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Sample records for male infertility patients

  1. [Genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients].

    PubMed

    Piña-Aguilar, Raúl Eduardo; Chima-Galán, María del Carmen; Yerena-de-vega, María de la Concepción A; Regalado-Hernández, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Guerrero, Cecilia; García-Ortiz, Liliana; Santillán-Hernández, Yuritzi; Moreno-García, Jesús Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Recently Mexican Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Colleges (Federación Mexicana de Colegios de Obstetricia y Ginecologia, FEMECOG) published the Mexican guideline forthe management of male infertility, which suggests performing genetic laboratory tests as part of diagnosis and management of infertile patients and states that these should receive genetic counseling. This paper reviews the genetic approach proposed by Mexican guideline. A systematic review of medical literature was performed in Pubmed and Web of Knowledge from 1980 to 2012 in order to find reports of genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients. Also it is discussed the current knowledge of these variants, their clinical implications and finally the guidelines and recommendations for their molecular diagnosis. Most genetic variants in Mexican infertile patients are chromosome abnormalities. In relation to other variants there is only a report of Y chromosome microdeletions, repeated CAG in androgen receptor and more common mutations in CFTR, and other article reporting mutations in CFTR in patients with congenital absence of vas deferens. Little is known about the genetics of Mexican infertile patients apart from chromosome abnormalities. However, the contribution of genetics as etiology of male infertility is taking more relevance and currently the consensual management of infertile male should include the screening of genetic background. This review pretends to be a quick guide for clinicians who want to know about reports of genetic variants related to male infertility in Mexican population and how to approach their diagnosis. PMID:23819425

  2. Management of male neurologic patients with infertility.

    PubMed

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of fertility rely on intact neurologic function and thus neurologic diseases can result in infertility. While research into general female fertility and alterations in male semen quality is limited, we have an abundance of knowledge regarding ejaculatory dysfunction following nerve injury. Normal ejaculation is the result of coordinated reflex activity involving both the sympathetic and somatic nervous systems. Nerve injury can result in retrograde ejaculation, and anejaculation. With retrograde ejaculation, the ejaculate is propelled into the bladder instead of out through the urethra. In mild cases this condition can be reversed by sympathomimetic medications and, in more severe cases, sperm cells can be extracted from the bladder following ejaculation. With anejaculation, the ejaculatory reflex is not activated by normal sexual stimulation. In such cases, the first choice of treatment is assisted ejaculation, preferably by penile vibratory stimulation. If vibratory stimulation is unsuccessful, then ejaculation can almost always be induced by electroejaculation. In cases where assisted ejaculation fails, sperm can be retrieved surgically from either the epididymis or from the testis. Once viable sperm cells have been obtained, these are used in assisted reproductive techniques, including intravaginal insemination, intrauterine insemination, and in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:26003259

  3. Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cause, treatments may include medicines, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology. Happily, many couples treated for infertility are able to have babies. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  4. Genetics of Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Neto, Filipe Tenorio Lira; Bach, Phil Vu; Najari, Bobby Baback; Li, Philip Shihua; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-10-01

    While 7 % of the men are infertile, currently, a genetic etiology is identified in less than 25 % of those men, and 30 % of the infertile men lack a definitive diagnosis, falling in the "idiopathic infertility" category. Advances in genetics and epigenetics have led to several proposed mechanisms for male infertility. These advances may result in new diagnostic tools, treatment approaches, and better counseling with regard to treatment options and prognosis. In this review, we focus on clinical aspects of male infertility and the role of genetics in elucidating etiologies and the potential of treatments. PMID:27502429

  5. Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... PATIENT FACT SHEET Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility When a couple has trouble having a baby, ... to find out what may be causing your infertility. Semen analysis Semen analysis is probably the first ...

  6. Male infertility in cancer patients: Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dohle, Gert R

    2010-04-01

    The number of men surviving cancer at a young age has increased dramatically in the past 20 years as a result of early detection and improved cancer treatment protocols; more than 75% of young cancer patients nowadays are long-term survivors. Quality of life has become an important issue in childhood and adult cancer patients. The commonest cancers in patients of reproductive age are leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphomas and testicular germ cell tumors. Fertility is often impaired after chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Cryopreservation of semen before cancer treatment starts is currently the only method to preserve future male fertility. In some malignancies, especially in germ cell tumors, sperm quality is already abnormal at the time of diagnosis. In approximately 12% of men, no viable spermatozoa are present for cryopreservation before the start of chemotherapy. Cytotoxic therapy influences spermatogenesis at least temporarily and in some cases permanently. The amount of damage inflicted by chemotherapy on spermatogenesis depends on the combination of drugs used and on the cumulative dose given for cancer treatment. Alkylating agents, such as cyclophosphamide and procarbazine, are most detrimental to germ cells. Radiation therapy, especially whole-body irradiation, is also associated with the risk of permanent sterility. Besides the cancer treatment, tumor type and pretreatment fertility are of prognostic value for future fertility in male cancer survivors. After cancer treatment, many men need artificial reproductive techniques to achieve fatherhood; usually in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is indicated for successful treatment. About 15% of men will use their cryopreserved semen because of persistent azoospermia after cancer treatment. Treatment results with cryopreserved semen are generally good and comparable to general IVF and ICSI results. So far, no studies have reported an increased rate of congenital abnormalities or

  7. [Treatment of male infertility].

    PubMed

    Jardin, A

    1995-10-28

    Progress in medically assisted procreation has made it possible to obtain an embryon with a single spermatozoid or even a single spermatid. But such advanced technology must not overshadow the basic principles of patient management since there are many other medical or surgical possibilities for improving male fertility. Although the physiological mechanisms leading to azoospermia are relatively well understood, many questions remain as to the origin of oligo-asthenoteratospermia. Varicocela had been incriminated by many authors: in 25% of the cases, surgical care is followed by pregnancy. Other factors including autoimmunity, infection, environment and drugs also have an effect. Careful history taking can identify the main causes of male infertility before the problem of procreation occurs and in cases of definitive azoospermia the principles of management are relatively simple. The true problem is the fact that new techniques such as in vitro fertilization have acquired popularity in the general population but cannot be accepted as the gold standard by the medical community. It must not be forgotten that these artificial techniques cause a major psychological trauma to the couple and can lead to difficult situations (multiple pregnancies, extra embryos) with no totally satisfactory solution. PMID:8545356

  8. Treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Gianpiero D; Kocent, Justin; Monahan, Devin; Neri, Queenie V; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Major difficulties exist in the accurate and meaningful diagnosis of male reproductive dysfunction, and our understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of male infertility has proven quite complex.The numerous spermatozoa produced in mammals and other species provides some degree of protection against adverse environmental conditions represented by physical and chemical factors that can reduce reproductive function and increase gonadal damage even resulting in testicular cancer or congenital malformations. The wide fluctuations of sperm production in men, both geographical and temporal, may reflect disparate environmental exposures, occurring on differing genetic backgrounds, in varying psychosocial conditions, and leading to the diversified observed outcomes.Sperm analysis is still the cornerstone in diagnosis of male factor infertility, indeed, individually compromised semen paramaters while adequately address therapeutic practices is progressively flanked by additional tests. Administration of drugs, IUI, correction of varicocele, and, to a certain extent, IVF although they may not be capable of restoring fertility itself often result in childbearing. PMID:24782020

  9. Clinical Factors Associated with Sperm DNA Fragmentation in Male Patients with Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Akira; Kato, Tomonori; Kawauchi, Yoko; Watanabe, Akihiko; Fuse, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The clinical factors associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) were investigated in male patients with infertility. Materials and Methods. Fifty-four ejaculates from infertile Japanese males were used. Thirty-three and twenty-one were from the patients with varicoceles and idiopathic causes of infertility, respectively. We performed blood tests, including the serum sex hormone levels, and conventional and computer-assisted semen analyses. The sperm nuclear vacuolization (SNV) was evaluated using a high-magnification microscope. The SDF was evaluated using the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) to determine the SDF index (SDFI). The SDFI was compared with semen parameters and other clinical variables, including lifestyle factors. Results. The SDFI was 41.3 ± 22.2% (mean ± standard deviation) and did not depend on the cause of infertility. Chronic alcohol use increased the SDFI to 49.6 ± 23.3% compared with 33.9 ± 18.0% in nondrinkers. The SDFI was related to adverse conventional semen parameters and sperm motion characteristics and correlated with the serum FSH level. The SNV showed a tendency to increase with the SDFI. The multivariate analysis revealed that the sperm progressive motility and chronic alcohol use were significant predictors of the SDF. Conclusion. The SCDt should be offered to chronic alcohol users and those with decreased sperm progressive motility. PMID:25165747

  10. Infertility in the male dog.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M S

    1992-09-01

    The diagnosis and characterization of infertility in the male dog depends largely on the initial history and semen evaluation and on following the course of infertility over time. The diagnostic testing described here is helpful for guiding therapy, but the prognosis in serious cases of infertility is usually poor. Cases of subfertility that are not progressive have a better prognosis with optimal breeding management. Finally, the clinician should remember that some insults to the testes are reversible with time so it is important not to administer therapy that will interfere with the dog's ability to recover. Client education is an important part of the management of male dog infertility because it is not uncommon for various drugs to be administered by the breeder, or at the breeder's request, without a sufficient diagnostic work-up. In addition, errors of breeding management may play a role in male dog infertility or limit the success of treatment. PMID:1421819

  11. MedlinePlus: Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Male Infertility? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Living With How a Man's Diet Affects Fertility Too (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) Related Issues Finasteride (Propecia/Proscar) and ...

  12. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters. PMID:27132576

  13. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility. PMID:22120929

  14. Thyroid, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Rajender, Singh; Monica, Marie Gray; Walter, Lee; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of thyroid hormone receptors on the testes, thyroid has been suggested to have a significant impact on the male reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. Several research articles on the role of thyroid in spermatogenesis or male infertility have been published in the last three decades. We conducted an exhaustive literature search was conducted in order to create an up-to-date review of literature. This review aims to discuss the impact of thyroid on testicular development, spermatogenesis, hypo- or hyper- thyroidism and male infertility, and the management of thyroid related abnormal semen profile. The literature revealed that thyroid significantly impacts testicular development and that abnormal thyroid profile affects semen quality and male fertility by compromising testicular size, sperm motility and ejaculate volume. A clear link exists between thyroid hormones, testicular development and spermatogenesis. Thyroid disease negatively affects spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. In such cases, infertility is reversible, but more studies need to be conducted, especially in post-pubertal males to cement the current findings. PMID:21622096

  15. Secondary infertility and the aging male, overview

    PubMed Central

    Al–Hawsawi, Khalid; Motair, Wael; Bawa, Abdallah Makhloof

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Old men preparing themselves for marriage late in their lives might face infertility. Infertility in this group of men should be considered from a wider perspective, as they face any age–related health troubles that include, but are not limited to, androgen deficiency and psychological disorders that impede early conception. This review aims to shed light on the proper approach to this minority of secondarily infertile men. Material and methods A comprehensive electronic English literature search was conducted, using various medical websites and books, for the factors that cause infertility in senior fathers. The physiology of geriatric males, together with their common comorbidities, were discussed. Results Old men presenting with secondary infertility should be approached differently. Aging, itself, has a significant impact on male sexual function, sperm parameters, and fertility; all of which contribute to poor fecundability, decreased fertilizing capacity, increased time to pregnancy, increased rate of DNA damage, high abortion rates and increased prevalence of fetal developmental failures. The complexity and the unknowns of the aging male physiology, together with the interaction of obstinate diseases the patient might have, make the issue very difficult to tackle. Conclusions Management should include the conventional way of treating young sufferers and further target the underlying causes, if known, along with the provision of geriatric, psychologic, and andrologic support. PMID:25140235

  16. The results of 100 small tissue biopsies of testis in male infertile patients.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, R.; Sinclair, J.; Rourke, A.; Chowdhury, S.; Yates, A.; Shaba, J.

    1976-01-01

    The value of testicular biopsy in male infertility has recently been emphasized by Meinhard, McRae and Chisholm (1973), and the present authors agree with them that a biopsy is essential for the following reasons: (1) to establish a firm diagnosis; (2) to rationalize therapy on the basis of histological findings; (3) new developments in drug therapy and electronmicroscopic techniques will help to clarify many areas of doubt and uncertainty in this difficult field; (4) the diagnosis of 'sloughing' by itself may mask changes in germinal cell development which may be amenable to hormone therapy. PMID:1012997

  17. Aromatase inhibitors for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Peter N

    2012-12-01

    Some men with severely defective sperm production commonly have excess aromatase activity, reflected by low serum testosterone and relatively elevated estradiol levels. Aromatase inhibitors can increase endogenous testosterone production and serum testosterone levels. Treatment of infertile males with the aromatase inhibitors testolactone, anastrazole, and letrozole has been associated with increased sperm production and return of sperm to the ejaculate in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Use of the aromatase inhibitors anastrazole (1 mg/day) and letrozole (2.5 mg/day) represent off-label use of these agents for impaired spermatogenesis in men with excess aromatase activity (abnormal testosterone/estradiol [T/E] ratios). Side effects have rarely been reported. Randomized controlled trials are needed to define the magnitude of benefit of aromatase inhibitor treatment for infertile men. PMID:23103016

  18. Male reproductive health and infertility.

    PubMed

    Frey, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Primary care physicians have an essential role and opportunity in positively impacting the reproductive health of men. Although men are less likely than women to consistently seek preventive services, an office visit for any reason should be seen as an opportunity to introduce the idea of reproductive health. Additionally, primary care physicians can and should initiate the diagnostic workup for infertile couples in their practices. The initial assessment for the male partner consists of a thorough history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests, including a semen analysis. PMID:20705204

  19. Eastern medicine approaches to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Ma, Hongli; Ng, Ernest H Y; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2013-07-01

    Male factor is a common cause of infertility and the male partner must be systematically evaluated in the workup of every infertile couple. Various Eastern medical strategies have been tried with variable success. This article describes the clinical effects of Eastern medicine approaches including acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong, which could improve the sperm parameters and motility, genital inflammatory conditions, as well as immune system disorders, sexual dysfunction, and varicocele. Acupuncture reduces inflammation, increases sperm motility, improves semen parameters, modulates the immune system, and improves sexual and ejaculatory dysfunction in male infertility. The clinical effects may be mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle. Chinese herbal medicines may also exert helpful effects in male infertility, and it is worth noting that some herbal drugs may result in male infertility. Massage also exerts positive effects in male infertility. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of clinical effects are unclear. Tai chi, qi gong, and yoga have not been investigated in male infertility, but it has been reported to regulate endocrine and central or autonomic nervous systems. In conclusion, Eastern medical approaches have beneficial on reproductive effects in male infertility. However, future well-designed, randomized, clinical control trials are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Eastern medical approaches for male infertility. PMID:23775386

  20. Genetic evaluation of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Men with severe oligospermia (<5 million sperm/mL ejaculate fluid) or azoospermia should receive genetic testing to clarify etiology of male infertility prior to treatment. Categorization by obstructive azoospermia (OA) or non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is critical since genetic testing differs for the former with normal testicular function, testicular volume (~20 mL), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (1-8 IU/mL) when compared to the latter with small, soft testes and increased FSH. History and physician examination along with laboratory testing (following appropriate genetic counseling) is critical to accurate selection of genetic testing appropriate for azoospermia due to primary testicular failure as compared with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Genetic testing options include cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) testing for men with congenital absence of the vas, while karyotype, Y chromosome microdeletions (YCMD), and other specific genetic tests may be warranted depending on the clinical context of severe oligospermia or NOA. The results of genetic testing guide management options. The most recent techniques for genetic analysis, including sperm microRNA (miRNA) and epigenetics, are forming the foundation for future genetic diagnosis and therapeutic targets in male infertility. PMID:26813518

  1. Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Deb, Ishita; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Kar, Kushal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral α-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition. PMID:23651453

  2. Genetics Home Reference: sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... deafness and male infertility sensorineural deafness and male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Sensorineural deafness and male infertility is a condition characterized by hearing loss and ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... related nonsyndromic male infertility CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description CATSPER1 -related nonsyndromic male infertility is a condition that affects the function of ...

  4. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted. PMID:26618172

  5. Possible fetal determinants of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Juul, Anders; Almstrup, Kristian; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina K; Jørgensen, Niels; Main, Katharina M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Toppari, Jorma; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2014-09-01

    Although common reproductive problems, such as male infertility and testicular cancer, present in adult life, strong evidence exists that these reproductive disorders might have a fetal origin. The evidence is derived not only from large epidemiological studies that show birth-cohort effects with regard to testicular cancer, levels of testosterone and semen quality, but also from histopathological observations. Many infertile men have histological signs of testicular dysgenesis, including Sertoli-cell-only tubules, immature undifferentiated Sertoli cells, microliths and Leydig cell nodules. The most severe gonadal symptoms occur in patients with disorders of sexual development (DSDs) who have genetic mutations, in whom even sex reversal of individuals with a 46,XY DSD can occur. However, patients with severe DSDs might represent only a small proportion of DSD cases, with milder forms of testicular dysgenesis potentially induced by exposure to environmental and lifestyle factors. Interestingly, maternal smoking during pregnancy has a stronger effect on spermatogenesis than a man's own smoking. Other lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption and obesity might also have a role. However, increasing indirect evidence exists that exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals, present at measurable concentrations in individuals, might affect development of human fetal testis. If confirmed, health policies to prevent male reproductive problems should not only target adult men, but also pregnant women and their children. PMID:24935122

  6. [Cyclic impotence in male infertility].

    PubMed

    Lew-Starowicz, Z

    1988-11-01

    23 men were treated during 1977-87 in a special hospital in Warsaw for infertility by administering the Mell-Krat scale, the Rorschach test, and a test consisting of drawing figures. Most of them were in the 26-35 age group and had secondary and higher level education. 15 of them had a domineering mother, and 13 were only children. 14 had been married for 5 years and had used a biological method of contraception for 5-8 years. The personality tests indicated that 16 were immature and 5 were neurotic; in 13, the marital roles were reversed; the need for fatherhood was lacking in 7, and it was deficient in 9; 17 had disorders of erection, 4 had premature ejaculation, and 2 half diminished libido; the partners of 9 were tolerant and passive concerning the sexual dysfunction, 7 were critical and castrating, and 4 were understanding and helpful. The causative factors and the effectiveness of treatment were: partner-related in 13 cases (9 treated), stereotypical transformation of cohabitation in 23 cases (14 treated), burdensome sexual activity in 3 cases (1 treated), and 4 unknown factors (1 treated). Various therapeutic methods were used: hypnosis, psychotherapy of married couple, and training. 14 patients were successfully treated and rehabilitated; however, 9 patients did not improve. Although the small number of this sample does not permit the drawing of sweeping conclusions, some inferences could be made on forms of impotence of psychogenic origin. Implicated factors were: having a domineering mother, being an only child, and immature personality. Other causes had to do with the partner, sexual duty, and stereotypical sexual cohabitation of many years' duration during a nonfertile period of the woman using a natural method of contraception. PMID:3253157

  7. Mendelian genetics of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kathleen; Yatsenko, Alexander N.; Jorgez, Carolina J.; Mukherjee, Sarmistha; Nalam, Roopa Lata; Matzuk, Martin M.; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is defined as the inability of a couple to conceive despite trying for a year, and it affects approximately 15% of the reproductive-age population. It is considered a genetically lethal factor, as the family lineage stops at that individual with no progeny produced. A genetic defect associated with an infertile individual cannot be transmitted to the offspring, ensuring the maintenance of reproductive fitness of the species. However, with the advent of assisted reproductive techniques (ART), we are now able to overcome sterility and bypass nature’s protective mechanisms that developed through evolution to prevent fertilization by defective or deficient sperm. PMID:21382200

  8. Male infertility: an obstacle to sexuality?

    PubMed

    Bechoua, S; Hamamah, S; Scalici, E

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between infertility and sexuality are numerous and complex. Infertile men may suffer from sexual dysfunction (SD) when undergoing an assisted reproductive technology programme. We undertook a review both in French and English of the available data on male SD when being diagnosed with a fertility problem with a specific focus on azoospermic men. The review was performed over a 30-year time period using PubMed/Medline. The sexual concerns and needs of infertile/sterile men for whom potential parenting can be compromised were evaluated. When diagnosed with infertility, men usually go through a crisis that can have a deleterious effect on their sexuality with sometimes a feeling of sexual inadequacy. Infertile men will feel stigmatized because they are perceived as being deficient in a specific component of their masculinity. Hence, subsequent SD may occur that can impact the couple sexuality and the infertility management. However, little is known on how the announcement of azoospermia may affect male on a sexual and psychological point of view. The present review suggests that a global management through a healthcare network (biologist, andrologist, sexologist and psychologist) is required which will allow to consider infertility and its subsequent sexual disorders as a whole and not as dichotomized issues. PMID:27061770

  9. Estrogen promotes Leydig cell engulfment by macrophages in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wanpeng; Zheng, Han; Lin, Wei; Tajima, Astushi; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwen; Wu, Jihua; Han, Daishu; Rahman, Nafis A.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Gao, George Fu; Inoue, Ituro; Li, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Male infertility accounts for almost half of infertility cases worldwide. A subset of infertile men exhibit reduced testosterone and enhanced levels of estradiol (E2), though it is unclear how increased E2 promotes deterioration of male fertility. Here, we utilized a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses human CYP19, which encodes aromatase (AROM+ mice), and mice with knockout of Esr1, encoding estrogen receptor α (ERαKO mice), to analyze interactions between viable Leydig cells (LCs) and testicular macrophages that may lead to male infertility. In AROM+ males, enhanced E2 promoted LC hyperplasia and macrophage activation via ERα signaling. E2 stimulated LCs to produce growth arrest–specific 6 (GAS6), which mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by bridging cells with surface exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) to macrophage receptors, including the tyrosine kinases TYRO3, AXL, and MER. Overproduction of E2 increased apoptosis-independent extrusion of PS on LCs, which in turn promoted engulfment by E2/ERα-activated macrophages that was mediated by AXL-GAS6-PS interaction. We further confirmed E2-dependant engulfment of LCs by real-time 3D imaging. Furthermore, evaluation of molecular markers in the testes of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) revealed enhanced expression of CYP19, GAS6, and AXL, which suggests that the AROM+ mouse model reflects human infertility. Together, these results suggest that GAS6 has a potential as a clinical biomarker and therapeutic target for male infertility. PMID:24762434

  10. Male Infertility: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S. L.

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of the subfertile male starts with the basic history and physical examination, which often provide indication of probable cause. Aside from analysis of properly collected semen, most cases require very few tests. Etiology can be classified as pretesticular, testicular, and post-testicular. Treatment can be more specific if a definite cause is found. Unfortunately, about 25% of patients are idiopathic, and non-specific treatments generally yield unacceptably low conception rates. Improvement will occur as more becomes known, through animal research and clinical application, about the physiology of spermatogenesis and the pathological processes that can affect it. PMID:21253072

  11. H19 gene methylation status is associated with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIAO-PING; HAO, CHAO-LIANG; WANG, QIAN; YI, XIAO-MEI; JIANG, ZHI-SHENG

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the H19 gene methylation status in male infertility. Between March 2013 and June 2014, semen samples were collected from 15 normal fertile males and 15 males experiencing infertility, and routine analysis and sperm morphological assessment were performed. The semen samples were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to separate the sperm fraction, and genomic DNA from the sperms was extracted and treated for bisulfite modification. Following in vitro amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the purified PCR products were cloned into pMD®18-T vectors and successful cloning was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion. Positive clones were sequenced and the DNA methylation status was analyzed. The overall methylation rate in the normal fertile group was 100% (270/270), whereas in the infertile group the methylation rate was lower at 94.1% (525/558), revealing a statistically significant decrease in overall methylation rate in the infertile patients compared with the control group (χ2=15.12; P<0.001). The average methylation rates of CpG 1, 3 and 6 in the infertile group were statistically different from those in the normal control group (all P<0.05). The abnormal methylation of imprinted gene H19 is associated with male infertility, suggesting that H19 may serve as a biomarker for the detection of defects in human spermiogenesis. PMID:27347077

  12. Male Reproductive Cancers and Infertility: A Mutual Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Tvrda, Eva; Agarwal, Ashok; Alkuhaimi, Nawaf

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction and malignancies related to the male gender represent a serious health concern, whose incidence has significantly risen over the past years. Prior to treatment, testicular or prostate cancer patients often display poor semen characteristics similar to subfertile or infertile patients. This fact is underscored by cases where the malignancy is often diagnosed in males who undergo a general fertility screening. This review aims to examine the associations between male infertility and reproductive cancers focusing on common etiologies and biological mechanisms underlining these pathologies. Furthermore, we discuss compelling epidemiological data hypothesizing that male reproductive failure may act as a precursor of future andrological malignancies, including testicular or prostate cancer, thus providing a stimulus for a more specific research in male reproductive health and emphasizing the importance of this relation for physicians taking care of male patients with a reproductive disease. PMID:25837470

  13. Seminal biomarkers for the evaluation of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Bieniek, Jared M; Drabovich, Andrei P; Lo, Kirk C

    2016-01-01

    For men struggling to conceive with their partners, diagnostic tools are limited and often consist of only a standard semen analysis. This baseline test serves as a crude estimation of male fertility, leaving patients and clinicians in need of additional diagnostic biomarkers. Seminal fluid contains the highest concentration of molecules from the male reproductive glands, therefore, this review focuses on current and novel seminal biomarkers in certain male infertility scenarios, including natural fertility, differentiating azoospermia etiologies, and predicting assisted reproductive technique success. Currently available tests include antisperm antibody assays, DNA fragmentation index, sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization, and other historical sperm functional tests. The poor diagnostic ability of current assays has led to continued efforts to find more predictive biomarkers. Emerging research in the fields of genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics holds promise for the development of novel male infertility biomarkers. Seminal protein-based assays of TEX101, ECM1, and ACRV1 are already available or under final development for clinical use. Additional panels of DNA, RNA, proteins, or metabolites are being explored as we attempt to understand the pathophysiologic processes of male infertility. Future ventures will need to continue data integration and validation for the development of clinically useful infertility biomarkers to aid in male infertility diagnosis, treatment, and counseling. PMID:26975492

  14. Seminal biomarkers for the evaluation of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Jared M; Drabovich, Andrei P; Lo, Kirk C

    2016-01-01

    For men struggling to conceive with their partners, diagnostic tools are limited and often consist of only a standard semen analysis. This baseline test serves as a crude estimation of male fertility, leaving patients and clinicians in need of additional diagnostic biomarkers. Seminal fluid contains the highest concentration of molecules from the male reproductive glands, therefore, this review focuses on current and novel seminal biomarkers in certain male infertility scenarios, including natural fertility, differentiating azoospermia etiologies, and predicting assisted reproductive technique success. Currently available tests include antisperm antibody assays, DNA fragmentation index, sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization, and other historical sperm functional tests. The poor diagnostic ability of current assays has led to continued efforts to find more predictive biomarkers. Emerging research in the fields of genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics holds promise for the development of novel male infertility biomarkers. Seminal protein-based assays of TEX101, ECM1, and ACRV1 are already available or under final development for clinical use. Additional panels of DNA, RNA, proteins, or metabolites are being explored as we attempt to understand the pathophysiologic processes of male infertility. Future ventures will need to continue data integration and validation for the development of clinically useful infertility biomarkers to aid in male infertility diagnosis, treatment, and counseling. PMID:26975492

  15. Cadmium Concentrations in Blood and Seminal Plasma: Correlations with Sperm Number and Motility in Three Male Populations (Infertility Patients, Artificial Insemination Donors, and Unselected Volunteers)

    PubMed Central

    Benoff, Susan; Hauser, Russ; Marmar, Joel L; Hurley, Ian R; Napolitano, Barbara; Centola, Grace M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate a possible common environmental exposure that may partially explain the observed decrease in human semen quality, we correlated seminal plasma and blood cadmium levels with sperm concentration and sperm motility. We studied three separate human populations: group 1, infertility patients (Long Island, NY, USA); group 2, artificial insemination donors (AID) (Rochester, NY, USA); and group 3, general population volunteers (Rochester, NY, USA). Information about confounding factors was collected by questionnaire. Seminal plasma cadmium did not correlate with blood cadmium (Spearman correlation, n = 91, r = −0.092, P = 0.386, NS). Both blood and seminal plasma cadmium were significantly higher among infertility patients than the other subjects studied (for example, median seminal plasma cadmium was 0.282 μg/L in infertility patients versus 0.091 μg/L in AID and 0.092 μg/L in general population volunteers; Kruskal–Wallis test, P < 0.001). The percentage of motile sperm and sperm concentration correlated inversely with seminal plasma cadmium among the infertility patients (r = −0.201, P < 0.036 and r = −0.189, P < 0.05, respectively), but not in the other two groups. Age (among infertility patients) was the only positive confounder correlating with seminal plasma cadmium. To validate our human findings in an animal model, we chronically exposed adolescent male Wistar rats to low-moderate cadmium in drinking water. Though otherwise healthy, the rats exhibited decreases in epididymal sperm count and sperm motility associated with cadmium dose and time of exposure. Our human and rat study results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental cadmium exposures may contribute significantly to reduced human male sperm concentration and sperm motility. PMID:19593409

  16. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws. PMID:27030084

  17. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws. PMID:27030084

  18. Intrauterine insemination for treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Keck, C; Gerber-Schäfer, C; Wilhelm, C; Vogelgesang, D; Breckwoldt, M

    1997-01-01

    Intrauterine inseminations (IUI) have been performed since the beginning of this century for treatment of infertility. Despite its widespread use the clinical value of this technique remains unclear. Today, indications for IUI include male factor, cervical factor, immunological and unexplained infertility and infertility due to ejaculatory disorders. IUI is superior to intravaginal (IVI) or intracervical insemination (ICI). Before insemination, semen has to be processed using one of the established sperm preparation techniques. Different techniques seem to be equally effective in preparing a highly concentrated sperm fraction with progressively motile, morphologically normal sperm. Ovarian stimulation further improves pregnancy rates achieved by insemination. Human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) stimulation seems to be superior to clomiphene citrate stimulation. Among other factors, timing and number of inseminations are crucial when influencing the outcome of IUI treatment. PMID:9466187

  19. Advances in the management of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Haidl, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Male infertility can be treated by surgical procedures (e.g., varicocelectomy) or by administration of drugs if causal factors (e.g., seminal tract infections) are detected. In more severe cases, methods of assisted fertilization often have to be applied, but even these have only a limited success rate. Recent studies have demonstrated that disturbances of sperm DNA integrity (determined by the acridine orange test) can explain certain cases of fertilization failure and failure to achieve pregnancy following in vitro fertilisation with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The evaluation of DNA integrity should be considered when diagnosing male infertility as it has been shown to be an independent factor and can be used as a supplement to standard semen analysis. Analysis of DNA integrity may, therefore, provide further information about altered male fertility and lead to administration of more appropriate therapy. PMID:20948685

  20. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage. PMID:26855782

  1. What Treatment Options Are Available for Male Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications What treatment options are available for male infertility? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... deliver a live-born infant, in most cases, infertility has no other outward symptoms. The evaluation of ...

  2. Management of primary ciliary dyskinesia/Kartagener's syndrome in infertile male patients and current progress in defining the underlying genetic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Kartagener's syndrome (KS) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease accounting for approximately 50% of the cases of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). As it is accompanied by many complications, PCD/KS severely affects the patient's quality of life. Therapeutic approaches for PCD/KS aim to enhance prevention, facilitate rapid definitive diagnosis, avoid misdiagnosis, maintain active treatment, control infection and postpone the development of lesions. In male patients, sperm flagella may show impairment in or complete absence of the ability to swing, which ultimately results in male infertility. Assisted reproductive technology will certainly benefit such patients. For PCD/KS patients with completely immotile sperm, intracytoplasmic sperm injection may be very important and even indispensable. Considering the number of PCD/KS susceptibility genes and mutations that are being identified, more extensive genetic screening is indispensable in patients with these diseases. Moreover, further studies into the potential molecular mechanisms of these diseases are required. In this review, we summarize the available information on various aspects of this disease in order to delineate the therapeutic objectives more clearly, and clarify the efficacy of assisted reproductive technology as a means of treatment for patients with PCD/KS-associated infertility. PMID:24369140

  3. Limitations and barriers in access to care for male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Akanksha; Nangia, Ajay K; Dupree, James M; Smith, James F

    2016-05-01

    The primary challenge to identifying and addressing barriers in access to care for male factor infertility is accurate measurement of the prevalence of male infertility. Current estimates are based on couples pursuing assisted reproduction, and likely underestimate the problem. These estimates also fail to account for the number of patients facing infertility due to cancer or cancer treatment. Lack of health insurance coverage for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility presents a major barrier for couples struggling with infertility. However, it is not the only barrier. Education level, household income, cultural norms, religious beliefs, geographic location, and the availability of specialty-trained reproductive urologists are all important factors in determining the ease with which patients access and obtain infertility care. Addressing each of these obstacles directly is imperative to improving reproductive care and outcomes for infertile couples in the United States. PMID:27054307

  4. Selenium status of idiopathic infertile Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2005-04-01

    Selenium concentration in the sera and seminal plasma of 60 infertile males (40 oligospermia and 20 azoospermia) and 40 males with proven evidence of fertility (normospermia; control group) were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were correlated with spermatogram and hormonal levels in order to determine their relationship and significance in male infertility. The mean serum concentrations of selenium was found to be significantly increased in oligospermic compared to azoospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.01), whereas the seminal plasma level was significantly higher in azoospermic compared to oligospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.001). Thus, the ratio of serum selenium to seminal plasma selenium was 1: 1 in controls, 4: 1 in oligospermia, and 1: 2 in azoospermic subject.A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum selenium level and sperm count (p < 0.01). Similarly, seminal plasma selenium correlated with spermatozoa motility, viability, and morphology. Serum selenium level shows positive correlation with the serum testosterone level (p < 0.01). In conclusion, there appears to be a physiological balance in the distribution of selenium in serum and seminal plasma compartment of control males. A disturbance in this balance has a significant influence on spermatogenesis. Selenium appears to have a positive influence on Leydig cells, thus influencing the secretion of testosterone. PMID:15851828

  5. Male infertility testing: reactive oxygen species and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Ko, Edmund Y; Sabanegh, Edmund S; Agarwal, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an integral component of sperm developmental physiology, capacitation, and function. Elevated ROS levels, from processes such as infection or inflammation, can be associated with aberrations of sperm development, function, and fertilizing capacity. We review the impact of ROS on sperm physiology, its place in infertility evaluation, the implications for reproductive outcomes, and antioxidant therapy. Our systematic review of PubMed literature from the last 3 decades focuses on the physiology and etiology of ROS and oxidative stress (OS), evaluation of ROS, and antioxidants. ROS is normally produced physiologically and is used to maintain cellular processes such as sperm maturation, capacitation, and sperm-oocyte interaction. When ROS production exceeds the buffering capacity of antioxidants, OS occurs and can have a negative impact on sperm and fertility. ROS and antioxidant capacity testing can potentially add additional prognostic information to standard laboratory testing for the infertile male, although its role as standard part of an evaluation has yet to be determined. Elevated ROS levels have been implicated with abnormal semen parameters and male infertility, but the impact of ROS on fertilization rates and pregnancy is controversial. This is partly because of the lack of consensus on what type of patients may be suitable for ROS testing and assay standardization. Routine ROS testing for the infertile male is not currently recommended. PMID:25458618

  6. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility.

    PubMed

    Ring, Joshua D; Lwin, Aye A; Köhler, Tobias S

    2016-01-01

    Male factor contributes to 50%-60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene), estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole), and hormone replacement. PMID:27098657

  7. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Joshua D; Lwin, Aye A; Köhler, Tobias S

    2016-01-01

    Male factor contributes to 50%–60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene), estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole), and hormone replacement. PMID:27098657

  8. How does lead induce male infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Vigeh, Mohsen; Smith, Derek R.; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2011-01-01

    An important part of male infertility of unknown etiology may be attributed to various environmental and occupational exposures to toxic substances, such as lead. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. It is still unclear, for example, if male reproductive issues in lead-exposed persons are mostly related to the disruption of reproductive hormones, whether the problems are due to the lead’s direct effects on the gonads, or both? This question has been difficult to answer, because lead, especially at high levels, may adversely affect many human organs. Although lead can potentially reduce male fertility by decreasing sperm count and motility, inducing abnormal morphology and affecting functional parameters; not all studies have been able to clearly demonstrate such findings. In addition, research has shown that the blood-testis barrier can protect testicular cells from direct exposure to high levels of blood lead. For these reasons and considering the wide spectrum of lead toxicity on reproductive hormones, the present review suggests that lead’s main influence on male reproduction probably occurs by altering the reproductive hormonal axis and the hormonal control on spermatogenesis, rather than by a direct toxic effect on the seminiferous tubules of the testes. As blood lead concentrations below the currently accepted worker protection standard may still adversely affect male fertility, future studies should aim to establish more concrete links between lead exposure (especially at low levels) and subsequent male infertility. Research should also pay more attention to lead’s effects on reducing male fertility rates based on not only hormonal axis alteration, but also on the changes in sperm characteristic among exposed subjects. PMID:25356074

  9. Trends of male factor infertility, an important cause of infertility: A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naina; Singh, Amit Kant

    2015-01-01

    Infertility and problems of impaired fecundity have been a concern through ages and is also a significant clinical problem today, which affects 8–12% of couples worldwide. Of all infertility cases, approximately 40–50% is due to “male factor” infertility and as many as 2% of all men will exhibit suboptimal sperm parameters. It may be one or a combination of low sperm concentration, poor sperm motility, or abnormal morphology. The rates of infertility in less industrialized nations are markedly higher and infectious diseases are responsible for a greater proportion of infertility. The present literature will help in knowing the trends of male factor infertility in developing nations like India and to find out in future, various factors that may be responsible for male infertility. PMID:26752853

  10. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 in human male gametes from normal patients, and those with varicocele and diabetes: a potential molecular marker for diagnosing male infertility disorders.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, I; Santoro, M; Guido, C; Avena, P; Tripepi, S; De Amicis, F; Gervasi, M C; Aquila, S

    2012-09-01

    Rising rates of varicocele and diabetes mellitus (DM) pose a significant problem to human fertility. Recent studies have pointed out the impact of cyclooxygenase (COX) in the regulation of testicular function and male fertility. Prominent COX-2 expression has been described recently in the testes of infertile patients, but little is known about the role and identity of COX isoforms in human sperm under certain disease states such as varicocele and DM. We therefore examined the expression profile and ultrastructural localization of COX-1 and COX-2 concomitantly in semen samples from healthy donors, and patients with varicocele and DM. Using Western blotting assay, 'varicocele' and 'diabetic' sperm showed enhanced COX isoforms expression with respect to the 'healthy' sperm. Immunogold labeling revealed human sperm anatomical regions containing COX-1 and COX-2, confirming their increased expression in pathological samples. Our data demonstrate that both COX isoforms are upregulated in the spermatozoa of varicocele and diabetic patients, suggesting the harmful effect of the diseases also at the sperm molecular level, going beyond the abnormal morphology described to date. In conclusion, COX enzymes may possess a biological relevance in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of male factor infertility associated with varicocele and DM, and may be considered additional molecular markers for the diagnosis of male infertility disorders. PMID:22747653

  11. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 in human male gametes from normal patients, and those with varicocele and diabetes: a potential molecular marker for diagnosing male infertility disorders

    PubMed Central

    Perrotta, I; Santoro, M; Guido, C; Avena, P; Tripepi, S; De Amicis, F; Gervasi, M C; Aquila, S

    2012-01-01

    Rising rates of varicocele and diabetes mellitus (DM) pose a significant problem to human fertility. Recent studies have pointed out the impact of cyclooxygenase (COX) in the regulation of testicular function and male fertility. Prominent COX-2 expression has been described recently in the testes of infertile patients, but little is known about the role and identity of COX isoforms in human sperm under certain disease states such as varicocele and DM. We therefore examined the expression profile and ultrastructural localization of COX-1 and COX-2 concomitantly in semen samples from healthy donors, and patients with varicocele and DM. Using Western blotting assay, ‘varicocele’ and ‘diabetic’ sperm showed enhanced COX isoforms expression with respect to the ‘healthy’ sperm. Immunogold labeling revealed human sperm anatomical regions containing COX-1 and COX-2, confirming their increased expression in pathological samples. Our data demonstrate that both COX isoforms are upregulated in the spermatozoa of varicocele and diabetic patients, suggesting the harmful effect of the diseases also at the sperm molecular level, going beyond the abnormal morphology described to date. In conclusion, COX enzymes may possess a biological relevance in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of male factor infertility associated with varicocele and DM, and may be considered additional molecular markers for the diagnosis of male infertility disorders. PMID:22747653

  12. Infertility Patients' Mental Health Problems Often Unaddressed

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160382.html Infertility Patients' Mental Health Problems Often Unaddressed 'We're ... California, San Francisco. Many studies have found that infertility patients often feel distressed. And, Pasch said, professional ...

  13. AB270. Surgical sperm retrieval, micro TESE, and What do I treat for patient with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Micro-dissection testicular sperm extraction (mTESE) nowadays has been the major sperm retrieval method for patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) in assisted reproduction technology (ART). However, there are still 40 to 50% chances that no sperm can be found after the procedure, and the ICSI cycles are then aborted. Therefore the couples need to take the significant physical, psychological and financial risks, including ovulation induction, eggs retrieval and costs for procedures. Design: we introduce the concept of diagnostic mTESE for men with NOA to determine the decision to initiate ovulation cycles. Methods From 2012 to 2014, 152 men received diagnostic mTESE procedures. This study had excluded patients with obstructive azoospermia and needle biopsy-confirmed hypospermatogenesis cases. Patients with undescended testis, Klinefelter’s syndrome, or Y microdeletion were included. The procedure was performed by Schlegel’s method, the testicular tissues were examined under operative microscope up to 24 X. The procedures were started from right testicle, if no sperm found from right side, then left side was opened consequently. The tubules larger than 300 m were sampled for immediate table side touch print smear examination and the tissues were transferred to Bouin’s fixatives for further pathological examination. The whole procedure was video-taped for future review. The location of sperm-positive areas was recorded in operation note. The testis wound at tunica albuginea was closed using intra-tunical zipper suture with 6-0 Prolene. Results Among the 152 patients, the mean sperm retrieval rate was 45.3%. If we included the patients with biopsy-confirmed hypospermatogenesis receiving only therapeutic mTESE, the overall sperm retrieval rate was about 61%. For the patients with positive results at diagnostic mTESE, the sperm retrieval rate at later therapeutic mTESE for ICSI cycle was 100%. For patients who had no sperm found at diagnostic m

  14. Cytokines in the blood and semen of infertile patients

    PubMed Central

    Havrylyuk, Anna; Chopyak, Valentyna; Boyko, Yaryna; Kril, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines have been important mediators of the immunity and can be involved in numerous processes in the male genital tract including acting as immunomodulatory elements within the male gonad. The aims of this study were: 1) to detect pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in the control group and subgroups of infertile men; and 2) to set up the practical recommendations concerning determination of cytokine levels for the male infertility diagnosis. Observations were performed in a group of 82 men: healthy controls (n = 27) and infertile patients (n = 55). The male infertility group was further subdivided into patients with: varicocele (n = 22), idiopathic infertility (n = 13) and partners of couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA; n = 20). Semen analysis was determined following WHO criteria. The cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-18; tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon g (IFN-g) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) contents in serum and seminal plasma were determined by quantitative ELISA. An interesting marker of male infertility appears to be TGF-β1 (blood) significantly elevated in idiopathically infertile males and in the RSA group. Besides elevated TGF-β1 in a group of idiopathic infertility significantly elevated IL-10, IL-18, IFN-g (blood) and statistically decreased IL-1β while increased IFN-g were revealed in seminal plasma compared to healthy controls. We may postulate novel cytokine micropatterns for patients with different background of infertility. Therefore, circulating cytokines: IL-1β, IL-10, IL-18, TGF-β1, IFN-g and IL-1β, IFN-g and TGF-β1 in seminal plasma should be extended in evaluation of specific types of male infertility. PMID:26648778

  15. Systematic characterization of seminal plasma piRNAs as molecular biomarkers for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yeting; Wang, Cheng; Fu, Zheng; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Suyang; Lu, Meiling; Sun, Wu; Ye, Chao; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Chunni; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Although piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis, little is known about piRNAs in the seminal plasma of infertile males. In this study, we systematically investigated the profiles of seminal plasma piRNAs in infertile males to identify piRNAs that are altered during infertility and evaluate their diagnostic value. Seminal plasma samples were obtained from 211 infertile patients (asthenozoospermia and azoospermia) and 91 fertile controls. High-throughput sequencing technology was employed to screen piRNA profiles in seminal plasma samples pooled from healthy controls and infertile patients. The results identified 61 markedly altered piRNAs in infertile patient groups compared with control group. Next, a quantitative RT-PCR assay was conducted in the training and validation sets to measure and confirm the concentrations of altered piRNAs. The results identified a panel of 5 piRNAs that were significantly decreased in seminal plasma of infertile patients compared with healthy controls. ROC curve analysis and risk score analysis revealed that the diagnostic potential of these 5 piRNAs to distinguish asthenozoospermic and azoospermic individuals from healthy controls was high. In summary, this study identifies a panel of piRNAs that can accurately distinguish fertile from infertile males. This finding may provide pathophysiological clues about the development of infertility. PMID:27068805

  16. Systematic characterization of seminal plasma piRNAs as molecular biomarkers for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yeting; Wang, Cheng; Fu, Zheng; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Suyang; Lu, Meiling; Sun, Wu; Ye, Chao; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Chunni; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Although piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis, little is known about piRNAs in the seminal plasma of infertile males. In this study, we systematically investigated the profiles of seminal plasma piRNAs in infertile males to identify piRNAs that are altered during infertility and evaluate their diagnostic value. Seminal plasma samples were obtained from 211 infertile patients (asthenozoospermia and azoospermia) and 91 fertile controls. High-throughput sequencing technology was employed to screen piRNA profiles in seminal plasma samples pooled from healthy controls and infertile patients. The results identified 61 markedly altered piRNAs in infertile patient groups compared with control group. Next, a quantitative RT-PCR assay was conducted in the training and validation sets to measure and confirm the concentrations of altered piRNAs. The results identified a panel of 5 piRNAs that were significantly decreased in seminal plasma of infertile patients compared with healthy controls. ROC curve analysis and risk score analysis revealed that the diagnostic potential of these 5 piRNAs to distinguish asthenozoospermic and azoospermic individuals from healthy controls was high. In summary, this study identifies a panel of piRNAs that can accurately distinguish fertile from infertile males. This finding may provide pathophysiological clues about the development of infertility. PMID:27068805

  17. Genetic dosage and position effect of small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) in human sperm nuclei in infertile male patient

    PubMed Central

    Olszewska, Marta; Wanowska, Elzbieta; Kishore, Archana; Huleyuk, Nataliya; Georgiadis, Andrew P.; Yatsenko, Alexander N.; Mikula, Mariya; Zastavna, Danuta; Wiland, Ewa; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomes occupy specific distinct areas in the nucleus of the sperm cell that may be altered in males with disrupted spermatogenesis. Here, we present alterations in the positioning of the human chromosomes 15, 18, X and Y between spermatozoa with the small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC; sSMC+) and spermatozoa with normal chromosome complement (sSMC−), for the first time described in the same ejaculate of an infertile, phenotypically normal male patient. Using classical and confocal fluorescent microscopy, the nuclear colocalization of chromosomes 15 and sSMC was analyzed. The molecular cytogenetic characteristics of sSMC delineated the karyotype as 47,XY,+der(15)(pter->p11.2::q11.1->q11.2::p11.2->pter)mat. Analysis of meiotic segregation showed a 1:1 ratio of sSMC+ to sSMC− spermatozoa, while evaluation of sperm aneuploidy status indicated an increased level of chromosome 13, 18, 21 and 22 disomy, up to 7 × (2.7 − 15.1). Sperm chromatin integrity assessment did not reveal any increase in deprotamination in the patient’s sperm chromatin. Importantly, we found significant repositioning of chromosomes X and Y towards the nuclear periphery, where both chromosomes were localized in close proximity to the sSMC. This suggests the possible influence of sSMC/XY colocalization on meiotic chromosome division, resulting in abnormal chromosome segregation, and leading to male infertility in the patient. PMID:26616419

  18. AB031. Challenge of microsurgery for male infertility in China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yiming; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2016-01-01

    with a considerably lower cost per delivery and higher delivery rates. Sperm retrieval and ICSI must yield an 81% pregnancy rate per cycle to achieve equal costs to vasectomy reversal. For the treatment of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), microdissection TESE is a more effective approach than other TESE approaches for ICSI, with a patency rate 40–60%, which change the impossible to possible for NOA patients, who want their own inherent child. In our center, there are more than 4,000 cases of patients were treated by microsurgery, including microsurgical varicocelectomy/vasectomy reversal/epididymovasostomy/microdissection TESE, from 2006 to 2016. We think that microsurgical training is important for urologists and clinical. Up to now, in the recent decade, we have trained about 500 surgeons for microsurgery from 30 provinces in China. In summary, the excellent efficacies were noted by microsurgical approaches for male infertility on varicoceles and OA, with lower cost and risks of inherent and born defects compared to in assisted fertilization such as IVF and ICSI.

  19. The dark mink: a model of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Tung, K S; Ellis, L E; Childs, G V; Dufau, M

    1984-03-01

    Breeding mink for a fine dark fur has coselected male infertility, which may be manifest at the onset of breeding (primary infertility) or after one or more fertile breeding seasons (secondary infertility). Mink with primary infertility have low LH and testosterone levels. However, they respond to exogenous GnRH with increases in LH production and in the number and size of LH and FSH positive gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary. Exogenous human CG also induces testosterone secretion. Thus, mink with primary infertility are probably defective in GnRH secretion, which is due either to abnormal hypothalamic function or its control mechanisms. Autoimmune orchitis with testicular immune complexes are frequent in mink with secondary infertility, suggesting an autoimmune etiology. In contrast, fertile dark mink and fertile mink with the opaline and pastel fur have normal serum LH and testosterone levels; their testes are also normal. In mink with secondary infertility, the frequency and degree of orchitis and testicular immune complexes increased from March (peak sexual activity) to April (onset of testicular regression). Thus, testicular autoimmunity most likely develops during testicular regression. Antisperm antibodies also increased in frequency during testicular regression in the fertile dark mink and in dark mink with primary and secondary infertility. Thus, antisperm antibody per se is insufficient to induce autoimmune orchitis. It is concluded that the infertile mink is a useful model of human male infertility, involving both endocrinological and immunological mechanisms. PMID:6421566

  20. Association of exposure to phenols and idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjian; Tang, Rong; Fu, Guangbo; Xu, Bin; Zhu, Pengfei; Qiao, Shanlei; Chen, Xiaojiao; Xu, Bo; Qin, Yufeng; Lu, Chuncheng; Hang, Bo; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2013-04-15

    Widespread human exposure to phenols has been documented recently, and some phenols which are potential endocrine disruptors have demonstrated adverse effects on male reproduction in animal and in vitro studies. However, implications about exposure to phenols and male infertility are scarce in humans. Case-control study of 877 idiopathic infertile men and 713 fertile controls was conducted. Urinary levels of bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, pentachlorophenol, triclosan, 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-n-OP) and 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and semen parameters were measured. After multivariate adjustment, we found 4-t-OP, 4-n-OP and 4-n-NP exposure was associated with idiopathic male infertility (p-value for trend: <0.0001, 0.014 and 0.001, respectively). Aside from these associations, 4-t-OP and 4-n-NP exposure was also associated with idiopathic male infertility with abnormal semen parameters. Moreover, we observed significant associations between sum alkylphenols (APs) exposure and idiopathic male infertility. There were no relationships between exposure to other phenols and idiopathic male infertility in the present study. Our study provides the first evidence that exposure to APs (4-t-OP, 4-n-OP and 4-n-NP) is associated with idiopathic male infertility. PMID:23435201

  1. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility. PMID:26549413

  2. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility. PMID:26549413

  3. In vitro fertilization for male infertility: when and how?

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Fishel, S

    1997-12-01

    The first observation that in vitro fertilization (IVF) was useful for treating oligozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia was reported by Fishel and Edwards in 1982. This was followed by a series of cases indicating the value of IVF in such cases. Conventional IVF has been modified and refined to achieve increased rates of conception in cases of male factor infertility. Methods such as high insemination concentration IVF for the treatment of teratozoospermia and microscopic IVF for the treatment of oligozoospermia have had some impact on fertilization and pregnancy rates; however, reports of success are varied. The recent advent of micromanipulation and, in particular, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has overshadowed the use of these modified IVF procedures. Because of the high fertilization and pregnancy rates achieved with ICSI, other micromanipulation techniques (subzonal insemination and partial zona dissection) have been abandoned; there have also been suggestions that other more conventional techniques, i.e. IVF, should also be abandoned and that ICSI become the sole technique for the treatment of infertility. The rapid increase in the number of centres using ICSI has led to extreme pressure for individual units to achieve high fertilization and pregnancy rates and there is a temptation to assign all patients to ICSI treatment. It is important that, in this highly competitive environment, new techniques are not applied haphazardly and reduced to the mere injection of gametes and achievement of pregnancy regardless of the cause of infertility. In his 1986 IVF--Historical Perspective, Fishel quoted Auguste Comte: 'to understand science it is necessary to know its history'. IVF has much recent history in animal and also human work. Although ICSI is the most significant therapeutic advance in male infertility treatment, its application to human IVF is only 4 years old, with a paucity of animal studies on which to rely. For this reason IVF still plays a

  4. A maternally inherited autosomal point mutation in human phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) leads to male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kashir, Junaid; Konstantinidis, Michalis; Jones, Celine; Lemmon, Bernadette; Chang Lee, Hoi; Hamer, Rebecca; Heindryckx, Bjorn; Deane, Charlotte M.; De Sutter, Petra; Fissore, Rafael A.; Parrington, John; Wells, Dagan; Coward, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Male factor and idiopathic infertility contribute significantly to global infertility, with abnormal testicular gene expression considered to be a major cause. Certain types of male infertility are caused by failure of the sperm to activate the oocyte, a process normally regulated by calcium oscillations, thought to be induced by a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLCζ). Previously, we identified a point mutation in an infertile male resulting in the substitution of histidine for proline at position 398 of the protein sequence (PLCζH398P), leading to abnormal PLCζ function and infertility. METHODS AND RESULTS Here, using a combination of direct-sequencing and mini-sequencing of the PLCζ gene from the patient and his family, we report the identification of a second PLCζ mutation in the same patient resulting in a histidine to leucine substitution at position 233 (PLCζH233L), which is predicted to disrupt local protein interactions in a manner similar to PLCζH398P and was shown to exhibit abnormal calcium oscillatory ability following predictive 3D modelling and cRNA injection in mouse oocytes respectively. We show that PLCζH233L and PLCζH398P exist on distinct parental chromosomes, the former inherited from the patient's mother and the latter from his father. Neither mutation was detected utilizing custom-made single-nucleotide polymorphism assays in 100 fertile males and females, or 8 infertile males with characterized oocyte activation deficiency. CONCLUSIONS Collectively, our findings provide further evidence regarding the importance of PLCζ at oocyte activation and forms of male infertility where this is deficient. Additionally, we show that the inheritance patterns underlying male infertility are more complex than previously thought and may involve maternal mechanisms. PMID:22095789

  5. Surgical techniques for the management of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Lopushnyan, Natalya A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation and surgical treatment of male infertility has evolved and expanded, now leading to more precise diagnoses and tailored treatments with diminished morbidity and greater success. Surgeries for male infertility are divided into four major categories: (i) diagnostic surgery; (ii) surgery to improve sperm production; (iii) surgery to improve sperm delivery; and (iv) surgery to retrieve sperm for use with in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF–ICSI). While today we are more successful than ever in treating male infertility, pregnancy is still not always achieved likely due to factors that remain poorly understood. Clinicians treating infertility should advocate for couple-based therapy, and require that both partners have a thorough evaluation and an informed discussion before undergoing specific surgical therapies. PMID:22120932

  6. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertile women might get pregnant sometime after fertility treatment, but today, there is no prediction model on who will eventually have children. The objective of the present study was to characterize hormone levels in an arbitrary menstrual cycle in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility, and to determine the predictive value for long-term possibility of live birth. Methods In this cross-sectional study, with 71 infertile women with diagnosis unexplained infertility and male infertility, blood samples were obtained during the proliferative and secretory phases of an arbitrary menstrual cycle. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH, AMH, inhibin B, estradiol, progesterone, PRL and TSH were determined. The predictive value of ovulation and hormonal analysis was determined by identifying the proportion of women with at least one live birth. Mann Whitney U test, chi2 test and Spearman’s correlation were used for statistical analysis. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results There were no differences in hormone values and live birth rates between women with unexplained infertility and male infertility. The best sole predictors of live birth were age of the women, followed by ovulatory cycle, defined as serum progesterone concentration of greater than or equal to 32 nmol/L, and a serum TSH concentration of less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L. Combining the age with the ovulatory cycle and serum TSH less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L or serum AMH greater than or equal to 10 pmol/L the predictive value was close to 90%. Conclusions Age in combination with the presence of an ovulatory cycle and serum TSH or serum AMH is predictive for long-term live birth. The advantage of serum AMH compared with serum TSH is the very little variation throughout the menstrual cycle, which makes it a useful tool in infertility diagnosis. PMID:23844631

  7. TGFβ3 (TGFB3) polymorphism is associated with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Droździk, Marek; Kaczmarek, Maciej; Malinowski, Damian; Broś, Urszula; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafał; Kurzawski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Factors affecting the blood-testis barrier function may be involved in testicular damage and male infertility. Two cytokines play an important role in the barrier regulation, namely transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between TGF-β3 (TGFB3) and TNF-α (TNF) gene polymorphisms and male infertility. A total of 846 subjects, 423 diagnosed with male infertility and 423 fertile men were enrolled. TGFB3 (rs2268626:T > C, rs3917158:C > T, rs2284792:A > G, rs2268625:T > C, rs3917187:C > T) and TNF (rs1800629:-308G > A) gene polymorphisms were genotyped. No association between TNF genotype and infertility was observed. As for TGFB3, the genotypes distribution was similar in infertile and fertile men. However, rs2284792 minor allele frequency was significantly higher among infertile subjects. Heterozygous rs2284792 AG genotype was associated with increased odds for infertility [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.05-1.86), p = 0.021] and similar results were observed for G allele carrier status [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.06-1.84), p = 0.017]. Heterozygosity in TGFB3 rs3917158 was also associated with the infertility [OR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.01-1.87), p = 0.041]. The TGFB3 variant genotypes were associated with lower spermatozoa motility parameters in fertile men. The results indicate that variants in TGFB3 gene may be associated with male infertility. However, the findings require further replication and validation. PMID:26612435

  8. TGFβ3 (TGFB3) polymorphism is associated with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Droździk, Marek; Kaczmarek, Maciej; Malinowski, Damian; Broś, Urszula; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafał; Kurzawski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Factors affecting the blood-testis barrier function may be involved in testicular damage and male infertility. Two cytokines play an important role in the barrier regulation, namely transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between TGF-β3 (TGFB3) and TNF-α (TNF) gene polymorphisms and male infertility. A total of 846 subjects, 423 diagnosed with male infertility and 423 fertile men were enrolled. TGFB3 (rs2268626:T > C, rs3917158:C > T, rs2284792:A > G, rs2268625:T > C, rs3917187:C > T) and TNF (rs1800629:-308G > A) gene polymorphisms were genotyped. No association between TNF genotype and infertility was observed. As for TGFB3, the genotypes distribution was similar in infertile and fertile men. However, rs2284792 minor allele frequency was significantly higher among infertile subjects. Heterozygous rs2284792 AG genotype was associated with increased odds for infertility [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.05–1.86), p = 0.021] and similar results were observed for G allele carrier status [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.06–1.84), p = 0.017]. Heterozygosity in TGFB3 rs3917158 was also associated with the infertility [OR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.01–1.87), p = 0.041]. The TGFB3 variant genotypes were associated with lower spermatozoa motility parameters in fertile men. The results indicate that variants in TGFB3 gene may be associated with male infertility. However, the findings require further replication and validation. PMID:26612435

  9. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q 10 , glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  10. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  11. Absence of Sperm Rna Elements Correlates With Idopathic Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Jodar, Meritxell; Sendler, Edward; Moskovtsev, Sergey I.; Librach, Clifford L.; Goodrich, Robert; Swanson, Sonja; Hauser, Russ; Diamond, Michael P.; Krawetz, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Semen parameters have been used to diagnose male infertility and specify clinical interventions.. In idiopathic infertile couples, an unknown male factor could be the cause of infertility even when the semen parameters are normal. Next Generation Sequencing of spermatozoal RNAs has provided an objective measure of the paternal contribution that may be able to help guide the care of these couples. Spermatozoal RNAs from 96 couples presenting with idiopathic infertility were assessed in the context of fertility treatment and final reproductive outcome and sperm RNA elements (SREs) reflective of fecundity status were identified. The absence of required SREs reduced the probability to achieve live birth by Timed Intercourse (TIC) or Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) from 73% to 27%. However, the absence of these same sperm RNA elements does not appear to be critical when assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) with or without Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) are employed. Approximately 30% of the idiopathic infertile couples presented an incomplete set of required SREs suggesting a male component as the cause of their infertility. Similarly, analysis of couples that failed to achieve a live birth when presented with a complete set of SREs suggested that a female factor was perhaps involved as confirmed by their diagnosis. The data presented from this study suggests that SRE analysis has the potential to inform on the individual success rate of different fertility treatments to reduce the time to achieve live birth. PMID:26157032

