 wk, followed by jejunal gene expression profiling analysis using chicken-specific Affymetrix microarrays. Results indicated that a total of 672 genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01 and fold change >1.2) in the jejunum by MOS supplementation. Association analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes are involved in diverse biological functions including energy production, cell death, and protein translation. Expression of 77 protein synthesis-related genes was differentially regulated by MOS in the jejunum. Further pathway analysis indicated that 15 genes related to oxidative phosphorylation were upregulated in the jejunum, and expression of genes important in cellular stress response, such as peroxiredoxin 1, superoxide dismutase 1, and thioredoxin, were also increased by MOS. Differential expression of genes associated with cellular immune processes, including lysozyme, lumican, β 2-microglobin, apolipoprotein A-1, and fibronectin 1, were also observed in MOS-fed broilers. In summary, this study systematically identified biological functions and gene pathways that are important in

  5. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic chromium on performance, carcass traits, oxidative parameters, and immune responses in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rao, S V Rama; Raju, M V L N; Panda, A K; Poonam, N S; Murthy, O Krishna; Sunder, G Shyam

    2012-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to study effect of supplementing graded concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 μg/kg diet) of organic chromium (Cr) on performance, carcass traits, oxidative stress, and immune responses in commercial broiler chickens reared in open-sided poultry house under tropical climatic conditions. Each diet was fed ad libitum to eight replicates consisting of six birds in each pen from 1 to 42 days of age. Body mass gain and feed efficiency at 21 and 42 days of age and relative mass of liver, abdominal fat, and ready to cook yields at 42 days of age were not affected (P > 0.05) by supplementing organic Cr in broiler diet. Body mass loss during pre-slaughter holding period (12 h) reduced and relative breast mass increased nonlinearly (P < 0.01) with concentration of Cr in diet. Lipid peroxidation decreased, while activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma increased nonlinearly with Cr supplementation. The ratio between heterophyl and lymphocyte was not affected (P > 0.05) with Cr supplementation in broiler diet. Relative mass of lymphoid organs (bursa, spleen, and thymus) and antibody production to Newcastle disease vaccination were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments employed. The cell-mediated immunity (lymphocyte proliferation ratio) increased nonlinearly with dietary Cr concentration. The results of the present study indicated that supplementation of organic Cr did not influence body mass and feed efficiency. However, supplementation of the Cr reduced pre-slaughter holding losses, increased the relative mass of breast, and increased antioxidant status and lymphocyte proliferation in broilers reared in tropics. PMID:22237421

  6. Effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients on the genome-wide profiles and coccidiosis resistance in the broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and Capsicum oleoresin, on the translational regulation of genes associated with immunology, physiology and metabolism using high-throughput microarray analysis and in vivo disease challenge model of avian coccidiosis. Methods In this study, we used nutrigenomics technology to investigate the molecular and genetic mechanisms of dietary modulation of host innate immunity and metabolism by three phytonutrients. To validate their immunomodulatory effects in a disease model, young broiler chickens fed a standard diet supplemented with three phytochemicals (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin) from one day post-hatch were orally challenged with E. acervulina. The body weight gain and fecal oocyst production were used to evaluate coccidiosis disease parameters. Results Analysis of global gene expression profiles of intestinal tissues from phytonutrient-fed birds indicated that Capsicum oleoresin induced the most gene changes compared to the control group where many of these genes were associated with those of metabolism and immunity. The most reliable network induced by dietary cinnamaldehyde treatment was related with the functions of antigen presentation, humoral immune response, and inflammatory disease. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with these phytonutrients significantly protected broiler chickens against live coccidiosis challenge infection based on body weight and parasite fecundity. Conclusions The results of this study provide clear evidence to support the idea that plant-derived phytochemicals possess immune-enhancing properties in chickens and these new findings create a new possibility to develop effective drug-free alternative strategies for disease control for poultry infectious diseases. PMID:21645315

  7. A live oral recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium vaccine expressing Clostridium perfringens antigens confers protection against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, R R; Parreira, V R; Jiang, Y-F; Prescott, J F

    2010-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens is caused by Clostridium perfringens, and there is currently no effective vaccine for NE. We previously showed that in broiler chickens protection against NE can be achieved through intramuscular immunization with alpha toxin (AT) and hypothetical protein (HP), and we subsequently identified B-cell epitopes in HP. In the present study, we identified B-cell epitopes in AT recognized by chickens immune to NE. The gene fragments encoding immunodominant epitopes of AT as well as those of HP were codon optimized for Salmonella and cloned into pYA3493, and the resultant plasmid constructs were introduced into an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chi9352 vaccine vehicle. The expression of these Clostridium perfringens proteins, alpha toxoid (ATd) and truncated HP (HPt), was confirmed by immunoblotting. The protection of broiler chickens against experimentally induced NE was assessed at both the moderate and the severe levels of challenge. Birds immunized orally with Salmonella expressing ATd were significantly protected against moderate NE, and there was a nonsignificant trend for protection against severe challenge, whereas HPt-immunized birds were significantly protected against both severities of challenge. Immunized birds developed serum IgY and mucosal IgA and IgY antibody responses against Clostridium and Salmonella antigens. In conclusion, this study identified, for the first time, the B-cell epitopes in AT from an NE isolate recognized by chickens and showed the partial protective ability of codon-optimized ATd and HPt against NE in broiler chickens when they were delivered orally by using a Salmonella vaccine vehicle. PMID:20007363

  8. Can Bacteriotherapy Using Commercially Available Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Organic Acids Ameliorate the Symptoms Associated With Runting-Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens?

    PubMed

    Mundt, E; Collett, S R; Berghaus, R; Pedroso, A A; Lee, M D; Maurer, J J

    2015-06-01

    Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in poultry has been known for more than 40 years, but the precise etiology remains unknown and a licensed vaccine is consequently not currently available. In order to mitigate the symptoms associated with RSS, a series of experiments was performed to investigate whether a combined bacteriotherapeutic treatment consisting of probiotics, prebiotics, and organic acids could influence the outcome of this disease. Initially two groups of commercial broiler chickens were either left uninoculated or inoculated with filtrate from homogenized intestines of RSS-affected broiler chickens. One group from each of these two challenge groups was treated, with a bacteriotherapeutic regimen. After 12 days chickens were euthanatized, the body weight was measured, and duodenal lesions were enumerated. Five consecutive broiler chicken flocks were then raised either on litter from RSS-affected birds or on fresh wood shavings. Treatment had no beneficial effect on the number and severity of intestinal lesions. There appeared to be a significant build-up of RSS agent(s) in poultry litter, with each consecutive flock placement, independent of bacteriotherapeutic treatment, as more individuals exhibited intestinal lesions on built-up litter in RSS-affected houses (28.9% vs. 44%). While treatment did not appear to consistently reduce intestinal lesions, it did significantly improve the mean body weights (P<0.05) and uniformity of 12-day-old chickens placed on reused litter in houses in which RSS-infected birds were previously raised. A combination of litter management and bacteriotherapy may be needed to ameliorate the adverse effects of RSS on intestinal health and body weight in broiler chickens. PMID:26473669

  9. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella species isolated from chicken broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Mingyu; Liu, Yuqing; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Yunkun; Lu, Jinxing; Xu, Hai

    2016-09-01

    class 1 integrons (p<0.01). Additional conjugation experiments confirmed this relationship (p<0.01) in transconjugants by finding that a high percentage of PMQR genes (74.0%) and class 1 integrons (73.7%) were co-transferred with ESBL genes. Finally, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed, and it revealed that the isolates from chickens are widely distributed in humans, and that antimicrobial resistance is not only disseminated by clonal spreading, but largely by horizontal gene transfer. These results suggest that horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes by mobile genetic elements, such as integrons, plays a major role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, elucidating the structures of drug resistance integrons is of great importance to the commercial broiler slaughter plant in Shandong, China. PMID:27289192

  10. Concurrent supplementation of arginine, vitamin E, and vitamin C improve cardiopulmonary performance in broilers chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of arginine, vitamin E (VE), and vitamin C (VC) on cardiopulmonary performance and ascites parameters of broilers reared under a cold environmental temperature. One-day-old male broilers were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (control, 1.2% arginine and 40 IU of VE), or the basal diet supplemented with 1% arginine and either 200 IU vitamin E (AE), 500 mg of vitamin C (AC), or a combination of VE and VC at the same amounts (AEC) per kilogram of feed. Pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and mean arterial pressure were recorded in clinically healthy, anesthetized birds (28 to 42 d old) before and after an epinephrine (Epi) challenge (0.5 mg/kg of BW, i.v.), an aminoguanidine hemisulfate challenge (100 mg/kg of BW, i.v.), and an N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester challenge (50 mg/kg of BW, i.v.) at 20-min intervals. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, and the Student Newman-Keuls test was used to separate means within groups. The PAP increased 30 s after the Epi challenge in all birds, but the peak PAP was lower in the AEC group than in all the other groups, whereas birds in the AE and AC groups had lower PAP peaks than did the control group. After 120 s of challenge, the PAP was lower in AEC birds compared with the other birds. The PAP returned to pre-Epi amounts within 300 s in all groups. The PAP was increased (P < 0.05) within 60 s after the aminoguanidine hemisulfate and N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester challenges in all groups, but no differences were found among groups. The mean arterial pressure responses did not differ among groups. Plasma NO was greater in the AEC group than in all the other groups before and after the Epi challenge. These results showed that Epi elicited lower amplitude PAP and less prolonged increases in PAP in birds from the AEC group, and this may have been related to the increased vasodilation attributable to NO production. The AEC may have had complementary effects against

  11. Ammonia volatilization after surface application of laying-hen and broiler-chicken manures.

    PubMed

    Miola, Ezequiel C C; Rochette, Philippe; Chantigny, Martin H; Angers, Denis A; Aita, Celso; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Pelster, David E; Bertrand, Normand

    2014-11-01

    Ammonia (NH) losses after field application of animal manure are affected by manure characteristics. The objectives of this study were to quantify NH losses from poultry manures obtained from varied handling and storage systems commonly found in eastern Canada and to relate NH emissions to manure characteristics. We measured NH volatilization using wind tunnels for 22 d after soil-surface application of seven solid poultry manures originating from farms varying in production type (laying hens and broiler chickens) and in storage duration and conditions. Cumulative emissions (2.7-7.0 g NH-N m) accounted for 13.6 to 35.0% of the total N applied and 51 to 84% (mean, 70%) of the sum of ammoniacal N, urea N, and uric acid N applied (TAUA). On average, 20% of these losses occurred during the first 4.5 h after application for manures that were not dried in the barn shortly after excretion. Production type and storage durations could not explain differences in NH volatilization between manures. Volatilization losses were linearly related to manure dry matter and to manure-derived NH-N, but sources of N changed with time after application. During the first 7 d, variations in total ammoniacal N applied (TANA) among manures explained most of the variations in cumulative NH losses ( = 0.85 after 26 h and 0.92 after 7 d). After a simulated rainfall (5 mm) on Day 7 that stimulated the decomposition of uric acid in manures, TAUA rather than TANA was related to cumulative emissions ( = 0.77 after 14 and 22 d). Our results indicate that reliable estimates of NH volatilization after land spreading of poultry manures should be based not only on TANA but also on NH-N derived from the decomposition of uric acid, that volatilization losses reported in the literature (including the present study) averaged 50% of TAUA, and that estimates for a given situation also need to account for local environmental conditions. PMID:25602203

  12. The effect of wheat prebiotics on the gut bacterial population and iron status of iron deficient broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a lot of interest in improving gut health, and consequently increasing Fe absorption, by managing the colonic microbial population. This is traditionally done by the consumption of probiotics, live microbial food supplements. However, an alternative, and often very effective approach, is the consumption of food ingredients known as prebiotics. Fructans and arabinoxylans are naturally occurring non-digestible oligosaccharides in wheat that exhibit prebiotic properties and may enhance intestinal iron (Fe) absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prebiotics from wheat on Fe bioavailability in vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (broiler chickens, Gallus gallus). Methods In the current study, the effect of intra-amniotic administration of wheat samples extracts at 17 d of embryonic incubation on the Fe status and possible changes in the bacterial population in intestinal content of broiler hatchlings were investigated. A group of 144 eggs were injected with the specified solution (1 ml per egg) into the amniotic fluid. Immediately after hatch (21 d) and from each treatment group, 10 chicks were euthanized and their small intestine, liver and cecum were removed for relative mRNA abundance of intestinal Fe related transporters, relative liver ferritin amounts and bacterial analysis of cecal content, respectively. Results The in vivo results are in agreement with the in vitro observations, showing no differences in the hatchling Fe status between the treatment groups, as Fe bioavailability was not increased in vitro and no significant differences were measured in the intestinal expression of DMT1, Ferroportin and DcytB in vivo. However, there was significant variation in relative amounts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the intestinal content between the treatments groups, with generally more bifidobacteria being produced with increased prebiotic content. Conclusions In this study we showed that prebiotics naturally

