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Sample records for male pattern hair

  1. A new apparatus for hair regrowth in male-pattern baldness.

    PubMed

    Toshitani, S; Nakayama, J; Yahata, T; Yasuda, M; Urabe, H

    1990-04-01

    A newly devised apparatus (Scalp-Tension-Relaxer, STR) can efficiently promote hair regrowth in patients with male-pattern baldness. When this apparatus is applied, the scalp is pushed up to relieve tension on the vertex. The efficacy rate of hair regrowth in alopecia patients was 40%. An investigation into the basis for the hair regrowth caused by this apparatus was directed toward the changes in hemodynamics and skin temperature of the scalp. During and after use of this apparatus, subjects exhibited an increase both in the cutaneous blood flow rate (as determined by laser Doppler flowmetry) and in the cutaneous temperature (as determined by thermography). PMID:2365903

  2. Male pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  3. Investigation of four novel male androgenetic alopecia susceptibility loci: no association with female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Nuwaihyd, Rima; Redler, Silke; Heilmann, Stefanie; Drichel, Dmitriy; Wolf, Sabrina; Birch, Pattie; Dobson, Kathy; Lutz, Gerhard; Giehl, Kathrin A; Kruse, Roland; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid; Hanneken, Sandra; Böhm, Markus; Miesel, Anja; Fischer, Tobias; Wolff, Hans; Becker, Tim; Garcia-Bartels, Natalie; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Nöthen, Markus M; Messenger, Andrew G; Betz, Regina C

    2014-05-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common hair loss disorder in women and has a complex mode of inheritance. The etiopathogenesis of FPHL is largely unknown; however, it is hypothesized that FPHL and male pattern baldness [androgenetic alopecia (AGA)] share common genetic susceptibility alleles. Our recent findings indicate that the major AGA locus, an X-chromosome region containing the androgen receptor and the ectodysplasin A2 receptor (EDA2R) genes, may represent a common genetic factor underlying both early-onset FPHL and AGA. This gives further support for the widespread assumption of shared susceptibility loci for FPHL and AGA. However, we could not demonstrate association of further AGA risk loci, including 20p11, 1p36.22, 2q37.3, 7p21.1, 7q11.22, 17q21.31, and 18q21.1, with FPHL. Interestingly, a recent study identified four novel AGA risk loci in chromosomal regions 2q35, 3q25.1, 5q33.3, and 12p12.1. In particular, the 2q35 locus and its gene WNT10A point to an as-yet unknown involvement of the WNT signaling pathway in AGA. We hypothesized that the novel loci and thus also the WNT signaling may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of FPHL and therefore examined the role of these novel AGA risk loci in our FPHL samples comprising 440 German and 145 UK affected patients, 500 German unselected controls (blood donors), and 179 UK supercontrols. Patients and controls were genotyped for the top two single nucleotide polymorphisms at each of the four AGA loci. However, none of the genotyped variants displayed any significant association. In conclusion, the results of this study provide no support for the hypothesis that the novel AGA loci influence susceptibility to FPHL. PMID:24352509

  4. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. PMID:26370643

  5. Classifications of Patterned Hair Loss: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mysore, Venkataram

    2016-01-01

    Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles. PMID:27081243

  6. Classifications of Patterned Hair Loss: A Review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mysore, Venkataram

    2016-01-01

    Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles. PMID:27081243

  7. Controversy: Is There a Role for Adjuvants in the Management of Male Pattern Hair Loss?

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Rajendrasingh J

    2010-01-01

    Patients with hair loss are seeking treatment at a younger age and during earlier stages. Not all need hair transplants. Because of the lack of assured management and the fear of side-effects, patients are turning to ineffective alternative remedies from self-claimed experts. In this report, we discuss the available treatment options and how best they can be used in combination to produce satisfactory results. The traditional approach consists of administration of drugs such as minoxidil and finasteride. We propose a hypothesis that nutritional supplements, 2% ketoconazole shampoo and low-level laser therapy along with finasteride 1 mg used once in 3 days with 2% minoxidil used everyday, given in a cyclical medicine program may be useful to manage hair loss and achieve new hair growth. The scientific rationale for such an approach is explained. The need for further studies to establish the efficacy of the regime is stressed upon. PMID:21031065

  8. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Quan Q; Sinclair, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful. PMID:18044135

  9. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Verma, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients. PMID:23974580

  10. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  11. Role of genetics and sex steroid hormones in male androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss: an update of what we now know.

    PubMed

    Yip, Leona; Rufaut, Nick; Sinclair, Rod

    2011-05-01

    The role of genetic predisposition and the influence of sex steroid hormones are indisputable to the pathogenesis of male androgenetic alopecia (MAGA). The role of sex steroid hormones in female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is less known. A good knowledge of the pathophysiology underlying MAGA and FPHL empowers the clinician to confidently counsel patients and make informed therapeutic decisions. Vigorous research in recent years has provided greater insight into the role of genetics and sex steroids in physiological hair growth and cycling, as well as in hair follicle miniaturization, the histological hallmark of MAGA and FPHL. In the present review article directed towards clinicians, we discuss the current understanding of the role of androgens and oestrogens, as well as genetic associations with MAGA and FPHL. We also briefly discuss the interpretation of direct-to-consumer genetic testing for baldness to help clinicians understand the limitations of such tests. PMID:21605090

  12. Pattern hair loss in men: diagnosis and medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Banka, Nusrat; Bunagan, M J Kristine; Shapiro, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is a common cause of hair loss in both men and women. The exact pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia is not well understood. As the name implies, the role of androgens and genetic susceptibility predisposes to pattern hair loss due to gradual conversion of terminal hair into vellus hair. Male and female pattern hair loss are clinically distinct entities but histologically indistinguishable. The role of sex hormones in females is less understood. This article discusses current understanding of the etiopathogenesis of hair loss in men, diagnostic tests available, and its medical management. PMID:23159182

  13. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    MedlinePlus

    ... male and female pattern hair loss: A Multicenter, Randomized, Sham Device-controlled, Double-blind Study.” Am J ... 6. Lucky AW, Piacquadio DJ, et al . “A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 5% and 2% topical ...

  14. Frizzled6 controls hair patterning in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Nini; Hawkins, Charles; Nathans, Jeremy

    2004-06-22

    Hair whorls and other macroscopic hair patterns are found in a variety of mammalian species, including humans. We show here that Frizzled6 (Fz6), one member of a large family of integral membrane Wnt receptors, controls macroscopic hair patterning in the mouse. Fz6 is expressed in the skin and hair follicles, and targeted deletion of the Fz6 gene produces stereotyped whorls on the hind feet, variable whorls and tufts on the head, and misorientation of hairs on the torso. Embryo chimera experiments imply that Fz6 acts locally to control or propagate the macroscopic hair pattern and that epithelial cells rather than melanocytes are the source of Fz6-dependent signaling. The Fz6 phenotype strongly resembles the wing-hair and bristle patterning defects observed in Drosophila frizzled mutants. These data imply that hair patterning in mammals uses a Fz-dependent tissue polarity system similar to the one that patterns the Drosophila cuticle. PMID:15169958

  15. Predicting the Permanent Safe Donor Area for Hair Transplantation in Koreans with Male Pattern Baldness according to the Position of the Parietal Whorl

    PubMed Central

    Na, Young Cheon; Moh, Jae Seong; Lee, Seung Yong; You, Seung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background The most crucial factor in hair transplantation for male pattern baldness (MPB) patients is the efficient utilization of the donor-recipient ratio. However, there is no known factor that scientifically predicts the rate of progression of alopecia or indicates a permanently safe donor area. Methods The study considered 1,008 Korean adult males with MPB; of these, it excluded 56 males with an absence of parietal whorls (PWs). The authors investigated the distance from the vertical bimeatal line (VM) to the PW, from the PW to the upper border of the helical rim (HR), and the distance from the PW to the occipital fringe (OF) in 952 subjects with a PW. Furthermore, we examined the distance from the PW to the OF considering the duration of alopecia and age in 322 subjects with vertex alopecia. Results The distance between the VM and PW varied from 1.5 to 11 cm, with an average distance of 6.25 cm. The PW-HR distance ranged from 3.4 to 17.5 cm, and the average distance was 7.79 cm. The PW-OF distance ranged from 0.5 to 5.5 cm, and the average distance was 2.37 cm. Conclusions For the PW, very large variations existed in the vertical direction. The position of the PW could predict the progression range of the total alopecia of the vertex. Alopecia mostly progresses within 6 cm of the PW toward the occipital side. PMID:24883280

  16. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than ...

  17. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  18. Patients treated for male pattern hair with finasteride show, after discontinuation of the drug, altered levels of neuroactive steroids in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Donatella; Abbiati, Federico; Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Fusco, Letizia; Cavaletti, Guido; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2015-02-01

    Observations performed in a subset of patients treated for male pattern hair loss indicate that persistent sexual side effects as well as anxious/depressive symptomatology have been reported even after discontinuation of finasteride treatment. Due to the capability of finasteride to block the metabolism of progesterone (PROG) and/or testosterone (T) we have evaluated, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the levels of several neuroactive steroids in paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from post-finasteride patients and in healthy controls. At the examination, post-finasteride patients reported muscular stiffness, cramps, tremors and chronic fatigue in the absence of clinical evidence of any muscular disorder or strength reduction. Although severity of the anxious/depressive symptoms was quite variable in their frequency, overall all the subjects had a fairly complex and constant neuropsychiatric pattern. Assessment of neuroactive steroid levels in CSF showed a decrease of PROG and its metabolites, dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), associated with an increase of its precursor pregnenolone (PREG). Altered levels were also observed for T and its metabolites. Thus, a significant decrease of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) associated with an increase of T as well as of 3α-diol was detected. Changes in neuroactive steroid levels also occurred in plasma. An increase of PREG, T, 3α-diol, 3β-diol and 17β-estradiol was associated with decreased levels of DHP and THP. The present observations show that altered levels of neuroactive steroids, associated with depression symptoms, are present in androgenic alopecia patients even after discontinuation of the finasteride treatment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Sex steroids and brain disorders'. PMID:24717976

  19. Effect of hair dyes and bleach on the hair protein patterns as revealed by isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Nagai, A; Komoriya, H; Bunai, Y; Yamada, S; Jiang, X Y; Ohya, I

    1991-06-01

    The effect of hair dyes, i.e., temporary, semi-permanent, or permanent hair dyes, or hair bleach on the isoelectric focusing (IEF) hair protein patterns was studied. A permanent hair dye (metallic, alkaline oxidative, or acidic oxidative) and hair bleach induced changes in the IEF hair protein patterns and in the intensity of hair protein bands. The changes in the IEF patterns, caused by the alkaline oxidative dye or the bleach, are considered to result from the combined effect of an alkaline agent and an oxidative agent in the alkaline oxidative dye and in the hair bleach. PMID:1889397

  20. Management of advanced hair loss patterns.

    PubMed

    Beehner, Michael L

    2013-08-01

    This article covers how to manage patients with extensive hair loss in whom complete, dense coverage is not possible. In addition to discussing planning a transplant pattern for already bald men, I discuss a conservative approach for recognizing and transplanting younger patients who have telltale warning signs that may evolve to extensive hair loss. For both groups, a variant of a frontal forelock-type pattern is usually the best course to follow. PMID:24017980

  1. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common baldness" usually means male-pattern baldness, or permanent-pattern baldness. It is also called androgenetic alopecia. ... will grow back normally. However, scarring can cause permanent hair loss. Hot oil hair treatments or chemicals ...

  2. The male beard hair and facial skin - challenges for shaving.

    PubMed

    Maurer, M; Rietzler, M; Burghardt, R; Siebenhaar, F

    2016-06-01

    The challenge of shaving is to cut the beard hair as closely as possible to the skin without unwanted effects on the skin. To achieve this requires the understanding of beard hair and male facial skin biology as both, the beard hair and the male facial skin, contribute to the difficulties in obtaining an effective shave without shaving-induced skin irritation. Little information is available on the biology of beard hairs and beard hair follicles. We know that, in beard hairs, the density, thickness, stiffness, as well as the rates of elliptical shape and low emerging angle, are high and highly heterogeneous. All of this makes it challenging to cut it, and shaving techniques commonly employed to overcome these challenges include shaving with increased pressure and multiple stroke shaving, which increase the probability and extent of shaving-induced skin irritation. Several features of male facial skin pose problems to a perfect shave. The male facial skin is heterogeneous in morphology and roughness, and male skin has a tendency to heal slower and to develop hyperinflammatory pigmentation. In addition, many males exhibit sensitive skin, with the face most often affected. Finally, the hair follicle is a sensory organ, and the perifollicular skin is highly responsive to external signals including mechanical and thermal stimulation. Perifollicular skin is rich in vasculature, innervation and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. This makes perifollicular skin a highly responsive and inflammatory system, especially in individuals with sensitive skin. Activation of this system, by shaving, can result in shaving-induced skin irritation. Techniques commonly employed to avoid shaving-induced skin irritation include shaving with less pressure, pre- and post-shave skin treatment and to stop shaving altogether. Recent advances in shaving technology have addressed some but not all of these issues. A better understanding of beard hairs, beard hair follicles and male

  3. Male pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss returns when you stop using this medicine. Finasteride (Propecia, Proscar), a pill that interferes with the ... stop using this medicine. Dutasteride is similar to finasteride, but may be more effective. Hair transplants consist ...

  4. Hair growth cycles and wave patterns in "nude" mice.

    PubMed

    Eaton, G J

    1976-09-01

    Hair growth cycles and waves were studied through five generations of hair growth in C57BL/6Icr "nude" mice. One group of nudes received thymus grafts, a second group was composed of athymid nudes and a third consisted of heterozygous (nu/&) haired littermates. The results showed that hair growth cycles and wave patterns were essentially the same in thymus-restored nudes and athymic nudes which indicated that thymus did not play a role in these phenomena. The time interval between hair cycles was considerably shorter in both groups of nude mice as compared to heterozygotes (nu/&). Finally, the hair growth wave pattern in nude mice did not change throughout the generation of hair growth whereas profound changes in wave patterns were observed in heterozygous (nu/&) littermates. PMID:788248

  5. Hair: what is new in diagnosis and management? Female pattern hair loss update: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women. FPHL is characterized histologically with increased numbers of miniaturized, velluslike hair follicles. The goal of treatment of FPHL is to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate hair regrowth. The treatments for FPHL can be divided into androgen-dependent and androgen-independent. There is an important adjuvant role for nutritional supplements, light therapy, and hair transplants. All treatments work best when initiated early. Combinations of treatments tend to be more efficacious. PMID:23159181

  6. Hair restoration approaches for early onset male androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Hammad A; Basra, Mohammad K A; Patel, Girish K

    2013-09-01

    Society places great emphasis on the presence of hair. Some degree of hair loss is accepted as a normal part of the aging process, in line with the observation that more than 50% of men will develop androgenetic alopecia by the age of 50 years. However, it is possible to understand the psychosocial isolation and distress felt by men with a strong familial predisposition to androgenetic alopecia, who tend to display hair loss in their late teens or twenties. There are currently two drugs which have been licensed for the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia: oral finasteride and topical minoxidil solution which are effective to some extent. Furthermore, upon discontinuing treatment, any gain that has been achieved is quickly lost. Added to which there is an entire market of unproven over the counter products: advertised in the electronic media, local hair salons, and various departmental stores. In this review, we highlight the important advances in the management of male androgenetic alopecia with emphasis on approaches that can lead to more successful and long-term hair restoration for young adults. In particular, we discuss the evidence supporting the use of the follicular unit grafting technique in conjunction with medical treatment before and after the procedure. Moreover, some other alterations of this most popular state of the art hair restoration technique have been mentioned briefly. As a result, patients and physicians seem equally satisfied from this procedure for its naturally looking results which are cosmetically more acceptable and esthetically pleasing for longer period of time. PMID:23992164

  7. “Cold” X5 Hairlaser™ used to treat male androgenic alopecia and hair growth: an uncontrolled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Various trials have been conducted on the management and treatment of androgenic alopecia (AGA) or male pattern hair loss using a variety of laser and light sources. Methods For this feasibility study, the population was composed of males between the ages of 20 and 60 years who have been experiencing active hair loss within the last 12 months and the diagnosis of AGA. They also had a Norwood-Hamilton classification of 3, 3A, 3 V, 4, 4A, or 5 for the hair thinning patterns and skin type I, II, III, or IV on the Fitzpatrick skin type scale. This two-arm randomized, parallel group study design employed stratifying randomization to balance treatment assignment within three investigational centers with at least 2 subjects enrolled in each Fitzpatrick skin type. Results A statistically significant positive trend in hair growth was observed from this pilot study, to evaluate the efficacy of the novel cold X5 hairlaser device for treating male androgenic alopecia. From the repeated measures analysis of variance, difference in mean hair counts over time was statistically significant (F = 7.70; p-value < 0.0001). Subsequent, linear regression of mean hair counts at each time point was performed, and post-hoc analysis found an increasing trend of hair growth over time that was statistically significant (p-value < 0.0001) with the estimated slope of 1.406. Increased hair counts from the baseline to the end of the 26-week period were found to be strongly significant (p-value = 0.0003). Conclusion Albeit, sham device failure and resultant missing data from the control group, the positive trend hair growth, was observed due to the chronic use of X5hairlaser device. This positive benefit while in full agreement with other low laser hair devices requires intensive further investigation. Trial registration NCT02067260 PMID:24559020

  8. Hair biology and its comprehensive sequence in female pattern baldness: diagnosis and treatment modalities--Part I.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Hair may be a source of concern for patients when there is a change in its texture, amount, or thickness. It can present in women as androgenic alopecia also called female pattern baldness, and in men as adrogenic alopecia, also called male pattern baldness. Thinning/rarefaction affecting the vertex is a progressive condition, and hair loss in women has been interpreted and classified differently from that in men. The Ludwig classification for women's hair loss seems to be the most accepted assessment, which will be outlined in this review, along with the hair growth cycle that encompasses anagen, catagen, telogen, exogen, and kenogen. PMID:23540076

  9. Regional differences in lectin binding patterns of vestibular hair cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.; Bancroft, J.

    1994-01-01

    Surface glycoconjugates of hair cells and supporting cells in the vestibular endorgans of the bullfrog were identified using biotinylated lectins with different carbohydrate specificities. Lectin binding in hair cells was consistent with the presence of glucose and mannose (CON A), galactose (RCA-I), N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA), but not fucose (UEA-I) residues. Hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus, unlike those in the utriculus and semicircular canals, did not stain for N-acetylglucosamine (WGA) or N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA). By contrast, WGA and, to a lesser extent, VVA, differentially stained utricular and semicircular canal hair cells, labeling hair cells located in peripheral, but not central, regions. In mammals, WGA uniformly labeled Type 1 hair cells while labeling, as in the bullfrog, Type 2 hair cells only in peripheral regions. These regional variations were retained after enzymatic digestion. We conclude that vestibular hair cells differ in their surface glycoconjugates and that differences in lectin binding patterns can be used to identify hair cell types and to infer the epithelial origin of isolated vestibular hair cells.

  10. Regional differences in lectin binding patterns of vestibular hair cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. A.; Schuff, N. R.; Bancroft, J.