  12. Transplantation of male germ line stem cells restores fertility in infertile mice

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Takehiko; Dobrinski, Ina; Avarbock, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    Azoospermia or oligozoospermia due to disruption of spermatogenesis are common causes of human male infertility. We used the technique of spermatogonial transplantation in two infertile mouse strains, Steel (Sl) and dominant white spotting (W), to determine if stem cells from an infertile male were capable of generating spermatogenesis. Transplantation of germ cells from infertile Sl/Sld mutant male mice to infertile W/Wv or Wv/W54 mutant male mice restored fertility to the recipient mice. Thus, transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells from an infertile donor to a permissive testicular environment can restore fertility and result in progeny with the genetic makeup of the infertile donor male. PMID:10613820

  13. Helping patients through the pain of infertility.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan

    2012-02-12

    While males and combined couple factors play a large part in infertility cases, women often carry the physical, social, and emotional burden of these diagnoses. Nurse practitioners are in a prime position to assess women at risk for infertility, initiate an investigation to identify potential etiologies, refer women to specialized centers, and provide them with ongoing care and support through this difficult period in their lives. PMID:22252029

  14. Male infertility: the role of imaging in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, T; Sidhu, P S; Wilkins, C J

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of male infertility is assuming greater importance, with male factors implicated as a causal factor in up to half of infertile couples. Following routine history, examination and blood tests, imaging is frequently utilised in order to assess the scrotal contents for testicular volume and morphology. Additionally, this may give indirect evidence of the presence of possible reversible pathology in the form of obstructive azoospermia. Further imaging in the form of transrectal ultrasound and MRI is then often able to categorise the level of obstruction and facilitate treatment planning without resort to more invasive imaging such as vasography. Ultrasound guidance of therapy such as sperm or cyst aspiration and vasal cannulation may also be performed. This article reviews the imaging modalities used in the investigation of male infertility, and illustrates normal and abnormal findings that may be demonstrated. PMID:22763036

  15. Analysis of partial AZFc deletions in Malaysian infertile male subjects.

    PubMed

    Almeamar, Hussein Ali; Ramachandran, Vasudevan; Ismail, Patimah; Nadkarni, Prashan; Fawzi, Nora

    2013-04-01

    Complete deletions in the AZF (a, b, and c) sub-regions of the Y-chromosome have been shown to contribute to unexplained male infertility. However, the role of partial AZFc deletions in male infertility remains to be verified. Three types of partial AZFc deletions have been identified. They are gr/gr, b1/b3, and b2/b3 deletions. A recent meta-analysis showed that ethnic and geographical factors might contribute to the association of partial AZFc deletions with male infertility. This study analyzed the association of partial AZFc deletions in Malaysian infertile males. Fifty two oligozoospermic infertile males and 63 fertile controls were recruited to this study. Screening for partial AZFc deletions was done using the two sequence-tagged sites approach (SY1291 and SY1191) which were analyzed using both the conventional PCR gel-electrophoresis and the high resolution melt, HRM method. Gr/gr deletions were found in 11.53% of the cases and 9.52% of the controls (p = 0.725). A B2/b3 deletion was found in one of the cases (p = 0.269). No B1/b3 deletions were identified in this study. The results of HRM analysis were consistent with those obtained using the conventional PCR gel-electrophoresis method. The HRM analysis was highly repeatable (95% limit of agreement was -0.0879 to 0.0871 for SY1191 melting temperature readings). In conclusion, our study showed that partial AZFc deletions were not associated with male infertility in Malaysian subjects. HRM analysis was a reliable, repeatable, fast, cost-effective, and semi-automated method which can be used for screening of partial AZFc deletions. PMID:23231020

  16. Relationship amongst teratozoospermia, seminal oxidative stress and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spermatozoa morphology is an important and complex characteristic of the fertilization capacity of male germ cells. Morphological abnormalities have been observed to be accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and further damage to spermatozoa, ultimately leading to infertility. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between seminal ROS production and sperm morphology in infertile teratozoospermic patients as well as in healthy men of proven and unproven fertility. Methods Semen samples were collected from 79 patients classified as teratozoospermic and 56 healthy donors (control). Standard semen analysis was performed and spermatozoa morphology was assessed according to the WHO 2010 guidelines. Seminal ROS was measured by chemiluminescence assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated, and sensitivity, specificity, cutoff value and area under curve (AUC) were determined. Results Sperm morphology was significantly poor in the Teratozoospermic Group compared with the 3 Donor Groups (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of ROS (RLU/sec/106 sperm) were seen in the Teratozoospermic group (145.4 (41.5; 555.4) compared to the Donor Groups: All Donors (64.8 (21.1; 198.2), Proven Donors (58.8 (14.2; 79.2) and Proven Donors < 2 years (58.8 (14.2; 79.2) (P < 0.05). ROS correlated negatively with sperm concentration in the All Donor group (r = −0.354; P = 0.021) as well as in the Teratozospermic group (r −0.356; P = 0.002). Using ROC analysis, we established the cutoff values for concentration, morphology and ROS. Conclusions The incidence of teratozoospermia may be directly related to the overproduction of seminal ROS. Therefore, besides sperm concentration and motility, spermatozoa morphology should receive an equally important consideration in the overall assessment of male fertility. PMID:24884815

  17. Metabolomics Analysis of Seminal Plasma in Infertile Males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Hu, Chao; Dai, Jican; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important treatment for male infertility, and its application to therapy is dependent on differentiation of TCM syndromes. This study aims to investigate the changes in metabolites and metabolic pathways in infertile males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYDS) via metabolomics approaches. Seminal plasma samples were collected from 18 infertile males with KYDS and 18 fertile males. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to characterize metabolomics profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), and pathway analysis were used for pattern recognition and metabolite identification. PCA and PLS-DA results differentiated the two groups of patients. Forty-one discriminating metabolites (18 in positive mode and 23 in negative mode) were identified. Seven metabolites were related to five potential metabolic pathways associated with biosynthesis and metabolism of aromatic amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and sphingolipid metabolism. The changes in metabolic pathways may play an important role in the origin of KYDS-associated male infertility. Metabolomics analysis of seminal plasma may be used to differentiate TCM syndromes of infertile males, but further research must be conducted. PMID:25945117

  18. Alternative and antioxidant therapies used by a sample of infertile males in Jordan: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used in the Middle East, especially to treat chronic diseases such as infertility. We aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of CAM use, particularly herbs and antioxidant therapies, among infertile males presenting for infertility evaluation in Jordan. Methods Demographic information, use of alternative and antioxidant therapies for infertility treatment, and patients’ belief in efficacy and safety of the therapies used were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. Data were collected from 428 infertile male patients presenting at infertility clinics in Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between April 2013 and September 2013. Results Of the 428 men who completed the questionnaire, 184 (43%) used at least one of the alternative and antioxidant therapies specified in the questionnaire. Nutritional regime; vitamins, such as vitamins C and E; and medicinal herbs, such as ginger, saw palmetto, and ginseng were the most commonly used therapies reported. A correlation between the use of alternative and antioxidant therapies versus infertility duration was found. Additionally, the majority of males using CAM did not inform their health care providers about their usage. Conclusions The high prevalence of CAM use among infertile male patients underscores the urge to assimilate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as to improve infertile patients’ knowledge of the safe use of CAM modalities. PMID:25026980

  19. Smoking and Male Infertility: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Harlev, Avi; Gunes, Sezgin Ozgur; Shetty, Amit; du Plessis, Stefan Simon

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have reported that the contents of cigarette smoke negatively affect sperm parameters, seminal plasma, and various other fertility factors. Nevertheless, the actual effect of smoking on male fertility is not clear. The effect of smoking on semen parameters is based on the well-established biological finding that smoking increases the presence of reactive oxygen species, thereby resulting in oxidative stress (OS). OS has devastating effects on sperm parameters, such as viability and morphology, and impairs sperm function, hence reducing male fertility. However, not all studies have come to the same conclusions. This review sheds light upon the arguable association between smoking and male fertility and also assesses the impact of non-smoking routes of tobacco consumption on male infertility. It also highlights the evidence that links smoking with male infertility, including newly emerging genetic and epigenetic data, and discusses the clinical implications thereof. PMID:26770934

  20. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages

  1. Correlation between Y chromosome microdeletion and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, X G; Hu, H Y; Guo, Y H; Sun, Y P

    2016-01-01

    Dyszoospermia due to genetic factors is the leading cause of male infertility. To explore the correlation between azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletion of the Y chromosome and male infertility, we evaluated AZF microdeletion on the long arm of the Y chromosome in 166 infertile males and 50 fertile males using multiplex polymerase chain reactions amplification and gel electrophoresis. The results demonstrated that 28 individuals had varying degrees of microdeletion in the AZF region (16.90%); 12 out of the 76 males with azoospermia and 16 out of the 90 males with oligospermia had AZF microdeletion. AZF microdeletion was not observed in any of the healthy controls. In addition, 53.60% of the AZF microdeletions occurred in the AZFc region. It can be concluded that AZF microdeletion on the long arm of the Y chromosome can result in male spermatogenesis dysfunction. Detection of AZF microdeletion can provide a theoretical basis for genetic counseling, as well as improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. PMID:27323142

  2. Medical management of male infertility in the absence of a specific etiology.

    PubMed

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Parekattil, Sijo J

    2014-07-01

    Idiopathic male infertility can be diagnosis in approximately one-third of infertile males. The empirical medical treatment with or without assisted reproductive techniques appears common in male infertility practice. This type of management can be classified as hormonal treatment including gonadotropins, antiestrogens, and aromatase inhibitors and support with antioxidant supplements such as carnitine, lycopene, glutathione, and vitamin E. This review investigates the evidence of commonly used empirical medical management of male infertility when there is no demonstrable diagnosis. PMID:24919031

  3. The Role of Estrogen Modulators in Male Hypogonadism and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Rambhatla, Amarnath; Mills, Jesse N.; Rajfer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol, normally considered a female hormone, appears to play a significant role in men in a variety of physiologic functions, such as bone metabolism, cardiovascular health, and testicular function. As such, estradiol has been targeted by male reproductive and sexual medicine specialists to help treat conditions such as infertility and hypogonadism. The compounds that modulate estradiol levels in these clinical conditions are referred to as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). In a certain subset of infertile men, particularly those with hypogonadism, or those who have a low serum testosterone to estradiol ratio, there is some evidence suggesting that SERMs and AIs can reverse the low serum testosterone levels or the testosterone to estradiol imbalance and occasionally improve any associated infertile or subfertile state. This review focuses on the role these SERMs and AIs play in the aforementioned reproductive conditions. PMID:27601965

  4. The Role of Estrogen Modulators in Male Hypogonadism and Infertility.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, Amarnath; Mills, Jesse N; Rajfer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol, normally considered a female hormone, appears to play a significant role in men in a variety of physiologic functions, such as bone metabolism, cardiovascular health, and testicular function. As such, estradiol has been targeted by male reproductive and sexual medicine specialists to help treat conditions such as infertility and hypogonadism. The compounds that modulate estradiol levels in these clinical conditions are referred to as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). In a certain subset of infertile men, particularly those with hypogonadism, or those who have a low serum testosterone to estradiol ratio, there is some evidence suggesting that SERMs and AIs can reverse the low serum testosterone levels or the testosterone to estradiol imbalance and occasionally improve any associated infertile or subfertile state. This review focuses on the role these SERMs and AIs play in the aforementioned reproductive conditions. PMID:27601965

  5. Study of Three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the SLC6A14 Gene in Association with Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Noveski, P; Mircevska, M; Plaseski, T; Peterlin, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2014-12-01

    Although several genetic causes of male infertility are known, the condition in around 60.0-75.0% of infertile male patients appears to be idiopathic. In some, genetic causes may be polygenic and require several low-penetrance genes to produce a phenotype outcome. In others, pleiotropy, when a gene can produce several phenotypic traits, may be involved. We have investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLC6A14 [solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14] gene are associated with male infertility. This gene has previously been linked with obesity and cystic fibrosis, which are associated with male infertility. It has a role in the transport of tryptophan and synthesis of serotonin that are important for normal spermatogenesis and testicular function. We have analyzed three SNPs (rs2312054, rs2071877 and rs2011162) in 370 infertile men and 241 fertile controls from two different populations (Macedonian and Slovenian). We found that the rs2011162(G) allele and rs2312054(A)-rs2071877(C)-rs2011162(G) haplotype are present at lower frequencies in the infertile rather than the fertile men (p = 0.044 and p = 0.0144, respectively). We concluded that the SLC6A14 gene may be a population-specific, low-penetrance locus which confers susceptibility to male infertility/subfertility. Additional follow-up studies of a large number of infertile men of different ethnic backgrounds are needed to confirm such a susceptibility. PMID:25937799

  6. Study of Three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the SLC6A14 Gene in Association with Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Noveski, P; Mircevska, M; Plaseski, T; Peterlin, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2014-01-01

    Although several genetic causes of male infertility are known, the condition in around 60.0–75.0% of infertile male patients appears to be idiopathic. In some, genetic causes may be polygenic and require several low-penetrance genes to produce a phenotype outcome. In others, pleiotropy, when a gene can produce several phenotypic traits, may be involved. We have investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLC6A14 [solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14] gene are associated with male infertility. This gene has previously been linked with obesity and cystic fibrosis, which are associated with male infertility. It has a role in the transport of tryptophan and synthesis of serotonin that are important for normal spermatogenesis and testicular function. We have analyzed three SNPs (rs2312054, rs2071877 and rs2011162) in 370 infertile men and 241 fertile controls from two different populations (Macedonian and Slovenian). We found that the rs2011162(G) allele and rs2312054(A)-rs2071877(C)-rs2011162(G) haplotype are present at lower frequencies in the infertile rather than the fertile men (p = 0.044 and p = 0.0144, respectively). We concluded that the SLC6A14 gene may be a population-specific, low-penetrance locus which confers susceptibility to male infertility/subfertility. Additional follow-up studies of a large number of infertile men of different ethnic backgrounds are needed to confirm such a susceptibility. PMID:25937799

  7. Peculiarities of semen coagulation and liquefaction in males from infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Mikhailichenko, Vladimir V; Esipov, Andrey S

    2005-07-01

    The results of electrosemengraphy showed frequent absence of postejaculatory semen coagulation (62% of patients examined) and 3 variants of ejaculate liquefaction in males from infertile couples. Semen liquefaction was mostly of a cascade nature (one- and two-cascade types), but viscid ejaculates often liquefied slowly and monotonously (monotonous type of liquefaction). PMID:16009198

  8. Aneuploidies level in sperm nuclei in patients with infertility.

    PubMed

    Alchinbayev, Mirzakarim Karimovich; Aralbayeva, Araylyim Nugmanovna; Tuleyeva, Lazzat Namatullaevna; Duysenbayeva, Svetlana Melsovna; Makazhanov, Marat Abzalovich

    2016-09-01

    Male infertility is a relevant social and medical problem. Male infertility is mostly caused by genetic disorders. The purpose of the study was to analyze the correlation of chromosome aberrations, as well as DNA fragmentation and various manifestations of spermatogenesis disorder. Sperm samples of 58 males with infertility and 23 conditionally healthy males were studied. All patients diagnosed with asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia and oligoteratozoospermia underwent subsequent analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA fragmentation was examined with sperm chromatin dispersion test (sperm chromatin dispersion, Spermprocessor, India) with an Axioscope 40 fluorescent microscope. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with fluorescent probes (Vysis Multi Vysion PGT, Abbot Molecular) was used to study chromosome abnormalities in sperm nuclei with regard to X and Y chromosomes, as well as to chromosomes 18 and 21. It was found that the development of pathospermia was characterized by genetic discontinuity, which manifests as DNA fragmentation and disjunction of chromosomes in meiosis with spermatogenesis. It was also found that the prevailing type of pathospermia in men with infertility was oligozoospermia. In addition, this group also had the highest rate of numerical chromosome abnormalities. This was caused by the degeneration of spermatozoids with aneuploidies in chromosomes. PMID:27269280

  9. Human male infertility: chromosome anomalies, meiotic disorders, abnormal spermatozoa and recurrent abortion.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, S; Blanco, J; Vendrell, J M; García, F; Veiga, A; Aran, B; Barri, P N; Vidal, F; Egozcue, J

    2000-01-01

    Human male infertility is often related to chromosome abnormalities. In chromosomally normal infertile males, the rates of chromosome 21 and sex chromosome disomy in spermatozoa are increased. Higher incidences of trisomy 21 (seldom of paternal origin) and sex chromosome aneuploidy are also found. XXY and XYY patients produce increased numbers of XY, XX and YY spermatozoa, indicating an increased risk of production of XXY, XYY and XXX individuals. Since XXYs can reproduce using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), this could explain the slight increase of sex chromosome anomalies in ICSI series. Carriers of structural reorganizations produce unbalanced spermatozoa, and risk having children with duplications and/or deficiencies. In some cases, this risk is considerably lower or higher than average. These patients also show increased diploidy, and a higher risk of producing diandric triploids. Meiotic disorders are frequent in infertile males, and increase with severe oligoasthenozoospemia (OA) and/or high follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. These patients produce spermatozoa with autosomal and sex chromosome disomies, and diploid spermatozoa. Their contribution to recurrent abortion depends on the production of trisomies, monosomies and of triploids. The most frequent sperm chromosome anomaly in infertile males is diploidy, originated by either meiotic mutations or by a compromised testicular environment. PMID:10711834

  10. Medical and Surgical Management of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman

    2014-01-01

    This article is the review of the book “Medical & Surgical Management of Male Infertility” edited by Botros RMB Rizk, Nabil Aziz, Ashok Agarwal and Edmund Sabanegh Jr. This book (hardcover) was published by Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishing, New Delhi.London.Philadelphia.Panama on September 2013 (1st edition). The contents of the book and its relevance to medical education are discussed in this invited review.

  11. Epigenetic regulation of the RHOX homeobox gene cluster and its association with human male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Marcy E.; Bleiziffer, Andreas; Tüttelmann, Frank; Gromoll, Jörg; Wilkinson, Miles F.

    2014-01-01

    The X-linked RHOX cluster encodes a set of homeobox genes that are selectively expressed in the reproductive tract. Members of the RHOX cluster regulate target genes important for spermatogenesis promote male fertility in mice. Studies show that demethylating agents strongly upregulate the expression of mouse Rhox genes, suggesting that they are regulated by DNA methylation. However, whether this extends to human RHOX genes, whether DNA methylation directly regulates RHOX gene transcription and how this relates to human male infertility are unknown. To address these issues, we first defined the promoter regions of human RHOX genes and performed gain- and loss-of-function experiments to determine whether human RHOX gene transcription is regulated by DNA methylation. Our results indicated that DNA methylation is necessary and sufficient to silence human RHOX gene expression. To determine whether RHOX cluster methylation associates with male infertility, we evaluated the methylation status of RHOX genes in sperm from a large cohort of infertility patients. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong association between RHOX gene cluster hypermethylation and three independent types of semen abnormalities. Hypermethylation was restricted specifically to the RHOX cluster; we did not observe it in genes immediately adjacent to it on the X chromosome. Our results strongly suggest that human RHOX homeobox genes are under an epigenetic control mechanism that is aberrantly regulated in infertility patients. We propose that hypermethylation of the RHOX gene cluster serves as a marker for idiopathic infertility and that it is a candidate to exert a causal role in male infertility. PMID:23943794

  12. Role of antioxidants in treatment of male infertility: an overview of the literature.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Nallella, Kiran P; Allamaneni, Shyam S R; Said, Tamer M

    2004-06-01

    Seminal oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract is known to result in peroxidative damage of the sperm plasma membrane and loss of its DNA integrity. Normally, a balance exists between concentrations of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavenging systems. One of the rational strategies to counteract the oxidative stress is to increase the scavenging capacity of seminal plasma. Numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy of antioxidants in male infertility. In this review, the results of different studies conducted have been analysed, and the evidence available to date is provided. It was found that although many clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of antioxidants in selected cases of male infertility, some studies failed to demonstrate the same benefit. The majority of the studies suffer from a lack of placebo-controlled, double-blind design, making it difficult to reach a definite conclusion. In addition, investigators have used different antioxidants in different combinations and dosages for varying durations. Pregnancy, the most relevant outcome parameter of fertility, was reported in only a few studies. Most studies failed to examine the effect of antioxidants on a specific group of infertile patients with high oxidative stress. Multicentre, double-blind studies with statistically accepted sample size are still needed to provide conclusive evidence on the benefit of antioxidants as a treatment modality for patients with male infertility. PMID:15169573

  13. Association between methionine synthase reductase A66G polymorphism and primary infertility in Chinese males.

    PubMed

    Li, X Y; Ye, J Z; Ding, X P; Zhang, X H; Ma, T J; Zhong, R; Ren, H Y

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), and methionine synthase (MS A2756G) genotypes and non-obstructive male infertility in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 162 infertile Chinese patients with azoospermia (N = 100) or oligoasthenozoospermia (N = 62) and 120 fertile men as controls. The polymorphisms MTRR A66G, MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MS A2756G were identified by direct DNA sequencing and the results were statistically analyzed. We found no association between the incidence of any of these variants in azoospermia patients and control populations. The frequency of the MTRR66 polymorphic genotypes (AG, AG+GG) was significantly higher in the oligoasthenozoospermia group compared to the controls (P = 0.013, 0.012). Our findings revealed an association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism A66G in the MTRR gene and male infertility, particularly in oligoasthenozoospermia males, suggesting that this polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for male infertility in Chinese men. PMID:25966116

  14. Posterior Urethral Valve: An Unusual Cause of Primary Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Agbugui, Jude Orumuah; Omokhudu, Oisamoren

    2015-01-01

    Background Posterior urethral valve presenting in adulthood is uncommon. This can be an unusual cause of primary male infertility as a result of abnormalities in sexual function. Case Presentation This report describes a 40 year old man who presented to us on account of inability to impregnate his wife after 2 years of marriage. History revealed poor stream of urine since childhood and passage of scanty ejaculate during intercourse. A micturating cystourethrogram revealed dilated posterior urethra in keeping with posterior urethral valves. Endoscopic valve ablation was done with subsequent improvement in ejaculate volume and urine stream. His spouse achieved pregnancy thereafter. Conclusion In this report, it was found that adult posterior urethral valve though uncommon may be a cause of male infertility. Restoration of fertility potential can be achieved following valve ablation. PMID:25927029

  15. Epigenetic alterations in sperm associated with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Akane; Miyauchi, Naoko; Hamada, Hirotaka; Hiura, Hitoshi; Chiba, Hatsune; Okae, Hiroaki; Sato, Akiko; John, Rosalind M; Arima, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    The most common form of male infertility is a low sperm count, known as oligozoospermia. Studies suggest that oligozoospermia is associated with epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic alterations in sperm, which may arise due to the exposure of gametes to environmental factors or those that pre-exist in the sperm of infertile individuals, may contribute to the increased incidence of normally rare imprinting disorders in babies conceived after assisted reproductive technology using the sperm of infertile men. Genomic imprinting is an important developmental process whereby the allelic activity of certain genes is regulated by DNA methylation established during gametogenesis. The aberrant expression of several imprinted genes has been linked to various diseases, malignant tumors, lifestyle and mental disorders in humans. Understanding how infertility and environmental factors such as reproductive toxicants, certain foods, and drug exposures during gametogenesis contribute to the origins of these disorders via defects in sperm is of paramount importance. In this review, we discuss the association of epigenetic alterations with abnormal spermatogenesis and the evidence that epigenetic processes, including those required for genomic imprinting, may be sensitive to environmental exposures during gametogenesis, fertilization and early embryonic development. In addition, we review imprinting diseases and their relationships with environmental factors. While the plasticity of epigenetic marks may make these more susceptible to modification by the environment, this also suggests that aberrant epigenetic marks may be reversible. A greater understanding of this process and the function of epidrugs may lead to the development of new treatment methods for many adult diseases in the future. PMID:26212350

  16. Local Signaling Environments and Human Male Infertility: What Can Be Learned from Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Nalam, Roopa L.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most prevalent public health problems facing young adult males in today’s society. A clear, treatable cause of infertility cannot be determined in a large number of these patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that infertility in many of these men may be due to genetic causes. Studies utilizing animal models, and most importantly, mouse knockout technology, have been integral not only for the study of normal spermatogenesis but also for identifying proteins essential for this process, which in turn are candidate genes for causing human male infertility. Successful spermatogenesis depends on a delicate balance of local signaling factors, and this review focuses specifically on the genes that encode these factors. Normal functioning of all testicular cell types is not only essential for normal fertility but, as recently hypothesized, may also be crucial to prevent germ cell oncogenesis. Analysis of these processes using mouse models in vivo has provided investigators with an invaluable tool to effectively translate basic science research to the research of human disease and infertility. PMID:20456819

  17. Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to become pregnant after a year of trying. If a woman can ... keeps having miscarriages or stillbirths, that's also called infertility. Infertility is fairly common. After one year of ...

  18. Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in etiopathogenesis of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Monis Bilal; Kumar, Rakesh; Bhatt, Audesh; Bamezai, R. N. K.; Kumar, Rajeev; Gupta, Narmada P.; Das, T. K.; Dada, Rima

    2008-01-01

    Objective To understand role of mitochondrial (mt) mutations in genes regulating oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in pathogenesis of male infertility. Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility is frequently attributed to defects of sperm motility and number. Mitochondrion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) play an important role in variety of physiological process. They control the oxidative energy supply and thus are central to growth, development and differentiation. Mitochondrial function is controlled by a fine-tuned crosstalk between mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA). As mitochondria supply energy by OXPHOS, any mutation in mtDNA disrupts adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and thus result in an impaired spermatogenesis and impaired flagellar movement. As sperm midpiece has few mtDNA copies, thus enhanced number of mutant mtDNA results in early phenotypic defect which manifest as spermatogenic arrest or asthenozoospermia. Oxidative stress and mtDNA mutations are positively correlated and mutations in mitochondrial genome (mt genome) are implicated in the lowered fertilising capacity of the sperm and affects the reproductive potential of an individual. Materials and Methods A thorough review of articles in the last 15 years was cited with reference to the below-mentioned keywords. The articles considered discuss the role of mt genome in the normal functioning of sperm and the factors associated with mt mutations and impact of these mutations on the reproductive potential. Results Sperm motility is a very important factor for the fertilisation of ova. The energy requirements of sperm are therefore very critical for sperm. Mutations in the mitochondrial genes as COX II, ATPase 6 and 8 play an important role and disrupts ATP production affecting the spermatogenesis and sperm motility. Therefore, the aberrations in mt genome are an important etiopatholgy of male infertility. Conclusion In the context of male infertility, mt

  19. Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Guilherme Leme; Hallak, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The negative impact of AAS abuse on male fertility is well known by urologists. The secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is often highlighted when AAS and fertility are being discussed. On the other hand, the patterns of use, mechanisms of action and direct effects over the testicle are usually overseen. The present study reviews the vast formal and "underground" culture of AAS, as well as their overall implications. Specific considerations about their impact on the male reproductive system are made, with special attention to the recent data on direct damage to the testicle. To our knowledge this kind of overview is absolutely unique, offering a distinguished set of information to the day-by-day urologists. For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. Initially, these substances were restricted to professional bodybuilders, becoming gradually more popular among recreational power athletes. Currently, as many as 3 million anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States, and considering its increasing prevalence, it has become an issue of major concern. Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse, with male factor being present in up to 50% of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS, specially oriented to urologists, is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient axial inhibition, and the more recent experimental reports

  20. Imaging and angiography in male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Michael; Gilbert, Bruce R

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound imaging and angiography play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of men with subfertility. The most commonly used imaging modality is ultrasound (US), which can be used for diagnostic purposes or to aid in treatment. Scrotal US can be used to document varicoceles in subfertile men in the context of difficult examination or for confirmation before treatment. Spectral Doppler, sonoelastography, and power Doppler have aided in the evaluation and treatment of azoospermia and oligospermia. They have proven useful in the detection of spermatogenesis and sperm retrieval. In the population with congenital Wolffian duct abnormalities, renal US can evaluate renal anomalies. In subfertile men with low ejaculate volume and oligospermia or azoospermia transrectal US can be used to evaluate and assist in treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction. Non-US-based modalities are also commonly used in evaluating and treating men with subfertility. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used for evaluation of pituitary adenomas in hypogonadism. More invasive imaging modalities used during treatment of subfertile men include vasography for vasal obstruction, venography and angioembolization for varicocele, and US-guided needle placement for testis-sparing surgery. Male subfertility is a complex problem and the use of imaging techniques is often essential in providing accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:27125229

  1. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Deemeh, Mohammad Reza; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Sekhavati, Mohammad Hadi; Gourabi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC)/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX) at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1). PMID:27441060

  2. Genetic Association Between Androgen Receptor Gene CAG Repeat Length Polymorphism and Male Infertility: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bihui; Li, Rui; Chen, Yao; Tang, Qiuqin; Wu, Wei; Chen, Liping; Lu, Chuncheng; Pan, Feng; Ding, Hongjuan; Xia, Yankai; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2016-03-01

    The association between polymorphism of androgen receptor gene CAG (AR-CAG) and male infertility in several studies was controversial. Based on studies on association between AR-CAG repeat length and male infertility in recent years, an updated meta-analysis is needed. We aimed to evaluate the association between AR-CAG repeat length and male infertility in advantage of the data in all published reports.We searched for reports published before August 2015 using PubMed, CNKI, VIP, and WanFang. Data on sample size, mean, and standard deviation (SD) of AR-CAG repeat length were extracted independently by 3 investigators.Forty-four reports were selected based on criteria. The overall infertile patients and azoospermic patients were found to have longer AR-CAG repeat length (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-0.28, P < 0.01; SMD = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.10-0.61, P < 0.01). AR-CAG repeat length was longer in infertile men in Asian, Caucasian, and mixed races (SMD = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.43, P <0.01; SMD = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.02-0.25, P <0.05; SMD = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.15-0.63, P <0.01). The overall study shows that increased AR-CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility. The subgroup study on races shows that increased AR-CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in Asian, Caucasian, and mixed races. Increased AR-CAG repeat length was also associated with azoospermia.This meta-analysis supports that increased androgen receptor CAG length is capable of causing male infertility susceptibility. PMID:26962784

  3. Male gonadal function in coeliac disease: 1. Sexual dysfunction, infertility, and semen quality.

    PubMed

    Farthing, M J; Edwards, C R; Rees, L H; Dawson, A M

    1982-07-01

    The prevalence of hypogonadism, sexual dysfunction and abnormalities of semen quality was determined in 28 consecutive males with coeliac disease. These observations were related to jejunal morphology and nutritional status, and were compared with findings in 19 men with Crohn's disease of similar age and nutritional status. Two of the 28 coeliacs (7%) had clinical evidence of hypogonadism but impotence and decreased sexual activity occurred more commonly, the latter apparently improving after gluten withdrawal. Of the married coeliacs, 19% had infertile marriages, a value greater than expected in the general population. Hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction were not detected in our patients with Crohn's disease. Seminal analysis in coeliacs revealed marked abnormalities of sperm morphology and motility, but only the former appeared to improve after gluten withdrawal. Similar abnormalities, however, were also detected in patients with Crohn's disease, although, unlike the coeliacs, 46% also had reduced concentrations of spermatozoa. Semen quality in coeliac disease could not be clearly related to general or specific (serum vitamin B(12) and red cell folate) nutritional deficiencies or to fertility, although sperm motility was markedly reduced in two of the three coeliacs with infertile marriages. The presence of antisperm antibodies did not appear to be an important aetiological factor in male infertility in coeliac disease. The pathogenesis of infertility and sexual dysfunction in coeliac disease remains unclear, suggesting that factors such as endocrine dysfunction or other specific nutritional deficiency may be involved. PMID:7200931

  4. Relation between male obesity and male infertility in a Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Hadjkacem Loukil, L; Hadjkacem, H; Bahloul, A; Ayadi, H

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is associated with significant disturbance in the hormonal milieu that can affect the reproductive system. Male infertility affects approximately 6% of reproductive-aged men. It has been suggested that overweight men or men with obese body mass index (BMI) experience prolonged time to pregnancy, although the influence of male BMI on fertility remains understudied. We hypothesised that BMI is inversely correlated with fertility, manifested by reduced sperm concentration and varicocele. Males of mean age 32.74 ± 6.96 years with semen analyses and self-reported BMI were included (n = 98). Patient parameters analysed included age, BMI, pubertal timing, the development of varicocele, and leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone (n = 18). The mean age of the study population was 32.74 ± 6.96 years. The incidence of azospermia, oligozoospermia, normospermia and the development of varicocele did not vary across BMI categories. Male obesity is not associated with the incidence of sperm concentration and the development of varicocele. PMID:24720635

  5. Infertility in the light of new scientific reports - focus on male factor.

    PubMed

    Szkodziak, Piotr; Wozniak, Slawomir; Czuczwar, Piotr; Wozniakowska, Ewa; Milart, Paweł; Mroczkowski, Artur; Paszkowski, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting one- fifth of couples trying to conceive worldwide (60-80 mln). According to the trends observed, the problem is predicted to increase by another two million cases annually. In Poland, infertility-related issues are found in about 19% of couples, including 4% with infertility and 15% with limited fertility. Inability to conceive occurs equally in men and women (50%), irrespective of the direct cause. Although it is generally thought that reproductive issues concern women, infertility affects men and women equally. This study is an attempted to systematize knowledge about the role of the male factor in infertility, particularly current knowledge concerning the environmental factors of infertility. For this purpose, the Medline and CINAHL databases and the Cochrane Library was searched for articles published in English during the last 10 years, using the following keywords: infertility, male factor, semen examination and environmental factor of infertility. PMID:27294623

  6. Do Cigarette Smoking and Obesity Affect Semen Abnormality in Idiopathic Infertile Males?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hui Dai; Lee, Hyo Serk; Lee, Joong Shik; Park, Yong-Seog

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to find the relative risk of semen abnormality with respect to smoking history and obesity. Materials and Methods Subfertile or infertile men were enrolled in this study from July 2010 to June 2011. All participants provided their cigarette use information, self-reported weight, height, semen analysis, physical examination, and sexually transmitted disease status. None of the enrolled patients had any specific pathological reason for infertility. Semen abnormality was defined as a condition in which one or more parameters did not satisfy the World Health Organization's criteria. Results A total of 1,073 male patients were considered for this study. After the application of the inclusion criteria, 193 patients were finally analyzed. These patients were divided into two groups according to semen abnormality: the normal semen group (n=72) and the abnormal semen group (n=121). Baseline characteristics, except age and smoking history, were not significantly different between the two groups. Smoking history and age were risk factors for the semen abnormality of idiopathic infertile male patients. Conclusions Smoking and old age were risk factors for semen abnormality. However, obesity did not affect the semen abnormality. Smoking affected semen quality and is therefore expected to play a negative role in conception. PMID:25237661

  7. Semen analysis of infertile Igbo males in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwafia, W C; Igweh, J C; Udebuani, I N

    2006-01-01

    The semen samples of 1,110 (one thousand, one hundred and ten) Igbo males attending infertility clinic, aged between 30-50 years were collected and analyzed. The specimens were collected and analysed in the microbiology laboratory of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Eastern Nigeria. The standard method of masturbation after 3-5 days of prior abstinence from sex before sample collection was applied. The samples were examined for semen volume and microscopically as a wet preparation for sperm motility, morphology and count. The semen volume result showed that 91.07 % were normal. 6.3% sperm samples were motile. In the sperm count, only 7.3% had normal cells, 62.0% showed abnormal morphology. The aetiology of male infertility in the population studied seems to be related to the sperm count, motility and morphology but not volume. Racial factor seems to play no role and it is important to abstain from sexual intercourse some days before collection of semen for analysis. PMID:17242721

  8. Idiopathic infertility in two captive male gerenuk (Litocranius walleri walleri).

    PubMed

    VanderKlok, Carin M; Penfold, Linda M; Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Citino, Scott B

    2008-09-01

    Two adult male gerenuk (Litocranius walleri walleri) were confirmed infertile with distinctly varying clinical presentations. One animal had unilateral testicular degeneration/hypoplasia, and within 8 mo experienced atrophy/degeneration of the remaining testicle. The second animal had been previously treated with melengesterol acetate (MGA) milled in feed for 1 yr during puberty as part of an aggression-control study. The testes in this individual appeared normal both visually and on palpation; however, repeated semen collection consistently produced ejaculates containing high numbers of immotile spermatozoa, all of a single abnormal morphology: shortened tails, with normal total sperm counts for this species. Both gerenuk had cortisol concentrations within normal ranges for adult male gerenuk. Analysis of serum mineral concentration revealed zinc levels that would be considered low in domestic cattle. Testosterone levels were low for the animal discussed in case 1, but were within normal range for the animal in case 2 compared with other gerenuk. Investigations into endocrine causes, such as abnormal thyroid hormone concentrations and adrenal function, were unrewarding. Both animals discussed in this report are maternally related; therefore, a genetic cause of infertility cannot be ruled out. Further investigation into MGA, as well as the dietary zinc requirements for gerenuk, and resulting effects on spermatogenesis and testicular development are warranted. PMID:18817003

  9. Meiotic recombination and male infertility: from basic science to clinical reality?

    PubMed

    Hann, Michael C; Lau, Patricio E; Tempest, Helen G

    2011-03-01

    Infertility is a common problem that affects approximately 15% of the population. Although many advances have been made in the treatment of infertility, the molecular and genetic causes of male infertility remain largely elusive. This review will present a summary of our current knowledge on the genetic origin of male infertility and the key events of male meiosis. It focuses on chromosome synapsis and meiotic recombination and the problems that arise when errors in these processes occur, specifically meiotic arrest and chromosome aneuploidy, the leading cause of pregnancy loss in humans. In addition, meiosis-specific candidate genes will be discussed, including a discussion on why we have been largely unsuccessful at identifying disease-causing mutations in infertile men. Finally clinical applications of sperm aneuploidy screening will be touched upon along with future prospective clinical tests to better characterize male infertility in a move towards personalized medicine. PMID:21297654

  10. [Male infertility with chromosomal abnormalities. I. XYY syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hazama, M; Oka, N; Hamaguchi, T; Okada, H; Matsumoto, O; Kamidono, S; Ishigami, J

    1985-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are found in a considerably high percentage of cases of male infertility, in particular azoospermia. We report a case of the XYY syndrome and review the literature. A 36-year-old man, a factory hand, presented with infertility. He was safely delivered at term as a fourth child when his father was 41 years old and his mother 38. He had no delinquent or criminal record. His height was 179 cm, weight 75 kg and distance of extended hands 184 cm. No gynecomastia was noticed. Both testes were 8ml in size and growth of pubic hair and penis were normal. Severe oligozoospermia was identified in semen analysis. Seminal vesiculography showed pathological dilatation of the seminal vas end. The testicular biopsy specimens revealed spermatogenic arrest for the most part. Chromosomal analysis showed 47, XYY karyotype; and, two Y-chromatin was revealed in cultured lymphocytes. Though plasma gonadotropin levels were high, testosterone, estradiol, prolactin, TSH, GH, T3 and T4 levels were within normal limits. Pituitary reserve function for secreting gonadotropins and Leydig cell reserve function to secrete testosterone have been found to be almost normal. PMID:4039524

  11. Indigenous knowledge systems and attitudes towards male infertility in Mhondoro-Ngezi, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Stanzia

    2013-01-01

    Male impotence and infertility are health and social problems that have resulted in significant suffering to men the world over. From an African perspective, and in Zimbabwe in particular, the taboo nature of male impotence and infertility carries a lot of mystique. Based on evidence from focus-group discussions, in-depth and key-informant interviews, this study reveals rural Shona people to have indigenous knowledge systems that trigger the investigation of signs of impotence (perceived as associated with male infertility) at infancy, puberty and after marriage. Male infertility carries overtones of failure, frustration, pain, social ostracism, stigma, marital instability, discomfiture and suicide. Intervention strategies to remedy perceived problems were exclusively sociocultural, involving the administration of traditional herbs and traditional healers' divination. Given the existence of indigenous knowledge systems for the investigation and mediation of male impotence and infertility, it is worth incorporating traditional healers in future strategies targeting these emasculating conditions. PMID:23550631

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of infertility-related male hormonal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kathrins, Martin; Niederberger, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of infertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men requires an understanding of the hormonal basis of spermatogenesis. The best method for accurately determining male androgenization status remains elusive. Treatment of hormonal dysfunction can fall into two categories - empirical and targeted. Empirical therapy refers to experience-based treatment approaches in the absence of an identifiable aetiology. Targeted therapy refers to the correction of a specific underlying hormonal abnormality. However, the tools available for inferring the intratesticular hormonal environment are unreliable. Thus, understanding the limitations of serum hormonal assays is very important for determining male androgen status. Furthermore, bulk seminal parameters are notoriously variable and consequently unreliable for measuring responses to hormonal therapy. In the setting of azoospermia owing to spermatogenic dysfunction, hormonal therapy - relying on truly objective parameters including the return of sperm to the ejaculate or successful surgical sperm retrieval - is a promising treatment. This approach to the treatment of fertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men contrasts with the current state of its counterpart in female reproductive endocrinology. Treatment of male hormonal dysfunction has long emphasized empirical therapy, whereas treatment of the corollary female dysfunction has been directed at specific deficits. PMID:27091665

  13. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2014–2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. Results One main theme emerged through analysis entitled “cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis” with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. Conclusion The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women. PMID:26767097

  14. On-label and off-label drugs used in the treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Chehab, Mahmoud; Madala, Alosh; Trussell, J C

    2015-03-01

    Infertility affects 6.1 million U.S. couples-representing 10% of reproductive-age adults and 15% of all couples trying to conceive. Half of the time, infertility is the result of an abnormal semen analysis or other male factors, with 40%-50% of these infertile men diagnosed with idiopathic or nonclassifiable infertility. While the role of hormone therapy for men with an identified abnormality is well defined, the literature remains inconclusive and controversial regarding hormone manipulation using empirical (off-label) medical therapies for men with idiopathic infertility. This manuscript reviews the commonly used off-label medications used to treat idiopathic male factor infertility: clomiphene citrate, letrozole/anastrozole, exogenous androgens, and pentoxifylline. PMID:25660648

  15. Towards Understanding Male Infertility After Spinal Cord Injury Using Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Barbara Ferreira; Meng, Chen; Helm, Dominic; Pachl, Fiona; Schiller, Jürgen; Ibrahim, Emad; Lynne, Charles M; Brackett, Nancy L; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta; Kuster, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    The study of male infertility after spinal cord injury (SCI) has enhanced the understanding of seminal plasma (SP) as an important regulator of spermatozoa function. However, the most important factors leading to the diminished sperm motility and viability observed in semen of men with SCI remained unknown. Thus, to explore SP related molecular mechanisms underlying infertility after SCI, we used mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to compare SP retrieved from SCI patients to normal controls. As a result, we present an in-depth characterization of the human SP proteome, identifying ∼2,800 individual proteins, and describe, in detail, the differential proteome observed in SCI. Our analysis demonstrates that a hyper-activation of the immune system may influence some seminal processes, which likely are not triggered by microbial infection. Moreover, we show evidence of an important prostate gland functional failure,i.e.diminished abundance of metabolic enzymes related to ATP turnover and those secreted via prostasomes. Further we identify the main outcome related to this fact and that it is intrinsically linked to the low sperm motility in SCI. Together, our data highlights the molecular pathways hindering fertility in SCI and shed new light on other causes of male infertility. PMID:26814186

  16. To Evaluate the Efficacy of Combination Antioxidant Therapy on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Seminal Plasma in the Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Alpana; Radhakrishnan, Gita; Banerjee, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility is defined as inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse and it affects 7% of male population and 8–10% of couples. According to estimates WHO, 13-19 million couples in India are infertile. Oxidative stress is the causative factor in 25% of infertile males. Aim To study the efficacy of antioxidant therapy on oxidative stress parameters in seminal plasma of infertile male. Materials and Methods Forty patients of male infertility were enrolled in study after two abnormal semen analyses reports at 2-3 weeks interval, of oligozoospermia and/or asthenozoospermia, as per WHO guide line 1999. First semen sample was collected at a time of enrollment of study and second semen sample was collected three months after combined antioxidant therapy. Semen samples from the infertile male (the second confirmatory sample of oligoasthenozoospermia) were taken and after liquefaction semen sample were utilized for various analyses, 0.5 ml of sample for standard semen analysis, 1.2 ml sample for separation of seminal plasma to evaluate Oxidative stress (OS) parameters like Malondialdehyde (MDA), Protein Carbonyl (PC) and antioxidant capacity by Glutathione (GSH). We followed the patient for three months after completion of the treatment. Results Semen parameters – Out of 40 patients recruited in the study group 7 patients had only oligospermia (1 to 20 million/ml) and 31 patients had oligoasthenozoospermia (motility range 0-50%) and 2 patients had oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. There was no patient with asthenospermia alone as abnormal semen parameters. After the three months treatment with combined antioxidants the semen parameters like count (mean SD = -1.70±1.44) and motility (mean +SD= -9.56±9.05) were significantly increased (p-value=0.000). Oxidative Stress Assessment – The level of MDA which is a marker of oxidative stress was significantly lower after the three months therapy of antioxidants (p-value=0.002) whereas another

  17. Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... or for women. Some involve both partners. Drugs, assisted reproductive technology, and surgery are common treatments. Happily, many couples treated for infertility go on to have babies. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  18. Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... heat for prolonged periods Heavy use of alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine Hormone imbalance Impotence Infection Medicines such ... to their provider. Infertility testing involves a medical history and physical exam for both partners. Blood and ...

  19. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  20. Protective emotional regulation processes towards adjustment in infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Gouveia, José; Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, Marina; Matos, Marcela

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about emotional regulation processes of psychological flexibility/acceptance, self-compassion, and coping styles in infertility and the way they may exert a protective function towards depression. The aim of the current study was to explore how these emotion regulation processes are related to depression and to the sense of self-efficacy to deal with infertility in infertile patients. Gender differences were also considered. One hundred couples without known fertility problems and 100 couples with an infertility diagnosis completed the instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, Coping Styles Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Self-Compassion Scale and Infertility Self-efficacy Scale. Infertile couples presented statistically significantly higher scores on depression and lower scores in psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion than the control group. This pattern was particularly identified in women who also tended to use less an emotional/detached coping style and to perceive themselves as less confident to deal with infertility than men. Multiple regression analysis showed that psychological flexibility/acceptance was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in men and women with infertility. Emotional regulation processes, such as psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion, seem to be relevant to the understanding of depressive symptoms and psychological adjustment to infertility, suggesting that these issues should be addressed in a therapeutic context with these couples. PMID:22309792

  1. Human sperm chromatin epigenetic potential: genomics, proteomics, and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballescà, Josep Lluis; Oliva, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The classical idea about the function of the mammalian sperm chromatin is that it serves to transmit a highly protected and transcriptionally inactive paternal genome, largely condensed by protamines, to the next generation. In addition, recent sperm chromatin genome-wide dissection studies indicate the presence of a differential distribution of the genes and repetitive sequences in the protamine-condensed and histone-condensed sperm chromatin domains, which could be potentially involved in regulatory roles after fertilization. Interestingly, recent proteomic studies have shown that sperm chromatin contains many additional proteins, in addition to the abundant histones and protamines, with specific modifications and chromatin affinity features which are also delivered to the oocyte. Both gene and protein signatures seem to be altered in infertile patients and, as such, are consistent with the potential involvement of the sperm chromatin landscape in early embryo development. This present work reviews the available information on the composition of the human sperm chromatin and its epigenetic potential, with a particular focus on recent results derived from high-throughput genomic and proteomic studies. As a complement, we provide experimental evidence for the detection of phosphorylations and acetylations in human protamine 1 using a mass spectrometry approach. The available data indicate that the sperm chromatin is much more complex than what it was previously thought, raising the possibility that it could also serve to transmit crucial paternal epigenetic information to the embryo. PMID:25926607

  2. Recurrent Microdeletions at Xq27.3-Xq28 and Male Infertility: A Study in the Czech Population

    PubMed Central

    Chylíková, Blanka; Hrdlička, Ivan; Veselá, Kamila; Řežábek, Karel; Liška, František

    2016-01-01

    Background Genetic causes of male infertility are hypothesized to involve multiple types of mutations, from single gene defects to complex chromosome rearrangements. Recently, several recurrent X-chromosome microdeletions (located in subtelomeric region of the long arm) were reported to be associated with male infertility in Spanish and Italian males. The aim of our study was to test their prevalence and infertility association in population of men from the Czech Republic. Methods 107 males with pathological sperm evaluation resulting in nonobstructive infertility were compared to 131 males with normal fecundity. X-chromosome microdeletions were assessed by +/- PCR with three primer pairs for each region Xcnv64 (Xq27.3), Xcnv67 (Xq28) and Xcnv69 (Xq28). The latter microdeletion was further characterized by amplification across the deleted region, dividing the deletion into three types; A, B and C. Results We detected presence of isolated Xcnv64 deletion in 3 patients and 14 controls, and Xcnv69 in 3 patients and 6 controls (1 and 1 patient vs.4 and 1 control for types A and B respectively). There was one control with combined Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 type B deletions, and one patient with combination of Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 type C deletions. The frequency of the deletions was thus not higher in patient compared to control group, Xcnv64 was marginally associated with controls (adjusted Fisher´s exact test P = 0.043), Xcnv69 was not associated (P = 0.452). We excluded presence of more extensive rearrangements in two subjects with combined Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 deletions. There was no Xcnv67 deletion in our cohort. Conclusion In conclusion, the two previously reported X-linked microdeletions (Xcnv64 and Xcnv69) do not seem to confer a significant risk to impaired spermatogenesis in the Czech population. The potential clinical role of the previously reported patient-specific Xcnv67 remains to be determined in a larger study population. PMID:27257673

  3. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  4. Approach to Male Infertility and Induction of Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Male subfertility is common, and it causes significant duress to couples. Although the most common cause of male subfertility is idiopathic failure of spermatogenesis, a significant percentage of male subfertility is medically treatable. Compared to reproductive specialists, endocrinologists may see a population of men that have a higher prevalence of treatable causes of subfertility including sexual disorders, endocrinopathies, obesity, drugs, and ejaculatory dysfunction. Seminal fluid analysis is the most important diagnostic study, and at least 2 samples should be analyzed. All patients with sperm concentrations < 10 million/mL due to idiopathic spermatogenic defects should be referred for genetic counseling and karyotyping; most experts also recommend that these patients be tested for Y chromosomal microdeletions. For most men with low sperm concentrations due to gonadotropin deficiency, gonadotropin therapy effectively increases spermatogenesis. The endocrinologist must recognize when to use medical therapy to stimulate spermatogenesis and when to refer for consideration of assisted reproductive technology. PMID:24014811

  5. Metabolomics: a state-of-the-art technology for better understanding of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Minai-Tehrani, A; Jafarzadeh, N; Gilany, K

    2016-08-01

    Male factor infertility affects approximately half of the infertile couples, in spite of many years of research on male infertility treatment and diagnosis; several outstanding questions remain to be addressed. In this regard, metabolomics as a novel field of omics has been suggested to be applied for male infertility problems. A variety of terms associated with metabolite quantity and quality have been established to demonstrate mixtures of metabolites. Despite metabolomics and metabolite analyses have been around more than decades, a limited number of studies concerning male infertility have been carried out. In this review, we summarised the latest finding in metabolomics techniques and metabolomics biomarkers correlated with male infertility. The rapid progress of a variety of metabolomics platforms, such as nonoptical and optical spectroscopy, could ease separation, recognition, classification and quantification of several metabolites and their metabolic pathways. Here, we recommend that the novel biomarkers determined in the course of metabolomics analysis may stand for potential application of treatment and future clinical practice. PMID:26608970

  6. Double versus single homologous intrauterine insemination for male factor infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zavos, Apostolos; Daponte, Alexandros; Garas, Antonios; Verykouki, Christina; Papanikolaou, Evangelos; Anifandis, Georgios; Polyzos, Nikolaos P

    2013-01-01

    Male factor infertility affects 30%–50% of infertile couples worldwide, and there is an increasing interest in the optimal management of these patients. In studies comparing double and single intrauterine insemination (IUI), a trend towards higher pregnancy rates in couples with male factor infertility was observed. Therefore, we set out to perform a meta-analysis to examine the superiority of double versus single IUI with the male partner's sperm in couples with male factor infertility. An odds ratio (OR) of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated for the pregnancy rate. Outcomes were analysed by using the Mantel–Haesel or DerSimonian–Laird model according to the heterogeneity of the results. Overall, five trials involving 1125 IUI cycles were included in the meta-analysis. There was a two-fold increase in pregnancies after a cycle with a double IUI compared with a cycle with a single IUI (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.07–3.75; P<0.03). Nevertheless, this result was mainly attributed to the presence of a large trial that weighted as almost 50% in the overall analysis. Sensitivity analysis, excluding this large trial, revealed only a trend towards higher pregnancy rates among double IUI cycles (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 0.59–4.21), but without statistical significance (P=0.20). Our systematic review highlights that the available evidence regarding the use of double IUI in couples with male factor infertility is fragmentary and weak. Although there may be a trend towards higher pregnancy rates when the number of IUIs per cycle is increased, further large and well-designed randomized trials are needed to provide solid evidence to guide current clinical practice. PMID:23708457

  7. Knockout of BRD7 results in impaired spermatogenesis and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heran; Zhao, Ran; Guo, Chi; Jiang, Shihe; Yang, Jing; Xu, Yang; Liu, Yukun; Fan, Liqing; Xiong, Wei; Ma, Jian; Peng, Shuping; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Xiayu; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiaoling; Schmitt, David C; Tan, Ming; Li, Guiyuan; Zhou, Ming

    2016-01-01

    BRD7 was originally identified as a novel bromodomain gene and a potential transcriptional factor. BRD7 was found to be extensively expressed in multiple mouse tissues but was highly expressed in the testis. Furthermore, BRD7 was located in germ cells during multiple stages of spermatogenesis, ranging from the pachytene to the round spermatid stage. Homozygous knockout of BRD7 (BRD7(-/-)) resulted in complete male infertility and spermatogenesis defects, including deformed acrosomal formation, degenerative elongating spermatids and irregular head morphology in postmeiotic germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium, which led to the complete arrest of spermatogenesis at step 13. Moreover, a high ratio of apoptosis was determined by TUNEL analysis, which was supported by high levels of the apoptosis markers annexin V and p53 in knockout testes. Increased expression of the DNA damage maker λH2AX was also found in BRD7(-/-) mice, whereas DNA damage repair genes were down-regulated. Furthermore, no or lower expression of BRD7 was detected in the testes of azoospermia patients exhibiting spermatogenesis arrest than that in control group. These data demonstrate that BRD7 is involved in male infertility and spermatogenesis in mice, and BRD7 defect might be associated with the occurrence and development of human azoospermia. PMID:26878912

  8. Knockout of BRD7 results in impaired spermatogenesis and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heran; Zhao, Ran; Guo, Chi; Jiang, Shihe; Yang, Jing; Xu, Yang; Liu, Yukun; Fan, Liqing; Xiong, Wei; Ma, Jian; Peng, Shuping; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Xiayu; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiaoling; Schmitt, David C.; Tan, Ming; Li, Guiyuan; Zhou, Ming

    2016-01-01

    BRD7 was originally identified as a novel bromodomain gene and a potential transcriptional factor. BRD7 was found to be extensively expressed in multiple mouse tissues but was highly expressed in the testis. Furthermore, BRD7 was located in germ cells during multiple stages of spermatogenesis, ranging from the pachytene to the round spermatid stage. Homozygous knockout of BRD7 (BRD7−/−) resulted in complete male infertility and spermatogenesis defects, including deformed acrosomal formation, degenerative elongating spermatids and irregular head morphology in postmeiotic germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium, which led to the complete arrest of spermatogenesis at step 13. Moreover, a high ratio of apoptosis was determined by TUNEL analysis, which was supported by high levels of the apoptosis markers annexin V and p53 in knockout testes. Increased expression of the DNA damage maker λH2AX was also found in BRD7−/− mice, whereas DNA damage repair genes were down−regulated. Furthermore, no or lower expression of BRD7 was detected in the testes of azoospermia patients exhibiting spermatogenesis arrest than that in control group. These data demonstrate that BRD7 is involved in male infertility and spermatogenesis in mice, and BRD7 defect might be associated with the occurrence and development of human azoospermia. PMID:26878912

  9. Couples' reactions to male infertility and donor insemination.

    PubMed

    Berger, D M

    1980-09-01

    The author interviewed 16 couples after the husband had been diagnosed as infertile. Eleven husbands experienced a period of impotency. Fourteen of the women experienced anger toward the husband, psychiatric symptoms, and/or dreams about their concern for the husband, a wish to be rid of him, and guilt over this wish. Ten couples had decided to pursue donor insemination; 6 had delayed 1 3/4 to 4 years after the diagnosis of infertility and had a better adjustment than 3 of the 4 couples who did not. The author believes that the total secrecy involved in donor insemination inhibits the working through of conflicts about infertility and donor insemination itself. PMID:7425152

  10. Human Seminal Plasma Proteome Study: A Search for Male Infertility Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Davalieva, K; Kiprijanovska, S; Noveski, P; Plaseski, T; Kocevska, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2012-01-01

    Seminal plasma is a potential source of biomarkers for many disorders of the male reproductive system including male infertility. Knowledge of the peptide and protein components of seminal fluid is accumulating especially with the appearance of high-throughput MS-based techniques. Of special interest in the field of male infertility biomarkers, is the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins in seminal plasma of men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. However, the data obtained until now is still quite heterogeneous and with small percentage of overlap between independent studies. Extensive comparative analysis of seminal plasma proteome is still needed in order to establish a potential link between seminal plasma proteins and male infertility. PMID:24052741

  11. Copy number variation and microdeletions of the Y chromosome linked genes and loci across different categories of Indian infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Anju; Yadav, Sandeep Kumar; Misro, Man Mohan; Ahmad, Jamal; Ali, Sher

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 34 azoospermic (AZ), 43 oligospermic (OS), and 40 infertile males with normal spermiogram (INS) together with 55 normal fertile males (NFM) from the Indian population. AZ showed more microdeletions in the AZFa and AZFb regions whereas oligospermic ones showed more microdeletions in the AZFc region. Frequency of the AZF partial deletions was higher in males with spermatogenic impairments than in INS. Significantly, SRY, DAZ and BPY2 genes showed copy number variation across different categories of the patients and much reduced copies of the DYZ1 repeat arrays compared to that in normal fertile males. Likewise, INS showed microdeletions, sequence and copy number variation of several Y linked genes and loci. In the context of infertility, STS deletions and copy number variations both were statistically significant (p = 0.001). Thus, semen samples used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive technology (ART) must be assessed for the microdeletions of AZFa, b and c regions in addition to the affected genes reported herein. Present study is envisaged to be useful for DNA based diagnosis of different categories of the infertile males lending support to genetic counseling to the couples aspiring to avail assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26638807

  12. High Resolution X Chromosome-Specific Array-CGH Detects New CNVs in Infertile Males

    PubMed Central

    Krausz, Csilla; Giachini, Claudia; Lo Giacco, Deborah; Daguin, Fabrice; Chianese, Chiara; Ars, Elisabet; Ruiz-Castane, Eduard; Forti, Gianni; Rossi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Context The role of CNVs in male infertility is poorly defined, and only those linked to the Y chromosome have been the object of extensive research. Although it has been predicted that the X chromosome is also enriched in spermatogenesis genes, no clinically relevant gene mutations have been identified so far. Objectives In order to advance our understanding of the role of X-linked genetic factors in male infertility, we applied high resolution X chromosome specific array-CGH in 199 men with different sperm count followed by the analysis of selected, patient-specific deletions in large groups of cases and normozoospermic controls. Results We identified 73 CNVs, among which 55 are novel, providing the largest collection of X-linked CNVs in relation to spermatogenesis. We found 12 patient-specific deletions with potential clinical implication. Cancer Testis Antigen gene family members were the most frequently affected genes, and represent new genetic targets in relationship with altered spermatogenesis. One of the most relevant findings of our study is the significantly higher global burden of deletions in patients compared to controls due to an excessive rate of deletions/person (0.57 versus 0.21, respectively; p = 8.785×10−6) and to a higher mean sequence loss/person (11.79 Kb and 8.13 Kb, respectively; p = 3.435×10−4). Conclusions By the analysis of the X chromosome at the highest resolution available to date, in a large group of subjects with known sperm count we observed a deletion burden in relation to spermatogenic impairment and the lack of highly recurrent deletions on the X chromosome. We identified a number of potentially important patient-specific CNVs and candidate spermatogenesis genes, which represent novel targets for future investigations. PMID:23056185

  13. The effect of a specific histidine-rich glycoprotein polymorphism on male infertility and semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Karin E; Nordqvist, Sarah; Kårehed, Karin; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Åkerud, Helena

    2016-08-01

    In women, there is evidence that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) named HRG C633T is relevant for a number of fertility outcomes including recurrent miscarriage, ovarian response and pregnancy outcome after IVF. This case-control study was designed to investigate whether the HRG C633T SNP is important for male infertility and pregnancy rate following IVF. Cases were 139 infertile couples and controls were 196 pregnant couples. The 335 couples all contributed with one blood sample per partner. Genomic DNA was extracted and genotyping was performed using a TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assay. Information on pregnancy rate and semen parameters was derived from medical records. Infertile couples in which the male partner was a homozygous carrier of the HRG C633T SNP had significantly lower (P < 0.01) pregnancy rate following IVF in comparison with couples where the male partner was a heterozygous HRG C633T SNP carrier. Male homozygous HRG 633T SNP carriers had overall lower total sperm count, sperm concentration, motility score and yield after preparation. In conclusion, once infertility is established the HRG C633T SNP seems to be important for male infertility and pregnancy rate following IVF. PMID:27210772

  14. Usage and perceptions of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors among the male partners of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Suk; Shim, Sung Han; Lim, Jung Jin; Yang, Seung Choul

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and the usage of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for ED treatment in infertile couples. Methods A total of 260 male partners in couples reporting infertility lasting at least 1 year were included in this study. In addition to an evaluation of infertility, all participants completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 questionnaire to evaluate their sexual function. The participants were asked about their use of PDE5 inhibitors while trying to conceive during their partner's ovulatory period and about their concerns regarding the risks of PDE5 inhibitor use to any eventual pregnancy and/or the fetus. Results Based on the IIEF-5 questionnaire, 41.5% of the participants (108/260) were classified as having mild ED (an IIEF-5 score of 17–21), while 10.4% of the participants (27/260) had greater than mild ED (an IIEF-5 score of 16 or less). The majority (74.2%, 193/260) of male partners of infertile couples had a negative perception of the safety of using a PDE5 inhibitor while trying to conceive. Only 11.1% of men (15/135) with ED in infertile couples had used a PDE5 inhibitor when attempting conception. Conclusion ED was found to be common in the male partners of infertile couples, but the use of PDE5 inhibitors among these men was found to be very low. The majority of male partners were concerned about the risks of using PDE5 inhibitors when attempting to conceive. Appropriate counseling about this topic and treatment when necessary would likely be beneficial to infertile couples in which the male partner has ED. PMID:27104154

  15. Phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) and male infertility: Clinical update and topical developments.