  13. Association of Chicken Growth Hormones and Insulin-like Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Growth Performance and Carcass Traits in Thai Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Nguyen Thi Lan; Kunhareang, Sajee; Duangjinda, Monchai

    2015-01-01

    Molecular marker selection has been an acceptable tool in the acceleration of the genetic response of desired traits to improve production performance in chickens. The crossbreds from commercial parent stock (PS) broilers with four Thai synthetic breeds; Kaen Thong (KT), Khai Mook Esarn (KM), Soi Nin (SN), and Soi Pet (SP) were used to study the association among chicken growth hormones (cGH) and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) genes for growth and carcass traits; for the purpose of developing a suitable terminal breeding program for Thai broilers. A total of 408 chickens of four Thai broiler lines were genotyped, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The cGH gene was significantly associated with body weight at hatching; at 4, 6, 8, 10 weeks of age and with average daily gain (ADG); during 2 to 4, 4 to 6, 0 to 6, 0 to 8, and 0 to 10 weeks of age in PS×KM chickens. For PS×KT populations, cGH gene showed significant association with body weight at hatching, and ADG; during 8 to 10 weeks of age. The single nucleotide polymorphism variant confirmed that allele G has positive effects for body weight and ADG. Within carcass traits, cGH revealed a tentative association within the dressing percentage. For the IGF-I gene polymorphism, there were significant associations with body weight at hatching; at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age and ADG; during 0 to 2, 4 to 6, and 0 to 6 weeks of age; in all of four Thai broiler populations. There were tentative associations of the IGF-I gene within the percentages of breast muscles and wings. Thus, cGH gene may be used as a candidate gene, to improve growth traits of Thai broilers. PMID:26580435

  14. Association of Chicken Growth Hormones and Insulin-like Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Growth Performance and Carcass Traits in Thai Broilers.

    PubMed

    Anh, Nguyen Thi Lan; Kunhareang, Sajee; Duangjinda, Monchai

    2015-12-01

    Molecular marker selection has been an acceptable tool in the acceleration of the genetic response of desired traits to improve production performance in chickens. The crossbreds from commercial parent stock (PS) broilers with four Thai synthetic breeds; Kaen Thong (KT), Khai Mook Esarn (KM), Soi Nin (SN), and Soi Pet (SP) were used to study the association among chicken growth hormones (cGH) and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) genes for growth and carcass traits; for the purpose of developing a suitable terminal breeding program for Thai broilers. A total of 408 chickens of four Thai broiler lines were genotyped, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The cGH gene was significantly associated with body weight at hatching; at 4, 6, 8, 10 weeks of age and with average daily gain (ADG); during 2 to 4, 4 to 6, 0 to 6, 0 to 8, and 0 to 10 weeks of age in PS×KM chickens. For PS×KT populations, cGH gene showed significant association with body weight at hatching, and ADG; during 8 to 10 weeks of age. The single nucleotide polymorphism variant confirmed that allele G has positive effects for body weight and ADG. Within carcass traits, cGH revealed a tentative association within the dressing percentage. For the IGF-I gene polymorphism, there were significant associations with body weight at hatching; at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age and ADG; during 0 to 2, 4 to 6, and 0 to 6 weeks of age; in all of four Thai broiler populations. There were tentative associations of the IGF-I gene within the percentages of breast muscles and wings. Thus, cGH gene may be used as a candidate gene, to improve growth traits of Thai broilers. PMID:26580435

  15. Use of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation and molecular structure, in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Codony, R; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation and molecular structure, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils in broiler chicken diets. For this purpose, 144 one-d-old female broiler chickens were randomly distributed in 48 cages. Birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with 6% of native palm oil ( PN: ), acid palm oil ( PA: ), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- ( MAG: ) and diacylglycerols ( DAG: ) ( PEL: ), re-esterified palm oil high in MAG and DAG ( PEH: ), native soybean oil ( SN: ), acid soybean oil ( SA: ), re-esterified soybean oil low in MAG and DAG ( SEL: ), or re-esterified soybean oil high in MAG and DAG ( SEH: ), which resulted in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. Digestibility balances showed that the degree of saturation of fat generally exerted a greater impact than did the fat molecular structure. The dietary utilization of S sources was higher than that of P sources. However, the increased sn-2 saturated fatty acid ( SFA: ) content of EL oils in the starter period and the increased MAG and DAG content of EH oils in the grower-finisher period yielded favorable effects on the SFA apparent absorption, especially in those birds fed re-esterified palm oils. The excreta acylglycerol and free fatty acid composition was mainly composed of free fatty acids, and their amount almost paralleled the results observed for SFA apparent absorption. For growth performance, birds fed S exhibited better feed conversion ratios and lower abdominal fat-pad weights than did those fed P. The fatty acid composition of abdominal adipose tissue was also mainly affected by the degree of saturation of dietary fat sources. We concluded that re-esterified oils, mainly from P sources, can be used in broiler chicken diets as alternative fat sources since they show similar or even higher total fatty acid apparent absorption than do their corresponding native and acid oils, with

  16. [Effect of litter type on prevalence and severity of pododermatitis in male broilers].

    PubMed

    Berk, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    During the course of two trial periods on broilers (Ross 308), the effects of 5 different types of litter (chopped straw, wood shavings, spelt glumes, Pelletinos, HygieneWood-Shavings) on the development of pododermatitis and animal performance (body weight, feed conversion, mortality) were investigated. Pelletinos are for sale under the name Pelletino Strohstreugranulat G. HygieneWood-Shavings are a special product that currently is not available on the market. Male broilers were kept under practical conditions (feeding, light program) for 35 days. Foot pad lesions could already be observed at the first assessment on their 7th day after hatching. Broilers kept on chopped straw showed in both trials the highest score (trial 1: 1.50; trial 2: 1.58). Animals reared on Pelletinos (trial 1: 0.59; trial 2: 0.17) followed by HygieneWood-Shavings (trial 1: 0.63; trial 2: 0.47), wood shavings (trial 1: 1.30; trial 2: 0.71) and spelt glumes (trial 1: 1.13, trial 2:0.93) showed significant lower lesions. During the second trial, the average body weights were significantly higher while feed conversion was lower.The mortality on the other hand showed no significant differences between the trials. Groups kept on Pelletinos showed the best foot pads and the highest body weights in both trials at the end of experiments. The investigation showed that the prevalence and the severity of pododermatitis as well as the performance could be influenced by various types of litter. Chopped straw which is standard for the broiler industry in Germany, seems to be the least suitable variant in our study. PMID:19681398

  17. Leaky gut and mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 does not increase gut permeability in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect...

  18. Effect of Litter Moisture on the Development of Footpad Dermatitis in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    TAIRA, Kazuyo; NAGAI, Toshimune; OBI, Takeshi; TAKASE, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broiler chicks were reared on either wet litter or dry litter to compare the development of footpad dermatitis (FPD). Broilers reared on wet litter first developed FPD at 14 days of age. Their FPD scores increased sharply after 21 days of age, reaching 2.92 at 42 days. In broilers reared on dry litter, FPD was first observed at 28 days of age, and the FPD score was only 0.70 at 42 days. When 21- or 28-day-old broilers that had been reared on wet litter and had developed FPD were moved to dry litter, the progression of FPD was suppressed or delayed. These results suggest that reducing litter moisture is effective in preventing FPD and suppressing disease progression. PMID:24366153

  19. Effects of Feeding of Two Potentially Probiotic Preparations from Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Performance and Faecal Microflora of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Paula; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Méndez, Jesús; Rodríguez, Isabel; Fuciños, Clara; Guerra, Nelson P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of two probiotic preparations, containing live lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 and Lactobacillus casei CECT 4043) and their products of fermentation (organic acids and bacteriocins), as a replacement for antibiotics in stimulating health and growth of broiler chickens. The effects of the supplementation of both preparations (with proven probiotic effect in weaned piglets) and an antibiotic (avilamycin) on body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed consumption efficiency (FCE), relative intestinal weight, and intestinal microbiota counts were studied in 1-day posthatch chickens. The experiments were conducted with medium-growth Sasso X44 chickens housed in cages and with nutritional stressed Ross 308 broiler distributed in pens. Consumption of the different diets did not affect significantly the final coliform counts in Sasso X44 chickens. However, counts of lactic acid bacteria and mesophilic microorganisms were higher in the animals receiving the two probiotic preparations (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, although no differences in BWG were observed between treatments, Ross 308 broilers receiving the probiotic Lactobacillus preparation exhibited the lowest FCE values and were considered the most efficient at converting feed into live weight. PMID:22666137

  20. Effects of feed supplementation with glycine chelate and iron sulfate on selected parameters of cell-mediated immune response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Łukasz; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Marek, Agnieszka; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kalinowski, Marcin; Laskowska, Ewa

    2016-08-01

    Because little is known about the impact of chelated (Fe-Gly, Fe-Gly+F) and inorganic (FeSO4, FeSO4+F) iron products on immune response parameters in broiler chickens, the objective of the study was to determine the effects of inorganic and organic forms of iron on selected parameters of the cell-mediated immune response in broiler chickens by assessing the percentage of CD3(+)CD4(+), CD3(+)CD8(+), CD25(+), and MHC Class II lymphocytes, as well as the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and IL-2 concentration in the peripheral blood. The experiments were conducted using 50day-old Ross 308 roosters. The test material was peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to determine selected cell-mediated immune response parameters. The results obtained indicate that the use of iron chelates in the diet of broiler chickens may stimulate cellular defense mechanisms. As a result of the experiment an increase was observed in the percentage of Th1, mainly T CD4(+) and T CD8(+). It was also noted that application of chelated iron can increase production of T CD8(+) cytotoxic cells and IL-2, which promotes the body's natural response to developing inflammation. There were no changes in T CD4(+), T CD8(+), T CD25(+) or MHC II lymphocyte subpopulations in the chickens following application of the inorganic form of iron. PMID:27473977

  1. Feed supplemented with byproducts from olive oil mill wastewater processing increases antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Kokkas, Stylianos; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a ceramic membrane microfiltration method was used for the separation of two liquid products, the downstream permeate and the upstream retentate, from olive mill wastewater (OMWW). These liquid products were examined for their antioxidant activity by incorporating them into broilers' feed. Twenty four broilers 13 d old were divided into two feeding groups receiving supplementation with OMWW retentate or permeate for 37 d. Blood was drawn at 17, 27 and 37 d, while tissues (muscle, heart, liver) were collected at 37 d. The antioxidant effects were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The results showed that broilers given feed supplemented with OMWW retentate or permeate had significantly lower protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and higher total antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues compared to control group. In both OMWW groups, catalase activity in erythrocytes and tissues was significantly increased compared to control group. OMWW retentate administration increased significantly GSH in erythrocytes in broilers with low GSH, although both OMWW products significantly reduced GSH in broilers with high GSH. Thus, it has been demonstrated for the first time that supplementation with OMWW processing residues could be used for enhancing broilers' redox status. PMID:25916917

  2. Effect of Terminalia catappa Fruit Meal Fermented by Aspergillus niger as Replacement of Maize on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Serum Biochemical Profile of Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Apata, David Friday