    1993-01-01

    Surface glycoconjugates of hair cells and supporting cells in the vestibular endorgans of the bullfrog were identified using biotinylated lectins with different carbohydrate specificities. Lectin binding in hair cells was consistent with the presence of glucose and mannose (CON A), galactose (RCA-I), N-acetylglucosamine (WGA), N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA), but not fucose (UEA-I) residues. Hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus, unlike those in the utriculus and semicircular canals, did not strain for N-acetylglucosamine (WGA) or N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA). By contrast, WGA and, to a lesser extent, VVA, differentially stained utricular and semicircular canal hair cells, labeling hair cells located in peripheral, but not central, regions. In mammals, WGA uniformly labeled Type I hair cells while labeling, as in the bullfrog, Type II hair cells only in peripheral regions. These regional variations were retained after enzymatic digestion. We conclude that vestibular hair cells differ in their surface glycoconjugates and that differences in lectin binding patterns can be used to identify hair cell types and to infer the epithelial origin of isolated vestibular hair cells.

  11. The female pattern hair loss: review of etiopathogenesis and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vujovic, Anja; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common hair loss disorder in women. Initial signs may develop during teenage years leading to a progressive hair loss with a characteristic pattern distribution. The condition is characterized by progressive replacement of terminal hair follicles over the frontal and vertex regions by miniaturized follicles, that leads progressively to a visible reduction in hair density. Women diagnosed with FPHL may undergo significant impairment of quality of life. FPHL diagnosis is mostly clinical. Depending on patient history and clinical evaluation, further diagnostic testing may be useful. The purpose of the paper is to review the current knowledge about epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of FPHL. PMID:24812631

  12. The Female Pattern Hair Loss: Review of Etiopathogenesis and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Vujovic, Anja; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common hair loss disorder in women. Initial signs may develop during teenage years leading to a progressive hair loss with a characteristic pattern distribution. The condition is characterized by progressive replacement of terminal hair follicles over the frontal and vertex regions by miniaturized follicles, that leads progressively to a visible reduction in hair density. Women diagnosed with FPHL may undergo significant impairment of quality of life. FPHL diagnosis is mostly clinical. Depending on patient history and clinical evaluation, further diagnostic testing may be useful. The purpose of the paper is to review the current knowledge about epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of FPHL. PMID:24812631

  13. Subcutaneous blood flow in early male pattern baldness

    SciTech Connect

    Klemp, P.; Peters, K.; Hansted, B.

    1989-05-01

    The subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) was measured by the /sup 133/Xe washout method in the scalp of 14 patients with early male pattern baldness. Control experiments were performed in 14 normal haired men matched for age. The SBF in the scalp of the normal individuals was about 10 times higher than previously reported SBF values in other anatomical regions. In patients with early male pattern baldness, SBF was 2.6 times lower than the values found in the normal individuals (13.7 +/- 9.6 vs 35.7 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min-1). This difference was statistically significant (p much less than 0.001). A reduced nutritive blood flow to the hair follicles might be a significant event in the pathogenesis of early male pattern baldness.

  14. "I think gorilla-like back effusions of hair are rather a turn-off": 'Excessive hair' and male body hair (removal) discourse.

    PubMed

    Terry, Gareth; Braun, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Men's hair removal practices are becoming mainstream, seen as a consequence of changing masculine norms and men's relationships to their bodies. This is often presented as a straightforward 'shift' from men's ideal bodies as naturally hairy, to increased hairlessness, and the consequence on men's body concerns as inevitable. This paper analyses qualitative survey data from Aotearoa/New Zealand using critical thematic analysis, and describes three themes. Two themes capture contradictory ideas: that men's body hair is natural, and that men's body hair is unpleasant. A third theme introduces the concept of 'excess' hair, which allowed sense-making of this contradiction, mandating men's grooming of 'excessive' hair. However its vagueness as a concept may provoke anxiety for men resulting in hair removal. This paper adds to a body of research demonstrating a cultural transition: the ways changing masculinities, increased commodification of male bodies, and shifting gender roles impact on men's hair removal practices. PMID:26907912

  15. Female Pattern Hair Loss: a clinical and pathophysiological review.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paulo Müller; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Female Pattern Hair Loss or female androgenetic alopecia is the main cause of hair loss in adult women and has a major impact on patients' quality of life. It evolves from the progressive miniaturization of follicles that lead to a subsequent decrease of the hair density, leading to a non-scarring diffuse alopecia, with characteristic clinical, dermoscopic and histological patterns. In spite of the high frequency of the disease and the relevance of its psychological impact, its pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, being influenced by genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. In addition, response to treatment is variable. In this article, authors discuss the main clinical, epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of female pattern hair loss. PMID:26375223

  16. Female Pattern Hair Loss: a clinical and pathophysiological review*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Paulo Müller; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Female Pattern Hair Loss or female androgenetic alopecia is the main cause of hair loss in adult women and has a major impact on patients' quality of life. It evolves from the progressive miniaturization of follicles that lead to a subsequent decrease of the hair density, leading to a non-scarring diffuse alopecia, with characteristic clinical, dermoscopic and histological patterns. In spite of the high frequency of the disease and the relevance of its psychological impact, its pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, being influenced by genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. In addition, response to treatment is variable. In this article, authors discuss the main clinical, epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of female pattern hair loss. PMID:26375223

  17. The regulation and plasticity of root hair patterning and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Henao, Jorge E; Vélez-Bermúdez, Isabel Cristina; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Root hairs are highly specialized cells found in the epidermis of plant roots that play a key role in providing the plant with water and mineral nutrients. Root hairs have been used as a model system for understanding both cell fate determination and the morphogenetic plasticity of cell differentiation. Indeed, many studies have shown that the fate of root epidermal cells, which differentiate into either root hair or non-hair cells, is determined by a complex interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic cues that results in a predictable but highly plastic pattern of epidermal cells that can vary in shape, size and function. Here, we review these studies and discuss recent evidence suggesting that environmental information can be integrated at multiple points in the root hair morphogenetic pathway and affects multifaceted processes at the chromatin, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:27246711

  18. Module Based Complexity Formation: Periodic Patterning in Feathers and Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism's lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specified number, size, and spacing. We explore how a field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical-chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators / inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (micro-environment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macro-environment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by Cellular Automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to “organ metamorphosis”, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential evolutionary novel steps using this module based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells. PMID:23539312

  19. Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma for the Treatment of Pattern Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Singh, Babu; Goldberg, Lynne J

    2016-08-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a solution derived from whole blood that is enriched in the platelet fraction. Platelets serve as a reservoir of growth factors and cytokines. When platelets are activated in vivo, signaling molecules are released into the immediate microenvironment and activate receptors for various pathways. Historically, PRP has been applied to wound beds to promote healing of complex wounds. Over the last decade, it has served as a valuable therapeutic tool in various specialties such as maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery, orthopedics and sports medicine. Only recently has PRP been utilized for dermatologic purposes, more specifically, for the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss. In this review, we discuss molecular and cellular pathways upregulated by PRP important in hair folliculogenesis, and examine clinical evidence from all previously published studies involving the use of PRP for pattern hair loss. PMID:27234711

  20. 5% Minoxidil: treatment for female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Foley, Kelly A

    2014-01-01

    Minoxidil is a Health Canada and US FDA-approved medication for hair loss in men and women. While 5% minoxidil foam has been approved for men since 2006, Health Canada and the FDA only approved 5% minoxidil foam for female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in 2014. Recent Phase III clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of once daily 5% minoxidil foam for treatment of FPHL, where a significant change from baseline in the target area hair count was observed compared to placebo. Similar changes in hair count for 5% foam and twice daily 2% minoxidil solution established noninferiority of the 5% foam formulation. Five percent minoxidil foam provides an additional option for women with FPHL and will soon be available in Canada. PMID:25807073

  1. Hong Kong male subfertility links to mercury in human hair and fish.

    PubMed

    Dickman, M D; Leung, C K; Leong, M K

    1998-06-18

    The focus of the present study was on the relationship between Hong Kong male subfertility and fish consumption. Mercury concentrations found in the hair of 159 Hong Kong males aged 25-72 (mean age = 37 years) was positively correlated with age and was significantly higher in Hong Kong subjects than in European and Finnish subjects (1.2 and 2.1 ppm, respectively). Mercury in the hair of 117 subfertile Hong Kong males (4.5 ppm, P < 0.05) was significantly higher than mercury levels found in hair collected from 42 fertile Hong Kong males (3.9 ppm). Subfertile males had approx. 40% more mercury in their hair than fertile males of similar age. Although there were only 35 female subjects, they had significantly lower levels of hair mercury than males in similar age groups. Overall, males had mercury levels that were 60% higher than females. Hair samples collected from 16 vegetarians living in Hong Kong (vegans that had consumed no fish, shellfish or meat for at least the last 5 years) had very low levels of mercury. Their mean hair mercury concentration was only 0.38 ppm. PMID:9646524

  2. Functional conservation of a root hair cell-specific cis-element in angiosperms with different root hair distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Sang-Bong; Won, Su-Kyung; Heo, Yoon-Kyung; Cho, Misuk; Park, Youn-Il; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2006-11-01

    Vascular plants develop distinctive root hair distribution patterns in the root epidermis, depending on the taxon. The three patterns, random (Type 1), asymmetrical cell division (Type 2), and positionally cued (Type 3), are controlled by different upstream fate-determining factors that mediate expression of root hair cell-specific genes for hair morphogenesis. Here, we address whether these root hair genes possess a common transcriptional regulatory module (cis-element) determining cell-type specificity despite differences in the final root hair pattern. We identified Arabidopsis thaliana expansinA7 (At EXPA7) orthologous (and paralogous) genes from diverse angiosperm species with different hair distribution patterns. The promoters of these genes contain conserved root hair-specific cis-elements (RHEs) that were functionally verified in the Type-3 Arabidopsis root. The promoter of At EXPA7 (Type-3 pattern) also showed hair cell-specific expression in the Type 2 rice (Oryza sativa) root. Root hair-specific genes other than EXPAs also carry functionally homologous RHEs in their promoters. The RHE core consensus was established by a multiple alignment of functionally characterized RHEs from different species and by high-resolution analysis of At EXPA7 RHE1. Our results suggest that this regulatory module of root hair-specific genes has been conserved across angiosperms despite the divergence of upstream fate-determining machinery. PMID:17098810

  3. Evidence of Male Hair Pencil Pheromone in Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, Lucas E.; Silk, P.; Eveleigh, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Male Lepidoptera often possess specialized scales, called hair pencils that emit volatiles that are critical to mating success. Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), males will display hair pencils to females before attempting copulation. The importance of volatiles on these hair pencils is, however, not clear. We compared the proportion of successful copulations in unmanipulated mating pairs to pairs where males had their hair pencils either removed or chemically washed, and to pairs where females were antennectomized. Mean proportions of successful matings were significantly lower in pairs where hair pencils had been manipulated or where females had been antennectomized compared with unmanipulated mating pairs. There was no significant difference in mating success between treatments where hair pencils had been manipulated; however, mating success was significantly lower in hair pencil treatments than in antennectomized treatments. Mean copulation proportions in hair pencil/antennectomized treatments were also significantly less than in respective sham-operated treatments. Our results suggest that volatiles are associated with hair pencils, and they may be required for mating success in C. fumiferana. PMID:26945090

  4. Facial Papules in Fibrosing Alopecia in a Pattern Distribution (Cicatricial Pattern Hair Loss)

    PubMed Central

    Ramanauskaite, Ausrine; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2015-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) and fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution (FAPD) represent clinically distinctive conditions characterized by pattern hair loss with evidence of follicular inflammation and fibrosis. Since Kossard's original description, the condition has been recognized to represent a rather generalized than localized process, with extension well beyond the frontotemporal hairline. More recently, peculiar facial papules have been reported in FFA representing facial vellus hair involvement. We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with FAPD associated with the same facial papules, supporting that both entities belong to the same spectrum of cicatricial pattern hair loss. PMID:26622155

  5. Hair transplantation update.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. PMID:26176286

  6. Epidermal Patterning and Induction of Different Hair Types during Mouse Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2010-01-01

    An intriguing question is how epidermal pattern formation processes are established, and which are the molecular mechanisms involved in these events. The establishment of the pattern is concomitant with the formation of ectodermal appendages, which involves complex interactions between the epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme. Among ectodermal appendages, hair follicles are the ‘mini organs’ that produce hair shafts. Several developmental and structural features are common to all hair follicles and to the hair shaft they produce. However, many different hair types are produced in a single organism. Also, different characteristics can be observed depending on the part of the body where the hair follicle is formed. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in the patterning of different hair types during mouse embryonic development, as well as the influence of the body axes on hair patterning. PMID:19750518

  7. Epidermal patterning and induction of different hair types during mouse embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2009-09-01

    An intriguing question in developmental biology is how epidermal pattern formation processes are established and what are the molecular mechanisms involved in these events. The establishment of the pattern is concomitant with the formation of ectodermal appendages, which involves complex interactions between the epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme. Among ectodermal appendages, hair follicles are the "mini organs" that produce hair shafts. Several developmental and structural features are common to all hair follicles and to the hair shaft they produce. However, many different hair types are produced in a single organism. Also, different characteristics can be observed depending on the part of the body where the hair follicle is formed. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in the patterning of different hair types during mouse embryonic development as well as the influence of the body axes on hair patterning. PMID:19750518

  8. Treatment of female pattern hair loss with a combination of spironolactone and minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Hoedemaker, Carlijn; van Egmond, Sylvia; Sinclair, Rodney

    2007-02-01

    A 53-year-old woman with clinical evidence of female pattern hair loss and histological evidence of androgenetic alopecia was initially treated with the oral antiandrogen spironolactone 200 mg daily. Serial scalp photography documented hair regrowth at 12 months; however, the hair regrowth plateaued, and at 24 months there had been no further improvement in hair density. Twice daily therapy with topical minoxidil 5% solution was then introduced and further regrowth documented, confirming the additive effect of combination therapy. PMID:17222303

  9. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    ... as acne, deepening voice, increased muscle mass, male pattern thinning of your hair , and decreased breast size. You are concerned that medicine you are taking may be increasing the growth of unwanted hair.

  10. Promotive Effect of Topical Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on Hair Growth in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aldhalimi, Muhsin A.; Hadi, Najah R.; Ghafil, Fadaa A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is a vasodilatory medication used primarily as antihypertensive drug. It was discovered to have the side effect of hair growth and reversing baldness. Tretinoin is commonly used topically for acne treatment and in the treatment of photoaging. It is used by some as hair loss treatment. Objective. To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on hair growth in a mouse model. Materials and Methods. Coat hairs on the dorsal skin of seven weeks old male mice were gently clipped and then stained by using commercial dye. These mice were divided into four groups each of five treated with topical application of ethanol 95%, Ketoconazole solution 2%, Minoxidil solution 5%, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin solution 0.1%, respectively. The drugs were applied once daily for three weeks, the clipped area was photographed, and the ratio of regrown coat area was calculated. Results. The results demonstrated that Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin had a significant stimulatory effect on hair growth compared with the control group and Minoxidil was the most effective drug among them. PMID:24734193

  11. Promotive effect of topical ketoconazole, minoxidil, and minoxidil with tretinoin on hair growth in male mice.

    PubMed

    Aldhalimi, Muhsin A; Hadi, Najah R; Ghafil, Fadaa A

    2014-01-01

    Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is a vasodilatory medication used primarily as antihypertensive drug. It was discovered to have the side effect of hair growth and reversing baldness. Tretinoin is commonly used topically for acne treatment and in the treatment of photoaging. It is used by some as hair loss treatment. Objective. To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on hair growth in a mouse model. Materials and Methods. Coat hairs on the dorsal skin of seven weeks old male mice were gently clipped and then stained by using commercial dye. These mice were divided into four groups each of five treated with topical application of ethanol 95%, Ketoconazole solution 2%, Minoxidil solution 5%, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin solution 0.1%, respectively. The drugs were applied once daily for three weeks, the clipped area was photographed, and the ratio of regrown coat area was calculated. Results. The results demonstrated that Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin had a significant stimulatory effect on hair growth compared with the control group and Minoxidil was the most effective drug among them. PMID:24734193

  12. Hair follicles are viable after delayed FUE procedure.

    PubMed

    Mohebbipour Laran, Alireza; Mirmohammadi, Ramin; Rezaei Bana, Mohammadreza; Manoochehri, Shaghayegh

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, male pattern hair loss is usually managed with hair transplant. However, maintaining the hair follicle viability between extraction and implantation period is a great concern which restricts the hair transplantation period. However, it is possible that the hair follicles can be preserved and be viable for few days. Here, we report a case with delayed follicular unit extraction in three consecutive days with acceptable hair growth after a 5-month follow-up. PMID:25968165

  13. Searching for a major locus for male pattern baldness (MPB)

    SciTech Connect

    Anker, R.; Eisen, A.Z.; Donis-Keller, H.

    1994-09-01

    Male pattern baldness (MPB) is a common trait in post-pubertal males. Approximately 50% of adult males present some degree of MPB by age 50. According to the classification provided by Hamilton in 1951 and modified by Norwood in 1975, the trait itself is a continuum that ranges from mild (Type I) to severe (Type VII) cases. In addition, there is extensive variability for the age of onset. The role of androgens in allowing the expression of this trait in males has been well established. This phenotype is uncommonly expressed in females. The high prevalence of the trait, the distribution of MPB as a continuous trait, and several non-allelic mutations identified in the mouse capable of affecting hair pattern, suggest that MPB is genetically heterogeneous. In order to reduce the probability of multiple non-allelic MPB genes within a pedigree, we selected 9 families in which MPB appears to segregate exclusively through the paternal lineage as compared to bilineal pedigrees. There are 32 males expressing this phenotype and females are treated as phenotype unknown. In general, affected individuals expressed the trait before 30 years of age with a severity of at least Type III or IV. We assumed an autosomal dominant model, with a gene frequency of 1/20 for the affected allele, and 90% penetrance. Simulation studies using the SLINK program with these pedigrees showed that these families would be sufficient to detect linkage under the assumption of a single major locus. If heterogeneity is present, the current resource does not have sufficient power to detect linkage at a statistically significant level, although candidate regions of the genome could be identified for further studies with additional pedigrees. Using 53 highly informative microsatellite markers, and a subset of 7 families, we have screened 30% of the genome. This search included several regions where candidate genes for MPB are located.