    PubMed

    Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    The development of a mammalian embryo is initiated by a sequence of molecular events collectively referred to as 'oocyte activation' and regulated by the release of intracellular calcium in the ooplasm. Over the last decade, phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm protein introduced into the oocyte upon gamete fusion, has gained almost universal acceptance as the protein factor responsible for initiating oocyte activation. A large body of consistent and reproducible evidence, from both biochemical and clinical settings, confers support for the role of PLCζ in this fundamental biological context, which has significant ramifications for the management of human male infertility. Oocyte activation deficiency (OAD) and total fertilisation failure (TFF) are known causes of infertility and have both been linked to abnormalities in the structure, expression, and localisation pattern of PLCζ in human sperm. Assisted oocyte activators (AOAs) represent the only therapeutic option available for OAD at present, although these agents have been the source of much debate recently, particularly with regard to their potential epigenetic effects upon the embryo. Consequently, there is much interest in the deployment of sensitive PLCζ assays as prognostic/diagnostic tests and human recombinant PLCζ protein as an alternative form of therapy. Although PLCζ deficiency has been directly linked to a cohort of infertile cases, we have yet to identify the specific causal mechanisms involved. While two genetic mutations have been identified which link defective PLCζ protein to an infertile phenotype, both were observed in the same patient, and have yet to be described in other patients. Consequently, some researchers are investigating the possibility that genetic variations in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could provide some explanation, especially since >6000 SNPs have been identified in the PLCζ gene. As yet, however, there is no consistent data to suggest that any

  16. Infertility resulting from transgenic I-PpoI male Anopheles gambiae in large cage trials

    PubMed Central

    Klein, T A; Windbichler, N; Deredec, A; Burt, A; Benedict, M Q

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Anopheles gambiae is the primary vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and is a potential target of genetic control programs. We determined the capacity of male A. gambiae created by germline transformation to introduce infertility into stable age-distribution populations. We also determined effects of the transgenes on life history. Methods Stable age-distribution populations of A. gambiae mosquitoes were established in large indoor cages. Male mosquitoes carrying an I-PpoI homing endonuclease gene were introduced at ×5 and ×10 release rates where they competed with target male mosquitoes for matings. Similar trials were conducted in small cages with an additional ×1 release level. Results Infertility was successfully introduced into all target populations. In supporting experiments, complete female infertility was observed in all strains and species of the A. gambiae complex to which transgenic males were mated. Life history experiments demonstrated that reductions in I-PpoI male vigor exist in the form of reduced adult male emergence, longevity and competitiveness. Discussion A. gambiae I-PpoI males are capable of introducing high levels of infertility in target populations in indoor cage trials. This was accomplished despite losses of vigor resulting from the HEG transgene. These results motivate further trials of sexually I-PpoI A. gambiae in outdoor cage and field trials. PMID:22595271

  17. Association of C677T transition of the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Mohammad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh

    2016-04-01

    The human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene encodes one of the key enzymes in folate metabolism. This gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.3), which has 12 exons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association of the two (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms of this gene with male infertility. In a case-control study, 250 blood samples were collected from IVF centres in Sari and Babol (Iran): 118 samples were from oligospermic men and 132 were from controls. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR genotype were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was no association found between the A1298C variant and male infertility. However, carriers of the 677T allele (CT and TT genotypes) were at a higher risk of infertility than individuals with other genotypes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.04; P=0.0174). Structural analysis of human MTHFR flavoprotein showed that C677T transition played an important role in the change in affinity of the MTHFR-Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding site. Based on our results, we suggest that C677T transition in MTHFR may increase the risk of male infertility, and detection of the C677T polymorphism biomarker may be helpful in the screening of idiopathic male infertility. PMID:25412139

  18. Identification of human candidate genes for male infertility by digital differential display.

    PubMed

    Olesen, C; Hansen, C; Bendsen, E; Byskov, A G; Schwinger, E; Lopez-Pajares, I; Jensen, P K; Kristoffersson, U; Schubert, R; Van Assche, E; Wahlstroem, J; Lespinasse, J; Tommerup, N

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the importance of genetic factors in male fertility is accumulating. In the literature and the Mendelian Cytogenetics Network database, 265 cases of infertile males with balanced reciprocal translocations have been described. The candidacy for infertility of 14 testis-expressed transcripts (TETs) were examined by comparing their chromosomal mapping position to the position of balanced reciprocal translocation breakpoints found in the 265 infertile males. The 14 TETs were selected by using digital differential display (electronic subtraction) to search for apparently testis-specific transcripts in the TIGR database. The testis specificity of the 14 TETs was further examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on adult and fetal tissues showing that four TETs (TET1 to TET4) were testis-expressed only, six TETs (TET5 to TET10) appeared to be differentially expressed and the remaining four TETs (TET11 to TET14) were ubiquitously expressed. Interestingly, the two tesis expressed-only transcripts, TET1 and TET2, mapped to chromosomal regions where seven and six translocation breakpoints have been reported in infertile males respectively. Furthermore, one ubiquitously, but predominantly testis-expressed, transcript, TET11, mapped to 1p32-33, where 13 translocation breakpoints have been found in infertile males. Interestingly, the mouse mutation, skeletal fusions with sterility, sks, maps to the syntenic region in the mouse genome. Another transcript, TET7, was the human homologue of rat Tpx-1, which functions in the specific interaction of spermatogenic cells with Sertoli cells. TPX-1 maps to 6p21 where three cases of chromosomal breakpoints in infertile males have been reported. Finally, TET8 was a novel transcript which in the fetal stage is testis-specific, but in the adult is expressed in multiple tissues, including testis. We named this novel transcript fetal and adult testis-expressed transcript (FATE). PMID:11134355

  19. Empirical Drug Therapy for Idiopathic Male Infertility: What is the New Evidence?

    PubMed

    Garg, Harshit; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic male infertility is empirically managed using a number of drugs. We reviewed 64 articles published in the last 10 years on such drug therapy. There was severe heterogeneity in data along with poor definition of outcome parameters. Pregnancy or live birth rate was not reported in many studies. Antiestrogens appear to improve pregnancy rates while there is some data supporting the use of aromatase inhibitors. Antioxidants significantly increase the rate of both live birth and pregnancy but the data are limited. However, valid end-points based on data are limited for the empirical use of drugs in idiopathic male infertility. PMID:26255035

  20. Oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage, a possible reason for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hosen, Md Bayejid; Islam, Md Rakibul; Begum, Firoza; Kabir, Yearul; Howlader, M Zakir Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sperm DNA damage is an important factor in the etiology of male infertility. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage with the pathogenesis of male infertility. Materials and Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 subjects, including fertile men (n=25) and infertile men (n=41) matched by age. Seminal malondialdehyde (MDA), phospholipid hydroperoxide (PHP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) were estimated by spectrophotometric and ELISA based methods and the association with the sperm parameters was assessed. Results: The percentages of motile and morphologically normal cells were significantly lower (p < 0.001, p <0.001, respectivly) in infertile men. Seminal levels of MDA, PHP and 8-OHdG were significantly higher (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p=0. 02, respectively) while the SOD and TAS were significantly lower (p=0. 0003, p< 0.001, respectively) in infertile men. Sperm parameters were negatively correlated with MDA, PHP and 8-OHdG while positively correlated with SOD and TAS. A positive correlation of 8-OHdG with MDA and PHP and a negative correlation with TAS and SOD were also found. Conclusion: These results suggested that oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage might have a critical effect on the etiology of infertility. Therefore, evaluation of oxidative status, antioxidant defense systems and DNA damage, together with sperm parameters might be a useful tool for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:26568756

  1. Significant Impact of the MTHFR Polymorphisms and Haplotypes on Male Infertility Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishi; Sarkar, Saumya; David, Archana; Gangwar, Pravin Kumar; Gupta, Richa; Khanna, Gita; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Khanna, Anil; Rajender, Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) converts 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate to 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate and affects the activity of cellular cycles participating in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair, genome stability, maintenance of methyl pool, and gene regulation. Genetically compromised MTHFR activity has been suggested to affect male fertility. The objective of the present study was to find the impact on infertility risk of c.203G>A, c.1298A>C, and c.1793G>A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene. Methods PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing were used to genotype the common SNPs in the MTHFR gene in 630 infertile and 250 fertile males. Chi-square test was applied for statistical comparison of genotype data. Linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs and the frequency of common haplotypes were assessed using Haploview software. Biochemical levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) and folic acid were measured. Meta-analysis on c.1298A>C polymorphism was performed using data from ten studies, comprising 2734 cases and 2737 controls. Results c.203G>A and c.1298A>C were found to be unrelated to infertility risk. c.1793G>A was protective against infertility (P = 0.0008). c.677C>T and c.1793G>A were in significant LD (D’ = 0.9). Folic acid and tHcy level did not correlate with male infertility. Pooled estimate on c.1298A>C data from all published studies including our data showed no association of this polymorphism with male infertility (Odds ratio = 1.035, P = 0.56), azoospermia (Odds ratio = 0.97, P = 0.74), or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (Odds ratio = 0.92, p = 0.29). Eight haplotypes with more than 1% frequency were detected, of which CCGA was protective against infertility (p = 0.02), but the significance of the latter was not seen after applying Bonferroni correction. Conclusion Among MTHFR polymorphisms, c.203G>A and c.1298A>C do not affect infertility risk and c.1793G>A is protective against infertility. Haplotype analysis

  2. Another functional frame-shift polymorphism of DEFB126 (rs11467497) associated with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shiwei; Shi, Changgeng; Chen, Guowu; Zheng, Ju-fen; Wu, Bin; Diao, Hua; Ji, Lindan; Gu, Yihua; Xin, Aijie; Wu, Yancheng; Zhou, Weijin; Miao, Maohua; Xu, Limin; Li, Zheng; Yuan, Yao; Wang, Peng; Shi, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    DEFB126 rs140685149 mutation was shown to cause sperm dysfunction and subfertility. Indel rs11467497 is another 4-nucleotide frame-shift mutation (151bp upstream of rs140685149) that leads to the premature termination of translation and the expression of peptide truncated at the carboxyl terminus. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive association study to check the contribution of rs140685149 and rs11467497 to male infertility. Our results confirmed the previous findings that there was no association between rs140685149 and sperm motility. In contrast, we found a significant association of another indel rs11467497 with male infertility. Moreover, rs11467497 was shown to be associated with higher number of round cells in the infertile males with low sperm motility. Surprisingly, the two mutations commonly existed in the sperm donors (n = 672), suggesting a potential application of the two indels in the screening for eligible sperm donors. Western blotting assays showed the sperms with rs140685149 2-nt deletion tended to have unstable DEFB126 protein in contrast of no DEFB126 protein expressed in the sperms with rs11467497 4-nt deletion, suggesting a more severe consequence caused by rs11467497 mutation. In conclusion, our study presented a significant contribution of another functional frame-shift polymorphism of DEFB126 (rs11467497) to male infertility. PMID:25721098

  3. Psychiatric Morbidity in Infertility Patients in a Tertiary Care Setup

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pankaj; Rastogi, Rajesh; Gandhi, Raghu; Kapoor, Rohit; Sachdeva, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    Context Infertility is regarded as a trigger for psychological morbidity. Infertile couples often suffer from anxiety, depression and lack of self confidence. Aims To study the demographic factors associated with infertility in a tertiary care setup and to determine the level of anxiety and depression associated with it by using standardized scales. The study protocol also included studying the various coping strategies employed by these patient groups. Settings and Design Case control study. Materials and Methods A prestructured questionnaire based study conducted for a span of 6 months. The study population included the patients attending the infertility and the family planning outpatient department. We applied the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) and the Becks Depression Inventory (BDI). Brief COPE Inventory was applied to look for the various coping measures that are employed by the anxious and depressed patients. Statistical Analysis Data analysis was done using SPSS ver20. Results A total of 280 study subjects were included in the study; which included 140 women from the infertility clinic and 140 from the family planning OPD. A total of 56.4% (79/140) of the females were found to be suffering from depression and 68.9% (96/140) of the females were found to be suffering from anxiety and depression both. Seven risk factors were found to be significant for depression based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale and 6 risk factors were found to be significant based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The most common coping method employed by depressed women was venting 72.2% (57/79) followed by behavioural disengagement 70.9% (56/79); whereas the most important coping method employed by the anxious and depressed women was behavioural disengagement 71.9% (69/96). Conclusion Anxiety and depression is common among patients suffering from infertility and measures should be taken to alleviate it. PMID:26500988

  4. Evaluation of sperm retrieval rate with bilateral testicular sperm extraction in infertile patients with azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Moein, Mohammad Reza; Moein, Mahmoud Reza; Ghasemzadeh, Jalal; Pourmasoumi, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 10% to 15% of infertile men have azoospermia, which could be obstructive or non-obstructive. Diagnostic biopsy from the testis and recently testicular sperm extraction (TESE) are the most precise investigations in these patients. Testicular biopsy can be done unilaterally or bilaterally. The worth of unilateral or bilateral testicular biopsy in men with azoospermia is controversial. Objective: To evaluate the necessity of bilateral diagnostic biopsy from the testis in new era of diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the results of testis biopsy in 419 azoospermic men, referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility from 2009-2013. Patients with known obstructive azoospermia were excluded from the study. Results: In totally, 254 infertile men (60.6%) were underwent unilateral TESE, which in 175 patients (88.4%) sperm were extracted from their testes successfully. Bilateral testis biopsy was done in 165 patients (39.4%) which in 37 patients (22.4%), sperm were found in their testes tissues. Conclusion: Due to the low probability of positive bilateral TESE results especially when we can’t found sperm in the first side, we recommend that physicians re-evaluate the risk and benefit of this procedure in era of newer and more precise technique of sperm retrieval like micro TESE. PMID:26730246

  5. Primary infertility in a phenotypic male with 46XX chromosomal constitution.

    PubMed

    Tan, T T; Khalid, B A

    1993-04-01

    The case of a 32 year old male with normal male adrenarchal hair pattern, bilateral gynaecomastia, a small phallus, hypospadias and bilateral poorly developed testes presenting with primary infertility secondary to azoospermia and a pelvic cyst is described. Repeated chromosomal analysis showed 46XX chromosomal constitution. Laparotomy revealed a simple cyst between the urinary bladder and the rectum. XX male syndrome is a rare cause of male infertility. The majority of cases is due to interchange of a fragment of the short arm of the Y chromosome containing the region that encodes the testes determining factor with the X chromosome. The presence of a simple cyst in the anatomical location of the uterus to our knowledge has not been reported in the literature. PMID:8321801

  6. Experimental methods to preserve male fertility and treat male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Gassei, Kathrin; Orwig, Kyle E

    2016-02-01

    Infertility is a prevalent condition that has insidious impacts on the infertile individuals, their families, and society, which extend far beyond the inability to have a biological child. Lifestyle changes, fertility treatments, and assisted reproductive technology (ART) are available to help many infertile couples achieve their reproductive goals. All of these technologies require that the infertile individual is able to produce at least a small number of functional gametes (eggs or sperm). It is not possible for a person who does not produce gametes to have a biological child. This review focuses on the infertile man and describes several stem cell-based methods and gene therapy approaches that are in the research pipeline and may lead to new fertility treatment options for men with azoospermia. PMID:26746133

  7. An association study of HFE gene mutation with idiopathic male infertility in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Bin-Bin; Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Tao; Ma, Ke; Jiang, Jian; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Li-Hua; Peng, Yi-Feng; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the haemochromatosis gene (HFE) influence iron status in the general population of Northern Europe, and excess iron is associated with the impairment of spermatogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between three mutations (C282Y, H63D and S65C) in the HFE gene with idiopathic male infertility in the Chinese Han population. Two groups of Chinese men were recruited: 444 infertile men (including 169 with idiopathic azoospermia) and 423 controls with proven fertility. The HFE gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The experimental results demonstrated that no C282Y or S65C mutations were detected. Idiopathic male infertility was not significantly associated with heterozygous H63D mutation (odds ratio=0.801, 95% confidence interval=0.452–1.421, χ2=0.577, P=0.448). The H63D mutation frequency did not correlate significantly with the serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) levels in infertile men (P=0.896, P=0.404 and P=0.05, respectively). Our data suggest that the HFE H63D mutation is not associated with idiopathic male reproductive dysfunction. PMID:22504868

  8. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) in Extreme Cases of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Gianpiero D.; Neri, Queenie V.; Schlegel, Peter N.; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Severely compromised spermatogenesis typical of men with virtual azoospermia or non-obstructive azoospermia requires an extreme search for spermatozoa. Our goal was to evaluate the usefulness of a meticulous search carried out in ejaculated or surgically retrieved specimens in achieving pre- and post-implantation embryo development. Patients and Methods In a retrospective cohort study carried out in an academic institution, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes were reviewed as a function of length of microscopic sperm search in ejaculated and surgically retrieved specimens. Couples whose male partner presented with either virtual or non-obstructive azoospermia were treated by ICSI and categorized according to the time spent in identifying and retrieving enough spermatozoa to inject all the oocyte cohort. Semen parameter, fertilization, pregnancies, deliveries, and child welfare in relation to increasing search time were analyzed and compared. Result(s) The maternal and paternal ages were comparable in both ejaculated and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) groups along with the oocytes retrieved. The fertilization rates for both ejaculated and TESE progressively decreased with increasing time (P<0.0001). Clinical pregnancies in the ejaculated cohort remained satifactory. In the TESE cohort, there was a decrease in pregnancy rate with increasing time, from 44% to 23%. In a limited number of cases, offspring health was evaluated in both semen sources and appeared reassuring. Conclusion(s) An extensive and at time exhaustive sperm quest yields kinetically and morphologically impaired spermatozoa without apparent impact on embryo developmental competence. Retrieval of spermatozoa from the seminiferous tubules provided more consistent fertilization and pregnancy outcomes than those retrieved from the ejaculate. A trend indicated that pregnancy rate decreased as search time increased in the TESE group. The utilization of the scarce and unselected

  9. Differences in caspase-8 and -9 activity and sperm motility in infertile males of Li nationality in China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaobin; Li, Qixing; Han, Zhouxin; Lin, Danqin; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study’s objectives are to assess the efficacy of detecting apoptotic caspase-3, -8, and -9 in human sperm and plasma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and to compare these levels between fertile and infertile patient groups of Li nationality in China. This study offers a non-invasive, alternative strategy to analyzing sperm parameters in infertile males. Fifty-six infertile males were investigated; asthenospermia (n = 19), oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (n = 20), azoospermia (n = 17) compared with 20 healthy fertile controls. They were subjected to semen analysis by computer-assisted sperm assay (CASA). We found that caspase-3, -8, -9 existed in all specimens in both sperms and plasma. The level of caspase-3 and caspase-8 in plasma were both significantly higher than in sperm. Levels of caspase-8 and caspase-9 in sperm and plasma were significantly negatively correlated with sperm concentration, motility and A % (motility grade A). The level of caspase-8 in plasma was significantly negatively correlated with sperm concentration. However, only in healthy fertile controls sperm concentration was significantly negatively correlated with caspase-9 in sperm. Compared with the healthy fertile controls, only the OAT group exhibited significantly increased level of caspase-8 in sperm (P < 0.05). It is concluded that caspase-8 and caspase-9 in sperm and plasma are correlated with sperm motility, and can reflect the quality of sperm in vitro. PMID:26064412

  10. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fode, Mikkel; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Brackett, Nancy L; Ohl, Dana A; Lynne, Charles M; Sønksen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic and retroperitoneal surgery, diabetes, congenital spinal abnormalities, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Erectile dysfunction can be managed by an increasingly invasive range of treatments including medications, injection therapy and the surgical insertion of a penile implant. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by medications to reverse the condition in mild cases and in bladder harvest of semen after ejaculation in more severe cases. Anejaculation might also be managed by medication in mild cases while assisted ejaculatory techniques including penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation are used in more severe cases. If these measures fail, surgical sperm retrieval can be attempted. Ejaculation with penile vibratory stimulation can be done by some spinal cord injured men and their partners at home, followed by in-home insemination if circumstances and sperm quality are adequate. The other options always require assisted reproductive techniques including intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The method of choice depends largely on the number of motile sperm in the ejaculate. PMID:22138899

  11. Mixed Germ Cell Tumour in an Infertile Male Having Unilateral Cryptorchidism: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Singla, Anand; Kaur, Navneet; Sandhu, Gunjeet; Nagori, Rupesh

    2016-02-01

    Mixed germ cell tumours with multiple components occur more frequently than the pure varieties of germ cell tumours. Embryonal carcinoma and teratoma together form the most common components of the mixed germ cell tumour but the yolk sac tumour is usually seen as a minor component in patients presenting with mixed germ cell tumour. We report a rare case of 27-year-old Hepatitis C positive male presenting with pain in left lower abdomen with associated history of same sided undescended testis and infertility. Right sided testis lying in scrotal sac appeared normal on ultrasonography but patient was azoospermic. He had raised levels of serum markers, alpha feto protein and beta HCG. Examination showed a large mass in left lower abdomen involving the sigmoid colon with the absence of left testis in left scrotum which was confirmed on CT scan. Excision of the mass was done and histopathology examination revealed it as a malignant mixed germ cell tumour composed predominantly of a yolk sac tumour, with minor component as seminoma and embryonal carcinoma in an undescended testis. Following this, the level of serum markers came down. The patient is now undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and is doing well. PMID:27042527

  12. Mixed Germ Cell Tumour in an Infertile Male Having Unilateral Cryptorchidism: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Navneet; Sandhu, Gunjeet; Nagori, Rupesh

    2016-01-01

    Mixed germ cell tumours with multiple components occur more frequently than the pure varieties of germ cell tumours. Embryonal carcinoma and teratoma together form the most common components of the mixed germ cell tumour but the yolk sac tumour is usually seen as a minor component in patients presenting with mixed germ cell tumour. We report a rare case of 27-year-old Hepatitis C positive male presenting with pain in left lower abdomen with associated history of same sided undescended testis and infertility. Right sided testis lying in scrotal sac appeared normal on ultrasonography but patient was azoospermic. He had raised levels of serum markers, alpha feto protein and beta HCG. Examination showed a large mass in left lower abdomen involving the sigmoid colon with the absence of left testis in left scrotum which was confirmed on CT scan. Excision of the mass was done and histopathology examination revealed it as a malignant mixed germ cell tumour composed predominantly of a yolk sac tumour, with minor component as seminoma and embryonal carcinoma in an undescended testis. Following this, the level of serum markers came down. The patient is now undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and is doing well. PMID:27042527

  13. Structural variation of the human genome: mechanisms, assays, and role in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Claudia M B; Zhang, Feng; Lupski, James R

    2011-02-01

    Genomic disorders are defined as diseases caused by rearrangements of the genome incited by a genomic architecture that conveys instability. Y-chromosome related dysfunctions such as male infertility are frequently associated with gross DNA rearrangements resulting from its peculiar genomic architecture. The Y-chromosome has evolved into a highly specialized chromosome to perform male functions, mainly spermatogenesis. Direct and inverted repeats, some of them palindromes with highly identical nucleotide sequences that can form DNA cruciform structures, characterize the genomic structure of the Y-chromosome long arm. Some particular Y chromosome genomic deletions can cause spermatogenic failure likely because of removal of one or more transcriptional units with a potential role in spermatogenesis. We describe mechanisms underlying the formation of human genomic rearrangements on autosomes and review Y-chromosome deletions associated with male infertility. PMID:21210740

  14. Alterations in the steroid hormone receptor co-chaperone FKBPL are associated with male infertility: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Male infertility is a common cause of reproductive failure in humans. In mice, targeted deletions of the genes coding for FKBP6 or FKBP52, members of the FK506 binding protein family, can result in male infertility. In the case of FKBP52, this reflects an important role in potentiating Androgen Receptor (AR) signalling in the prostate and accessory glands, but not the testis. In infertile men, no mutations of FKBP52 or FKBP6 have been found so far, but the gene for FKBP-like (FKBPL) maps to chromosome 6p21.3, an area linked to azoospermia in a group of Japanese patients. Methods To determine whether mutations in FKBPL could contribute to the azoospermic phenotype, we examined expression in mouse and human tissues by RNA array blot, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and sequenced the complete gene from two azoospermic patient cohorts and matching control groups. FKBPL-AR interaction was assayed using reporter constructs in vitro. Results FKBPL is strongly expressed in mouse testis, with expression upregulated at puberty. The protein is expressed in human testis in a pattern similar to FKBP52 and also enhanced AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays. We examined sixty patients from the Japanese patient group and found one inactivating mutation and one coding change, as well as a number of non-coding changes, all absent in fifty-six controls. A second, Irish patient cohort of thirty showed another two coding changes not present in thirty proven fertile controls. Conclusions Our results describe the first alterations in the gene for FKBPL in azoospermic patients and indicate a potential role in AR-mediated signalling in the testis. PMID:20210997

  15. Mechanism of infertility in male guinea pigs immunized with sperm PH-20.

    PubMed

    Tung, K S; Primakoff, P; Woolman-Gamer, L; Myles, D G

    1997-05-01

    PH-20, a testis-specific protein first expressed in haploid germ cells, is present on the posterior head plasma membrane and inner acrosomal membrane of mature guinea pig sperm. PH-20 is bifunctional, having a hyaluronidase activity that allows sperm to penetrate the cumulus layer and a separate activity required for binding of acrosome-reacted sperm to the zona pellucida. The immunization of male guinea pigs with PH-20 reproducibly results in infertility with a duration of 6-12 mo or longer. In this study, we analyzed the immunopathology in the reproductive tract of PH-20-immunized males to probe the mechanism(s) responsible for the induced infertility and found two separate effects. Remarkably, in almost all infertile, PH-20-immunized males, the caudae epididymides were empty (contained no sperm) or contained only abnormal sperm. The complete loss of normal sperm in the epididymis apparently results in infertility. A second effect was the induction of experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), representing the first report of EAO induced by a purified testis/sperm molecule of known functions. PH-20-induced EAO differed from EAO induced by crude testis antigens in two respects: 1) an absence of epididymitis with abscess and granuloma and 2) the presence of antibody on germ cells within seminiferous tubules and inside the cauda epididymidis. The former suggests that crude testis antigens other than PH-20 are responsible for epididymitis, and the latter suggests a possible role of antibody in EAO pathogenesis and infertility induction. Return to fertility, after 6-12 mo, was accompanied by regression of EAO and reappearance of spermatozoa in the caudae epididymides. PMID:9160711

  16. Oral antioxidant treatment partly improves integrity of human sperm DNA in infertile grade I varicocele patients.

    PubMed

    Gual-Frau, Josep; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María J; Hannaoui, Naim; Checa, Miguel A; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Lozano, Iris; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Benet, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Prats, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Infertile males with varicocele have the highest percentage of sperm cells with damaged DNA, compared to other infertile groups. Antioxidant treatment is known to enhance the integrity of sperm DNA; however, there are no data on the effects in varicocele patients. We thus investigated the potential benefits of antioxidant treatment specifically in grade I varicocele males. Twenty infertile patients with grade I varicocele were given multivitamins (1500 mg L-Carnitine, 60 mg vitamin C, 20 mg coenzyme Q10, 10 mg vitamin E, 200 μg vitamin B9, 1 μg vitamin B12, 10 mg zinc, 50 μg selenium) daily for three months. Semen parameters including total sperm count, concentration, progressive motility, vitality, and morphology were determined before and after treatment. In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation and the amount of highly degraded sperm cells were analyzed by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion. After treatment, patients showed an average relative reduction of 22.1% in sperm DNA fragmentation (p = 0.02) and had 31.3% fewer highly degraded sperm cells (p = 0.07). Total numbers of sperm cells were increased (p = 0.04), but other semen parameters were unaffected. These data suggest that sperm DNA integrity in grade I varicocele patients may be improved by oral antioxidant treatment. PMID:26090928

  17. The exposure of urologists and the treatment for male factor infertility on the Web sites of ART centers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Fu-Yin; Huang, William J; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Couples with male factor disorders can have their own biologic offspring nowadays via in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection technologies. Because infertile couples commonly seek treatment options through public Web sites on the Internet, an appropriate exposure of urologic opinions on male factor infertility is important. It was therefore of interest to survey the extent of urologists' exposure on the official Web sites of the assisted reproductive technology (ART) centers. We surveyed the official Web sites of all 74 qualified ART centers in Taiwan. Web sites of these centers were evaluated for their information on male factor infertility and varicoceles, especially treatment suggestions for varicocele and attitudes toward urologist referral. Among the 74 centers, only 69 had established official Web sites. Forty-eight Web sites (69.6%) provided information regarding infertility, whereas only 42 Web sites (60.9%) mentioned male factor infertility and 23 (33.3%) had descriptions of varicoceles. The quantity and quality of disclosed information varied, 11 (15.9%) sites provided treatment opinions for varicocele, and only 4 (5.8%) supported surgical intervention. Most Web sites of ART centers in Taiwan had content on male factor infertility, but the vast majority did not mention urologist referral or varicocele treatment. Urologists' opinions are relatively less exposed on the Web sites of fertility services. Further efforts should be made by urologists to provide comprehensive information to the public and to reinforce the importance of urologist referral in male factor infertility. PMID:20829520

  18. ‘At the hospital I learnt the truth’: diagnosing male infertility in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Fiona R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how men's reproductive bodies are problematised in rural northern Malawi as access to biomedically defined diagnoses of the health of men's sperm contribute to the visibility of male infertility. Ethnographic research with infertile and fertile men explored pathways into the sexual health and fertility services offered in district hospitals, men's clinical engagements and masculine imaginaries. The research suggested that men's willingness to be referred for semen analysis is an extension of intensive and persistent help-seeking for childlessness instigated by couples and encouraged by families. Within the laboratory, acceptable social arrangements for semen sample collection are negotiated between male clients and laboratory staff, which emphasise heterosexual and marital virility. Following diagnosis, counselling by clinical officers, without any significant therapeutic interventions, focuses on compassion in marriage. This paper considers: what is the role of semen analysis within public health facilities and why do men participate? How do men experience an infertility diagnosis and what do they and their partners do with this knowledge? In addition, how do these practices shape gendered relationships in families and communities? The analysis builds on Inhorn's (2012) concept of ‘emergent masculinities’ to better understand the connections between male subjectivities, medical technologies and the globalisation of male reproductive health, as they relate to men's lives in rural Malawi. PMID:25175293

  19. 'At the hospital I learnt the truth': diagnosing male infertility in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Fiona R

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how men's reproductive bodies are problematised in rural northern Malawi as access to biomedically defined diagnoses of the health of men's sperm contribute to the visibility of male infertility. Ethnographic research with infertile and fertile men explored pathways into the sexual health and fertility services offered in district hospitals, men's clinical engagements and masculine imaginaries. The research suggested that men's willingness to be referred for semen analysis is an extension of intensive and persistent help-seeking for childlessness instigated by couples and encouraged by families. Within the laboratory, acceptable social arrangements for semen sample collection are negotiated between male clients and laboratory staff, which emphasise heterosexual and marital virility. Following diagnosis, counselling by clinical officers, without any significant therapeutic interventions, focuses on compassion in marriage. This paper considers: what is the role of semen analysis within public health facilities and why do men participate? How do men experience an infertility diagnosis and what do they and their partners do with this knowledge? In addition, how do these practices shape gendered relationships in families and communities? The analysis builds on Inhorn's (2012) concept of 'emergent masculinities' to better understand the connections between male subjectivities, medical technologies and the globalisation of male reproductive health, as they relate to men's lives in rural Malawi. PMID:25175293

  20. New insights into male (in)fertility: the importance of NO

    PubMed Central

    Buzadzic, B; Vucetic, M; Jankovic, A; Stancic, A; Korac, A; Korac, B; Otasevic, V

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is a global problem that is on the rise, especially during the last decade. Currently, infertility affects approximately 10–15% of the population worldwide. The frequency and origin of different forms of infertility varies. It has been shown that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) are involved in the aetiology of infertility, especially male infertility. Various strategies have been designed to remove or decrease the production of ROS and RNS in spermatozoa, in particular during in vitro fertilization. However, in recent years it has been shown that spermatozoa naturally produce a variety of ROS/RNS, including superoxide anion radical (O2⋅−), hydrogen peroxide and NO. These reactive species, in particular NO, are essential in regulating sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction, two processes that need to be acquired by sperm in order to achieve fertilization potential. In addition, it has recently been shown that mitochondrial function is positively correlated with human sperm fertilization potential and quality and that NO and NO precursors increase sperm motility by increasing energy production in mitochondria. We will review the new link between sperm NO-driven redox regulation and infertility herein. A special emphasis will be placed on the potential implementation of new redox-active substances that modulate the content of NO in spermatozoa to increase fertility and promote conception. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:24601995

  1. Infertility among male UK veterans of the 1990-1 Gulf war: reproductive cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Maconochie, Noreen; Doyle, Pat; Carson, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To examine the hypothesis that, theoretically at least, exposure to toxicants of the type present in the Gulf war could affect spermatogenesis, which might be observed as increased levels of infertility. Design Retrospective reproductive cohort analysis. Setting Male UK Gulf war veterans and matched comparison group of non-deployed servicemen, surveyed by postal questionnaire. Participants 42 818 completed questionnaires were returned, representing response rates of 53% for Gulf veterans and 42% for non-Gulf veterans; 10 465 Gulf veterans and 7376 non-Gulf veterans reported fathering or trying to father pregnancies after the Gulf war. Main outcome measures Failure to achieve conceptions (type I infertility) or live births (type II infertility) after the Gulf war, having tried for at least a year and consulted a doctor; time to conception among pregnancies fathered by men not reporting fertility problems. Results Risk of reported infertility was higher among Gulf war veterans than among non-Gulf veterans (odds ratio for type I infertility 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.89; type II 1.50, 1.18 to 1.89). This small effect was constant over time since the war and was observed whether or not the men had fathered pregnancies before the war. Results were similar when analyses were restricted to clinically confirmed diagnoses. Pregnancies fathered by Gulf veterans not reporting fertility problems also took longer to conceive (odds ratio for > 1 year 1.18, 1.04 to 1.34). Conclusions We found some evidence of an association between Gulf war service and reported infertility. Pregnancies fathered by Gulf veterans with no fertility problems also reportedly took longer to conceive. PMID:15253919

  2. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] −0.64 [−1.01, −0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: −0.99 [−1.60, −0.38], −1.82 [−2.63, −1.01], and −0.75 [−1.37, −0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility. PMID:26932683

  3. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] -0.64 [-1.01, -0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: -0.99 [-1.60, -0.38], -1.82 [-2.63, -1.01], and -0.75 [-1.37, -0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility. PMID:26932683

  4. How Common is Male Infertility, and What Are Its Causes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Research Goals Activities and Advances Scientific Articles Staff Contacts Clinical Trials Resources and Publications For Patients and Consumers For Researchers and Health ...

  5. Aetiology of obstructive azoospermia in Chinese infertility patients.

    PubMed

    Han, H; Liu, S; Zhou, X-G; Tian, L; Zhang, X-D

    2016-09-01

    To explore the aetiology of obstructive azoospermia (OA) in Chinese infertility patients, 133 OA patients was included in this study diagnosed and evaluated by one major specialist trained urological infertility. We retrospected the medical records to collect relative information. All of the patients had been underwent physical examination, ultrasound scan to the urogenital system, serum hormone tests, genetic tests and two separate semen analyses. The mean age of all 133 patients was 32.7 ± 6.8 years. A total of 266 reproductive tract units (two/patient) were classified into four categories: no causes (Idiopathic) for 74 units (27.8%), single cause for 173 units (65.0%), double causes for 17 units (6.4%) and triple causes for two units (0.8%). As to single cause of OA, there were four types: trauma for 0 unit (0%), infection for 125 units (47.0%), dysplasia for 11 units (4.1%) and surgeries for 37 units (13.9%). As to total cause of OA, there were five types: infection for 144 units (54.1%), orchitis for 51 units (19.2%), epididymitis for 54 units (20.3%), gonorrhoea for 28 units (10.5%) and inguinal hernia repair surgery for 18 units (6.8%). The most frequent cause of obstructive azoospermia was infection revealed in these Chinese infertility populations, followed by idiopathic reason. PMID:26688510

  6. A Critical Appraisal on the Role of Varicocele in Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Miyaoka, Ricardo; Esteves, Sandro C.

    2012-01-01

    Varicocele is a major cause of male infertility, as it may impair spermatogenesis through several distinct physiopathological mechanisms. With the recent advances in biomolecular techniques and the development of novel sperm functional tests, it has been possible to better understand the mechanisms involved in testicular damage provoked by varicocele and, therefore, propose optimized ways to prevent and/or reverse them. Up to now, there is still controversy involving the true benefit of varicocele repair in subfertile men as well as in certain specific situations such as concomitant contralateral subclinical varicocele or associated nonobstructive azoospermia. Also, with the continued development of assisted reproductive technology new issues and questions are emerging regarding the role of varicocelectomy in this context. This paper reviews the most recent data available on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of varicocele with regard to male infertility. PMID:22162682

  7. Varicocele and male infertility: current concepts and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Esteves, Sandro C

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of Asian Journal of Andrology is fully dedicated to the thematic area of Varicocele, which has been one of the most controversial issues in the field of Urology, Andrology, and Reproductive Medicine. Recognized as a clinical entity for over a century, varicocele from Latin: varix (dilated vein) and from Greek: kele (tumor) still elicits heated debate among scientists and clinicians on an arguable negative effect on male fertility and gonadal function and has fueled thousands of scholarly articles since its first report in the 18th century. PMID:26780875

  8. Association of androgen receptor GGN repeat length polymorphism and male infertility in Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Mohamad; Khatami, Saied Reza; Galehdari, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Androgens play critical role in secondary sexual and male gonads differentiations such as spermatogenesis, via androgen receptor. The human androgen receptor (AR) encoding gene contains two regions with three nucleotide polymorphic repeats (CAG and GGN) in the first exon. Unlike the CAG repeats, the GGN has been less studied because of technical difficulties, so the functional role of these polymorphic repeats is still unclear. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate any relationship between GGN repeat length in the first exon of AR gene and idiopathic male infertility in southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: This is the first study on GGN repeat of AR gene in infertile male in Khuzestan, Iran. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to categorize GGN repeat lengths in 72 infertile and 72 fertile men. Afterwards we sequenced the PCR products to determine the exact length of GGN repeat in each category. Our samples included 36 azoospermic and 36 oligozoospermic men as cases and 72 fertile men as control group. Results: We found that the numbers of repeats in the cases range from 18 to 25, while in the controls this range is from 20 to 28. The results showed a significant relation between the length of GGN repeat and fertility (p=0.015). The most frequent alleles were alleles with 24 and 25 repeats respectively in case and control groups. On the other hand no significant differences were found between Arab and non-Arab cases by considering GGN repeat lengths (p=0.234). Conclusion: Due to our results, there is a significant association between the presence of allele with 24 repeats and susceptibility to male infertility. Therefore this polymorphism should be considered in future studies to clarify etiology of disorders related to androgen receptor activity. PMID:26221130

  9. Ejaculatory physiology and pathophysiology: assessment and treatment in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Revenig, Louis; Leung, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Azoospermia is a heterogeneous condition with multiple etiologies and a variety of treatments. In this chapter we present a summary of retrograde ejaculation and anejaculation, both of which are characterized by an absence of antegrade semen propulsion through the male reproductive tract. Each of these affects fertility, but is pathophysiologically distinct disorders with differing evaluation and treatment. Retrograde ejaculation has a myriad of well-characterized causes, from pharmacologic disruption to interference of neural mechanisms by surgical intervention for a variety of diseases. Medication is the mainstay of treatment, although only a minority responds and develops antegrade ejaculation. For the men who are not responders to medical therapy, but still have fertility goals, there are a variety of sperm retrieval techniques to assist their reproductive abilities. Failure of emission is characterized by an absence of the emission phase and no antegrade or retrograde expulsion of ejaculatory products. If fertility is desired, these men must rely on assisted ejaculatory procedures, and treatment choice is guided by etiology and response. Ultimately, retrograde ejaculation and failure of emission are in a spectrum of ejaculatory disorders which impair male fertility. PMID:26816751

  10. Ejaculatory physiology and pathophysiology: assessment and treatment in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Revenig, Louis; Leung, Andrew; Hsiao, Wayland

    2014-03-01

    Azoospermia is a heterogeneous condition with multiple etiologies and a variety of treatments. In this chapter we present a summary of retrograde ejaculation and anejaculation, both of which are characterized by an absence of antegrade semen propulsion through the male reproductive tract. Each of these affects fertility, but is pathophysiologically distinct disorders with differing evaluation and treatment. Retrograde ejaculation has a myriad of well-characterized causes, from pharmacologic disruption to interference of neural mechanisms by surgical intervention for a variety of diseases. Medication is the mainstay of treatment, although only a minority responds and develops antegrade ejaculation. For the men who are not responders to medical therapy, but still have fertility goals, there are a variety of sperm retrieval techniques to assist their reproductive abilities. Failure of emission is characterized by an absence of the emission phase and no antegrade or retrograde expulsion of ejaculatory products. If fertility is desired, these men must rely on assisted ejaculatory procedures, and treatment choice is guided by etiology and response. Ultimately, retrograde ejaculation and failure of emission are in a spectrum of ejaculatory disorders which impair male fertility. PMID:26816751

  11. Pretreatment of sperm with human follicular fluid for borderline male infertility.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Z; Nahhas, F

    1989-05-01

    To test the usefulness of human follicular fluid (FF) in treating male infertility, we incubated washed sperm specimens from 31 couples undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI), for male and/or unexplained infertility, with either FF or Ham's F-10 medium (Gibco, Grand Island, NY), in alternating cycles in a randomized manner. Semen specimens from 28 men were incubated with either medium or FF. Incubations with FF have increased sperm penetration assay (SPA) scores from 24.8 +/- 17.3 to 34.3 +/- 13.6 (P less than 0.01). Incubation with heat-inactivized FF also has increased SPA scores, although to a lesser extent than noninactivized FF. Seventeen pregnancies occurred in the 31 couples treated by IUI (54.8%), 16 of them in FF-treated cycles (51.6%) and one in "control" IUI cycles (3.2%, P less than 0.01). All pregnancies occurred within four treatment cycles. Thus, IUI after sperm wash and preincubation with FF may be suggested for four to six cycles to couples with male factor and/or unexplained infertility who are reluctant to resort to artificial insemination by donor or adoption, before attempting the more costly and complex in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer procedure. PMID:2707464

  12. Robotic microsurgery in male infertility and urology—taking robotics to the next level

    PubMed Central

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V.

    2014-01-01

    The initial reports of robotic assisted microsurgery began to appear in the early 1990s. Animal and early human studies were the initial publications. Larger series papers have recently been published from a few institutions. The field of robotic assisted microsurgery is still in evolution and so are adjunctive tools and instruments. It is clearly a different and unique skill set—is it microsurgery or is it robotic surgery, or both. It is clear from history that the art of surgery evolves over time to encompass new technology as long as the outcomes are better for the patient. Our current robotic platforms may not be ideal for microsurgery, however, the use of adjunctive tools and instrument refinement will further its future potential. This review article presents the current state of the art in various robotic assisted microsurgical procedures in male infertility and urology. Some novel applications of taking microsurgery to areas not classically accessible (intra-abdominal vasovasostomy) and adjunctive tools will also be presented. PMID:26816758

  13. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) as a male infertility factor. Case report.

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Marek; Joanna, Talarczyk; Piotr, JedrzejczaK

    2012-09-01

    Since testes and adrenal cortex derive from the same urogenital ridge, adrenal tissue with descending gonads may migrate in early embryonic period. Although most often ectopic tissue undergoes atrophy in some cases, when adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) overstimulation occurs, the adrenal remnants in the testes may become hypertrophic and form testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). The growth of TARTs in the testes leads to obstruction of the seminiferous tubules which can mechanically impair the function of the gonads and cause irreversible azoospermia. We describe a patient suffering since neonatal period from congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), disorder with defected pathway of cortisol production, which leads to increased ACTH production and to overstimulation of adrenal cortex. He had very poor disease control and therefore in late puberty he was diagnosed with TARTs. At the age of 19.5 he was diagnosed with azoospermia, most likely caused by TARTs. It is the first evidence of TARTs in Polish literature. Although not many cases have been published so far the incidence of TARTs seems to be highly underdiagnosed, so it seems reasonable to consider the disease in differential diagnosis of male infertility. PMID:23342900

  14. Role of reactive nitrogen species in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a subset of free oxygen radicals called reactive oxygen species (ROS). Physiological levels of ROS are necessary to maintain the reproductive functions such as cell signaling, tight junction regulation, production of hormones, capacitation, acrosomal reaction, sperm motility, and zona pellucida binding. However, an excess of RNS can adversely affect reproductive potential by causing testicular dysfunction, decreased gonadotropin secretion, and abnormal semen parameters. Because such levels of RNS have been demonstrated in males with fertility problems and routine semen analysis has not been able to accurately predict IVF outcomes, it is imperative that novel strategies be developed in order to both assess and treat oxidative stress. This article describes both physiological and pathological roles of this unique subset of ROS. PMID:23241221

  15. A Nutrition Screening Form for Female Infertility Patients.

    PubMed

    Langley, Susie

    2014-12-01

    A Nutrition Screening Form (NSF) was designed to identify lifestyle risk factors that negatively impact fertility and to provide a descriptive profile of 300 female infertility patients in a private urban infertility clinic. The NSF was mailed to all new patients prior to the initial physician's visit and self-reported data were assessed using specific criteria to determine if a nutrition referral was warranted. This observational study revealed that 43% of the women had a body mass index (BMI) <20 or ≥25 kg/m(2), known risks for infertility. Almost half reported a history of "dieting" and unrealistic weight goals potentially limiting energy and essential nutrients. A high number reported eating disorders, vegetarianism, low fat or low cholesterol diets, and dietary supplement use. Fourteen percent appeared not to supplement with folic acid, 13% rated exercise as "extremely" or "very active", and 28% reported a "high" perceived level of stress. This preliminary research demonstrated that a NSF can be a useful tool to identify nutrition-related lifestyle factors that may negatively impact fertility and identified weight, BMI, diet, exercise, and stress as modifiable risk factors deserving future research. NSF information can help increase awareness among health professionals and patients about the important link between nutrition, fertility, and successful reproductive outcomes. PMID:26067073

  16. Y Choromosomal Microdeletion Screening in The Workup of Male Infertility and Its Current Status in India

    PubMed Central

    Suganthi, Ramaswamy; Vijesh, Vijayabhavanath Vijayakumaran; Vandana, Nambiar; Fathima Ali Benazir, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is an essential stage in human male gamete development, which is regulated by many Y chromosome specific genes. Most of these genes are centred in a specific region located on the long arm of the human Y chromosome known as the azoospermia factor region (AZF). Deletion events are common in Y chromosome because of its peculiar structural organization. Astonishingly, among the several known genetic causes of male infertility, Y chromosomal microdeletions emerged as the most frequent structural chromosome anomaly associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) like intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) helps to bypass the natural barriers of fertilization, but it increases the concern about the transmission of genetic defects. Experimental evidence suggested that the men with Y chromosomal microdeletions vertically transmitted their deletion as well as related fertility disorders to their offspring via these ART techniques. In India, infertility is on alarming rise. ART centres have opened up in virtually every state but still most of the infertility centres in India do not choose to perform Y chromosomal microdeletion diagnosis because of some advanced theoretical reasons. Moreover, there is no consensus among the clinicians about the diagnosis and management of Y chromosomal microdeletion defects. The current review discusses thoroughly the role of Y chromosome microdeletion screening in the workup of male infertility, its significance as a diagnostic test, novel approaches for screening Y deletions and finally a systematic review on the current status of Y chromosome microdeletion deletion screening in India. PMID:24520494

  17. TNF-α -308 polymorphisms and male infertility risk: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Taymour; Taymour, Mai

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies discussing TNF-α -308 polymorphism and male infertility. This study was conformed to Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant studies by two independent reviewers. Hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect or random-effects models when appropriate. Q-test was performed to evaluate study heterogeneity and publication bias appraised using funnel plots. The search yielded five studies (three of Caucasians ethnicity and 2 of Asian ethnicity) comprising 2939 men (2262 infertile men and 677 fertile controls). Most of the studied cases were carried out on TNF-α promoter region at positions -308 G/A (four studies) where -308 C/T was dealt with in one study. Overall, significant associations between TNF-α -308 gene polymorphisms and idiopathic male infertility risk were observed (fixed effect: OR = 0.472, 95% CI: 0.378-0.589; P = 0.001; random effect: OR = 0.407, 95% CI: 0.211-0.785; P = 0.007) with robust findings according to sensitivity analyses. Funnel plot inspections did not give evidences of publication bias. A stratified analysis performed for ethnic groups revealed significant association in both Caucasian and Asian populations. It is concluded that there are evidences of associations between TNF-α -308 gene polymorphisms and male infertility risk. PMID:26966560

  18. Imbalance in Seminal Fluid MIF Indicates Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Aljabari, Bayan; Calogero, Aldo E; Perdichizzi, Anna; Vicari, Enzo; Karaki, Raja; Lahloub, Tarek; Zatari, Rashed; El-Abed, Khaleel; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Miller, Edmund J; Pavlov, Valentin A; Al-Abed, Yousef

    2007-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a ubiquitous cytokine that functions in reproduction and plays an important role in sperm maturation and motility. Here we reveal a correlation between MIF levels in human seminal fluid and fertility status. We identify an abnormal biphasic profile of MIF in the seminal fluid of patients with impaired sperm parameters. Our findings may be of interest for the development of a diagnostic method for fertility status. PMID:17592555

  19. [Anejaculation caused by haemosiderosis: male infertility in hereditary haemochromatosis].

    PubMed

    ten Kate-Booij, M J; van Guldener, C; Cobbaert, C M

    2007-05-19

    A couple was investigated for subfertility. Haemochromatosis was suspected when the 36-year-old man had failure of ejaculation, fatigue and limited facial hair growth. Haemochromatosis was confirmed by an iron saturation of 102% (normal range: 20-45), a highly elevated serum ferritin concentration of 5468 mg/1l (normal range: 18-280) and highly elevated liver enzymes. Molecular genetics showed homozygous C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. Due to consequent venesection therapy, levels of ferritin and transferrin decreased and liver enzymes normalized. However luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone failed to increase to normal levels. Treatment with gonadotropins was then applied, which corrected ejaculation and semen characteristics. His partner failed to become pregnant with ovulation stimulation and intrauterine inseminations. After two unsuccessful IVF procedures she became pregnant in the third procedure. Haemochromatosis should be considered and iron studies performed if subfertility due to an endocrine disorder is being investigated. Deposition in the pituitary or the gonads of the HFE-mutated patients leads to hypogonadism. Most of the patients with C282Y mutation are homozygous (85-90%), but the majority of the carriers will not develop the disease. Deficiency of hepcidin, an important regulator for the iron metabolism, was suspected in our patient, based on the early onset of his disease and the low serum levels of hepcidin. The age at diagnosis and the start of venesections is critical for reversal of organ damage. Aggressive venesection can restore hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function, preventing further organ damage. But with increasing disease progression venesection will not restore azoospermia or the failure to ejaculate. PMID:17557664

  20. Male attitude towards masturbating: an impediment to infertility evaluation and sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Pottinger, A M; Carroll, K; Mason, G

    2016-09-01

    Male attitude about masturbation may influence early diagnosis and treatment of infertility and may be of particular burden in developing countries. We sought to explore attitude about masturbating and examine comfort/discomfort with masturbating and sexual history, pregnancy history and sperm quality in men investigating fertility potential. The study consisted of 83 male volunteers, 23-61 years, attending a fertility management unit in Kingston, Jamaica. Comfort with masturbation was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Participants also completed the unit's standard intake form for infertility investigations and produced a semen sample. T-tests, Mann-Whitney U-test and chi-square were used to compare differences in comfort level with outcome variables. We found 59% were comfortable masturbating although requiring external stimulation to produce a sample (48%); 6% (n = 5) failed to produce a sample after repeated attempts. A higher percentage of men uncomfortable with masturbating reported sexual problems (P < 0.05) and spending a longer time trying to have a baby (P < 0.05). Semen quality was not associated with masturbating comfort. Producing a sample by masturbation is standard for many assisted conception treatments. As comfort with masturbating may influence delay in infertility investigations and fertility outcome, efforts to improve men's comfort level with semen production should be considered in pre-treatment fertility counselling. PMID:26688574

  1. Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men.

    PubMed

    Chia, S E; Tay, S K

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility (of no known cause) among a group of infertile men compared with a group of fertile men. A total of 640 consecutive men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. Of these, 218 men (cases) were found to have no known cause for their infertility. A total of 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. The Singapore Standard Occupational Classification was used to code the subjects' occupations. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 4.24. Work, independently, is not a risk factor for infertility. Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.36 to 5.54), finance analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.90 to 11.40), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.98), and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72; 95% CI, 1.86 to 32.10) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers." Using services and clerical workers as a reference group, certain occupations are at a higher risk for infertility. Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility. PMID:11725334

  2. Prevalence and determinants of complementary and alternative medicine use among infertile patients in Lebanon: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used for the treatment of infertility. While the Middle East and North Africa region has been shown to house one of the fastest growing markets of CAM products in the world, research describing the use of CAM therapies among Middle-Eastern infertile patients is minimal. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, characteristics and determinants of CAM use among infertile patients in Lebanon. Methods A cross sectional survey design was used to carry out face-to-face interviews with 213 consecutive patients attending the Assisted Reproductive Unit at a major academic medical center in Beirut. The questionnaire comprised three sections: socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, infertility-related aspects and information on CAM use. The main outcome measure was the use of CAM modalities for infertility treatment. Determinants of CAM use were assessed through the logistic regression method. Results Overall, 41% of interviewed patients reported using a CAM modality at least once for their infertility. There was a differential by gender in the most commonly used CAM therapies; where males mostly used functional foods (e.g. honey & nuts) (82.9%) while females mostly relied on spiritual healing/prayer (56.5%). Factors associated with CAM use were higher household income (OR: 0.305, 95% CI: 0.132–0.703) and sex, with females using less CAM than males (OR: 0.12, 95% CI: 0.051–0.278). The older patients were diagnosed with infertility, the lower the odds of CAM use (p for trend <0.05). Almost half of the participants (48%) were advised on CAM use by their friends, and only 13% reported CAM use to their physician. Conclusions The considerably high use of CAM modalities among Lebanese infertile patients, added to a poor CAM use disclosure to physicians, underscore the need to integrate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as enhance infertile patients' awareness

  3. Infertility in a marine crustacean: have we been ignoring pollution impacts on male invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Yang, Gongda; Kille, Peter; Ford, Alex T

    2008-06-01

    Invertebrate infertility has been under-explored as a potential ecological issue or biomarker of stress within ecotoxicology. To date, the majority of studies focussing on contaminant induced infertility have centred on vertebrate groups. This study aimed to address the question whether industrial pollution has the ability to influence the sperm counts and testicular morphology of male amphipod, Echinogammarus marinus (Leach). In addition, the sperm counts of normal and intersex specimens were compared to assess the potential impact of a crustacean with a disrupted endocrine system. Specimens of E. marinus were collected at one industrially impacted (Inverkeithing) and two reference (Thurso and Loch Fleet) sites along the north and eastern coasts of Scotland. Significantly higher sperm counts ( approximately 20%) were observed from normal males collected from reference sites compared to the industrially impacted site. Higher proportions (30%) of intersex specimens were observed at the industrially impacted site compared to 17 and 6% male intersexuality observed at Thurso and Loch Fleet, respectively. Intersex male specimens from Thurso had lower mean sperm counts ( approximately 15%) than normal male specimens, however, this result was not significant (P=0.089). No significant differences in sperm counts were observed between normal and intersex males at Inverkeithing. Our results indicate that industrial pollution does have the potential to affect the sperm counts of male crustaceans. Whether the quality of sperm in Crustacea from contaminated sites is also compromised or whether this is an endocrine mediated effect is yet to be confirmed. To date, many of the studies of endocrine disruption in crustaceans have, surprisingly, focussed on female fecundity parameters, growth and moulting despite many of the vertebrate studies initially focussing on the male gender. Whether this could be an ecological issue needs to be addressed through further field and laboratory

  4. Polymorphisms in Protamine 1 and Protamine 2 predict the risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weijun; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qing; Wu, Qiuyue; Li, Tianfu; Zhang, Cui; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Mingchao; Xia, Xinyi

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the association between polymorphisms in protamine 1 and 2 genes and male infertility risk, with inconsistent results to date. This meta-analysis based on the 13 published case-control studies, including 7350 cases and 6167 controls, was performed to further establish the potential association between the 6 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs35576928, rs737008, rs35262993, rs2301365, rs1646022, rs2070923) in protamines 1 and 2 and male infertility. The -190C > A (rs2301365) polymorphism was identified as a risk factor for male infertility under all models. Interestingly, rs1646022 and rs737008 polymorphisms exerted protective effects against male sterility in Asian and population-based under some models. No associations between the remaining SNPs and male sterility were observed. PMID:26472740

  5. Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside of the scrotum warmer and can reduce sperm production by the testicle on the same side. ... in a man’s reproductive system Certain medicines Low sperm count Sperm that are abnormally shaped or that ...