    2011-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented Terminalia catappa fruit meal (FTCM) with Aspergillus niger as replacement for maize on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemical constituents. Dietary maize was replaced by FTCM at 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80%. One hundred and eighty one-day-old Shaver broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments, three replicate groups of twelve chicks each for a 42-day period. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in the feed intake, weight gain, and feed; gain ratio between the broilers fed on 40% FTCM diet and the control group. The apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, crude fibre, and fat decreased significantly in broilers fed higher levels (>40%) of FTCM replacement diets compared with the control or lower FTCM diets. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and globulin were decreased (P < .05) on 80% FTCM fed broilers. Serum cholesterol, creatinine, and glucose were not significantly (P > .05) altered among treatments. The activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were significantly (P < .05) increased with higher FTCM replacement. The results indicate that FTCM could replace up to 40% of dietary maize in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance or serum constituents. PMID:21350670

  3. Effect of extrusion on the nutritional value of peas for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hejdysz, Marcin; Kaczmarek, Sebastian Andrzej; Rutkowski, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the nutritional value of five samples of raw and extruded pea seeds (Pisum sativum L., Tarachalska cv.) from different experimental fields. The study included 150 male 1-day-old Ross 308 chickens, which were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (50 replications each) and kept in individual cages. From days 1 to 16, all birds received only the basal diets. From days 17 to 21, the control group received still the basal diet, but for the two other groups, 20% of basal diet was replaced by raw or extruded peas. Furthermore, the groups receiving raw or extruded peas were divided into five subgroups of 10 animals each, where the diets contained one of the five pea samples of the same cultivar grown at different locations, respectively. On days 19 and 20, excreta were individually collected, and then all chickens were sacrificed and ileal digesta were sampled for determination of ileal digestibility, which was calculated by the difference method. Extrusion of pea seeds decreased the contents of crude fibre, acid and neutral detergent fibre, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), phytic P and resistant starch (RS) (p ≤ 0.05), but increased the contents of apparent metabolisable energy (AMEN) by approximately 2.25 MJ/kg dry matter (DM). Furthermore, extrusion improved the DM and crude protein digestibility significantly by about 21.3% and 11.6%, respectively. Similar results were observed for the digestibility of all analysed amino acids. In conclusion, extrusion markedly influenced the chemical composition of peas, reduced their contents of phytic P, TIA and RS and consequently had a positive impact on nutrient digestibility and AMEN values. PMID:27434309

  4. The effect of zinc bacitracin and roxarsone on performance of broiler chickens when fed in combination with narasin.

    PubMed

    Waldroup, P W; Izat, A L; Primo, R A; Twining, P F; Herbert, J A; Trammell, J H; Fell, R V; Crawford, J S

    1990-06-01

    Six trials were conducted at various locations to determine the response of broiler chickens to combinations of zinc bacitracin and roxarsone when fed in the presence of narasin. The addition of zinc bacitracin at 55 mg per kg significantly improved growth rate and feed utilization when data from all locations were combined. There was no effect of roxarsone fed at 50 mg per kg on BW or feed utilization, nor was there an interaction of roxarsone and zinc bacitracin on BW. There was a significant interaction of roxarsone and zinc bacitracin for feed utilization; addition of zinc bacitracin significantly improved feed utilization both in the presence and absence of roxarsone, but the improvement was greater in the absence of roxarsone. PMID:2395787

  5. Warm weather transport of broiler chickens in Manitoba. II. Truck management factors associated with death loss in transit to slaughter

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Terry L.; Drain, Mairead E.; Rasali, Drona P.

    2007-01-01

    This observational study was conducted to identify the cause of death and load level factors associated with mortality in 1 090 733 Manitoba broiler chickens transported to slaughter in spring and early summer. Death loss in transit was 0.346% and accounted for 19% of the total carcass condemnation. The death loss pattern was clearly bimodal, with a low death loss in 180 of 198 shipments. Cumulative death loss during the growing phase of production was consistently associated with increased transport mortalities in load level models and when comparing high death loss with low death loss truckloads. High ambient temperature at the time of slaughter and loading density of the truck were the major factors associated with exceptional death loss. PMID:17334028

  6. Effects of exogenous proteases without or with carbohydrases on nutrient digestibility and disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olukosi, O A; Beeson, L A; Englyst, K; Romero, L F

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a subtilisin protease, without or with inclusion of carbohydrases, on digestibility and retention of energy and protein, as well as the solubilization and disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) from corn-soybean meal based diets fed to broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty-eight Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used for the experiment. On d 14, the birds were weighed and allocated to 6 treatments and 8 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Treatments were: 1) corn-soybean meal based control diet; 2) control diet plus supplemental protease at 5,000 (P5000) protease units (PU)/kg); 3) control plus 10,000 PU/kg protease (P10000); or control plus an enzyme combination containing xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP) added to achieve protease activity of: 4) 2,500 PU/kg (XAP2500); 5) 5,000 PU/kg (XAP5000); or 6) 10,000 PU/kg (XAP10000). The enzymes in XAP were combined at fixed ratios of 10:1:25 of xylanase:amylase:protease. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and specific orthogonal contrasts between treatments were performed. Addition of xylanase and amylase increased (P < 0.05) the ileal digestibility of protein by 4.2% and 2.1% at XAP5000 and XAP10000, respectively (relative to P5000 and P10000, respectively), exhibiting a plateau after the XAP5000 dose. Increment (P < 0.05) in AME due to protease was evident, particularly in P10000. At the ileal level, XAP reduced (P < 0.05) the flow of insoluble xylose and arabinose, which indicates an increase in the solubilization of arabinoxylan polymers in the small intestine. Protease on its own reduced (P < 0.05) the flow of insoluble arabinose but did not affect the flow of insoluble xylose. XAP reduced (P < 0.05) the pre-cecal flow of insoluble and total glucose and galactose. It was concluded that whereas protease by itself improved nutrient utilization and increased solubilization of NSP components, at the lower dose, a

  7. Effects of exogenous proteases without or with carbohydrases on nutrient digestibility and disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Olukosi, O. A.; Beeson, L. A.; Englyst, K.; Romero, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a subtilisin protease, without or with inclusion of carbohydrases, on digestibility and retention of energy and protein, as well as the solubilization and disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) from corn-soybean meal based diets fed to broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty-eight Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used for the experiment. On d 14, the birds were weighed and allocated to 6 treatments and 8 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Treatments were: 1) corn-soybean meal based control diet; 2) control diet plus supplemental protease at 5,000 (P5000) protease units (PU)/kg); 3) control plus 10,000 PU/kg protease (P10000); or control plus an enzyme combination containing xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP) added to achieve protease activity of: 4) 2,500 PU/kg (XAP2500); 5) 5,000 PU/kg (XAP5000); or 6) 10,000 PU/kg (XAP10000). The enzymes in XAP were combined at fixed ratios of 10:1:25 of xylanase:amylase:protease. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and specific orthogonal contrasts between treatments were performed. Addition of xylanase and amylase increased (P < 0.05) the ileal digestibility of protein by 4.2% and 2.1% at XAP5000 and XAP10000, respectively (relative to P5000 and P10000, respectively), exhibiting a plateau after the XAP5000 dose. Increment (P < 0.05) in AME due to protease was evident, particularly in P10000. At the ileal level, XAP reduced (P < 0.05) the flow of insoluble xylose and arabinose, which indicates an increase in the solubilization of arabinoxylan polymers in the small intestine. Protease on its own reduced (P < 0.05) the flow of insoluble arabinose but did not affect the flow of insoluble xylose. XAP reduced (P < 0.05) the pre-cecal flow of insoluble and total glucose and galactose. It was concluded that whereas protease by itself improved nutrient utilization and increased solubilization of NSP components, at the lower dose, a

  8. Complex study of the physiological role of cadmium. IV. Effects of prolonged dietary exposure of broiler chickens to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Bokori, J; Fekete, S; Glávits, R; Kádár, I; Koncz, J; Kövári, L

    1996-01-01

    A 274-day long cadmium (Cd) feeding trial was carried out with broiler cockerel chickens. The diet of the control group (Cd-0, n = 6) contained no added Cd, whereas to the diet of group Cd-25 and group Cd-75 (n = 10 each) 25 ppm and 75 ppm Cd was added, respectively, in the form of CdSO4. The chickens were subjected to examinations described in detail earlier (Bokori et al., 1995b). In addition, the relative mass of five different organs (heart, liver, testis, spleen and brain), expressed as % of the body mass, was also determined. The clinical, gross and histopathological examinations and the assay of organs for mineral element content led to the following main findings. The feeding of diets containing 25 or 75 ppm Cd for more than 9 months did not cause signs indicative of acute Cd toxicosis or mortality in either group. The body mass gain of group Cd-75 chickens markedly decreased. Prolonged Cd exposure of the cockerels increased the relative mass of the liver and heart and markedly decreased that of the testes. The change in mass was proportional to the Cd load. The Cd-fed chickens developed focal pathological fatty infiltration of the liver, histiocytic infiltration of the jejunal mucosa and focal lympho-histiocytic interstitial infiltration and fibrosis of the kidney, which supports the view that prolonged Cd exposure leads to the development of subacute-chronic tissue changes in the kidney. The Cd content of the organs increased by one to three orders of magnitude, in direct proportion to the Cd load. The Cd content of most organs was 2 to 3 times as high as the value reported for broilers exposed to a similar Cd load lasting for 68 days (Bokori et al., 1995b). This indicates that the degree of Cd accumulation is markedly influenced by the duration of the Cd exposure. The highest Cd content was demonstrated in the kidney (724 mg/kg of dry matter). The Cd exposure markedly lowered the Zn, Mo and B content of the bones and the Ni content of the myocardium

  9. Development of intestinal mucin 2, IgA, and polymeric Ig receptor expressions in broiler chickens and Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Eicher, Susan D; Applegate, Todd J

    2015-02-01

    Intestinal mucin 2 (MUC2), a major gel-forming mucin, represents a primary barrier component of mucus layers and a target site for secretory IgA. Polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) expressed on the basolateral surface of epithelium is used to transport polymeric IgA from the lamina propria into luminal mucins to establish the first lines of intestinal defense. To determine the spatio-temporal expression of MUC2, IgA, and pIgR in broiler chickens and Pekin ducks, intestinal tissues (n=6/age) were dissected from late embryonic days up to 21 d posthatch. In the intestinal tissues, MUC2 was expressed with a rapid increase at hatching, followed by steady expression through 21 d posthatch both in chickens and ducks. IgA expression was low during the first week following hatching for both species. From the second week posthatch, IgA was rapidly expressed in the chickens, arriving at steady expression in the third week after hatching. However, in ducks, IgA expression during the 2 to 3 wk posthatch period was relatively slow. The expression of pIgR was greatly increased after hatching for both species, but its expression in ducks was relatively delayed. In addition, intestinal pIgR expression was highly correlated with MUC2 and IgA expressions in chickens but just moderately correlated in ducks. The relatively slow and late expression of IgA and pIgR as well as their moderate correlation may or may not account for the susceptibility of ducklings to mucosal pathogens at a young age. PMID:25589081

  10. Egg characteristics and hatch performance of Athens Canadian Random Bred 1955 meat-type chickens and 2013 Cobb 500 broilers.