  14. Doppler laser imaging predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    McCoy, J; Kovacevic, M; Situm, M; Stanimirovic, A; Bolanca, Z; Goren, A

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only drug approved by the US FDA for the treatment of female pattern hair loss. Unfortunately, following 16 weeks of daily application, less than 40% of patients regrow hair. Several studies have demonstrated that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts topical minoxidil response in female pattern hair loss patients. However, due to patients’ discomfort with the procedure, and the time required to perform the enzymatic assay it would be ideal to develop a rapid, non-invasive test for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Minoxidil is a pro-drug converted to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by sulfotransferase enzymes in the outer root sheath of hair. Minoxidil sulfate is the active form required for both the promotion of hair regrowth and the vasodilatory effects of minoxidil. We thus hypothesized that laser Doppler velocimetry measurement of scalp blood perfusion subsequent to the application of topical minoxidil would correlate with sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles. In this study, plucked hair follicles from female pattern hair loss patients were analyzed for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Additionally, laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the change in scalp perfusion at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, after the application of minoxidil. In agreement with our hypothesis, we discovered a correlation (r=1.0) between the change in scalp perfusion within 60 minutes after topical minoxidil application and sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hairs. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of using laser Doppler imaging as a rapid, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict topical minoxidil response in the treatment of female pattern hair loss. PMID:27049083

  15. Patterns of light interference produced by damaged cuticle cells in human hair.

    PubMed

    Gamez-Garcia, Manuel; Lu, Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Colorful patterns of light interference have been observed to occur in human hair cuticle cells. The light interference phenomenon has been analyzed by optical microscopy. The strong patterns of light interference appeared only in cuticle cells that had been damaged either mechanically or by thermal stresses. Cuticle cells that were not damaged did not produce this phenomenon. The zones of light interference on the hair surface were seen to extend to cuticle sheath areas whose damage was not apparent when analyzed under the Scanning Electron Microscope. The presence of oils and other hydrophobic materials in the hair had a strong effect in the appearance or disappearance of the interference patterns. PMID:17728927

  16. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

  17. Module-based complexity formation: periodic patterning in feathers and hairs.

    PubMed

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism’s lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specific number, size, and spacing.We explorehowa field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical–chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators/inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (microenvironment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macroenvironment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by cellular automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to ‘organ metamorphosis’, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential novel evolutionary steps using this module-based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells. PMID:23539312

  18. The Effect of Autologous Activated Platelet Rich Plasma (AA-PRP) Injection on Pattern Hair Loss: Clinical and Histomorphometric Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cervelli, V.; Garcovich, S.; Bielli, A.; Cervelli, G.; Curcio, B. C.; Scioli, M. G.; Orlandi, A.; Gentile, P.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of AA-PRP injections for pattern hair loss. AA-PRP, prepared from a small volume of blood, was injected on half of the selected patients' scalps with pattern hair loss. The other half was treated with placebo. Three treatments were given for each patient, with intervals of 1 month. The endpoints were hair re-growth, hair dystrophy as measured by dermoscopy, burning or itching sensation, and cell proliferation as measured by Ki-67 evaluation. At the end of the 3 cycles of treatment, the patients presented clinical improvement in the mean number of hairs, with a mean increase of 18.0 hairs in the target area, and a mean increase in total hair density of 27.7 ( number of hairs/cm2) compared with baseline values. Microscopic evaluation showed the increase of epidermis thickness and of the number of hair follicles two weeks after the last AA-PRP treatment compared to baseline value (P < 0.05). We also observed an increase of Ki67+ keratinocytes of epidermis and of hair follicular bulge cells and a slight increase of small blood vessels around hair follicles in the treated skin compared to baseline (P < 0.05). PMID:24883322

  19. Underwater attachment using hairs: the functioning of spatula and sucker setae from male diving beetles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Shih, Ming-Chih; Wu, Ming-Huang; Yang, En-Cheng; Chi, Kai-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Males of Dytiscinae beetles use specialized adhesive setae to adhere to female elytra during underwater courtship. This coevolution of male setae and female elytra has attracted much attention since Darwin. However, there has been little examination of their biomechanical functioning despite increasing knowledge on biofibrillar adhesion. Here, we report and compare, for the first time, the mechanisms of underwater attachment using two hair types, the primitive spatula and derived ‘passive’ sucker, found in male diving beetles. Results from interspecific scaling of protarsal palettes and adhesion by single seta suggest better performance in the later-evolved circular (sucker) setae. Spatula setae with a modified shallow sucker and channels use the combined mechanisms of suction and viscous resistance for adhesion. Velocity-dependent adhesion provides sufficient control for resisting the female's erratic movements while also detaching easily through slow peeling. Direction-dependent shear resistance helps reorient setae surfaces into a preferred direction for effective adhesion. Seta deformation using different mechanisms for circular and spatula setae reduces the force that is transmitted to the contact interface. A softer spring in spatula setae explains their adhesion at lower preloads and assists in complete substrate contact. Attachment mechanisms revealed in adhesive setae with modified spatula and passive suckers provide insights for bioinspired designs of underwater attachment devices. PMID:24920108

  20. Underwater attachment using hairs: the functioning of spatula and sucker setae from male diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Shih, Ming-Chih; Wu, Ming-Huang; Yang, En-Cheng; Chi, Kai-Jung

    2014-08-01

    Males of Dytiscinae beetles use specialized adhesive setae to adhere to female elytra during underwater courtship. This coevolution of male setae and female elytra has attracted much attention since Darwin. However, there has been little examination of their biomechanical functioning despite increasing knowledge on biofibrillar adhesion. Here, we report and compare, for the first time, the mechanisms of underwater attachment using two hair types, the primitive spatula and derived 'passive' sucker, found in male diving beetles. Results from interspecific scaling of protarsal palettes and adhesion by single seta suggest better performance in the later-evolved circular (sucker) setae. Spatula setae with a modified shallow sucker and channels use the combined mechanisms of suction and viscous resistance for adhesion. Velocity-dependent adhesion provides sufficient control for resisting the female's erratic movements while also detaching easily through slow peeling. Direction-dependent shear resistance helps reorient setae surfaces into a preferred direction for effective adhesion. Seta deformation using different mechanisms for circular and spatula setae reduces the force that is transmitted to the contact interface. A softer spring in spatula setae explains their adhesion at lower preloads and assists in complete substrate contact. Attachment mechanisms revealed in adhesive setae with modified spatula and passive suckers provide insights for bioinspired designs of underwater attachment devices. PMID:24920108

  1. Therapeutic efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma and polydeoxyribonucleotide on female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si-Hyung; Zheng, Zhenlong; Kang, Jin-Soo; Kim, Do-Young; Oh, Sang Ho; Cho, Sung Bin

    2015-01-01

    Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) exerts positive therapeutic effects on hair thickness and density in patients with pattern hair loss. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-perifollicular autologous PRP and polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) injections in treating female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Twenty FPHL patients were treated with a single session of PRP injection, followed by 12 sessions of PDRN intra-perifollicular injection, along the scalp at weekly intervals. Additionally, another 20 FPHL patients were treated with 12 sessions of PDRN injection only. Meanwhile, one half of the backs of two rabbits was injected with the PRP preparation, while the other half was injected with phosphate buffered saline as a control. Tissue samples from the rabbits were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Compared with baseline values, patients treated with PRP and PDRN injections exhibited clinical improvement in mean hair counts (23.2 ± 15.5%; p < 0.001) and mean hair thickness (16.8 ± 10.8%; p < 0.001). In addition, patients treated with the 12 sessions of intra-perifollicular PDRN injection alone also showed clinical improvement in mean hair counts (17.9 ± 13.2%; p < 0.001) and mean hair thickness (13.5 ± 10.7%; p < 0.001). Comparison analyses between the two groups revealed that combined therapy with PRP and PDRN induces greater improvement in hair thickness than treatment with PDRN therapy alone (p = 0.031), but not in hair counts (p > 0.05). The pilot animal study revealed significant up-regulation of WNT, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor expression in rabbit skin treated with the PRP preparation, compared with control skin. In conclusion, intra-perifollicular injections of autologous PRP and/or PDRN generate improvements in hair thickness and density in FPHL patients. PMID:25524027

  2. MicroRNAs take part in pathophysiology and pathogenesis of Male Pattern Baldness.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Hamed R; Abbasi, Ali; Saffari, Mojtaba; Tabei, Mohammad B; Noori Daloii, Mohammad R

    2010-07-01

    Male Pattern Baldness (MPB) or androgenetic alopecia is a common form of hair loss with androgens and genetics having etiological significance. Androgens are thought to pathophysiologically power on cascades of chronically dramatic alterations in genetically susceptible scalp dermal papillas, specialized cells in hair follicles in which androgens react, and finally resulting in a patterned alopecia. However, the exact mechanisms through which androgens, positive regulators of growth and anabolism in most body sites, paradoxically exert their effects on balding hair follicles, are not yet known. The role of microRNAs, a recently discovered class of non-coding RNAs, with a wide range of regulatory functions, has been documented in hair follicle formation and their deregulation in cancer of prostate, a target organ of androgens has also been delineated. Yet, there is a lack of knowledge in agreement with microRNAs' contribution in pathophysiology of MPB. To investigate the role of microRNAs in pathogenesis of MPB, we selected seven microRNAs, predicted bioinformatically on a reverse engineering basis, from previously published microarray gene expression data and analyzed their expression in balding relative to non-balding dermal papillas. We found for the first time upregulation of four microRNAs (miR-221, miR-125b, miR-106b and miR-410) that could participate in pathogenesis of MPB. Regarding microRNAs' therapeutic potential and accessibility of hair follicles for gene therapy, these microRNAs can be considered as good candidates for a new revolutionized generation of treatments. PMID:19821055

  3. Negative frequency-dependent preferences and variation in male facial hair

    PubMed Central

    Janif, Zinnia J.; Brooks, Robert C.; Dixson, Barnaby J.

    2014-01-01

    Negative frequency-dependent sexual selection maintains striking polymorphisms in secondary sexual traits in several animal species. Here, we test whether frequency of beardedness modulates perceived attractiveness of men's facial hair, a secondary sexual trait subject to considerable cultural variation. We first showed participants a suite of faces, within which we manipulated the frequency of beard thicknesses and then measured preferences for four standard levels of beardedness. Women and men judged heavy stubble and full beards more attractive when presented in treatments where beards were rare than when they were common, with intermediate preferences when intermediate frequencies of beardedness were presented. Likewise, clean-shaven faces were least attractive when clean-shaven faces were most common and more attractive when rare. This pattern in preferences is consistent with negative frequency-dependent selection. PMID:24740903

  4. Negative frequency-dependent preferences and variation in male facial hair.

    PubMed

    Janif, Zinnia J; Brooks, Robert C; Dixson, Barnaby J

    2014-01-01

    Negative frequency-dependent sexual selection maintains striking polymorphisms in secondary sexual traits in several animal species. Here, we test whether frequency of beardedness modulates perceived attractiveness of men's facial hair, a secondary sexual trait subject to considerable cultural variation. We first showed participants a suite of faces, within which we manipulated the frequency of beard thicknesses and then measured preferences for four standard levels of beardedness. Women and men judged heavy stubble and full beards more attractive when presented in treatments where beards were rare than when they were common, with intermediate preferences when intermediate frequencies of beardedness were presented. Likewise, clean-shaven faces were least attractive when clean-shaven faces were most common and more attractive when rare. This pattern in preferences is consistent with negative frequency-dependent selection. PMID:24740903

  5. Hair transplantation update: procedural techniques, innovations, and applications.

    PubMed

    Bunagan, M J Kristine; Banka, Nusrat; Shapiro, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    The advances in hair transplantation, particularly the advent of follicular unit transplantation, have greatly elevated the outcome of this procedure. Various modifications to the basic technique as well as innovations focused on the different aspects of the hair transplantation procedure have further enhanced this type of hair restoration surgery. In addition, there is ongoing expansion of the indications and applications of this procedure beyond the usual male pattern hair loss. PMID:23159183

  6. Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

    2008-08-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil 2% Solution in Combination With a Botanical Hair Solution in Women With Female Pattern Hair Loss/Androgenic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Amy; Pham, Hanh; von Grote, Erika; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-04-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), also known as female androgenic alopecia, affects over 21 million women in the United States with devastating effects on self-esteem and psychosocial functioning. Topical minoxidil 2% and 5% formulations are the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for FPHL. The length of time it typically takes to observe the benefits is a challenge for many patients, and may affect adherence to treatment. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 2% minoxidil solution used in combination with the botanical hair solution for 12 weeks in 54 subjects was evaluated in a multicenter, single-arm, open-label study. Assessments included investigator and subject ratings of improvement and subject satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in hair growth and overall treatment benefits in as early as 6 weeks (P<.001). Subject self-ratings indicated significant satisfaction with hair volume and quality improvement at week 6 (P<.001). Subjects also indicated an increase in self-confidence and attractiveness at week 12 (P<.001). The investigator and subject-assessed efficacy and subject satisfaction with this regimen provides clinicians with an effective treatment option for FPHL that also provides a high level of patient acceptance, which ultimately may help promote minoxidil treatment adherence. PMID:27050694

  8. Female-pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the ...

  9. Female-pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the normal ...

  10. Insulin resistance due to dietary iron overload disrupts inner hair cell ribbon synapse plasticity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Hao, Shuai; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Wenyue; Yang, Jun; Chen, Jie

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate whether cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) ribbon synapse plasticity would be interrupted by insulin resistance (IR) due to dietary iron overload, we established an IR model in C57Bl/6 male mice with an iron-enriched diet for 16 weeks. Glucose levels were measured at weeks 4, 8, 12, 16. Glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed at week 16 after overnight fasting. Then, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) measurements were performed for hearing threshold shifts. After ABR measurements, cochleae were harvested for assessment of the number of IHC ribbon synapses by immunostaining, the morphology of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) by transmission electron microscopy or immunostaining. Here, we show that IR due to dietary iron overload decreased the number of ribbon synapses, and induced moderate ABR threshold elevations. Besides, additional components including outer hair cells (OHCs), IHCs, and SGNs were unaffected. Moreover, IR did not disrupt the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3), myosin VIIa and prestin in hair cells. These results indicate that IHC ribbon synapses may be more susceptible to IR due to dietary iron overload. PMID:25956034

  11. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates hair cell planar polarity and cellular patterning in the developing cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Kirjavainen, Anna; Laos, Maarja; Anttonen, Tommi; Pirvola, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells of the organ of Corti (OC) of the cochlea exhibit distinct planar polarity, both at the tissue and cellular level. Planar polarity at tissue level is manifested as uniform orientation of the hair cell stereociliary bundles. Hair cell intrinsic polarity is defined as structural hair bundle asymmetry; positioning of the kinocilium/basal body complex at the vertex of the V-shaped bundle. Consistent with strong apical polarity, the hair cell apex displays prominent actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and polarization of various cell types, and, thus, serves as a candidate regulator of hair cell polarity. We have here induced Cdc42 inactivation in the late-embryonic OC. We show the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of planar polarity of hair cells and in cellular patterning. Abnormal planar polarity was displayed as disturbances in hair bundle orientation and morphology and in kinocilium/basal body positioning. These defects were accompanied by a disorganized cell-surface microtubule network. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a putative Cdc42 effector, colocalized with Cdc42 at the hair cell apex, and aPKC expression was altered upon Cdc42 depletion. Our data suggest that Cdc42 together with aPKC is part of the machinery establishing hair cell planar polarity and that Cdc42 acts on polarity through the cell-surface microtubule network. The data also suggest that defects in apical polarization are influenced by disturbed cellular patterning in the OC. In addition, our data demonstrates that Cdc42 is required for stereociliogenesis in the immature cochlea. PMID:25770185

  12. Spatiotemporal pattern of action potential firing in developing inner hair cells of the mouse cochlea.

    PubMed

    Sendin, Gaston; Bourien, Jérôme; Rassendren, François; Puel, Jean-Luc; Nouvian, Régis

    2014-02-01

    Inner hair cells (IHCs) are the primary transducer for sound encoding in the cochlea. In contrast to the graded receptor potential of adult IHCs, immature hair cells fire spontaneous calcium action potentials during the first postnatal week. This spiking activity has been proposed to shape the tonotopic map along the ascending auditory pathway. Using perforated patch-clamp recordings, we show that developing IHCs fire spontaneous bursts of action potentials and that this pattern is indistinguishable along the basoapical gradient of the developing cochlea. In both apical and basal IHCs, the spiking behavior undergoes developmental changes, where the bursts of action potential tend to occur at a regular time interval and have a similar length toward the end of the first postnatal week. Although disruption of purinergic signaling does not interfere with the action potential firing pattern, pharmacological ablation of the α9α10 nicotinic receptor elicits an increase in the discharge rate. We therefore suggest that in addition to carrying place information to the ascending auditory nuclei, the IHCs firing pattern controlled by the α9α10 receptor conveys a temporal signature of the cochlear development. PMID:24429348

  13. Serum Vitamin D3 Level in Patients with Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Meibodi, Naser Tayyebi; Jarahi, Lida; Dolatkhah, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women, characterized by diffuse nonscarring hair loss in frontal, central, and parietal areas of the scalp. Pathophysiology of FPHL is still not well known, and it is probably a multifactorial genetic trait. FPHL is also observed in women without increased androgen levels, which raises the likelihood of androgen-independent mechanisms and explains the lack of response to antiandrogen treatments in some patients. Vitamin D is a factor that has recently been considered in dealing with these patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of Vitamin D in patients with FPHL and compare it with healthy controls. Methods: In this case-control study, 45 women with FPHL were evaluated as well as the same number of healthy women matched for age, hours spent under sunlight per day, and body mass index. Serum 25(OH) D3 level was measured using ELISA. Results: 60% of FPHL patients were in 15–30 years old age group with the mean standard deviation (SD) age of 29.11 (7.30) years. In the majority of patients (66.7%), severity of hair loss was Ludwig I. Mean (SD) serum Vitamin D3 level in patient and control group was 13.45 (8.40) and 17.16 (8.96), respectively. T-test showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of Vitamin D3 serum levels (P = 0.04). Conclusions: This study indicated the correlation between the incidence of FPHL and decreased serum levels of Vitamin D3. It is recommended to evaluate serum Vitamin D3 levels as well as other hormone assays in these patients. PMID:27625563

  14. High-resolution computational imaging of leaf hair patterning using polarized light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Marcelo; Campbell, Jeffrey; Siegal-Gaskins, Dan; Engelmeier, Jacob; Wilson, Tyler; Fernandez, Virginia; Brkljacic, Jelena; Grotewold, Erich

    2013-02-01

    The leaf hairs (trichomes) on the aerial surface of many plant species play important roles in phytochemical production and herbivore protection, and have significant applications in the chemical and agricultural industries. Trichome formation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana also presents a tractable experimental system to study cell differentiation and pattern formation in plants and animals. Studies of this developmental process suggest that trichome positioning may be the result of a self-forming pattern, emerging from a lateral inhibition mechanism determined by a network of regulatory factors. Critical to the continued success of these studies is the ability to quantitatively characterize trichome pattern phenotypes in response to mutations in the genes that regulate this process. Advanced protocols for the observation of changes in trichome patterns can be expensive and/or time consuming, and lack user-friendly analysis tools. In order to address some of these challenges, we describe here a strategy based on polarized light microscopy for the quick and accurate measurement of trichome positions, and provide an online tool designed for the quantitative analyses of trichome number, density and patterning. PMID:23163919

  15. Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Siah, Tee Wei; Muir-Green, Llorenia; Shapiro, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a very common problem in women. The underlying pathophysiology remains unclear, and there are no universally agreed treatment guidelines. Objective: We explored the clinical features, relevant medical and family history, laboratory evaluation, and treatment and compliance of 210 patients with FPHL. Methods: Data analysis from case notes was performed on 210 patients with a diagnosis of FPHL seen from January 2011 to December 2011. Results: The youngest individual was 8 years old and the oldest was 86 years old. Nearly, 85% of the patients had a family history of androgenetic alopecia. Hypothyroidism and hypertension are the most common medical problems. Telogen effluvium (TE) is the most common concurrent hair loss condition. Only 38% of the patients were found to have normal Vitamin D level, 71% had ferritin level above 30 μg/L, and 85% had normal zinc level at the first consultation. Fifty-nine percent of the patients failed to attend any follow-up appointments. Limitations: One of the limitations of this study is its retrospective nature. Moreover, the severity of FPHL in terms of Ludwig score was not routinely documented in the medical charts. Conclusion: History of TE, hypothyroidism and hypertension, and low serum Vitamin D is common in our patients with FPHL. PMID:27601857