  6. Successful birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection for severe male factor infertility in a woman with poor response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, S P; Hsiao, C J; Too, L L; Yang, T S; Ouyang, H J; Shieh, M L; Lin, P W

    2000-02-01

    Poor responders to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) present a clinical challenge for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer. The failure of IVF for the treatment of severe male-factor infertility can now be overcome by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The infertile couple documented in this case report came to our hospital because of bilateral tubal occlusion and severe oligoasthenospermia. After three poor-response cycles to COH, one mature oocyte was retrieved and was fertilized using ICSI. Normal fertilization ensued and one good-quality, eight-celled embryo was transferred into the woman's uterus. A single gestation was confirmed by ultrasound seven weeks after transfer. Amniocentesis was performed at 16 weeks and demonstrated a normal male fetus with a karyotype of 46,XY. The patient had a spontaneous, normal, vaginal delivery of a 2,650 g healthy male infant. PMID:10677930

  7. MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism Increases the Male Infertility Risk: A Meta-Analysis Involving 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Mancheng; Dong, Wenjing; He, Tingyu; Shi, Zhirong; Huang, Guiying; Ren, Rui; Huang, Sichong; Qiu, Shaopeng; Yuan, Runqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism may be a risk factor for male infertility. However, the epidemiologic studies showed inconsistent results regarding MTHFR polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to re-examine the controversy. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were conducted to select eligible literatures for this meta-analysis (updated to June 19, 2014). According to our inclusion criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), only high quality studies that observed the association between MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk were included. Crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of association between the MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk. Results Twenty-six studies involving 5,575 cases and 5,447 controls were recruited. Overall, MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism showed significant associations with male infertility risk in both fixed effects (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.23–1.46) and random effects models (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.19–1.62). Further, when stratified by ethnicity, sperm concentration and control sources, the similar results were observed in Asians, Caucasians, Azoo or OAT subgroup and both in population-based and hospital-based controls. Nevertheless, no significant association was only observed in oligo subgroup. Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of male infertility. Further well-designed analytical studies are necessary to confirm our conclusions and evaluate gene-environment interactions with male infertility risk. PMID:25793386

  8. FSH treatment of male idiopathic infertility improves pregnancy rate: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Santi, D; Granata, A R M; Simoni, M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to comprehensively evaluate whether FSH administration to the male partner of infertile couples improves pregnancy rate, spontaneously and/or after assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Methods Meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials in which FSH was administered for male idiopathic infertility, compared with placebo or no treatment. Randomization was not considered as an inclusion criterion. Results We found 15 controlled clinical studies (614 men treated with FSH and 661 treated with placebo or untreated). Concerning the type of FSH, eight studies used recombinant FSH, whereas seven studies used purified FSH. Nine studies evaluated spontaneous pregnancy rate, resulting in an overall odds ratio (OR) of about 4.5 (CI: 2.17–9.33). Eight studies evaluated pregnancy rate after ART, showing a significant OR of 1.60 (CI: 1.08–2.37). Sub-dividing studies according to the FSH preparations (purified/recombinant), pregnancy rate improvement remained significant for each preparation. Eleven studies considered sperm quality after FSH treatment, finding a significant improvement of sperm concentration (2.66×106/ml, CI: 0.47–4.84), but not of concentration of sperm with progressive motility (1.22×106/ml, CI: −0.07 to 2.52). Three trials evaluated testicular volume, showing a non-significant increase in men treated (1.35 ml, CI: −0.44 to 3.14). Conclusion The results of controlled clinical trials available in the literature indicate an improvement of pregnancy rate after FSH administration to the male partner of infertile couples, both spontaneously and after ART. However, the heterogeneity of studies, the high risk of bias and the lack of precise criteria to guide FSH administration limit the strength of these results. Future studies should be designed to identify the markers of FSH response which are helpful in the decision-making process. Meanwhile, the use of FSH in the treatment of male infertility should be cautious

  9. Impact of CAG repeat length in the androgen receptor gene on male infertility - a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feifan; Lan, Aihua; Lin, Zhidi; Song, Jianfei; Zhang, Yuening; Li, Jiatong; Gu, Kailong; Lv, Baihao; Zhao, Dong; Zeng, Siping; Zhang, Ruoheng; Zhao, Wei; Pan, Zhengyan; Deng, Xiaozhen; Yang, Xiaoli

    2016-07-01

    CAG repeats are polymorphic nucleotide repeats present in the androgen receptor gene. Many studies have estimated the association between CAG repeat length and male infertility, but the conclusions are controversial. Previous meta-analyses have come to different conclusions; however, new studies have been published. An updated meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed, CBM, CNKI and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for studies published from 1 January 2000 to 1 October 2015. Case-control studies on the association between CAG repeat length and male infertility using appropriate methodology were included. Forty studies were selected, including 3858 cases and 3161 controls. Results showed statistically significantly longer CAG repeat length among cases compared with controls (SMD = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-0.26). Shorter repeat length was associated with a lower risk of male infertility compared with a longer repeat length in the overall analysis (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.66-0.95). Moreover, CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in Caucasian populations, but not Asian or Egyptian populations. Subgroup analysis revealed no significant difference in German populations, but CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in China and the USA. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia. PMID:27157932

  10. Cocaine Use in the Infertile Male Population: A Marker for Conditions Resulting in Subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Samplaski, Mary K.; Bachir, Bassel G.; Lo, Kirk C.; Grober, Ethan D.; Lau, Susan; Jarvi, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We sought to evaluate the incidence and effect of cocaine use in the infertile male population. Materials and Methods Men presenting for fertility evaluation reporting cocaine usage were identified via prospectively collected database. Data were analyzed for usage patterns, reproductive history, associated drug use and medical conditions, hormonal and semen parameters. Results Thirty-eight out of 4,400 (0.9%) men reported cocaine use. Most used cocaine every 3 months or less. Compared with non-cocaine using men, cocaine users reported more recreational drug use (89 vs. 9.2%), marijuana use (78.9 vs. 11.4%), chlamydia (10.5 vs. 3%), herpes (7.9 vs. 2.5%), and tobacco use (55.3 vs. 19.5%). After excluding men with causes for azoospermia, the mean semen parameters for cocaine users were: volume 2.47 ± 1.02 ml; concentration 53.55 ± 84.04 × 106/ml; motility 15.72 ± 12.26%; total motile sperm count 76.67 ± 180.30 × 106. Conclusions Few (< 1%) men in our infertile population reported the use of cocaine, and the frequency of use was low. Given the low use rates and limitations of reporting bias, it is difficult to determine the direct effect of cocaine use on male fertility. However, while infrequent cocaine use seems to have limited impact on semen parameters, men reporting cocaine use represent a different cohort of men than the overall infertile population, with higher rates of concurrent substance abuse, tobacco use and infections, all of which may negatively impact their fertility. Reported cocaine users should be screened for concurrent drug use and infections. PMID:26195962

  11. Does varicocelectomy affect DNA fragmentation in infertile patients?

    PubMed Central

    Telli, Onur; Sarici, Hasmet; Kabar, Mucahit; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Resorlu, Berkan; Bozkurt, Selen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of varicocelectomy on DNA fragmentation index and semen parameters in infertile patients before and after surgical repair of varicocele. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 72 men with at least 1-year history of infertility, varicocele and oligospermia were examined. Varicocele sperm samples were classified as normal or pathological according to the 2010 World Health Organization guidelines. The acridine orange test was used to assess the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: DFI decreased significantly after varicocelectomy from 34.5% to 28.2% (P = 0.024). In addition all sperm parameters such as mean sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility and sperm morphology significantly increased from 19.5 × 106 to 30.7 × 106, 5.4 × 106/ml to 14.3 × 106/ml, and 19.9% to 31.2% (P < 0.001) and 2.6% to 3.1% (P = 0.017). The study was limited by the loss to follow-up of some patients and unrecorded pregnancy outcome due to short follow-up. Conclusion: Varicocele causes DNA-damage in spermatozoa. We suggest that varicocelectomy improves sperm parameters and decreases DFI. PMID:25878412

  12. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Lotti, Francesco; Corona, Giovanni; Vignozzi, Linda; Rossi, Matteo; Maseroli, Elisa; Cipriani, Sarah; Gacci, Mauro; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old) males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT) and insulin), seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8), seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8)), scrotal and transrectal ultrasound evaluations. Because we have previously assessed correlations between MetS and scrotal parameters in a larger cohort of infertile men, here, we focused on transrectal features. Prostate-related symptoms were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Twenty-two subjects fulfilled MetS criteria. In an age-adjusted logistic ordinal model, insulin levels increased as a function of MetS components (Wald = 29.5, P < 0.0001) and showed an inverse correlation with TT (adjusted r = -0.359, P< 0.0001). No association between MetS and NIH-CPSI or IPSS scores was observed. In an age-, TT-, insulin-adjusted logistic ordinal model, an increase in number of MetS components correlated negatively with normal sperm morphology (Wald = 5.59, P< 0.02) and positively with sIL-8 levels (Wald = 4.32, P < 0.05), which is a marker of prostate inflammation, with prostate total and transitional zone volume assessed using ultrasound (Wald = 17.6 and 12.5, both P < 0.0001), with arterial peak systolic velocity (Wald = 9.57, P = 0.002), with texture nonhomogeneity (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.87 (1.05–3.33), P < 0.05), with calcification size (Wald = 3.11, P < 0.05), but not with parameters of seminal vesicle size or function. In conclusion, in males of infertile couples, MetS is positively associated with prostate enlargement, biochemical (sIL8) and ultrasound-derived signs of prostate

  13. Splicing mutation in Sbf1 causes nonsyndromic male infertility in the rat.

    PubMed

    Liška, František; Chylíková, Blanka; Janků, Michaela; Šeda, Ondřej; Vernerová, Zdeňka; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-09-01

    In the inbred SHR/OlaIpcv rat colony, we identified males with small testicles and inability to reproduce. By selectively breeding their parents, we revealed the infertility to segregate as an autosomal recessive Mendelian character. No other phenotype was observed in males, and females were completely normal. By linkage using a backcross with Brown Norway strain, we mapped the locus to a 1.2Mbp segment on chromosome 7, harboring 35 genes. Sequencing of candidate genes revealed a G to A substitution in a canonical 'AG' splice site of intron 37 in Sbf1 (SET binding factor 1, alias myotubularin-related protein 5). This leads to either skipping exon 38 or shifting splicing one base downstream, invariantly resulting in frameshift, premature stop codon and truncation of the protein. Western blotting using two anti-Sbf1 antibodies revealed absence of the full-length protein in the mutant testis. Testicles of the mutant males were significantly smaller compared with SHR from 4weeks, peaked at 84% wild-type weight at 6weeks and declined afterward to 28%, reflecting massive germ cell loss. Histological examination revealed lower germ cell number; latest observed germ cell stage were round spermatids, resulting in the absence of sperm in the epididymis (azoospermia). SBF1 is a member of a phosphatase family lacking the catalytical activity. It probably modulates the activity of a phosphoinositol phosphatase MTMR2. Human homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for missense SBF1 mutations exhibit Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (manifested mainly as progressive neuropathy), while a single mouse knockout reported in the literature identified male infertility as the only phenotype manifestation. PMID:27335132

  14. Reduced vas deferens contraction and male infertility in mice lacking P2X1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Mulryan, K; Gitterman, D P; Lewis, C J; Vial, C; Leckie, B J; Cobb, A L; Brown, J E; Conley, E C; Buell, G; Pritchard, C A; Evans, R J

    2000-01-01

    P2X1 receptors for ATP are ligand-gated cation channels, present on many excitable cells including vas deferens smooth muscle cells. A substantial component of the contractile response of the vas deferens to sympathetic nerve stimulation, which propels sperm into the ejaculate, is mediated through P2X receptors. Here we show that male fertility is reduced by approximately 90% in mice with a targeted deletion of the P2X1 receptor gene. Male mice copulate normally--reduced fertility results from a reduction of sperm in the ejaculate and not from sperm dysfunction. Female mice and heterozygote mice are unaffected. In P2X1-receptor-deficient mice, contraction of the vas deferens to sympathetic nerve stimulation is reduced by up to 60% and responses to P2X receptor agonists are abolished. These results show that P2X1 receptors are essential for normal male reproductive function and suggest that the development of selective P2X1 receptor antagonists may provide an effective non-hormonal male contraceptive pill. Also, agents that potentiate the actions of ATP at P2X1 receptors may be useful in the treatment of male infertility. PMID:10638758

  15. Antioxidants and Polyphenols: Concentrations and Relation to Male Infertility and Treatment Success

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Tali; Har-Vardi, Iris; Harlev, Avi; Friger, Michael; Hamou, Batel; Barac, Tamar; Levitas, Eli; Saphier, Oshra

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is induced by reactive oxygen substances (ROS) that are known to affect male fertility. The aims of this study were to prospectively investigate and characterize total antioxidant and specifically polyphenols concentrations and their relations to sperm quality and fertility treatment success. During their infertility treatment, sixty-seven males were prospectively recruited to this study. After separation of the sperm from the semen sample, the semen fluid samples antioxidants and polyphenols concentrations were determined. Antioxidant concentration was significantly associated with sperm concentration and total motile count. Antioxidants concentration in the group of male with sperm concentration ≥ 15 × 106 was significantly higher than in the group of male with antioxidants concentration < 15 × 106 (830.3 ± 350 μM and 268.3 ± 220 μM, resp., p < 0.001). Polyphenols concentration did not differ between the groups of sperm concentration above and below 15 × 106 (178.7 ± 121 μM and 161.7 ± 61 μM, resp., p-NS). No difference was found between fertilization rates and antioxidants or polyphenols concentrations. This is the first study that reports on polyphenols concentration within semen fluid. More studies are needed in order to investigate polyphenols role in male fertility. PMID:27293518

  16. Association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T polymorphism with the risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xudong; Liu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Maochen; Gong, Ruihong; Xu, Yajun; Wang, Baoming

    2016-03-01

    Several molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to examine the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and male infertility susceptibility, but the results remain inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. In this meta-analysis, a total of 26 case-control studies including 5659 infertility cases and 5528 controls were selected to evaluate the possible association. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to assess the strength of association of C677T polymorphism with male infertility in the additive model, dominant model, recessive model and allele-frequency genetic model. In the overall analysis, the frequency of the 677T allele was significantly associated with male infertility susceptibility (OR = 2.32, 95%CI = 2.04-2.65 for TT vs. CC genotype; OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.00-1.19 for CT vs. CC genotype; OR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.10-1.29 for CT/TT vs. CC genotype; OR = 1.54, 95%CI = 1.36-1.74 for TT vs. CC/TT genotype; OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.15-1.30 for T vs. C allele). A subgroup analysis of the subjects showed that significantly strong association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and male infertility was present only in Asians, but not in Caucasians. Additionally, MTHFR C677T was associated with a significant increase in the risk of azoospermia in all genetic models. Meanwhile, no significantly increased risks of oligoasthenotertozoospermia (OAT) were found in most of the genetic models. In conclusion, this meta-analysis is in favor that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism is capable of causing male infertility susceptibility, especially in Asians and the subgroup of azoospermia. PMID:26584688

  17. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  18. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chubb, C

    1987-01-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of our investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, we investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. We propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction. PMID:3319549

  19. Association of the MTHFR A1298C Variant with Unexplained Severe Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Eloualid, Abdelmajid; Abidi, Omar; Charif, Majida; El houate, Brahim; Benrahma, Houda; Louanjli, Noureddine; Chadli, Elbakkay; Ajjemami, Maria; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Ken; Rhaissi, Houria; Rouba, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is one of the main regulatory enzymes involved in folate metabolism, DNA synthesis and remethylation reactions. The influence of MTHFR variants on male infertility is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C variants using PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) in a case group consisting of 344 men with unexplained reduced sperm counts compared to 617 ancestry-matched fertile or normozoospermic controls. The Chi square test was used to analyze the genotype distributions of MTHFR polymorphisms. Our data indicated a lack of association of the C677T variant with infertility. However, the homozygous (C/C) A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene was present at a statistically high significance in severe oligozoospermia group compared with controls (OR = 3.372, 95% confidence interval CI = 1.27–8.238; p = 0.01431). The genotype distribution of the A1298C variants showed significant deviation from the expected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting that purifying selection may be acting on the 1298CC genotype. Further studies are necessary to determine the influence of the environment, especially the consumption of diet folate on sperm counts of men with different MTHFR variants. PMID:22457816

  20. [Novel aspects of human infertility: the role of the male factor].

    PubMed

    Havrylyuk, Anna; Chopyak, Valentina; Nakonechnyyj, Andrij; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    In the article new aspects of the 'male factor' and its role in early stages of pregnancy are described. Among others, genetic and immunogenetic (KIR/KAR, HLA) factors are underlined as well as immunological ones (e.g. microchimerism). A significant part of this review is dedicated to infectious agents and semen inflammation as well as to the TORCH syndrome and chlamydiosis, concentrating on the male part, in which there are a lot of unclarified consequences. The problem of somatic diseases and general homeostasis of the male and its influence on pregnancy with particular emphasis on previous cryptorchidism is also discussed. The role of sperm DNA integrity in the fertilization process as well as genetic polymorphisms on the male side is emphasised. Particularly, molecular aspects of HLA-G and HLA-C in developmental biology are raised. There is a discussion of the individual approach to assisted reproductive techniques, which cannot be treated as a panacea for infertility treatment, particularly considering early stages of embryonal and fetal development. PMID:26561850

  1. Separation-Type Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Chip for Detecting Male Infertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Mo; Ju, Jin-Kyoung; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Young

    2008-06-01

    A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) biochip is presented in this paper. In this PCR chip, the glass substrate integrated with the microheater and microsensor is separable from the reaction chamber where the sample is injected, which now makes repeated reuse of the glass substrate possible. The heat transfer efficiency and target gene amplification of the proposed separable PCR chip was compared with that of the conventional united PCR chip. The results showed that the sex-determining Y chromosome (SRY) gene PCR for detecting male infertility was successfully performed in the separable chip. However, repeated multiplex PCR was successful for only two genes, SPGY1 and SRY, but not for gene SY586. Future work is needed for a multiplex PCR with more than three genes.

  2. Male infertility, genetic analysis of the DAZ genes on the human Y chromosome and genetic analysis of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Fox, M S; Reijo Pera, R A

    2001-11-26

    Many genes that are required for fertility have been identified in model organisms (). Mutations in these genes cause infertility due to defects in development of the germ cell lineage, but the organism is otherwise healthy. Although human reproduction is undoubtedly as complex as that of other organisms, very few fertility loci have been mapped (). This is in spite of the prevalence of human infertility, the lack of effective treatments to remedy germ cell defects, and the cost to couples and society of assisted reproductive techniques. Fifteen percent of couples are infertile and half of all cases can be traced to the male partner. Aside from defects in sperm production, most infertile men are otherwise healthy. This review is divided into two distinct parts to discuss work that: (i) led to the identification of several genes on the Y chromosome that likely function in sperm production; and (ii) implicates DNA repair in male infertility via increased frequency of mutations in DNA from men with meiotic arrest. PMID:11694340

  3. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) T-786C, 4a4b, and G894T polymorphisms and male infertility: study for idiopathic asthenozoospermia and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Pingping; Zou, Shasha; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Yanan; Yang, Juanjuan; Song, Zhijian; Jiang, Huayu; Shi, Huijuan; Huang, Yiran; Li, Zheng; Shi, Yongyong; Hu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies on the eNOS gene and male infertility show that expression of eNOS regulates normal spermatogenesis in the testis, and the eNOS gene variants (T-786C, 4a4b, and G894T) are potentially involved in impairment of spermatogenesis and sperm function. Thus, we conducted this association and meta-analysis study to further validate whether variants of those three loci affected the risk of idiopathic asthenozoospermia (AZS) and male infertility. Approximately 340 Chinese idiopathic AZS patients and 342 healthy men were included for this case-control study, genotyped by gel electrophoresis analysis or direct sequencing of PCR products. The eNOS mRNA isolated from the semen of patients was further examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Also, a meta-analysis of association between eNOS gene polymorphisms and male infertility was performed. A significant association was identified on allelic level between 4a4b variant and AZS in our study (chi-squared = 7.53, corrected P = 0.018, odds ratio (OR) = 1.808), while there were no significant difference of T-786C and G894T for asthenozoospermia in both genotype and allele distributions. In addition, expression of eNOS was up-regulated in patients compared with controls (about 2.4-fold, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the results of the meta-analysis support the conclusion that the T-786C and 4a4b loci were associated with male infertility in both Asian and Caucasian populations. Our study provides genetic evidence for the eNOS gene being a risk factor for idiopathic AZS and male infertility. Considering genetic differences among populations and complex pathogenesis of male infertility, more validating studies using independent samples are suggested in the future. PMID:25505202

  4. GENE ARRAYS FOR ELUCIDATING MECHANISTIC DATA FROM MODELS OF MALE INFERTILITY AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURE IN MICE, RATS AND HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene arrays for elucidating mechanistic data from models of male infertility and chemical exposure in mice, rats and humans
    John C. Rockett and David J. Dix
    Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects ...

  5. Induction of Excessive Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Drosophila Male Accessory Gland Results in Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clement Y.; Avila, Frank W.; Clark, Andrew G.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the ER. A cell responds to ER stress with the unfolded protein response (UPR), a complex program of transcriptional and translational changes aimed at clearing misfolded proteins. Secretory tissues and cells are particularly well adapted to respond to ER stress because their function requires high protein production and secretory load. The insect male accessory gland (AG) is a secretory tissue involved in male fertility. The AG secretes many seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) essential for male reproduction. Among adult Drosophila tissues, we find that genes upregulated by ER stress are most highly expressed in the AG, suggesting that the AG is already undergoing high levels of ER stress due to its normal secretory functions. We hypothesized that induction of excessive ER stress in the AG above basal levels, would perturb normal function and provide a genetic tool for studying AG and SFP biology. To test this, we genetically induced excessive ER stress in the AG by conditional 1) expression of a misfolded protein or 2) knockdown of the UPR regulatory protein, BiP. Both genetic manipulations induced excessive ER stress in the AG, as indicated by the increase in Xbp1 splicing, a marker of ER stress. Both models resulted in a large decrease in or loss of SFP production and male infertility. Sperm production, motility, and transfer appeared unaffected. The induction of strong ER stress in the insect male AG may provide a simple way for studying or manipulating male fertility, as it eliminates AG function while preserving sperm production. PMID:25742606

  6. Semen inflammatory markers and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Dehghan Marvast, L; Aflatoonian, A; Talebi, A R; Ghasemzadeh, J; Pacey, A A

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have given conflicting results about the effect of generally infection and Chlamydia trachomatis on seminal ILs and semen parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between semen quality and the level of seminal interleukins (ILs) in infertile couples with C. trachomatis. Blood, first void urine (FVU) and semen were obtained from 250 infertile men who had failed to conceive after 12 months of trying. Serological analysis for specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies to C. trachomatis in serum, the presence of C. trachomatis in FVU and semen sample and semen analysis were carried out. The main results are as follows: (i) elevated IL-6 and IL-8 are observed in C. trachomatis-positive men, but this is not significant and it varies by diagnostic method; and (ii) IL-6 and IL-8 levels were correlated with each other and the concentration of leucocytes, but IL-8 was correlated with semen volume and patient's age. This study showed that men with such an infection in FVU samples (PCR positive) had only lower semen volume compared with men without infection. PMID:26646684

  7. Association between polymorphisms of exon 12 and exon 24 of JHDM2A gene and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hojati, Zohreh; Nouri Emamzadeh, Fatemeh; Dehghanian, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some dynamic changes occurs during spermatogenesis such as histone removal and its replacement with transition nuclear protein and protamine. These proteins are required for packing and condensation of sperm chromatin. JHDM2A is a histone demethylase that directly binds to promoter regions of Tnp1 and Prm1 genes and controls their expression by removing H3K9 at their promoters. Objective: The association between polymorphisms of exon 12 and exon 24 in JHDM2A gene and male infertility were evaluated for the first time. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 400 infertile men (oligospermia and azoospermia) and normal healthy fathers were evaluated (n=200). Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP-PCR) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used for screening any polymorphisms that are exist in exon 12 and exon 24. Results: Exon 24 PCR products were analyzed by RFLP but no polymorphism was found in this exon at the restriction site of EcoRV enzyme. Our monitoring along the whole nucleotides of exon 12 and exon 24 were continued using SSCP method, but we found no change along these exons. Conclusion: Generally, this study evaluated the association between polymorphisms in exon 12 and exon 24 of JHDM2A gene and male infertility which suggests that polymorphisms of these exons may not be associated with the risk of male infertility. PMID:27525322

  8. Molecular detection of potential sexually transmitted pathogens in semen and urine specimens of infertile and fertile males.

    PubMed

    Abusarah, Eman A; Awwad, Ziad M; Charvalos, Ekatherina; Shehabi, Asem A

    2013-12-01

    A total of 93 infertile and 70 fertile men attending various urology and gynecology clinics in Jordan were investigated in this prospective study. First void urine and the corresponding semen specimens were collected from 96% of the patients. Presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) DNA in specimen was detected using polymerase chain reaction. The distribution of NG, CT, UU, and MG in semen and FVU specimens among infertile versus fertile men was 6.5% versus 0%, 4.3% versus 1.4%, 10.8% versus 5.7%, and 3.2% versus 1.4%, respectively. Two of infertile and 1 of fertile men harbored mixed pathogens. The highest number of positive potential pathogens was found among young men aged 20-29 years old. The present study found a very high concordance between the detection of CT, UU, and MG DNA in semen and the corresponding FVU specimens, while NG DNA found only in semen and not in the corresponding FVU specimens. This study also revealed that Ureaplasma parvum species is more prevalent than Ureaplasma urealyticum in specimens of infertile men (90%). The study demonstrates that infertile men have higher prevalence of NG, CT, UU, and MG compared with fertile men and NG as significantly associated with infertile men. PMID:24079950

  9. What Infertility Treatments Are Available?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Males Fertility Treatments for Females Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Treatments for Diseases That Cause Infertility American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012) Quick facts about infertility . ...

  10. Male infertility workup needs additional testing of expressed prostatic secretion and/or post-massage urine.

    PubMed

    Punab, Margus; Kullisaar, Tiiu; Mändar, Reet

    2013-01-01

    The male factor accounts for almost 50% of infertility cases. Inflammation may reduce semen quality via several pathways, including oxidative stress (OxS). As male infertility routinely is assessed using semen analysis only, the possible presence of non-leukocytospermic asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis may be overlooked. We compared local and systemic OxS levels in male partners of infertile couples with different inflammation patterns in their genital tract and/or oligospermia. Subjects (n=143) were grouped according to inflammation in their semen, expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), and/or post-massage urine (post-M). Systemic (8-isoprostanes in urine) and local (diene conjugates and total antioxidant capacity in seminal plasma) OxS was measured The levels of OxS markers were significantly elevated in both severe inflammation groups--leukocytospermic men and subjects whose inflammation was limited only to EPS and/or post-M. Comparison between oligospermic and non-oligospermic men with genital tract inflammation, and oligozoospermic men with or without inflammation in the genital tract indicated that inflammation but not oligospermia status had significant impact on the measured OxS markers. Hence, a high leukocyte count in prostate-specific materials (EPS, post-M), even in absence of clear leukocytopsermia, is an important source of local and systemic OxS that may be associated with male infertility and affect general health. We suggest including the tests for detection of inflammation of the prostate into the workup of infertile men as was suggested in the WHO 1993 recommendation. PMID:24349358

  11. Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chidrawar, VR; Chitme, HR; Patel, KN; Patel, NJ; Racharla, VR; Dhoraji, NC; Vadalia, KR

    2011-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity. PMID:21607051

  12. [Y-autosome translocation associated with male infertility: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yumura, Yasushi; Murase, Mariko; Katayama, Kayo; Segino, Miwa; Aizawa, Yoshino; Kuroda, Shin-No-Suke; Noguchi, Kazumi

    2012-06-01

    A 40-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a 12-year history of infertility. He was a well developed male weighing 78 kg with a height of 171 cm. Physical examinations revealed male habitus with normal adult pubic and axillary hair. The penis, epididymides, spermatic cords and prostate were normal. The right testis was about 15 ml in volume and left ne was approximately 12 ml, respectively. Repeated semen analyses showed azoospermia except for only one time when 4 immotile sperm were detected. The plasma levels of lactate hydrogenase, follicle stimulating hormone prolactin and testosterone were within normal limits. Chromosome analysis of peripheral lymphocytes revealed a balanced reciprocal translocation between the short arm of chromosome 12 and the long arm of the Y chromosome (46, X, t (Y ; 12) (q12 ; p13.3)). We performed microdissection testicular sperm extraction and retrieved 11 spermatozoa (10 progressive motile). Seminiferous epithelium showed maturation arrest at the stage of spermatid. Mean Johnsen's score count was 6. The etiology and clinical features of this rare disease were briefly discussed. PMID:22874512

  13. The orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner mediates male infertility induced by diethylstilbestrol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Volle, David H.; Decourteix, Mélanie; Garo, Erwan; McNeilly, Judy; Fenichel, Patrick; Auwerx, Johan; McNeilly, Alan S.; Schoonjans, Kristina; Benahmed, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Studies in rodents have shown that male sexual function can be disrupted by fetal or neonatal administration of compounds that alter endocrine homeostasis, such as the synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES). Although the molecular basis for this effect remains unknown, estrogen receptors likely play a critical role in mediating DES-induced infertility. Recently, we showed that the orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (Nr0b2), which is both a target gene and a transcriptional repressor of estrogen receptors, controls testicular function by regulating germ cell entry into meiosis and testosterone synthesis. We therefore hypothesized that some of the harmful effects of DES on testes could be mediated through Nr0b2. Here, we present data demonstrating that Nr0b2 deficiency protected mice against the negative effects of DES on testis development and function. During postnatal development, Nr0b2-null mice were resistant to DES-mediated inhibition of germ cell differentiation, which may be the result of interference by Nr0b2 with retinoid signals that control meiosis. Adult Nr0b2-null male mice were also protected against the effects of DES; however, we suggest that this phenomenon was due to the removal of the repressive effects of Nr0b2 on steroidogenesis. Together, these data demonstrate that Nr0b2 plays a critical role in the pathophysiological changes induced by DES in the mouse testis. PMID:19884658

  14. Impact of partial DAZ1/2 deletion and partial DAZ3/4 deletion on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuening; Li, Muyan; Xiao, Feifan; Teng, Ruobing; Zhang, Chengdong; Lan, Aihua; Gu, Kailong; Li, Jiatong; Wang, Di; Li, Hongtao; Jiang, Li; Zeng, Siping; He, Min; Huang, Yi; Guo, Peifen; Zhang, Xinhua; Yang, Xiaoli

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to investigate the effect of the partial DAZ1/2 deletion and partial DAZ3/4 deletion on male infertility through a comprehensive literature search. All case-control studies related to partial DAZ1/2 and DAZ3/4 deletions and male infertility risk were included in our study. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association and its precision, respectively. Eleven partial DAZ1/2 deletion and nine partial DAZ3/4 deletion studies were included. Partial DAZ1/2 deletion was significantly associated with male infertility risk in the overall analysis (ORs=2.58, 95%CI: 1.60-4.18, I(2)=62.1%). Moreover, in the subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity, partial DAZ1/2 deletion was significantly associated with male infertility risk in the East Asian populations under the random effect model (ORs=2.96, 95%CI: 1.87-4.71, I(2)=51.3%). Meanwhile, the analysis suggested that partial DAZ3/4 deletion was not associated with male infertility risk in East-Asian ethnicity (ORs=1.02, 95%CI: 0.54-1.92, I(2)=71.3%), but not in Non-East Asian under the random effect model (ORs=3.56, 95%CI: 1.13-11.23, I(2)=0.0%,). More interestingly, partial DAZ1/2 deletion was associated with azoospermia (ORs=2.63, 95%CI: 1.19-5.81, I(2)=64.7%) and oligozoospermia (ORs=2.53, 95%CI: 1.40-4.57, I(2)=51.8%), but partial DAZ3/4 deletion was not associated with azoospermia (ORs=0.71, 95%CI: 0.23-2.22, I(2)=71.7%,) and oligozoospermia (ORs=1.21, 95%CI: 0.65-2.24, I(2)=55.5%). In our meta-analysis, partial DAZ1/2 deletion is a risk factor for male infertility and different ethnicities have different influences, whereas partial DAZ3/4 deletion has no effect on fertility but partial DAZ3/4 deletion might have an impact on Non-East Asian male. PMID:26232607

  15. Coenzyme Q10, α-Tocopherol, and Oxidative Stress Could Be Important Metabolic Biomarkers of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kucharská, Jarmila; Dubravicky, Jozef; Mojto, Viliam; Singh, Ram B.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant capacity, and impaired sperm mitochondrial function are the main factors contributing to male infertility. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of the per os treatment with Carni-Q-Nol (440 mg L-carnitine fumarate + 30 mg ubiquinol + 75 IU vitamin E + 12 mg vitamin C in each softsule) in infertile men on sperm parameters, concentration of antioxidants (coenzyme Q10,  CoQ10-TOTAL, γ, and α-tocopherols), and oxidative stress in blood plasma and seminal fluid. Forty infertile men were supplemented daily with two or three Carni-Q-Nol softsules. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, improved sperm density was observed (by 48.9% and 80.9%, resp.) and after 3-month treatment the sperm pathology decreased by 25.8%. Concentrations of CoQ10-TOTAL (ubiquinone + ubiquinol) and α-tocopherol were significantly increased and the oxidative stress was decreased. In conclusion, the effect of supplementary therapy with Carni-Q-Nol showed benefits on sperm function in men, resulting in 45% pregnancies of their women. We assume that assessment of oxidative stress, CoQ10-TOTAL, and α-tocopherol in blood plasma and seminal fluid could be important metabolic biomarkers in both diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:25810566

  16. Coenzyme Q₁₀, α-tocopherol, and oxidative stress could be important metabolic biomarkers of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Gvozdjáková, Anna; Kucharská, Jarmila; Dubravicky, Jozef; Mojto, Viliam; Singh, Ram B

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant capacity, and impaired sperm mitochondrial function are the main factors contributing to male infertility. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of the per os treatment with Carni-Q-Nol (440 mg L-carnitine fumarate + 30 mg ubiquinol + 75 IU vitamin E + 12 mg vitamin C in each softsule) in infertile men on sperm parameters, concentration of antioxidants (coenzyme Q10,  CoQ(10-TOTAL), γ, and α-tocopherols), and oxidative stress in blood plasma and seminal fluid. Forty infertile men were supplemented daily with two or three Carni-Q-Nol softsules. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, improved sperm density was observed (by 48.9% and 80.9%, resp.) and after 3-month treatment the sperm pathology decreased by 25.8%. Concentrations of CoQ(10-TOTAL) (ubiquinone + ubiquinol) and α-tocopherol were significantly increased and the oxidative stress was decreased. In conclusion, the effect of supplementary therapy with Carni-Q-Nol showed benefits on sperm function in men, resulting in 45% pregnancies of their women. We assume that assessment of oxidative stress, CoQ(10-TOTAL), and α-tocopherol in blood plasma and seminal fluid could be important metabolic biomarkers in both diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:25810566

  17. Major spliceosome defects cause male infertility and are associated with nonobstructive azoospermia in humans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Sun, Liwei; Wen, Yang; Liu, Yujuan; Yu, Jun; Mao, Feiyu; Wang, Ya; Tong, Chao; Guo, Xuejiang; Hu, Zhibin; Sha, Jiahao; Liu, Mingxi; Xia, Laixin

    2016-04-12

    Processing of pre-mRNA into mRNA is an important regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes that is mediated by the spliceosome, a huge and dynamic ribonucleoprotein complex. Splicing defects are implicated in a spectrum of human disease, but the underlying mechanistic links remain largely unresolved. Using a genome-wide association approach, we have recently identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in humans that associate with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA), a common cause of male infertility. Here, using genetic manipulation of corresponding candidate loci in Drosophila, we show that the spliceosome component SNRPA1/U2A is essential for male fertility. Loss of U2A in germ cells of the Drosophila testis does not affect germline stem cells, but does result in the accumulation of mitotic spermatogonia that fail to differentiate into spermatocytes and mature sperm. Lack of U2A causes insufficient splicing of mRNAs required for the transition of germ cells from proliferation to differentiation. We show that germ cell-specific disruption of other components of the major spliceosome manifests with the same phenotype, demonstrating that mRNA processing is required for the differentiation of spermatogonia. This requirement is conserved, and expression of human SNRPA1 fully restores spermatogenesis in U2A mutant flies. We further report that several missense mutations in human SNRPA1 that inhibit the assembly of the major spliceosome dominantly disrupt spermatogonial differentiation in Drosophila. Collectively, our findings uncover a conserved and specific requirement for the major spliceosome during the transition from spermatogonial proliferation to differentiation in the male testis, suggesting that spliceosome defects affecting the differentiation of human spermatogonia contribute to NOA. PMID:27035939

  18. Up-Regulation of microRNA-210 is Associated with Spermatogenesis by Targeting IGF2 in Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dongdong; Huang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Weiqun; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis. MicroRNA-210 (miR-210) expression was up-regulated in the testes of sterile men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-210 involved in the spermatogenesis in patients with NOA are unknown. Material/Methods Expression of miR-210 and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) in the testes of NOA cases (only including maturation arrest and hypospermatogenesis) were detected in this study. We carried out in vitro experiments to determine if IGF2 was directly targeted by miR-210 in NT2 cells. Results Compared with obstructive azoospermia (OA) as normal control, our results suggest that miR-210 was significantly up-regulated in testis of patients with NOA (P<0.05), and IGF2 was down-regulated, but without a significant difference. The results also indicated that IGF2 was directly targeted by miR-210 in NT2 cells. Conclusions The results showed that miR-210 was involved in spermatogenesis by targeting IGF2 in male infertility. PMID:27535712

  19. Genetic association of UBE2B variants with susceptibility to male infertility in a Northeast Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Wen, W; Yu, J-G; Qu, S-Q; Wang, S-S; Liu, J; Li, B-S; Luo, Y

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2B gene (UBE2B) is involved in the regular and symmetric organization of the fibrous sheath of sperm flagella. This study aimed to examine the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in UBE2B and infertility in Northeast Chinese men. We carried out a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for SNPs in 312 fertile males and 388 infertile males in Northeast China. Taking advantage of the high degree of linkage disequilibrium among SNPs surrounding UBE2B (r(2) > 0.90), we selected 2 haplotype-tagging SNPs with a minor allele frequency of 5% or greater (rs17167484: g.-293T>G and rs3777373: g.20016A>G) that captured the majority of the genetic variations in a 40-kbp region of this gene. No significant differences between cases and controls were found in the allelic and genotype distribution of the 2 SNPs. However, the haplotype analysis for the 2 SNPs showed that the GA haplotype was significantly associated with a greater than 3-fold decreased risk of male infertility (P = 0.003). Because the frequency of the GA haplotype (1.1%) is relatively low in Chinese men, such a significant finding may occur by chance, but the results are still significant after multiple comparison adjustments (P = 0.012 after Bonferroni's correction). We conclude that the UBE2B polymorphisms g.-293T>G, g.20016A>G and g.9157A>G are not associated with male infertility, and the GA haplotype is likely a protective factor for male fertility in Northeast Chinese men. PMID:23079972

  20. TDRP deficiency contributes to low sperm motility and is a potential risk factor for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shanhua; Wu, Fei; Cao, Xinyi; He, Min; Liu, Naijia; Wu, Huihui; Yang, Zhihong; Ding, Qiang; Wang, Xuanchun

    2016-01-01

    TDRP (Testis Development-Related Protein), a nuclear factor, might play an important role in spermatogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of TDRP underlying these fundamental processes remain elusive. In this study, a Tdrp-deficient mouse model was generated. Fertility tests and semen analysis were performed. Tdrp-deficient mice were not significantly different from wild-type littermates in development of testes, genitourinary tract, or sperm count. Morphologically, spermatozoa of the Tdrp-deficient mice was not significantly different from the wild type. Several sperm motility indexes, i.e. the average path velocity (VAP), the straight line velocity (VSL) and the curvilinear velocity (VCL) were significantly decreased in Tdrp-deficient mice (p<0.05). The proportion of slow velocity sperm also increased significantly in the mutant mice (p<0.05). However, fertility tests showed that no significant difference inaverage offspring amount (AOA), frequency of copulatory plug (FCP), and frequency of conception (FC). Furthermore, TDRP1 could interact with PRM2, which might be the molecular mechanism of its nuclear function in spermatozoa. In conclusion, these data collectively demonstrated that Tdrp deficiency impaired the sperm motility, but Tdrp deficiency alone was not sufficient to cause male infertility in mice. Additionally, TDRP1 might participate in spermatogenes is through interaction with PRM2. PMID:27069551

  1. Investigating ROS sources in male infertility: a common end for numerous pathways.

    PubMed

    Lavranos, G; Balla, M; Tzortzopoulou, A; Syriou, V; Angelopoulou, R

    2012-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are active byproducts of aerobic metabolism. Although they are constantly produced during normal cellular activities in the mitochondria, their action is counteracted by inherent antioxidant systems. This equilibrium is distorted in the case of acute or chronic inflammation, which results in increased ROS production and, ultimately, oxidative stress. In sperm, ROS are produced by both spermatozoa and circulating leucocytes and may be part of normal adaptive reactions, such as the capacitation process. However, a number of external toxicants may also contribute to ROS production in the testis and epididymis, leading to a decrease in sperm viability and motility and, therefore, an increased onset of the male factor of infertility. Such pro-oxidative conditions include, among others, exposure to radiation, extreme temperature, certain drugs, toxins, heavy metals, smoking and biological hazards. The current review paper summarizes the available evidence incriminating ROS and oxidative stress as the underlying pathophysiological mechanism leading to the onset of reproductive toxicity in each of these settings. PMID:22749934

  2. TDRP deficiency contributes to low sperm motility and is a potential risk factor for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shanhua; Wu, Fei; Cao, Xinyi; He, Min; Liu, Naijia; Wu, Huihui; Yang, Zhihong; Ding, Qiang; Wang, Xuanchun

    2016-01-01

    TDRP (Testis Development-Related Protein), a nuclear factor, might play an important role in spermatogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of TDRP underlying these fundamental processes remain elusive. In this study, a Tdrp-deficient mouse model was generated. Fertility tests and semen analysis were performed. Tdrp-deficient mice were not significantly different from wild-type littermates in development of testes, genitourinary tract, or sperm count. Morphologically, spermatozoa of the Tdrp-deficient mice was not significantly different from the wild type. Several sperm motility indexes, i.e. the average path velocity (VAP), the straight line velocity (VSL) and the curvilinear velocity (VCL) were significantly decreased in Tdrp-deficient mice (p<0.05). The proportion of slow velocity sperm also increased significantly in the mutant mice (p<0.05). However, fertility tests showed that no significant difference inaverage offspring amount (AOA), frequency of copulatory plug (FCP), and frequency of conception (FC). Furthermore, TDRP1 could interact with PRM2, which might be the molecular mechanism of its nuclear function in spermatozoa. In conclusion, these data collectively demonstrated that Tdrp deficiency impaired the sperm motility, but Tdrp deficiency alone was not sufficient to cause male infertility in mice. Additionally, TDRP1 might participate in spermatogenes is through interaction with PRM2. PMID:27069551

  3. Smoking and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Smoking and infertility Can smoking affect my ability to have a ... smoke do not conceive as efficiently as nonsmokers. Infertility rates in both male and female smokers are ...

  4. Low-level environmental arsenic exposure correlates with unexplained male infertility risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Weipan; Huang, Qingyu; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Xia, Yankai; Zhang, Weibing; Shen, Heqing

    2016-11-15

    Humans are exposed to arsenic via drinking water, dietary intake and inhaled particulates. Endemic chronic arsenic exposure related reproductive toxicity is well documented, but the effect of low-level general environmental arsenic exposure on unexplained male infertility (UMI) remains unclear. In this case-control study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between non-geogenic environmental arsenic exposure and UMI risk. One hundred and one infertile men with normal semen as cases and sixty one fertile men as controls were recruited. Five urinary arsenic species: pentavalent arsenate (Asi(V)), trivalent arsenite (Asi(III)), methylated to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), arsenobetaine (AsB) were quantitatively measured by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). To assess the semen quality, semen volume, sperm concentration, total motility, and progressive motility were measured. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the differences of arsenic species and index between the case and the control group; we observed that concentrations of Asi(V), AsB, MMA(V), DMA(V), total inorganic As and total As were significantly higher in the cases than the controls. The urine Asi(V) level increased more than twenty folds in case group. Moreover, higher redox index (Asi(V)/Asi(III)) and lower primary arsenic methylation index (PMI=MMA(V)/Asi) were observed for case group. Furthermore, through the logistic regression analysis, we observed that the urine Asi(V) level and PMI were most significantly associated with UMI risk among the observations. Specifically, in comparison to the first quartile, the subjects with higher Asi(V) levels were more likely to exhibit UMI with increasing adjusted odds ratios (AORs) (adjusted by age, body mass index, drinking status and smoking status) of 8.39 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.59-27.17], 13.12 (95% CI, 3.44-50.12) and 36.51 (95% CI, 8

  5. Zinc Levels in Seminal Fluid in Infertile Males and its Relation with Serum Free Testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Ajay Rajeshwar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The role of zinc is critical to reproduction potential. Seminal zinc is thought to be derived almost exclusively from prostatic secretions. Sperm motility is significantly influenced by zinc. Zinc deficiency has been linked with male sterility and subfertility. Aim To assess the influence of seminal plasma zinc on seminogram characteristics and whether endogenous testosterone affects the seminal levels of zinc. Materials and Methods The semen samples were obtained from 150 male partners of infertile couples who attended the Reproductive Biology Unit of the Department of Physiology, within the age 21-50 years and semen samples were analysed for the routine seminogram parameters. All the subjects were classified into two main groups, A- the subjects with normal ejaculates (n=62) and B- the subjects with abnormal ejaculates, who were further sub divided into the following groups: i) Asthenoteratozoospermics (n=43); ii) Oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (n=24); and iii) Azoospermics (n=21). The seminal plasma zinc was measured spectrophotometrically. The sample for serum free testosterone was sent to Thyrocare laboratory. Results The seminal plasma zinc was found to be significantly lower in the abnormal ejaculates than in the normal ejaculates. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the seminal plasma zinc and serum free testosterone (p<0.05, r=0.449). Statistically significant correlation was also found between seminal plasma zinc and all the seminogram parameters such as the sperm concentration, sperm motility and sperm morphology (p<0.05, r= 0.86, 0.87 and 0.86 respectively). Conclusion Low seminal plasma zinc might be a significant causative factor in impairing sperm functions and its dependence on endogenous free testosterone, is observed from a positive correlation between the two. PMID:27437207

  6. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghistani, Hala I.; Hamad, Abdul-Wahab R.; Abdel-Dayem, Muna; Al-Swaifi, Mohammad; Abu Zaid, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs) and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone) levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74 ± 24.331, 365.9 ± 16.55, and 367.5 ± 21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325 ± 0.243, 0.341 ± 0.022, and 0.357 ± 0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6 ± 26.75, 315.6 ± 13.08, and 332.08 ± 24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P = .001). This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47%) of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46%) without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0%) fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P = .017). ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P < .05). In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele) and fertile (P < .05). Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with autoimmunity and sperm antibodies

  7. Efficacy of aphrodisiac plants towards improvement in semen quality and motility in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Arun Yashwant; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. In the present study, herbal composition prepared by using medicinal plants having aphrodisiac potentials was administered orally to the albino rats for 40 days and to the oligospermic patients for 90 days in order to prove the efficacy of herbal composition. Herbal composition was the mixture (powder form) of the medicinal plants namely, Mucuna pruriens (Linn), Chlorophytum borivillianum (Sant and Fernand), and Eulophia campestris (Wall). In the neem oil treated albino rats, there was significant reduction in almost all the parameters viz. body weight, testes and epididymes weight, sperm density and motility, serum levels of testosterone, FSH, and LH compared with control rats. Treatment with said herbal composition for 40 days results significant increased in the body weight, testis, and epididymes weight in rats. Concomitantly the sperm motility and the sperm density were significantly increased. After 90 days of treatment with this herbal composition, sperm density vis-a-vis motility was increased in oligozoospermic patients as a result of elevation in serum testosterone levels. No side effects were noticed during the entire duration of the trial. PMID:22499723

  8. Association study of folate-related enzymes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR) genetic variants with non-obstructive male infertility in a Polish population.

    PubMed

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Wajda, Anna; Malinowski, Damian; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafal; Drozdzik, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Spermatogenesis is a process where an important contribution of genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (677C > T; 1298A > C), MTR (2756A > G) and MTRR (66A > G) polymorphisms in a Polish population. No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies were detected between the groups of 284 infertile men and of 352 fertile controls. These results demonstrate that common polymorphisms in folate pathway genes are not major risk factors for non-obstructive male infertility in the Polish population. PMID:25983623

  9. TNF-α −308 polymorphisms and male infertility risk: A meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Taymour; Taymour, Mai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies discussing TNF-α −308 polymorphism and male infertility. This study was conformed to Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant studies by two independent reviewers. Hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect or random-effects models when appropriate. Q-test was performed to evaluate study heterogeneity and publication bias appraised using funnel plots. The search yielded five studies (three of Caucasians ethnicity and 2 of Asian ethnicity) comprising 2939 men (2262 infertile men and 677 fertile controls). Most of the studied cases were carried out on TNF-α promoter region at positions −308 G/A (four studies) where −308 C/T was dealt with in one study. Overall, significant associations between TNF-α −308 gene polymorphisms and idiopathic male infertility risk were observed (fixed effect: OR = 0.472, 95% CI: 0.378–0.589; P = 0.001; random effect: OR = 0.407, 95% CI: 0.211–0.785; P = 0.007) with robust findings according to sensitivity analyses. Funnel plot inspections did not give evidences of publication bias. A stratified analysis performed for ethnic groups revealed significant association in both Caucasian and Asian populations. It is concluded that there are evidences of associations between TNF-α −308 gene polymorphisms and male infertility risk. PMID:26966560

  10. Dysregulation of nectin-2 in the testicular cells: an explanation of cadmium-induced male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Lui, Wing-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Nectin-2, a junction molecule, is found at the basal and apical ectoplasmic specializations (ES) for the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) (constituted by tight junctions and basal ES) and Sertoli-spermatid adhesion. Loss of nectin-2 causes male infertility, suggesting nectin-2-based ES is crucial for spermatogenesis. Cadmium (Cd) has been known to induce severe testicular injury. Recent evidence has shown that the basal ES at the BTB and apical ES are the targets of Cd, suggesting that unique junction protein at the ES may explain why testis is more susceptible than other tissues. Since nectin-2 is expressed exclusively at the ES, it is highly possible that nectin-2 is the direct target of Cd. In this study, we investigate if nectin-2 is the target protein of Cd toxicity and the mechanism on how Cd down-regulates nectin-2 to achieve ES disruption. Our results revealed that Cd suppresses nectin-2 at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Inhibitor and shRNA knockdown have shown that Cd induces nectin-2 protein degradation via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Immunofluorescence staining and endocytosis assays further confirmed that nectin-2 internalization is promoted upon Cd treatment. Besides, Cd directly represses nectin-2 transcription. EMSA and ChIP assays showed that Cd inhibits the binding of positive regulators to nectin-2 promoter. siRNA and overexpression analyses have demonstrated that Cd reduces the expression and binding affinity of positive regulators for transcription. Taken together, nectin-2 is the direct molecular target of Cd and its disruptive effects are mediated via direct repressing nectin-2 transcription and endocytosis of nectin-2 for degradation. PMID:25046863

  11. Complete evaluation of anatomy and morphology of the infertile patient in a single visit; the modern infertility pelvic ultrasound examination.

    PubMed

    Groszmann, Yvette S; Benacerraf, Beryl R

    2016-06-01

    The comprehensive "one-stop shop" ultrasound evaluation of an infertile woman, performed around cycle days 5 to 9, will reveal abundant information about the anatomy and morphology of the pelvic organs and thereby avoid costly radiation and iodinated contrast exposure. We propose a two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound to examine the appearance and shape of the endometrium, endometrial cavity, myometrium, and junctional zone, to assess for müllerian duct anomalies fibroids, adenomyosis, and polyps. We then evaluate the adnexa with grayscale ultrasound and Doppler, looking for ovarian masses or cysts, and signs of tubal disease. The cul-de-sac is imaged to look for masses, endometriosis, and free fluid. We then push gently on the uterus and ovaries to assess mobility. Lack of free movement of the organs would suggest adhesions or endometriosis. The sonohysterogram then allows for more detailed evaluation of the endometrial cavity, endometrial lining, and any intracavitary lesions. Tubal patency is then assessed during the sonohysterogram in real time by introducing air and saline or contrast and imaging the tubes (HyCoSy). With this single comprehensive ultrasound examination, patients can obtain a reliable, time-efficient, minimally invasive infertility evaluation in their own clinician's office at significantly less cost and without radiation. PMID:27054310

  12. Increased Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Unexplained Infertility in the United States: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Wang, Jeffrey; Lee, Susie K.; Murray, Joseph A.; Sauer, Mark V.; Green, Peter H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder which can present with a variety of non-gastrointestinal manifestations. In women, it may manifest with an assortment of gynecologic or obstetric disorders. Some reports have linked female infertility with undiagnosed celiac disease. Though there are a number of studies from Europe and the Middle East, only two prior American studies have examined the prevalence of “silent” celiac disease in a female infertility population. We prospectively performed serologic screening for celiac disease in 188 infertile women (ages 25–39). While we did not demonstrate an increased prevalence of celiac disease in our overall infertile female population, we were able to detect a significantly increased prevalence (5.9%) of undiagnosed celiac disease among women presenting with unexplained infertility (n=51). Our findings suggest the importance of screening infertile female patients, particularly those with unexplained infertility, for celiac disease. PMID:21682114

  13. Stress and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Stress and infertility It is not clear how exactly stress impacts ... How can stress impact a fertility patient? Sometimes, infertility patients respond to the stress of being unable ...

  14. Strong Association of 677 C>T Substitution in the MTHFR Gene with Male Infertility - A Study on an Indian Population and a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishi; Gupta, Saraswati; Dama, Madhukar; David, Archana; Khanna, Geeta; Khanna, Anil; Rajender, Singh

    2011-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. The objective of this study was to analyze MTHFR gene 677C>T polymorphism in infertile male individuals from North India, followed by a meta-analysis on our data and published studies. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook genotyping on a total of 837 individuals including well characterized infertile (N = 522) and confirmed fertile (N = 315) individuals. The SNP was typed by direct DNA sequencing. Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. Published studies were searched using appropriate keywords. Source of data collection for meta-analysis included ‘Pubmed’, ‘Ovid’ and ‘Google Scholar’. Those studies analyzing 677C>T polymorphism in male infertility and presenting all relevant data were included in meta-analysis. The genotype data for infertile subjects and fertile controls was extracted from each study. Chi square test was done to obtain odds ratio (OR) and p-value. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Version 2). The frequency of mutant (T) allele (p = 0.0025) and genotypes (CT+TT) (p = 0.0187) was significantly higher in infertile individuals in comparison to fertile controls in our case-control study. The overall summary estimate (OR) for allele and genotype meta-analysis were 1.304 (p = 0.000), 1.310 (p = 0.000), respectively, establishing significant association of 677C>T polymorphism with male infertility. Conclusions/Significance 677C>T substitution associated strongly with male infertility in Indian population. Allele and genotype meta-analysis also supported its strong correlation with male infertility, thus establishing it as a risk factor. PMID:21799811

  15. Prospective Changes in Infertile Patients using Nonlinear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuko; Tomiyama, Tatsuhiro; Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Tsukamoto, Asami; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    We measured pulse waves in 22 infertile women from the beginning of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) through to pregnancy testing. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and autonomic nerve balance in the pregnancy group were significantly lower than that in the non-pregnancy group. In this study, we measured plethysmograms of four women who became pregnant and 18 who did not, ten times from each. We calculated LLE and a value for the autonomic nerve balance; from this analysis, we conclude that a mental state that allows for the possibility of becoming pregnant is necessary for a successful pregnancy.

  16. Quebec public funding facilitates fertility preservation for male cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, M.B.; García, A.; Buckett, W.; Tulandi, T.; Chan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sperm cryopreservation remains the only clinically feasible option to preserve male fertility. The quality of counselling provided by the treating physicians and the cost of sperm cryopreservation can both influence a patient’s decision about whether to preserve sperm. On 5 August 2010, the Quebec government introduced provincial coverage of assisted reproductive technologies, with sperm cryopreservation included as a covered service. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether and how such a program affects the behaviour of cancer patients with respect to sperm cryopreservation. Methods We analyzed the database derived from male patients undergoing sperm cryopreservation from August 2008 to August 2012 at our centre. The retrieved data included patient age, male infertility or oncologic diagnosis, sperm quality parameters, and details about the number of visits for sperm cryopreservation. Results The number of cancer patients who cryopreserved sperm before and after the policy change did not differ significantly, but a marked increase in the number of non-cancer patients was observed. Further analysis revealed that, after implementation of the public funding program, the total number of sperm cryopreservation sessions per patient increased significantly in cancer patients but not in non-cancer patients. Conclusions It appears that cancer patients who are willing to freeze sperm are keen to return for more sessions of sperm banking when no fees are associated with the service. Those findings suggest that cost reduction is an important factor for improving delivery of fertility preservation services to male cancer patients. PMID:26966400

  17. Reproductive outcome after autocrosslinked hyaluronic acid gel application in infertile patients who underwent laparoscopic myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, Massimiliano; Guida, Maurizio; Bramante, Silvia; Acunzo, Giuseppe; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Tommaselli, Giovanni A; Nappi, Carmine

    2005-02-01

    Autocrosslinked hyaluronic acid gel is useful for preventing postsurgical adhesion formation in infertile patients who have undergone laparoscopic myomectomy, and it increases the pregnancy rate more than laparoscopic myomectomy alone. Moreover, pregnancy rate is significantly higher with the use of subserous sutures. PMID:15705404

  18. [Association between sperm abnormalities and occupational environment among male consulting for couple infertility].

    PubMed

    Ould Hamouda, S; Perrin, J; Achard, V; Courbière, B; Grillo, J-M; Sari-Minodier, I

    2016-01-01

    Alteration of sperm parameters related to occupational exposures is the subject of several studies, often on a case-control approach. The study populations usually comprise men consulting in infertility clinics for couple infertility. The objective of this review is to identify, from these case-control studies, the main occupational factors that may be associated with altered sperm parameters. We selected 13 articles in the PubMed database. Participation in these studies varied from 61 to 2619 subjects, with great methodological heterogeneity, particularly in the characterization of exposure. The main occupations that appear significantly associated with a risk of altered sperm parameters are workmen, painters, farmers, welders, plumbers and technicians. When analysis focuses on occupational exposures, a significant result is reported for solvents, heavy metals, heat, vibrations and non-ionizing radiation. None of the selected studies has found a link with exposure to pesticides. PMID:26387599

  19. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram; Mahajan, Arun Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P < 0.01) along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis-à-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of β-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. PMID:26401398

  20. Methionine synthase A2756G transition might be a risk factor for male infertility: Evidences from seven case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt

    2016-04-15

    Methionine synthase (MTR) has a crucial role in DNA synthesis and methylation reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the MTR-A2756G polymorphism with idiopathic male infertility. Blood samples were collected from 217 idiopathic infertile- and 233 healthy-men, and MTR-A2756G genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Meta-analysis was conducted by pooling our data with the data obtained from 6 previous studies. Also, the effects of this substitution on protein structure were evaluated by bioinformatics tools. Our study revealed the association of AG-genotype, GG-genotype, and G-allele with male infertility. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between A2756G transition and male infertility. In addition, structural analysis of the transition effect on protein revealed a significant influence on MTR function (with score: 38; expected accuracy: 66%). These findings suggest that the A2756G substitution might be a genetic risk factor and a potential biomarker for idiopathic male infertility. PMID:26905524

  1. Mediastinal mixed germ cell tumor in an infertile male with Klinefelter syndrome:A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Dinesh; Kaman, Lileswar; Dhillon, Jasreman; Mohanty, Sambit K

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a well-documented abnormality of the sex chromosome, with an incidence of 1 in 600 newborn males. It is characterized by a 47, XXY or a mosaic karyotype, hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, infertility, reduced body hair, gynecomastia, and tall stature. Different neoplasms such as breast, testicular, and lymphoreticular malignancies may occur in 1% to 2% of the cases with KS. Herein we describe a case of mediastinal mixed germ cell tumor (GCT) in a 40-year-old male with KS. Interestingly, this case also had mitral valve prolapse, and an incidental papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland. In view of the presence of pulmonary nodules, antemortem differential diagnoses considered were mycobacterial infection, lymphoma, thymic carcinoma, and a primary/metastatic neoplasm of the lung. As GCT was not considered, the serum markers of a GCT were not performed. The diagnosis of this rare mediastinal mixed GCT with KS was made at autopsy. PMID:26881632

  2. Male infertility caused by epididymal dysfunction in transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative mutation of retinoic acid receptor alpha 1.

    PubMed

    Costa, S L; Boekelheide, K; Vanderhyden, B C; Seth, R; McBurney, M W

    1997-04-01

    Retinoids are thought to be required for the normal development and maturation of a number of tissues, including most epithelia. The action of retinoids appears to be mediated through the binding to retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in the nucleus. The activity of retinoic acid can be inhibited in cells carrying dominant negative mutations of RAR alpha. We created transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative mutant of RAR alpha driven by the murine mammary tumor virus promoter. Expression of the transgene was evident in the epididymis and vas deferens in transgenic males. These males were either infertile or had reduced fertility, and the epithelium lining the ducts of the epididymis and vas deferens had undergone squamous metaplasia. Sperm developed normally in the testis but degenerated in the epididymis and vas deferens because inspissated ductal fluid blocked the normal passage of the sperm. PMID:9096882

  3. The Effects of Total Motile Sperm Count on Spontaneous Pregnancy Rate and Pregnancy After IUI Treatment in Couples with Male Factor and Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hajder, Mithad; Hajder, Elmira; Husic, Amela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Male infertility factor is defined if the total number of motile spermatozoa (TMSC) < 20 × 106/ejaculated, and unexplained infertility if spermiogram is normal with normal female factor. The aim: of this study was to determine the predictive value of TMSC for spontaneous pregnancy (ST) and pregnancy after treatment with intrauterine insemination (IUI) in couples with male factor and unexplained infertility. What is known already: According to the WHO qualification system abnormal spermiogram can be diagnosed as oligozoospermia (O), asthenozoospermia (A), teratozoospermia (T) or combination (O+A+T) and azoospermia (A). Although this classification indicates the accuracy of findings its relevance for prognosis in infertile couple and the choice of treatment is questionable. Materials and Methods: The study included 98 couples with male infertility factor (bad spermiogram) and couples with normospermia and normal female factor (unexplained infertility). Testing group is randomized at: group (A) with TMSC> 3,106 / ejaculate and a spontaneous pregnancy, group (B) with TMSCl <3 x 106 / ejaculate and pregnancy after IUI, plus couples who have not achieved SP with TMSC> 3 x 106 / ejaculate and couples who have not achieved pregnancy. Main results: From a total of 98 pairs of men’s and unexplained infertility, 42 of them (42.8%) achieved spontaneous pregnancy, while 56 (57.2%) pairs did not achieve spontaneous pregnancy. TMSC was significantly higher (42.4 ± 28.4 vs. 26.2 ± 24, p <0.05) in the group A compared to group B. Couples with TMSC 1-5 × 106 ejaculate had significantly lower (9.8% vs. 22.2%, p <0.0001) rate of spontaneous pregnancy in comparison to couples after IUI treatment. Couples with unexplained infertility had significantly higher (56.8% vs. 29.9%, p <0.01) spontaneous pregnancy rate compared to couples after IUI treatment. Infertile couples had significant pregnancy rate with TMSC 5-10 x 106 / ejaculate (OR = 1.45, 95% CI:1.26-1.78, <0

  4. Serum copper, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, spermatic count, viability, progression and seminal zinc correlations in a human (male) infertility study

    SciTech Connect

    Sella, G.E.; Cunnane, S.C.; McInnes, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The role of copper and its correlations to other parameters has been investigated in a male-fertility pilot study at a University infertility clinic in Montreal. Serum and semen Cu concentrations were determined in 100 men (age 25 to 54 years) referred to the clinic for infertility evaluation. The results of the significant correlations between serum Cu concentrations and male fertility parameters such as (1) the serum concentrations of the hormones FSH, LH and prolactin; (2) spermatozoal count, viability and progression and (3) seminal zinc concentrations are reported.