    PubMed

    Collins, K E; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L

    2014-09-01

    Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) chickens, a 1955 meat-type control strain, were incubated with the 2013 Cobb 500 broiler to determine differences in egg composition, conductance values, incubation duration, hatch performance, and yolk utilization. Unincubated ACRB eggs had greater percentage solids than Cobb 500 eggs. The ACRB eggs had a greater solid portion as yolk, whereas the Cobb 500 devoted more solid percentage to albumen. Percentage shell was not different between the strains, but ACRB eggs had 2.7% greater percentage moisture loss after 18 d of incubation than Cobb 500 eggs. Conductance, conductance constant, and conductance standardized to a 100 g egg weight basis were all higher for ACRB eggs than Cobb 500 eggs at 12 and 18 d of incubation. The Cobb 500 chicks hatched 6 h earlier than ACRB chicks. The Cobb 500 incubation duration was 498 h, and the ACRB incubation duration was 504 h. There was no difference between the strains for percentage infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, hatchability, or salable chicks. The ACRB chicks hatched with a smaller dried residual yolk sac as a percentage of chick weight compared with the Cobb 500. Both strains had an average relative yolk-free chick weight of 61% of average initial egg weight. Thus the Cobb 500 eggs had decreased gas exchange across the eggshell, which may have contributed to the earlier hatch and decreased yolk utilization. Modern Cobb 500 broiler embryonic metabolism appears to have either become more dependent on albumen rather than yolk or has become more efficient with yolk reserves during development. Broiler hatch performance does not appear to have changed over the past 58 yr. PMID:25002554

  11. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity1

    PubMed Central

    Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

  12. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

    2014-06-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

  13. Influence of dietary calcium and phytase on phytate phosphorus hydrolysis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tamim, N M; Angel, R; Christman, M

    2004-08-01

    The effect of Ca and phytase on phytate phosphorus (PP) hydrolysis was studied in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, PP hydrolysis by a 3-phytase and a 6-phytase was studied at pH 2.5 and 6.5 with Ca added at levels equivalent to 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.7, or 0.9% of the diet. Irrespective of enzyme, Ca at a level as low as 0.1% reduced (P < 0.05) PP hydrolysis at pH 6.5. To test these effects in vivo, 22-d-old male broilers were fed 1 of 6 diets (10 replicate pens of 4 birds per diet) for 30 h. The experimental design was a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of 3 phytase treatments (0, 500 U of phytase A/kg of diet, and 500 U of phytase B/kg of diet) and 2 added Ca levels (0 and 0.5% from CaCO3) to a corn-soy basal diet. Adding Ca to the diet resulted in a reduction (P < 0.05) in ileal PP disappearance from 69.2 to 25.4% when the 0 and 0.5% added Ca diets were fed, respectively, and in apparent ileal Ca and P absorption (46.3 to 33.6% and 67.9 to 29.4% when 0 and 0.5% Ca were added, respectively). Inclusion of a 3-phytase improved (P < 0.05) ileal PP disappearance from 25.4 to 58.9% in diets containing 0 and 0.5% added Ca, but the improvement was less pronounced with a 6-phytase. Apparent ileal Ca absorption was improved (P < 0.05) when Ca, phytase, or both were added to the diet. PMID:15339011

  14. Intestinal Development and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with Clinoptilolite

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Q. J.; Zhou, Y. M.; Wu, Y. N.; Wang, T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group), or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group), respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p<0.05) villus height in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those areas in the controls from d 1 to 42. However, supplementation with NCLI and MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity. PMID:25049877

  15. Response of broiler chickens to dietary supplementation with roxarsone and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in diets containing narasin.

    PubMed

    Waldroup, P W; Hellwig, H M; Johnson, Z B; Krueger, W F; Moore, R W; Charles, O W; Duke, S; Primo, R A; Trammell, J H; Fell, R V

    1988-01-01

    Six trials were conducted at different locations to examine the response of broiler chickens to roxarsone and bacitracin in the form of bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) in the presence of the anticoccidal narasin. All diets contained narasin (80 mg/kg) and were fortified with a factorial arrangement of roxarsone (0 to 50 mg/kg) and BMD (0 or 55 mg/kg). Broilers were grown to market weights with narasin and roxarsone removed from the diets for the final 5 days. Addition of both roxarsone and BMD resulted in significant (P less than .05) improvements in body weight and feed utilization. Response to roxarsone for feed utilization was influenced to some extent by the presence or absence of BMD. Although the response to roxarsone was always positive, the degree of response was lessened by the presence of BMD. This resulted in a significant (P less than .10) interaction between roxarsone and BMD for feed utilization but not for body weight. PMID:3375164

  16. Toxic effect of NiCl2 on development of the bursa of Fabricius in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shuang; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Wu, Bangyuan; Guo, Hongrui

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted with objective of evaluating the toxic effects of nickel chloride (NiCl2) on development of bursa of Fabricius in broilers fed on diets supplemented with 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days by using the methods of experimental pathology, flow cytometry (FCM), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed that dietary NiCl2 in 300 mg/kg and over induced toxic suppression in the bursal development, which was characterized by decreasing lymphocytes histopathologically and relative weight, increasing G0/G1 phase (a prolonged nondividing state), reducing S phase (DNA replication) and proliferating index, and increasing percentages of apoptotic cells. Concurrently, the mRNA expression levels of bax, cytochrome c (cyt c), apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-7 and caspase-9 were increased and the bcl-2 mRNA expression levels were decreased. The toxic suppression of bursal development finally impaired humoral immunity duo to the reduction of B lymphocyte population and B lymphocyte activity in the broiler chicken. This study provides new evidences for further studying the effect mechanism of Ni and Ni compoundson B-cell or bursa of Fabricius. PMID:26683707

  17. Integration of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic indices of valnemulin in broiler chickens after a single intravenous and intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Hao; Zhou, Yu-Feng; Yu, Yang; Shi, Wei; Yang, Xue; Xiao, Xia; Deng, Hui; Qiao, Guilin Gary; Fang, Bing-Hu; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The antibacterial efficacy of valnemulin against Staphylococcus aureus was studied ex vivo in broiler chickens after intravenous and intramuscular administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight (BW). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of valnemulin against S. aureus strains ATCC 25923 in broth and serum were 0.12 and 1 µg/mL, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 of valnemulin against all susceptible S. aureus strains isolated from chickens in the test population were 0.06 and 0.12 μg/mL, respectively. Protein binding, which greatly influences the efficacy of valnemulin, was assayed by equilibrium dialysate in vitro. A high binding fraction of 86.2% was found, which seems in good agreement with the difference of bacterial susceptibility tests observed in broth and serum. The surrogate index of AUC0-24/MIC required for the lowest bacteriostatic effect, and 2 log10CFU reduction in bacterial count were 24.4 h and 38.0 h, respectively. The required daily dose of valnemulin for a bacteriostatic activity was calculated to be 15 mg/kg BW based on the MIC90 of 0.12 µg/mL. Considering the slow disposition process of valnemulin and an AUC0-24 h value of more than 10-fold obtained from diseased animals, a suggested dose of 3 mg/kg BW is sufficient to achieve a satisfactory therapeutic efficacy in infected broilers. Due to the time-dependent antibacterial characteristics of valnemulin, the recommended daily dose should be split into two or three sub-doses to achieve the highest effectiveness while diminishing the risk of development of bacterial resistance. PMID:24906499

  18. A Multifactorial Analysis of the Extent to Which Eimeria and Fishmeal Predispose Broiler Chickens to Necrotic Enteritis.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Nicholas J; Swick, Robert A; Geier, Mark S; Moore, Robert J; Choct, Mingan; Wu, Shu-Biao

    2015-03-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important infectious disease in chickens. Predisposing factors play critical roles both in disease outbreaks in the field and in models for experimental induction of disease. Systematic manipulation and study of predisposing factors help to optimize methods for the experimental reproduction of disease. The nature of such factors may play a confounding role in challenge models and, therefore, warrant investigation to determine their importance in industry-relevant NE reproduction models. In the present study, we examined the roles of dietary fishmeal inclusion, Eimeria inoculation (E), and Clostridium perfringens challenge (C) on broiler growth performance and induction of NE infection. The results showed that E, preceding C, greatly increased the severity of NE induced in broiler chickens, but fishmeal addition played only a marginal role in the challenge model. Bird performance was significantly affected by all three factors during the 35-day experimental period. Fishmeal increased body weight, but statistically significant effects of fishmeal were not observed on feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake. Both Eimeria and C. perfringens significantly reduced body weight gain and feed intake. E but not C led to significantly poorer FCR. These findings indicate that dietary fishmeal may be removed from the model to allow the performance results of challenged chicks to be equivalent to the performance of chicks in the field. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that an NE challenge model without fishmeal is valid and removes bird performance bias in the model introduced by feeding high fishmeal diets, refining the model to facilitate the yield of more commercially relevant results. PMID:26292532

  19. Synergistic pathogenic effects of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuan; Zhao, Peng; Chang, Shuang; Ju, Sidi; Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Sun, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    To study interactions between avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and the effects of co-infection on pathogenicity of these viruses, 1-day-old broiler chicks were infected with ALV-J, REV or both ALV-J and REV. The results indicated that co-infection of ALV-J and REV induced more growth retardation and higher mortality rate than ALV-J or REV single infection (P < 0.05). Chickens co-infected with ALV-J and REV also showed more severe immunosuppression than those with a single infection. This was manifested by significantly lower bursa of Fabricius and thymus to body weight ratios and lower antibody responses to Newcastle disease virus and H9-avian influenza virus (P < 0.05). Perihepatitis and pericarditis related to severe infection with Escherichia coli were found in many of the dead birds. E. coli was isolated from each case of perihepatitis and pericarditis. The mortality associated with E. coli infection in the co-infection groups was significantly higher than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Among 516 tested E. coli isolates from 58 dead birds, 12 serotypes of the O-antigen were identified in two experiments. Different serotypes of E. coli strains were even isolated from the same organ of the same bird. Diversification of O-serotypes suggested that perihepatitis and pericarditis associated with E. coli infection was the most frequent secondary infection following the immunosuppression induced by ALV-J and REV co-infection. These results suggested that the co-infection of ALV-J and REV caused more serious synergistic pathogenic effects, growth retardation, immunosuppression, and secondary E. coli infection in broiler chickens. PMID:25484188

  20. Individual in vitro effects of ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase in lymphocytes of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lautert, Claudia; Ferreiro, Laerte; Wolkmer, Patrícia; Paim, Francine C; da Silva, Cássia B; Jaques, Jeandre As; Lopes, Sônia Ta; Santurio, Janio M

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of consumer food and animal feed with toxigenic fungi has resulted in economic losses worldwide in animal industries. Mycotoxins are highly biologically reactive secondary metabolites and can inhibit protein synthesis and cell multiplication. Considering the cytotoxicity of mycotoxins, this experiment was performed to determine the in vitro influence of ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on lipid peroxidation in lymphocytes of broiler chickens at different concentrations. This study has also evaluated whether the presence of these mycotoxins changes the acetylcholinesterase activity in lymphocytes, which is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Blood lymphocytes of broiler chickens were isolated through density gradient centrifugation and incubated with the respective mycotoxins at concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μg/mL. Lipid peroxidation, which was evaluated through the amount of malondialdehyde measured in a thiobarbituric acid-reactive species test, and the enzymatic activity were analyzed at 24, 48 and 72 h. Results of the lipid peroxidation evaluation showed an increasing cytotoxicity relation: ochratoxin A > deoxynivalenol > zearalenone. Conversely, cytotoxicity was valued as zearalenone > deoxynivalenol > ochratoxin A in relation to the acetylcholinesterase enzymatic activity. At a concentration of 1 μg/mL, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol induced the highest cellular oxidative stress levels and the highest enzymatic activity at the majority of time points. However, the same mycotoxins, except at 1 μg/mL concentration, induced a reduction of lymphocytic lipid peroxidation 72 h after incubation, suggesting the action of a compensatory mechanism in these cells. PMID:25279298

  1. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis CH16 strain from chicken gastrointestinal tracts for use as a feed supplement to promote weight gain in broilers.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, A T V; Nguyen, D V; Tran, M T; Nguyen, L T; Nguyen, A H; Phan, T-N

    2015-06-01

    Spore-forming bacterial strains were isolated from chicken gastrointestinal tracts to develop a heat-stable feed supplement that promotes weight gain in broilers. Seven Bacillus strains having more than 90% sporulation were screened from the isolates and identified to be closely related with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Of the seven strains, B. subtilis CH16 was selected to develop a feed supplement for broilers, because it formed 100% heat-stable spores, grew rapidly at 42°C and quickly formed a biofilm. In large-scale trials in broilers (n ≥ 1150 per group), the group fed CH16 (3 × 10(6) CFU g(-1) pellet) showed higher average daily gain (ADG = 61·16) and lower food conversion ratio (FCR = 1·696) than did the group fed B. licheniformis CH22 (ADG = 57·10 and FCR = 1·792), the group fed B. subtilis HU58 (ADG = 51·90 and FCR = 1·868), BioPlus group (ADG = 59·32 and FCR = 1·807) and the control group (ADG = 56·02 and FCR = 1·880). In conclusion, CH16 spores significantly increased ADG by 9·17% and reduced FCR by 9·79% in broilers. The result supports the use of B. subtilis CH16 of chicken intestinal origin as a feed supplement that promote weight gain in broilers. Significance and impact of the study: This study reports screening of Bacillus strains isolated from chicken gastrointestinal tracts for development of a feed supplement that promote weight gain in broilers. Of the seven Bacillus isolates with high sporulation efficiency (≥90%), Bacillus subtilis CH16 strain showed the best growth and biofilm formation at body temperature of broilers (42°C). In large-scale trials in broilers (n ≥ 1150 per group), CH16 spores induced a 9·17% increase in daily weight gain (ADG) and a 9·79% reduction in FCR while the commercial BioPlus(®) YC induced only a 5·89% increase in ADG and a 3·88% reduction in FCR. PMID:25754534