  16. Male tawny dragons use throat patterns to recognize rivals.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Louise; Umbers, Kate D L; Backwell, Patricia R Y; Keogh, J Scott

    2012-10-01

    The ability to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is important for many animals, especially territorial species since it allows them to avoid unnecessary interactions with individuals that pose little threat. There are very few studies, however, that identify the proximate cues that facilitate such recognition in visual systems. Here, we show that in tawny dragons (Ctenophorus decresii), males can recognize familiar and unfamiliar conspecific males based on morphological features alone, without the aid of chemical or behavioural cues. We further show that it is the colour pattern of the throat patches (gular) that facilitates this recognition. PMID:22990636

  17. Hair distribution on the phalanges of the hands in Malays.

    PubMed

    Dharap, A S; Varma, S L; Chary, T V

    1994-12-01

    618 Malay subjects were selected randomly to find out the frequency and patterns of hair distribution on the phalanges of their hands. Hair on the proximal phalanx was absent in 2% of the males and in 3.3% of the females. The middle phalangeal hair (MPH) was absent in 78% of the females and in 64.9% of the males. The frequency in order of MPH was found to be 4 > 3 > 5 > 2. Fifteen patterns of hair distribution on the phalanges of the hand were found. Such a large number of patterns has not been reported yet. No subject had hair on the distal phalanges. These observations when compared with earlier studies show that the Malays are similar to other Asiatic populations such as the Japanese and Nepalis. PMID:7840537

  18. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

  19. Non-Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Root Hair Patterning Genes by WRKY75 in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Rishmawi, Louai; Pesch, Martina; Juengst, Christian; Schauss, Astrid C.; Schrader, Andrea; Hülskamp, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), root hairs are formed in cell files over the cleft of underlying cortex cells. This pattern is established by a well-known gene regulatory network of transcription factors. In this study, we show that WRKY75 suppresses root hair development in nonroot hair files and that it represses the expression of TRIPTYCHON and CAPRICE. The WRKY75 protein binds to the CAPRICE promoter in a yeast one-hybrid assay. Binding to the promoter fragment requires an intact WRKY protein-binding motif, the W box. A comparison of the spatial expression of WRKY75 and the localization of the WRKY75 protein revealed that WRKY75 is expressed in the pericycle and vascular tissue and that the WRKY75 RNA or protein moves into the epidermis. PMID:24676857

  20. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta; Pärt, Peter; Navarro, Carmen; Gómez, Silvia; Rosado, Montserrat; López, Ana; López, Estrella; Exley, Karen; Schindler, Birgit K; Govarts, Eva; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Koch, Holger; Angerer, Jürgen; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Sepai, Ovnair; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Aerts, Dominique; Joas, Anke; Biot, Pierre; Joas, Reinhard; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A; Diaz, Gema; Pirard, Catherine; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Cerna, Milena; Gutleb, Arno C; Ligocka, Danuta; Reis, Fátima M; Berglund, Marika; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Halzlová, Katarína; Charlier, Corinne; Cullen, Elizabeth; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krsková, Andrea; Jensen, Janne F; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Schwedler, Gerda; Wilhelm, Michael; Rudnai, Peter; Középesy, Szilvia; Davidson, Fred; Fischer, Mark E; Janasik, Beata; Namorado, Sónia; Gurzau, Anca E; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Lavranos, Giagkos; Posada, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential neurodevelopmental effects of early life exposure to low-levels of MeHg. Therefore, it is important that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis. Parallel, harmonized questionnaires on dietary habits provided information on consumption patterns of fish and marine products. After hierarchical cluster analysis of consumption habits of the mother-child pairs, the DEMOCOPHES cohort can be classified into two branches of approximately similar size: one with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia the situation is the opposite, with more representatives in L than H. There is a strong correlation (r=0.72) in hair mercury concentration between the mother and child in the same family, which indicates that they have a similar exposure situation. The clustering of mother-child pairs on basis of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify exposure to mercury from seafood products, in particular. The cluster analysis also showed that 95% of mothers who consume once per week fish only, and no other marine products

  1. Latino Male Ethnic Subgroups: Patterns in College Enrollment and Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponjuan, Luis; Palomin, Leticia; Calise, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Latino male ethnic subgroups and their college enrollment and degree completion patterns. The chapter also offers recommendations to improve Latino male ethnic subgroups' educational achievement.

  2. Hitchhiking women's hair color.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Lamy, Lubomir

    2009-12-01

    To test the effect of women's hair color on the frequency of offering help, male (n = 1,508) and female (n = 892) French motorists were tested in a hitchhiking situation. Five 20- to 22- yr.-old female confederates wore a wig with blonde, brown, or black hair. Each confederate was instructed to stand by the side of a road frequented by hitchhikers and hold out her thumb to catch a ride. Blonde hair, compared with brown hair or black hair, was associated with a small but significantly larger number of male drivers who stopped to offer a ride (18 vs 14%). No difference was found for those with brown and black hair (14 and 13%, respectively). No effect of hair color was found for female drivers who stopped. The greater attractiveness associated with blonde hair for women appears to explain these data. PMID:20178293

  3. Female Pattern Alopecia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cyproterone acetate (not available in the US). Finasteride, also an oral medication, is approved for male ... show no effect for female pattern hair loss. Finasteride, spironolactone, and cyproterone should not be used in ...

  4. The use of low-level light therapy in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Daigle, Deanne

    2014-04-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) or female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common form of hair loss in men and women. Despite its common occurrence, our understanding of the etiology of AGA and FPHL remains incomplete. As such, traditional therapies demonstrate modest efficacies and new therapies continue to be sought. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is a relatively new technique used to promote hair growth in both men and women with AGA and FPHL. Currently, there exist several LLLT devices marketed for the treatment of alopecia, which claim to stimulate hair growth; yet marketing these devices only requires that safety, not efficacy, be established. A handful of studies have since investigated the efficacy of LLLT for alopecia with mixed results. These studies suffered from power, confounding and analysis issues which resulted in a high risk of bias in LLLT studies. Due to the paucity of well-conducted randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of LLLT devices remains unclear. Randomized controlled trials of LLLT conducted and reported according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement would greatly increase the credibility of the evidence and clarify the ambiguity of the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of AGA and FPHL. PMID:23924031

  5. A Nonrandomized Study of Trichoscopy Patterns Using Nonpolarized (Contact) and Polarized (Noncontact) Dermatoscopy in Hair and Shaft Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nikam, Vivek V; Mehta, Hita H

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to study the trichoscopy features of selected hair and scalp conditions by two dermoscopic devices with different modes that is, polarized (noncontact) and nonpolarized (contact) mode. Materials And Methods: The present study included 11 clinical varieties of cases with total 112 patients, attending Sir Takhtasinh Hospital, Bhavnagar in the last 2 years. The clinical history was recorded for each case, and images were taken in both the Heine and DermLite II pro dermatoscope. We used polarized mode of the noncontact device (DermLite II) and the nonpolarized mode of the contact device (Heine) for our study. Statistical Analysis Used: Fisher's exact test to study dermoscopic observations for each mode. Results: We observed different nonscarring alopecia cases such as alopecia areata, androgenetic alopecia, trichotillomania, and tinea capitis. Scarring alopecia included discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, pseudopelade of Brocq, systemic lupus erythematosus. Scaling disorders included the psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. Furthermore, infestations like pediculosis capitis were included in the study. Various features were divided into follicular, interfollicular, pigmentary, vascular and hair shaft patterns. Each of the features was correlated in both the Heine (nonpolarized) and DermLite II (polarized) dermoscope, and observational finding was put forward accordingly. Conclusions: Various variations were observed in the documentation of dermoscopic patterns of the two dermatoscopes with certain features such as vascular patterns, scaling, and reticular pigmentation being better appreciated in polarized mode, while certain features were better documented in nonpolarized mode that is, black dots and tapered hair. PMID:25191038

  6. Consumption of hair dye products by the French women population: Usage pattern and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; Houssin, A; Ficheux, A S; Wesolek, N; Nedelec, A S; Bourgeois, P; Hornez, N; Batardière, A; Misery, L; Roudot, A C

    2016-02-01

    Only few published data are available in the literature about consumption and exposure, for hair dye products. The aim of this study was to assess the use of 10 different hair dye products in French Women with a focus on consumption of hair dye in different places of use (at home and at the hairdressers) in order to assess the corresponding dermal exposures. The assessment was performed on a total of 4237 women older than 15 years old, thanks to three national web surveys. The percentage of hair dye users among the French women population was about 64%.The mean frequency of use ranged between 2.23 and 14.22 times per year depending on the studied product and age category of women. This study provided the first data available for exposure to hair dye products with mean exposures ranging between 1.48 and 6.49 mg/kg bw/day depending on the product studied and age category of women. Moreover, consumption data obtained in this study might be useful to perform safety assessment of hair dye products thanks to the knowledge of the age categories of the population having the highest percentage of users and/or frequency of use. PMID:26763610

  7. Segmental hair analysis for 11-nor-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and the patterns of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2012-04-01

    Cannabis is the most widely abused drug in the world. The purpose of this study is to detect 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in segmental hair and to evaluate the patterns of cannabis use. We investigated the relationship between the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair and the self-reported use data and the route of administration. For this purpose, the hair samples were washed, digested with 1 mL of 1 M NaOH at 85°C for 30 min along with the internal standard, THCCOOH-d₃ (2.5 pg/mg) and extracted in 2 mL of n-hexane-ethyl acetate (9:1) twice after adding 1 mL of 0.1N sodium acetate buffer (pH = 4.5) and 200 µL of acetic acid. The organic extract was transferred and evaporated and the mixture was derivatized with 50 µL of pentafluoropropionic anhydride and 25 µL of pentafluoropropanol for 30 min at 70°C. Reconstituted final extract was injected into the gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer operating in the negative chemical ionization mode. In segmental hair analysis, the concentrations of THCCOOH decreased from the proximal to distal segments. The concentrations of THCCOOH in hair and the self-reported dose and frequency of administration from cannabis users were not well correlated because of the low accuracy and reliability of the self-reported data. However, this study provides preliminary information on the dose and frequency of administration among cannabis users in our country. PMID:22417835

  8. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  9. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  10. Platycarya strobilacea S. et Z. Extract Has a High Antioxidant Capacity and Exhibits Hair Growth-promoting Effects in Male C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Jin; Choi, Joo Yeon; Park, Byung Cheol; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Platycarya strobilacea S. et Z. (PSE) extract on mouse hair growth and to determine the mechanism of action of PSE. PSE was purchased and its antioxidant activities, such as electron donating ability, total polyphenol content, and flavonoid content were tested. Toxicity during topical treatment was determined by the CCK-8 assay, a cell viability test. Fifteen 4-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to receive one of three treatments: dimethyl sulfoxide (negative control), minoxidil (positive control) or PSE. Test materials were topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of each mouse daily for 3 weeks. After 21 days, we observed skin tissue hair follicle morphology and length, mast cell number, and stem cell factor (SCF) expression using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), toluidine blue, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of cytokines involved in hair growth [i.e., insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1] was determined by PCR. PSE was found to have very high antioxidant activity. The cell viability rate of PSE-treated mice was markedly higher than that of mice in the control group. We also observed an increase in hair follicle length, strong SCF staining, and a decrease in mast cell number in the PSE group. In addition, PSE-treated mice had higher IGF-1 and KGF expression and lower TGF-β1 expression than mice in the minoxidil-treated group. These results suggest that topical application of PSE promotes hair growth by intensifying SCF, suppressing mast cell production, and increasing hair growth-promoting cytokine expression. PMID:25320710

  11. Prediction of male-pattern baldness from genotypes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fan; Hamer, Merel A; Heilmann, Stefanie; Herold, Christine; Moebus, Susanne; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Nöthen, Markus M; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Nijsten, Tamar Ec; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    The global demand for products that effectively prevent the development of male-pattern baldness (MPB) has drastically increased. However, there is currently no established genetic model for the estimation of MPB risk. We conducted a prediction analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from previous GWASs of MPB in a total of 2725 German and Dutch males. A logistic regression model considering the genotypes of 25 SNPs from 12 genomic loci demonstrates that early-onset MPB risk is predictable at an accuracy level of 0.74 when 14 SNPs were included in the model, and measured using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC). Considering age as an additional predictor, the model can predict normal MPB status in middle-aged and elderly individuals at a slightly lower accuracy (AUC 0.69-0.71) when 6-11 SNPs were used. A variance partitioning analysis suggests that 55.8% of early-onset MPB genetic liability can be explained by common autosomal SNPs and 23.3% by X-chromosome SNPs. For normal MPB status in elderly individuals, the proportion of explainable variance is lower (42.4% for autosomal and 9.8% for X-chromosome SNPs). The gap between GWAS findings and the variance partitioning results could be explained by a large body of common DNA variants with small effects that will likely be identified in GWAS of increased sample sizes. Although the accuracy obtained here has not reached a clinically desired level, our model was highly informative for up to 19% of Europeans, thus may assist decision making on early MPB intervention actions and in forensic investigations. PMID:26508577

  12. Male Pattern Baldness in Relation to Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Analysis in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Levine, Paul H; Cleary, Sean D; Hoffman, Heather J; Graubard, Barry I; Cook, Michael B

    2016-02-01

    We used male pattern baldness as a proxy for long-term androgen exposure and investigated the association of dermatologist-assessed hair loss with prostate cancer-specific mortality in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. From the baseline survey (1971-1974), we included 4,316 men who were 25-74 years of age and had no prior cancer diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios and used Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the time metric and baseline hazard stratified by baseline age. A hybrid framework was used to account for stratification and clustering of the sample design, with adjustment for the variables used to calculate sample weights. During follow-up (median, 21 years), 3,284 deaths occurred; prostate cancer was the underlying cause of 107. In multivariable models, compared with no balding, any baldness was associated with a 56% higher risk of fatal prostate cancer (hazard ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.37), and moderate balding specifically was associated with an 83% higher risk (hazard ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.92). Conversely, patterned hair loss was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Our analysis suggests that patterned hair loss is associated with a higher risk of fatal prostate cancer and supports the hypothesis of overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:26764224

  13. Sexual behavior patterns of customers of male street prostitutes.

    PubMed

    Morse, E V; Simon, P M; Balson, P M; Osofsky, H J

    1992-08-01

    Information about male customers of male prostitutes, including sociodemographic and life-style characteristics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and knowledge about HIV infection were collected from a convenience sample of 211 male street prostitutes and a convenience sample of 15 male customers as part of a feasibility study. Data from these two groups indicate that despite knowledge of HIV infection and its transmission, customers engage in high-risk sexual and drug use behaviors with prostitutes. Because there is a high HIV infection rate within the male prostitute sample (175/1000) and because these customers for the most part describe themselves as bisexual or heterosexual, it is likely that male customers of male prostitutes serve as a vector of transmission of HIV infection to their other partners including the heterosexual population. PMID:1497473

  14. Oily hair

    MedlinePlus

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  15. Hair Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ... What should first be done before considering a hair transplant? Before the procedure, an ASDS doctor will ...

  16. Hair Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Hair care Hair care Short, long, curly, straight, up, down. Hair options can seem endless! Not all of what makes your hair look good comes from the outside, though. Good ...

  17. Numerical Study of the Complex Temporal Pattern of Spontaneous Oscillation in Bullfrog Saccular Hair Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Fredrickson-Hemsing, Lea; Kao, Albert; Bozovic, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    Hair bundles of the bullfrog sacculus display spontaneous oscillations that show complex temporal profiles. Quiescent intervals are typically interspersed with oscillations, analogous to bursting behavior observed in neural systems. By introducing slow calcium dynamics into the theoretical model of bundle mechanics, we reproduce numerically the multi-mode oscillations and explore the effects of internal parameters on the temporal profiles and the frequency tuning of their linear response functions. We also study the effects of mechanical overstimulation on the oscillatory behavior.

  18. Visual ground pattern modulates flight speed of male Oriental fruit moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male Grapholita molesta (Busck) were allowed to fly upwind along horizontal sex pheromone plumes in laboratory flight tunnels. Flying males experienced tunnel floor patterns (tunnel-width stripes perpendicular to the wind line) that were varied in width both longitudinally an laterally. Males' uptu...