  5. The testicular form of hormone-sensitive lipase HSLtes confers rescue of male infertility in HSL-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Vallet-Erdtmann, Virginie; Tavernier, Geneviève; Contreras, Juan Antonio; Mairal, Aline; Rieu, Cécile; Touzalin, Anne-Marie; Holm, Cecilia; Jégou, Bernard; Langin, Dominique

    2004-10-01

    Inactivation of the hormone-sensitive lipase gene (HSL) confers male sterility with a major defect in spermatogenesis. Several forms of HSL are expressed in testis. HSLtes mRNA and protein are found in early and elongated spermatids, respectively. The other forms are expressed in diploid germ cells and interstitial cells of the testis. To determine whether the absence of the testis-specific form of HSL, HSLtes, was responsible for the infertility in HSL-null mice, we generated transgenic mice expressing HSLtes under the control of its own promoter. The transgenic animals were crossed with HSL-null mice to produce mice deficient in HSL in nongonadal tissues but expressing HSLtes in haploid germ cells. Cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity was almost completely blunted in HSL-deficient testis. Mice with one allele of the transgene showed an increase in enzymatic activity and a small elevation in the production of spermatozoa. The few fertile hemizygous male mice produced litters of very small to small size. The presence of the two alleles led to a doubling in cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity, which represented 25% of the wild type values associated with a qualitatively normal spermatogenesis and a partial restoration of sperm reserves. The fertility of these mice was totally restored with normal litter sizes. In line with the importance of the esterase activity, HSLtes transgene expression reversed the cholesteryl ester accumulation observed in HSL-null mice. Therefore, expression of HSLtes and cognate cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity leads to a rescue of the infertility observed in HSL-deficient male mice. PMID:15292223

  6. Correlation between sperm ultrastructure in infertile patients with abnormal sperm morphology and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    He, M; Tan, L

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the correlation between sperm ultrastructure in infertile patients with abnormal sperm morphology and DNA damage. Three unusual sperm morphologies were selected for the experimental group namely case 1 (95% headless sperm), case 2 (98% headless sperm), and case 3 (100% headless sperm), and the control group consisted of 2 subjects (20 and 15% headless sperm). For case 1, the patient was negative for sexually transmitted diseases and had normal semen plasma biochemistry, reproductive hormones, peripheral blood chromosomes, and azoospermia factor (AZF). The aneuploid rate of sperm chromosomes was 0.6%, and DNA damage index of sperm nuclei was 84.4%. The partner of this patient did not get pregnant after artificial reproductive technology assistance. For case 2, the aneuploid rate of sperm chromosomes was 0.8% and DNA damage index of sperm nuclei was 95%. This patient and his spouse did not choose assisted reproduction. For case 3, reproductive hormones, peripheral blood chromosomes and AZF were normal and the aneuploid rate of sperm chromosomes was 0.2%. The wife of this patient gave birth to a healthy baby after ova removal, fertilization and transplantation. For the control group, the aneuploid rate of sperm chromosomes and DNA damage index of sperm nuclei were approximately 0.3 and 30%, respectively. To sum up, sperm ultrastructure of infertile patients suffering from unusual sperm morphology is associated with DNA damage to some extent and can cause infertility. However, pregnancy is still possible through intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:26681047

  7. Sonohysterography combined with sonosalpingography: correlation with endoscopic findings in infertility patients.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, A C; Vasquez, J M; Cullinan, J A; Eisenberg, E

    1997-06-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of sonohysterography combined with sonosalpingography or sonohysterosalpingography was evaluated in 100 infertility patients who also underwent endoscopic (hysteroscopy with or without laparoscopy) procedures. In patients with normal endometrial biopsy results, single endometrial layer thickness ranged from 3 to 5 mm and varied up to 2 mm in some areas. Diagnostic accuracy was 98% for submucosal fibroids, 96% for polyps, and 81% for synechiae. Missed lesions, were less than 2 mm in diameter. Tubal patency was successfully assessed in 79% of women with saline solution and in 92% of those who received contrast agent. This study demonstrates the efficacy of the combined use of SHG and SSG in infertility patients with uterine or tubal factor disorders. PMID:9315181

  8. Infertility due to congenital absence of vas deferens in mainly caused by variable exon 9 skipping of the CFTR gene in heterozygous males for cystic fibrosis mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Chillon, M.; Casals, T.; Nunes, V.

    1994-09-01

    About 65% or the individuals with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) have mutations in at least one of the CFTR alleles. We have studied the phenotypic effects of the CFTR gene intron 8 polyT tract 5T allele in 90 CBAVD subjects and in parents of CF patients. This group was compared with normal individuals, and with fathers and mothers of CF patients. Allele 5T was significantly associated with CBAVD (19.6%) when compared to the general population (5.2%) ({chi}{sup 2} = 33.3%; p<<0.0001). It was represented poorly in fathers of CF patients (1.3%). Mutations were identified in one (60%) or both CFTR alleles (8.9%) of CBAVD patients. Heterozygosity for the 5T allele was strongly associated with heterozygosity for CF mutations ({chi}{sup 2} = 10.9; p<0.0004). The strong correlation between allele 5T and CBAVD, together with the low frequency of this allele in fathers of CF patients, demonstrates that variable {Delta}exon 9 produces infertility in males if associated with a CF mutation on the other chromosome. The 30% of CBAVD cases with only one CFTR mutation and without a 5T-allele may be due to other molecular mechanisms involving CFTR, distinct from {Delta}exon 9. Since there is a relatively high proportion of CBAVD without CF mutations (25%), other gene(s), distinct from CFTR, may have a role in the CBAVD phenotype.

  9. Partial deletion of chromosome 8 β-defensin cluster confers sperm dysfunction and infertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu S; Webb, Sheila; Lettice, Laura; Tardif, Steve; Kilanowski, Fiona; Tyrrell, Christine; Macpherson, Heather; Semple, Fiona; Tennant, Peter; Baker, Tina; Hart, Alan; Devenney, Paul; Perry, Paul; Davey, Tracey; Barran, Perdita; Barratt, Chris L; Dorin, Julia R

    2013-10-01

    β-defensin peptides are a family of antimicrobial peptides present at mucosal surfaces, with the main site of expression under normal conditions in the male reproductive tract. Although they kill microbes in vitro and interact with immune cells, the precise role of these genes in vivo remains uncertain. We show here that homozygous deletion of a cluster of nine β-defensin genes (DefbΔ9) in the mouse results in male sterility. The sperm derived from the mutants have reduced motility and increased fragility. Epididymal sperm isolated from the cauda should require capacitation to induce the acrosome reaction but sperm from the mutants demonstrate precocious capacitation and increased spontaneous acrosome reaction compared to wild-types but have reduced ability to bind the zona pellucida of oocytes. Ultrastructural examination reveals a defect in microtubule structure of the axoneme with increased disintegration in mutant derived sperm present in the epididymis cauda region, but not in caput region or testes. Consistent with premature acrosome reaction, sperm from mutant animals have significantly increased intracellular calcium content. Thus we demonstrate in vivo that β-defensins are essential for successful sperm maturation, and their disruption leads to alteration in intracellular calcium, inappropriate spontaneous acrosome reaction and profound male infertility. PMID:24204287

  10. Gr/gr deletions on Y-chromosome correlate with male infertility: an original study, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Jaiswal, Deepika; Gupta, Nishi; Singh, Kiran; Dada, Rima; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the AZFc region of the Y-chromosome for complete (b2/b4) and distinct partial deletions (gr/gr, b1/b3, b2/b3) in 822 infertile and 225 proven fertile men. We observed complete AZFc deletions in 0.97% and partial deletions in 6.20% of the cases. Among partial deletions, the frequency of gr/gr deletions was the highest (5.84%). The comparison of partial deletion data between cases and controls suggested a significant association of the gr/gr deletions with infertility (P = 0.0004); however, the other partial deletions did not correlate with infertility. In cohort analysis, men with gr/gr deletions had a relatively poor sperm count (54.20 ± 57.45 million/ml) in comparison to those without deletions (72.49 ± 60.06), though the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.071). Meta-analysis also suggested that gr/gr deletions are significantly associated with male infertility risk (OR = 1.821, 95% CI = 1.39–2.37, p = 0.000). We also performed trial sequential analyses that strengthened the evidence for an overall significant association of gr/gr deletions with the risk of male infertility. Another meta-analysis suggested a significant association of the gr/gr deletions with low sperm count. In conclusion, the gr/gr deletions show a strong correlation with male infertility risk and low sperm count, particularly in the Caucasian populations. PMID:26876364

  11. Serum Bisphenol A Level in Boys with Cryptorchidism: A Step to Male Infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Komarowska, Marta Diana; Hermanowicz, Adam; Czyzewska, Urszula; Milewski, Robert; Matuszczak, Ewa; Miltyk, Wojciech; Debek, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is the most common congenital birth defect in boys and affects about 2–4% full-term male neonates. Its etiology is multifactorial. Purpose. To evaluate the serum bisphenol A (BPA) levels in boys with cryptorchidism and healthy boys and to assess the risk of environmental exposure to BPA using the authors' questionnaire. The data were acquired from a study on boys with cryptorchidism (n = 98) and a control group (n = 57). Prior to surgery, all patients had BPA serum levels evaluated. The size, position, rigidity of the testis, and abnormality of the epididymis of the undescended testis were assessed. Parents also completed a questionnaire on the risks of exposure to BPA in everyday life. Results. The testes in both groups were similar in size. The turgor of the undescended testis in the group of boys with cryptorchidism was decreased. Free serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The conjugated serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). Total serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Serum total BPA level was related with a positive answer about problems with conception (p < 0.02). Conclusion. Our study indicated that high serum BPA was associated with cryptorchidism. PMID:26491444

  12. Hypogonadism in male cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Burney, Basil O; Garcia, Jose M

    2012-09-01

    Prevalence of hypogonadism in men with cancer has been reported between 40% and 90%, which is significantly higher than in the general population. Hypogonadism is likely to affect the quality of life in these patients by contributing to non-specific symptoms, including decreased energy, anorexia, sarcopenia, weight loss, depression, insomnia, fatigue, weakness, and sexual dysfunction. Pathogenesis of hypogonadism in cancer patients is thought to be multi-factorial. Inflammation may play an important role, but leptin, opioids, ghrelin, and high-dose chemotherapy through different mechanisms have all been implicated as the cause. Hypogonadism is also associated with poor survival in cancer patients. Data looking into the treatment of hypogonadal male cancer patients with testosterone are limited. However, improvements in body weight, muscle strength, lean body mass, and quality of life have been shown in hypogonadal men with other chronic diseases on testosterone replacement therapy. Prospective and interventional trials are needed to test the efficacy and safety of testosterone treatment in improving quality of life of these patients. PMID:22528986

  13. TESTICULAR TOXICITY AND INFERTILITY IN MALE RATS TREATED WITH 1,3-DINITROBENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged 5 d/wk with 1,3 dinitrobenzene (m-DNB) at dosages of 0, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/kg/d. Males were bred to untreated females during treatment week 11 and were killed during treatment week 13. Although males dosed with 3 mg/kg/d inse...

  14. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  15. FUNGICIDE METHYL 2-BENZIMIDAZOLE CARBAMATE CAUSES INFERTILITY IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A serial breeding technique was used to evaluate the fertility of male Sprague-Dawley rats after exposure to the fungicide carbendazim (methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate)(C). Proven-fertile male rats (90 d old) received 10 daily doses of corn oil or C(400 mg/kg/d) peroral. Each ma...

  16. Clinical significance of subclinical varicocelectomy in male infertility: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Seo, J T; Kim, K J; Ahn, H; Jeong, J Y; Kim, J H; Song, S H; Jung, J H

    2016-08-01

    Recent meta-analysis by the Cochrane collaboration concluded that treatment of varicocele may improve an infertile couple's chance of pregnancy. However, there has been no consensus on the management of subclinical varicocele. Therefore, we determine the impact of varicocele treatment on semen parameters and pregnancy rate in men with subclinical varicocele. The randomised controlled trials that assessed the presence and/or treatment of subclinical varicocele were included for systematic review and meta-analysis. Random effect model was used to calculate the weighted mean difference of semen parameters and odds ratio of pregnancy rates. Seven trials with 548 participants, 276 in subclinical varicocelectomy and 272 in no-treatment or clomiphene citrate subjects, were included. Although there was also no statistically significant difference in pregnancy rate (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.99-1.67), surgical treatment resulted in statistically significant improvements on forward progressive sperm motility (MD 3.94, 95% CI 1.24-6.65). However, the evidence is not enough to allow final conclusions because the quality of included studies is very low and further research is needed. PMID:26589369

  17. Defining Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Defining infertility What is infertility? Infertility is “the inability to conceive after 12 months ... to conceive after 6 months is generally considered infertility. How common is it? Infertility affects 10%-15% ...

  18. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms "IBD AND male infertility", "Crohn's disease AND male infertility", "ulcerative colitis AND male infertility". References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options. PMID:27602237

  19. Unilateral adrenal tumor, erectile dysfunction and infertility in a patient with 21-hydroxylase deficiency: effects of glucocorticoid treatment and surgery.

    PubMed

    Scaroni, C; Favia, G; Lumachi, F; Opocher, G; Bonanni, G; Mantero, F; Armanini, D

    2003-02-01

    In untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHDS) the presence of adrenal and testicular tumors had been described; however little is known about the effect of the enzymatic defect on fertility in males. We studied a male adult patient affected by 21OHDS for infertility, after a long period of discontinuation of glucocorticoid therapy and then during resumption of treatment and 8 months after monoadrenalectomy. The initial spermatic count revealed azoospermia and testicular needle aspiration showed a cytological picture consistent with prepuberty. The morphofunctional study revealed a right adrenal mass with reduced uptake at radioscan. Treatment was resumed with onset of impotency, which improved after reduction of the dose of glucocorticoids. The patient was monoadrenalectomised and his spermatic count increased. The patient shows that corticosteroid therapy in 21OHDS should be continued lifelong to avoid adrenal hyperplasia with possible areas of autonomy and to allow regular fertility. Impotence during treatment is probably due to a decrease of excessive adrenal androgens while testicular androgen production is still suppressed. PMID:12605349

  20. Features of premature ejaculation in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, K; Yavari-kia, P; Ahmadi-Asrbadr, Y; Nematzadeh-Pakdel, A; Alikhah, H

    2010-09-15

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common form of sexual dysfunction and is one of the causes of male factor infertility. The aim of this study was assay of frequency and features of PE in a group of infertile men. This cross-sectional study was carried out since December 2006 to January 2008 on a sequential sample of 300 male patients complaining of infertility referring to the only infertility research center of Tabriz al-Zahra hospital. Data were collected by a designed questionnaire in which there were questions about age, age of marriage, history of sexual transmitted disease, drug use, previous sexual contacts, systemic diseases, masturbation, erectile dysfunction and frequency of intercourse. The mean age of studied patients was 30.39 +/- 5.76 and 43% of patients had PE, that in 74.4% primary PE and in 25.6% secondary PE seen. The most common form of ejaculation latency time was about less than 1 min that was seen in 51.2% of patients with PE. Mean of masturbation times was 5.13 +/- 3.19 times per month, and there is significant relation between the age of patients and type of PE, (p = 0.001) and ejaculation latency time and type of PE (p = 0.035). The high frequency rate of PE in Iranian men with complaint of infertility and also relatively lower age of these patients reflects the necessity of attention and management of this imperative psycho-organic disorder. PMID:23350165

  1. The study of ovarian artery hemodynamics in patients with infertility by color Doppler energy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, X; Le, G; Zhang, Y; Li, C

    2001-01-01

    Seventy-four cases of infertility were examined to study the hemodynamics of the bilateral ovarian arteries at 21st day during the corpus luteum phase by color Doppler energy(CDE) and color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI). All the patients were verified by laparoscopy, fallopian tube patency examination and ovarian function test. Twenty-two healthy women served as controls. The results showed that the difference of resistance index(RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of bilateral ovarian arteries between the infertility and the normal controls had statistical significance (P < 0.01), and the PI showed negative correlation with the thickness of endometrium (left side: r = 0.724, P < 0.01; right side: r = 0.756, P < 0.01). The results also showed that CDE was more sensitive than CDFI in displaying the ovarian arteries. It could be concluded that the elevated resistance of ovarian artery during the corpus luteum phase was one of the important factors that resulted in infertility. PMID:11523245

  2. Mutations in DNAH1, which Encodes an Inner Arm Heavy Chain Dynein, Lead to Male Infertility from Multiple Morphological Abnormalities of the Sperm Flagella

    PubMed Central

    Ben Khelifa, Mariem; Coutton, Charles; Zouari, Raoudha; Karaouzène, Thomas; Rendu, John; Bidart, Marie; Yassine, Sandra; Pierre, Virginie; Delaroche, Julie; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Grunwald, Didier; Escalier, Denise; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas; Touré, Aminata; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre F.

    2014-01-01

    Ten to fifteen percent of couples are confronted with infertility and a male factor is involved in approximately half the cases. A genetic etiology is likely in most cases yet only few genes have been formally correlated with male infertility. Homozygosity mapping was carried out on a cohort of 20 North African individuals, including 18 index cases, presenting with primary infertility resulting from impaired sperm motility caused by a mosaic of multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) including absent, short, coiled, bent, and irregular flagella. Five unrelated subjects out of 18 (28%) carried a homozygous variant in DNAH1, which encodes an inner dynein heavy chain and is expressed in testis. RT-PCR, immunostaining, and electronic microscopy were carried out on samples from one of the subjects with a mutation located on a donor splice site. Neither the transcript nor the protein was observed in this individual, confirming the pathogenicity of this variant. A general axonemal disorganization including mislocalization of the microtubule doublets and loss of the inner dynein arms was observed. Although DNAH1 is also expressed in other ciliated cells, infertility was the only symptom of primary ciliary dyskinesia observed in affected subjects, suggesting that DNAH1 function in cilium is not as critical as in sperm flagellum. PMID:24360805

  3. Mutations in DNAH1, which encodes an inner arm heavy chain dynein, lead to male infertility from multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella.

    PubMed

    Ben Khelifa, Mariem; Coutton, Charles; Zouari, Raoudha; Karaouzène, Thomas; Rendu, John; Bidart, Marie; Yassine, Sandra; Pierre, Virginie; Delaroche, Julie; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Grunwald, Didier; Escalier, Denise; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas; Touré, Aminata; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre F

    2014-01-01

    Ten to fifteen percent of couples are confronted with infertility and a male factor is involved in approximately half the cases. A genetic etiology is likely in most cases yet only few genes have been formally correlated with male infertility. Homozygosity mapping was carried out on a cohort of 20 North African individuals, including 18 index cases, presenting with primary infertility resulting from impaired sperm motility caused by a mosaic of multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) including absent, short, coiled, bent, and irregular flagella. Five unrelated subjects out of 18 (28%) carried a homozygous variant in DNAH1, which encodes an inner dynein heavy chain and is expressed in testis. RT-PCR, immunostaining, and electronic microscopy were carried out on samples from one of the subjects with a mutation located on a donor splice site. Neither the transcript nor the protein was observed in this individual, confirming the pathogenicity of this variant. A general axonemal disorganization including mislocalization of the microtubule doublets and loss of the inner dynein arms was observed. Although DNAH1 is also expressed in other ciliated cells, infertility was the only symptom of primary ciliary dyskinesia observed in affected subjects, suggesting that DNAH1 function in cilium is not as critical as in sperm flagellum. PMID:24360805

  4. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  5. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  6. Phenylpyrazole insecticide fipronil induces male infertility in the estuarine meiobenthic crustacean Amphiascus tenuiremis.

    PubMed

    Cary, Tawnya L; Chandler, G Thomas; Volz, David C; Walse, Spencer S; Ferry, John L

    2004-01-15

    Copepods are the most abundant arthropods on earth and are often the most important secondary producers in estuarine/marine food webs. The new GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-disrupting insecticide fipronil (FP) induces unique sex-specific reproductive dysfunction in male meiobenthic copepods, leading to trans-generational population depression at environmentally realistic concentrations (0.63 microg/L). Using a newly developed 96-well microplate lifecycle bioassay, more than 700 individual Stage-I juveniles were reared to adulthood in as short as 12 days in only 200 microL of control (CTL) or 0.63 microg-FP/L seawater solution. Individual virgin male: female pairs were then cross-mated for all possible combinations within and across rearing treatments and allowed to mate for an additional 12 days in CTL or 0.63 microg-FP/L solution. FP at 0.63 microg/L caused no significant lethality to any mating combinations but evoked 73% or 89% inhibition of reproduction when FP-reared males were mated with either a control- or FP-reared female in FP solution, respectively. In contrast, when CTL-reared males were mated with FP-reared females in FP solution, there was no difference in reproductive success compared to FP-free controls. When FP-reared males were mated with either female group in FP-free solution, these mating pairs displayed a 3-day delay in time to brood sac extrusion but ultimately did reproduce. As fipronil (1) has a high K(ow), (2) is persistent in sediments where meiobenthic copepods live, and (3) has been detected in estuarine waters >0.7 microg/L, it may pose high risk to copepod production in estuarine systems. PMID:14750729

  7. Afterword to varicocele and male infertility: current concepts and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sandro C; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    We summarize and comment on the topics discussed by the contributors to this Special Issue of Asian Journal of Andrology. The scope of varicocele covers a wide spectrum, including proteomics and metabolomics, hormonal control, interventional therapy, and assisted reproductive technology (ART). The selection of topics demonstrates the exciting breadth of this thematic area and the opportunity research holds for both increasing the understanding and improving the reproductive health of males with varicocele. PMID:26780876

  8. STDs and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... literature review to support an infertility prevention social marketing campaign Male Chlamydia Screening Consultation - Review and guidance ( ... Health Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  9. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed. PMID:26216827

  10. Relationship of semen hyperviscosity with IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and ROS production in seminal plasma of infertile patients with prostatitis and prostato-vesiculitis.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, R; Salemi, M; Vicari, L O; Vicari, E

    2014-12-01

    Changes in levels of oxidative damage products in semen and their relationship to seminal fluid viscosity (SFV) have recently received increasing research interest. We analysed whether SFV was associated with ROS generation, levels of cytokines TNF-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6 and IL-10 and seminal leucocyte concentration, and whether ROS production was related to the extent of infections/inflammations at one (prostatitis) or two (prostato-vesiculitis) male accessory glands. We studied 169 infertile patients, with chronic bacterial prostatitis (PR, n = 74) and/or bilateral prostato-vesiculitis (PV, n = 95), as diagnosed by the ultrasound (US) criteria. Healthy fertile men (n = 42) served as controls. In the PV patient group, SFV, semen characteristics and ROS production had median values that were significantly higher than those found in PR patients and controls, although other sperm variables had values significantly lower than those found in PR patients or controls. In PV infertile patients, ROS generation and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were higher than those found in PR infertile patients and controls, although seminal IL-10 levels in PV and PR patients were lower than those found in the controls. In PR patients, the levels of SFV were positively related to TNF-α (r = 0.67; P < 0.01), fMLP-stimulated ROS production in the 45% Percoll fraction (r = 0.687, P < 0.01) and the 90% Percoll fraction in basal condition (r = 0.695, P < 0.01), and after fMLP-stimulation (r = 0.688, P < 0.01). Thus, our data indicated that seminal hyperviscosity is associated with increased oxidative stress in infertile men and increased pro-inflammatory interleukins in patients with male accessory gland infection, more when the infection was extended to the seminal vesicles. PMID:24329571

  11. Association between C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Luo, Y Y; Wu, S; Tang, Y D; Rao, X D; Xiong, L; Tan, M; Deng, M Z; Liu, H

    2016-01-01

    Published studies on the association between the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and male infertility risk are controversial. To obtain a more precise evaluation, we performed a meta-analysis based on published case-control studies. We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Web of Science, and the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database for papers on MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and male infertility risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in homozygote, heterozygote, dominant, recessive, and additive models. Statistical heterogeneity, test of publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were carried out using the STATA software (Version 13.0). Overall, 21 studies of C677T (4505 cases and 4024 controls) and 13 studies of A1298C (2785 cases and 3094 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. For C677T, the homozygote comparison results were OR = 1.629, 95%CI (1.215- 2.184), and the recessive model results were OR = 1.462 (1.155- 1.850). For A1298C, the homozygote comparison results were OR = 1.289 (1.029-1.616), and the recessive model results were OR = 1.288 (1.034-1.604). In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased male infertility risk in the Asian and overall populations, but not in the Caucasian population, and there was a significant association between the A1298C polymorphism and male infertility risk in the Asian, Caucasian, and overall groups. PMID:27173242

  12. Mutations in DNAJB13, Encoding an HSP40 Family Member, Cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    El Khouri, Elma; Thomas, Lucie; Jeanson, Ludovic; Bequignon, Emilie; Vallette, Benoit; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Montantin, Guy; Copin, Bruno; Dastot-Le Moal, Florence; Blanchon, Sylvain; Papon, Jean François; Lorès, Patrick; Yuan, Li; Collot, Nathalie; Tissier, Sylvie; Faucon, Catherine; Gacon, Gérard; Patrat, Catherine; Wolf, Jean Philippe; Dulioust, Emmanuel; Crestani, Bruno; Escudier, Estelle; Coste, André; Legendre, Marie; Touré, Aminata; Amselem, Serge

    2016-08-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal-recessive disease due to functional or ultra-structural defects of motile cilia. Affected individuals display recurrent respiratory-tract infections; most males are infertile as a result of sperm flagellar dysfunction. The great majority of the PCD-associated genes identified so far encode either components of dynein arms (DAs), which are multiprotein-ATPase complexes essential for ciliary motility, or proteins involved in DA assembly. To identify the molecular basis of a PCD phenotype characterized by central complex (CC) defects but normal DA structure, a phenotype found in ∼15% of cases, we performed whole-exome sequencing in a male individual with PCD and unexplained CC defects. This analysis, combined with whole-genome SNP genotyping, identified a homozygous mutation in DNAJB13 (c.833T>G), a gene encoding a HSP40 co-chaperone whose ortholog in the flagellated alga Chlamydomonas localizes to the radial spokes. In vitro studies showed that this missense substitution (p.Met278Arg), which involves a highly conserved residue of several HSP40 family members, leads to protein instability and triggers proteasomal degradation, a result confirmed by the absence of endogenous DNAJB13 in cilia and sperm from this individual. Subsequent DNAJB13 analyses identified another homozygous mutation in a second family; the study of DNAJB13 transcripts obtained from airway cells showed that this mutation (c.68+1G>C) results in a splicing defect consistent with a loss-of-function mutation. Overall, this study, which establishes mutations in DNAJB13 as a cause of PCD, unveils the key role played by DNAJB13 in the proper formation and function of ciliary and flagellar axonemes in humans. PMID:27486783

  13. Mfsd14a (Hiat1) gene disruption causes globozoospermia and infertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Doran, Joanne; Walters, Cara; Kyle, Victoria; Wooding, Peter; Hammett-Burke, Rebecca; Colledge, William Henry

    2016-07-01

    The Mfsd14a gene, previously called Hiat1, encodes a transmembrane protein of unknown function with homology to the solute carrier protein family. To study the function of the MFSD14A protein, mutant mice (Mus musculus, strain 129S6Sv/Ev) were generated with the Mfsd14a gene disrupted with a LacZ reporter gene. Homozygous mutant mice are viable and healthy, but males are sterile due to a 100-fold reduction in the number of spermatozoa in the vas deferens. Male mice have adequate levels of testosterone and show normal copulatory behaviour. The few spermatozoa that are formed show rounded head defects similar to those found in humans with globozoospermia. Spermatogenesis proceeds normally up to the round spermatid stage, but the subsequent structural changes associated with spermiogenesis are severely disrupted with failure of acrosome formation, sperm head condensation and mitochondrial localization to the mid-piece of the sperm. Staining for β-galactosidase activity as a surrogate for Mfsd14a expression indicates expression in Sertoli cells, suggesting that MFSD14A may transport a solute from the bloodstream that is required for spermiogenesis. PMID:27107036

  14. LINE-1 Mediated Insertion into Poc1a (Protein of Centriole 1 A) Causes Growth Insufficiency and Male Infertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Geister, Krista A.; Brinkmeier, Michelle L.; Cheung, Leonard Y.; Wendt, Jennifer; Oatley, Melissa J.; Burgess, Daniel L.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Cavalcoli, James D.; Oatley, Jon M.; Camper, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a common, genetically heterogeneous cause of short stature that can result from disruptions in many cellular processes. We report the identification of the lesion responsible for skeletal dysplasia and male infertility in the spontaneous, recessive mouse mutant chagun. We determined that Poc1a, encoding protein of the centriole 1a, is disrupted by the insertion of a processed Cenpw cDNA, which is flanked by target site duplications, suggestive of a LINE-1 retrotransposon-mediated event. Mutant fibroblasts have impaired cilia formation and multipolar spindles. Male infertility is caused by defective spermatogenesis early in meiosis and progressive germ cell loss. Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation studies revealed that Poc1a is essential for normal function of both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The proliferative zone of the growth plate is small and disorganized because chondrocytes fail to re-align after cell division and undergo increased apoptosis. Poc1a and several other genes associated with centrosome function can affect the skeleton and lead to skeletal dysplasias and primordial dwarfisms. This mouse mutant reveals how centrosome dysfunction contributes to defects in skeletal growth and male infertility. PMID:26496357

  15. Rare earths exposure and male infertility: the injury mechanism study of rare earths on male mice and human sperm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Xiao, Heng-Jun; Qi, Tao; Chen, Di-Ling; Long, He-Ming; Liu, Song-Hao

    2015-02-01

    The weight; testis/body coefficient; levels of LDH, SDH, SODH, G-6PD, and testosterone; cell cycle; and cell apoptosis of the male mice were influenced after being treated with 200 mg/[kg/day] of rare earths suspension for 3 weeks. The "Raman fingerprints" of the human sperm DNA exposed to 0.040 mg/ml CeCl3 were very different from those of the untreated; the Raman bands at 789 cm(-1) (backbone phosphodiester), PO4 backbone at 1,094 cm(-1), methylene deformation mode at 1,221 cm(-1), methylene deformation mode at 1,485 cm(-1), and amide II at 1,612 cm(-1), of which intensities and shifts were changed, might be the diagnostic biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets. The injury mechanism might be that the rare earths influence the oxidative stress and blood testosterone barrier, tangle the big biomolecule concurrently, which might cause the testicular cells and vascular system disorder and/or dysfunction, and at the same time change the physical and chemical properties of the sperm directly. PMID:25167826

  16. Evaluation and treatment of infertility.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Tammy J; Vitrikas, Kristen R

    2015-03-01

    Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Evaluation may be initiated sooner in patients who have risk factors for infertility or if the female partner is older than 35 years. Causes of infertility include male factors, ovulatory dysfunction, uterine abnormalities, tubal obstruction, peritoneal factors, or cervical factors. A history and physical examination can help direct the evaluation. Men should undergo evaluation with a semen analysis. Abnormalities of sperm may be treated with gonadotropin therapy, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilization. Ovulation should be documented by serum progesterone level measurement at cycle day 21. Evaluation of the uterus and fallopian tubes can be performed by hysterosalpingography in women with no risk of obstruction. For patients with a history of endometriosis, pelvic infections, or ectopic pregnancy, evaluation with hysteroscopy or laparoscopy is recommended. Women with anovulation may be treated in the primary care setting with clomiphene to induce ovulation. Treatment of tubal obstruction generally requires referral for subspecialty care. Unexplained infertility in women or men may be managed with another year of unprotected intercourse, or may proceed to assisted reproductive technologies, such as intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization. PMID:25822387

  17. Serum and seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Serk; Park, Yong-Seog; Lee, Joong Shik

    2016-01-01

    Objective Growth hormone and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), have been suggested to exert gonadotropic actions in both humans and animals. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum IGF-1 concentration, seminal plasma concentration, and sperm parameter abnormalities. Methods A total of 79 men were enrolled in this study from December 2011 to July 2012 and were prospectively analyzed. Patient parameters analyzed included age, body mass index, smoking status, urological history, and fertility history. Patients were divided into four groups based on their semen parameters: normal (A, n=31), abnormal sperm motility (B, n=12), abnormal sperm morphology (C, n=20), and two or more abnormal parameters (D, n=16). Patient seminal plasma and serum IGF-1 concentrations were determined. Results Patient baseline characteristics were not significantly different between any of the groups. The serum IGF-1 levels in groups B, C, and D were significantly lower than the levels in group A; however, the seminal plasma IGF-1 levels were not significantly different between any of the groups. Conclusion Men with abnormal sperm parameters had significantly lower levels of serum IGF-1 compared with men with normal sperm parameters. Seminal plasma IGF-1 levels, however, did not differ significantly between the groups investigated here. Further investigations will be required to determine the exact mechanisms by which growth hormone and IGF-1 affect sperm quality. PMID:27358827

  18. Psychosocial Consequences of Infertility on Infertile Women.

    PubMed

    Fatima, P; Rahman, D; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N; Mughi, C R

    2015-10-01

    This study explores to find out the qualitative and quantitative psychosocial consequences of infertility in women coming for infertility treatment in tertiary infertility center. A total of 400 infertile couples who agreed to participate in the study were asked to fill up the questionnaires and later interviewed to access the psychosocial consequences of infertility on their personal life in a tertiary infertility clinic in Dhaka at Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARe Hospital), Dhaka from June 2011 to December 2011 and agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. The data was analyzed and the quantitative and qualitative psychosocial factors were evaluated. Four hundred infertile couple who filled the questionnaires was included in the study. Sixty three percent of the women belonged to age group >20 30 years at the time of interview. Regarding age at marriage 43.8% of the women were married by 20 years, 51.3% were married between 20 30 years. Mean±SD duration of present married life was 7.20±4.45 (range 1 to 28) years and 74.4% of the women were living with their husbands. Of them 75.5% women were housewife. When asked whether they knew what was the reason of infertility in the couple, 32.5% knew the cause was in the female partner, 14.5%, knew the cause was in the male partner, 10.3% knew the cause was in both partners, 21.5% knew cause of infertility was not in any of the partners, and 21.3% had no idea about the cause of infertility. The male partner's response about the issue of prognosis and outcome of couple's infertility revealed 37.3% believed their wives will conceive someday, 31.3% had no intention for a second marriage, 13% were indifferent, 11.3% blamed their wives for infertility and 4.8% threatened for a second marriage. Only 2.5% of the male partners were suggested on consulting and continuing treatment by specialist. The family pressure by in-laws and relatives towards their infertility was that 57.3% insisted on consulting

  19. Ultrasound characterization of the infertile male testis with rf power spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Jonathan A.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Rondeau, Mark; Coleman, D. J.; Schlegel, Peter

    2002-04-01

    Objective: To investigate and diagnose testicular pathology in patients with testicular dysfunction using the technique of ultrasound power spectrum analysis. Methods: Testicular ultrasound studies with power spectrum tissue characterization analysis were performed on men with testicular abnormalities as well as normal controls. Semen analysis, biopsy data, microscopic intra-operative findings and data pertaining to testicular function were collected for each surgically evaluated subject. Ultrasound data were analyzed for power spectrum characteristics of microscopic scatterer size and concentration within discrete areas of testicular tissue. Results: Patients with varicoceles and greater than 2x106 sperm/ml on semen analysis had larger average scatterer size (107.7 micrometers ) and lower scatterer concentration (-15.02 dB) than non-obstructed, azoospermic patients with varicoceles (92.4 micrometers and -11.41 dB, respectively). Subjects with obstructed azoospermia had slightly larger average tissue scatterer size (108.1 micrometers ) and lower concentration (-15.73 dB) while normal control data revealed intermediate values of size (102.3 micrometers ) and concentration (-13.1 dB) of scatterers. Spectral data from pure testicular seminoma lesions had the lowest average scatterer size (82.3 micrometers ) with low relative concentration (-14.7 dB). Summary: Ultrasound tissue characterization based on RF spectrum analysis may distinguish different types of testicular pathology including obstructed and non-obstructed azoospermia and tissue changes due to varicocele and tumor.

  20. Hspa4l-Deficient Mice Display Increased Incidence of Male Infertility and Hydronephrosis Development▿

    PubMed Central

    Held, Torsten ; Paprotta, Ilona; Khulan, Janchiv; Hemmerlein, Bernhardt; Binder, Lutz; Wolf, Stephan; Schubert, Stephanie; Meinhardt, Andreas; Engel, Wolfgang; Adham, Ibrahim M.

    2006-01-01

    The Hspa4l gene, also known as Apg1 or Osp94, belongs to the HSP110 heat shock gene family, which includes three genes encoding highly conserved proteins. This study shows that Hspa4l is expressed ubiquitously and predominantly in the testis. The protein is highly expressed in spermatogenic cells, from late pachytene spermatocytes to postmeiotic spermatids. In the kidney, the protein is restricted to cortical segments of distal tubules. To study the physiological role of this gene in vivo, we generated mice deficient in Hspa4l by gene targeting. Hspa4l-deficient mice were born at expected ratios and appeared healthy. However, approximately 42% of Hspa4l−/− male mice suffered from fertility defects. Whereas the seminiferous tubules of Hspa4l−/− testes contained all stages of germ cells, the number of mature sperm in the epididymis and sperm motility were drastically reduced. The reduction of the sperm count was due to the elimination of a significant number of developing germ cells via apoptosis. No defects in fertility were observed in female mutants. In addition, 12% of null mutant mice developed hydronephrosis. Concentrations of plasma and urine electrolytes in Hspa4l−/− mice were similar to wild-type values, suggesting that the renal function was not impaired. However, Hspa4l−/− animals were preferentially susceptible to osmotic stress. These results provide evidence that Hspa4l is required for normal spermatogenesis and suggest that Hspa4l plays a role in osmotolerance. PMID:16923965

  1. [Mycoplasmas and antibodies anti-Chlamydia in semen of infertile men and their relationship with seminal quality and markers of male accessory sex glands].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Hernández, Ricardo; Vivas-Acevedo, Giovanny; Muñoz de Vera, María Gladys

    2012-06-01

    Male infertility may be due to inflammation or infection of the genital tract among other causes. Male accessory sex glands and sperm function may also be involved in the problem of infertility. This study tries to associate the most frequent bacteria in semen of infertile men including Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum with the seminal characteristics and levels of fructose, citric acid and alpha-neutral glucosidase as markers of the accessory glands. Detection of antibodies anti Chlamydia trachomatis indicated that it was the most prevalent germ. Antibodies (Ab) anti-Chlamydia, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were associated with a decrease of the glandular markers fructose and alpha-neutral glucosidase. On the other hand, there were increased pH and leukocytospermia in men positive for antibodies anti-Chlamydia. Microbiological and biochemical evaluation of semen could orient more about the spread of infection and allow for the selection of the most effective therapy. We find that microbiological and glandular accessory markers assessments in semen are important to diagnose and to treat infections. PMID:22978046

  2. Effect of Pertubation on Pregnancy Rates before Intrauterine Insemination Treatment in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Funda; Bozkurt, Nuray; Erdem, Ahmet; Erdem, Mehmet; Oktem, Mesut; Onur Karabacak, Recep

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized study, a total of 180 patients were included in the study. Amongst these, pertubation of the uterine cavity was carried out in 79 patients prior to insemination. One patient in the pertubation group was later excluded because insemination could not be performed due to cycle cancellation. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between the study and control groups. When the pregnancy rates of both groups were evaluated, 14(17.8%) patients in the study group achieved pregancy. Three (3.8%) had a biochemical pregnancy, 1(1.3%) miscarried and 10(12.7%) had live births. In the control group, a total of 24(23.8%) pregnancies were achieved, amongst which one (1%) had a biochemical pregnancy, 3(3%) miscarried and 20(19.8%) resulted in live births. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of total pregnancy and live birth rates (p>0.05). There was a 21% total pregnancy loss rate. There was no significant difference between the control and study groups in terms of pregnancy loss rates (p>0.05). Conclusion: This study on a homogenous group of unexplained infertile patients determined that the addition of pertubation to a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation plus intrauterine insemination (COH+IUI) treatment protocol did not affect pregnancy rates (Registration Number: NCT01999959). PMID:24695882

  3. Investigating the Relationships among Stressors, Stress Level, and Mental Symptoms for Infertile Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Liang, Wen-Miin; Yang, Tung-Chuan; Lee, Young-Chang; Wang, Chia-Woei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with infertility are a high risk group in depression and anxiety. However, an existing theoretically and empirically validated model of stressors, stress, and mental symptoms specific for infertile patients is still a void. This study aimed to determine the related factors and their relational structures that affect the level of depressive and anxiety symptoms among infertile patients. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 400 infertility outpatients seeking reproduction treatments in three teaching hospitals across Taiwan participated in the structured questionnaire survey in 2011. The hypothesized model comprising 10 latent variables was tested by Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 17. Results Goodness-of-fit indexes, including χ2/DF = 1.871, PGFI = 0.746, PNFI = 0.764, and others, confirmed the modified model fit the data well. Marital stressor, importance of children, guilt-and-blame, and social stressor showed a direct effect on perceived stress. Instead of being a factor of stress, social support was directly and positively related to self-esteem. Perceived stress and self-esteem were the two major mediators for the relationships between stressors and mental symptoms. Increase in social support and self-esteem led to decrease in mental symptoms among the infertile patients. Conclusions The relational structures were identified and named as the Stressors Stress Symptoms Model, clinically applied to predict anxiety and depression from various stressors. Assessing sources and level of infertility-related stress and implementing culturally-sensitive counseling with an emphasis on positive personal value may assist in preventing the severity of depression and anxiety. PMID:26484531

  4. Ulipristal Acetate in Myomectomy Optimization in an Infertile Patient with Giant Myomas.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Elena; Borrás, María Dolores; Rubio, Miriam; Abril, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    The use of ulipristal acetate (UPA) has been recently introduced in the treatment of uterine leiomyomas. This drug has proven useful to control menometrorrhagia and to reduce myoma size. In the case presented here, we show the benefits of UPA treatment in facilitating surgical removal of giant myomas in an infertile patient. In addition to myoma reduction and a better control of preoperative bleeding, the treatment with UPA reduced the duration and complexity of the surgery, as well as the area of uterine wall involved and the resulting scar. No side effects were observed and the patient became pregnant 6 months after the surgery and had a normal pregnancy and delivery. This case report shows the beneficial effects of UPA in the preoperative treatment of myomas which affect uterus function. PMID:27594886

  5. Ulipristal Acetate in Myomectomy Optimization in an Infertile Patient with Giant Myomas

    PubMed Central

    Borrás, María Dolores; Rubio, Miriam; Abril, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    The use of ulipristal acetate (UPA) has been recently introduced in the treatment of uterine leiomyomas. This drug has proven useful to control menometrorrhagia and to reduce myoma size. In the case presented here, we show the benefits of UPA treatment in facilitating surgical removal of giant myomas in an infertile patient. In addition to myoma reduction and a better control of preoperative bleeding, the treatment with UPA reduced the duration and complexity of the surgery, as well as the area of uterine wall involved and the resulting scar. No side effects were observed and the patient became pregnant 6 months after the surgery and had a normal pregnancy and delivery. This case report shows the beneficial effects of UPA in the preoperative treatment of myomas which affect uterus function. PMID:27594886

  6. Mutations of the aurora kinase C gene causing macrozoospermia are the most frequent genetic cause of male infertility in Algerian men.

    PubMed

    Ounis, Leyla; Zoghmar, Abdelali; Coutton, Charles; Rouabah, Leila; Hachemi, Maroua; Martinez, Delphine; Martinez, Guillaume; Bellil, Ines; Khelifi, Douadi; Arnoult, Christophe; Fauré, Julien; Benbouhedja, Sebti; Rouabah, Abdelkader; Ray, Pierre F

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome and Y-chromosomal microdeletion analyses were once the only two genetic tests offered to infertile men. Analyses of aurora kinase C (AURKC) and DPY19L2 are now recommended for patients presenting macrozoospermia and globozoospermia, respectively, two rare forms of teratozoospermia particularly frequent among North African men. We carried out genetic analyses on Algerian patients, to evaluate the prevalence of these syndromes in this population and to compare it with the expected frequency of Klinefelter syndrome and Y-microdeletions. We carried out a retrospective study on 599 consecutive patients consulting for couple infertility at the assisted reproduction unit of the Ibn Rochd Clinique, Constantine, Algeria. Abnormal sperm parameters were observed in 404 men. Fourteen and seven men had typical macrozoospermia and globozoospermia profiles, respectively. Molecular diagnosis was carried out for these patients, for the AURKC and DPY19L2 genes. Eleven men with macrozoospermia had a homozygous AURKC mutation (79%), corresponding to 2.7% of all patients with abnormal spermograms. All the men with globozoospermia studied (n = 5), corresponding to 1.2% of all infertile men, presented a homozygous DPY19L2 deletion. By comparison, we would expect 1.6% of the patients in this cohort to have Klinefelter syndrome and 0.23% to have Y-microdeletion. Our findings thus indicate that AURKC mutations are more frequent than Klinefelter syndrome and constitute the leading genetic cause of infertility in North African men. Furthermore, we estimate that AURKC and DPY19L2 molecular defects are 10 and 5 times more frequent, respectively, than Y-microdeletions. PMID:25219909

  7. Mutations of the aurora kinase C gene causing macrozoospermia are the most frequent genetic cause of male infertility in Algerian men

    PubMed Central

    Ounis, Leyla; Zoghmar, Abdelali; Coutton, Charles; Rouabah, Leila; Hachemi, Maroua; Martinez, Delphine; Martinez, Guillaume; Bellil, Ines; Khelifi, Douadi; Arnoult, Christophe; Fauré, Julien; Benbouhedja, Sebti; Rouabah, Abdelkader; Ray, Pierre F

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome and Y-chromosomal microdeletion analyses were once the only two genetic tests offered to infertile men. Analyses of aurora kinase C (AURKC) and DPY19L2 are now recommended for patients presenting macrozoospermia and globozoospermia, respectively, two rare forms of teratozoospermia particularly frequent among North African men. We carried out genetic analyses on Algerian patients, to evaluate the prevalence of these syndromes in this population and to compare it with the expected frequency of Klinefelter syndrome and Y-microdeletions. We carried out a retrospective study on 599 consecutive patients consulting for couple infertility at the assisted reproduction unit of the Ibn Rochd Clinique, Constantine, Algeria. Abnormal sperm parameters were observed in 404 men. Fourteen and seven men had typical macrozoospermia and globozoospermia profiles, respectively. Molecular diagnosis was carried out for these patients, for the AURKC and DPY19L2 genes. Eleven men with macrozoospermia had a homozygous AURKC mutation (79%), corresponding to 2.7% of all patients with abnormal spermograms. All the men with globozoospermia studied (n = 5), corresponding to 1.2% of all infertile men, presented a homozygous DPY19L2 deletion. By comparison, we would expect 1.6% of the patients in this cohort to have Klinefelter syndrome and 0.23% to have Y-microdeletion. Our findings thus indicate that AURKC mutations are more frequent than Klinefelter syndrome and constitute the leading genetic cause of infertility in North African men. Furthermore, we estimate that AURKC and DPY19L2 molecular defects are 10 and 5 times more frequent, respectively, than Y-microdeletions. PMID:25219909

  8. Asymptomatic gonorrhoea in a male patient.

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, B.; Teli, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A case of asymptomatic gonorrhoea in a male patient is described. Failure to isolate Neisseria gonorrhoea from his wife possibly demonstrates inhibitory effect of Candida albicans in vivo on the former organism. PMID:6436805

  9. Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Risk of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Farland, Leslie V; Grodstein, Francine; Srouji, Serene S; Forman, John P; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Chavarro, Jorge E; Missmer, Stacey A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between infertility and fertility treatments on subsequent risk of hypertension. Design Cohort Study Setting Nurses’ Health Study II Patients 116,430 female nurses followed from 1993 to June 2011 as part of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Intervention None Main Outcome Measures Self-reported, physician diagnosed hypertension Results Compared to women who never reported infertility, infertile women were at no greater risk of hypertension (multi-variable adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.01 95% confidence interval [0.94–1.07]). Infertility due to tubal disease was associated with a higher risk of hypertension (RR=1.15 [1.01–1.31]) but all other diagnoses were not associated with hypertension risk compared to women who did not report infertility (ovulatory disorder: RR=1.03 [0.94–1.13], cervical: RR=0.88 [0.70–1.10], male factor: RR= 1.05 [0.95–1.15], other reason: RR=1.02 [0.94–1.11], reason not found: RR=1.02 [0.95–1.10]). Among infertile women there were 5,070 cases of hypertension. No clear pattern between use of fertility treatment and hypertension was found among infertile women (Clomiphene: RR =0.97 [0.90–1.04], Gonadotropin alone: RR=0.97 [0.87–1.08], IUI: RR=0.86 [0.71–1.03], IVF: RR=0.86 [0.73–1.01]). Conclusion Among this relatively young cohort of women, there was no apparent increase in hypertension risk among infertile women or among women who underwent fertility treatment in the past. PMID:26049054

  10. Causes of Male Infertility

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  11. Ovarian stimulation medications and patients’ responses as prognostic factors in IUI-treated infertile Saudi patients

    PubMed Central

    M. Isa, Ahmed; Abu-Rafea, Basim; Al-Asiri, Sahel; Al-Motawa, Johara; Almady, Khalid; Alwaznah, Raheek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) remains the first thought of infertility treatment. Objective: To compare the stimulation effects and Pregnancy rate (PR) outcomes of two ovulation induction (OI) medications, human-derived menopausal gonadotrophins (hMGH), Merional (MER), and recombinant follicular stimulating hormone (rFSH), Puregon (PUR), in a cohort of Saudi infertile patients, for better predictability of treatment results. Materials and Methods: During a 24-month period, 296 women underwent IUI single treatments. PR’s were correlated with the type of stimulation medication that were prospectively and randomly assigned to each patient, and with the number and size of maturing follicles detected on the hCG injection day. Results: MER and PUR needed comparable number of days (9.26±4.74 and 9.73±6.27 respectively) before follicles were ready for IUI, although the average amount used from MER, 1199.90 IU, was about double that was used from PUR, 621.08 IU. The overall PR in case of PUR however was nearly double that of MER, 13.28% and 7.14% respectively. The best PR, 16.22%, occurred when the follicles matured within 12-13 days. Three follicles of at least 15-mm diameter on the hCG day had better PR’s than one or two, however when the follicles’ diameters were at least 18-mm, PR was significantly higher, (p=0.013). Conclusion: MER and PUR had comparable stimulation effects; however PUR had noticeably higher PR. The best PR occurred when the follicles matured within 12-13 days. PR in case of three maturing follicles on the hCG day was better than only one or two, and significantly better when their diameters were at least 18 mm. PMID:25114672

  12. A comprehensive investigation of sperm DNA damage and oxidative stress injury in infertile patients with subclinical, normozoospermic, and astheno/oligozoospermic clinical varicocoele.

    PubMed

    Ni, K; Steger, K; Yang, H; Wang, H; Hu, K; Zhang, T; Chen, B

    2016-09-01

    One of the main pathogeneses of varicocoele and infertility is oxidative stress (OS), nevertheless, the oxidative damaged DNA in infertile patients with varicocoele remains poorly clarified. The objective of this study was to comprehensively investigate whether sperm DNA damage and OS injury were related with different issues of varicocoele. According to the varicocoele practice guidelines, surgical treatment was not indicated in the infertile patients with subclinical (SubVc, n = 15) and normozoospermic clinical varicocoele (NCVc, n = 22), the infertile astheno/oligozoospermic patients with clinical varicocoele (AOCVc, n = 51) would receive microsurgerical varicocoelectomy. Normozoospermic healthy donors with proven fertility (n = 25) were recruited as controls. Thiobarbituric acid and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) methods were preformed to analyze seminal lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI). We found that AOCVc and NCVc, except SubVc, could significantly elevate sperm DFI and seminal MDA levels. Varicocoelectomy could substantially improve semen parameters, and reduce sperm DFI and seminal MDA levels in the AOCVc patients. However, the non-operative NCVc patients would possibly suffer a severe deterioration of semen parameters accompanied by aberrantly higher levels of sperm DFI and seminal MDA, whereas no differences occurred in the non-operative SubVc patients. Sperm DFI level in the pregnant group was much lower compared to the non-pregnant group (AOCVc, p < 0.01; NCVc, p < 0.05) with the best cutoff value of 19.73%, while no differences in seminal MDA (p > 0.05) could be observed. Finally, a strong positive correlation was found between sperm DFI and seminal MDA (Rs = 0.504, p < 0.01), and they were also closely correlated with crucial semen parameters except normal morphology. Therefore, sperm DNA damage in clinical varicocoele, but not in SubVc, might be associated with the role

  13. Comparative study of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in blood and semen of two young male populations: lack of relationship to infertility, but evidence of high exposure of the mothers.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Corinne J; Foidart, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the possible effect of an environmental organochlorine, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), on male fertility assessed by main sperm variables, conducted through a case-control study on young men attending the andrology laboratory in the context of infertility investigation in the couple. Blood and semen samples were obtained from 73 young men considered as fertile based on semen analysis (controls) and 82 classified as subfertile or unfertile (cases). Standard clinical analysis of semen was performed and identification and quantification of p,p'-DDE in serum and in seminal plasma were done by gas chromatography. No p,p'-DDE was detected in the seminal plasma of either group. Blood concentration of p,p'-DDE in both groups was very low and did not differ between cases and controls; however, blood samples were obtained from 23 mothers in the control group, and from 19 in the case group, and p,p'-DDE serum level was significantly higher in the mothers of subfertile men. These data suggest that male infertility could be associated with exposure of the mothers to p,p'-DDE with deleterious effects restricted to intra-uterine life and thus undetected in blood or seminal plasma of subfertile men. PMID:15907656

  14. [Therapeutic issues concerning male fertility].

    PubMed

    Bernard, V; Bouvattier, C; Christin-Maitre, S

    2014-10-01

    Men reproductive health has long been ignored although it is responsible for 50% of couple's infertility. However, in recent years, the understanding of endocrine physiology underlying testis development and spermatogenesis has enabled the development of new therapeutic strategies. Some concern the management of male infertility. Others are dealing with finding an effective male contraceptive. In this review, we first present the management of infertility, in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We then describe the major improvements for Klinefelter patient's infertility. Finally, we review the different hormonal and non-hormonal methods for male contraception, currently in development. Efficacy and safety of the some non-hormonal methods remain to be demonstrated so far in humans. PMID:25617918

  15. Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2003-11-10

    Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

  16. Clinical effects of a natural extract of urinary human menopausal gonadotrophin in normogonadotropic infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Hua, Rui; Ma, Lan; Li, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Purified human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) is a natural product extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women that contains pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and a small amount of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Here we retrospectively conducted a clinical pharmaceutical study on a cohort of normogonadotropic infertile patients addressed to long GnRH-agonist protocol with serum LH concentration ranging from 0.5 IU/L to 1.5 IU/L during the midfollicle phase, aiming at evaluating the effects of purified HMG supplementation during ovarian stimulation. There was no significant difference in either the basic clinical features of the patients or the pregnancy rate (71.4% versus 66.3%, P > 0.05) or other related indicators of pregnancy outcome. However, there was a higher level of serum oestradiol (E2) on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) (1999.10 ± 860.50 IU/L versus 2883.29 ± 1427.382 IU/L, P = 0.000) but lower fertilization rate (89.1% versus 69.6%, P < 0.000) in patients getting HMG supplementation and a higher risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). We suppose that exogenous LH supplementation is not needed when serum LH concentration of the midfollicle phase is around 0.5-1.5 IU/L during the long GnRH-agonist protocol. Adding exogenous HMG may decrease the fertilization rate and increase the risk of developing OHSS. PMID:25815374

  17. Treatments for Diseases That Cause Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Males Fertility Treatments for Females Assisted Reproductive Technology ... for Diseases That Cause Infertility Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Specific treatments for ...

  18. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... might be infertile, see your doctor. There are tests that may tell if you have fertility problems. When it is possible to find the cause, treatments may include medicines, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies. Happily, many couples treated for infertility are able ...