  2. Nutritional Value of Rice Bran Fermented by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Humic Substances and Its Utilization as a Feed Ingredient for Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Supriyati; Haryati, T; Susanti, T; Susana, I W R

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to increase the quality of rice bran by fermentation using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and humic substances and its utilization as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out in two steps. First, the fermentation process was done using a completely randomized design in factorial with 16 treatments: i) Dosage of B. amyloliquefaciens (2.10(8) cfu/g), 10 and 20 g/kg; ii) Graded levels of humic substances, 0, 100, 200, and 400 ppm; iii) Length of fermentation, three and five days. The results showed that the fermentation significantly (p<0.05) reduced crude fiber content. The recommended conditions for fermentation of rice bran: 20 g/kg dosage of inoculums B. amyloliquefaciens, 100 ppm level of humic substances and three days fermentation period. The second step was a feeding trial to evaluate the fermented rice bran (FRB) as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens. Three hundred and seventy-five one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatment diets. Arrangement of the diets as follows: 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% level of FRB and the diets formulation based on equal amounts of energy and protein. The results showed that 15% inclusion of FRB in the diet provided the best bodyweight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) values. In conclusion, the nutrient content of rice bran improved after fermentation and the utilization of FRB as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens could be included up to 15% of the broiler diet. PMID:25557819

  3. Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Contaminated Corn with or withoutYeast Cell Wall Adsorbent on Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Q. H.; Yang, Z. B.; Yang, W. R.; Li, Z.; Zhang, G. G.; Jiang, S. Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeds naturally contaminated with mycotoxins on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, carcass traits, and splenic heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens. The efficacy of yeast cell wall (YCW) adsorbent in preventing mycotoxicosis was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 3 treatments in completely randomized design for 42 d. Each treatment group had 5 replicate pens with 20 birds. The treatments were as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) naturally contaminated diet (NCD), and iii) NCD+0.2% YCW adsorbent (NCDD). The NCD decreased average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) of 0 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 0 to 42 d, and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.01) of 22 to 42 d and 0 to 42 d. Both the breast meat percentage and thigh meat percentage of the NCD group were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the control group on d 21. The NCD group showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.05) on both d 21 and d 42 compared to the control group. However, the NCD significantly reduced (p<0.01) the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on d 42 compared to controls. Compared with the NCD, supplementation with YCW significantly improved (p<0.01) the ADG of 0 to 21 d and 0 to 42 d, and increased (p<0.01) concentrations of HDL on d 42, and on d 21, and triglycerides (p<0.05) on d 21 and d 42. Supplementation with YCW reduced (p<0.01) the breast meat percentage, the thigh meat percentage, the concentrations of cholesterol (p<0.01) and the low-density lipoprotein (p<0.05) on d 21, and improved (p<0.01) the splenic Hsp70 mRNA expression levels compared with the NCD group. The results of this study indicated that feeding NCD for 42 d had adverse effects on broiler chickens, and that YCW might be beneficial in counteracting the effects of mycotoxins. PMID:26954178

  4. Comparison of Two LED Light Bulbs to a Dimmable CFL and their Effects on Broiler Chicken Growth, Stress, and Fear.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-09-01

    The poultry industry is currently undergoing a shift to alternative lighting sources as incandescent lights become less available. While LED and CFL bulbs both have associated increased energy savings, they may affect the bird's growth and well-being differently as they output different light spectrums. To determine how different LED bulbs and a CFL bulb affected broiler performance, behavior, stress, and overall well-being, we conducted an experiment using Cobb broiler chickens (N=360). A NextGen LED bulb (NextGen), a Once Innovations LED bulb (Once), and a dimmable CFL (CFL) were used, all of which had different spectral outputs. Growth and feed conversion, several stress measures, fear tests, organ characteristics, and animal welfare assessment parameters were collected to determine how each light type affected animal well-being. LED treatments had shorter (P<0.05) latency to right during tonic immobility testing when compared to the CFL treatment; however, no other differences (P>0.05) were seen in the other fear tests. The Once treatment resulted in lower composite physical asymmetry, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and basal plasma corticosterone concentrations compared to the other treatments (P<0.05). Differences were observed in some organ measures; notably in the eye dimensions of the Once treatment. The Once treatment also had lower (P<0.05) plumage, hock, and footpad scores when compared to CFL treatment, while the Nextgen treatment had lower (P<0.05) plumage and hock scores than the CFL treatment but no difference between the two was seen in foot pad scores. Weight at the end of the growout was not affected by bulb type, however, both LED treatments had increased feed conversion (P<0.05). These results indicate that LEDs can result in better well-being and feed conversion when compared to CFLs. It is also notable that the LEDs did not have the same effects and this is likely due to the spectrum of light each creates. LEDs were shown to improve production

  5. Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Contaminated Corn with or withoutYeast Cell Wall Adsorbent on Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Shang, Q H; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Li, Z; Zhang, G G; Jiang, S Z

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeds naturally contaminated with mycotoxins on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, carcass traits, and splenic heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens. The efficacy of yeast cell wall (YCW) adsorbent in preventing mycotoxicosis was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 3 treatments in completely randomized design for 42 d. Each treatment group had 5 replicate pens with 20 birds. The treatments were as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) naturally contaminated diet (NCD), and iii) NCD+0.2% YCW adsorbent (NCDD). The NCD decreased average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) of 0 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 0 to 42 d, and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.01) of 22 to 42 d and 0 to 42 d. Both the breast meat percentage and thigh meat percentage of the NCD group were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the control group on d 21. The NCD group showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.05) on both d 21 and d 42 compared to the control group. However, the NCD significantly reduced (p<0.01) the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on d 42 compared to controls. Compared with the NCD, supplementation with YCW significantly improved (p<0.01) the ADG of 0 to 21 d and 0 to 42 d, and increased (p<0.01) concentrations of HDL on d 42, and on d 21, and triglycerides (p<0.05) on d 21 and d 42. Supplementation with YCW reduced (p<0.01) the breast meat percentage, the thigh meat percentage, the concentrations of cholesterol (p<0.01) and the low-density lipoprotein (p<0.05) on d 21, and improved (p<0.01) the splenic Hsp70 mRNA expression levels compared with the NCD group. The results of this study indicated that feeding NCD for 42 d had adverse effects on broiler chickens, and that YCW might be beneficial in counteracting the effects of mycotoxins. PMID:26954178

  6. Replacement of corn in the diet of broiler chickens using foxtail millet produced by 2 different cultivation strategies.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Samie, A H; Edriss, M A; Khorvash, M; Sadeghi, G; Van Kessel, A; Zentek, J

    2011-12-01

    Foxtail millet is well-suited to climatic conditions in semi-arid tropic regions where it is cultivated using both agro-ecologic and conventional cultivation practices. This study evaluated the nutritional value, digestibility, and physiological effects of agro-ecologic and conventionally cultivated foxtail millet in comparison with corn. Chemical and TME(n) analysis of foxtail millet cultivated conventionally and agro-ecologically indicated similar nutritional value. In total, 432 eight-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks, using a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, were randomly assigned to 4 replicate pens for each of 6 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets. Experimental diets were formulated by replacing corn with conventional or agro-ecologic millet at 3 levels (33, 66, or 100% of corn replacement). Body weight at 21 and 42 d of age was higher (P < 0.05) at 100% millet inclusion versus the lower inclusion levels. At 42 d of age, feed intake and feed conversion ratios were also improved (P < 0.05) at the 100% millet inclusion level. Similarly, the apparent ileal digestibility of CP increased (P < 0.05) for 100% millet diets. There were no differences in ileal digestibility of nutrients between millet growth conditions. Millet inclusion level significantly affected small intestinal morphology such that crypt depth was lowest (P < 0.05) in the 100% inclusion group for duodenum, jejunum, and ileum at 28 d of age, and for duodenum and ileum at 42 d of age. The villus crypt ratio was also highest (P < 0.05) in the 100% millet inclusion group for jejunum and ileum at 28 d of age, and duodenum, jejunum, and ileum at 42 d of age. Millet growth condition did not markedly affect small intestinal morphology. Serum antibody responses to Gumboro and Newcastle diseases were not affected by millet inclusion level or growth condition. In conclusion, foxtail millet could be considered as an alternate cereal for inclusion in the diet of broiler chickens. Broiler chicken performance and

  7. Effect of dietary antibiotic, probiotic and prebiotic as growth promoters, on growth performance, carcass characteristics and hematological indices of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ashayerizadeh, A; Dabiri, N; Ashayerizadeh, O; Mirzadeh, K H; Roshanfekr, H; Mamooee, M

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was conducted for comparison the effects of antibiotic (flavomycin), probiotic (primalac), prebiotic (Biolex-MB) and mixture ofprobiotic and prebiotic (primalac plus Biolex-MB) as dietary growth promoter on growth performance, carcass characteristics and hematological indices of broiler chickens. Three hundred day old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 30 floor pens and reared for 42 day. A basal diet was formulated covering the recommendations of NRC (1994) for starter (0-21 days) and grower (22-42 days) periods and considered as control diet. Four tested diets were formulated by supplemented the basal control diet with antibiotic (flavomycin), probiotic (primalac), prebiotic (Biolex-MB) and mixture ofprimalac plus Biolex-MB, respectively. Six replicates were used for each treatment. The results of present study showed that all growth promoters used was improved growth indices of Ross 308 broilers. The highest significant (p<0.05) values of carcass and thigh were recorded for broilers fed diet supplemented with flavomycin. The highest (p>0.05) value of breast was recorded for broilers fed the diet supplemented with primalac, meanwhile the lower value were showed for birds fed either diet or diet supplemented with Biolex-MB. The percent of carcass and cuts followed the same trend. Hematological parameter including cholesterol was recorded the highest (p>0.05) values groups fed the diets either control or supplemented with flavomycin, meanwhile the lower value was showed for bird fed diet supplemented primalac plus Biolex-MB. Triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) were recorded the highest concentration for bird fed both control and diet supplemented with flavomycin groups while least concentration was found for bird fed diet supplemented with primalac. The results of present study revealed that probiotic and prebiotic as growth promoters can use as alternatives non-antibiotic feed additives to their free

  8. The effect of dietary fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and immune responses in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yue; Regassa, Alemu; Kim, Ji Hyuk; Kim, Woo Kyun

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation on growth performance, lymphoid organ weight, intestinal morphology, and immunological status in broilers (n=180) challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Birds were randomly assigned into a 3×2 factorial arrangement that included 1) 3 dietary treatments from d one to 21: positive control (PC), wheat-corn-soybean meal based diet contained antibiotics (virginiamycin and monensin); negative control (NC), as PC without antibiotics; and NC+FOS, as NC supplemented with 0.5% FOS, and 2) 2 intraperitoneal injections: 2 mg/kg Salmonella Enteritidis LPS or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) on d 21. Growth performance and relative lymphoid organ weight were not significantly different among the treatments. Villus height, crypt depth, and total mucosa thickness were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the ileum of broiler chickens fed NC+FOS when compared to PC and NC. Birds in NC+FOS treatment had reduced heterophil but increased monocyte count when compared to NC (P<0.05). Significant diet×challenge interaction was observed on natural IgY levels (P<0.0001), and a significant dietary effect was observed on specific IgY levels in chickens fed NC+FOS (P=0.003). Supplementation of FOS also increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, -10, and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA in the ileum of the birds. In summary, Salmonella Enteritidis LPS challenge established significant differences in the immune responses in broiler chickens. FOS supplementation increased ileal mucosa thickness and elevated the expressions of certain cytokine genes. It also led to the alteration of leukocyte compositions and serum IgY levels in response to LPS challenge, suggesting FOS supplementation may be effective to induce protective outcomes in gut health and immunity of broiler chickens. PMID:26467012