  19. Hair loss in children.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rubina; Grimalt, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Hair diseases represent frequent complaints in dermatology clinics, and they can be caused by a number of conditions reflected by specific diagnoses. Hair loss is not uncommon in the pediatric group, but its patterns in this group are different from those seen in adults. Additionally, in children, these disorders can have psychological effects that can interfere with growth and development. Hair is easily accessible for examination, and dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders using simple diagnostic techniques. To fully understand hair loss during childhood, a basic comprehension of normal hair growth is necessary. Knowledge of the normal range and variation observed in the hair of children further enhances its assessment. This chapter has been written in an attempt to facilitate the diagnostic process during daily practice by helping to distinguish between acquired and congenital hair diseases. It can sometimes be difficult to differentiate between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. Management of hair disorders can be quite a daunting task for the attending physician and mandates a holistic approach to the patient. Some hair disturbances have no effective treatment, and for others, no single treatment is 100% successful. If no effective treatment for a hair loss disease exists, a cosmetic approach is important. PMID:26370644

  20. Hair implant complications.

    PubMed

    Hanke, C W; Norins, A L; Pantzer, J G; Bennett, J E

    1981-04-01

    Four men who underwent hair implantation for pattern baldness were treated for complications such as infection, foreign-body reaction, pruritus, and scarring. The complications were similar to those reported with synthetic modacrylic fiber implants that have been used for the same purpose. Although we believe this is the first article to report complications from hair implants, the illogical basis of the procedure suggests that complications will occur in many unsuspecting patients who undergo hair implantation. PMID:7009899

  1. Efficacy of a Complex of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid and Glycyl-Histidyl-Lysine Peptide on Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Hyun Bo; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Yim, Soon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Pattern hair loss is a very common problem. Although effective therapeutics for the treatment of pattern hair loss have been used, novel therapeutic modalities are still required to enhance hair growth. Objective We investigated the efficacy and safety of a complex (ALAVAX) of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and glycyl-histidyl-lysine (GHK) peptide for the treatment of pattern hair loss. Methods Forty-five patients with male pattern hair loss were treated with ALAVAX 100 mg/ml (group A), ALAVAX 50 mg/ml (group B) or placebo (group C) once a day for 6 months. Total hair count, hair length, hair thickness, patient's assessment and adverse events were evaluated at month 1, 3, and 6. Results An increase in hair count for 6 months was 52.6 (p<0.05) in group A, 71.5 (p<0.05) in group B, and 9.6 in group C. The ratio of changes in hair count between group B (2.38) and group C (1.21) at 6 months showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). The proportion above good satisfaction was higher in group A (26.7%) than in the other groups (group B: 14.3%, group C: 7.1%). There was no statistically significant difference in hair length and hair thickness among 3 groups at 6 months. There was no adverse event in 3 groups. Conclusion Our study showed that a complex of 5-ALA and GHK peptide may be considered as one of the complementary agents for the treatment of male pattern hair loss. PMID:27489425

  2. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: preliminary results from study of five male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rääf, C L; Holstein, H; Holm, E; Roos, P

    2015-03-01

    The radionuclide (210)Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time-consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested radioactive polonium ((209)Po as a bio-tracer for (210)Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5-10 Bq (209)Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7 mBq (209)Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance of ingested polonium peaking at 0.001-0.01% d(-1) of the ingested amount, thereafter decreasing mono-exponentially, corresponding to a biological half-time of 10-20 days. For the case of protracted intake a mono-exponential build-up was observed with a half-time of 40 ± 5 d. In addition, after cessation of intake, a short-term component (74%) with a biological half-time of 16 ± 4 d, and a long-term component (26%) with a half-time of 93 ± 53 d were observed. It is concluded that hair can be used to detect not only the amount of ingested polonium but also whether the intake was protracted or acute. PMID:25557609

  3. College Students' Perceptions of Male and Female Career Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutt, Christine Herrick

    1983-01-01

    Studied the perceptions of college students (N=247) regarding male and female career development using a forced choice questionnaire. Significant sex, age, and commuter/resident differences were found. Most men agreed that men's attitudes about women's vocational roles influence women's choices, while most women disagreed. (JAC)

  4. Black Males' Structural Conditions, Achievement Patterns, Normative Needs, and "Opportunities."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dena Phillips; Cunningham, Michael; Spencer, Margaret Beale

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relations between normative developmental transitions, contextual influences, and life-stage outcomes, such as academic achievement, for African American males. Data from a longitudinal study in a large southeastern U.S. city indicated that negative stereotyping and tracking from early experience in educational settings affected black…

  5. Pattern of Weight Loss of Young Female and Male Wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Viveiros, Luis; Moreira, Alexandre; Zourdos, Michael C; Aoki, Marcelo S; Capitani, Caroline D

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude of rapid weight loss (RWL) of female and male young wrestlers at the Brazilian high-school games. High-school wrestlers (females: n = 16, 13 ± 2 years; males: n = 15, 13 ± 2 years) participated in this study. The official weigh-in was conducted 24 hours before competition. Immediately after the official weigh-in, wrestlers completed a hydration habits and a standardized weight loss questionnaires. Twenty-four hours later, wrestlers took part in an unofficial prematch weigh-in. Sodium, potassium, chloride, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were measured immediately before the first competitive match by iSTAT Blood Gas Analyzer. A significant body mass increase was observed from the official weigh-in to the prematch weigh-in (females: 2.7 ± 1.4 kg and males: 1.5 ± 0.9 kg; p ≤ 0.05) with significantly greater body mass increase in females (6.3%) vs. males (3.1%) (p ≤ 0.05). Rapid weight loss practices were exercised by 42.0% of the wrestlers. Furthermore, 46.2% of those who performed RWL practices reported side effects, which they perceived negatively altered past performance. Despite RWL and subsequent body mass increase, all biomarkers (sodium, potassium, chloride, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) were in the normal range at the prematch weigh-in. The majority (82.0%) of the athletes agreed that hydration habits are important to health and performance. It seems that although wrestlers acknowledge negative performance effects due to RWL, the practice is still exercised among both female and male wrestlers. Therefore, educational programs should be implemented in high-school athletes to discourage RWL and provide information for exercise and nutritional strategies to maintain a healthy body mass and avoid chronic health issues. PMID:25932982

  6. Mosaic pattern of Cre recombinase expression in cochlear outer hair cells of the Brn3.1 Cre mouse.

    PubMed

    Frenz, Silke; Rak, Kristen; Völker, Johannes; Jürgens, Lukas; Scherzad, Agmal; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Radeloff, Andreas; Jablonka, Sibylle; Hansen, Stefan; Mlynski, Robert; Hagen, Rudolf

    2015-04-15

    The Brn3.1 gene encodes for the protein Brn3.1, which is a member of the POU-IV class of transcription factors. Mutation leads to nonsyndromic human progressive hearing loss (DFNA15). To investigate the suitability of the Brn3.1 promoter for Cre recombinase-induced genetic recombination in cochlear hair cells, we established a transgenic Brn3.1 Cre mouse. This mouse line was crossbred with floxed ROSA26 and ROSA26 reporter mice. The cochleae were histologically analysed in cryosections at E16.5 and whole-mount preparations from P2 until P85. In addition, mice from all used strains and their recombinant offspring were tested electrophysiologically by auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and distorsion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Cre recombinase activity could be detected in P14 and P21 animals in a mosaic pattern in 26.3 and 9.9% of the outer hair cells, respectively. All investigated mice showed normal ABR and DPOAE values, indicating that neither insertion of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) Cre cassette into the Brn3.1 gene led to abnormal auditory development nor did the reporter strains show inherited hearing disorders. This study shows that Cre expression under the control of the Brn3.1 promoter is feasible and that the insertion of the internal ribosome entry site Cre cassette into this locus exerted no effects on hearing development. Because of the inconstant pattern and the limited duration of expression, the application of the developed mouse line might be restricted. Also, the unchanged hearing capacity and structural integrity of the organ of Corti in available reporter lines indicate that they may be useful tools for hearing research. PMID:25714426

  7. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Willcox, R R

    1981-06-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. PMID:6894558

  8. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1981-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558

  9. Male-female relatedness and patterns of male reproductive investment in guppies.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Luisa J; Gasparini, Clelia; Fitzpatrick, John L; Evans, Jonathan P

    2014-05-01

    Inbreeding can cause reductions in fitness, driving the evolution of pre- and postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. There is now considerable evidence for such processes in females, but few studies have focused on males, particularly in the context of postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance. Here, we address this topic by exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to either full-sibling or unrelated females and determining whether they adjust investment in courtship and ejaculates. Our results revealed that males reduce their courtship but concomitantly exhibit short-term increases in ejaculate quality when paired with siblings. In conjunction with prior work reporting cryptic female preferences for unrelated sperm, our present findings reveal possible sexually antagonistic counter-adaptations that may offset postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance by females. PMID:24806425

  10. Female hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  11. Sex, stress and social status: patterns in fecal testosterone and glucocorticoid metabolites in male Ethiopian wolves.

    PubMed

    van Kesteren, Freya; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Millar, Robert; Argaw, Kifle; Macdonald, David W; Paris, Monique

    2012-10-01

    Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, live in large multi-male family packs, where males are philopatric and do not disperse. Within a pack, mating and breeding is largely monopolized by the dominant male and female, although extra-pack copulations are common, and subordinate males may sire pups in neighboring packs. Regardless of paternity, all males in a pack help rear the pups. We non-invasively studied patterns in fecal testosterone and glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations using radioimmunoassays of fecal samples collected from nine wild male Ethiopian wolves between August 2007 and February 2008. We tested the predictions of the Challenge Hypothesis, namely that fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations would be higher during the annual mating season, which is the portion of the reproductive cycle when mating and increased aggression typically occur, and lower when there were pups in the pack for which to care. Contrary to the predictions of the Challenge Hypothesis, we did not detect patterns in fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations associated with reproductive stage during our study period. Similarly, we found no patterns associated with reproductive stage in male fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Dominant males had higher average fecal testosterone and glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations than did subordinates, which may be related to higher rates of aggression and mate guarding in dominant males of group-living canids, a pattern also reported in African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus. PMID:22841807

  12. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Hair restoration ... MR, Keene SA, Stough DB, Rogers NE. Hair restoration. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 157. Fisher J. Hair restoration. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. ...

  13. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  14. Hair Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... maintain a steady temperature by providing some insulation. Terminal hair is coarser, darker, and longer than vellus ... hair that grows on your head. Around puberty, terminal hair starts to grow in the armpits and ...

  15. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  16. Patterns of concordance between hair assays and urinalysis for cocaine: longitudinal analysis of probationers in Pinellas County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Mieczkowski, T; Newel, R

    1997-01-01

    This chapter reports on a field trial involving the application of hair assays to a probation population. The objectives were to evaluate the general reactions of probation officers and probationers to the collection of hair samples, to compare the outcomes of the hair samples with the outcomes of urinalyses (which the probationers undergo routinely), to note and react to differences in the prevalence as indicated by the two assay types, and to assess the general monitoring potential for hair assays in a correctional setting. In general, hair assays showed an increased capability of detecting cocaine exposure when compared to urinalysis. The detection of cannabis was, however, problematic for hair. The hair assays, using urine as a comparator, appeared to result in several apparent false negatives for cannabinoids. There were no false negatives for cocaine, and an approximately fourfold increase in the detection rate when compared to urine. The collection of hair samples was not difficult and the cooperation of the probationers was quite good. Probation officers appear to prefer the use of hair specimens to urine specimen collection, and appeared enthusiastic about the potential use of hair analysis in their routine monitoring of clients. PMID:9243562

  17. Efficacy of Cistanche Tubulosa and Laminaria Japonica Extracts (MK-R7) Supplement in Preventing Patterned Hair Loss and Promoting Scalp Health

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Joon; Kim, Tae Su; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sung Pyo; Kang, Myung Hwa; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2015-01-01

    Cistanche tubulosa and Laminaria japonica have been reported to have anti-oxidative, anticoagulant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. They are expected to be a promising candidates for promoting hair growth and treating dandruff and scalp inflammation as a consequence. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we investigated the efficacy of Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) in promoting hair health in patients with mild to moderate patterned hair loss. Using phototrichogram (Folliscope 4.0, LeadM, Seoul, Korea), we compared the density and diameter of hairs in patients receiving a placebo or Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks of the study. In order to determine the efficacy of treatment on dandruff and scalp inflammation, investigator's assessment score and patient's subjective score were also performed. We found a statistically significant increase in the hair density of the test group (n = 45, MK-R7 400 mg) after 16 weeks of consuming the MK-R7 (test group: 23.29 n/cm2 ± 24.26, control: 10.35 n/cm2 ± 20.08, p < 0.05). In addition, we found a statistically significant increase in hair diameter in the test group compared to control group at week 16 (test group: 0.018 mm ± 0.015, control: 0.003 mm ± 0.013, p < 0.05). There were also significant outcomes regarding the investigator's visual assessment and patient's subjective score of dandruff and scalp inflammation in the test group compared to those in control group. Based on the results of this clinical study, we conclude that Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) are promising substances for promoting health of the scalp and hair. PMID:25954733

  18. The structure of people’s hair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of α-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization

  19. Immune responses in male mice with aggressive and submissive behavior patterns: strain differences.

    PubMed

    Devoino, L; Alperina, E; Kudryavtseva, N; Popova, N

    1993-03-01

    Immune responses in two strains of male mice with aggressive and submissive behavior patterns was studied. In aggressive CBA males immunized on the 10th day of agonistic confrontations with submissive partners, greater numbers of plaque-forming cells (PFC) and rosette-forming cells (RFC) were noted compared to control mice. Unlike the CBA strain, both PFC and RFC levels in aggressive C57BL males did not increase, but both PFC and RFC numbers decreased in submissive animals. PMID:8471801

  20. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  1. Female and Male Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Recidivism Patterns and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Naomi J.; Sandler, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have empirically validated the assertion that female and male sex offenders are vastly different. Therefore, utilizing a matched sample of 780 female and male sex offenders in New York State, the current study explored differences and similarities of recidivism patterns and risk factors for the two offender groups. Results suggested…

  2. Dendritic membrane from insect olfactory hairs: isolation method and electron microscopic observations.

    PubMed

    Klein, U; Keil, T A

    1984-12-01

    Sensory hairs from antennae of male saturniid moths (Antheraea polyphemus) were separated while deep-frozen by shaking antennal branches with glass beads. The hairs were collected through their differential adhesion to the surface of a petri dish. The yield, determined by the length of the isolated hair fragments, was about 38% of the estimated total hair length per antenna. The dendritic membrane was separated from the hair fragments by centrifugation through Sephadex and further purified by ultracentrifugation in sucrose buffers. Transmission electron microscopy was used to monitor the steps of the hair and membrane isolation and to investigate the membrane pellet. Some membrane vesicles bound cationized ferritin, thus indicating a negatively charged cell surface coat. Negatively stained membrane vesicles exhibited a pattern of repetitive substructures irregularly distributed over the vesicle surface. The units had a diameter of about 3 nm and a maximal density of 30,000/micron2. PMID:6532523

  3. A study on the concentrations of 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in hair root and whole hair.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sangki; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2011-07-15

    In this study, we investigated the patterns of cannabis users (n=412) according to their sex, age, and the results of urinalysis and hair analysis, and classified the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair into three categories to examine the levels of cannabis use. We also compared the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair root, hair without the hair root and whole hair and examined the relationship among them according to the results of urinalysis. The hair samples were washed, digested with 1ml of 1M NaOH at 85°C for 30min and extracted with 2ml of n-hexane:ethyl acetate (9:1) two times after adding 1ml of 0.1N sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.5) and 200μl of acetic acid. The final mixture was derivatized with 50μl of PFPA and 25μl of PFPOH for 30min at 70°C. The solution was evaporated, and the residue was reconstituted in 40μl of ethyl acetate and transferred to an autosampler vial. One microlitre was injected into the GC/MS/MS-NCI system. The concentrations of THCCOOH ranged from 0.06 to 33.44pg/mg (mean 2.96; median 1.32) in hair from cannabis users who had positive urine results and ranged from 0.05 to 7.24pg/mg (mean 1.35; median 0.37) in hair from cannabis users who had negative urine results. The average concentration of THCCOOH in hair from cannabis users who had positive urine results was higher than that from cannabis users who had negative urine results. Male cannabis users in their forties were predominant. We classified the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair into three groups (low, medium and high), and could use the grouping of THCCOOH in hair as a guide for determining the level of use. The low, medium and high concentration ranges for THCCOOH in hair were 0.05-0.24, 0.25-2.60 and 2.63-33.44pg/mg, respectively. We also investigated 28 hair samples with the root. The highest concentrations of THCCOOH were seen in the hair root from 18 out of the 28 hair samples. The average concentrations of THCCOOH in hair root, hair without hair root and whole hair from

  4. Patterns in the vocalizations of male harbor seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Parijs, Sofie M.; Corkeron, Peter J.; Harvey, James; Hayes, Sean A.; Mellinger, David K.; Rouget, Philippe A.; Thompson, Paul M.; Wahlberg, Magnus; Kovacs, Kit M.

    2003-06-01

    Comparative analyses of the roar vocalization of male harbor seals from ten sites throughout their distribution showed that vocal variation occurs at the oceanic, regional, population, and subpopulation level. Genetic barriers based on the physical distance between harbor seal populations present a likely explanation for some of the observed vocal variation. However, site-specific vocal variations were present between genetically mixed subpopulations in California. A tree-based classification analysis grouped Scottish populations together with eastern Pacific sites, rather than amongst Atlantic sites as would be expected if variation was based purely on genetics. Lastly, within the classification tree no individual vocal parameter was consistently responsible for consecutive splits between geographic sites. Combined, these factors suggest that site-specific variation influences the development of vocal structure in harbor seals and these factors may provide evidence for the occurrence of vocal dialects.

  5. Selective hair cell ablation and noise exposure lead to different patterns of changes in the cochlea and the cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kurioka, Takaomi; Lee, Min Young; Heeringa, Amarins N; Beyer, Lisa A; Swiderski, Donald L; Kanicki, Ariane C; Kabara, Lisa L; Dolan, David F; Shore, Susan E; Raphael, Yehoash

    2016-09-22

    In experimental animal models of auditory hair cell (HC) loss, insults such as noise or ototoxic drugs often lead to secondary changes or degeneration in non-sensory cells and neural components, including reduced density of spiral ganglion neurons, demyelination of auditory nerve fibers and altered cell numbers and innervation patterns in the cochlear nucleus (CN). However, it is not clear whether loss of HCs alone leads to secondary degeneration in these neural components of the auditory pathway. To elucidate this issue, we investigated changes of central components after cochlear insults specific to HCs using diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) mice expressing DTR only in HCs and exhibiting complete HC loss when injected with diphtheria toxin (DT). We showed that DT-induced HC ablation has no significant impacts on the survival of auditory neurons, central synaptic terminals, and myelin, despite complete HC loss and profound deafness. In contrast, noise exposure induced significant changes in synapses, myelin and CN organization even without loss of inner HCs. We observed a decrease of neuronal size in the auditory pathway, including peripheral axons, spiral ganglion neurons, and CN neurons, likely due to loss of input from the cochlea. Taken together, selective HC ablation and noise exposure showed different patterns of pathology in the auditory pathway and the presence of HCs is not essential for the maintenance of central synaptic connectivity and myelination. PMID:27403879

  6. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  7. Food consumption pattern and nutrient intake of Indian obese males.

    PubMed

    Gera, T; Khetarpaul, N

    2000-01-01

    Mean daily intake of all foods except cereals i.e. pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, fruits, milk and milk products, sugar and fats of Indian obese male respondents was higher than the values recommended by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, 1987). The consumption of fat and sugar was 18 and 8 percent more than the recommended intake values respectively. However, their non-obese counterparts consumed significantly (P < 0.05) lower amounts of all the foods except cereals and pulses. The intake of various nutrients i.e. energy, protein, fats, beta-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vit B12, folacin, ascorbic acid and calcium by obese respondents was considerably higher than the recommended values (ICMR, 1990) and the control group. All the obese respondents were consuming adequate (100% and above) amounts of energy, protein and fats. Intake of carbohydrates was marginally adequate (75-99.9%) among 92 percent of the obese respondents whereas 8 percent were consuming adequate amount of carbohydrates. They had higher consumption of visible as well as invisible fat than the control group. PMID:11142609

  8. Patterns of Victimization and Feelings of Safety inside Prison: The Experience of Male and Female Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the patterns of sexual victimization inside prisons and their relationship to inmates' feelings of safety. This study examined patterns of sexual victimization with and without co-occurring physical victimization and feelings of safety as reported by 6,964 male and 564 female inmates. Respondents completed a computerized…

  9. Complications in hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Hair restoration requires a high level of specialized skill on the part of both the surgeon and the assistant team. Recipient-site problems can manifest from either surgeon or assistant error. The surgeon can create an unnatural hairline due to lack of knowledge of natural hair-loss patterns or badly executed recipient sites. He must also be cognizant of how hairs naturally are angled on the scalp to re-create a pattern that appears natural when making recipient sites. Assistants can also greatly contribute to the success or failure of surgery in their task of graft dissection and graft placement. PMID:24200385

  10. Hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation. PMID:23409484

  11. The spatial patterns of water management practices are reflected in the strontium isotope ratios of human hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Valenzuela, L. O.; Ehleringer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Element concentrations and isotopes of human tissues are commonly used to understand how emissions and processes within urban ecosystems affect health. Thus, it is important to understand how these elements are incorporated and flow through the urban environment and are ultimately incorporated into human tissues. Here, we designed an experiment to identify the relative importance of strontium (Sr) sources (bedrock, dust, food, and water) to hair Sr isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr). To understand the contribution of Sr to human hair, we collected hair from individuals living in Salt Lake City, Utah. In addition to sample location, we compiled information regarding age, sex, ethnicity, and dietary habits. We found a significant association between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and collection location. There were no significant relationships between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and age, ethnicity, or sex. We had not predicted a relationship between 87Sr/86Sr values and collection location, because of the close proximities of sites to one another (all within an 8-km radius). We found that tap water 87Sr/86Sr values across the Salt Lake Valley varied with water management practice and this variation corresponded to hair 87Sr/86Sr value. These data suggest an additional geographically controlled source of Sr may be an important contributor to the 87Sr/86Sr value of hair. These findings suggest that local water is an important source of Sr in human hair and that hair is a sensitive temporal carrier of this environmental information. These observations have important implications to future studies of humans with regard to urban ecology, human health, forensic sciences, and anthropology.