  19. Hypogonadism in male Leprosy patients--a study from rural Uttar pradesh.

    PubMed

    Aggrawal, Kamal; Madhu, S V; Aggrawal, Kireet; Kannan, A T

    2005-09-01

    Hypogonadism in male patients with Leprosy is common and may identify patients with future risk for bone loss and osteoporosis. In the present study, we evaluated gonadal function in 71 male patients with Leprosy both clinically and by estimation of serum testosterone levels. The patients belonged to selected rural areas of Uttar pradesh, with majority aged less than 50 yrs (74.6%), Hindus (66.7%), illiterate (60.9%), and of low socioeconomic status (58% with per capita income < Rs.500 per month). Most patients had multibacillary Leprosy (83.1%), duration less than 2 years (75.4%) and had received antileprosy drugs for less than a year (95.6 %). Seven patients (9.9%) had clinical features of hypogonadism such as gynaecomastia, decreased sexual hair and infertility. Serum testosterone levels, estimated in 31 of the patients, revealed low values in 25.8% (8/31) patients (Mean 4.65+/-3.37 ng/ml). Age, duration of Leprosy and socioeconomic status but not type of Leprosy or treatment duration affected hypogonadism significantly. The results of the present study indicate a high frequency of hypogonadism among rural male Leprosy patients that warrants routine screening to identify patients at risk for osteoporosis and possible prevention with testosterone replacement therapy. PMID:17080706

  20. Protective Effect of Decursin Extracted from Angelica gigas in Male Infertility via Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Woong Jin; Ha, U. Syn; Choi, Jin Bong; Kim, Kang Sup; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Wang, Zhiping; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Kim, Sae Woong

    2016-01-01

    Higher testicular temperature results in altered spermatogenesis due to heat-related oxidative stress. We examined the effects of decursin extracted from Angelica gigas Nakai on antioxidant activity in vitro and in a cryptorchidism-induced infertility rat model. TM3 Leydig cell viability was measured based on oxidative stress according to treatment. Either distilled water or AG 400 mg/kg of A. gigas extract was administered orally for 4 weeks after unilateral cryptorchidism was induced. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, six rats from the control group and six rats from treatment group were sacrificed. Testicular weight, semen quality, antioxidant activities, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein, and mRNA expression of Nrf2-regulated genes were analyzed. Treatment with A. gigas extract (1) protected TM3 cells against oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, (2) improved the mean weight of the cryptorchid testis, (3) maintained sperm counts, motility, and spermatogenic cell density, (4) decreased levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), (5) significantly increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and (6) significantly decreased apoptosis. This study suggests that decursin extracted from A. gigas is a supplemental agent that can reduce oxidative stress by Nrf2-mediated upregulation of HO-1 in rat experimentally induced unilateral cryptorchidism and may improve cryptorchidism-induced infertility. PMID:27034737

  1. Comprehensive sequence analysis of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor 1 in a large group of infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Röpke, Albrecht; Tewes, Ann-Christin; Gromoll, Jörg; Kliesch, Sabine; Wieacker, Peter; Tüttelmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) protein, encoded by the NR5A1 gene, plays a central role in gonadal development and steroidogenesis. Mutations in NR5A1 were first described in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and 46,XY disorders of sexual development and later also in men with hypospadias, bilateral anorchia and micropenis and women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Recently, heterozygous missense mutations were found in 4% of infertile men with unexplained reduced sperm counts living in France, but all mutation carriers were of non-Caucasian ancestry. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive NR5A1 sequence analysis in 488 well-characterised predominantly Caucasian patients with azoo- or severe oligozoospermia. Two-hundred-thirty-seven men with normal semen parameters were sequenced as controls. In addition to several synonymous variants of unclear pathogenicity, three heterozygous missense mutations predicted to be damaging to SF1 protein function were identified. The andrological phenotype in infertile but otherwise healthy mutation carriers seems variable. In conclusion, mutations altering SF1 protein function and causing spermatogenic failure are also found in men of German origin, but the prevalence seems markedly lower than in other populations. PMID:23299922

  2. Microbiota of the seminal fluid from healthy and infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dongsheng; Zhou, Xia; Zhong, Xue; Settles, Matt; Herring, Jessica; Wang, Li; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Xu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore potential causes of male infertility by determining the composition and structure of commensal bacterial communities in seminal fluids. Design: Microscopy of gram stained semen samples and classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences to determine the species composition of semen bacterial communities. Setting(s): Clinical andrology laboratory and academic research laboratories. Patient(s): 19 sperm donors and 58 infertility patients. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustering of seminal microbial communities, and multiple statistical tests. Result(s): High numbers of diverse kinds of bacteria were present in most samples of both sperm donors and infertility patients. The bacterial communities varied widely between subjects, but they could be clustered into six groups based on similarities in composition and the rank abundances of taxa. Overall there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients. However, multiple statistical tests showed a significant negative association between sperm quality and the presence of Anaerococcus. The results also indicated that many of the bacterial taxa identified in semen also occur in the vaginal communities of some women, especially those with bacterial vaginosis, which suggests heterosexual sex partners may share bacteria. Conclusion(s): Diverse kinds of bacteria were present in the human semen, there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients, The presence of Anaerococcus might be a biomarker for low sperm quality. PMID:23993888

  3. Targeted Disruption of Tyrosylprotein Sulfotransferase-2, an Enzyme that Catalyzes Post-Translational Protein Tyrosine O-Sulfation, Causes Male Infertility*

    PubMed Central

    Borghei, Atefeh; Ouyang, Ying-Bin; Westmuckett, Andrew D.; Marcello, Matthew R.; Landel, Carlisle P.; Evans, Janice P.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2006-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation is a post-translational modification mediated by one of two Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and -2) expressed in all mammalian cells. Tyrosine sulfation plays an important role in the function of some known TPST substrates by enhancing protein-protein interactions. To explore the role of these enzymes in vivo, and gain insight into other potential TPST substrates, TPST-2 deficient mice were generated by targeted disruption of the Tpst2 gene. Tpst2+/- mice appear normal and, when interbred, yield litters of normal size with a Mendelian distribution of the targeted mutation. Tpst2-/- mice have moderately delayed growth, but appear healthy and attain normal body weight by 10 weeks of age. In contrast to Tpst1-/- males that have normal fertility, Tpst2-/- males are infertile. Tpst2-/- sperm are normal in number, morphology, and motility in normal media and appear to capacitate and undergo acrosomal exocytosis normally. However, they are severely defective in their motility in viscous media and in their ability to fertilize zona pellucida (ZP)-intact eggs. Adhesion of Tpst2-/- sperm to the egg plasma membrane is reduced compared to wild type sperm, but sperm-egg fusion is similar or even increased. These data strongly suggest that tyrosine sulfation of unidentified substrate(s) play a crucial role in these processes and document for the first time the critical importance of post-translational tyrosine sulfation in male fertility. PMID:16469738

  4. Hyperviscosity of semen in patients with male accessory gland infection:direct measurement with quantitative viscosimeter.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Vicari, E; D'Aagata, R; Salemi, M; Calogero, A E

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the viscosity of semen in patients with male accessory gland infection is related to the extension of the inflammatory process to the various glands. To achieve this, viscosity was assessed by quantitative viscosimeter and the results were expressed in centipoise (cps). The study was conducted on 30 infertile patients with clinical evidence of male accessory gland infection and a mean age of 29.0 ± 4.0 years. Their semen viscosity was evaluated through quantitative viscometer. All patients showed an increase of viscosity evaluated according to WHO criteria, while this parameter was normal in all controls. Semen viscosity of patients with male accessory gland infection (28.6 ± 2.2 cps) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in the controls (10.7 ± 0.6 cps). Significantly increasing values were observed in patients with involvement of multiple gland inflammation (prostatitis male accessory gland infection. PMID:21919943

  5. Decreased melatonin levels and increased levels of advanced oxidation protein products in the seminal plasma are related to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Ewa Maria; Piwowar, Agnieszka; Zeman, Michal; Stebelová, Katarína; Thalhammer, Theresia

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin, an indolamine secreted by the pineal gland, is known as a powerful free-radical scavenger and wide-spectrum antioxidant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to correlate markers of oxidative protein damage (advanced oxidation protein products, AOPPs) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with melatonin levels in the seminal plasma of men with azoospermia (n=37), theratozoospermia (n=29) and fertile controls (normozoospermia, n=37). Melatonin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The levels of AOPP as well as TAC efficiency (determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP) were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. The concentration of melatonin and AOPP significantly differed in azoospermic (P<0.0001) and theratozoospermic (P<0.0001) patients versus fertile men, and correlated negatively (r=-0.33, P=0.0016). The TAC levels were significantly higher in azoospermia than in theratozoospermia (P=0.0022) and the control group (P=0.00016). In azoospermia, the AOPP concentration was also significantly higher than that observed in theratozoospermia (P=0.00029). Decreased levels of melatonin together with elevated AOPP altered the oxidative-antioxidative balance in the ejaculate, thereby reducing fertility. Therefore, melatonin and AOPP levels may serve as additional diagnostic markers of semen quality and male reproductive potential. PMID:25218686

  6. NF kappaB expression increases and CFTR and MUC1 expression decreases in the endometrium of infertile patients with hydrosalpinx: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hydrosalpinx are associated with infertility, due to reduced rates of implantation and increased abortion rates. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), nuclear factor kappa B (NF KappaB) and mucin-1 (MUC-1), and analyze the correlation between the expression of CFTR and NF KappaB or MUC1, in the endometrium of infertile women with and without hydrosalpinx. Methods Thirty-one infertile women with laparoscopy-confirmed unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinx and 20 infertile women without hydrosalpinx or pelvic inflammatory disease (control group) were recruited. Endometrial biopsy samples were collected and the expression of CFTR, NF KappaB and MUC1 were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. Results CFTR, NF KappaB and MUC1 mRNA and protein expression tended to increase in the secretory phase compared to the proliferative phase in both groups; however, these differences were not significantly different. The endometrium of infertile patients with hydrosalpinx had significantly higher NF KappaB mRNA and protein expression, and significantly lower CFTR and MUC1 mRNA and protein expression, compared to control infertile patients. A positive correlation was observed between CFTR and MUC1 mRNA expression (r = 0.65, P < 0.05); a negative correlation was observed between CFTR mRNA and NF KappaB mRNA expression (r = −0.59, P < 0.05). Conclusions Increased NF KappaB expression and decreased CFTR and MUC1 expression in the endometrium of infertile patients with hydrosalpinx reinforce the involvement of a molecular mechanism in the regulation of endometrial receptivity. PMID:23061681

  7. Psychiatric aspects of infertility and infertility treatments.

    PubMed

    Burns, Linda Hammer

    2007-12-01

    Infertility counseling, whether provided by a psychiatrist or another health care professional, involves the treatment and care of patients, not simply when they are undergoing fertility treatment but also with their long-term emotional well-being, and that of their children and the reproductive helpers who may assist them in achieving biologic or reproductive parenthood. They can educate patients about the side effects of infertility treatment medications and the impact of hormone shifts on psychologic well-being. They are also helpful with differential diagnoses among grief, depressions, and stress; in assessing psychologic preparedness; and in determining the acceptability and suitability of gamete donation, a gestational carrier, or surrogacy as a family-building alternative for individuals, couples, and reproductive collaborators. PMID:17938041

  8. GONADAL EFFECTS OF FETAL EXPOSURE TO THE AZO DYE CONGO RED IN MICE: INFERTILITY IN FEMALE BUT NOT MALE OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study describes the relationship between gonadal genesis and fertility in male and female mice exposed in utero to the diazo dye Congo red (CR). aternal CR treatment inhibited testicular and ovarian function in the offspring after oral administration of I or 0.5 g/kg/...

  9. Incidence of infertility of immune origin in a group of marriages with unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Bujas, M; Berić, B; Kapamadzija, A

    1988-04-01

    This study was designed to estimate the incidence of infertility of immune origin in a group of 102 married couples with unexplained infertility, out of a total of 1346 couples being treated for infertility. The tests included microagglutination of spermatozoa, microzone sera immunoelectrophoresis and sera immunodiffusion methods. In this group the sera of 23 (22.55%) women and 21 (20.58%) men contained antibodies, and these seemed to be the only cause of infertility. In relation to the total number of 1346 couples, infertility of immune origin was found in 1.70% of female and 1.56% of male partners. Conjugal immune-origin infertility was present in 0.56% of marriages. Out of 1346 treated infertile marriages, an immunologic factor was evidently the only cause of infertility in 2.57%. PMID:3259585

  10. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  11. Atypical eating disorder in a male patient.

    PubMed

    Bailer, U; De Zwaan, M; Kasper, S

    1999-01-01

    In the literature there is evidence that a substantial proportion of patients with bulimia nervosa can be helped by cognitive behavioural self-help manuals. As there are no specific recommendations or strategies for the treatment of males with eating disorders we were therefore especially interested in the way a man might deal with such a self-help manual. In this case the book Getting better bit(e) by bit(e) by Treasure and Schmidt (also available in German translation) was given to a young man with an atypical eating disorder (atypical anorexia nervosa according to ICD-10). The patient was offered a maximum of 16 short visits and was seen by a first-year psychiatry resident. Treatment with this self-help manual was effective and the patient succeeded in changing his former eating behaviour. The case report provides preliminary evidence that a self-help manual may be a useful addition to the range of possible interventions in the treatment of eating disorders in men. Self-help manuals are less intensive and less costly than other forms of treatment and might be the lowest-step intervention in a stepped-care approach to treatment. PMID:24941097

  12. Contemporary and future insights into fertility preservation in male cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Chloe; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, survival rates of cancer patients have increased, resulting in a shift of focus from quantity to quality of life. A key aspect of quality of life is fertility potential; patients suffering from iatrogenic infertility often become depressed. Since many cancer therapies—chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or surgery—and even cancer itself have detrimental effects on the male reproductive system, it is important to preserve fertility before any treatment commences. Currently, the only reliable method of male fertility preservation is sperm banking. For patients who are unable to provide semen samples by the conventional method of masturbation, there are other techniques such as electroejaculation, microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration and testicular sperm extraction that can be employed. Unfortunately, it is presently impossible to preserve the fertility potential of pre-pubertal patients. Due to the increasing numbers of adolescent cancer patients surviving treatment, extensive research is being conducted into several possible methods such as testicular tissue cryopreservation, xenografting, in vitro gamete maturation and even the creation of artificial gametes. However, in spite of its ease, safety, convenience and many accompanying benefits, sperm banking remains underutilized in cancer patients. There are several barriers involved such as the lack of information and the urgency to begin treatment, but various measures can be put in place to overcome these barriers so that sperm banking can be more widely utilized. PMID:26816750

  13. Contemporary and future insights into fertility preservation in male cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, survival rates of cancer patients have increased, resulting in a shift of focus from quantity to quality of life. A key aspect of quality of life is fertility potential; patients suffering from iatrogenic infertility often become depressed. Since many cancer therapies-chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or surgery-and even cancer itself have detrimental effects on the male reproductive system, it is important to preserve fertility before any treatment commences. Currently, the only reliable method of male fertility preservation is sperm banking. For patients who are unable to provide semen samples by the conventional method of masturbation, there are other techniques such as electroejaculation, microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration and testicular sperm extraction that can be employed. Unfortunately, it is presently impossible to preserve the fertility potential of pre-pubertal patients. Due to the increasing numbers of adolescent cancer patients surviving treatment, extensive research is being conducted into several possible methods such as testicular tissue cryopreservation, xenografting, in vitro gamete maturation and even the creation of artificial gametes. However, in spite of its ease, safety, convenience and many accompanying benefits, sperm banking remains underutilized in cancer patients. There are several barriers involved such as the lack of information and the urgency to begin treatment, but various measures can be put in place to overcome these barriers so that sperm banking can be more widely utilized. PMID:26816750

  14. Testicular membrane lipid damage by complex mixture of leachate from municipal battery recycling site as indication of idiopathic male infertility in rat

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Akintunde A.

    2013-01-01

    Leachate from a municipal battery recycling site is a potent source of mixed-metal released into the environment. The present study investigated the degree at which mixed-metal exposure to the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) and to the Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site leachate (EOMABRL) affected the lipid membrane of the testes in in vitro experiment. The results showed elevated level of mixed-metals over the permissible levels in drinking water, as recommended by regulatory authorities. In the leachate samples, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of lipid damage, was significantly (p<0.05) increased in rat testes in a dose-dependent manner. MDA induced by the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the leachate from Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site (EOMABRL). The testicular lipid membrane capacity was compromised following treatment with leachate from the municipal battery recycling site, implicating mixed-metal exposure as the causative agent of testicular damage and male infertility. PMID:24678257

  15. Hysterosalpingographic evaluation of primary and secondary infertility

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Muhammad Usman; Anwar, Saleha; Mahmood, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pathological patterns of fallopian tubes and uterus on hysterosalpingogrphy (HSG) examination in cases of infertility. Methods: Two years retrospective charts review of patients referred to our centre for HSG evaluation of infertility, from July 2008 to July 2010. Results: Four thousand one hundred eight hysterosalpingograms were carried out at our centre during the study period. Out of these, 1999 (48.6%) were primary infertility cases while the 2109 (51.3%) were of secondary infertility. Mean age of presentation for primary infertility was 30 years and 35 years for secondary infertility. Bilateral free peritoneal spill was noted in 60% of cases. Unilateral tubal blockage was present in 15% and bilateral tubal blockage in 10% of patients. Bilateral hydrosalpinx was present in 10% of patients and unilateral loculated spill was found in 5% of patients with primary infertility. Patients with uterine congenital anomalies were also evaluated and the frequency of bicornuate uterus was 4%, unicornuate uterus was 2% and uterine didelphys was 0.2%. Conclusions: Infertile patients who underwent HSG were mostly in older age group with secondary infertility being slightly more common emphasizing early work up and care. Most of the patients with primary infertility had normal HSG examination. To our knowledge this is the largest data for HSG to be presented from Pakistan. PMID:26649011

  16. The Production of Interleukin-11 and Decidualization Are Compromised in Endometrial Stromal Cells Derived from Patients with Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Karpovich, Natalia; Klemmt, Petra; McVeigh, J. Enda; Barlow, David H.; Mardon, Helen J.; Hwang, Jung Hye; Heath, John K.

    2006-01-01

    IL-11 signaling is critical for decidualization of the endometrial stroma in early pregnancy in the mouse. In this study, we investigate the function of IL-11 signaling in cAMP-induced decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. We show that treatment of endometrial stromal cells with 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) results in an increase in the levels of secreted IL-11, whereas levels of cell surface IL-11 receptor α are similar with or without 8-Br-cAMP treatment. The production of IL-11 correlates with the production of molecular markers of decidualization, prolactin and IGF-binding protein-1. The expression of these markers is inhibited when IL-11 signaling is specifically blocked in decidualizing endometrial stromal cells by the IL-11 antagonist W147A. We demonstrate that 8-Br-cAMP-induced endometrial stromal cells derived from patients with primary infertility produce lower levels of prolactin, IGF-binding protein-1, and IL-11 than cells derived from fertile women. Our results suggest that IL-11 expression is critically important during decidualization in the human endometrium, and that aberrant regulation of endometrial IL-11 production may be associated with some types of infertility. PMID:15613426

  17. Alopecia and male infertility in oligotriche mutant mice are caused by a deletion on distal chromosome 9.

    PubMed

    Runkel, Fabian; Aubin, Isabelle; Simon-Chazottes, Dominique; Büssow, Heinrich; Stingl, Reinhard; Miething, Andreas; Fukami, Kiyoko; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Franz, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The recessive mutation oligotriche (olt) affects the coat and male fertility in the mouse. In homozygous (olt/olt) mutants, the coat is sparse, most notably in the inguinal and medial femoral region. In these regions, almost all hair shafts are bent and distorted in their course through the dermis and rarely penetrate the epidermis because the hair cortex is not fully keratinized. During hair follicle morphogenesis, mutant hair follicles exit from anagen one day before those of normal littermates and show a prolongation of the catagen stage. The oligotriche (olt) locus was mapped to distal chromosome 9 within a 5-Mbp interval distal to D9Mit279. Analysis of candidate gene expression revealed that olt/olt mutant mice do not express functional phospholipase C delta 1 (Plcd1) mRNA. This deficiency is the consequence of a 234-kbp deletion involving not only the Plcd1 locus but also the chromosomal segment harboring the genes Vill (villin-like), Dlec1 (deleted in lung and esophageal cancer 1), Acaa1b (acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 1B, synonym thiolase B), and parts of the genes Ctdspl (carboxy-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase-like) and Slc22a14 (solute carrier family 22 member 14). Offspring of olt/olt females, mated with Plcd1 ( -/- ) knockout males, exhibit coat defects similar to those observed in homozygous olt/olt mutant mice but the spermiogenesis in male offspring is normal. We conclude that the 234-kbp deletion from chromosome 9 harbors a gene involved in spermiogenesis and we propose that the oligotriche mutant be used as a model for the study of the putative tumor suppressor genes Dlec1, Ctdspl, and Vill. We also suggest that the oligotriche locus be named Del(9Ctdspl-Slc22a14)1Pas. PMID:19002527

  18. Validation of the German version of the 'Hypogonadism Related Symptom Scale' (HRS) in andrological patients with infertility, HIV infection and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alidjanov, J; Wolf, J; Schuppe, H-C; Weidner, W; Diemer, T; Linn, T; Halefeldt, I; Wagenlehner, F; Wiltink, J; Pilatz, A

    2014-12-01

    As commonly used self-reported screening instruments for male hypogonadism demonstrated lack of specificity, a Hypogonadism Related Symptom Scale (HRS) was developed in 2009 as a novel self-rating screening tool. As the questionnaire has not been validated, the purpose of our study was to perform a validation in patients presenting with different disorders (e.g. infertility, HIV infection or metabolic syndrome) and disease-related risk to develop hypogonadism. Two hundred and eighteen patients aged 19-71 years (40.1 ± 9.5) who completed the HRS and other common questionnaires [International Index Of Erectile Function (IIEF), National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), short form (SF)-12] were included. In all patients, blood levels of total testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined and free testosterone was calculated. Cronbach's α for the scale was 0.896, split-half 0.871 for the 1st half and 0.807 for the 2nd half. Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.767, and Guttman split-half coefficient was 0.759. Consistent correlations were found between HRS and IIEF5 (ρ = 0.57, P < 0.001), and HADS (ρ = -0.6, P < 0.001). In addition, HRS was significantly correlated with total testosterone (ρ = 0.135, P < 0.05), free testosterone (ρ = 0.148, P < 0.05) and oestradiol (ρ = -0.134, P < 0.05). Our validation study confirms the data from the initial development of the HRS questionnaire. Clinicians might have an additional advantage from the HRS when investigating males with suspected hypogonadism. PMID:24387031

  19. Clinical Outcomes of Varicocele Repair in Infertile Men: A Review.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Koji; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-08-01

    Varicoceles are a major cause of impaired spermatogenesis and the most common correctable cause of male infertility. They are found in approximately 40% of men with primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility, although they also occur in 12% of men with normal semen parameters. The presence of a varicocele does not always affect spermatogenesis, as it has been reported that only 20% of men with documented varicoceles suffer fertility problems. However, varicocele repair appears to have beneficial effects in men with impaired semen parameters and palpable varicoceles. Currently, the main procedures employed for varicocele repair are microsurgical subinguinal or inguinal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy, and radiological percutaneous embolization. Microsurgical varicocelectomy appears to be the optimal treatment in most cases, whereas the other procedures are useful only in specific cases. After treatment, it typically takes 3 to 6 months for patients' semen parameters to improve; thus, other therapies, including assisted reproductive technology, should be considered if infertility persists after this interval, especially in older couples. Controversies still remain regarding how varicoceles in certain subgroups, such as adolescents or men with azoospermia, should be treated. Due to their relatively high prevalence rate among the general population, varicoceles can occur concomitantly with other conditions that cause impaired spermatogenesis. Further studies are necessary in order to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment. In this review, we sought to summarize the issues currently associated with varicocele treatment in infertile men. PMID:27574593

  20. Clinical Outcomes of Varicocele Repair in Infertile Men: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Varicoceles are a major cause of impaired spermatogenesis and the most common correctable cause of male infertility. They are found in approximately 40% of men with primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility, although they also occur in 12% of men with normal semen parameters. The presence of a varicocele does not always affect spermatogenesis, as it has been reported that only 20% of men with documented varicoceles suffer fertility problems. However, varicocele repair appears to have beneficial effects in men with impaired semen parameters and palpable varicoceles. Currently, the main procedures employed for varicocele repair are microsurgical subinguinal or inguinal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy, and radiological percutaneous embolization. Microsurgical varicocelectomy appears to be the optimal treatment in most cases, whereas the other procedures are useful only in specific cases. After treatment, it typically takes 3 to 6 months for patients' semen parameters to improve; thus, other therapies, including assisted reproductive technology, should be considered if infertility persists after this interval, especially in older couples. Controversies still remain regarding how varicoceles in certain subgroups, such as adolescents or men with azoospermia, should be treated. Due to their relatively high prevalence rate among the general population, varicoceles can occur concomitantly with other conditions that cause impaired spermatogenesis. Further studies are necessary in order to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment. In this review, we sought to summarize the issues currently associated with varicocele treatment in infertile men. PMID:27574593

  1. Cost-effective treatment for the couple with infertility.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhis, B J; Syrop, C H

    2000-12-01

    Although the evaluation of cost-effective approaches to infertility treatment remains in its infancy, several important principles have emerged from the initial studies in this field. Currently, in treating couples with infertility without tubal disease or severe male-factor infertility, the most cost-effective approach is to start with IUI or superovulation-IUI treatments before resorting to IVF procedures. The woman's age and number of sperm present for insemination are significant factors influencing cost-effectiveness. The influence of certain diagnoses on the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments requires further study. Even when accounting for the costs associated with multiple gestations and premature deliveries, the cost of IVF decreases within the range of other cost-effective medical procedures and decreases to less than the willingness to pay for these procedures. Indeed, for patients with severe tubal disease, IVF has been found to be more cost-effective than surgical repair. The cost-effectiveness of IVF will likely improve as success rates show continued improvements over the course of time. In addition, usefulness of embryo selection and practices to reduce the likelihood of high-order multiple pregnancies, without reductions in pregnancy rates, will significantly impact cost-effectiveness. The exclusion of infertility treatments from insurance plans is unfortunate and accentuates the importance of physicians understanding the economics of infertility treatment with costs that are often passed directly to the patient. The erroneous economic policies and judgments that have led to inequities in access to infertility health care should not be tolerated. PMID:11100309

  2. Male rat infertility induction/spermatozoa and epididymal plasma abnormalities after oral administration of Kalanchoe gastonis bonnieri natural juice.

    PubMed

    de la Luz Miranda-Beltrán, María; Puebla-Pérez, Ana María; Guzmán-Sánchez, Arnoldo; Huacuja Ruiz, Luis

    2003-04-01

    Natural aqueous crude extracts (NACE) of several Crassulaceae family plants have been applied as a vaginal contraceptive by the populace. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibition of fertility in male Wistar rats and some physiological and biochemical changes in spermatozoa and epididymal plasma induced by NACE from Kalanchoe gastonis bonnieri (K. g. b.) (Crassulaceae). The NACE was obtained by mechanic pressure on grinding fresh plant leaves. Sublethal doses (150-300 mg/kg body weight) of NACE were orally administered to adult and fertile male rats daily for 30 days in a search for a contraceptive effect, and physiological and biochemical modifications on sperm cells and cauda epididymal plasma. The toxicity studies revealed that the lethal dose (LD(50)) calculated was 11 g/kg body weight. Sublethal doses induced 50%-100% fertility inhibition, with 100% recovery of fertility 30 days after stopping the treatment. The sperm motility, viability and spermatic density were also significantly decreased (p < 0.001). The outstanding biochemical change observed in the cauda epididymal plasma was a decrease of carnitine concentration. The NACE of K. gastonis contains one substance active on fertility by affecting spermatozoa motility, viability and sperm density with a significantly decreased carnitine and sialic acid (p < 0.001) in the caudal epididymal plasma. PMID:12722131

  3. Semen Quality Improvement in a Man with Idiopathic Infertility Treated with Traditional Korean Medicine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jo, Junyoung; Lee, Sun Haeng; Lee, Jin Moo; Jerng, Ui Min

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 45-50% of the cases of infertility result from deficiencies associated with male factors, and 30-45% of these deficiencies are idiopathic. A standardized approach for the treatment of idiopathic male infertility remains elusive. In Korea, male infertility has been treated with either acupuncture, herbal remedies, or pharmacopuncture. We report a case of male idiopathic infertility in which the patient's semen quality improved through traditional Korean medicine (TKM) therapies, which was evaluated according to the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) standards. A 35-year-old infertile man visited the Conmaul Hospital from August 2013 to December 2013. He was diagnosed with asthenoteratozoospermia. The patient received 3 TKM therapies-acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herbal remedies-for 3 months. After 3 months of treatment, a second semen analysis of the patient was conducted. The sperm motility increased by 13%, and the normal sperm morphology increased by 4% over 3 months. In addition, the total motile sperm count was 2.5 times higher than that before treatment. The results of the present study support the clinical potency of treatment with acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herbal remedies in idiopathic infertile men, especially for the improvement of sperm motility and morphology. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials with elaborate designs should be performed to verify the clinical effect of TKM therapies. PMID:26025007

  4. Apoptosis is increased and cell proliferation is decreased in out-of-phase endometria from infertile and recurrent abortion patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Various endometrial abnormalities have been associated with luteal phase deficiency: a significant dyssynchrony in the maturation of the glandular epithelium and the stroma and a prevalence of out-of-phase endometrial biopsy specimens. Out-of phase endometrium is a controversial disorder related to failed implantation, infertility and early pregnancy loss. Given that the regulation of the apoptotic process in endometrium of luteal phase deficiency is still unknown, the aim of this study was to evaluate cell proliferation, apoptosis and the levels of the main effector caspase, caspase-3 in the luteal in-phase and out-of-phase endometrium. Methods Thirty-seven endometrial samples from sterile or recurrent abortion patients were included in this study: 21 in-phase samples (controls) and 16 samples with out-of-phase endometrium. Biopsy specimens of eutopic endometrium were obtained from all subjects during days 21-25 of the menstrual cycle. The endometrium with endometrial maturity of cycle day 25 or less at the time of menstruation was considered out-of phase. Endometrial tissues were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde. For apoptosis quantification, sections were processed for in situ immunohistochemical localization of nuclei exhibiting DNA fragmentation, by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP digoxygenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique. Expressions of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) as a marker of cell proliferation, and of cleaved caspase-3 as a marker of apoptosis, were assessed by immunohistochemistry in the luteal in-phase and out-of-phase endometrium from infertile and recurrent abortion patients. Results Luteal out-of-phase endometrium had increased apoptosis levels compared to in-phase endometrium (p < 0.05). Caspase-3 evaluation confirmed these results: the luteal out-of-phase endometrium showed augmented cleaved caspase-3 expression (p < 0.005). As well, our data demonstrated that the luteal out

  5. Genetic Polymorphism of CYP2D6 and Clomiphene Concentrations in Infertile Patients with Ovulatory Dysfunction Treated with Clomiphene Citrate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    CYP2D6 is primarily responsible for the metabolism of clomiphene citrate (CC). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between CYP2D6 genotypes, concentrations of CC and its major metabolites and drug response in infertility patients. We studied 42 patients with ovulatory dysfunction treated with only CC. Patients received a dose of 100 mg/day CC on days 3-7 of the menstrual cycle. CYP2D6 genotyping and measurement of CC and the major metabolite concentrations were performed. Patients were categorized into CC responders or non-responders according to one cycle response for the ovulation. Thirty-two patients were CC responders and 10 patients were non-responders with 1 cycle treatment. The CC concentrations were highly variable within the same group, but non-responders revealed significantly lower (E)-clomiphene concentration and a trend of decreased concentrations of active metabolites compared to the responders. Nine patients with intermediate metabolizer phenotype were all responders. We confirmed that the CC and the metabolite concentrations were different according to the ovulation status. However, our results do not provide evidence for the contribution of CYP2D6 polymorphism to either drug response or CC concentrations. PMID:26839488

  6. The potential use of intrauterine insemination as a basic option for infertility: a review for technology-limited medical settings.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Abdelrahman M; Yeh, John

    2009-01-01

    Objective. There is an asymmetric allocation of technology and other resources for infertility services. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a process of placing washed spermatozoa transcervically into the uterine cavity for treatment of infertility. This is a review of literature for the potential use of IUI as a basic infertility treatment in technology-limited settings. Study design. Review of articles on treatment of infertility using IUI. Results. Aspects regarding the use of IUI are reviewed, including ovarian stimulation, semen parameters associated with good outcomes, methods of sperm preparation, timing of IUI, and number of inseminations. Implications of the finding in light of the needs of low-technology medical settings are summarized. Conclusion. The reviewed evidence suggests that IUI is less expensive, less invasive, and comparably effective for selected patients as a first-line treatment for couples with unexplained or male factor infertility. Those couples may be offered three to six IUI cycles in technology-limited settings. PMID:20011061

  7. Immunology of infertility.

    PubMed

    Jones, W R

    1981-12-01

    Recent research on immunological infertility in men and women is reviewed and the possibilities for therapeutic success in this area are assessed. Surface antigens of the acrosome and main tail piece appear to provoke antibodies of special relevance to male and female infertility and are recognized by circulating sperm-immobilizing antibodies in women and by immobilizing and agglutinizing antibodies in men. Assessment methods have focused on the development of tests of local immunity to sperm. Antisperm antibodies have been tested via sperm microagglutination, the gelatin agglutination test, the sperm immobilization test, and immunofluorescence techniques. In addition, measurement has focused on antibodies in cervical mucus, antibodies in seminal plasma, and cell-mediated immunity. Methods involving both partners include postcoital test, the sperm-cervical mucus penetration test, and the sperm-cervical mucus contact test. There remains a need for the development of specific radioimmunoassys for the precise detection and quantitation of antibodies to sperm antigens, especially those of cell membrane origin. In males, autoimmunity to sperm antigens can be related to infertility by 2 main pathogenic mechanisms: 1) the adverse effects of antibodies directly on spermatozoa, and 2) the association with disordered spermatogenesis resulting in oligospermia and azoospermia. In women, the effector pathways of local immunization mediate both systemic and cell-mediated immune responses. Local antibodies can interfere with the reproductive process by arming macrophages and enhancing phagocytic clearance of spermatozoa from the genital tract, mediating cytotoxic effects on sperm, preventing sperm from adequately penetrating cervical mucus, intefering with sperm capacitation, and influencing sperm selection within the female genital tract. Between 5-10% of infertile men and women show evidence of anitbodies to sperm. Treatment has included occlusion therapy, intrauterine

  8. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  9. Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection results in improved clinical outcomes in couples with previous ICSI failures or male factor infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Setti, Amanda S; Braga, Daniela P A F; Figueira, Rita C S; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to perform the first meta-analysis to compare conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) outcomes in couples with previous ICSI failures (IF) or male factor infertility (MF). A systematic review was performed by searching Medline database to identify articles reporting on the comparison between ICSI and IMSI outcomes in couples with IF or MF. The main outcome measures were the implantation, pregnancy and miscarriage rates. Thirteen studies fulfilled our predetermined criteria. The overall results of meta-analysis for implantation (OR: 2.88; CI: 2.13-3.89), pregnancy (OR: 2.07; CI: 1.22-3.50) and miscarriage rates (OR: 0.31; CI: 0.14-0.67) were in favor of IMSI in couples with IF. Additionally, the overall result of meta-analysis for implantation (OR: 1.56; CI: 1.11-2.18) and pregnancy rate (OR: 1.61; CI: 1.17-2.23) were in favor of IMSI in couples with MF. IMSI increases the odds of implantation by 50% and pregnancy by 60% in couples with MF. In light of improved clinical outcomes, we recommend promoting the IMSI method in couples with MF. Moreover, IMSI results in a 3-fold increase in implantation rate, a 2-fold increase in pregnancy rate and a 70% decrease in miscarriage rate as compared to ICSI in couples with IF, however, as no randomized evidence exists, randomized studies are needed to confirm the IMSI benefits in couples with IF. PMID:25461360

  10. Tysnd1 Deficiency in Mice Interferes with the Peroxisomal Localization of PTS2 Enzymes, Causing Lipid Metabolic Abnormalities and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Yumi; Ninomiya, Yuichi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Iseki, Mioko; Iwasa, Hiroyasu; Akita, Masumi; Tsukui, Tohru; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Ito, Chizuru; Toshimori, Kiyotaka; Nishimukai, Megumi; Hara, Hiroshi; Maeba, Ryouta; Okazaki, Tomoki; Alodaib, Ali Nasser Ali; Amoudi, Mohammed Al; Jacob, Minnie; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Horai, Yasushi; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Motegi, Hiromi; Wakana, Shigeharu; Noda, Tetsuo; Kurochkin, Igor V.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Schönbach, Christian; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles involved in lipid metabolic processes, including those of very-long-chain fatty acids and branched-chain fatty acids, among others. Peroxisome matrix proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm. Targeting signals (PTS or peroxisomal targeting signal) at the C-terminus (PTS1) or N-terminus (PTS2) of peroxisomal matrix proteins mediate their import into the organelle. In the case of PTS2-containing proteins, the PTS2 signal is cleaved from the protein when transported into peroxisomes. The functional mechanism of PTS2 processing, however, is poorly understood. Previously we identified Tysnd1 (Trypsin domain containing 1) and biochemically characterized it as a peroxisomal cysteine endopeptidase that directly processes PTS2-containing prethiolase Acaa1 and PTS1-containing Acox1, Hsd17b4, and ScpX. The latter three enzymes are crucial components of the very-long-chain fatty acids β-oxidation pathway. To clarify the in vivo functions and physiological role of Tysnd1, we analyzed the phenotype of Tysnd1−/− mice. Male Tysnd1−/− mice are infertile, and the epididymal sperms lack the acrosomal cap. These phenotypic features are most likely the result of changes in the molecular species composition of choline and ethanolamine plasmalogens. Tysnd1−/− mice also developed liver dysfunctions when the phytanic acid precursor phytol was orally administered. Phyh and Agps are known PTS2-containing proteins, but were identified as novel Tysnd1 substrates. Loss of Tysnd1 interferes with the peroxisomal localization of Acaa1, Phyh, and Agps, which might cause the mild Zellweger syndrome spectrum-resembling phenotypes. Our data established that peroxisomal processing protease Tysnd1 is necessary to mediate the physiological functions of PTS2-containing substrates. PMID:23459139

  11. Uterine fibroids associated with infertility.

    PubMed

    Van Heertum, Kristin; Barmat, Larry

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the contributory role of uterine fibroids to infertility. The prevalence of these tumors increases with age, which becomes significant as more women are delaying childbearing. Therefore, fibroids and infertility frequently occur together. Treatment varies with fibroid location and size. The various methods of treatment include open myomectomy, laparoscopic or robot-assisted myomectomy, medical treatment, uterine artery embolization and magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery. While there is a general consensus on the treatment of submucosal fibroids, the management of intramural fibroids in the infertility patient remains controversial. This paper aims to review and summarize the current literature in regards to the approach to uterine fibroids in the infertile patient. PMID:25482490

  12. Infertility and Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Infertility and Fertility: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is infertility? "Infertility" is a term that describes when a ...

  13. Reproductive outcomes following hysteroscopic resection of endometrial polyps of different location, number and size in patients with infertility.

    PubMed

    Karakuş, S S; Özdamar, Ö; Karakuş, R; Gün, I; Sofuoğlu, K; Muhcu, M; Polat, M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the pregnancy rates after hysteroscopic polypectomy in infertility patients with endometrial polyps and to compare pregnancy rates among subgroups with polyps of different location, size and number. All patients who underwent hysteroscopic evaluation which revealed endometrial polyps were included. Patients with any intrauterine pathology other than polyp and those undergoing frozen embryo transfer (ET) cycles were excluded. Patients were evaluated according to polyp location, size and number. Rates of β-hCG positivity and clinical pregnancy were compared. Clinical pregnancy rates after polypectomy was 41.7% for multiple polyps, 30.8% for isthmus zone polyps, 28.6% for anterior wall polyps, 27.3% for cornual zone, 22.2% for posterior uterine wall polyps and 11.8% for fundal polyps (p = 0.532). There appears no difference regarding reproductive outcomes after hysteroscopic resection of polyps situated in different intrauterine locations. Similarly, chance of conceiving seems not to change after hysteroscopic treatment of polyps of different size and number. PMID:26471837

  14. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms “IBD AND male infertility”, “Crohn’s disease AND male infertility”, “ulcerative colitis AND male infertility”. References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options. PMID:27602237

  15. [Sophrology: a different tool for infertile couples].

    PubMed

    Heymès, O; Forges, T; Guillet-May, F; Zaccabri, A; Dandachi, N; Monnier, P

    2006-12-01

    Because of the high degree of complexity of assisted reproduction techniques (ART), the human and conscious dimensions of infertility problems are often neglected. Different strategies may help infertile couples coping with infertility and related treatments; among these, Caycedian sophrology relies on the cognitive, emotional, and somatic aspects of consciousness. In the present article, the authors report on their experience with sophrologic support for infertile patients by a midwife qualified in caycedian sophrology. Overall, since 1988, 310 couples have benefied from this kind of support, with an average of 10 sophrologic trainings per patient. Whereas some couples consider sophrology as a short time training to better cope with any particular aspect of their infertility treatment, others want to undertake more profound work on their body scheme. The authors wish to call the attention of ART professionals to this kind of medical support for infertile couples, and also to the particular role of midwives with sophrologic competence in an ART center. PMID:17151535

  16. Use of Diagnostic Testing to Detect Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kathleen; Lipshultz, Larry I.; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of the infertile male continues to be a clinical challenge of increasing significance with considerable emotional and financial burdens. Many physiological, environmental and genetic factors are implicated; however, the etiology of suboptimal semen quality is poorly understood. This review focuses on the diagnostic testing currently available, as well as future directions that will be helpful for the practicing urologist and other clinicians to fully evaluate the infertile male. PMID:21088937

  17. Super Infection of An Ovarian Dermoid Cyst with Actinomyces in An Infertile Woman

    PubMed Central

    Salehpour, Saghar; Akbari Sene, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    We present super infection of an ovarian dermoid cyst with actinomyces in an infertile patient. This is a case-report study for evaluation a couple with male factor infertility, who was a good candidate for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), while a 10 cm dermoid cyst was found in the woman’s right ovary. Patient complained of pelvic pain, intermittent fever, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia. The cyst was extracted using laparoscopy, whilst in histopathological examination, an actinomycosis super infection was reported. Actinomyc super infection of an ovarian dermoid cyst is a very rare incident which can also occur in women with no history of intrauterine device (IUD) usage or previous fertility. PMID:24520476

  18. Spermatozoa protein alterations in infertile men with bilateral varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Cui, Zhihong; Ayaz, Ahmet; Gupta, Sajal; Willard, Belinda; Gopalan, Banu; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Among infertile men, a diagnosis of unilateral varicocele is made in 90% of varicocele cases and bilateral in the remaining varicocele cases. However, there are reports of under-diagnosis of bilateral varicocele among infertile men and that its prevalence is greater than 10%. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) extracted from spermatozoa cells of patients with bilateral varicocele and fertile donors. Subjects consisted of 17 men diagnosed with bilateral varicocele and 10 proven fertile men as healthy controls. Using the LTQ-orbitrap elite hybrid mass spectrometry system, proteomic analysis was done on pooled samples from 3 patients with bilateral varicocele and 5 fertile men. From these samples, 73 DEP were identified of which 58 proteins were differentially expressed, with 7 proteins unique to the bilateral varicocele group and 8 proteins to the fertile control group. Majority of the DEPs were observed to be associated with metabolic processes, stress responses, oxidoreductase activity, enzyme regulation, and immune system processes. Seven DEP were involved in sperm function such as capacitation, motility, and sperm-zona binding. Proteins TEKT3 and TCP11 were validated by Western blot analysis and may serve as potential biomarkers for bilateral varicocele. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of DEP and identified proteins with distinct reproductive functions which are altered in infertile men with bilateral varicocele. Functional proteomic profiling provides insight into the mechanistic implications of bilateral varicocele-associated male infertility. PMID:25999357

  19. Ethical and Psychosocial Impact of Female Infertility.

    PubMed

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y

    2012-12-01

    This manuscript reviews research from the past year on the ethical and psychosocial impact of infertility on women and men. We discuss several issues surrounding ovarian stimulation, particularly high-order multiple births, egg banking (especially for research purposes), and diminished ovarian reserve. We also present recent work on distress and counseling, which includes greater attention to subgroups of infertile women. More research on issues confronting men has emerged recently, and we outline these with regard to their relationships with infertile women, or as the infertility patient. Last, we outline some ethical issues posed by newer procedures of fertility preservation and uterine transplant. PMID:23336092

  20. Tarlov Cyst and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Conclusions: Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients. PMID:19569467

  1. Disruption of the principal, progesterone-activated sperm Ca2+ channel in a CatSper2-deficient infertile patient.

    PubMed

    Smith, James F; Syritsyna, Olga; Fellous, Marc; Serres, Catherine; Mannowetz, Nadja; Kirichok, Yuriy; Lishko, Polina V

    2013-04-23

    The female steroid hormone progesterone regulates ovulation and supports pregnancy, but also controls human sperm function within the female reproductive tract. Progesterone causes elevation of sperm intracellular Ca(2+) leading to sperm hyperactivation, acrosome reaction, and perhaps chemotaxis toward the egg. Although it has been suggested that progesterone-dependent Ca(2+) influx into human spermatozoa is primarily mediated by cationic channel of sperm (CatSper), the principal flagellar Ca(2+) channel of sperm, conclusive loss-of-function genetic evidence for activation of CatSper by progesterone has yet to be provided. Moreover, it is not clear whether the responsiveness of CatSper to progesterone is an innate property of human spermatozoa or is acquired as the result of exposure to the seminal plasma. Here, by recording ionic currents from spermatozoa of an infertile CatSper-deficient patient, we demonstrate that CatSper is indeed the principal Ca(2+) channel of human spermatozoa, and that it is strongly potentiated by progesterone. In addition, by recording CatSper currents from human epididymal and testicular spermatozoa, we show that CatSper sensitivity to progesterone arises early in sperm development and increases gradually to a peak when spermatozoa are ejaculated. These results unambiguously establish an important role of CatSper channel in human sperm nongenomic progesterone signaling and demonstrate that the molecular mechanism responsible for activation of CatSper by progesterone arises early in sperm development concurrently with the CatSper channel itself. PMID:23530196

  2. [Therapy for male patients with sexual dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Casella, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Phosphodiasterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil) are the first line symptomatic therapy for patients with erectile dysfunction. The patient should receive a meticolous information on the use of these drugs and their possible side effects. These drugs are safe and can be used even in patients with stable cardiovascular disease. Patients not responding to oral drugs may be offered intraurethral or intracavernous alprostadil. Vacuum constriction devices are a second line option more acceptable to older patients. Penile prosthesis are very seldom used in Switzerland and vascular surgery is a vanishing option. Testosterone substitution is seldom needed in this setting. Treatment of premature ejaculation subdivides into behavioural therapy ("stop-start" or "squeeze" technique) and drug therapy as well. Topical therapy with lidocaine/prilocaine-containing medications to be applied before sexual intercourse and a oral daily off label use therapy with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline) can be offered. Dapoxetine, a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with short half life time, is the first officially approved medication for the treatment of premature ejaculation and should be available soon in Switzerland. PMID:20235039

  3. Lack of Protein 4.1G Causes Altered Expression and Localization of the Cell Adhesion Molecule Nectin-Like 4 in Testis and Can Cause Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaomin; Weng, Haibo; Chen, Lixiang; Guo, Xinhua; Parra, Marilyn; Conboy, John; Debnath, Gargi; Lambert, Amy J.; Peters, Luanne L.; Baines, Anthony J.; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2011-01-01

    Protein 4.1G is a member of the protein 4.1 family, which in general serves as adaptors linking transmembrane proteins to the cytoskeleton. 4.1G is thought to be widely expressed in many cells and tissues, but its function remains largely unknown. To explore the function of 4.1G in vivo, we generated 4.1G−/− mice and bred the mice in two backgrounds: C57BL/6 (B6) and 129/Sv (129) hybrids (B6-129) and inbred B6. Although the B6 4.1G−/− mice showed no obvious abnormalities, deficiency of 4.1G in B6-129 hybrids was associated with male infertility. Histological examinations of these 4.1G−/− mice revealed atrophy, impaired cell-cell contact and sloughing off of spermatogenic cells in seminiferous epithelium, and lack of mature spermatids in the epididymis. Ultrastructural examination revealed enlarged intercellular spaces between spermatogenic and Sertoli cells as well as the spermatid deformities. At the molecular level, 4.1G is associated with the nectin-like 4 (NECL4) adhesion molecule. Importantly, the expression of NECL4 was decreased, and the localization of NECL4 was altered in 4.1G−/− testis. Thus, our findings imply that 4.1G plays a role in spermatogenesis by mediating cell-cell adhesion between spermatogenic and Sertoli cells through its interaction with NECL4 on Sertoli cells. Additionally, the finding that infertility is present in B6-129 but not on the B6 background suggests the presence of a major modifier gene(s) that influences 4.1G function and is associated with male infertility. PMID:21482674

  4. Male genitoplasty for 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients presenting late and reared as males

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shilpa; Gupta, Devendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the clinical profile and management of 46 XX Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) patients presenting with severe virilization and assigned a male gender. Materials and Methods: Of 173 children diagnosed with CAH at the Pediatric Intersex Clinic since 1980, seven children with CAH presented late with severe virilization and were reared as males. All of them were assigned the male sex with removal of the female adnexa. Six were treated with male genitoplasty. Appropriate hormonal supplementation was offered after puberty. Results: The mean age at presentation was 14.2 years (7 – 21). Six patients had presented after puberty, only one at seven years of age. Staged male genitoplasty comprising of chordee correction, male urethroplasty, and bilateral testicular prosthesis was performed. The female adnexa (uterus, ovaries, most of the upper vagina, and the fallopian tubes) were removed. The mental makeup was masculine in six and bigender in one. Bilateral mastectomy was performed at puberty in all. Hormonal treatment comprised of glucocorticoids and testosterone. Six patients were comfortable with the outcome of the masculinizing genitoplasty. One had a short-sized phallus. One had repeated attacks of urinary tract infection arising from the retained lower vaginal pouch. Social adjustments were good in all, except in one who had a bigender mental makeup. Conclusion: CAH patients with severe virilization presenting late and reared as males are extremely rare. However, the assigned gender can be retained adequately as males, meeting the socioeconomic compulsions of the society. The results are satisfactory following appropriate surgical procedures and hormonal supplementation. PMID:23226638

  5. Prevalence of Psychiatric Morbidity in Females amongst Infertile Couples- A Hospital Based Report

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Pragati; Goyal, Lajya Devi; Kaur, Gurmeet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility leads to significant stress among couple and the reaction to infertility differs among males and females. Aim To know the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in infertile couples and compare the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders among husband and wife. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 couples diagnosed with infertility from outdoor clinics. Both male and female partner of couple were interviewed for detailed history and clinical examination was done. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was applied to detect any psychological strain in couples and in those with illness, final diagnosis were made on the basis of DSM -IV (TR). The data thus generated was subjected to appropriate Statistical Analysis. Results Out of the 50 couples, 54% of females had psychiatric morbidity. The most common diagnosis amongst the female participants was MDD (Major Depressive Disorder) (18%), whereas the second most common diagnosis was GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) (16%). Psychiatric morbidity was found in only 26% of males suffering with Adjustment Disorder being most common diagnosis (8%) and Dysthymia and MDD as the second most common diagnosis (6% each). Majority of patients having psychiatric morbidity were from age group 20-29 years. The difference between females and male counterparts was statistically significant. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity was higher among female partners than male partners. The difference was statistically significant and the situation needs further workup.

  6. SNaPshot Assay for the Detection of the Most Common CFTR Mutations in Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Mircevska, Marija; Plaseski, Toso; Filipovski, Vanja; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2014-01-01

    Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is the most common CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) that explains about 1–2% of the male infertility cases. Controversial data have been published regarding the involvement of CFTR mutations in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Here, we describe single base extension (SNaPshot) assay for detection of 11 common CFTR mutations: F508del, G542X, N1303K, 621+1G->T, G551D, R553X, R1162X, W1282X, R117H, 2184insA and 1717-1G->A and IVS8polyT variants. The assay was validated on 50 previously genotyped samples and was used to screen a total of 369 infertile men with different impairment of spermatogenesis and 136 fertile controls. Our results show that double heterozygosity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) mutations are found in a high percentage (22.7%) of infertile men with obstructive azoospermia, but not in other studied groups of infertile men. The SNaPshot assay described here is an inexpensive, fast and robust method for primary screening of the most common CFTR mutations both in patients with classical CF and CFTR-RD. It can contribute to better understanding of the role of CFTR mutations in impaired spermatogenesis, ultimately leading to improved management of infertile men. PMID:25386751

  7. [Fitting a male sheath urinal while respecting the patient's intimacy].

    PubMed

    Derville, Sandrine; Cellard Du Sordet, Paul; Breuzard, Magali; Béguin, Anne-Marie; Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne

    2015-04-01

    The fitting of a male sheath urinal directly concerns the patient's area of sexual intimacy. The modesty of the patient and caregiver as they interact is tested, leading to discomfort or clumsiness which can provoke a feeling of intrusion. Preparing this care procedure favours the adherence of both parties. PMID:26043631

  8. Infertility, impotence, and emasculation – psychosocial contexts for abandoning reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas W; Wassersug, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    From a Darwinian perspective we live to reproduce, but in various situations genetic males elect not to reproduce by choosing medical treatments leading to infertility, impotence, and, in the extreme, emasculation. For many men, infertility can be psychologically distressing. However, for certain genetic males, being infertile may improve their quality of life. Examples include (1) men who seek vasectomy, (2) individuals with Gender Dysphoria (e.g., transwomen, and modern day voluntary eunuchs), (3) most gay men, and (4) men treated for testicular and prostate cancer. Men who desire vasectomy typically have a Darwinian fitness W >1 at the time of their vasectomies; i.e., after they have their desired number of offspring or consider themselves past an age for parenting newborns. In contrast, prostate and testicular cancer patients, along with individuals with extreme Gender Dysphoria, do not necessarily seek to be sterile, but accept it as an unavoidable consequence of the treatment for their condition undertaken for survival (in case of cancer patients) or to achieve a better quality of life (for those with Gender Dysphoria). Most gay men do not father children, but they may play an avuncular role, providing for their siblings’ offspring's welfare, thus improving their inclusive fitness through kin selection. In a strictly Darwinian model, the primary motivation for all individuals is to reproduce, but there are many situations for men to remove themselves from the breeding populations because they have achieved a fitness W ≥1, or have stronger medical or psychological needs that preclude remaining fertile. PMID:26924280

  9. Treatment of infertility in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Brackett, Nancy L; Lynne, Charles M; Ibrahim, Emad; Ohl, Dana A; Sønksen, Jens

    2010-03-01

    Most men with spinal cord injury (SCI) are infertile. Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities contribute to the problem. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections of alprostadil, penile prostheses, and vacuum constriction devices. In anejaculatory patients who wish to father children, semen retrieval is necessary. Penile vibratory stimulation is recommended as the first line of treatment. Patients who fail penile vibratory stimulation can be referred for electroejaculation. If this approach is not possible, prostate massage is an alternative. Surgical sperm retrieval should be considered as a last resort when other methods fail. Most men with SCI have a unique semen profile characterized by normal sperm count but abnormally low sperm motility. Scientific investigations indicate that accessory gland dysfunction and abnormal semen constituents contribute to the problem. Despite abnormalities, sperm from men with SCI can successfully induce pregnancy. In selected couples, the simple method of intravaginal insemination is a viable option. Another option is intrauterine insemination. The efficacy of intrauterine insemination increases as the total motile sperm count inseminated increases. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are options in cases of extremely low total motile sperm count. Reproductive outcomes for SCI male factor infertility are similar to outcomes for general male factor infertility. PMID:20157304

  10. Infertility, impotence, and emasculation - psychosocial contexts for abandoning reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas W; Wassersug, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    From a Darwinian perspective we live to reproduce, but in various situations genetic males elect not to reproduce by choosing medical treatments leading to infertility, impotence, and, in the extreme, emasculation. For many men, infertility can be psychologically distressing. However, for certain genetic males, being infertile may improve their quality of life. Examples include (1) men who seek vasectomy, (2) individuals with Gender Dysphoria (e.g., transwomen, and modern day voluntary eunuchs), (3) most gay men, and (4) men treated for testicular and prostate cancer. Men who desire vasectomy typically have a Darwinian fitness W >1 at the time of their vasectomies; i.e., after they have their desired number of offspring or consider themselves past an age for parenting newborns. In contrast, prostate and testicular cancer patients, along with individuals with extreme Gender Dysphoria, do not necessarily seek to be sterile, but accept it as an unavoidable consequence of the treatment for their condition undertaken for survival (in case of cancer patients) or to achieve a better quality of life (for those with Gender Dysphoria). Most gay men do not father children, but they may play an avuncular role, providing for their siblings' offspring's welfare, thus improving their inclusive fitness through kin selection. In a strictly Darwinian model, the primary motivation for all individuals is to reproduce, but there are many situations for men to remove themselves from the breeding populations because they have achieved a fitness W ≥1, or have stronger medical or psychological needs that preclude remaining fertile. PMID:26924280

  11. [Comorbidity in infertile couples].

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Gideon A; Bürgin, Laila; Kaufmann, Fabrice; De Geyter, Christian

    2009-12-01

    Pregnancy is the result of a series of highly complex processes, which can be deranged by multiple disturbances on many different levels. Physicians are increasingly dealing with couples suffering from infertility. This rise in case numbers is mainly due to the fact that couples are more and more delaying childbearing until a later phase of their reproductive life, when their social and professional careers are established. The increasing mean age at the first birth has a negative impact on fertility by deteriorating quality and reducing the quantity of oocytes. With increasing age systemic diseases are becoming more coincidental, which in turn tend to exert negative effects on fecundity and fertility both in males and females. This review highlights some associations between infertility and various common systemic diseases. Both general practitioners and gynecologists should counsel young women about the finity of the reproductive phase of their life. Young couples are to be informed, that a "healthy lifestyle" without smoking, sexual transmitted diseases and without metabolic diseases as diabetes and obesity can have a positive effect not only on their general health but also on their fertility and the outcome of future pregnancies. PMID:19950056

  12. Improving the Reporting of Clinical Trials of Infertility Treatments (IMPRINT): modifying the CONSORT statement†‡

    PubMed Central

    Legro, Richard S.; Wu, Xiaoke; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Farquhar, Cynthia; Fauser, Bart C.J.M.; Mol, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials testing infertility treatments often do not report on the major outcomes of interest to patients and clinicians and the public (such as live birth) nor on the harms, including maternal risks during pregnancy and fetal anomalies. This is complicated by the multiple participants in infertility trials which may include a woman (mother), a man (father), and result in a third individual if successful, their offspring (child), who is also the desired outcome of treatment. The primary outcome of interest and many adverse events occur after cessation of infertility treatment and during pregnancy and the puerperium, which create a unique burden of follow-up for clinical trial investigators and participants. In 2013, because of the inconsistencies in trial reporting and the unique aspects of infertility trials not adequately addressed by existing Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statements, we convened a consensus conference in Harbin, China, with the aim of planning modifications to the CONSORT checklist to improve the quality of reporting of clinical trials testing infertility treatment. The consensus group recommended that the preferred primary outcome of all infertility trials is live birth (defined as any delivery of a live infant ≥20 weeks gestations) or cumulative live birth, defined as the live birth per women over a defined time period (or number of treatment cycles). In addition, harms to all participants should be systematically collected and reported, including during the intervention, any resulting pregnancy, and during the neonatal period. Routine information should be collected and reported on both male and female participants in the trial. We propose to track the change in quality that these guidelines may produce in published trials testing infertility treatments. Our ultimate goal is to increase the transparency of benefits and risks of infertility treatments to provide better medical care to affected individuals and

  13. Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine Sexual dysfunction and infertility What is sexual dysfunction and how common is ... and 40% of women. For couples dealing with infertility, it is even more common. Often, people ignore ...

  14. Primary infertility (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary infertility is a term used to describe a couple that has never been able to conceive a pregnancy ... to do so through unprotected intercourse. Causes of infertility include a wide range of physical as well ...