  9. Genotype comparison of sorbitol-negative Escherichia coli isolates from healthy broiler chickens from different commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, B; Gattuso, M; Moisan, H; Malouin, F; Diarra, M S

    2009-07-01

    Hybridization on arrays was used to assess the presence of virulence-associated genes and to determine the relatedness of 32 non-O157 sorbitol-negative Escherichia coli isolates from healthy broiler chickens. These isolates were from commercial farms that used feed supplemented with different antimicrobial agents (virginiamycin, bacitracin, salinomycin, narasin, nicarbazin, or diclazuril). For each isolate, fluorescent probes were made from genomic DNA and were hybridized on DNA arrays composed of genes associated with general functions, virulence, iron uptake systems, and DNA repair genes (e.g., mut genes). Hybridization on arrays results showed that isolates from the same farm tended to be clustered but actually represented 18 genetically distinct groups of isolates. Results revealed that some isolates showed similarity to human uropathogenic E. coli or avian pathogenic E. coli. Four avian pathogenic E. coli-like isolates were detected. Another isolate possessed the intimin gene (eaeA) and typical genes of the type 3 secretion system associated with enteropathogenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. Genes from a second system (secondary type 3 secretion system) homologous to that found in Salmonella Typhimurium were detected in many isolates. Several of the studied isolates also possessed the aerobactin, salmochelin, and yersiniabactin genes involved in iron acquisition in pathogenic bacteria. Our results clearly suggest that commensal E. coli isolates from chickens are reservoirs of virulence-associated genes and may represent colibacillosis and zoonotic risks. PMID:19531720

  10. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity

    PubMed Central

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Meng, Goh Yong; Sheau Wei, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i) basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil) (CON), (ii) basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA), and (iii) basal diet with 5% CLA (HCLA).The content of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was between 1.69- and 2.3-fold greater (P < 0.05) than that of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the abdominal fat of the LCLA and HCLA group. The adipogenic capacity of the abdominal fat depot in LCLA and HCLA fed chicken is associated with a decreased proportion of adipose cells and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The transcriptional level of adipocyte protein (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was downregulated by 1.08- to 2.5-fold in CLA supplemented diets, respectively. It was speculated that feeding CLA to broiler chickens reduced adipocyte size and downregulated PPARγ and aP2 that control adipocyte cellularity. Elevation of CLA isomers into their adipose tissue provides a potential CLA-rich source for human consumption. PMID:25309587

  11. Protective role of biogenic selenium nanoparticles in immunological and oxidative stress generated by enrofloxacin in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Shirsat, Shubhangi; Kadam, Ambadas; Mane, Rajaram S; Jadhav, Vijaykumar V; Zate, Manohar K; Naushad, Mu; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2016-06-01

    Presently most bacteria are becoming antibiotic resistant. Due to this there is a deficiency of potent antibiotics, therefore we have to preserve and improve the efficiency of existing antibiotics by mitigating the side effects. Enrofloxacin (EFX) is an important antimicrobial used in veterinary practice but it is known to exert immune suppression antioxidant stress. In the present study, we report on: (a) the biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs), and (b) their protective effect in reducing adverse effects of EFX on broiler chicken. A potent bacterial strain, isolated from farm soil, has been identified as Pantoea agglomerans (GenBank: KU500622). It tolerates a high concentration of selenium dioxide (9 mM) and produces Se NPs under aerobic conditions. The obtained Se NPs are amorphous in structure and spherical in shape with sizes of less than 100 nm. The activity of cellular, humoral immune response and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, has significantly been decreased as a result of EFX treatment. We investigated that Se NP supplementation greatly restores these values towards the control, and to even higher than those of the control. Adverse effects of EFX are prevented by simultaneous exposure to Se NPs (0.6 mg per kg of feed) in the diet of poultry chicken. PMID:27147084

  12. Environmental temperature and stocking density effects on acute phase proteins, heat shock protein 70, circulating corticosterone and performance in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Pardis; Zulkifli, Idrus; Amat Jajuli, Nurfarahin; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Amir, Anna Aryani; O'Reily, Emily; Eckersall, David

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m2/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m2/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.

  13. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseed meal in the diets of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Nie, Cun-xi; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Yong-qiang; Liu, Yan-feng; Ge, Wen-xia; Liu, Jian-cheng

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid metabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets. PMID:26055906

  14. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics ...

  15. Effect of Clostridium perfringens infection and antibiotic administration on microbiota in the small intestine of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Yewande O; Newman, Molli M; Stough, Joshua M; Liles, Mark R

    2016-02-01

    The etiological agent of necrotic enteritis (NE) is Clostridium perfringens (CP), which is an economically significant problem for broiler chicken producers worldwide. Traditional use of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters to control NE disease have resulted in the emergence of antibiotic resistance in CP strains. Identification of probiotic bacteria strains as an alternative to antibiotics for the control of intestinal CP colonization is crucial. Two experiments were conducted to determine changes in intestinal bacterial assemblages in response to CP infection and in-feed bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) in broiler chickens. In each experiment conducted in battery-cage or floor-pen housing, chicks were randomly assigned to the following treatment groups: 1) BMD-supplemented diet with no CP challenge (CM), 2) BMD-free control diet with no CP challenge (CX), 3) BMD-supplemented diet with CP challenge (PCM), or 4) BMD-free control diet with CP challenge (PCX). The establishment of CP infection was confirmed, with the treatment groups exposed to CP having a 1.5- to 2-fold higher CP levels (P < 0.05) compared to the non-exposed groups. Next-generation sequencing of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes, was used to perform intestinal bacterial diversity analyses pre-challenge, and at 1, 7, and 21 d post-challenge. The results indicated that the intestinal bacterial assemblage was dominated by members of the phylum Firmicutes in all treatments before and after CP challenge, especially the Lactobacillaceae and Clostridiales families. In addition, we observed post-challenge emergence of members of the Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcaceae in the non-medicated PCX treatment, and emergence of the Enterococcaceae in the medicated PCM treatment. This study highlights the bacterial interactions that could be important in suppressing or eliminating CP infection within the chicken intestine. Future studies should explore the potential to use commensal strains of unknown

  16. Effect of arginine and threonine administered in ovo on digestive organ developments and subsequent growth performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, S; Toghyani, M

    2016-10-01

    This trial was conducted to investigate the effect of arginine (Arg), threonine (Thr) and Arg + Thr administered in ovo on growth performance, digestive organs and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. On day 14 of incubation, 400 fertile eggs were randomly allotted to five experimental treatments through injection in the amniotic fluid including: (i) control (none injected), (ii) sham (0.5 ml of 0.5% saline), (iii) Arg (35 mg/egg), (iv) Thr (25 mg/egg) and (v) Arg + Thr (35 + 25 mg/egg). After hatching, chicks were given a commercial corn-soya bean diet up to 42 days of age. Daily feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) of chicks were measured during different periods of the trial. Digestive organs were measured for their relative weight and intestinal length on days 11 and 42 of age. Intestinal morphometric traits were evaluated on day 11 of the experiment. Supplementing amino acids affected the performance of broiler chicks as Thr significantly increased FI and BW across starter, grower and finisher periods compared with sham and control (p < 0.05). Furthermore, Arg + Thr injection increased jejunal weight compared with control on day 42 (p < 0.05). Moreover, Arg inclusion led to the greatest villus height and crypt depth among treatments in duodenum (p > 0.05); however, amino acid supplemented groups had lower villus height than control in jejunum (p < 0.05). Negative correlations found between digestive organs related to day 11 of age containing pancreas (r = -0.484; p = 0.030), duodenal (r = -0.577; p = 0.007) as well as ileal lengths (r = -0.471; p = 0.035) and FI of entire period. Otherwise, positive relationships were observed between duodenum (r = 0.580; p = 0.007) and ileum (r = 0.582; p = 0.007) weights on day 42 and FI of chickens across the entire phase. In conclusion, Arg and particularly Thr injection into amnion can improve FI and post-hatch growth performance of chickens which may be mediated by the

  17. Effect of different levels of dietary zinc, manganese, and copper from organic or inorganic sources on performance, bacterial chondronecrosis, intramuscular collagen characteristics, and occurrence of meat quality defects of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sirri, F; Maiorano, G; Tavaniello, S; Chen, J; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of 2 dietary levels of trace minerals (TM) zinc, manganese, and copper either from organic (OTM) or inorganic (ITM) sources on broiler performance, carcass traits, intramuscular collagen (IMC) properties, occurrence of hock burns (HB), foot pad dermatitis (FPD), femoral and tibia head necrosis, and breast muscle abnormalities (white striping, WS; wooden breast, WB; poor cohesion, PC). A total of 3,600 one-day-old male chicks were randomly assigned to one of 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (9 replicates of 100 birds/dietary treatment). Birds were slaughtered at 31 (thinning) and 51 d of age. Body weight, daily weight gain (DWG), feed intake, feed conversion rate (FCR), and mortality were determined. A significant effect of the source of TM supplementation was found only in 51-day-old chickens. Birds of the OTM groups were heavier (P < 0.05), with a higher (P < 0.05) DWG and a better FCR (P < 0.05) compared with those of the ITM groups. OTM significantly reduced the lesion scores of femoral head (P = 0.004) and total leg (femur + tibia, P = 0.02) compared to ITM, which is mainly caused by the reduction of the percentages of femoral head transitional degeneration (FHT, P = 0.04) and femoral head necrosis (FHN, P = 0.07). Carcass traits were similar among the experimental groups. No alleviating effect of TM administration on the incidence of FPD and HB in 31- and 51-day-old chickens was found. Similarly, the occurrence and the degrees of WS and WB in 51-day-old chickens was affected neither by the doses nor by the source of TM supplied. IMC characteristics of broiler pectoral muscle were not affected (P > 0.05) by the different sources and doses of TM administrated. PMID:27030695

  18. Dietary Lysine Responses of Male Broilers From 14 to 28 Days of Age Subjected to Different Environmental Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary amino acid requirements are influenced by environmental conditions. Two experiments examined growth responses of Ross × Ross TP 16 male broilers fed diets varying in digestible (dig) Lys concentrations from 14 to 28 days of age under different environmental conditions. Experiment 1 was condu...

  19. Digestible Lysine Requirements of Male Broilers From 14 to 28 Days of Age Subjected to Different Environmental Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary amino acid requirements are influenced by environmental conditions. Two experiments examined growth responses of Ross × Ross TP 16 male broilers fed diets varying in digestible (dig) Lys concentrations from 14 to 28 d of age under different environmental conditions. Experiment 1 was conduc...