  12. A masculinized skeletomusculature is not necessary for male-typical patterns of food-protective movement.

    PubMed

    Field, Evelyn F; Watson, Neil V; Whishaw, Ian Q; Pellis, Sergio M

    2005-01-01

    Although sexual dimorphism in movement has been documented in rodents, the extent to which it relates to dimorphic neural control versus dimorphic body size/structure is unclear. We have shown previously that male and female rats are sexually dimorphic with regards to the lateral movements and hindpaw stepping they use to protect a food item. We addressed the question of whether this sexual dimorphism is due to sex differences in peripheral skeletomusculature or in the CNS by examining the movement composition used during dodging to protect a food item by tfm-affected males and their wild-type male (WTM) and female (WTF) controls. The tfm-affected male, while genetically male, develops internal testes that secrete testosterone, but is phenotypically female due to a failure of androgen receptor-mediated masculinization of the periphery. Masculinization of the CNS of tfm-affected males, however, is primarily accomplished by the actions of testosterone's aromatized metabolite estradiol acting via estrogen receptors. Thus the tfm-affected male provides an assay by which the relative contributions of the skeletomusculature or CNS to sex differences in movement organization can be addressed. We found that female wild-type animals were significantly different from both the tfm-affected and wild-type males. There were no significant differences in dodge patterns used by tfm-affected males and their wild-type male controls. This study provides evidence that the sex differences in dodging patterns are mediated primarily by CNS mechanisms and are not primarily dependent on a male- or female-typical skeletomusculature. PMID:15579265

  13. Flame Hair

    PubMed Central

    Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Flame hairs’ is a trichoscopic feature described as hair residue from pulling anagen hairs in trichotillomania. Objective: To detect whether flame hairs are present in other hair loss disorders. Methods We retrospectively, independently and blindly reviewed the trichoscopic images of 454 consecutive patients with alopecia areata (99 cases), trichotillomania (n = 20), acute chemotherapy-induced alopecia (n = 6), acute radiotherapy-induced alopecia (n = 2), tinea capitis (n = 13), lichen planopilaris (n = 33), frontal fibrosing alopecia (n = 60), discoid lupus erythematosus (n = 30), dissecting cellulitis (n = 11), central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (n = 94) and traction alopecia (n = 86) for the presence of flame hairs. We prospectively obtained trichoscopy-guided scalp biopsies from flame hairs in trichotillomania, alopecia areata, traction alopecia and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (1 case each). Results Flame hairs were detected in 100% of the acute chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced alopecias, where they were the predominant hair abnormality. They were also found in trichotillomania (55%), alopecia areata (21%), traction alopecia (4%) and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (3%). On pathology, they corresponded to distorted hair shafts. Conclusion The flame hair is a type of broken hair which can be seen in various hair loss disorders. It results from traumatic pulling of anagen hairs or from anagen arrest due to inflammation or drugs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:27171360

  14. Distribution of hair on the dorsum of the phalanges of the hand in a Chinese population from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dharap, A S; Lim, B C; Ong, L B

    1996-12-01

    Hair distribution on the dorsum of phalanges of the hand was studied on 302 Chinese subjects (134 males and 168 females) randomly selected from the residents of Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Proximal phalangeal hair was seen on the dorsum of both hands in 99.3% of male subjects but in only 85.1% of female subjects. Chinese females showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) incidence of proximal phalangeal hair on the hands than Chinese males. Comparison with other racial groups showed that Chinese females had significantly less (p < 0.05) hair on the proximal phalanges of the hands than Malay and African (Nigerian) females. The least common digital combination of proximal phalangeal hair in female subjects was the presence of proximal phalangeal hair only on the fourth digit (ring finger) and was noted in 0.6% of subjects. This has not been reported before. The frequency of middle phalangeal hair (MPH) distribution in Chinese falls between that in Malays and in Japanese which is probably explained by the fact that all these three racial groups originate from Asia. A study of digital combination of MPH in Chinese showed that the most common and the least common combinations in the Chinese differ considerably from those in other races. A total of 16 patterns of hair distribution was noted on the dorsum of the phalanges of the hands in Chinese subjects. Our study showed that though Chinese females had less digital hair on the hands than Chinese males, they showed a much larger variety of patterns of digital hair distribution than males. PMID:9008788

  15. Egg speckling patterns do not advertise offspring quality or influence male provisioning in great tits.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Fayet, Annette L; Kilner, Rebecca M; Hinde, Camilla A

    2012-01-01

    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a female advertises her quality (and hence the potential quality of her future young) to her male partner, thereby encouraging him to contribute more to breeding attempts. We performed a test of the SSEC hypothesis in a common passerine, the great tit Parus major. We used a double cross-fostering design to determine whether males change their provisioning behavior based on eggshell patterns they observe at the nest. We also tested the assumption that egg patterning reflects female and/or offspring quality. Because birds differ from humans in their color and pattern perception, we used digital photography and models of bird vision to quantify egg patterns objectively. Neither male provisioning nor chick growth was related to the pattern of eggs males observed during incubation. Although heavy females laid paler, less speckled eggs, these eggs did not produce chicks that grew faster. Therefore, we conclude that the SSEC hypothesis is an unlikely explanation for the evolution of egg speckling in great tits. PMID:22815730

  16. Hair Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... To get rid of unwanted hair growth: Tweeze, wax or shave, which are all safe during pregnancy. ... To get rid of unwanted hair growth: Tweeze, wax or shave, which are all safe during pregnancy. ...

  17. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. In some cases, treating the underlying cause will correct the problem. Other treatments include medicines and hair restoration.

  18. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... may cause hair loss in women. If your hair loss has occurred gradually with advancing age, FOLLICULAR DEGENERATION may be the cause. Post-pregnancy hormone changes usually reverse themselves without any treatment. While follicular degeneration cannot ...

  19. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... continual hair pulling or scalp rubbing Radiation therapy Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) Tumor of the ovary or ... a plucked hair Skin biopsy If you have ringworm on the scalp, you may be prescribed an ...

  20. Frictional hair loss in Iraqi patients.

    PubMed

    Sharquie, Khalifa E; Al-Rawi, Jamal R; Al-Janabi, Hassan A

    2002-07-01

    A total of 50 Iraqi male patients with frictional hair loss were studied. Their ages ranged from 27-55 years with a mean +/- SD of 40.60 +/- 7.82 years. The age of onset ranged from 26-50 years with a mean +/- SD of 38 +/- 7.3 years. The duration of disease was 1-5 years, mean +/- SD 2.2 +/- 1.3. Middle age was the most common age group affected. Patterns of hair loss were as follows; bilateral thighs & legs 13 (26%), bilateral thighs alone in 9 patients (18%), bilateral shins & calves (legs) in 4 patients (8%), abdomen alone in 8 patients (16%), thigh and abdomen 4 (8%) patients, legs & abdomen 4 (8%) patients, and all sites in 12 patients (24%). The pattern of patchy hair loss showed some etiological preference. It was found to be due to continuous pressure from socks, trousers and bed. Skin biopsies from five patients showed apparently normal histology. Twenty-six (52%) of the cases were healthy. There were no important medical or dermatological associations, such as alopecia areata or peripheral neuropathy in any patient although unrelated medical conditions were seen in 24 (48%). To the best of our knowledge, this type of patchy hair loss has attracted very little attention in the past, and the literature appeared to be deficient in references to this problem. PMID:12184639

  1. Female goldeneye ducks (Bucephala clangula) do not discriminate among male precopulatory display patterns.

    PubMed

    Dane, Benjamin; Harris, Rebecca; Reed, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    Female goldeneyes remain motionless on the surface of the water while single males circle them performing a series of highly stereotyped displays. After performing between eight and 90 of these displays the male either copulates or attempts to copulate with the female. However, females allow only 58% of males to mount them, while rejecting 42%. We have examined 804 of these precopulatory sequences containing 11,841 actions in an effort to determine why females find some display sequences of males unsuitable, while others are accepted. Males have an extraordinarily varied sequence of actions, and sequence variation leading to successful and unsuccessful copulation attempts was similar. Most surprising was the tendency of males to eliminate one of the five actions, whether in successful or unsuccessful attempts. As unlikely as we think it might be as the result of natural selection, the only statistically significant difference we found between successful and unsuccessful attempts was the reduction in the frequency of expression of one or more of the behaviors in successful attempts. These observations, coupled with the large variation seen in most sequences, suggest that there is not a correct sequence, or even a correct set of actions leading to copulation. The male must, however, perform goldeneye species-specific precopulatory behavior as performed by adult males, although it apparently can be performed in a wide variety of patterns. PMID:23516410

  2. Female Goldeneye Ducks (Bucephala clangula) Do Not Discriminate among Male Precopulatory Display Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Dane, Benjamin; Harris, Rebecca; Reed, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Female goldeneyes remain motionless on the surface of the water while single males circle them performing a series of highly stereotyped displays. After performing between eight and 90 of these displays the male either copulates or attempts to copulate with the female. However, females allow only 58% of males to mount them, while rejecting 42%. We have examined 804 of these precopulatory sequences containing 11,841 actions in an effort to determine why females find some display sequences of males unsuitable, while others are accepted. Males have an extraordinarily varied sequence of actions, and sequence variation leading to successful and unsuccessful copulation attempts was similar. Most surprising was the tendency of males to eliminate one of the five actions, whether in successful or unsuccessful attempts. As unlikely as we think it might be as the result of natural selection, the only statistically significant difference we found between successful and unsuccessful attempts was the reduction in the frequency of expression of one or more of the behaviors in successful attempts. These observations, coupled with the large variation seen in most sequences, suggest that there is not a correct sequence, or even a correct set of actions leading to copulation. The male must, however, perform goldeneye species-specific precopulatory behavior as performed by adult males, although it apparently can be performed in a wide variety of patterns. PMID:23516410

  3. Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... someone's hair, the less melanin there is. A person with brown or black hair has much more melanin than someone with ... example, many blondes have light skin, whereas many people with darker skin have dark brown or black hair. And don't forget genes (genes are ...

  4. Female pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    ... much male hormone (androgen), such as: Abnormal new hair growth, such as on the face or between the belly button and pubic area Changes in menstrual periods and ... that cause hair loss. Looking at the hair under a microsope ...

  5. Normal Patterns of Deja Experience in a Healthy, Blind Male: Challenging Optical Pathway Delay Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old healthy, blind male, MT, who experiences normal patterns of deja vu. The optical pathway delay theory of deja vu formation assumes that neuronal input from the optical pathways is necessary for the formation of the experience. Surprisingly, although the sensation of deja vu is known to be experienced by blind…

  6. Introducing diaphragms into the mix: what happens to male condom use patterns?

    PubMed

    Posner, Samuel F; van der Straten, Ariane; Kang, Mi-Suk; Padian, Nancy; Chipato, Tsungai

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess the effect of introducing the diaphragm on condom use patterns. Participants included one hundred eighty-nine women attending family planning clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe who reported less than 100% condom use. The proportion of acts where at least one method was used significantly increased over using follow-up; male condom use remained stable. A diaphragm was used with 50% to 54% of acts; male condoms were also used about 50% of the time. The proportion of acts where a female condom was used decreased. Women who used both male and female condoms were more likely to use diaphragms than those who reported not using female condoms. Introducing the diaphragm increased the overall proportion of protected acts. The proportion of acts where a male condom was used did not change. Female condoms use declined because concurrent use with the diaphragm is not possible. PMID:16235134

  7. Expression patterns of conserved microRNAs in the male gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    PubMed

    Quinn, Christina R; Iriyama, Rie; Fernando, Danilo D

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate genes involved in various aspects of plant development, but their presence and expression patterns in the male gametophytes of gymnosperms have not yet been established. Therefore, this study identified and compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs from two stages of the male gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), which are the mature (ungerminated) and germinated pollen. Microarray was used to identify conserved miRNAs that varied in expression between these two stages of the loblolly pine male gametophyte. Forty-seven conserved miRNAs showed significantly different expression levels between mature and germinated loblolly pine pollen. In particular, miRNAs representing 14 and 8 families were up- and down-regulated in germinated loblolly pine pollen, respectively. qRT-PCR was used to validate their expression patterns using representative miRNAs. Target genes and proteins were identified using psRNATarget program. Predicted targets of the 22 miRNA families belong mostly to classes of genes involved in defense/stress response, metabolism, regulation, and signaling. qRT-PCR was also used to validate the expression patterns of representative target genes. This study shows that conserved miRNAs are expressed in mature and germinated loblolly pine pollen. Many of these miRNAs are differentially expressed, which indicates that the two stages of the male gametophyte examined are regulated at the miRNA level. This study also expands our knowledge of the male gametophytes of seed plants by providing insights on some similarities and differences in the types and expression patterns of conserved miRNAs between loblolly pine with those of rice and Arabidopsis. PMID:24664256

  8. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes ... 2/2017 2017 AOCD Spring Current Concepts in Dermatology Meeting more Latest News ... Surveys About AOCD The AOCD was recognized in ...

  9. Has the difference in accident patterns between male and female drivers changed between 1984 and 2000?

    PubMed

    Laapotti, Sirkku; Keskinen, Esko

    2004-07-01

    The motorcar accident pattern of culpable young (18-25 years old) and middle-aged (35-55 years old) male and female drivers was studied in Finland. The aim was to see whether the difference in accident patterns between males and females has remained constant or whether it has changed over a 16-year period. Two different sets of traffic accident data were used. The first set of data covered all motorcar accidents for which damages were paid between 1987 and 2000, a total of 140802 accidents. The second set of data covered all fatal motor vehicle accidents in Finland during the time period between 1984 and 2000, a total of 2401 accidents. The results are analysed and discussed in the framework of a four-level hierarchical model of driving behaviour [Keskinen, E., 1996. Why do young drivers have more accidents? In: Junge, F., Fahrerinnen (Eds.), Young Drivers (in German and in English). Berichte der Bundesanstalt für Strabetaenwesen, Mensch und Sicherheit, Heft M 52, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany; Hatakka, M., Keskinen, E., Gregersen, N.P., Glad, A., Hernetkoski, K., 2002. From control of the vehicle to personal self-control; broadening the perspectives to driver education. Transportation Res. Part F 5 (3), 201-215]. Female drivers had proportionally more accidents that were connected to vehicle manoeuvring and control of traffic situations, e.g. reversing and loss-of-control accidents in a sober state and when not speeding. Male drivers, and especially young male drivers, had proportionally more accidents connected to higher levels of driving behaviour like motives for driving and attitudes. Factors that characterised these accidents were speeding and alcohol consumption. Male drivers also had previous traffic offences more often than female drivers. The study concludes that the difference in accident patterns between male and female drivers has remained constant, i.e. the accident pattern of female drivers was as dissimilar to the accident pattern of male drivers in

  10. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  11. Analysis of movement patterns by elite male players of beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Cortell-Tormo, Juan M; Pérez-Turpin, José A; Chinchilla, Juan J; Cejuela, Roberto; Suárez, Concepción

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and compare movement pattems and direction of locomotion in professional men's beach volleyball. A quantitative analysis of beach volleyball play was carried out for 10 players in the European Beach Volleyball Championship 2005. Video recordings were made of the 1,997 movements in 4 matches. Analysis showed that male players used more offensive than defensive movement patterns. Defensive movement patterns were more blocks and defense than receptions. Offensive movement patterns were more attack and placements than attack preparation moves. Advance was the direction of locomotion most used. Identifying and understanding such movement patterns are vital to defining specific, effective training strategies for men's beach volleyball players. PMID:21466077

  12. [Hair colorants].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Luks, E; Jedra, M; Kiss, E; Malanowska, M

    1997-01-01

    The properties, mode of action and its duration of the preparations used for hair dyeing are described, together with their chemical components, and also preparations of herbal origin. The chemical reactions are described in detail which lead the development of a color polymer occurring during hair dyeing. The studies are presented which are used for toxicological assessment of the raw materials which are the components of the colorants, and the list is included of hair colorants permitted for use in Poland. PMID:9562811

  13. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  14. A study of the palatal rugae pattern among male female and transgender population of Bhopal city

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Eshani; Chandrashekhar, B. R; Hongal, Sudheer; Torwane, Nilesh; Goel, Pankaj; Mishra, Priyesh

    2015-01-01

    Context: Transgenders are highly disadvantaged people, deprived of adequate opportunities of earning a respectable living. The forensic literature has emphasized on two genders, male and female, the existence of a third gender (Transgenders) is almost negligible in the literature, and this makes it compulsive to determine their identity through forensic approaches at the time of disasters. Previous studies have demonstrated that no two palatal rugae pattern are alike in their configuration and this unique feature has led us to undertake a study to establish individual identities using palatal rugae pattern. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the palatal rugae pattern among male, female, and transgender population of the Bhopal city. Settings and Design: This study was cross sectional in nature and conducted on a convenience sample of 148 subjects selected from Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh. The study involved 49 males, 51 females, and 48 eunuchs in the age range of 17 to 35 years. Materials and Methods: Maxillary impression using alginate impression material was made and the cast was prepared using die stone on palatal area and dental stone as a base. The palatal rugae pattern was assessed on the basis of number, length, shape, direction, and unification. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for comparing the mean values between different genders. The multiple pairwise comparisons were done with the Bonferroni post hoc correction. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. Results: The statistically significant difference with regard to some parameters like number of rugae, fragmentary rugae, wavy rugae, curve rugae, forwardly directed, and backwardly directed rugae between transgender and other gender groups were present. Conclusion: The difference in the parameters of the palatal rugae pattern among the transgender population and the other gender group is attributed to be the genetic makeup and sexual dimorphism. PMID:26005304

  15. Flat Mount Imaging of Mouse Skin and Its Application to the Analysis of Hair Follicle Patterning and Sensory Axon Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hao; Wang, Yanshu; Wu, Hao; Nathans, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Skin is a highly heterogeneous tissue. Intra-dermal structures include hair follicles, arrector pili muscles, epidermal specializations (such as Merkel cell clusters), sebaceous glands, nerves and nerve endings, and capillaries. The spatial arrangement of these structures is tightly controlled on a microscopic scale - as seen, for example, in the orderly arrangement of cell types within a single hair follicle - and on a macroscopic scale - as seen by the nearly identical orientations of thousands of hair follicles within a local region of skin. Visualizing these structures without physically sectioning the skin is possible because of the 2-dimensional geometry of this organ. In this protocol, we show that mouse skin can be dissected, fixed, permeabilized, stained, and clarified as an intact two dimensional object, a flat mount. The protocol allows for easy visualization of skin structures in their entirety through the full thickness of large areas of skin by optical sectioning and reconstruction. Images of these structures can also be integrated with information about position and orientation relative to the body axes. PMID:24999071

  16. Drinking Patterns and Victimization among Male and Female Students in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández–Ávila, Carlos A.; Fernández-Varela, Héctor; Solís-Torres, Cuauhtémoc

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences, identify drinking profiles using latent profile analysis (LPA), and investigate associations between profiles and violent victimization among young people in Mexico. Methods: LPA identified profiles of drinking behavior in a survey of entering first year university students. Multinomial and logistic regression examined associations between drinking patterns, socio-demographic variables and violent victimization. Results: The LPA identified five profiles of behaviors and consequences among the 22,224 current, former and never drinkers: Non/Infrequent-No Consequences, Occasional-Few Consequences, Regular-Some Consequences, Heavy-Many Consequences and Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers. The Occasional-Few Consequences profile comprised the largest, and the Excessive-Many Consequences profile the smallest, group of drinkers. Multinomial regression showed males and older students more likely to be Heavy or Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers. Living alone was associated with higher odds, and higher maternal education with lower odds, of being a Non/Infrequent-No Consequences drinker. Heavier drinking profiles were more likely to experience violent victimization adverse consequences. Logistic regression showed male and female Heavy and Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers had the highest odds, and Non/Infrequent drinkers the lowest odds, of experiencing any victimization. Conclusion: Findings suggest changes in male and female drinking behavior and a continuation of the established pattern of infrequent but high consumption among Mexican youths. Both male and female Heavy and Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers were at elevated risk for experiencing victimization. Identifying cultural gender norms about drinking including drinker expectations and drinking context that contribute to these patterns can inform prevention efforts. PMID:25534933

  17. Female pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Hair loss in female pattern baldness is permanent, if not treated. In most cases, hair loss ... expensive. However, the results are often excellent and permanent. OTHER SOLUTIONS Hair weaving, hairpieces, or a change ...