  15. Managing infertility with the follitropin alfa prefilled pen injector - patient considerations.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin treatment has been used in fertility treatment since the 1930s. First, preparations coming from animals were injected, then, gonadotropins prepared from the pituitary glands of human cadavers. A great step was achieved with the introduction of human menopausal gonadotropin extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women. When cases of Creutzfeld-Jacob disease were recognized after the use of human pituitary-derived hormone injections, urinary gonadotropins were increasingly purified and then produced by the use of recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant gonadotropins were characterized by the extreme high specificity and the nearly 100% purity. This allows for follitropin alfa, the first recombinant-human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) approved, to be quantified and filled by mass, with a small variance of only ±2% and no more with a bioassay with a variance of 45%. With recombinant preparations, it is also possible to cover the tremendous growing demand for gonadotropins. Ovarian stimulation has become a self-injecting procedure for the patients. Accurate and easy-to-use injection devices which minimize pain, difficulty, and stress are essential for patient compliance. So, two pen injectors adapted from the well-known insulin pen were introduced in fertility treatment, one as a multiple-use device rechargeable with premixed, prefilled cartridges with r-hFSH (follitropin β) and the other a disposable, prefilled drug delivery system with a liquid formulation of follitropin alfa filled by mass. The efficacy in comparison to the quite more cumbersome handling with ampoules and syringes has been proven very quickly. In several studies, it has been shown that patients had a preference to the prefilled follitropin alfa pen due to the faster preparation and were more confident of accurate dosing. The follitropin alfa (filled by mass [FbM]) prefilled pen is a move toward better quality of treatment and also better quality of life for the women within

  16. Managing infertility with the follitropin alfa prefilled pen injector – patient considerations

    PubMed Central

    Bühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin treatment has been used in fertility treatment since the 1930s. First, preparations coming from animals were injected, then, gonadotropins prepared from the pituitary glands of human cadavers. A great step was achieved with the introduction of human menopausal gonadotropin extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women. When cases of Creutzfeld-Jacob disease were recognized after the use of human pituitary-derived hormone injections, urinary gonadotropins were increasingly purified and then produced by the use of recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant gonadotropins were characterized by the extreme high specificity and the nearly 100% purity. This allows for follitropin alfa, the first recombinant-human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) approved, to be quantified and filled by mass, with a small variance of only ±2% and no more with a bioassay with a variance of 45%. With recombinant preparations, it is also possible to cover the tremendous growing demand for gonadotropins. Ovarian stimulation has become a self-injecting procedure for the patients. Accurate and easy-to-use injection devices which minimize pain, difficulty, and stress are essential for patient compliance. So, two pen injectors adapted from the well-known insulin pen were introduced in fertility treatment, one as a multiple-use device rechargeable with premixed, prefilled cartridges with r-hFSH (follitropin β) and the other a disposable, prefilled drug delivery system with a liquid formulation of follitropin alfa filled by mass. The efficacy in comparison to the quite more cumbersome handling with ampoules and syringes has been proven very quickly. In several studies, it has been shown that patients had a preference to the prefilled follitropin alfa pen due to the faster preparation and were more confident of accurate dosing. The follitropin alfa (filled by mass [FbM]) prefilled pen is a move toward better quality of treatment and also better quality of life for the women within

  17. Clinical manifestations of neuromyelitis optica in male and female patients.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jianrui; Long, Youming; Shan, Fulan; Fan, Yongxiang; Wu, Linzhan; Zhong, Rong; Gao, Cong; Chen, Xiaohui; Gao, Qingchun; Yang, Ning

    2015-11-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe, idiopathic, immuno-mediated, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. We examined the clinical features between male and female NMO patients, for which not much data exist. One hundred and eight Chinese Han patients with NMO were analysed retrospectively, all had been detected for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody using a cell-based assay. Of 108 NMO patients, 92 were female and 16 were male (female/male = 5.75). Ninety-four (87%) were positive for the AQP4 antibody in their serum and/or cerebral spinal fluid. Aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMO patients had a higher female/male ratio than the negative group (P = 0.001). Female NMO patients had a higher positive rate of the AQP4 antibody than male NMO patients (92.4 vs 56.3%, P = 0.001). All NMO male patients were divided according to their AQP4 antibody status. 77.8% (7/9) of patients in the seropositive group had initial optic neuritis, while only one patient (14.3%, 1/7) in the negative group had optic neuritis (P = 0.041). Limb paraesthesia was reported in only one patient in the negative group (11.1%), but it was reported in all patients in the positive group (100%) (P = 0.001). The mean length of vertebral segments of the spinal cord lesions was 3.6 ± 1.3 in the positive group, while it was 6.6 ± 2.6 in the negative group (P < 0.0001). The involvement of the cervical spinal cord was found in 88.9% (8/9) of the positive members, but only 11.1% in the negative group (P = 0.009). However, the involvement of the thoracic spinal cord was found in 22.2% of patients in the positive group and 85.7% of patients in the negative members (P = 0.041). In conclusion, male NMO is rare and has a low positive rate of AQP4 antibody. PMID:26213113

  18. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari, Fatemeh; Ghahiri, Ataollah; Habibi, Mojtaba; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis ap- proach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women) and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives) as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their medical treatments as

  19. Dermatological medication effects on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian Wong; Heller, Misha M; Eliason, Mark J; Murase, Jenny E

    2013-01-01

    Many drugs have been reported to impair semen parameters, leading to temporary or persistent infertility. Therefore, potential fathers may be concerned about the effect of medications on fertility. We searched the MEDLINE database of articles in English combining key terms including "male infertility," "spermatogenesis," "fertility," "drug effects," and "dermatology." Administration of methotrexate and finasteride has resulted in severe oligospermia and reversible infertility. Ketoconazole has had negative effects on sperm motility and testosterone production. Few individual case reports and a limited number of studies have demonstrated negative effects of tetracyclines, erythromycin, chloroquine, glucocorticoids, spironolactone, and antihistamines on fertility. It is important to counsel male patients when appropriate about the reversible negative effect on fertility when taking methotrexate and finasteride, and the adverse effect of ketoconazole. Patients may be reassured that taking oral retinoids, cyclosporine, azathioprine, and tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors should not affect their fertility. PMID:23914891

  20. Downregulation of miR-320a/383-sponge-like long non-coding RNA NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes) is associated with male infertility and promotes testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Lü, M; Tian, H; Cao, Y-x; He, X; Chen, L; Song, X; Ping, P; Huang, H; Sun, F

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are extensively transcribed from the genome, have been proposed to be key regulators of diverse biological processes. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in regulating spermatogenesis in human males. Here, using microarray technology, we show altered expression of lncRNAs in the testes of infertile men with maturation arrest (MA) or hypospermatogenesis (Hypo), with 757 and 2370 differentially down-regulated and 475 and 163 up-regulated lncRNAs in MA and Hypo, respectively. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays on select lncRNAs, including HOTTIP, imsrna320, imsrna292 and NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes). Interestingly, NLC1-C, also known as long intergenic non-protein-coding RNA162 (LINC00162), was down-regulated in the cytoplasm and accumulated in the nucleus of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes in the testes of infertile men with mixed patterns of MA compared with normal control. The accumulation of NLC1-C in the nucleus repressed miR-320a and miR-383 transcript and promoted testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation by binding to Nucleolin. Here, we define a novel mechanism by which lncRNAs modulate miRNA expression at the transcriptional level by binding to RNA-binding proteins to regulate human spermatogenesis. PMID:26539909

  1. Downregulation of miR-320a/383-sponge-like long non-coding RNA NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes) is associated with male infertility and promotes testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lü, M; Tian, H; Cao, Y-X; He, X; Chen, L; Song, X; Ping, P; Huang, H; Sun, F

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are extensively transcribed from the genome, have been proposed to be key regulators of diverse biological processes. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in regulating spermatogenesis in human males. Here, using microarray technology, we show altered expression of lncRNAs in the testes of infertile men with maturation arrest (MA) or hypospermatogenesis (Hypo), with 757 and 2370 differentially down-regulated and 475 and 163 up-regulated lncRNAs in MA and Hypo, respectively. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays on select lncRNAs, including HOTTIP, imsrna320, imsrna292 and NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes). Interestingly, NLC1-C, also known as long intergenic non-protein-coding RNA162 (LINC00162), was down-regulated in the cytoplasm and accumulated in the nucleus of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes in the testes of infertile men with mixed patterns of MA compared with normal control. The accumulation of NLC1-C in the nucleus repressed miR-320a and miR-383 transcript and promoted testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation by binding to Nucleolin. Here, we define a novel mechanism by which lncRNAs modulate miRNA expression at the transcriptional level by binding to RNA-binding proteins to regulate human spermatogenesis. PMID:26539909

  2. Psychoanalysis and infertility. Myths and realities.

    PubMed

    Apfel, Roberta J; Keylor, Rheta G

    2002-02-01

    Psychoanalysis, long interested in infertility, and a valuable treatment for men and women suffering with this affliction, has also helped to create and support a myth of psychogenic infertility. Multiple causes of infertility exist across the physiological-psychological spectrum. There is no simple psychodynamic causality. Advances in assisted reproductive technologies provide treatments that create emotional stress and outpace psychological preparedness of patients and analysts. This paper is based on the experience of a unique study group in Boston. An analytic case illustrates some of the ways analysis can be a treatment of choice for people using assisted reproduction. In fact, analysis offers a unique opportunity to elaborate fully the complex realities and dilemmas faced by people and their therapists throughout the infertility experience. More generally, this study of the concept of psychogenic infertility explores a valuable role for psychoanalysis in the treatment of medical conditions. PMID:11915150

  3. Leiomyomas and infertility.

    PubMed

    Siristatidis, Charalampos; Vaidakis, Dennis; Rigos, Ioannis; Chrelias, George; Papantoniou, Nikolaos

    2016-06-01

    Leiomyomas are the commonest benign tumor in the female reproductive tract. Even though their role on infertility is still questionable, evidence to date suggest that the anatomic location may be related to reproductive outcomes. Several possible mechanisms suggest that leiomyomas may affect fertility, especially in terms of the anatomical distortion of endometrial cavity, the abnormal uterine contractility, reduced blood supply to the endometrium and altered endometrial receptivity. The effect of leiomyomas on IVF outcomes has been the subject of many studies; however, a definitive direction is yet required to adjust clinical management accordingly. Management of leiomyomas is challenging in terms of clinical decision, especially among subfertile patients, since potential treatment complications and their consequences in endometrial dynamics should be also accounted. Expectant management is recommended for asymptomatic patients, whereas in symptomatic subfertile patients, medical and/ or surgical management is usually recommended. PMID:26824506

  4. Men and masculinities in forensic psychiatric care: an interview study concerning male nurses' experiences of working with male caregivers and male patients.

    PubMed

    Kumpula, Esa; Ekstrand, Per

    2009-09-01

    Forensic psychiatric care is largely populated by men--as patients, caregivers, and nurses. Previous research has not focused on the meaning of gender in this context. The aim of this study is to analyse male nurses' experiences of working with male caregivers and attending to male patients in forensic psychiatric care. Data were collected through interviews with six male nurses. The results consist of five themes. Protection and defence are key aspects of care and male caregivers gain status and authority through their physical strength. This could hamper caring and provide male caregivers with a superior position in the department. PMID:19657867

  5. Anti-GAPDHS antibodies: a biomarker of immune infertility.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jun; Yao, Rongyan; Luo, Yanyun; Yang, Dantong; Cao, Yang; Qiu, Yi; Song, Wei; Miao, Shiying; Gu, Yiqun; Wang, Linfang

    2016-04-01

    Numerous investigations have focused on the detection of antisperm antibodies, which have a naturally occurring impact on male and female fertility. In this study, spermatogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS) was considered to be a candidate biomarker of immune infertility. The concentrations of anti-GAPDHS antibodies in the sera of sterile individuals and fertile couples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera were collected from immune infertile (n = 175) and fertile (n = 237) individuals and were screened by tray agglutination tests (TAT). Infertile sera were further divided into two groups according to the serum titers obtained by TAT (titers ≤ 1:8, n = 58; titers > 1:8, n = 117). The concentrations of anti-GAPDHS antibodies were significantly higher in the immune infertile group than in the fertile group and were much higher with regard to the increased degrees of sperm agglutination (titers > 1:8). Surprisingly, we found statistically significantly higher concentrations of antibodies in the sera of infertile men than in those of infertile women, and a similar statistical result was obtained in the sera when primary infertility was compared with secondary infertility. Thus, anti-GAPDHS antibodies seem to be a sensitive parameter in immune infertile detection and might be one of the main factors causing immune infertility. This factor might be valuable as an indicator in the clinical diagnosis and monitoring treatment of infertility. PMID:26846113

  6. Protective effects of L-carnitine and homogenized testis tissue on the testis and sperm parameters of busulfan-induced infertile male rats

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Farzaneh; Hassanpour, Ashraf; Poost-pasand, Aghdas; Noorafshan, Ali; Karbalay-Doust, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Busulfan(Bus) is a chemotherapy drug that is widely used for cancer treatment. However, administration of busulfan may cause temporary or permanent sterility in male patients. Therefore, reduction of this side is necessary. Objective: evaluation of the protective effects of L-carnitine and testis homogenized tissue(THT) on sperm parameters and the testis structure after busulfan treatment. Materials and Methods: Twenty rats were divided four groups. Group I (Control) received a single dose of DMSO and 1mL of distilled water (I.P.). Group II (Bus) received a single of busulfan (10 mg/kg) plus 1 ml of the distilled water(I.P.). Group III (Bus+THT) received busulfan plus 1mL of THT daily by oral gavages. Group IV (Bus+L-car) received a single dose of busulfan plus 100 mg/kg/day L-carnitine(I.P.). after 48 dayst, the Stereological technique was used for the estimating volume and diameter of testis, seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue, flagella length, germinal epithelium height and spermatoginic cell number. Semen analysis was used for the assessment of sperm parameters. Results: THT increased volume of testis (6.5%), seminiferous tubule and interstitial tissue volume (6.5%), 6.9% and 11.7% respectively), germinal epithelium height (13%), sperm count (7.5%), and decreased sperm with abnormal morphology (1%) in comparison with the L-carnitine in busulfan treated group. Conclusion: It seems the use of L-carnitine and THT decreases side effects of busulfan on the male reproductive system. However, in our study, THT is more effective than L-carnitine and leads to the recovery testis structure and sperm parameters after treatment with busulfan. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Ashraf Hassanpour) PMID:24639808

  7. The influence of oxidative damage on viscosity of seminal fluid in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Birsen; Onaran, Ilhan; Kiziler, Ali Riza; Alici, Bulent; Akyolcu, Mehmet Can

    2008-01-01

    Increased oxidative damage has been suggested to play an important role in the viscosity changes of blood. However, changes in levels of oxidative damage products in semen and their relationship to seminal fluid viscosity are unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate whether oxidative damage was associated with seminal plasma viscosity in infertile subjects. The levels of malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyls were measured in sperm and seminal plasma from 102 individuals, including 60 infertile patients. Seminal fluid viscosity and semen viscosity were studied by use of capillary viscometer and glass pipettes, respectively. Significantly higher levels of oxidative stress and damage markers were found in subfertile subjects compared with the control subjects. The seminal fluid viscosities of patients were found to be significantly higher, although all of the control and patient subjects had normal viscoelasticity when semen samples were assessed according to World Health Organization guidelines. From Pearson correlation analysis, there were significant positive correlations between seminal fluid viscosity and seminal malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels in infertile males (r = .676, P < .01; r = .276, P < .05, respectively). Our results suggest that increased oxidative damage might be a factor for hyperviscosity of seminal plasma in infertile males. PMID:17673435

  8. Birdshot chorioretinopathy in a male patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Papavasileiou, Evangelia; Lobo, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR) in a patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). A 40-year-old male with history of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy with significant facial diplegia and lagophthalmos presents for an evaluation of bilateral choroiditis with vasculitis and optic disc edema. Clinical examination included fundus and autofluorescence photographs, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. To our knowledge, this patient represents the first reported case of birdshot chorioretinopathy with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Patients with FSHD can present with ocular findings and should be screened with dilated fundus examinations for retinal vascular changes and posterior uveitis. PMID:25861398

  9. [Circulating nucleic acids and infertility].

    PubMed

    Scalici, E; Mullet, T; Ferrières Hoa, A; Gala, A; Loup, V; Anahory, T; Belloc, S; Hamamah, S

    2015-09-01

    Circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA and microRNAs) have for particularity to be easily detectable in the biological fluids of the body. Therefore, they constitute biomarkers of interest in female and male infertility care. Indeed, in female, they can be used to detect ovarian reserve disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome and low functional ovarian reserve) as well as to assess follicular microenvironment quality. Moreover, in men, their expression levels can vary in case of spermatogenesis abnormalities. Finally, circulating nucleic acids have also the ability to predict successfully the quality of in vitro embryo development. Their multiple contributions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) make of them biomarkers of interest, for the development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests, applied to our specialty. Circulating nucleic acids would so offer the possibility of personalized medical care for infertile couples in ART. PMID:26298813

  10. Withania somnifera Improves Semen Quality in Stress-Related Male Fertility.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Rajender, Singh; Shankhwar, Satya Narain; Singh, Vishwajeet; Dalela, Deepansh

    2009-09-29

    Stress has been reported to be a causative factor for male infertility. Withania somnifera has been documented in Ayurveda and Unani medicine system for its stress-combating properties. However, limited scientific literature is available on this aspect of W. somnifera. We undertook the present study to understand the role of stress in male infertility, and to test the ability of W. somnifera to combat stress and treat male infertility. We selected normozoospermic but infertile individuals (N = 60), further categorized in three groups: normozoospermic heavy smokers (N = 20), normozoospermics under psychological stress (N = 20) and normozoospermics with infertility of unknown etiology (N = 20). Normozoospermic fertile men (N = 60) were recruited as controls. The subjects were given root powder of W. somnifera at a rate of 5 g/day for 3 months. Measuring various biochemical and stress parameters before and after treatment, suggested a definite role of stress in male infertility and the ability of W. somnifera to treat stress-related infertility. Treatment resulted in a decrease in stress, improved the level of anti-oxidants and improved overall semen quality in a significant number of individuals. The treatment resulted in pregnancy in the partners of 14% of the patients. PMID:19789214

  11. Understanding male cancer patients' barriers to participating in cancer rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Handberg, C; Lomborg, K; Nielsen, C V; Oliffe, J L; Midtgaard, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to describe male cancer survivors' barriers towards participation in cancer rehabilitation as a means to guiding future targeted men's cancer rehabilitation. Symbolic Interactionism along with the interpretive descriptive methodology guided the study of 35 male cancer survivors representing seven cancer types. Data were generated through a 5-month fieldwork study comprising participant observations, semi-structured individual interviews and informal conversations. The analyses revealed two overarching findings shedding light on male cancer survivors' barriers to rehabilitation: 'Fear of losing control' and 'Striving for normality'. While 'Fear of losing control' signified what the men believed rehabilitation would invoke: 'Reduced manliness', 'Sympathy and dependency' and 'Confrontation with death', 'Striving for normality' was based on what the men believed rehabilitation would hinder: 'Autonomy and purpose', 'Solidarity and fellowship' and 'Forget and move on'. This study of male cancer survivors' and cancer rehabilitation documents how masculine ideals may constitute barriers for participation in rehabilitation and provides insights about why men are underrepresented in rehabilitation. The findings can guide practice to develop research-based rehabilitation approaches focused on preserving control and normality. Further empirical evidence is needed to: (1) explore the conduct of health professionals' towards male cancer patients and (2) address gender inequalities in cancer rehabilitation. PMID:26223855

  12. Transglutaminase 4 as a prostate autoantigen in male subfertility.

    PubMed

    Landegren, Nils; Sharon, Donald; Shum, Anthony K; Khan, Imran S; Fasano, Kayla J; Hallgren, Åsa; Kampf, Caroline; Freyhult, Eva; Ardesjö-Lundgren, Brita; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Rathsman, Sandra; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Lundh, Dan; Motrich, Ruben; Rivero, Virginia; Fong, Lawrence; Giwercman, Aleksander; Gustafsson, Jan; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Husebye, Eystein S; Anderson, Mark S; Snyder, Michael; Kämpe, Olle

    2015-06-17

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1), a monogenic disorder caused by AIRE gene mutations, features multiple autoimmune disease components. Infertility is common in both males and females with APS1. Although female infertility can be explained by autoimmune ovarian failure, the mechanisms underlying male infertility have remained poorly understood. We performed a proteome-wide autoantibody screen in APS1 patient sera to assess the autoimmune response against the male reproductive organs. By screening human protein arrays with male and female patient sera and by selecting for gender-imbalanced autoantibody signals, we identified transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) as a male-specific autoantigen. Notably, TGM4 is a prostatic secretory molecule with critical role in male reproduction. TGM4 autoantibodies were detected in most of the adult male APS1 patients but were absent in all the young males. Consecutive serum samples further revealed that TGM4 autoantibodies first presented during pubertal age and subsequent to prostate maturation. We assessed the animal model for APS1, the Aire-deficient mouse, and found spontaneous development of TGM4 autoantibodies specifically in males. Aire-deficient mice failed to present TGM4 in the thymus, consistent with a defect in central tolerance for TGM4. In the mouse, we further link TGM4 immunity with a destructive prostatitis and compromised secretion of TGM4. Collectively, our findings in APS1 patients and Aire-deficient mice reveal prostate autoimmunity as a major manifestation of APS1 with potential role in male subfertility. PMID:26084804

  13. Prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in High Vaginal Swab Samples of Infertile Females

    PubMed Central

    Seifoleslami, Mehri; Safari, Aghdas; Khayyat Khameneie, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are important causative agents of vaginitis, cervicitis, postpartum sepsis, reproductive infections and infertility in both males and females. Objectives: According to the uncertain prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in Iranian infertile females, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in high vaginal swab samples of fertile and infertile females. Patients and Methods: A total of 350 high vaginal swab specimens were taken from fertile and infertile females. Samples were cultured and those that were positive for bacteria were subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for further confirmation. Results: Of the 350 collected samples, eleven were positive for M. hominis (3.14%), fifteen were positive for U. urealyticum (4.28%) and five were positive for both of them (1.42%). Prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in the high vaginal parts of infertile females was higher than fertile females (P < 0.05). The results of traditional method were also confirmed, using the PCR amplification of urease gene of U. urealyticum and 16SrRNA gene of the M. hominis. Ureaplasma urealyticum and M. hominis had a higher prevalence in the high vaginal samples collected during the summer season. Conclusions: Considerable prevalence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in the high vaginal swab samples of infertile females compared to the low prevalence in fertile females may suggest that these two pathogens can be cause infertility. Application of the PCR method is recommended for rapid and sensitive detection of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in high vaginal swab samples. PMID:26756000

  14. Increased Prevalance of the −211 T Allele of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) β Subunit Promoter Polymorphism and Lower Serum FSH in Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Poolamets, Olev; Kelgo, Piret; Ausmees, Kristo; Korrovits, Paul; Vihljajev, Vladimir; Laan, Maris

    2010-01-01

    Context: The human FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; −211 G/T) has been associated with serum FSH in a cohort of young Estonian men. The minor allele carriers had reduced serum FSH (15.7% in GT heterozygotes; 40% in TT homozygotes) compared with GG homozygotes. Objective: Because FSH is essential for normal spermatogenesis and fertility, we speculated that abnormalities in FSH action could contribute to male infertility. We sought to study whether genetically inherited constitutively reduced FSH levels may affect male reproduction and replicate the association between rs10835638 and serum FSH among infertile male patients. Design: Genotyping of rs10835638 in a cohort of infertile men (n = 1029; Andrology Center of the Tartu University Clinics, Estonia), including idiopathic infertility cases (IIFC; n = 750). Patients: Patients included male partners (sperm concentration <20 × 106/ml) of infertile couples failing to conceive a child for 12 months or longer. Results: A significant excess of TT homozygotes (1.1 vs. 2.4%) as well as GT heterozygotes (22.4 vs. 25.1%) was detected among infertile men compared with the young male cohort (χ2 test, P < 0.05). The T allele of rs10835638 was associated with reduced serum FSH (analysis of covariance; full cohort: P = 1.20 × 10−6, F = 13.8; IIFC: P = 7.70 × 10−7, F = 14.3) as well as with low FSH to LH ratio (full cohort: P = 1.52 × 10−11, F = 25.6; IIFC: P = 3.25 × 10−9, F = 20.4). The median serum FSH levels differed between the GG and TT carriers by 48.5%. All IIFC with TT genotype exhibited low (<1.8) FSH to LH ratio. Conclusions: In perspective, this genetic marker may have clinical significance in molecular diagnostics of male reproductive success and a potential to identify positive responders to FSH treatment. PMID:19897680

  15. [CMV-associated gastric ulcer in an immunocompetent male patient].

    PubMed

    Kastenbauer, U; Ließ, H; Kremer, M

    2016-07-01

    This article reports the case of a 45-year-old male immunocompetent patient who presented with acute epigastric pain and vomiting. Diagnostic tests confirmed a recent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection as a contributory cause of a florid gastric ulcer. Primary CMV infections affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract are rare in immunocompetent adults. In this case treatment with a proton pump inhibitor and eradication of concomitant Helicobacter pylori colonization led to a full recovery. Anti-CMV treatment was not necessary. PMID:27080250

  16. Association between infertility factors and non-physical partner abuse in infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Taebi, Mahboubeh; Gandomani, Sedighe Jamali; Nilforoushan, Parisa; GholamiDehaghi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility predisposes the couples to mental and psychological problems such as anxiety, depression, anger, and partner abuse. This study aimed to investigate the association between infertility factors and the non-physical abuse between infertile spouses. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted on 262 infertile couples (131 female and 131 male), selected through convenient sampling, who referred to infertility centers in Isfahan. Data were collected by Partner Abuse Scale: Non-physical (PASNP), designed to measure the non-physical abuse experienced in relationship with partner and Non-physical Abuse of Partner Scale (NPAPS), designed to measure the non-physical abuse delivered upon the partner. All data were analyzed through SPSS version 16. Results: Mean scores of NPAPS were 23.1% and 21.3% in men and women, respectively. Mean scores of PASNP were 13.8% and 20.3% among men and women, respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean scores of perceived non-physical partner abuse between men and women (P < 0.001). There was also a significant difference in the mean scores of perceived non-physical partner abuse and factor of infertility (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Perceived non-physical abuse and delivered non-physical abuse upon the partner were low among infertile couples. Women had a higher perception of abuse when the cause of infertility was female factor, compared to men. However, special attention should be paid to infertile couples. Marital counseling, besides infertility counseling, should be conducted for these couples. PMID:27563319

  17. Emoting infertility online: A qualitative analysis of men's forum posts.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Esmée; Gough, Brendan

    2016-07-01

    Relatively little research on infertility focuses exclusively or significantly on men's experiences, particularly in relation to emotional aspects. Evidence that does exist around male infertility suggests that it is a distressing experience for men, due to stigma, threats to masculinity and the perceived need to suppress emotions, and that men and women experience infertility differently. Using thematic analysis, this article examines the online emoting of men in relation to infertility via forum posts from a men-only infertility discussion board. It was noted that men 'talked' to each other about the emotional burdens of infertility, personal coping strategies and relationships with others. Three major themes were identified following in-depth analysis: 'the emotional rollercoaster', 'the tyranny of infertility' and 'infertility paranoia'. This article then offers insights into how men experience infertility emotionally, negotiate the emotional challenges involved (especially pertaining to diagnosis, treatment outcomes and their intimate relationships) and how they share (and find value in doing so) with other men the lived experience of infertility. PMID:27246813

  18. Current practices in fertility preservation in male cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Masson, Puneet; Brannigan, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of a cancer diagnosis in children and young adolescents is increasing. With better treatments, the number of young cancer survivors living through reproductive age is increasing. Fertility preservation of these men and women has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. Here we review the current guidelines for male oncofertility patients and highlight some of the important gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Options for fertility preservation are also discussed along with resources that should be made available to all patients. PMID:24669115

  19. Frequency and outcome of treatment in polycystic ovaries related infertility

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Farzana; Arif, Nesreen; Halepota, Hafeez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is defined as inability of couple to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 21.9%. The most common cause of medically treatable infertility is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO). This study was conducted to see the frequency and outcome of treatment in PCOs related infertility in infertile couples coming to Mohammad Medical College Hospital, Mirpurkhas, Sindh. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted at Muhammad Medical College for three years from 2005 to 2008. Total 1289 infertile couples were included in this study. Result: The frequency of PCOs in female related infertility was 38.5%. Other causes of female infertility were in the frequency of 44% pelvic inflammatory disease, 12.3% endometriosis, 2.9% hyperprolactenemia, and 1.35% hypothyroidism. Patients with PCOS were given different treatment modalities. One hundred fifty patients with PCO were given ovulation induction with clomephene citrate and out of them 109 (72%) conceived. Sixty three women were given combination of clomephene citrate and Metformin. Out of them 50 (79%) conceived. Five patients were given gonadotrophins, Out of them 2 (40%) patients conceived. Five patients had laparoscopic drilling out of them 3 (60%) conceived. Conclusion: In contrast to the literature review Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome turned out to be the second most common cause of female related infertility. But as the international literature shows it had very good out come after medical and /or surgical treatment. PMID:26150870

  20. Primary cancer of the anterior urethra in a male patient

    PubMed Central

    Wolski, Zbigniew; Warsiński, Patryk

    2011-01-01

    We present a 76-year-old male patient, who was diagnosed with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the distal part of the urethra. Transurethral resection of the tumor (TURT) of the urethra was conducted. After establishing local relapse, surgical removal of the distal part of the urethra was proposed to the patient. Due to no consent for an open surgery, another electroresection of the tumor was performed. When the second relapse occurred, the patient provided his consent for surgical removal of the part of the urethra with anastomosis of the remaining part of the urethra with the skin from the abdominal part of the penis. Postsurgical observation did not reveal any local relapse. PMID:24578911

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism in the infertile female population: a guideline.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    There is controversy regarding whether to treat subtle abnormalities of thyroid dysfunction in the infertile female patient. This guideline document reviews the risks and benefits of treating subclinical hypothyroidism in female patients with a history of infertility and miscarriage, as well as obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in this population. PMID:26239023

  2. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world. PMID:18456385

  3. Male gonadal axis function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Pablo R; Knoblovits, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have lower serum testosterone levels and a higher prevalence of hypogonadism than non-diabetic patients, independently of the metabolic control of disease. The mechanisms underlying a decrease in testosterone might be related to age, obesity and insulin resistance, often present in patients with type 2 diabetes. The increase in estrogens due to higher aromatase enzyme activity in increased adipose tissue might exert negative-feedback inhibition centrally. Insulin stimulates gonadal axis activity at all three levels and therefore insulin resistance might account for the lower testosterone production. Leptin exerts a central stimulatory effect but inhibits testicular testosterone secretion. Thus, resistance to leptin in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes determines lower central effects of leptin with lower gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and, on the other hand, hyperleptinemia secondary to leptin resistance inhibits testosterone secretion at the testicular level. However, lower testosterone levels in patients with diabetes are observed independently of age, weight and body mass index, which leads to the assumption that hyperglycemia per se might play a role in the decrease in testosterone. Several studies have shown that an overload of glucose results in decreased serum testosterone levels. The aim of this review is to assess changes in the male gonadal axis that occur in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27071157

  4. Reproductive function in male patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Di Mauro, M; Lo Presti, D; Mongioì, L M; Russo, G; Calogero, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and some of the main bio-functional spermatozoa parameters, serum gonadal hormones and didymo-epididymal ultrasound features in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). DM1 affects an increasing number of men of reproductive age. Diabetes may affect male reproduction by acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, causing sexual dysfunction or disrupting male accessory gland function. However, data on spermatozoa parameters and other aspects of the reproductive function in these patients are scanty. Thirty-two patients with DM1 [27.0 (25.0-30.0 years)] and 20 age-matched fertile healthy men [28.0 (27.25-30.75 years)] were enrolled. Patients with diabetic neuropathy, other endocrine disorders or conditions known to alter spermatozoa parameters were excluded. Each subject underwent semen analysis, blood withdrawal for fasting and post-prandial glycaemia, hormonal analysis and didymo-epididymal ultrasound evaluation before and after ejaculation. Patients with DM1 had a lower percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility [10.0 (7.0-12.75) vs. 45.0 (42.0-47.75) %; p < 0.01] and a higher percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal mitochondrial function than controls [47.0 (43.0-55.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0-5.0) %; p < 0.01]. Patients also had greater post-ejaculatory diameters of cephalic [11.5 (10.2-13.6) vs. 6.0 (4.0-7.0) mm; p < 0.01] and caudal epididymis [5.5 (4.00-7.55) vs. 3.0 (2.0-4.0) mm; p < 0.01] compared to controls, suggesting a lack of the physiological post-ejaculation epididymal shrinkage. Correlation analysis suggested that progressive motility was associated with fasting glucose (r = -0.68; p < 0.01). The other parameters did not show any significant difference. Patients with DM1 had a lower percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility, impaired mitochondrial function and epididymal post-ejaculatory dysfunction. These findings may explain why patients with DM1 experience fertility

  5. Treatment of Infertility in Men with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with the Method of Intrauterine Insemination

    PubMed Central

    Elezaj, Shkelzen; Gashi, Zafer; Zeqiraj, Afrim; Grabanica, Driton; Shllaku, Anton; Gruda, Bujar; Musaj, Vesel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to determine the effect of PTSD on changing the quality of sperm in veterans with PTSD, and the percentage of successful procedures intrauterine insemination (IUI) as a first-line treatment of male infertility patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients and methods: The study is designed as a prospective observational study. The study was started from February 2013 until May of 2014. Our study included a total of 51 patients who were treatment for infertility in private Hospital for gynecology, endocrinology and infertility, IVF Center in Peja, and those who were outpatients treated for chronic PTSD in the Polyclinic, Biolab-Zafi, in Klina the Republic of Kosovo. All subjects divide into two groups; The first, consisting of 21 respondents to the participants of the war in Kosovo, which was established diagnosis of PTSD. The second group of 30 who have not lived in Kosovo for the time War, and without signs of PTSD. Results: Subjects with PTSD were somewhat older than the control group (p = 0.235) but it was not a significant difference (44.5 ± 5.6 vs 43.8 ± 2.3). When the question of type of infertility, secondary infertility is significantly higher in patients with PTSD (62% vs 20%) (Table 2). The total number of sperm and semen volume no significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05). Sperm motility showed a significant reduction in cases of PTSD (p <0.0001), from observation semen parameters were found more abnormal forms of spermatozoa in the ejaculate cases with PTSD (p < 0.0001) (Table 2). The percentage of pregnancies IUI procedure was slightly higher in patients with PTSD than the control group without PTSD (19% vs. 16.6%). Conclusion: A combination of analytical oriented psychotherapy techniques and assisted reproductive techniques (ART) such as IUI procedures, increases the chances for healing infertility in patients with PTSD. PMID:26543314

  6. Treatment of Infertility in Men with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with the Method of Intrauterine Insemination

    PubMed Central

    Elezaj, Shkelzen; Gashi, Zafer; Zeqiraj, Afrim; Grabanica, Driton; Shllaku, Anton; Gruda, Bujar; Musaj, Vesel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to determine the effect of PTSD on changing the quality of sperm in veterans with PTSD, and the percentage of successful procedures intrauterine insemination (IUI) as a first-line treatment of male infertility patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients and methods: The study is designed as a prospective observational study. The study was started from February 2013 until May of 2014. Our study included a total of 51 patients who were treatment for infertility in private Hospital for gynecology, endocrinology and infertility, IVF Center in Peja, and those who were outpatients treated for chronic PTSD in the Polyclinic, Biolab-Zafi, in Klina the Republic of Kosovo. All subjects divide into two groups; The first, consisting of 21 respondents to the participants of the war in Kosovo, which was established diagnosis of PTSD. The second group of 30 who have not lived in Kosovo for the time War, and without signs of PTSD. Results: Subjects with PTSD were somewhat older than the control group (p = 0.235) but it was not a significant difference (44.5 ± 5.6 vs 43.8 ± 2.3). When the question of type of infertility, secondary infertility is significantly higher in patients with PTSD (62% vs 20%). The total number of sperm and semen volume no significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05). Sperm motility showed a significant reduction in cases of PTSD (p <0.0001), from observation semen parameters were found more abnormal forms of spermatozoa in the ejaculate cases with PSD (p < 0.0001) (Table 2). The percentage of pregnancies IUI procedure was slightly higher in patients with PTSD than the control group without PTSD (19% vs. 16.6%). Conclusion: A combination of analytical oriented psychotherapy techniques and assisted reproductive techniques (ART) such as IUI procedures, increases the chances for healing infertility in patients with PTSD. PMID:26622087

  7. Examining PTSD as a Complication of Infertility.

    PubMed

    Bartlik; Greene; Graf; Sharma; Melnick

    1997-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that may develop following exposure to threatened or actual injury or death. While commonly associated with war or natural disaster, symptoms of PTSD have been described in patients who are undergoing or who have completed infertility treatment or high-risk pregnancies. Three case studies of patients who developed PTSD following such pregnancies are discussed, demonstrating the variety of symptoms and presentations of these patients. The clinician must be vigilant in monitoring infertility patients with PTSD. These women, as the result of infertility, may be at increased risk of developing PTSD, one of the recognized postpartum psychiatric disorders. It is important to distinguish PTSD from postpartum depression, because treatment guidelines vary. PMID:9746683

  8. Psychological and social aspects of infertility in men: an overview of the evidence and implications for psychologically informed clinical care and future research

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jane RW; Hammarberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Research concerning the psychosocial aspects of infertility and infertility treatment focuses more often on women than men. The aim of this review was to synthesize the English-language evidence related to the psychological and social aspects of infertility in men and discuss the implications of these reports for clinical care and future research. A structured search identified 73 studies that reported data concerning the desire for fatherhood and the psychological and social aspects of diagnosis, assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and unsuccessful treatment among men with fertility difficulties. The studies are diverse in conceptualisation, design, setting and data collection, but the findings were reasonably consistent. These studies indicated that fertile and infertile childless men of reproductive age have desires to experience parenthood that are similar to those of their female counterparts; in addition, diagnosis and initiation of treatment are associated with elevated infertility-specific anxiety, and unsuccessful treatment can lead to a state of lasting sadness. However, rates of clinically significant mental health problems among this patient population are no higher than in the general population. Infertile men who are socially isolated, have an avoidant coping style and appraise stressful events as overwhelming, are more vulnerable to severe anxiety than men without these characteristics. Men prefer oral to written treatment information and prefer to receive emotional support from infertility clinicians rather than from mental health professionals, self-help support groups or friends. Nevertheless, structured, facilitated psycho-educational groups that are didactic but permit informal sharing of experiences might be beneficial. There are gaps in knowledge about factors governing seeking, persisting with and deciding to cease treatment; experiences of invasive procedures; parenting after assisted conception; adoption and infertility

  9. Cross-border reproductive care for law evasion: should physicians be allowed to help infertility patients evade the law of their own country?

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Wannes; Pennings, Guido; De Sutter, Petra

    2016-07-01

    There are fundamental differences between countries with regard to legislation on assisted reproduction. Many infertility patients are looking to evade the law of their own country and make use of reproductive services abroad. The role of the local physician in cross-border reproductive care for law evasion has been characterized as "channeling local patients to foreign medical establishments" and "against the spirit and essence of the law". The logical view is that by supporting CBRC for law evasion, physicians are essentially supporting immoral behavior. We will tackle this position on two levels. First, we will argue that governments should generally be tolerant toward people with different positions on assisted reproduction. Second, we will show that contributing to cross-border reproductive care for law evasion is not necessarily immoral, because the prima facie wrongness of complicity in law evasion can be outweighed by the fact that physicians should act in the best interest of the patient. Several countries have tried to prevent local physicians from helping patients to make use of reproductive services abroad, but they should rather leave it up to the individual physicians to decide whether or not to support a particular patient. PMID:26372639

  10. The association of -656T > G and 1349T > G polymorphisms of ApE1 gene and the risk of female infertility.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Farhad; Yousefi, Mostafa; Salehi, Zivar; Pournourali, Mostafa

    2016-05-01

    Despite enormous progress in the understanding of human reproductive physiology, the underlying cause of male infertility remains undefined in about 50.0% of cases, which are referred to as idiopathic infertility. Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (ApE1) is a multifunctional protein that has an important role in the base excision repair pathway. The present study aimed to evaluate whether two functional ApE1 polymorphisms (-656T > G and 1349T > G) are associated with the susceptibility of female infertility. Blood samples were collected from 100 patients diagnosed with female infertility and 100 control subjects and genotyped by tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (T-ARMS-PCR). The results indicated that individuals with the variant TG genotypes had a significantly increased risk of female infertility (p = 0.035, OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.04-3.74). Whereas, a significant association between 1349T > G polymorphism and female infertility risk was not observed (p = 0.1). Larger studies with more patients and controls are required to confirm the results. PMID:26790616

  11. Assessment of chromosomal abnormalities in sperm of infertile men using sperm karyotyping and multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    SciTech Connect

    Moosani, N.; Martin, R.H.

    1994-09-01

    Individuals with male factor infertility resulting from idiopathic oligo-, astheno- or teratozoospermia are frequently offered IVF in an attempt to increase their chances of having a child. A concern remains whether these infertile males have an elevated risk of transmitting chromosomal abnormalities to their offspring. Sperm chromosomal complements from these men were assayed using the human sperm/hamster oocyte fusion system and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm nuclei. For each of 5 infertile patients, 100 sperm karyotypes were analyzed and multicolour FISH analysis was performed on a minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei for each chromosome-specific DNA probe for chromosomes 1 (pUC1.77), 12 (D12Z3), X (XC) and Y (DYZ3). As a group, the infertile patients showed increased frequencies of both numerical ({chi}{sup 2}=17.26, {proportional_to} <0.001) and total abnormalities ({chi}{sup 2}=7.78, {proportional_to} <0.01) relative to control donors when assessed by sperm karyotypes. Analysis of sperm nuclei by FISH indicated a significant increase in the frequency of disomy for chromosome 1 in three of the five patients as compared to control donors ({chi}{sup 2}>8.35, {proportional_to} <0.005). In addition, the frequency of XY disomy was significantly higher in four of the five patients studied by FISH ({chi}{sup 2}>10.58, {proportional_to}<0.005), suggesting that mis-segregation caused by the failure of the XY bivalent to pair may play a role in idiopathic male infertility.

  12. Growth hormone secretion during sleep in male depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, P N; Soldatos, C R; Bergiannaki, J D; Paparrigopoulos, T J; Stefanis, C N

    1998-04-01

    1. Growth hormone (GH) secretion during sleep was studied in ten male patients with major depression according to DSM III and eight normal controls. 2. Samples were collected through a continuous blood withdrawal pump while sleep was recorded in the laboratory. 3. The results showed a marked decrease in the GH secretion mainly during the first three hours of sleep in depressed patients as compared to normal controls. DST and TRH tests were also administered to the same patients but no correlation was observed between a positive test and a blunted GH secretion, suggesting that the various neuroendocrinological disturbances do not coexist in all depressed patients. 4. This disturbance in GH secretion during sleep, along with reduced slow wave sleep (SWS), gives support to the theory that GHRH is the common stimulus of SWS and GH release and that the ratio of GHRH and its counterpart CRH plays a major role in the pathophysiology of disturbed endocrine activity during sleep in depression. PMID:9612844

  13. apo B gene knockout in mice results in embryonic lethality in homozygotes and neural tube defects, male infertility, and reduced HDL cholesterol ester and apo A-I transport rates in heterozygotes.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, L S; Voyiaziakis, E; Markenson, D F; Sokol, K A; Hayek, T; Breslow, J L

    1995-01-01

    apo B is a structural constituent of several classes of lipoprotein particles, including chylomicrons, VLDL, and LDL. To better understand the role of apo B in the body, we have used gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to create a null apo B allele in the mouse. Homozygous apo B deficiency led to embryonic lethality, with resorption of all embryos by gestational day 9. Heterozygotes showed an increased tendency to intrauterine death with some fetuses having incomplete neural tube closure and some live-born heterozygotes developing hydrocephalus. The majority of male heterozygotes were sterile, although the genitourinary system and sperm were grossly normal. Viable heterozygotes had normal triglycerides, but total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels were decreased by 37, 37, and 39%, respectively. Hepatic and intestinal apo B mRNA levels were decreased in heterozygotes, presumably contributing to the decreased LDL levels through decreased synthesis of apo B-containing lipoproteins. Kinetic studies indicated that heterozygotes had decreased transport rates of HDL cholesterol ester and apo A-I. As liver and intestinal apo A-I mRNA levels were unchanged, the mechanism for decreased apo A-I transport must be posttranscriptional. Heterozygotes also had normal cholesterol absorption and a normal response of the plasma lipoprotein pattern to chronic consumption of a high fat, high cholesterol, Western-type diet. In summary, we report a mouse model for apo B deficiency with several phenotypic features that were unexpected based on clinical studies of apo B-deficient humans, such as embryonic lethality in homozygotes and neural tube closure defects, male infertility, and a major defect in HDL production in heterozygotes. This model presents an opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic changes. Images PMID:7593600

  14. The prevalence of coeliac disease in infertility.

    PubMed

    Meloni, G F; Dessole, S; Vargiu, N; Tomasi, P A; Musumeci, S

    1999-11-01

    An increased incidence of reproductive problems, including infertility, miscarriage, low birth weight newborns, and shorter duration of breast-feeding, are known to exist in women with coeliac disease; some of these conditions are improved by a gluten-free diet. We have tried to ascertain the prevalence of coeliac disease in 99 couples who were being evaluated for infertility, compared with the known prevalence of silent disease in the population of Northern Sardinia, in which it is endemic. Of all women, four tested positive for at least two out of three markers: immunoglobulin A (IgA) antigliadin, immunoglobulin (IgG) antigliadin, and anti-endomysium antibodies, and underwent a jejunal biopsy; three had histological evidence of coeliac disease. One male partner was positive for two markers, and had a diagnostic jejunal biopsy. The prevalence of coeliac disease in infertile women seems higher (three out of 99, 3. 03%) in the study group than in the general population (17 out of 1607, 1.06%), and particularly in the subgroup with unexplained infertility (two out of 25, 8%, P < 0.03). Screening for coeliac disease should be part of the diagnostic work-up of infertile women, particularly when no apparent cause can be ascertained after standard evaluation. PMID:10548618

  15. Parenthood after Primary Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances-Fischer, Jana E.; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the experience of parenting after primary infertility and describes construction and initial testing of an instrument for assessing characteristics of this understudied population. (Contains 52 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  16. Causes of Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... elements can lead to infertility. Frequent use of laptops near the testicles 4 as well as saunas ... D, Komaroff E. Increase in scrotal temperature in laptop computer users. Human Reproduction 2004. Available at http:// ...

  17. Infertility and childlessness: a qualitative study of the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility is a global reproductive health issue that affects many individuals and couples. Despite the high prevalence of infertility in Ghana, no study has been done on the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana. This study therefore explored the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. Methods We interviewed fifteen childless couples, forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants using a semi-structured interview guide. We also carried out three focus group discussions; one for childless women, one for women with children and one for men with children. The data were transcribed, coded, arranged and analyzed for categories and themes. Results Infertile couples are socially stigmatised and excluded from leadership roles in their communities. Couples without children are denied membership in the ancestral world thereby losing the opportunity to live again. Both males and females are engaged in sex with multiple partners to prove their fertility. Conclusions Both men and women suffer from the social effects of childlessness. The desire to have biological children in a pronatalist society results in unhealthy practices. Health policy makers and gender advocates should be more concerned about infertility. PMID:23517021

  18. Diagnostic imaging of infertility

    SciTech Connect

    Winfield, A.C.; Wentz, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    This text presents a review of all the imaging modalities available in the diagnosis of infertility. This book integrates the perspectives of experts in ob/gyn, radiology, reproductive endocrinology, and urology. It's a one-of-a-kind ''how to'' guide to hysterosalpinography and infertility evaluation, providing complete clinical information on the techniques, pitfalls, problems encountered and differential diagnosis. Detailed descriptions accompany numerous high-quality illustrations to help correlate findings and give meaning to the radiographic and ultrasound images.

  19. Cardiomyopathy in a male patient with neutropenia and growth delay.

    PubMed

    Folsi, Veronica; Miglietti, Nunzia; Lombardi, Annamaria; Boccacci, Sara; Utyatnikova, Tatiana; Donati, Chiara; Squassabia, Livia; Gazzola, Laura; Bosio, Ilaria; Borghi, Adele; Grassi, Veronica; Notarangelo, Lucia D; Plebani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Neutropenia encompasses a family of neutropenic disorders, both permanent and intermittent, ranging from severe (<500 neutrophils/mm(3)) to mild (500-1500 neutrophils/mm(3)), which may also affect other organ systems such as the pancreas, central nervous system, heart, muscle and skin. Neutropenia can lead to life-threatening pyogenic infections whose severity is roughly inversely proportional to the circulating neutrophil counts.When neutropenia is detected, an attempt should be made to establish the etiology, and to distinguish acquired forms (the most frequent, including post viral neutropenia and autoimmune neutropenia) and congenital forms (rare disorders) that may be either isolated or part of a complex rare genetic disease. We report on a male patient initially diagnosed with isolated neutropenia who later turned out to be affected with Barth syndrome, a rare complex inherited disorder. PMID:24887148

  20. Human sperm physiology: estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) influence sperm metabolism and may be involved in the pathophysiology of varicocele-associated male infertility.

    PubMed

    Guido, Carmela; Perrotta, Ida; Panza, Salvatore; Middea, Emilia; Avena, Paola; Santoro, Marta; Marsico, Stefania; Imbrogno, Pietro; Andò, Sebastiano; Aquila, Saveria

    2011-12-01

    The mechanisms by which varicocele affects fertility remain undetermined. Estrogens play a key role in the human male reproduction and human sperm expresses the estrogen receptors (ERs) and aromatase. In this study, by Western blotting we evidenced the ERs content concomitantly in healthy sperm and in oligoastenoteratozoospermic (OAT) samples without and with varicocele. In varicocele a strong reduction of the ERβ was observed, while the ERα was almost absent. Besides, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the reduction of ERs expression in "varicocele" sperm, indicating that varicocele has a detrimental effect on sperm structure at molecular level. To further define the estrogen significance in male gamete and the pathophysiology of varicocele we investigated both the expression of ERα and ERβ in normal and pathologic sperm samples as well as we evaluated estradiol (E2) action on lipid and glucose sperm metabolism. Responses to E2 treatments on cholesterol efflux, protein tyrosine phosphorylations, motility, and acrosin activity in varicocele sperm were reduced or absent. The evaluation of the triglycerides content, lipase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities, suggest that E2 exerts a lipolytic effect on human sperm metabolism. Concerning glucose metabolism, it appears that E2 induces G6PDH activity concomitantly to the insulin secretion. In "varicocele" sperm, the E2 did not induce energy expenditure. OAT sperm had E2-responsiveness but in a lesser extent with respect healthy sperm. This study discovered a novel role for E2/ERs in human sperm physiology, since they modulate sperm metabolism and new detrimental effects related to the pathophysiology of the varicocele condition. PMID:21344398

  1. Initial evaluation and management of infertility by the primary care physician.

    PubMed

    Frey, Keith A; Patel, Ketan S

    2004-11-01

    Infertility is a common condition seen in primary care practices. Infertility is defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse during which a pregnancy is not achieved. in the United States, 15% to 20% of all couples are infertile, with higher rates seen in older couples. The causes of infertility include abnormalities of any portion of the male or female reproductive system. The female partner usually presents initially for an infertilty problem, often in the context of an annual well-women examination. The primary care physician who provides such preventive care can initiate the diagnostic evaluation and can treat some causes of infertility. PMID:15544024

  2. A modified ultra-long pituitary downregulation protocol improved endometrial receptivity and clinical outcome for infertile patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    GONG, FEI; LI, XIHONG; ZHANG, SHUNJI; MA, HAINAN; CAI, SUFEN; LI, JUAN; LIN, GE; LU, GUANGXIU

    2015-01-01

    There are currently various protocols for in vitro fertilization (IVF). For patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), an optimized protocol for the downregulation of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone via gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) remains a challenge. In the present study, the primary endpoint of an ultra-long and a conventional long GnRHa protocol for intracytoplasmic sperm injection/IVF treatments of patients with PCOS was retrospectively compared. In the modified ultra-long protocol group, endometrial thickness, morphology, and blood flow were significantly improved, as compared with in the conventional long protocol group. Furthermore, the serum progestogen (P) concentrations and P/estrogen (E2) [(Px1,000/E2)] ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration were significantly decreased in the modified ultra-long downregulation group, whereas the pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly higher. There were no significant differences in the average number of obtained oocytes, good quality embryo rates, cancel rates, fertilization rates, abortion rates, serious ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome incidences, ectopic pregnancy rates or gonadotropin (Gn) dosages between the two groups. These results suggest that the modified ultra-long protocol plus human menopausal Gn medication may be superior to the conventional long protocol, and may lead to improved implantation and pregnancy outcomes for infertile patients with PCOS. PMID:26640563

  3. Piwi-pathway alteration induces LINE-1 transposon derepression and infertility development in cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Hadziselimovic, Faruk; Hadziselimovic, Nils O; Demougin, Philippe; Krey, Gunthild; Oakeley, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonia contain processing bodies that harbor P-element-induced wimpy testis (Piwi) proteins. Piwi proteins are associated specifically with Piwi-interacting RNAs to silence transposable DNA elements. Loss-of-function mutations in the Piwi pathway lead to derepression of transposable elements, resulting in defective spermatogenesis. Furthermore, deletion of gametocyte-specific factor 1 (GTSF1), a factor involved in Piwi-mediated transcriptional repression, causes male-specific sterility and derepression of LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons. No previous studies have examined GTSF1, L1 and PIWIL4 expression in cryptorchidism. We examined transposon-silencing genes and L1 transposon expression in testicular biopsies with Affymetrix microarrays and immunohistology. Seven members of the Tudor gene family, 3 members of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family, and the GTSF1 gene were found to show significantly lower RNA signals in the high-infertility-risk group. In the immunohistochemical analysis, patients from the low-infertility-risk group showed coherently stronger staining for GTSF1 and PIWIL4 proteins and weaker staining for L1 transposon when compared to the high-infertility-risk samples. These new findings provide first evidence consistent with the idea that infertility in cryptorchidism is a consequence of alterations in the Piwi pathway and transposon derepression induced by the impaired function of mini-puberty. PMID:25791297

  4. Tubal Factor Infertility and Perinatal Risk After Assisted Reproductive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Kawwass, Jennifer F.; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Session, Donna R.; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02–14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of pre-term birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. CONCLUSION Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART. PMID:23812461

  5. Correlates of violent assault among young male primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Rich, J A; Sullivan, L M

    2001-02-01

    Correlates of violent assault (defined here as having been shot, stabbed, shot at, or beaten) were identified among young male primary care patients. Data were analyzed from a cohort of young men ages 17 to 29 during their initial visits to an urban primary care facility. Each underwent a clinical assessment, including a self-report health inventory and provider history. In multivariable analysis, history of incarceration (odds ratio [OR] = 6.29, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 2.34-16.89), having children (OR = 3.06, 95 percent CI, 1.30-7.17), and a high school education or less (OR = 0.69, 95 percent CI, 0.50-0.96) were significantly associated with increased likelihood of violent assault. Patients reporting more serious traumatic experiences, such as incarceration, witnessing violence, or carrying a weapon, had the highest risk (OR = 9.91, 95 percent CI, 4.0-24.57). These findings may help primary care physicians identify young men at risk for violence and foster better interventions. PMID:11217223

  6. Approach to the male patient with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wyndaele, Jean Jacques; Vodušek, David B

    2015-01-01

    History and physical examination are the cornerstones of evaluation of the male patient with lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms and (suspected) neurologic disorder, both to diagnose the nervous system lesion, and to get insight into the type of LUT dysfunction (LUTD). Non-neurologic LUTD needs to be ruled out. Laboratory testing is necessary to diagnose urinary infection. In those in whom neurogenic LUTD is probable, postvoid residual urine and urinary flow measurement generally rule out significant outflow obstruction and allow for basic symptomatic management. If symptomatology is complex or severe, or the pathophysiology uncertain, or invasive treatment planned, urodynamic or videourodynamic measurements should be performed to inform on bladder sensation, detrusor contractility, pressures generated in the bladder, as well as the behavior of bladder neck, the striated urethral sphincter, and urinary flow. This information is paramount to the clinician to plan management and consider prognosis. Assessment needs to be repeated, as chronic neurogenic LUTD is not a stable condition; in progressive neurologic diseases the nature of LUTD itself may change. The upper urinary tract needs to be checked and followed up regularly, particularly in patient groups in which high intravesical pressures may be generated. PMID:26003243

  7. Acceptability of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) among Male Sexually Transmitted Diseases Patients (MSTDP) in China

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Kim, Yoona

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary Medical Male circumcision (VMMC) is an evidence-based, yet under-utilized biomedical HIV intervention in China. No study has investigated acceptability of VMMC among male sexually transmitted diseases patients (MSTDP) who are at high risk of HIV transmission. A cross-sectional survey interviewed 350 HIV negative heterosexual MSTDP in Shenzhen, China; 12.0% (n = 42) of them were circumcised at the time of survey. When the uncircumcised participants (n = 308) were informed that VMMC could reduce the risk of HIV infection via heterosexual intercourse by 50%, the prevalence of acceptability of VMMC in the next six months was 46.1%. Adjusted for significant background variables, significant factors of acceptability of VMMC included: 1) emotional variables: the Emotional Representation Subscale (adjusted odds ratios, AOR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.06–1.18), 2) cognitive variables derived from Health Belief Model (HBM): perceived some chance of having sex with HIV positive women in the next 12 months (AOR = 2.48, 95%CI: 1.15–5.33) (perceived susceptibility), perceived severity of STD infection (AOR = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.02–1.10), perceived benefit of VMMC in risk reduction (AOR = 1.29, 95%CI: 1.16–1.42) and sexual performance (AOR = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.26–1.71), perceived barriers against taking up VMMC (AOR = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.81–0.95), and perceived cue to action (AOR = 1.41, 95%CI: 1.23–1.61) and self-efficacy (AOR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.26–1.35) related to taking up VMMC. The association between perceived severity of STD infection and acceptability was fully mediated by emotional representation of STD infection. The relatively low prevalence of circumcision and high acceptability suggested that the situation was favorable for implementing VMMC as a means of HIV intervention among MSTDP in China. HBM is a potential suitable framework to guide the design of future VMMC promotion. Future implementation programs should be conducted in STD clinic settings, taking the

  8. Threefold increased risk of infertility: a meta‐analysis of infertility after ileal pouch anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, A; Waljee, J; Morris, A M; Higgins, P D R

    2006-01-01

    Background Increased infertility in women has been reported after ileal pouch‐anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis but reported infertility rates vary substantially. Aims (1) To perform a systematic review and meta‐analysis of the relative risk of infertility post‐IPAA compared with medical management; (2) to estimate the rate of infertility post‐IPAA; and (3) to identify modifiable risk factors which contribute to infertility. Methods Medline, EMBASE, Current Contents, meeting abstracts, and bibliographies were searched independently by two investigators. The titles and abstracts of 189 potentially relevant studies were reviewed; eight met the criteria and all data were extracted independently. Consensus was achieved on each data point, and fixed effects meta‐analyses, a funnel plot, and sensitivity analyses were performed. Results The initial meta‐analysis of eight studies had significant heterogeneity (p = 0.004) due to one study with very high preoperative infertility (38%). When this study was omitted, the relative risk of infertility after IPAA was 3.17 (2.41–4.18), with non‐significant heterogeneity. The weighted average infertility rate in medically treated ulcerative colitis was 15% for all seven studies, and the weighted average infertility rate was 48% after IPAA (50% if all eight studies are included). We were unable to identify any procedural factors that consistently affected the risk of infertility. Conclusions IPAA increases the risk of infertility in women with ulcerative colitis by approximately threefold. Infertility, defined as achieving pregnancy in 12 months of attempting conception, increased from 15% to 48% in women post‐IPAA for ulcerative colitis. This provides a basis for counselling patients considering colectomy with IPAA. Further studies of modifiable risk factors are needed. PMID:16772310

  9. Infertility and uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Zepiridis, Leonidas I; Grimbizis, Grigoris F; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2016-07-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common tumors in women and their prevalence is higher in patients with infertility. At present, they are classified according to their anatomical location, as no classification system includes additional parameters such as their size or number. There is a general agreement that submucosal fibroids negatively affect fertility, when compared to women without fibroids. Intramural fibroids above a certain size (>4 cm), even without cavity distortion, may also negatively influence fertility. However, the presence of subserosal myomas has little or no effect on fertility. Many possible theories have been proposed to explain how fibroids impair fertility: mechanisms involving alteration of local anatomical location, others involving functional changes of the myometrium and endometrium, and finally endocrine and paracrine molecular mechanisms. Nevertheless, any of the above mentioned mechanisms can cause reduced reproductive potential, thereby leading to impaired gamete transport, reduced ability for embryo implantation, and creation of a hostile environment. The published experience defines the best practice strategy, as not many large, well-designed, and properly powered studies are available. Myomectomy appears to have an effect in fertility improvement in certain cases. Excision of submucosal myomas seems to restore fertility with pregnancy rates after surgery similar to normal controls. Removal of intramural myomas affecting pregnancy outcome seems to be associated with higher pregnancy rates when compared to non-operated controls, although evidence is still nοt sufficient. Treatment of subserosal myomas of reasonable size is not necessary for fertility reasons. The results of endoscopic and open myomectomy are similar; thus, endoscopic treatment is the recommended approach due to its advantages in patient's postoperative course. PMID:26856931

  10. Impact of obesity on infertility in women

    PubMed Central

    Dağ, Zeynep Özcan; Dilbaz, Berna

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight are increasing and have become an epidemic worldwide. Obesity has detrimental influences on all systems, including reproductive health. The prevalence of obesity in infertile women is high, and it is well known that there is an association between obesity and infertility. The relationship between obesity and reproductive functions is still being explored. Overweight women have a higher incidence of menstrual dysfunction and anovulation. Overweight and obese women are at a high risk for reproductive health. The risk of subfecundity and infertility, conception rates, miscarriage rates, and pregnancy complications are increased in these women. They have poor reproductive outcomes in natural as well as assisted conception. These poor reproductive outcomes include assisted reproduction such as ovulation induction, in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), and ovum donation cycles. Weight loss has beneficial effects on the reproductive outcomes in these patients. PMID:26097395

  11. Men and cancer: a study of the needs of male cancer patients in treatment.

    PubMed

    Manii, Diane; Ammerman, Darcy

    2008-01-01

    Male cancer patients typically access currently available psychosocial services at lower rates than do female patients. This research examined the psychosocial needs of male cancer patients and explored the types of services that may better meet their needs. Participants included 128 male patients diagnosed with 138 primary cancers ranging in age from 23 to 79 years of age. Men in this study expressed interest in attending an informational intervention and provided several topics that they would like to learn about, including nutrition, sexual functioning, stress management, and spirituality. Implications for the development of a male-specific clinical intervention are discussed. PMID:18285302

  12. Infertility: Medical and Social Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report illustrates a range of options for Congressional action in nine principal areas of public policy related to infertility: (1) collecting data on reproductive health; (2) preventing infertility; (3) information to inform and protect consumers; (4) providing access to infertility services; (5) reproductive health of veterans; (6) transfer…

  13. A qualitative study of Ottawa university students’ awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Awareness of infertility risk factors is an essential first step to safeguard future fertility. Whereas several studies have examined university students’ awareness of female fertility and related risk factors, the topic of male infertility has not been well examined. The objective of this study was to assess young men and women’s awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, male and female infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2008 with a multi-ethnic sample of sixteen male and twenty-three female Ottawa university students, followed by qualitative data analysis to identify major themes. Interview topics included awareness of male and female infertility risk factors, infertility diagnosis/treatments and personal options in the event of future infertility. Results Participants were generally familiar with infertility as a biomedical health problem, could identify sex-specific risk factors but overestimated fertility of women in their thirties and ART success rates. Reproductive health knowledge gaps and confusion of the physiological life-stage of menopause with infertility were apparent. Most participants would pursue in vitro fertilization or international adoption in the event of personal infertility. Some participants wished to use a ‘natural’ approach and were concerned with potential side effects of ART-related medications. Conclusions The general awareness of infertility in young adults is promising and supports the potential uptake for health promotion of fertility preservation. This study underscores the continued need for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education and promotion for adolescents and young adults. PMID:23962162

  14. Parenting after Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  15. Fertility and Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  16. Psychological Component of Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... that they have: a graduate degree in a mental health profession a license to practice and/or state registration clinical training in the psychological aspects of infertility experience in the medical and ... to a competent mental health professional, you can check the ASRM website ...