  20. Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; Zavala, Guillermo; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; García, Maricarmen

    2012-01-01

    Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by viral vector vaccines as compared with live-attenuated ILTV vaccines. The HVT-LT vaccine was more effective than the FPV-LT vaccine in mitigating the disease and reducing levels of challenge virus when applied in ovo or subcutaneously, particularly when the challenge was performed at 57 days rather than 35 days of age. While the FPV-LT vaccine mitigated clinical signs more effectively when administered subcutaneously than in ovo, it did not reduce the concentration of challenge virus in the trachea by either application route. Detection of antibodies against ILTV glycoproteins expressed by the viral vectors was a useful criterion to assess the immunogenicity of the vectors. The presence of glycoprotein I antibodies detected pre-challenge and post challenge in chickens vaccinated with HVT-LT indicated that the vaccine induced a robust antibody response, which was paralleled by significant reduction of clinical signs. The chicken embryo origin vaccine provided optimal protection by significantly mitigating the disease and reducing the challenge virus in chickens vaccinated via eye drop. The viral vector vaccines, applied in ovo and subcutaneously, provided partial protection, reducing to some degree clinical signs, and challenge VIRUS replication in the trachea. PMID:22845318

  1. Effects of artemisinin in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella in battery trials.

    PubMed

    Pop, Loredana; Györke, Adriana; Tǎbǎran, Alexandru Flaviu; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Zagon, Diana; Balea, Anamaria; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-12-15

    Four experiments were conceived in order to test the efficacy of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone derived from Artemisia annua, in single experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria acervulina (1 × 10(5) oocysts), Eimeria maxima (5 × 10(4) oocysts) or Eimeria tenella (1 × 10(4) oocysts), and mixed infection with all 3 species (3.2 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts). For each experiment, three different dosages of artemisinin (5, 50 and 500 ppm) were compared with a negative control (uninfected, unmedicated), a positive control (infected, unmedicated) and a classical anticoccidial (monensin). The weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), oocysts shedded per gram of feces (OPG), lesion score, oocysts sporulation rates and mortality rate were recorded in all groups. The dosage of 5 ppm of artemisinin improved the WG and FCR for the chickens infected with E. acervulina. The OPG was significantly decreased in all the groups medicated with artemisinin and challenged with a mixed infection (p ≤ 0.01). The lesion score of the chickens challenged with Eimeria was reduced by different concentrations of artemisinin, depending on the species involved, but this compound did not have a positive effect on the lesions caused by E. acervulina. Histopathological analysis revealed superficial erosions of the intestinal mucosa, mixt. mononuclear and heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria and intralesional presence of various developmental stages of parasite in groups infected with Eimeria spp.The sporulation rate of E. acervulina and E. maxima oocysts was significantly affected by 500 ppm of artemisinin, whilst the dosage of 5 ppm affected the sporulation of E. tenella oocysts. These data suggest that artemisinin is not effective against single eimerian infections but could be used as an alternative in mixed coccidiosis, especially if its effect on the oocysts sporulation would be fully investigated. PMID:26518641

  2. Detection, epidemiology and characterization of VP6 and VP7 genes of group D rotavirus in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Delana Andreza Melo; da Silva, René Ribeiro; Kaiano, Jane Haruko Lima; de Souza Oliveira, Darleise; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol; Linhares, Alexandre Costa; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Rotaviruses infect humans and animals and are classified into eight groups (A to H). Group D rotavirus (RVD) has been described in birds, although relatively few reports are available. The present study focused on RVD, including epidemiological and molecular aspects of samples collected from broiler chickens in the state of Pará, Brazil. A total of 85 faecal samples were collected between 2008 and 2011 from 37 chicken farms located in eight different municipalities. The viral double-stranded RNA was extracted from faecal suspensions and analysed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), followed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing of the VP6 and VP7 genes. Comparing the positive results, 16.5% (14/85) were obtained by PAGE and 35.3% (30/85) by RT-PCR. Samples from seven of eight municipalities were positive for RVD and infections were recorded in 17 (45.9%) of 37 chicken farms. The RVD infection rate was significantly higher in the 16-day to 30-day age group (62.2%; 23/37) compared with other ages. No consistent relationship was found between the infection rate and either the population density in poultry houses or the climatic conditions. The nucleotide sequences of the VP6 gene were 89.9 to 90.9% similar to the prototype strain 05V0049 and were 88.3 to 100% similar among themselves; VP7 gene nucleotide sequences were 84.3 to 85.4% similar to the prototype strain 05V0049 and 93.8 to 100% similar among themselves. Overall, this study provides new insights into the epidemiology and genome characterization of group D rotaviruses. PMID:24875189

  3. An economic analysis of the impact of subclinical (mild) necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Skinner, James T; Bauer, Sharon; Young, Virginia; Pauling, Gail; Wilson, Jeff

    2010-12-01

    Costs to broiler producers associated with subclinical (mild) necrotic enteritis (SNE) were estimated using published information on impacts on body weight and feed conversion rate (FCR) associated with SNE and costs and revenues associated with broiler production. Estimates were expressed in U.S. dollars from the perspective of poultry producers. SNE was estimated to result in a 12% reduction in body weight and a 10.9% increase in FCR compared with healthy birds. For the purposes of this analysis, we considered scenarios involving hypothetical flocks of 20,000 birds raised to final body weights ranging from 4.63 to 7.94 lb. The incidence of SNE was assumed to occur at 20% based on the literature. For flocks raised for the length of time required to reach these target weights, SNE resulted in a loss to producers ranging from US$878.19 to US$1480.52 per flock. When feed costs required to obtain SNE flocks having a total live body weight equal to equivalent healthy flocks at market age were calculated, the increased cost to producers ranged from US$370.49 to US$739.38 per flock. SNE has the potential to cause a significant negative economic impact in broiler flocks. Strategies to reduce the incidence of SNE may help to increase the profitability of broiler production. PMID:21313845

  4. A Multi-Level Analysis of Risk Factors for Campylobacter spp. in Broiler Chickens in Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction We carried out a longitudinal study of the broiler industry in Iceland between May 2001 and September 2004. Using multi-level statistical methods, our objective was to determine which aspects of the birds, their management and/or their housing may be most useful for applying interventi...

  5. Dietary L-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on inflammatory response and innate immunity of broilers. Experiment 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatment; 6 birds/cage) with 3 dietary Arg concentrations (1.05, 1.4...

  6. Dietary L-arginine supplementation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response through LPS/TLR-4 signaling pathway in broilers. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatm...

  7. Effect of varying light intensity on blood physiological reactions of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) from 22 to 56 d of age at 50% RH on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes of heavy broilers reared under environmentally controlled conditions. Four identical trials were conducted wi...

  8. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on broiler chicken performance from 28 to 49 days

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in modern broiler housing have substantially reduced air leakage, making proper operation of ventilation systems critical to maintaining a suitable environment. Fuel prices have increased in recent years, leading to reduced minimum ventilation in order to conserve fuel which increases ...

  9. Polymerase chain reaction detection of naturally occurring Campylobacter in commercial broiler chicken embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter, a foodborne pathogen closely associated with poultry, is recognized as a leading bacterial etiologic agent of human gastroenteritis in the United States. In this investigation, 2 trials were performed where tissues from seven, fourteen/fifteen, and nineteen day-old commercial broiler ...

  10. Inhibition of Growth of Salmonella by Native Flora of Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Some bacteria in the cecal microflora of broilers can inhibit colonization of chicks by Salmonella. Beneficial cecal bacteria may reduce Salmonella colonization by competing for nutrients and attachment sites or by producing metabolites that inhibit Salmonella growth. The purpose of th...

  11. The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler chickens: a comparative study across modern and ancestral populations

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Heather; Anthony, Nicolas B; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

    2010-01-01

    Intensive artificial selection has led to the production of the modern broiler chicken, which over the last few decades has undergone a dramatic increase in growth rate and noticeable changes in body conformation. Unfortunately, this has been associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities which have altered the walking ability of these birds, raising obvious welfare concerns, as well as causing economic losses. Here we present a comparative study of ancestral and derived muscle anatomy in chickens to begin to tease apart how evolutionary alterations of muscle form in chickens have influenced their locomotor function and perhaps contributed to lameness. We measured the muscle architectural properties of the right pelvic limb in 50 birds, including the Giant Junglefowl, a commercial strain broiler and four pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (from which the broiler populations are derived) to identify which features of the broiler’s architectural design have diverged the most from the ancestral condition. We report a decline in pelvic limb muscle mass in the commercial line birds that may compromise their locomotor abilities because they carry a larger body mass. This greater demand on the pelvic limb muscles has mostly led to changes in support at the hip joint, revealing significantly larger abductors and additionally much larger medial rotators in the broiler population. Differences were seen within the commercial line bird populations, which are likely attributed to different selection pressures and may reflect differences in the walking ability of these birds. In addition, Junglefowl seem to have both greater force-generating capabilities and longer, presumably faster contracting muscles, indicative of superior musculoskeletal/locomotor function. We have provided baseline data for generating hypotheses to investigate in greater depth the specific biomechanical constraints that compromise the modern broiler’s walking ability and propose that these

  12. Comparison of Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, and Blood Parameters of Slow and Fast Grown Female Broiler Chickens Raised in Organic or Conventional Production System

    PubMed Central

    Cömert, Muazzez; Şayan, Yılmaz; Kırkpınar, Figen; Bayraktar, Ö. Hakan; Mert, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and blood parameters of slow and fast grown female broiler chickens fed in organic or conventional production system. The two genotypes tested were medium slow-growing chickens (SG, Hubbard Red JA) and commercial fast-growing chickens (FG, Ross 308). Both genotypes (each represented by 400 chickens) were divided into two sub-groups fed either organic (O) or conventional (C) systems. Chickens of each genotype and system were raised in a semi environmentally controlled poultry house until 21 d of age and were assigned to 5 pens of 40 chickens each. Then, O system chickens were transferred into an open-side poultry house with an outdoor run. At 81 d of age, 10 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 40) were randomly chosen to provide material for analysis, and were weighed and brought to the slaughterhouse to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. The blood parameters were determined by using 5 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 20). FG had the higher live weight, along with carcass, breast, and thigh-drumstick weights compared to SG (p<0.05). FG had the higher breast yield, whereas SG had the higher thigh-drumstick yield (p<0.05). The O system resulted in a higher amount of abdominal fat (p<0.05). In addition, the O system values were higher for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, and pH15 values in breast meat, and for crude ash, crude protein, and pH15 values in drumstick meat (p<0.05). In addition, total saturated fatty acids, total mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and total omega 3 were significantly higher in the O system than in the C system. Thus, the O system showed a positive advantage compared to the C system regarding female chicken meat quality, primarily within the ash, protein, and total omega 3 fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the main factor affecting the

  13. Comparison of Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, and Blood Parameters of Slow and Fast Grown Female Broiler Chickens Raised in Organic or Conventional Production System.

    PubMed

    Cömert, Muazzez; Şayan, Yılmaz; Kırkpınar, Figen; Bayraktar, Ö Hakan; Mert, Selim

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and blood parameters of slow and fast grown female broiler chickens fed in organic or conventional production system. The two genotypes tested were medium slow-growing chickens (SG, Hubbard Red JA) and commercial fast-growing chickens (FG, Ross 308). Both genotypes (each represented by 400 chickens) were divided into two sub-groups fed either organic (O) or conventional (C) systems. Chickens of each genotype and system were raised in a semi environmentally controlled poultry house until 21 d of age and were assigned to 5 pens of 40 chickens each. Then, O system chickens were transferred into an open-side poultry house with an outdoor run. At 81 d of age, 10 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 40) were randomly chosen to provide material for analysis, and were weighed and brought to the slaughterhouse to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. The blood parameters were determined by using 5 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 20). FG had the higher live weight, along with carcass, breast, and thigh-drumstick weights compared to SG (p<0.05). FG had the higher breast yield, whereas SG had the higher thigh-drumstick yield (p<0.05). The O system resulted in a higher amount of abdominal fat (p<0.05). In addition, the O system values were higher for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, and pH(15) values in breast meat, and for crude ash, crude protein, and pH(15) values in drumstick meat (p<0.05). In addition, total saturated fatty acids, total mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and total omega 3 were significantly higher in the O system than in the C system. Thus, the O system showed a positive advantage compared to the C system regarding female chicken meat quality, primarily within the ash, protein, and total omega 3 fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the main factor affecting

  14. First genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned calves, broiler chickens and children in Syria by PCR-RFLP analysis.