  18. Ingrowing Hair

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Di-Qing; Liang, Yu-Hua; Li, Xi-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Kun; Wang, Fang; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous pili migrans and creeping eruption caused by parasitic diseases may present as a moving linear lesion in skin. The former, caused by a hair shaft or fragment embedded in the superficial skin or middle dermis, is a rare condition characterized by creeping eruption with a black line observed at the advancing end. In exceptionally rare instance, the hair grows inside the skin and burrows in the uppermost dermis, such a condition has been called “ingrown hair.” We report a 30-year-old Chinese man, who was accustomed to pull or extrude the beard hairs, with 1-year history of slowly extending black linear eruption on his right chin. Cutaneous examination revealed a 4-cm long black linear lesion beneath the skin associated with edematous erythema around and folliculitis on both ends of the lesion. After treatment with topical mupirocin ointment, the erythema and folliculitis improved and 2 hairs of the beard with hair follicles were pulled out from the skin. Two weeks later, another similar black line about 1 cm in length in the skin presented on the prior lesional area, which was pulled out by a shallow incision of the skin and was also demonstrated as a beard hair with hair follicle. The patient was diagnosed as “ingrowing hair” with multiple recurrences. The lesions recovered after the beard hairs were pulled out. No recurrence occurred in a year of follow-up. We suggest that “ingrowing hair” is better than “ingrown hair” to describe such a condition. Pulling out the involved hair and correcting the bad practice are its optimal management strategies. PMID:27175694

  19. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair to assess excessive alcohol consumption in a student population.

    PubMed

    Oppolzer, David; Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    Hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) was used to evaluate the pattern of alcohol consumption amongst the Portuguese university student population. A total of 975 samples were analysed. For data interpretation, the 2014 guidelines from the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) for the use of alcohol markers in hair for the assessment of both abstinence and chronic excessive alcohol consumption were considered. EtG concentrations were significantly higher in the male population. The effect of hair products and cosmetics was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and significant lower concentrations were obtained when conditioner or hair mask was used or when hair was dyed. Based on the analytical data and information obtained in the questionnaires from the participants, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed in order to determine the ideal cut-offs for our study population. Optimal cut-off values were estimated at 7.3 pg/mg for abstinence or rare occasional drinking control and 29.8 pg/mg for excessive consumption. These values are very close to the values suggested by the SoHT, proving their adequacy to the studied population. Overall, the obtained EtG concentrations demonstrate that participants are usually well aware of their consumption pattern, correlating with the self-reported consumed alcohol quantity, consumption habits and excessive consumption close to the time of hair sampling. PMID:26537927

  20. Seasonal patterns and individual differences in the calls of male haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus.

    PubMed

    Casaretto, L; Picciulin, M; Hawkins, A D

    2015-09-01

    Haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus males observed in captivity proved to be vocally active throughout the whole year, although the highest levels of vocal activity were reached in the spawning season between February and April. During this season, the most common type of sound consisted of sequences of regularly repeated, almost identical, double-pulsed knocks (KN). These sequences were mostly associated with a particular behaviour pattern, the patrolling display, which has previously been shown to play a key role in territoriality and spawning. Differences in the double-pulsed KNs produced by three individual males were demonstrated by two different statistical methods and it is suggested that these differences may allow individual males to be discriminated by other fish, perhaps conveying fitness-related information on the sender. Some aspects of the calls changed seasonally, perhaps reflecting observed variations in the mass of the drumming muscles. When using passive listening to locate M. aeglefinus spawning grounds, the physical characteristics of the sounds may indicate how close the individual males are to spawning. PMID:26333138

  1. Distribution pattern of surgically treated symptomatic prolapsed lumbar and sacral intervertebral discs in males

    PubMed Central

    Nnamdi, Ibe Michael Onwuzuruike

    2013-01-01

    Background: The pattern of distribution of surgically treated symptomatic prolapsed lumbar and sacral intervertebral discs has been published, though scantily, especially in males. We decided to look at our own series, compare and contrast ours with some of those published. Materials and Methods: We treated 88 locations of this lesion in 68 males. The clinical features were those of lower back pains, with or without radiation into the lower extremities, sensory loss and paresis of the limbs. There was a case of loss of urinary bladder and ano-rectal control. All lesions were confirmed through cauda-equinograms and treated under general anaesthesia in knee-chest position (MECCA position). The patients were followed up for 3-6 months post-operatively. Results: There were 88 locations in 68 males of 21-70 years of age, with 29 prolapses occurring during the age range 31-40 years, while 54 locations were on the left and 48 at L4/5. The procedures were well tolerated by all patients and there were no post-operative complications. Conclusion: This lesion in our series occurred mostly on the left, at the L4/5 level and peaked at 31-40 years age range. The predictability of occurrence of this disease, using side, level and age is still not feasible in males from our series. PMID:24403714

  2. Relationship Between Male Pattern Baldness and the Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer: An Analysis of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Cleary, Sean D.; Hoffman, Heather J.; Levine, Paul H.; Chu, Lisa W.; Hsing, Ann W.; Cook, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Male pattern baldness and prostate cancer appear to share common pathophysiologic mechanisms. However, results from previous studies that assess their relationship have been inconsistent. Therefore, we investigated the association of male pattern baldness at age 45 years with risks of overall and subtypes of prostate cancer in a large, prospective cohort—the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Methods We included 39,070 men from the usual care and screening arms of the trial cohort who had no cancer diagnosis (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) at the start of follow-up and recalled their hair-loss patterns at age 45 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression models with age as the time metric. Results During follow-up (median, 2.78 years), 1,138 incident prostate cancer cases were diagnosed, 571 of which were aggressive (biopsy Gleason score ≥ 7, and/or clinical stage III or greater, and/or fatal). Compared with no baldness, frontal plus moderate vertex baldness at age 45 years was not significantly associated with overall (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.45) or nonaggressive (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.30) prostate cancer risk but was significantly associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.80). Adjustment for covariates did not substantially alter these estimates. Other classes of baldness were not significantly associated with overall or subtypes of prostate cancer. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that frontal plus moderate vertex baldness at age 45 years is associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer and supports the possibility of common pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:25225425

  3. Ankle and knee kinetics between strike patterns at common training speeds in competitive male runners.

    PubMed

    Kuhman, Daniel; Melcher, Daniel; Paquette, Max R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of foot strike and common speeds on sagittal plane ankle and knee joint kinetics in competitive rear foot strike (RFS) runners when running with a RFS pattern and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) pattern. Sixteen competitive habitual male RFS runners ran at two different speeds (i.e. 8 and 6 min mile(-1)) using their habitual RFS and an imposed FFS pattern. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess a potential interaction between strike pattern and speed for selected ground reaction force (GRF) variables and, sagittal plane ankle and knee kinematic and kinetic variables. No foot strike and speed interaction was observed for any of the kinetic variables. Habitual RFS yielded a greater loading rate of the vertical GRF, peak ankle dorsiflexor moment, peak knee extensor moment, peak knee eccentric extensor power, peak dorsiflexion and sagittal plane knee range of motion compared to imposed FFS. Imposed FFS yielded greater maximum vertical GRF, peak ankle plantarflexor moment, peak ankle eccentric plantarflexor power and sagittal plane ankle ROM compared to habitual RFS. Consistent with previous literature, imposed FFS in habitual RFS reduces eccentric knee extensor and ankle dorsiflexor involvement but produce greater eccentric ankle plantarflexor action compared to RFS. These acute differences between strike patterns were independent of running speeds equivalent to typical easy and hard training runs in competitive male runners. Current findings along with previous literature suggest differences in lower extremity kinetics between habitual RFS and imposed FFS running are consistent among a variety of runner populations. PMID:26371382

  4. A neo-W chromosome in a tropical butterfly links colour pattern, male-killing, and speciation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David A. S.; Gordon, Ian J.; Traut, Walther; Herren, Jeremy; Collins, Steve; Martins, Dino J.; Saitoti, Kennedy; Ireri, Piera

    2016-01-01

    Sexually antagonistic selection can drive both the evolution of sex chromosomes and speciation itself. The tropical butterfly the African Queen, Danaus chrysippus, shows two such sexually antagonistic phenotypes, the first being sex-linked colour pattern, the second, susceptibility to a male-killing, maternally inherited mollicute, Spiroplasma ixodeti, which causes approximately 100% mortality in male eggs and first instar larvae. Importantly, this mortality is not affected by the infection status of the male parent and the horizontal transmission of Spiroplasma is unknown. In East Africa, male-killing of the Queen is prevalent in a narrow hybrid zone centred on Nairobi. This hybrid zone separates otherwise allopatric subspecies with different colour patterns. Here we show that a neo-W chromosome, a fusion between the W (female) chromosome and an autosome that controls both colour pattern and male-killing, links the two phenotypes thereby driving speciation across the hybrid zone. Studies of the population genetics of the neo-W around Nairobi show that the interaction between colour pattern and male-killer susceptibility restricts gene flow between two subspecies of D. chrysippus. Our results demonstrate how a complex interplay between sex, colour pattern, male-killing, and a neo-W chromosome, has set up a genetic ‘sink' that keeps the two subspecies apart. The association between the neo-W and male-killing thus provides a ‘smoking gun' for an ongoing speciation process. PMID:27440667

  5. A neo-W chromosome in a tropical butterfly links colour pattern, male-killing, and speciation.

    PubMed

    Smith, David A S; Gordon, Ian J; Traut, Walther; Herren, Jeremy; Collins, Steve; Martins, Dino J; Saitoti, Kennedy; Ireri, Piera; Ffrench-Constant, Richard

    2016-07-27

    Sexually antagonistic selection can drive both the evolution of sex chromosomes and speciation itself. The tropical butterfly the African Queen, Danaus chrysippus, shows two such sexually antagonistic phenotypes, the first being sex-linked colour pattern, the second, susceptibility to a male-killing, maternally inherited mollicute, Spiroplasma ixodeti, which causes approximately 100% mortality in male eggs and first instar larvae. Importantly, this mortality is not affected by the infection status of the male parent and the horizontal transmission of Spiroplasma is unknown. In East Africa, male-killing of the Queen is prevalent in a narrow hybrid zone centred on Nairobi. This hybrid zone separates otherwise allopatric subspecies with different colour patterns. Here we show that a neo-W chromosome, a fusion between the W (female) chromosome and an autosome that controls both colour pattern and male-killing, links the two phenotypes thereby driving speciation across the hybrid zone. Studies of the population genetics of the neo-W around Nairobi show that the interaction between colour pattern and male-killer susceptibility restricts gene flow between two subspecies of D. chrysippus Our results demonstrate how a complex interplay between sex, colour pattern, male-killing, and a neo-W chromosome, has set up a genetic 'sink' that keeps the two subspecies apart. The association between the neo-W and male-killing thus provides a 'smoking gun' for an ongoing speciation process. PMID:27440667

  6. Hair dye poisoning and rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Bokutz, Munira; Nasir, Nosheen; Mahmood, Faisal; Sajid, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Hair dye ingestion is a rare cause of toxicity in Pakistan. We are presenting the case report of a 55 year old male who presented with accidental hair dye ingestion and developed laryngeal oedema requiring emergent tracheostomy. He had also developed aspiration pneumonitis and chemical oesophagitis. However, the most alarming manifestation was rhabdomyolysis. Hair dye toxicity can be fatal if not recognized early. There is no antidote available. Rhabdomyolysis is a complication and needs to be managed aggressively in order to prevent long term morbidity. PMID:25976581

  7. Patterns of Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization in U.S. Young Adult Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rachael A; Renner, Lynette M; Clark, Cari Jo

    2016-09-01

    Dating violence (DV) is frequently reported by young adults in intimate relationships in the United States, but little is known about patterns of DV perpetration and victimization. In this study, we examined sexual and physical violence perpetration and victimization reported by young adults to determine how the violence patterns differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Data from non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic participants in Wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed. DV was assessed using responses to four questions focused on perpetration and four questions focused on victimization. The information on DV was taken from the most violent relationship reported by participants prior to Wave 3. Latent class analysis was first conducted separately by sex, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and financial stress, then by race/ethnicity, adjusting for age and financial stress. Relative model fit was established by comparing Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), adjusted BIC, entropy, interpretability of latent classes, and certainty of latent class assignment for covariate-adjusted models. The results indicate that patterns of violence differed by sex and for females, by race/ethnicity. A three-class model was the best fit for males. For females, separate four-class models were parsimonious for White, Black, and Hispanic females. Financial stress was a significant predictor of violence classification for males and females and age predicted membership in White and Black female models. Variations in DV patterns by sex and race/ethnicity suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of differences in DV. PMID:25846756

  8. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive ... or twice a week Add conditioners Avoid blow drying and harsh styling products

  9. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... much heat on your hair (like using a hot iron or hot blow drying). Another type of ...

  10. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems, diabetes, or lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also ... cause will correct the problem. Other treatments include medicines and hair restoration.

  11. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  12. Patterns of recurrence and treatment in male breast cancer: A clue to prognosis?

    PubMed

    Henriques Abreu, Miguel; Henriques Abreu, Pedro; Afonso, Noémia; Pereira, Deolinda; Henrique, Rui; Lopes, Carlos

    2016-10-15

    Male breast cancer (MBC) patients seem to have inferior survival compared to female (FBC) ones, which is not fully explained by usual prognostic factors. Recurrence analysis could show differences in relapse patterns and/or in patients' approaches that justify these outcomes. Retrospective analysis of MBC patients treated in a cancer center between 1990 and 2014, looking for relapse. For each patient, three matched FBC patients were selected by: diagnosis' year, age (within 5 years), stage and tumors' type (only luminal-like were considered). Differences between cohorts were assessed by χ(2) test and hierarchical clustering was performed to define subgroups according to relapse local. Survival curves were calculated by Kaplan-Meier and compared using log-rank test. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Groups were balanced according to age, histological grade, stage, expression of hormonal receptors and adjuvant treatments. Median time to recurrence was equivalent, p = 0.72, with the majority of patients presented with distant metastases, p = 0.69, with more lung involvement in male, p = 0.003. Male patients were more often proposed to symptomatic treatment (21.1% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.02). Overall and from recurrence survivals were poorer for male, median: 5 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.1-5.9 years] and 1 year (95% CI: 0-2.1 years) vs. 10 years (95% CI: 7.8-12.2 years) and 2 years (95% CI: 1.6-2.4 years), p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively, and this tendency remained in the five cluster subgroups, that identified five patterns of relapse, p = 0.003. MBC patients had the worst survival, even after controlling important factors, namely the local of relapse. Palliative systemic treatment had favorable impact in prognosis and its frequently avoidance in male could justify the outcomes differences. PMID:27280781

  13. Evaluation of DNA Variants Associated with Androgenetic Alopecia and Their Potential to Predict Male Pattern Baldness

    PubMed Central

    Marcińska, Magdalena; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Abidi, Sarah; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; van den Berge, Margreet; Carracedo, Ángel; Eduardoff, Mayra; Marczakiewicz-Lustig, Anna; Morling, Niels; Sijen, Titia; Skowron, Małgorzata; Söchtig, Jens; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Weiler, Natalie; Schneider, Peter M.; Ballard, David; Børsting, Claus; Parson, Walther; Phillips, Chris; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB), is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes and polymorphisms to be associated with susceptibility to MPB. In this study, 50 candidate SNPs for androgenetic alopecia were analyzed in order to verify their potential to predict MPB. Significant associations were confirmed for 29 SNPs from chromosomes X, 1, 5, 7, 18 and 20. A simple 5-SNP prediction model and an extended 20-SNP model were developed based on a discovery panel of 305 males from various European populations fitting one of two distinct phenotype categories. The first category consisted of men below 50 years of age with significant baldness and the second; men aged 50 years or older lacking baldness. The simple model comprised the five best predictors: rs5919324 near AR, rs1998076 in the 20p11 region, rs929626 in EBF1, rs12565727 in TARDBP and rs756853 in HDAC9. The extended prediction model added 15 SNPs from five genomic regions that improved overall prevalence-adjusted predictive accuracy measured by area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (AUC). Both models were evaluated for predictive accuracy using a test set of 300 males reflecting the general European population. Applying a 65% probability threshold, high prediction sensitivity of 87.1% but low specificity of 42.4% was obtained in men aged <50 years. In men aged ≥50, prediction sensitivity was slightly lower at 67.7% while specificity reached 90%. Overall, the AUC=0.761 calculated for men at or above 50 years of age indicates these SNPs offer considerable potential for the application of genetic tests to predict MPB patterns, adding a highly informative predictive system to the emerging field of forensic analysis of externally visible characteristics. PMID:26001114

  14. Clinical factors associated with a conservative gait pattern in older male veterans with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, James S; Crews, Ryan T; Connolly, John E

    2009-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy are at higher risk for falls. People with diabetes sometimes adopt a more conservative gait pattern with decreased walking speed, widened base, and increased double support time. The purpose of this study was to use a multivariate approach to describe this conservative gait pattern. Methods Male veterans (mean age = 67 years; SD = 9.8; range 37–86) with diabetes (n = 152) participated in this study from July 2000 to May 2001 at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, White River Junction, VT. Various demographic, clinical, static mobility, and plantar pressure measures were collected. Conservative gait pattern was defined by visual gait analysis as failure to demonstrate a heel-to-toe gait during the propulsive phase of gait. Results Patients with the conservative gait pattern had lower walking speed and decreased stride length compared to normal gait. (0.68 m/s v. 0.91 m/s, p < 0.001; 1.04 m v. 1.24 m, p < 0.001) Age, monofilament insensitivity, and Romberg's sign were significantly higher; and ankle dorsiflexion was significantly lower in the conservative gait pattern group. In the multivariate analysis, walking speed, age, ankle dorsiflexion, and callus were retained in the final model describing 36% of the variance. With the inclusion of ankle dorsiflexion in the model, monofilament insensitivity was no longer an independent predictor. Conclusion Our multivariate investigation of conservative gait in diabetes patients suggests that walking speed, advanced age, limited ankle dorsiflexion, and callus describe this condition more so than clinical measures of neuropathy. PMID:19389247

  15. Removing Hair Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin, and into the hair follicle. An electric current travels down the wire and destroys the hair ... a period of time. Tweezer epilators also use electric current to remove hair. The tweezers grasp the hair ...