  17. Infertility in Men with Spinal Cord Injury: Research and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brackett, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs most often to young men. Following SCI, most men are infertile due to a combination of erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Erectile dysfunction may be treated by the same therapies that are used in the general population. Similarly, the same treatments that are effective to assist conception in couples with non-SCI male factor patients are effective in assisting conception in SCI male-factor patients. The most apparent differences in male-factor symptoms between SCI and non-SCI patients are the high occurrences of anejaculation and atypical semen profiles in men with SCI. Methods available to assist ejaculation in men with SCI include penile vibratory stimulation and EEJ. Use of surgical sperm retrieval as the first line of treatment for anejaculation in men with SCI is controversial. Most men with SCI have a unique semen profile characterized by normal sperm concentration, but abnormally low sperm motility. Toxic substances in the semen contribute to this problem. Despite impaired sperm parameters, pregnancy outcomes using sperm from men with SCI are similar to pregnancy outcomes using sperm from non-SCI men. Future studies should focus on improving natural ejaculation and improving semen quality in these men. PMID:24278717

  18. Robotic assisted excision of retrovesical angiomyxoma in a male patient

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Vipin; Dar, Tanveer Iqbal; Durani, Abdul Munan; Chada, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Angiomyxoma is a rare tumour found predominantly in pelvis of young females. Less than 150 cases have been reported, more than 90% in females and only few cases in males. Its surgical excision is a big challenge and usually leads to recurrence due to incomplete excision. We report a case of retrovesical Angiomyxoma in an elderly male. The aim of this report is to highlight the rarity of this disease, especially in males, and robotic assisted excision as an evolving option of treatment. PMID:24761083

  19. How patient-centered do female physicians need to be? Analogue patients' satisfaction with male and female physicians' identical behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith A; Roter, Debra L; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Mast, Marianne Schmid; Pitegoff, Curtis A

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that female physicians may not receive appropriate credit in patients' eyes for their patient-centered skills compared to their male counterparts. An experiment was conducted to determine whether a performance of higher (versus lower) verbal patient-centeredness would result in a greater difference in analogue patient satisfaction for male than female physicians. Two male and two female actors portrayed physicians speaking to a patient using high or low patient-centered scripts while not varying their nonverbal cues. One hundred ninety-two students served as analogue patients by assuming the patient role while watching one of the videos and rating their satisfaction and other evaluative responses to the physician. Greater verbal patient-centeredness had a stronger positive effect on satisfaction and evaluations for male than for female physicians. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that the different associations between patient-centeredness and patients' satisfaction for male versus female physicians occur because of the overlap between stereotypical female behavior and behaviors that comprise patient-centered medical care. If this is the case, high verbal patient-centered behavior by female physicians is not recognized as a marker of clinical competence, as it is for male physicians, but is rather seen as expected female behavior. PMID:25175277

  20. Endocrine disruptors and estrogenic effects on male reproductive axis.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Suresh C; Wang, Run

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT], dioxin, and some pesticides) are estrogen-like and anti-androgenic chemicals in the environment. They mimic natural hormones, inhibit the action of hormones, or alter the normal regulatory function of the endocrine system and have potential hazardous effects on male reproductive axis causing infertility. Although testicular and prostate cancers, abnormal sexual development, undescended testis, chronic inflammation, Sertoli-cell-only pattern, hypospadias, altered pituitary and thyroid gland functions are also observed, the available data are insufficient to deduce worldwide conclusions. The development of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is beyond doubt the most important recent breakthrough in the treatment of male infertility, but it does not necessarily treat the cause and may inadvertently pass on adverse genetic consequences. Many well-controlled clinical studies and basic scientific discoveries in the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular and cellular biology of the male reproductive system have helped in the identification of greater numbers of men with male factor problems. Newer tools for the detection of Y-chromosome deletions have further strengthened the hypothesis that the decline in male reproductive health and fertility may be related to the presence of certain toxic chemicals in the environment. Thus the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of male factor infertility remain a real challenge. Clinicians should always attempt to identify the etiology of a possible testicular toxicity, assess the degree of risk to the patient being evaluated for infertility, and initiate a plan to control and prevent exposure to others once an association between occupation/toxicant and infertility has been established. PMID:18087652

  1. Analysis of PAEs in semen of infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Yuan; Wang, Yu; Xie, Fang-Qin; Li, Yan-Xing; Wan, Xue-Lian; Ma, Wei-Wei; Wang, De-Cai; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Phthalates are environmental chemicals with reproductive toxicity and estrogenic effects in animals. They are of increasing concern to human health. Aim: To determine whether phthalate levels in semen were associated with infertility. Methods: Using semen samples from 107 infertile and 94 fertile men, the presence and quantity of five phthalate esters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using data collected from questionnaires and clinical examinations, the correlation between phthalate exposure and semen quality was analyzed. Results: The cumulative levels of the measured phthalate esters were significantly higher in the infertility group compared to the control group (P<0·05). Concentrations of the five phthalate esters in men varied by age with older men showing higher cumulative levels. Conclusions: The presence of phthalates may contribute to male infertility in our study population. PMID:25384258

  2. Fertility Risk Assessment and Preservation in Male and Female Prepubertal and Adolescent Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Zavras, Nikolaos; Siristatidis, Charalampos; Siatelis, Argyris; Koumarianou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cancer represents the second cause of death in prepubertal children and adolescents, although it is currently associated with an overall survival rate of 80%-85%. The annual incidence rate is 186.6 per 1 million children and adolescents aged up to 19 years. Both disease and treatment options are associated with life-altering, long-term effects that require monitoring. Infertility is a common issue, and as such, fertility preservation represents an essential part in the management of young patients with cancer who are at risk of premature gonadal failure. This review deals with the up-to-date available data on fertility risk assessment and preservation strategies that should be addressed prior to antineoplastic therapy in this vulnerable subgroup of cancer patients. PMID:27398041

  3. Fertility Risk Assessment and Preservation in Male and Female Prepubertal and Adolescent Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zavras, Nikolaos; Siristatidis, Charalampos; Siatelis, Argyris; Koumarianou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cancer represents the second cause of death in prepubertal children and adolescents, although it is currently associated with an overall survival rate of 80%–85%. The annual incidence rate is 186.6 per 1 million children and adolescents aged up to 19 years. Both disease and treatment options are associated with life-altering, long-term effects that require monitoring. Infertility is a common issue, and as such, fertility preservation represents an essential part in the management of young patients with cancer who are at risk of premature gonadal failure. This review deals with the up-to-date available data on fertility risk assessment and preservation strategies that should be addressed prior to antineoplastic therapy in this vulnerable subgroup of cancer patients. PMID:27398041

  4. Comparison of acute non-haemolytic transfusion reactions in female and male patients receiving female or male blood components

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, S; Araki, N; Shimada, E; Saigo, K; Nishimura, K; Nose, Y; Bouike, Y; Hashimoto, M; Mito, H; Okazaki, H

    2007-01-01

    To study the relationship between antibodies detected in patients’ and/or donors’ sera and the clinical features of acute non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (ANHTRs), and to determine any gender-related difference. ANHTRs range from urticaria to transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Antibodies to human leukocyte antigen (HLA), granulocytes, platelets, and/or plasma proteins are implicated in some of the ANHTRs. A higher antibody positivity is expected for females than for males. A comparative study of ANHTRs for antibody positivity and their clinical features between females and males for both patients and donors is helpful for characterizing ANHTRs including TRALI more clearly, but such studies are few and outdated. Two hundred and twenty-three ANHTR cases reported by 45 hospitals between October 2000 and July 2005 were analysed. The patients and 196 donors of suspect blood products were screened for antibodies to HLA Class I, HLA Class II, granulocytes, and platelets. The patients were also screened for anti-plasma protein antibodies. The types and severity of ANHTR did not differ significantly between female and male patients. The frequency of the anti-HLA antibodies, but not that of the non-HLA antibodies, was significantly higher in females. Non-HLA antibodies were significantly associated with severe reactions in females. All the TRALI cases had predisposing risk factors for acute lung injury, and 60% of the cases showed anti-leucocyte antibodies. Although the anti-HLA antibodies were detected more frequently in females than males, no significant association of ANHTRs including TRALI with gender, not only for patients, but also for donors, could be shown in this study. PMID:18067650

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in women with unexplained infertility

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Maryam; Pourmasumi, Soheila; Sabeti, Parvin; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genital tuberculosis (GTB) is an important cause of female infertility, especially in developing countries. The positive results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in endometrial GTB in the absence of tubal damage raise the possibility of the detection of sub-clinical or latent disease, with doubtful benefits of treatment. Objective: To evaluate the mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in endometrial biopsy samples collected from unexplained infertile women attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility by using PCR techniques. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 144 infertile women with unexplained infertility aged 20-35 years old and normal Histro-saplango graphy findings were enrolled. Endometrial biopsy samples from each participant were tested for mycobacterium tuberculosis detecting by PCR. In 93 patients, peritoneal fluid was also taken for culture and PCR. Results: The PCR results of endometrial specimens were negative in all cases, demonstrating that there was no GTB infection among our patients. Conclusion: Our results showed that GTB could not be considered as a major problem in women with unexplained infertility. Although, studies have indicated that PCR is a useful method in diagnosing early GTB disease in infertile women with no demonstrable evidence of tubal or endometrial involvement. PMID:27141534

  6. Association of Mycoplasma genitalium with infertility in North Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumari, Nonika; Kaur, Harsimran; Roy, Amit; Gupta, Nalini; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir Kaur; Sethi, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Data regarding the association of Mycoplasma genitalium with infertility is scarce. This study was planned to look for the presence and association of M. genitalium in women with infertility. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted on 100 cases of infertile women. The control group included 100 healthy fertile women. Samples of first void urine (FVU), endocervical swabs (ECS), and endometrial biopsies were subjected to polymerase chain reaction targeting MgPa gene to look for the presence of M. genitalium DNA. All endometrial biopsy samples were subjected to histopathological examination. A detailed clinical history of patients was taken, and all relevant investigations were recorded. Results: M. genitalium was found in 16% of women with infertility from either of the samples that is, FVU and/or ECS and/or endometrium biopsy, and none from controls. ECS and biopsy could detect the highest number of cases (27%). Asymptomatic cases predominated in the study and M. genitalium positivity (73.3%) was seen more in primary infertility. Tubal occlusion and disordered proliferative endometrium were demonstrated in 33% and 26.66% of M. genitalium positive cases respectively. Conclusions: The study shows an association of M. genitalium infection and infertility and suggests routine screening of this pathogen in patients with infertility. PMID:26692605

  7. Preconception interventions in infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Kazemi, Ashraf; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preconception interventions in infertile couples can increase the chance of pregnancy and lower its complications. The success in infertility treatment and achieving a successful pregnancy is of great importance among infertile couples compared to others. This study has tried to investigate necessary preconception interventions before beginning of infertility treatment cycle among infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 268 individuals presenting to fertility clinics (Moshtagh and Shahid beheshty) across the city of Isfahan, Iran. Simple sampling method was used. Questionnaire and patients’ medical records were used to collect data. Descriptive and analytic statistical methods and SPSS software were used for analysis. Results: The results showed that the interventions related to diseases treatment and prescription of folic acid before the beginning of infertility treatment were complete for most of the subject (47.06% and 79.9% respectively), but referral for genetics counseling had not been conducted in most of the cases (98.9%). Specific interventions in relation with the infertility treatment before beginning the treatment cycle had been conducted in 50% of the subjects. Conclusion: The results of this study showed a weakness concerning necessary preconception interventions before beginning of infertility treatment cycle in most of the studied subjects. With regard to the effect of preconception interventions on outcome of infertility treatment, and with consideration of high importance of pregnancy success in infertile couples, paying more attention to conduct this manner is necessary. PMID:25250367

  8. Clinical management of infertile men with nonobstructive azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sandro C

    2015-01-01

    The clinical management of men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) seeking fertility has been a challenge for andrologists, urologists, and reproductive medicine specialists alike. This review presents a personal perspective on the clinical management of NOA, including the lessons learned over 15 years dealing with this male infertility condition. A five-consecutive-step algorithm is proposed to manage such patients. First, a differential diagnosis of azoospermia is made to confirm/establish that NOA is due to spermatogenic failure. Second, genetic testing is carried out not only to detect the males in whom NOA is caused by microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome, but also to counsel the affected patients about their chances of having success in sperm retrieval. Third, it is determined whether any intervention prior to a surgical retrieval attempt may be used to increase sperm production. Fourth, the most effective and efficient retrieval method is selected to search for testicular sperm. Lastly, state-of-art laboratory techniques are applied in the handling of retrieved gametes and cultivating the embryos resulting from sperm injections. A coordinated multidisciplinary effort is key to offer the best possible chance of achieving a biological offspring to males with NOA. PMID:25677138

  9. Fertility, infertility and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Amir; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Brenner, Benjamin

    2011-09-01

    Hypercoagulation has been reported in some studies to be associated with reproductive failures, such as unexplained infertility, IVF implantation failure and recurrent fetal losses. Many pregnancy-related disorders have been interpreted as consequences of impaired microvascular function and might be viewed as a mild form of venous thromboembolic disease. In the absence of clinical guidelines, there is a need for an evidence base regarding thrombophilic screening and antithrombotic therapy in cases of reproductive failure. This article will focus on the controversial effect of congenital and acquired thrombophilia on human fertility, and will review the English literature for relevant studies identified by searching PubMed(®) results between January 1966-November 2010 using the key words: 'thrombophilia', 'fertility' and 'infertility'. PMID:21879823

  10. Effects of drugs on the male and female reproductive systems.

    PubMed

    Fody, E P; Walker, E M

    1985-01-01

    Infertility, permanent or temporary, resulting from drug-induced injury is an important clinical problem. Many common used drugs are potentially toxic to gonads. It is well-known that estrogens are toxic to the male genital system, but androgens may also produce infertility. Anovulation may also be a consequence of exposure to sex steroids. Cimetidine regularly produces hypospermia in men; phenytoin does so occasionally. Marijuana has been shown to be a gonadal toxin, while the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) remain controversial. The most significant group of drugs that may injure the gonads is the cancer chemotherapeutic agents, of which the alkylating agents are the worst offenders. Prediction of infertility induced by these agents may be possible based on the duration of therapy and the patient's age and sex. PMID:4062226

  11. Endometriosis and infertility.

    PubMed

    Donnez, Jacques; Donnez, Olivier; Orellana, Renan; Binda, Maria M; Dolmans, Marie M

    2016-06-01

    Endometriosis remains a very enigmatic and perplexing disease. The exact mechanism by which endometriosis causes infertility is still unclear. In the present paper, we will review possible mechanisms leading to subfertility or infertility in women with endometriosis and examine them according to location. Endometriosis in the pelvic cavity is a pathology associated with a general inflammatory response and should therefore be considered an inflammatory disease. Inflammatory changes affect the peritoneal fluid and hence the intratubal milieu, since the ampulla (where fertilization takes place) is exposed to peritoneal fluid through the fimbria. Any inflammatory change at this level may therefore impact fertilization and natural conception. The relationship between ovarian endometriomas and infertility may, of course, be explained by the presence of periovarian endometriosis. In the ovary, fibrosis observed in some cortical areas is induced by the inflammatory reaction caused by the presence of endometriomas. The association between fibrosis and a reduced ovarian reserve was demonstrated. Upregulated recruitment and the subsequent demise of early follicles may result in focal exhaustion of primordial follicles. Burn-out of early follicles by a local pelvic inflammatory environment caused by endometriomas may therefore be suggested. However, intraovarian inflammation, subsequent fibrosis and depletion of the ovarian reserve constitute another reason that should also be given due consideration. In addition, surgery should not be ruled out as a possible cause of ovarian reserve depletion. In conclusion, potential mechanisms leading to infertility are numerous, and while some of them remain hypothetical for now, others are supported by clear evidence. These possible mechanisms were reviewed in the present paper. PMID:26837776

  12. Infertility, infertility treatment and behavioural problems in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Obel, Carsten; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine B; Bech, Bodil H; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-09-01

    Behavioural patterns in children of infertile couples may be influenced by both the underlying causes of infertility and stress in the couples. Treatment procedures, such as culture media and manipulation of gametes and embryos, may also result in developmental problems. We examined behavioural problems in children as a function of infertility and infertility treatment, using data from three population-based birth cohorts in Denmark (Aalborg-Odense Birth Cohort, Aarhus Birth Cohort and Danish National Birth Cohort). Information on time to pregnancy and infertility treatment was collected during pregnancy. Children aged between 7 and 21 years were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The SDQ was completed by mothers in all cohorts and, in addition, by teachers in the Aarhus cohort and by children themselves in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. Children born after a time to pregnancy of >12 months and no infertility treatment had a behavioural pattern similar to children of fertile parents. Teachers reported a higher total difficulties score for children born after infertility treatment, but no significant differences were seen on any subscales of the teachers' report, and neither the mothers nor the children reported any differences on the total difficulties score and the prosocial behaviour score. Our results are thus overall reassuring regarding behavioural problems in children born to infertile couples, regardless of infertility treatment. PMID:21819428

  13. Guidelines for counselling in infertility: outline version.

    PubMed

    Boivin, J; Appleton, T C; Baetens, P; Baron, J; Bitzer, J; Corrigan, E; Daniels, K R; Darwish, J; Guerra-Diaz, D; Hammar, M; McWhinnie, A; Strauss, B; Thorn, P; Wischmann, T; Kentenich, H

    2001-06-01

    The Guidelines for Counselling in Infertility describe the purpose, objectives, typical issues and communication skills involved in providing psychosocial care to individuals using fertility services. The Guidelines are presented in six sections. The first section describes how infertility consultations differ from other medical consultations in obstetrics and gynaecology, whereas the second section addresses fundamental issues in counselling, such as what is counselling in infertility, who should counsel and who is likely to need counselling. Section 3 focuses on how to integrate patient-centred care and counselling into routine medical treatment and section 4 highlights some of the special situations which can provoke the need for counselling (e.g. facing the end of treatment, sexual problems). Section 5 deals exclusively with third party reproduction and the psychosocial implications of gamete donation, surrogacy and adoption for heterosexual and gay couples and single women without partners. The final section of the Guidelines is concerned with psychosocial services that can be used to supplement counselling services in fertility clinics: written psychosocial information, telephone counselling, self-help groups and professionally facilitated group work. This paper summarizes the different sections of the Guidelines and describes how to obtain the complete text of the Guidelines for Counselling in Infertility. PMID:11387309

  14. [QUANTITATIVE DNA EVALUATION OF THE HIGH CARCINOGENIC RISK OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUSES AND HUMAN HERPES VIRUSES IN MALES WITH FERTILITY DISORDERS].

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, V V; Naumenko, V A; Tulenev, Yu A; Kurilo, L F; Kovalyk, V P; Sorokina, T M; Lebedeva, A L; Gomberg, M A; Kushch, A A

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is an actual medical and social problem. In 50% of couples it is associated with the male factor and in more than 50% of cases the etiology of the infertility remains insufficiently understood. The goal of this work was to study the prevalence and to perform quantitative analysis of the human herpes viruses (HHV) and high carcinogenic risk papilloma viruses (HR HPV) in males with infertility, as well as to assess the impact of these infections on sperm parameters. Ejaculate samples obtained from 196 males fall into 3 groups. Group 1 included men with the infertility of unknown etiology (n = 112); group 2, patients who had female partners with the history of spontaneous abortion (n = 63); group 3 (control), healthy men (n = 21). HHV and HR HPV DNA in the ejaculates were detected in a total of 42/196 (21.4%) males: in 31 and 11 patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p > 0.05) and in none of healthy males. HHV were detected in 24/42; HR HPV, in 18/42 males (p > 0.05) without significant difference between the groups. Among HR HPV genotypes of the clade A9 in ejaculate were more frequent (14/18, p = 0.04). Comparative analysis of the sperm parameters showed that in the ejaculates of the infected patients sperm motility as well as the number of morphologically normal cells were significantly reduced compared with the healthy men. The quantification of the viral DNA revealed that in 31% of the male ejaculates the viral load was high: > 3 Ig10/100000 cells. Conclusion. The detection of HHV and HR HPV in the ejaculate is associated with male infertility. Quantification of the viral DNA in the ejaculate is a useful indicator for monitoring viral infections in infertility and for decision to start therapy. PMID:27451497

  15. Hormone-Based Treatments in Subfertile Males.

    PubMed

    Patel, Darshan P; Chandrapal, Jason C; Hotaling, James M

    2016-08-01

    Subfertility is defined as the condition of being less than normally fertile though still capable of effecting fertilization. When these subfertile couples seek assistance for conception, a thorough evaluation of male endocrine function is often overlooked. Spermatogenesis is a complex process where even subtle alterations in this process can lead to subfertility or infertility. Male endocrine abnormalities may suggest a specific diagnosis contributing to subfertility; however, in many patients, the underlying etiology is still unknown. Optimizing underlying endocrine abnormalities may improve spermatogenesis and fertility. This manuscript reviews reproductive endocrine abnormalities and hormone-based treatments. PMID:27292256

  16. Bilateral breast uptake of radioiodine in a male patient with gynecomastia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Uslu, Lebriz; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Vatankulu, Betul; Sonmezoglu, Kerim

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old male patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma was given radioiodine for the treatment of persistent disease. Post radioiodine whole body scan revealed uptake at the thyroidal region and bilateral uptake at the upper thoracic region. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) confirmed uptake at the left thyroid lobe, and additional symmetrical mammary gland uptake was observed at both breasts. The patient had obesity-related gynecomastia, but he did not have any history of breast cancer, mastitis, hyperprolactinemia, or galactorrhea. Although breast uptake of radioiodine is a common finding in postpartum or lactating women, it is uncommon in male patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a male patient with breast uptake of radioiodine documented with SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT is useful in male patients in the differentiation of benign breast uptake with lung metastases or axillary metastases of thyroid cancer. PMID:26430322

  17. The experience of infertility: A review of recent literature

    PubMed Central

    Greil, Arthur L.; Slauson-Blevins, Kathleen; McQuillan, Julia

    2011-01-01

    About 10 years ago Greil published a review and critique of the literature on the socio-psychological impact of infertility. He found at the time that most scholars treated infertility as a medical condition with psychological consequences rather than as a socially constructed reality. This article examines research published since the last review. More studies now place infertility within larger social contexts and social scientific frameworks although clinical emphases persist. Methodological problems remain but important improvements are also evident. We identify two vigorous research traditions in the social scientific study of infertility. One tradition uses primarily quantitative techniques to study clinic patients in order to improve service delivery and to assess the need for psychological counseling. The other tradition uses primarily qualitative research to capture the experiences of infertile people in a sociocultural context. We conclude that more attention is now being paid to the ways in which the experience of infertility is shaped by social context. We call for continued progress in the development of a distinctly sociological approach to infertility and for the continued integration of the two research traditions identified here. PMID:20003036

  18. A study on Trichomoniasis vaginalis and female infertility.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, A M; El-Naggar, H M; Soliman, M; El-Negeri, M; El-Nemr, H E; Handousa, A E; Morsy, T A

    2001-08-01

    A total of 280 patients, 240 infertile and 40 pregnant were subjected to thorough history taking, general and local examination for exclusion of organic lesion, laboratory investigations to exclude parasitic, bacterial and fungal infections. Sterile vaginal swab from the posterior fornix was taken, and examined by wet smear preparation, Giemsa staining and cultivation on C.P.L.M. medium for trichomoniasis infection. The mean age of the infertile group was 25.75+/-3.92, and of the control group was 21.6+/-2.38 (in years). The mean duration of infertility was 2.81+/-1.51 (years). Out of 240 infertile women, 18.75% complained of discharge, 17.5% itching, 15.42% dysuria, 14.58% dyspareunia, and 10% had cervical lesion. Of the 40 controls, 5% complained of discharge, 2.5% complained of itching, dysuria, dyspareunia, but none had cervical lesion. Of the total cases (280), 36 (12.9%) had T. vaginalis. The clinical data observed were significantly higher among the infertile group than the control group. Cultures were positive in 14.58% of the infertile group and 2.5% in the control group. The difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant. No doubt, T. vaginalis plays an important role in female infertility. PMID:11478453

  19. Models Predicting Success of Infertility Treatment: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zarinara, Alireza; Zeraati, Hojjat; Kamali, Koorosh; Mohammad, Kazem; Shahnazari, Parisa; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertile couples are faced with problems that affect their marital life. Infertility treatment is expensive and time consuming and occasionally isn’t simply possible. Prediction models for infertility treatment have been proposed and prediction of treatment success is a new field in infertility treatment. Because prediction of treatment success is a new need for infertile couples, this paper reviewed previous studies for catching a general concept in applicability of the models. Methods: This study was conducted as a systematic review at Avicenna Research Institute in 2015. Six data bases were searched based on WHO definitions and MESH key words. Papers about prediction models in infertility were evaluated. Results: Eighty one papers were eligible for the study. Papers covered years after 1986 and studies were designed retrospectively and prospectively. IVF prediction models have more shares in papers. Most common predictors were age, duration of infertility, ovarian and tubal problems. Conclusion: Prediction model can be clinically applied if the model can be statistically evaluated and has a good validation for treatment success. To achieve better results, the physician and the couples’ needs estimation for treatment success rate were based on history, the examination and clinical tests. Models must be checked for theoretical approach and appropriate validation. The privileges for applying the prediction models are the decrease in the cost and time, avoiding painful treatment of patients, assessment of treatment approach for physicians and decision making for health managers. The selection of the approach for designing and using these models is inevitable. PMID:27141461

  20. ICSI Outcome in Infertile Couples with Different Causes of Infertility: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Jahanian Sadatmahalleh, Shahideh; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza; Ghaffari, Firouzeh; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    infertility in order to provide more information and better assistance to patients. Therefore, we suggest that physicians prepare adequate training and required information regarding these procedures for infertile couples in order to improve their knowledge. PMID:24520469

  1. Substantial prevalence of microdeletions of the Y-chromosome in infertile men with idiopathic azoospermia and oligozoospermia detected using a sequence-tagged site-based mapping strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Najmabadi, H.; Huang, V.; Bhasin, D.

    1996-04-01

    Genes on the long arm of Y (Yq), particularly within interval 6, are believed to play a critical role in human spermatogenesis. Cytogenetically detectable deletions of this region are associated with azoospermia in men, but are relatively uncommon. The objective of this study was to validate a sequence-tagged site (STS)-mapping strategy for the detection of Yq microdeletions and to use this method to determine the proportion of men with idiopathic azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia who carry microdeletions in Yq. STS mapping of a sufficiently large sample of infertile men should also help further localize the putative gene(s) involved in the pathogenesis of male infertility. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes of 16 normal fertile men, 7 normal fertile women, 60 infertile men, and 15 patients with the X-linked disorder, ichthyosis. PCR primers were synthesized for 26 STSs that span Yq interval 6. None of the 16 normal men of known fertility had microdeletions. Seven normal fertile women failed to amplify any of the 26 STSs, providing evidence of their Y specificity. No microdeletions were detected in any of the 15 patients with ichthyosis. Of the 60 infertile men typed with 26 STSs, 11 (18%; 10 azoospermic and 1 oligozoospermic) failed to amplify 1 or more STS. Interestingly, 4 of the 11 patients had microdeletions in a region that is outside the Yq region from which the DAZ (deleted in azoospermia gene region) gene was cloned. In an additional 3 patients, microdeletions were present both inside and outside the DAZ region. The physical locations of these microdeletions provide further support for the concept that a gene(s) on Yq deletion interval 6 plays an important role in spermatogenesis. The presence of deletions that do not overlap with the DAZ region suggests that genes other than the DAZ gene may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of some subsets of male infertility. 48 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Early Transference Interventions With Male Patients in Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Banon, Elisabeth; Evan-Grenier, Marcella; Bond, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Transcripts of early sessions for 7 personality-disordered male subjects participating in an ongoing naturalistic long-term dynamic psychotherapy project were rated for therapist interventions and alliance. Early transference interpretations were followed by increased defensiveness even when there was a solid alliance. Omitting transference interpretations in the face of an early negative transference was equally problematic. However, the rapid sequence of early transference and defense interpretations, or early defense interpretations alone, enhanced therapeutic work without increasing defensiveness. Caretaking of the alliance after early interpretive work was also investigated. Two different styles of handling affect emerged from the sample. PMID:11264332

  3. Intracystic Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast in a Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zishuo Ian; Liu, Chengbao; Fisher, Paul R.; Cohen, Jules A.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of intracystic papillary carcinoma of the right breast in a 59-year old man presenting with bloody nipple discharge for 1 week prior to presentation. Mammography, ultrasonography, and core needle aspiration were consistent with intracystic papillary carcinoma. The patient underwent right simple mastectomy. Pathology was also consistent with low grade intracystic papillary carcinoma. The 21-gene assay revealed a recurrence score of 0, corresponding to a 3% risk of distant recurrence at 10 years. A patient did not receive chemotherapy or post-mastectomy radiotherapy. The patient was placed on tamoxifen and has been free of disease to date. PMID:27134706

  4. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile couples in romania.

    PubMed

    Mierla, D; Malageanu, M; Tulin, R; Albu, D

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a correlation between the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in one of the partners and infertility. This retrospective study was performed at the Department of Reproductive Medicine, Life Memorial Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, between August 2007 to December 2011. Two thousand, one hundred and ninety-five patients with reproductive problems were investigated, and the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was calculated. The control group consisting of 87 fertile persons who had two or more children, was investigated in this retrospective study. All the patients of this study were investigated by cytogenetic techniques and the results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. In this study, 94.99% patients had a normal karyotype and 5.01% had chromosomal abnormalities (numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities). In the study group, numerical chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.14% of infertile men and 0.62% of infertile women, and structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.38% of infertile men and 1.87% of infertile women, respectively. The correlation between the incidence of chromosomal anomalies in the two sexes in couple with reproductive problems was not statistically significant. Recently, a possible association between infertility and chromosomal abnormalities with a significant statistical association has been reported. Our study shows that there is no association between chromosomal abnormalities and infertility, but this study needs to be confirmed with further investigations and a larger control group to establish the role of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of infertility. PMID:26929902

  5. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile couples in romania

    PubMed Central

    Mierla, D; Malageanu, M; Tulin, R; Albu, D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a correlation between the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in one of the partners and infertility. This retrospective study was performed at the Department of Reproductive Medicine, Life Memorial Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, between August 2007 to December 2011. Two thousand, one hundred and ninety-five patients with reproductive problems were investigated, and the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was calculated. The control group consisting of 87 fertile persons who had two or more children, was investigated in this retrospective study. All the patients of this study were investigated by cytogenetic techniques and the results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. In this study, 94.99% patients had a normal karyotype and 5.01% had chromosomal abnormalities (numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities). In the study group, numerical chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.14% of infertile men and 0.62% of infertile women, and structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.38% of infertile men and 1.87% of infertile women, respectively. The correlation between the incidence of chromosomal anomalies in the two sexes in couple with reproductive problems was not statistically significant. Recently, a possible association between infertility and chromosomal abnormalities with a significant statistical association has been reported. Our study shows that there is no association between chromosomal abnormalities and infertility, but this study needs to be confirmed with further investigations and a larger control group to establish the role of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of infertility. PMID:26929902

  6. Adolescent Varicoceles and Infertility.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jessica T; Misseri, Rosalia

    2015-12-01

    Varicoceles are associated with testicular atrophy and abnormal spermatogenesis. Varicocele-related testicular damage is thought to be progressive in nature. Adult varicoceles are common in men with infertility, and varicocele repair in this population has demonstrated improved semen parameters and paternity outcomes. However, without solid objective endpoints (reproducible semen analyses, paternity), the indications for adolescent varicocele repair remain controversial. Given the controversy surrounding adolescent varicocele management, it is not surprising that surveys of pediatric urologists have revealed a lack of consensus on diagnostic approaches, treatment decisions, and operative approaches. PMID:26568496

  7. A Biopsychosocial Theory of Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrity, Deborah A.

    2001-01-01

    Briefly reviews the literature on infertility and its emotional, physical, existential, and relational effects on individuals, couples, and families. Life crisis and biopsychosocial theories are discussed as they apply to persons struggling with infertility issues. In addition, stage models derived from a biopsychosocial perspective are presented.…

  8. Strategies for Counseling Infertile Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents specific intervention strategies that may serve to reinforce infertility experience as opportunity for personal and marital growth. Concludes through counseling clients may complete much of the emotional work required to reach a point of resolution and acceptance of their infertility. (Author/ABL)

  9. Oral Drugs for Unexplained Infertility.

    PubMed

    Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2016-02-01

    Of the infertile couples unable to conceive without any identifiable cause, 30 % are defined as having unexplained infertility. Management depends on duration of infertility and age of female partner. The treatment of unexplained infertility is empirical, and many different regimens have been used. Among these are expectant management, ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins and aromatase inhibitors, fallopian tube sperm perfusion, tubal flushing, intrauterine insemination, gamete intrafallopian transfer, and IVF. The first approach to treatment of unexplained infertility generally is the use of drugs that stimulate oocyte production. For over four decades, the first-line treatment for ovarian stimulation in unexplained infertility has been clomiphene citrate. Multiple reports suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be effective alternative agents for ovarian stimulation in couples with unexplained infertility. Their administration is reported to be associated with monofollicular development in most cases, which may result in enhanced fertility and a reduced risk of ovarian hyperstimulation and multiple births, as compared to current standard therapies such as gonadotropin and clomiphene. Despite world evidence to the contrary, letrozole has been banned for use for infertility management in India since 2011. PMID:26924899

  10. Sexual dysfunction in infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Zahra; Amirian, Malihe; Golmakani, Nahid; Mazlom, Reza; Laal Ahangar, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual problems have different effects on the life of people by influencing their interpersonal and marital relationships and satisfaction. Relationship between sexual dysfunctions and infertility can be mutual. Sexual dysfunction may cause difficulty conceiving but also attempts to conceive, may cause sexual dysfunction. Objective: This paper compares sexual dysfunction in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 110 infertile couples referring to Montasarieh Infertility Clinic and 110 fertile couples referring to five healthcare centers in Mashhad were selected by class cluster sampling method. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaire and Glombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction. Data were analyzed through descriptive and analytical statistical methods by SPSS. Results: There was no significant difference in total score of sexual problems and other dimensions of sexual problems (except infrequency) in fertile 28.9 (15.5) and infertile 29.0 (15.4) women. Fertile women had more infrequency than infertile women (p=0.002). Conclusion: There was no significant difference between fertile and infertile women in terms of sexual problems. Paying attention to sexual aspects of infertility and presence of programs for training of sexual skills seems necessary for couples. PMID:27200422

  11. Increased regional gray matter atrophy and enhanced functional connectivity in male multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Segura, C; Cruz-Gómez, A J; Belenguer, A; Fittipaldi Márquez, M S; Ávila, C; Forn, C

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that sex/gender is an important factor for understanding multiple sclerosis (MS) and that some of its neuropathological consequences might manifest earlier in males. In the present study, we assessed gray matter (GM) volume and functional connectivity (FC) in a sample of female and male MS patients (MSp) and female and male healthy controls (HCs). As compared to female MSp, male MSp showed decreased GM volume in the bilateral frontal areas and increased FC between different brain regions. Because both sets of changes correlated significantly and no differences in cognitive performance were observed, we suggest that the FC increase observed in male MSp acts as a compensatory mechanism for their more extensive GM loss and that it promotes a functional convergence between male- and female-MSp. PMID:27436479

  12. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  13. Infertility in Women: Hysterosalpingographic Assessment of the Fallopian Tubes in Lagos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.

    2009-01-01

    Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…

  14. Sexual Concerns of Male Spouses of Female Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litz, Brett T.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents case study which highlights attendant cognitive changes that occur in Alzheimer's patient, presenting caregiver with challenges to couple's sexual functioning. Describes man who reported erectile dysfunction directly stemming from stressful changes that had occurred in his relationship to his wife who had Alzheimer's disease. General…

  15. Presence of aerobic micro-organisms and their influence on basic semen parameters in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, E; Marchlewska, K; Oszukowska, E; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, R; Swierczynska-Cieplucha, A; Kula, K; Slowikowska-Hilczer, J

    2015-09-01

    Urogenital tract infections in males are one of the significant etiological factors in infertility. In this prospective study, 72 patients with abnormal semen parameters or any other symptoms of urogenital tract infection were examined. Semen analysis according to the WHO 2010 manual was performed together with microbial assessment: aerobic bacteria culture, Chlamydia antigen test, Candida culture, Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma-specific culture. In total, 69.4% of semen samples were positive for at least one micro-organism. Ureaplasma sp. was the most common micro-organism found in 33% of semen samples of infertile patients with suspected male genital tract infection. The 2nd most common micro-organisms were Enterococcus faecalis (12.5%) and Escherichia coli (12.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7%), Chlamydia trachomatis (7%) and Candida sp. (5.6%). Generally, bacteria were sensitive to at least one of the antibiotics tested. No statistically significant relationship was observed between the presence of aerobic micro-organisms in semen and basic semen parameters: volume, pH, concentration, total count, motility, vitality and morphology. PMID:25209133

  16. Bladder leiomyoma in male patient presenting with renal oncocytoma: Are the two conditions related?

    PubMed Central

    Almouhissen, Turky; Badr, Hattan; Alessa, Noor; Nassir, Anmar

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old male patient with a large pelvic mass and a right renal mass was referred to our facility. The patient underwent a right radical nephrectomy and pelvic mass excision. A histopathological examination led to a diagnosis of renal oncocytoma and urinary bladder leiomyoma. PMID:27453673

  17. Atypical rosacea in a male patient: case study.

    PubMed

    Debroy Kidambi, A; Tiffin, N J; Ramsay, H M

    2016-01-01

    Rosacea fulminans is a rare disorder of unknown cause, almost exclusively affecting women. There are only a few reported cases in men. The condition is characterized by the abrupt onset of pustules and nodules predominantly affecting the cheeks or chin without any systemic upset. We report the case of a 37-year-old man who presented with papulopustules, predominantly localized to his nose. Histopathological features were consistent with rosacea fulminans. The patient was managed with treatments including oral prednisolone, isotretinoin, and trimethioprim. PMID:27267199

  18. Nanobacteria may be linked to testicular microlithiasis in infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Hua; Lu, Gen-Sheng; Shen, Xue-Cheng; Zhou, Zhan-Song; Fang, Qiang; Zhang, Xin; Li, Long-Kun; Jin, Xi-Yu; Song, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Testicular microlithiasis (TM) in infertility is an uncommon pathologic condition of unclear etiology that is characterized by calcium deposits within the seminiferous tubules. Nanobacteria (NB), as novel microorganisms mediating tissue calcification, have been discovered in some diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that NB may participate in the pathogenesis of TM, particularly in infertility. Seventeen infertility patients with TM detected by scrotal color Doppler ultrasonography and 17 infertility patients without TM as controls were enrolled in the study. The NB were isolated and cultured from semen samples and urine samples. After 3 to 6 weeks of culture, 10 of 17 (58.8%) semen samples and 2 urine samples from infertile patients with TM showed the growth of white granular microbes that firmly attached to the bottom of the culture flask and were visible to the naked eye. In the control group, only 1 of 17 (5.9%) semen samples from infertile patients without TM showed the growth of white granular microbes. The cultured microbes were identified by indirect immunofluorescent staining (IIFS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 16s rRNA gene expression. IIFS and TEM revealed NB to be coccoid and 100 to 500 nm in diameter. The BLAST result revealed that the 16s rRNA gene sequence from the cultured microbes was 97% the same as that of the known NB. Our results showed that NB may be linked to the development of TM, which may provide a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility with TM. PMID:19779212

  19. Low serum testosterone increases mortality risk among male dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Parini, Paolo; Arver, Stefan; Lindholm, Bengt; Bárány, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Men treated with hemodialysis (HD) have a very poor prognosis and an elevated risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the general population, associations between low testosterone concentrations and cardiovascular risk have been suggested. We performed a prospective observational study involving a well characterized cohort of 126 men treated with HD to examine the relationship between testosterone concentration and subsequent mortality during a mean follow-up period of 41 mo. Independent of age, serum creatinine, and sexual hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone levels inversely and strongly associated with the inflammatory markers IL-6 and CRP. Patients with a clinical history of CVD had significantly lower testosterone levels. During follow up, 65 deaths occurred, 58% of which were a result of CVD. Men with testosterone values in the lowest tertile had increased all-cause and CVD mortality (crude hazard ratios [HRs] 2.03 [95% CI 1.24 to 3.31] and 3.19 [1.49 to 6.83], respectively), which persisted after adjustment for age, SHBG, previous CVD, diabetes, ACEi/ARB treatment, albumin, and inflammatory markers, but was lost after adjustment for creatinine. In summary, among men treated with HD, testosterone concentrations inversely correlate with all-cause and CVD-related mortality, as well as with markers of inflammation. Hypogonadism may be an additional treatable risk factor for patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:19144759

  20. THE EFFECTS OF ETHINYL ESTRADIOL ON SPERMATOGENESIS IN THE ADULT MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, increases in male infertility have been attributed to exposure to environmental estrogens. Decreased sperm concentrations and increased infertility have been reported in the human, while many reports have documented reproductive effects due to estrogenic exposure in ani...

  1. Molecular Dissection Using Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization and Clinical Evaluation of An Infertile Male Carrier of An Unbalanced Y;21 Translocation: A Case Report and Review of The Literature.

    PubMed

    Orrico, Alfredo; Marseglia, Giuseppina; Pescucci, Chiara; Cortesi, Ambra; Piomboni, Paola; Giansanti, Andrea; Gerundino, Francesca; Ponchietti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal defects are relatively frequent in infertile men however, translocations between the Y chromosome and autosomes are rare and less than 40 cases of Y-autosome translocation have been reported. In particular, only three individuals has been described with a Y;21 translocation, up to now. We report on an additional case of an infertile man in whom a Y;21 translocation was associated with the deletion of a large part of the Y chromosome long arm. Applying various techniques, including conventional cytogenetic procedures, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis and array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) studies, we identified a derivative chromosome originating from a fragment of the short arm of the chromosome Y translocated on the short arm of the 21 chromosome. The Y chromosome structural rearrangement resulted in the intactness of the entire short arm, including the sex-determining region Y (SRY) and the short stature homeobox (SHOX) loci, although translocated on the 21 chromosome, and the loss of a large part of the long arm of the Y chromosome, including azoospermia factor-a (AZFa), AZFb, AZFc and Yq heterochromatin regions. This is the first case in which a (Yp;21p) translocation has been ascertained using an array-CGH approach, thus reporting details of such a rearrangement at higher resolution. PMID:26985348

  2. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility. PMID:26986137

  3. The serologic screening for celiac disease in the general population (blood donors) and in some high-risk groups of adults (patients with autoimmune diseases, osteoporosis and infertility) in the Czech republic.

    PubMed

    Vanciková, Z; Chlumecký, V; Sokol, D; Horáková, D; Hamsíková, E; Fucíková, T; Janatková, I; Ulcová-Gallová, Z; Stĕpán, J; Límanová, Z; Dvorák, M; Kocna, P; Sánchez, D; Tucková, L; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) was determined in healthy blood donors and in high-risk groups of adults (a total of 1835 adults--randomly selected 1312 healthy blood donors, 102 patients with primary osteoporosis, 58 patients with autoimmune diseases and 365 infertile women). It was calculated on the basis of a two-step serologic screening method--in the first step IgA and IgG antigliadin antibodies (AGA) and IgA anti-gamma-glutamyltransferase ('transglutaminase') antibodies (ATG) were estimated, in the second step sera positive for IgA AGA and/or IgA ATG were examined for antiendomysial IgA (AEA) antibodies. Immunoenzymic assay (ELISA) was used for determining of AGA and ATG antibodies; immunofluorescence method, performed on human umbilical cord tissue, was used for assaying of AEA antibodies. Total serum IgA level in only IgG AGA positive subjects was measured by routine turbidimetric method. 0.45% of healthy blood donors, 0.98% of osteoporotic patients, 2.7% of patients suffering from autoimmune disease and 1.13% of women with infertility considered as immunologically mediated were found to be positive in both steps of serologic screening (AGA and/or ATG and antiendomysium positive). The presumed high prevalence of seropositivity for CD in apparently healthy Czech adult population was confirmed. In the high-risk groups, the prevalence of seropositivity for CD was approximately 2-4 times higher than in healthy blood donors. The real prevalence of CD in the tested groups, however, can be estimated after performing small intestinal biopsy in the seropositive patients. PMID:12630332

  4. Infertility, infertility treatment, and congenital malformations: Danish national birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether infertile couples (with a time to pregnancy of > 12 months), who conceive naturally or after treatment, give birth to children with an increased prevalence of congenital malformations. Design Longitudinal study. Setting Danish national birth cohort. Participants Three groups of liveborn children and their mothers: 50 897 singletons and 1366 twins born of fertile couples (time to pregnancy ≤ 12 months), 5764 singletons and 100 twins born of infertile couples who conceived naturally (time to pregnancy > 12 months), and 4588 singletons and 1690 twins born after infertility treatment. Main outcome measures Prevalence of congenital malformations determined from hospital discharge diagnoses. Results Compared with singletons born of fertile couples, singletons born of infertile couples who conceived naturally or after treatment had a higher prevalence of congenital malformations—hazard ratios 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.35) and 1.39 (1.23 to 1.57). The overall prevalence of congenital malformations increased with increasing time to pregnancy. When the analysis was restricted to singletons born of infertile couples, babies born after treatment had an increased prevalence of genital organ malformations (hazard ratio 2.32, 1.24 to 4.35) compared with babies conceived naturally. No significant differences existed in the overall prevalence of congenital malformations among twins. Conclusions Hormonal treatment for infertility may be related to the occurrence of malformations of genital organs, but our results suggest that the reported increased prevalence of congenital malformations seen in singletons born after assisted reproductive technology is partly due to the underlying infertility or its determinants. The association between untreated infertility and congenital malformations warrants further examination. PMID:16893903

  5. Effect of Palm Pollen on Sperm Parameters of Infertile Man.

    PubMed

    Rasekh, Athar; Jashni, Hojjatollah Karimi; Rahmanian, Karamatollah; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh

    2015-04-01

    There is a rapidly growing trend in the consumption of herbal remedies in the developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of orally administered Date Palm Pollen (DPP) on the results of semen analysis in adult infertile men. Forty infertile men participated in our study. They were treated by Pollen powder 120 mg kg(-1) in gelatinous capsules every other day, for two months. Before and at the end of therapy, the semen was collected after masturbation and sperm numbers, motility and morphology were determined. Our findings revealed that consumption of DPP improved the sperm count. The treatment was significantly increased sperm motility, morphology and forward progressive motility. Date palm pollen seems to cure male infertility by improving the quality of sperm parameters. PMID:26506651

  6. Bilateral ovarian maldescent: Unusual cause of infertility - A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Garg, D; Grazi, R; Kankanala, N; Melzer-Ross, K

    2016-08-01

    Infertility due to ovarian maldescent is extremely rare and diagnosis can be challenging in the absence of uterine anomalies. We present a case of infertility due to bilateral ovarian maldescent with normal uterine anatomy who conceived after in vitro fertilization and did not require removal of the ovaries. A 19-year-old woman presented with primary infertility. After three failed cycles of ovulation induction/intrauterine insemination and one failed cycle of fresh embryo transfer, the patient underwent laparoscopy, which showed bilateral ovaries above the pelvic brim. The patient conceived after second in vitro fertilization and delivered at 34 weeks. Accurate diagnosis of ovarian maldescent in a patient of unexplained infertility and normal uterus is crucial for successful follicular aspiration and infertility treatment. It is important to counsel patients about the benign nature of this rare entity and future fertility. PMID:27094464

  7. Clinical management and therapeutic outcome of infertile couples in southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Menuba, Ifeanyi E; Ugwu, Emmanuel O; Obi, Samuel N; Lawani, Lucky O; Onwuka, Chidinma I

    2014-01-01

    Background Infertility is highly prevalent in Nigeria and most infertile couples in southeast Nigeria are offered conventional forms of treatment, which consist mainly of ovulation induction and tubal surgery, due to limited availability and high cost of endoscopic and assisted reproductive technologies like laparoscopy and in vitro fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infertility, outcome of infertility investigation, and the treatment outcome of infertile couples following therapeutic interventions in southeast Nigeria over a 12-month period. Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study of 218 consecutive infertile couples presenting for infertility management at the infertility clinics of two tertiary health institutions in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Infertility investigations were carried out on these couples using the available conventional diagnostic facilities. Following the results of the investigations/diagnosis, conventional treatment was offered to the couples as appropriate. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. Results The mean age of the women was 33.5±4.62 (range: 15–49) years. Most (58.3% [n=127]) were nulliparous. The prevalence of infertility was 12.1%. Infertility was primary in 28.4% (n=62) and secondary in 71.6% (n=156). Female etiologic factors were responsible in 32.1% (n=70), male factors in 26.1% (n=57), and a combination of male/female factors in 29.4% (n=64). The etiology was unknown in 12.4% (n=27). Tubal factors 23.8 % (n=52) and ovulation failures 26.1% (n=57) are common female factors implicated. Pregnancy rate following treatment was 16.7% (n=28). Multivariate regression analysis indicates that younger age of ≤30 years, duration of infertility ≤5 years, and female factor infertility were associated with higher pregnancy outcome following treatment. Conclusion The prevalence of infertility is high and pregnancy rate following conventional treatment

  8. Spermatogonial stem cells, infertility and testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shree Ram; Burnicka-Turek, Ozanna; Chauhan, Chhavi; Hou, Steven X

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are responsible for the transmission of genetic information from an individual to the next generation. SSCs play critical roles in understanding the basic reproductive biology of gametes and treatments of human infertility. SSCs not only maintain normal spermatogenesis, but also sustain fertility by critically balancing both SSC self-renewal and differentiation. This self-renewal and differentiation in turn is tightly regulated by a combination of intrinsic gene expression within the SSC as well as the extrinsic gene signals from the niche. Increased SSCs self-renewal at the expense of differentiation result in germ cell tumours, on the other hand, higher differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can result in male sterility. Testicular germ cell cancers are the most frequent cancers among young men in industrialized countries. However, understanding the pathogenesis of testis cancer has been difficult because it is formed during foetal development. Recent studies suggest that SSCs can be reprogrammed to become embryonic stem (ES)-like cells to acquire pluripotency. In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in SSCs biology and role of SSC in testicular cancer. We believe that studying the biology of SSCs will not only provide better understanding of stem cell regulation in the testis, but eventually will also be a novel target for male infertility and testicular cancers. PMID:21155977

  9. Colchicine Significantly Reduces Incident Cancer in Gout Male Patients: A 12-Year Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-12-01

    Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77-0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout. PMID:26683907

  10. Clinical, epidemiological and socio-cultural aspects of infertility in resource-poor settings. Evidence from Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Dhont, N.

    2011-01-01

    Infertility is a serious but entirely neglected public health problem in resource-poor countries. Most of the infertility is caused by infections and therefore potentially preventable. The problem of infertility in Rwanda has not been researched so far. We examined predictors for infertility and treatment-seeking behaviour in an unmatched case-control. We performed infertility investigations in all infertile couples and discussed consequences of infertility in focus group discussions. HSV-2 and HIV infection and sexual violence were the most important determinants of infertility. We found a higher HIV prevalence among couples in secondary and not primary infertile relationships with at least one HIV infected partner in 45% of these couples. Men in infertile relationships reported more frequently concurrent partners over the last year than fertile men. We found a high prevalence of tubal factor (70%) and male factor infertility (64%). Pregnancy rates (16%) were low after conventional therapy. Both men and women are unlikely to attribute infertility to the male partner. Participants reported a wide array of treatments they received in the past, often including ineffective or even harmful interventions. We demonstrated severe suffering as a consequence of infertility for both men and women but with women carrying the largest burden, similar to what is reported in other resource-poor countries. Overall, we can conclude that there is an urgent need for a more holistic approach towards reproductive health services in SSA, one that recognises the importance of reproductive failure. The link with HIV has important consequences for both HIV and reproductive health programs. PMID:24753853

  11. Ginseng and male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kar Wah; Wong, Alice ST

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is often referred to as the King of all herbs, and is found to be a promising agent to improve general well-being. Ginseng has also been reputed as an aphrodisiac, and is used to treat sexual dysfunction as well as to enhance sexual behavior in traditional Chinese medical practices. Data from animal studies have shown a positive correlation among ginseng, libido, and copulatory performances, and these effects have been confirmed in case-control studies in human. In addition, ginseng is found to improve the sperm quality and count of healthy individuals as well as patients with treatment-related infertility. These actions are mostly attributed to ginsenosides, the major pharmacological active components of ginseng. This review compiles the current knowledge about the multifaceted effects of ginseng on male reproductive function, and also focuses on its mechanisms of action that may represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of male reproductive diseases or disorders. PMID:24381805

  12. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was ... with The Society of Reproductive Surgeons What is endometriosis? When tissue like the tissue that normally lines ...

  13. Ethnic and Gender Considerations in the Use of Facial Injectables: Male Patients.

    PubMed

    de Maio, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    The contemporary male look includes sharp contours of the face with strong nose, significant malar-midface structure, and a powerful chin with well-defined jawline. Neurotoxins in the upper facial lines should preserve a lower position of the brows and flatter arch in men. Excessive lifting of the eyebrows and full correction of forehead and periorbital lines are not desirable. The use of dermal fillers is fully accepted into the nasolabial. Male patients with sagginess and hollowness related or not related to acquired lipodystrophies are candidates for cheek correction with volumizers. Female attractiveness lies in the cheekbones, and for men, it lies in the chin. The use of volumizers in the chin is very much appreciated by male patients, especially when it is recessed. A strong and masculine appearance is obtained by creating a square chin. Men present slight thinner lips, especially the upper one. Lip reshape in male patients is very much rejected. It requires expertise both in communication and in technical skills to convince male patients to undergo lip treatments with fillers. The use of injectables in male patients is growing. Neurotoxins in the upper facial lines and the use of dermal fillers in the nasolabial folds are widely accepted. The use of volumizers in the chin is highly appreciated. There is clear need of volumizers in the cheek to correct sagginess and hollowness in men. However, proper communication and technique are required. The same applies for the lips. Cheek and lip reshape is still considered a taboo for most patients and injectors. PMID:26441109

  14. Intranasal Oxytocin Administration Dampens Amygdala Reactivity towards Emotional Faces in Male and Female PTSD Patients.

    PubMed

    Koch, Saskia Bj; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2016-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder. As a substantial part of PTSD patients responds poorly to currently available psychotherapies, pharmacological interventions boosting treatment response are needed. Because of its anxiolytic and pro-social properties, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been proposed as promising strategy for treatment augmentation in PTSD. As a first step to investigate the therapeutic potential of OT in PTSD, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over functional MRI study examining OT administration effects (40 IU) on amygdala reactivity toward emotional faces in unmedicated male and female police officers with (n=37, 21 males) and without (n=40, 20 males) PTSD. Trauma-exposed controls were matched to PTSD patients based on age, sex, years of service and educational level. Under placebo, the expected valence-dependent amygdala reactivity (ie, greater activity toward fearful-angry faces compared with happy-neutral faces) was absent in PTSD patients. OT administration dampened amygdala reactivity toward all emotional faces in male and female PTSD patients, but enhanced amygdala reactivity in healthy male and female trauma-exposed controls, independent of sex and stimulus valence. In PTSD patients, greater anxiety prior to scanning and amygdala reactivity during the placebo session were associated with greater reduction of amygdala reactivity after OT administration. Taken together, our results indicate presumably beneficial neurobiological effects of OT administration in male and female PTSD patients. Future studies should investigate OT administration in clinical settings to fully appreciate its therapeutic potential. PMID:26404844

  15. Varicocele and Infertility in Men

    PubMed Central

    Freiha, Fuad; Mroueh, Adnan

    1976-01-01

    Varicocele is an important cause of infertility in men. The exact mechanism by which varicocele depresses spermatogenesis is unknown but probably the retrograde flow of blood rich in catecholamines into the testes plays a major role. Because subfertile semen qualities are present in a large percentage of men with varicocele and because the response to surgical procedures is very good, high ligation of the left internal spermatic vein is recommended in men with varicocele and infertility. PMID:1007247

  16. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well. PMID:23286540

  17. Genital Reconstruction After Weight Loss in Adipose Male Patients: A Case report

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Daniel Robert Arno; Altmann, Silke; Infanger, Manfred; Abuagela, Nauras; Schneegans, Sarah Maj; Damert, Hans-Georg; Kraus, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We introduce our surgical technique in two male genital reconstruction cases out of 15 post-bariatric patients. Methods: At our Department for Plastic Surgery at the University Hospital Magdeburg, 15 patients, 6 male and 9 female, underwent a surgical abdominoplasty after weight loss in 2009. Results: The average weight of the 15 patients was preoperatively 197.2 kg and the average hospital stay was of 14 days. In 2 cases, a second procedure for male genital reconstruction was necessary. After primary dietary measures and weight loss, we performed genital reconstruction in a second step with a sleeve-, Z-, VY-plasty and a “bilobed flap” to restore function and appearance of the male genitalia. In these patients, the average weight was 207.5 kg and hospital stay lasted 32 days. Conclusion: The increase of patients with obesity-related genital deformities will be expected in the future. Therefore, more controlled long-term studies should be published to develop guidelines for genital reconstruction techniques in plastic surgery. PMID:24741385

  18. Male Patient Visits to the Emergency Department Decline During the Play of Major Sporting Events

    PubMed Central

    Jerrard, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To study whether emergency department (ED) visits by male patients wane simultaneously with the play of scheduled professional and college sports events. Methods: Retrospective cohort analysis looked at ED male patient registration rates during a time block lasting from two hours before, during, and two hours after the play of professional football games (Monday night, Sundays, post-season play), major league baseball, and a Division I college football and basketball team, respectively. These registration rates were compared to rates at similar times on similar days of the week during the year devoid of a major sporting contest. Games were assumed to have a play time of three hours. Data was collected from April 2000 through March 2003 at an urban academic ED seeing 33,000 male patients above the age of 18 years annually. Results: A total of 782 games were identified and used for purposes of the study. Professional football game dates had a mean of 17.9 males (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.4–18.4) registering vs. 26.8 males (95% CI 25.9–27.6) on non-game days. A registration rate for major league baseball was 18.4 patients (95% CI 17.6–18.4). The mean for registration on comparable non-game days was 23.9 patients (95% CI 22.8–24.3). For the regional Division I college football team, the mean number of patients registering on game days and non-game days was 21.7 (95% CI 20.9–22.4) and 23.4 (95% CI 22.9–23.7), respectively. Division I college basketball play for game and non-game days had mean rates of registration of 14.5 (95% CI 13.9–15.1) and 15.5 (95% CI 15.1–15.9) patients, respectively. For all sports dates collectively, a comparison of two means yielded a mean of 18.2 patients (95% CI 17.4–18.8) registering during the study hours on game days vs. 23.3 patients (95% CI 22.0–23.7) on non-game days. The mean difference was 5.1 patients (95% CI 3.7 to 7.0) with p < .000074. Conclusion: Male patient visits to the ED decline during

  19. Normal variants in patients consulted in the Dermatology Clinic for lesions of the male external genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Sobjanek, Michał; Michajłowski, Jerzy; Włodarkiewicz, Adam; Matuszewski, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction So far there have been no papers analyzing the incidence of ‘non-pathological’ lesions or normal variants on the male external genitalia. Subsequently, the number of patients consulted due to the presence of such lesions remains unknown. The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of normal variants in patients who were consulted due to lesions on the skin or mucosa of the male external genitalia. Material and methods The study group consisted of 400 males, aged 3-91, who were consulted due to lesions on the genitalia in the Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology of the Medical University of Gdańsk. Results The most common lesions were hyperpigmentation of the median raphe of the penis and scrotum (85.6%), pearly penile papules (24%), and prominent veins (24%). Sebaceous hyperplasia or ectopic sebaceous glands were revealed in 9% of patients, respectively. Melanocytic nevi were diagnosed with similar frequency (9.5%), whereas skin tags more rarely (7%). Other ‘non-pathological’ lesions were diagnosed in a considerably lower number of patients. In 32 patients (8% of all patients) the reason of admission to the Clinic was just the presence of some ‘non-pathological’ lesions. Pearly penile papules were found to be the most common condition, occurring in 78.1% patients. Conclusions Normal variants represent a substantial percentage of generally asymptomatic lesions and the only indication for their removal is cosmetic discomfort or venerophobia. PMID:24578916

  20. Relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male patients

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xizheng; Liu, Jinming; Luo, Yanrong; Xu, Xiaowen; Han, Zhiqing; Li, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The nutritional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is associated with their exercise capacity. In the present study, we have explored the relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe male COPD patients. Methods A total of 58 severe COPD male patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were assigned to no nutritional risk group (n=33) and nutritional risk group (n=25) according to the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS, 2002) criteria. Blood gas analysis, conventional pulmonary function testing, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed on all the patients. Results Results showed that the weight and BMI of the patients in the nutritional risk group were significantly lower than in the no nutritional risk group (P<0.05). The pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide of the no nutritional risk group was significantly higher than that of the nutritional risk group (P<0.05). Besides, the peak VO2 (peak oxygen uptake), peak O2 pulse (peak oxygen pulse), and peak load of the nutritional risk group were significantly lower than those of the no nutritional risk group (P<0.05) and there were significantly negative correlations between the NRS score and peak VO2, peak O2 pulse, or peak load (r<0, P<0.05). Conclusion The association between exercise capacity and nutritional risk based on NRS 2002 in severe COPD male patients is supported by these results of this study. PMID:26150712

  1. Infertility Education: Experiences and Preferences of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Cherven, Brooke O; Mertens, Ann; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Williamson, Rebecca; Meacham, Lillian R

    2016-07-01

    The majority of children diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors; however, many will suffer late effects of treatment, including infertility. Educating patients about potential risk for infertility is important, yet little is known regarding when patients would like to hear this information. The purpose of this study was to assess young adult survivors' previous experience in receiving education about their risk for infertility and determine their preferences for infertility education at various time points during and after treatment. Only 36% of survivors report receiving education about risk for infertility at diagnosis, 39% at end of therapy, and 72% in long-term follo