    PubMed

    Kassouha, Morshed; Soukkarieh, Chadi; Alkhaled, Abdulkarim

    2016-07-30

    In this study, PCR-RFLP was used for the first time in Syria for genotyping Cryptosporidium species of man, calves and chickens. The total of 391 fecal samples included 213 from children with diarrhea (<5years), 67 from pre-weaned calves with diarrhea and 111 from broiler chicken farms. All samples were collected and examined with acid fast stain to detect the positive samples. Subsequently a nested-PCR test was performed on 35 positive samples (17 from calves, 11 from chicken, and 7 from children) targeting SSU rRNA gene, and was followed by RFLP analysis using three restriction enzymes SspI, VspI and MboII. Results showed that C. parvum was the only identified species in children and calves, on the other hand C. baileyi was identified in broilers in addition to another species with unknown RFLP profile in comparison to those which have been described in chicken. Further studies using more genes are needed to sequence and detect subtypes of this parasite. PMID:27369580

  15. Androgen Inhibits Abdominal Fat Accumulation and Negatively Regulates the PCK1 Gene in Male Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yonggang; Li, Junying; Ling, Yao; Teng, Kedao; Li, Hongwei; Wu, Changxin

    2013-01-01

    Capons are male chickens whose testes have been surgically incised. Capons show a significant increase in fat accumulation compared to intact male chickens. However, while caponization leads to a significant reduction in androgen levels in roosters, little is known about the molecular mechanisms through which androgen status affects lipogenesis in avian species. Therefore, investigation of the influence of androgens on fat accumulation in the chicken will provide insights into this process. In this study, Affymetrix microarray technology was used to analyze the gene expression profiles of livers from capons and intact male chickens because the liver is the major site of lipogenesis in avian species. Through gene ontology, we found that genes involved in hepatic lipogenic biosynthesis were the most highly enriched. Interestingly, among the upregulated genes, the cytosolic form of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) gene showed the greatest fold change. Additionally, in conjunction with quantitative real-time PCR data, our results suggested that androgen status negatively regulated the PCK1 gene in male chickens. PMID:23544081

  16. Zinc Supplementation against Eimeria acervulina-Induced Oxidative Damage in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, Nedyalka V.; Gabrashanska, Margarita; Koinarski, Ventsislav; Yaneva, Zvezdelina

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the dietary supplements of Zn containing diet on the antioxidant status in chickens experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina. The antioxidant status was monitored via determination of MDA concentrations and erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities, as well as vitamin E, vitamin C, Cu, and Zn in liver, muscle, and serum. The results showed increased MDA (P < .05), CAT (P < .001), and decreased SOD (P < .001) in the infected birds. Significant changes in Cu and Zn concentrations and dramatically reduction of vitamin C and E concentrations in the infected chickens were found. The observed deviations in the studied enzymes and nonenzymatic parameters evidence the occurrence of oxidative stress following the infection and impaired antioxidant status of chickens, infected with Eimeria acervulina. Our results proved the ameliorating role of CuZn(OH)3Cl (0.170 g per kg food) against Eimeria acervulina-induced oxidative damage in infected chickens. PMID:21461390

  17. Common occurrence of zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium meleagridis in broiler chickens and turkeys in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Baroudi, Djamel; Khelef, Djamel; Goucem, Rachid; Adjou, Karim T; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Zhang, Hongwei; Xiao, Lihua

    2013-09-23

    Only a small number of birds have been identified by molecular techniques as having Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the third most important species for human cryptosporidiosis. In this study, using PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, we examined the ileum of 90 dead chickens from 23 farms and 57 dead turkeys from 16 farms in Algeria for Cryptosporidium spp. C. meleagridis-positive specimens were subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene. Cryptosporidium infection rates were 34% and 44% in chickens and turkeys, respectively, with all positive turkeys (25) and most positive chickens (26/31) having C. meleagridis. All C. meleagridis specimens belonged to a new subtype family. The frequent occurrence of C. meleagridis in chickens and turkeys illustrates the potential for zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Algeria. PMID:23498647

  18. Performance of an animal-based test of thirst in commercial broiler chicken farms.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Buijs, S; Federici, J F; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M; Duchateau, L; Tuyttens, F A M

    2014-06-01

    Animal-based measures of thirst are currently absent from animal welfare monitoring schemes due to the lack of a well-validated indicator applicable for on-farm use. In the present study, an on-farm test based on voluntary water consumption from an unfamiliar open drinker was validated in a (semi-)commercial setting. To investigate the effect of thirst on water consumption, we subjected 4 flocks of 1,500 broilers to either 0 or 12 h of water deprivation and subsequently measured the amount of water that small subgroups consumed after the deprivation period (first experiment). Broilers that were water deprived before the test drank more than control broilers (P < 0.001). In a second experiment, a similar test was performed using 20 commercial broiler flocks in Belgium and Brazil. After a pretreatment water consumption test, the birds were subjected to 0 or 6 h of water deprivation, and a posttreatment water consumption test was conducted. Only in Brazil, deprived birds drank significantly more than controls in the posttreatment water consumption test (P < 0.001). A tendency for a difference was found in Belgium (P = 0.083). Pre- and posttreatment water consumption was higher in Brazil than in Belgium (P < 0.001). Stocking density and temperature influenced, respectively, the pretreatment and the control's posttreatment water consumption in Brazil, but not in Belgium. These results indicate that the water consumption test is sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between control and 12 h deprived flocks, and in Brazil even between control and 6 h deprived birds. The location of the test within the house did not affect the amount of water consumed in either experiment, suggesting that this variable does not have to be standardized. However, the amount of water consumed by broilers able to drink freely for a long period depended on indoor climatic variables (in Brazil only) and possibly genotype. This suggests that these variables need to be considered when

  19. The influence of providing perches and string on activity levels, fearfulness and leg health in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bailie, C L; O'Connell, N E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of providing environmental enrichment in the form of perches and string on the behaviour and welfare of commercial broiler chickens. Houses containing ~23 000 broiler chickens were assigned to one of four treatments in a 2×2 factorial design. Treatments involved two levels of access to perches (P) (present (24/house) '+P' or absent '-P') and two levels of access to string (S) (present (24/house) '+S' or absent '-S'). All houses contained windows, and 30 straw bales were provided from day 10 of the rearing cycle. Treatments were applied in one of four houses on a single farm, and were replicated over four production cycles. Behaviour and leg health were observed in weeks 3 to 5 of the rearing cycle. Production performance and environmental parameters were also measured. There was an interaction between perches and age in the percentage of birds observed lying, with higher percentages of birds observed lying in the +P treatment than in the -P treatment during weeks 4 and 5. There was also a significant interaction between string and age in the percentage of birds observed in locomotion, with higher percentages observed in locomotion in the -S treatment than in the +S treatment during weeks 4 and 5. There was also an interaction between string and age in average gait scores, with lower gait scores in the +S treatment than in the -S treatment during weeks 3 and 5 but not within week 4. Daytime observations showed that perches and strings were used frequently, with one bout of perching occurring approximately every 80 s/perch, and one bout of pecking at string occurring every 78 s/string on average. There was a significant effect of age on use of perches (P<0.001) and string (P<0.001), with perching peaking during week 5 and string pecking peaking during week 3. We conclude that commercial broilers in windowed houses with access to straw bales display an interest in additional enrichment stimuli in the form of perches and

  20. Dietary amino acid levels and feed restriction affect small intestinal development, mortality, and weight gain of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Wijtten, P J A; Hangoor, E; Sparla, J K W M; Verstegen, M W A

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different dietary amino acid treatments and feed restriction in early life versus a control treatment on development of the small intestine segments (weights), mortality, and broiler performance. Each treatment was applied to 6 cages with Ross 308 male broilers and to 6 cages with Cobb 500 male broilers with 24 birds per cage. A control treatment (100% ideal protein) was compared with a treatment with 30% extra ideal protein, a treatment with daily adjustment of the dietary amino acid level and profile, and a feed restriction treatment. The protein treatments were applied from 0 to 14 d of age. The feed restriction was applied from 4 to 21 d of age. Restriction was 15% from d 4 to 14 of age and diminished with equal daily steps thereafter to 5% at 21 d of age. Birds were weighed and dissected for evaluation of small intestine weights at 6, 9, 14, and 36 d of age. Feed intake restriction reduced leg problems in Ross and Cobb broilers. Extra dietary protein reduced leg problems in Ross broilers only. The present experiment does not show that small intestinal weight development is related to mortality. Thirty percent extra dietary ideal protein increased duodenum weight between 6 and 9 d of age. This was not further increased by the daily optimization of the dietary amino acid level and profile. The increased duodenum weights coincided with an improved BW gain. This indicates that duodenum weight may be important in facilitating BW gain in young broilers. Thus, it may be worthwhile to pay more attention to the relation between nutrition and duodenum weight and duodenum function in further studies. PMID:20548070

  1. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Liu, Wuyi; Asadpour, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of agricultural by-products in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp (DCSP) is a potential source of valuable nutrients and natural antioxidants for poultry feed. In the experiment, a feeding trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of dried orange residues in diet on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, humoral immunity, and cecum microbial population. A total of 200 one day experimental broiler chicks were distributed into a completely randomized design (CRD) which included 5 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment and 10 birds fed in each replicate. The experimental treatments consist of a control group (without additive), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2% of DCSP (residue) in diet. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Blood parameters and carcass traits were measured in the postnatal 35th day. The highest level of dried orange residues in treatment 5 (T5) had significantly increased the feed intake and body weight of broilers in groups and overall during the rearing period (P > 0.05). Different levels of dried orange residues had no significant effect on chicken FCR. Using of dried orange residues significantly decreased the liver and abdominal fat of broilers (P < 0.05). T5 has also significantly lower level of triglyceride than the control (T1) and treatment 2 (T2) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of dried orange residues improved some performance (e.g. feed intake and body weight gain), decreased liver and abdominal fat and also serum triglyceride level in broiler chicken. PMID:25737644

  2. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Liu, Wuyi; Asadpour, Leila

    2015-03-01

    Utilization of agricultural by-products in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp (DCSP) is a potential source of valuable nutrients and natural antioxidants for poultry feed. In the experiment, a feeding trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of dried orange residues in diet on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, humoral immunity, and cecum microbial population. A total of 200 one day experimental broiler chicks were distributed into a completely randomized design (CRD) which included 5 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment and 10 birds fed in each replicate. The experimental treatments consist of a control group (without additive), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2% of DCSP (residue) in diet. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Blood parameters and carcass traits were measured in the postnatal 35th day. The highest level of dried orange residues in treatment 5 (T5) had significantly increased the feed intake and body weight of broilers in groups and overall during the rearing period (P > 0.05). Different levels of dried orange residues had no significant effect on chicken FCR. Using of dried orange residues significantly decreased the liver and abdominal fat of broilers (P < 0.05). T5 has also significantly lower level of triglyceride than the control (T1) and treatment 2 (T2) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of dried orange residues improved some performance (e.g. feed intake and body weight gain), decreased liver and abdominal fat and also serum triglyceride level in broiler chicken. PMID:25737644

  3. Determination of the incidence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Clostridium perfringens in wild birds near broiler chicken houses by sampling intestinal droppings.

    PubMed

    Craven, S E; Stern, N J; Line, E; Bailey, J S; Cox, N A; Fedorka-Cray, P

    2000-01-01

    Several methods were evaluated for collecting fecal and intestinal samples from wild birds found near broiler chicken houses. A few intestinal samples and cloacal swabs were obtained from European starlings and house sparrows. Most of the samples collected consisted of wild bird droppings found on or near the houses. Samples were collected from each of four farms of a broiler integrator during a grow-out cycle: a cycle in the summer for farm A, fall for farm B, and spring, summer, fall, and winter for farms C and D. Of the 25 wild bird intestinal and fecal samples collected from a broiler house on farm A during a grow-out cycle in July-August 1997, 24% were positive for Salmonella spp., 4% for Campylobacter jejuni, and 28% for Clostridium perfringens. Of the nine fecal samples collected from broiler house B in a grow-out cycle in September-November 1997, 33% were positive for Salmonella spp., 11% for C. jejuni, and 22% for C. perfringens. For farms C and D, of the 23 samples collected in March-April 1998, 0 were positive for Salmonella spp., 11% for C. jejuni, and 52% for C. perfringens; of 27 samples collected in June-July 1998, 4% were positive for Salmonella spp., 0 for C. jejuni, and 13% for C. perfringens; of 24 samples collected in August-October 1998, 14% were positive for Salmonella spp., 5% for C. jejuni, and 4% for C. perfringens; of 14 samples collected December 1998-January 1999, 0 were positive for Salmonella, 50% for C. jejuni, and 14% for C. perfringens. The incidence of these bacterial enteropathogens in wild birds near the broiler chicken houses suggests that wild birds that gain entry to poultry grow-out houses have the potential to transmit these pathogens to poultry. PMID:11007026

  4. Anatomical and biomechanical traits of broiler chickens across ontogeny. Part II. Body segment inertial properties and muscle architecture of the pelvic limb

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter G.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Codd, Jonathan R.; Hutchinson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    In broiler chickens, genetic success for desired production traits is often shadowed by welfare concerns related to musculoskeletal health. Whilst these concerns are clear, a viable solution is still elusive. Part of the solution lies in knowing how anatomical changes in afflicted body systems that occur across ontogeny influence standing and moving. Here, to demonstrate these changes we quantify the segment inertial properties of the whole body, trunk (legs removed) and the right pelvic limb segments of five broilers at three different age groups across development. We also consider how muscle architecture (mass, fascicle length and other properties related to mechanics) changes for selected muscles of the pelvic limb. All broilers