  16. Determining the pattern of cementum annuli and relationship to reproduction in male sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proper, Josh; von Biela, Vanessa R.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the southwestern Alaskan sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population has declined dramatically and the cause has yet to be determined. Population trajectories of large mammals are determined by three factors: survival rate, reproduction rate, and age of first reproduction (AFR). Of these three, AFR should respond first to environmental change. Life history theory predicts that AFR will be older with bottom-up causes (ie, food limitation) and younger when the cause of the decline is top-down (ie, predation), as there is usually abundant resources in this scenario. Traditionally, determining AFR required lethal sampling, which may not always be possible. Work on many mammalian species suggests that the width of annual cementum layers in teeth may decline when breeding begins. If so, examining teeth annuli may provide a nonlethal alternative for determining AFR. Ongoing research has shown this relationship in female sea otters, but male sea otters have not been tested. Sea otter testes and premolar teeth slides were collected by subsistence hunters working with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Sea Otter and Steller Sea Lion Commission from Alaska (1994– 2005). We determined the pattern in cementum annuli thickness for male sea otters across age by measuring annuli at three sites on each of the two slide sections available. We found that cementum annuli layers decreased with age, but found no correlation between cementum annuli and sexual maturity in male sea otters. This lack of correlation may be due to sampling error or different energy expenditures during reproduction for each sex. Since females expend large amounts of energy through gestation and lactation, we hypothesize that the width of female cementum annuli decreases at a much sharper rate when they reach AFR.The southwest Alaskan sea otter population has plummeted up to 90% since the early 1990s and the reason is unknown.1 Declines may be due to a bottom-up source caused by

  17. EEMCO guidance for the assessment of hair shedding and alopecia.

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Marks, R; Elsner, P

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of the hair follicle anatomy and the dynamics of hair cycling is substantial. Recognizing the anagen, catagen and telogen phases as well as teloptosis and the hair eclipse phenomenon clearly characterizes the typical hair chronobiology. Physiological modulators include hormones, neuromediators, miscellaneous biomolecules, seasons, micro-inflammation and ageing. For individuals who present with the complaint of increased hair shedding or alopecia, a host of evaluation techniques are available in addition to history, physical examination and laboratory assessment. Various clinical hair techniques can help in assessing the efficacy of drugs and cosmetics on hair growth. The methods are quite similar to those used to establish a definite diagnosis in dermatological practice. Great strides have been made during the recent decades in the methodology of hair growth trials in dermatology and cosmetology. Clinical evaluations benefit from a few additional specific techniques that enhance the perception of hair (re-) growth, shedding and alopecia. These assessments include the determination of hair patterning and density that may be helped by the 'black-and-white felt' examination. Daily hair counts, the 'hair pull test' and the 'hair feathering test' are also available. Instrumental methods provide reliable quantitative information that is useful if there are adequate controls. Some photographic methods, the trichogram, hair weighing and variants of the hair growth window technique including the phototrichogram, videotrichogram and tractio-phototrichogram provide insight into the complexities of hair cycling and shedding. Skin biopsy is indicated for diagnostic purposes, especially when the hair loss is accompanied by scarring. PMID:14976387

  18. Perceived conflict patterns and relationship quality associated with verbal sexual coercion by male dating partners.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jennifer; Myhr, Laura

    2008-06-01

    The study of verbal sexual coercion in heterosexual relationships is controversial because nonphysical coercive tactics are often viewed as socially acceptable. It was hypothesized that, within couples, verbal sexual coercion will occur within a larger context of destructive conflict tactics and diminished relationship quality. Female undergraduates in consensually sexual dating relationships (N = 193) provided self-report data on male partner verbal sexual coercion perceived conflict behaviors, and relationship quality. About 21% reported current partner verbal sexual coercion. Results reveal positive associations between feeling pressured into unwanted sex and perceptions of partner psychological abuse and destructive verbal conflict patterns. Also as expected, partner verbal sexual coercion is negatively associated with relationship satisfaction and sexual functioning. The authors conclude that women's experiences of verbal sexual coercion in heterosexual relationships may reflect broader problems in the dyadic context. PMID:18272722

  19. Patterns and Correlates of Spit Tobacco Use among High School Males in Rural California

    PubMed Central

    Gansky, Stuart A.; Ellison, James A.; Kavanagh, Catherine; Isong, Umo; Walsh, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess patterns and correlates of spit [smokeless] tobacco (ST) use among high school males in rural California. Methods An 18-item, self-administered questionnaire was used to assess ST use among young males in 41 randomly selected high schools in 21 rural counties in California. To ensure confidentiality, students were instructed to seal their completed questionnaire in an attached envelope prior to returning it to the questionnaire administrator. Results Overall prevalence of ST use was 9.8 percent, significantly increasing with year in school from 5 percent among freshmen to 15 percent among seniors. ST use was highest among rodeo athletes at 42 percent compared with <6 percent among nonathletes; ST use was significantly higher among smokers (32 percent) who were 2.5-30 times more likely to use ST compared with nonsmokers, depending on race/ethnicity as a result of a significant race/ethnicity × smoking interaction of degree/magnitude. In addition, students who believed there was no, or slight risk of, harm from ST use were significantly more likely to use ST than students perceiving moderate or great risk, depending on race/ethnicity (odds ratios 3.6-13). Among all ST users, 40 percent used ST on at least 5 days in the previous week, 80 percent of those reporting a brand used the brand Copenhagen, and 41 percent (189) used ST within 30 minutes of waking. Conclusion Dental public health practitioners, scholars, and policy-makers need to promote dental health through organized community efforts targeting high school male subgroups in rural areas that are at risk for ST-associated adverse health effects. PMID:19054309

  20. Quality of life in women with female pattern hair loss and the impact of topical minoxidil treatment on quality of life in these patients.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiao-Sheng; Zheng, You-You; Xu, Jia-Jia; Fan, Wei-Xin

    2013-08-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common hair loss disorder in women and it may impact on the psychological and social activities of patients, thereby reducing their quality of life (QoL). Topical minoxidil has been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of patients with FPHL. The aim of this study was to assess the QoL of patients with FPHL and investigate whether topical minoxidil solution treatment improves the QoL of these patients. In this study, we enrolled 125 female patients aged 16-72 years to answer visual analog scale (VAS) and dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaires. Of these patients, 31 were recruited for the follow-up study after 12 months of treatment with 2% minoxidil. Each index and the change in QoL prior to and following treatment were statistically analyzed. There was identified to be a correlation between clinical severity and the values of the indices in all patients. There was a statistically significant difference between the VAS and DLQI scores prior to and following treatment with 2% minoxidil. A comparison between the good responders (n=23) and the poor responders (n=8) revealed no significant difference in the improvement of VAS and DLQI scores. The QoL of the patients was severely impaired by FPHL. The DLQI and VAS used in this study were validated as useful indices for the evaluation of QoL due to their high reliability, sensitivity and simplicity. This evaluation is recommended for the management of FPHL treatment. The results of the study demonstrated that topical minoxidil improved the QoL of the patients. PMID:24137223

  1. Mammalian hairs in Early Cretaceous amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vullo, Romain; Girard, Vincent; Azar, Dany; Néraudeau, Didier

    2010-07-01

    Two mammalian hairs have been found in association with an empty puparium in a ˜100-million-year-old amber (Early Cretaceous) from France. Although hair is known to be an ancestral, ubiquitous feature in the crown Mammalia, the structure of Mesozoic hair has never been described. In contrast to fur and hair of some Jurassic and Cretaceous mammals preserved as carbonized filaments, the exceptional preservation of the fossils described here allows for the study of the cuticular structure. Results show the oldest direct evidence of hair with a modern scale pattern. This discovery implies that the morphology of hair cuticula may have remained unchanged throughout most of mammalian evolution. The association of these hairs with a possible fly puparium provides paleoecological information and indicates peculiar taphonomic conditions.

  2. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

  3. To grow or not to grow: hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

  4. Patterns of Tobacco Consumption among Indian Men with Schizophrenia Compared to Their Male Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Vatss, Saurabh; Mehar, Harpreet; Bhatia, Triptish; Richard, Jan; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Tobacco consumption among patients with schizophrenia has been investigated extensively in western countries, but there is a dearth of studies in India, where socio-economic and cultural variables are different. This study aims to investigate the patterns of tobacco consumption among schizophrenia patients compared with their non-psychotic siblings. Methods Consenting, successive male outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=100, DSM-IV criteria), and their non-psychotic brothers (n=100) were compared. Following a structured diagnostic interview, detailed information about tobacco consumption (including smokeless tobacco) was obtained using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence for smoked tobacco, and FTND-smokeless tobacco. The University of Pennsylvania Computerized Neurocognitive battery (CNB) was administered to a sub-group of patients (n=48). Results Schizophrenia patients initiated tobacco use at a significantly earlier age than their brothers, but there was no significant difference with regard to type, quantity or frequency of tobacco use (smoke or smokeless varieties). Patients who consumed tobacco had significantly higher positive symptom scores compared with non-users (p=0.043). There were no significant differences between nicotine dependent and non-dependent patients with regard to CNB domains except attention. Conclusion Patterns of tobacco consumption were similar among schizophrenia patients and their non-psychotic brothers. Tobacco use was associated with increased positive symptom scores, but there were no significant differences in cognitive measures among nicotine dependent and non-dependent patients. PMID:22993523

  5. Age-related patterns of DHEAS among Turkana males of northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Benjamin C; Leslie, Paul; Campbell, Kenneth

    2007-12-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) has been widely associated with aging, but little is known about age-related decline of DHEAS in non-western populations. To determine the age-related pattern of DHEAS and its relationship to nutritional status in a subsistence population, we sampled Turkana nomads from northern Kenya. Subjects were 108 nomadic and 90 settled Turkana males, estimated ages 20 to 80+. Measures included blood DHEAS, height, weight, skinfolds, and waist circumference. Overall nomads exhibited less adiposity (5.7 +/- 1.8% versus 9.0 +/- 3.3% body fat) and higher blood DHEAS levels (5.2 +/- 3.3 microM versus 4.1 +/- 3.1 microM; p = 0.03). Age pattern of DHEAS was curvilinear, peaking in the 30s and 40s. General linear models (GLM) showed that blood DHEAS levels among men over 70 years of age were significantly lower than those in their 30s and 40s. Controlled for age, blood DHEAS was not related to adiposity. These results suggest that DHEAS levels were higher in those individuals who were calorie restricted. In addition, DHEAS levels rose more slowly than described in other populations, peaking in the fourth decade of life PMID:17853076

  6. Growth pattern and carcase development in male ducks selected for growth rate.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, K; Akbar, M K; Turk, C M

    1999-05-01

    1. Growth patterns of the whole body, eviscerated carcases, breast muscle, leg and thigh muscles and abdominal fat pads were compared in 4 lines (Lines A, B, C, and D) of male ducks selected for market weight (n = 1305) using growth curve analysis, allometric growth analysis and repeated measure analysis. At 49 d of age, Line A was heaviest, followed by Line B, Line C and Line D. 2. Ducks were fed ad libitum under 24-h lighting and 12 or 24 ducks were killed to determine body, carcase, breast-muscle, leg and thigh-muscle, and abdominal fat weights at time points from hatching until 53 d of age. 3. The Weibull function was chosen for growth curve analysis. The asymptote and inflection point from the Weibull growth curves identified 3 lines (Lines B, C, and D) with discrete body and carcase growth patterns but did not distinguish Line A from Line B. In all 4 lines the asymptote ranged from 4437 g to 3008 g for body weight and from 3334 g to 2098 g for carcase weight; the inflection point ranged from 22.5 d to 25.3 d for body weight and from 25.4 d to 29.6 d for carcase weight. 4. The allometric growth coefficient, relative to whole-body growth, was higher than 1.00 for breast muscle and lower than 1.00 for leg and thigh muscles during from 4 d to 53 d of age. 5. Body fat accumulation was estimated by abdominal fat. Line D accumulated more abdominal fat than other lines. The pattern of fat accumulation in Line D was different from Lines A, B and C and there were no differences between Lines A, B and C. PMID:10465391

  7. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... psychosocial impact of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively ... 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  8. Evaluation of the predictive capacity of DNA variants associated with straight hair in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Pośpiech, Ewelina; Karłowska-Pik, Joanna; Marcińska, Magdalena; Abidi, Sarah; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; van den Berge, Margreet; Carracedo, Ángel; Eduardoff, Mayra; Freire-Aradas, Ana; Morling, Niels; Sijen, Titia; Skowron, Małgorzata; Söchtig, Jens; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Weiler, Natalie; Schneider, Peter M; Ballard, David; Børsting, Claus; Parson, Walther; Phillips, Chris; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-11-01

    predictor, giving >80% probability of straight hair. Finally, association testing of 44 SNPs previously identified to be associated with male pattern baldness revealed a suggestive association with hair morphology for rs4679955 on 3q25.1. The study results reported provide the starting point for the development of a predictive test for hair morphology in Europeans. More studies are now needed to discover additional determinants of hair morphology to improve the predictive accuracy of this trait in forensic analysis. PMID:26414620

  9. Long-term safety and efficacy of dutasteride in the treatment of male patients with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Irisawa, Ryokichi; Yoshiie, Hiromu; Brotherton, Betsy; Ito, Hisahiro; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Kawashima, Makoto; Manyak, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is an androgen-induced pattern of progressive hair loss, which occurs in genetically predisposed people. This study aimed to determine long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of dutasteride 0.5 mg, an inhibitor of 5-α-reductase, in Japanese male patients with androgenetic alopecia. This was a multicenter, open-label, prospective outpatient study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01831791, GSK identifier ARI114264) in which patients took dutasteride 0.5 mg p.o. once daily for 52 weeks. Primary end-points included adverse event assessment, incidence of drug-related adverse event and premature discontinuations. Secondary end-points included hair growth, hair restoration and global improvement in hair. A total of 120 patients were enrolled, of whom 110 completed 52 weeks of treatment. Nasopharyngitis, erectile dysfunction and decreased libido were the most frequently reported adverse events and most adverse events were mild. Drug-related adverse events were reported with an incidence of 17%, none of which led to study withdrawal. Hair growth (mean target area hair count at week 52), hair restoration (mean target area hair width at week 52) and global appearance of hair (mean of the median score at week 52) improved from baseline during the study. As a potential future treatment option for male androgenetic alopecia, dutasteride 0.5 mg exhibited long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy within this study population. PMID:26893187

  10. Does Prostaglandin D2 hold the cure to male pattern baldness?

    PubMed Central

    Nieves, Ashley; Garza, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids in the skin are the most diverse in the entire human body. Their bioactivity in health and disease is underexplored. Prostaglandin D2 has recently been identified as a factor which is elevated in the bald scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia and has the capacity to decrease hair lengthening. An enzyme which synthesizes it, prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS or lipocalin-PGDS) is hormone responsive in multiple other organs. PGD2 has two known receptors, GPR44 and PTGDR. GPR44 was found to be necessary for the decrease in hair growth by PGD2. This creates an exciting opportunity to perhaps create novel treatments for androgenetic alopecia which inhibit the activity of PTGDS, PGD2 or GPR44. This review discusses the current knowledge surrounding PGD2 and future steps needed to translate these findings into novel therapies for patients with androgenetic alopecia. PMID:24521203

  11. Ethnic considerations in hair restoration surgery.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jeffrey; Bared, Anthony; Kuka, Gorana

    2014-08-01

    Patients of different ethnicities have specific characteristics that are essential for hair transplant surgeons to understand so that aesthetic results can be achieved. In this article, the approaches of follicular unit extraction and follicular unit grafting or strip hair transplants for pattern hair loss are reviewed, along with the procedures of eyebrow and beard transplants and surgical hairline advancement/forehead reduction surgeries, within various ethnic groups. PMID:25049126

  12. Metabolic syndrome influences cardiac gene expression pattern at the transcript level in male ZDF rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (coexisting visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension) is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, however, its effect on cardiac gene expression pattern is unclear. Therefore, we examined the possible alterations in cardiac gene expression pattern in male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, a model of metabolic syndrome. Methods Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured at 6, 16, and 25 wk of age in male ZDF and lean control rats. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 16 and 25 wk of age. At week 25, total RNA was isolated from the myocardium and assayed by rat oligonucleotide microarray for 14921 genes. Expression of selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Results Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly increased, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were impaired in ZDF rats compared to leans. In hearts of ZDF rats, 36 genes showed significant up-regulation and 49 genes showed down-regulation as compared to lean controls. Genes with significantly altered expression in the heart due to metabolic syndrome includes functional clusters of metabolism (e.g. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A synthase 2; argininosuccinate synthetase; 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate-coenzyme A ligase), structural proteins (e.g. myosin IXA; aggrecan1), signal transduction (e.g. activating transcription factor 3; phospholipase A2; insulin responsive sequence DNA binding protein-1) stress response (e.g. heat shock 70kD protein 1A; heat shock protein 60; glutathione S-transferase Yc2 subunit), ion channels and receptors (e.g. ATPase, (Na+)/K+ transporting, beta 4 polypeptide; ATPase, H+/K+ transporting, nongastric, alpha polypeptide). Moreover some other genes with no definite functional clusters were also changed such as e.g. S100 calcium binding protein A3; ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1; interleukin

  13. The Association between Dietary Patterns and Semen Quality in a General Asian Population of 7282 Males

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chin-Yu; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chao, Jane C. -J.; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Cha, Tai-Lung; Tsao, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between different dietary patterns and semen quality in a general Asian male population. Methods Cross-sectional study. Healthy Taiwanese men aged 18 years or older who participated in a standard medical screening program from 2008-2013 run by a private firm were included in this study. Semen parameters including sperm concentration (SC), total sperm motility (TSM), progressive motility (PRM) and normal sperm morphology (NSM) were recorded. A dietary questionnaire was used to categorize the participants into 5 groups: “Healthy diet”, “Western diet”, “High-carbohydrate diet”, “High sweet snacks & sugar-sweetened drinks” and “High-sodium diet”. Results A total of 7282 men completed the questionnaire regarding dietary pattern, and examination of anthropometric indexes was performed and laboratory data were obtained. A high intake of a “Western diet” resulted in statistically linear declines of SC and NSM (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). Similarly, a greater intake of “High sweet snacks & sugar-sweetened drinks” was associated with a lower SC (P = 0.001). Increased intake of a “High-carbohydrate diet” was related to higher prevalences of abnormal TSM and PRM (P = 0.012 and P = 0.025). Similarly, a greater intake of a “High-sodium diet” was correlated with an elevated prevalence of abnormal NSM (P = 0.035). Conclusions This study showed that a greater intake of a “Western diet” is associated with poorer SC and NSM, a “High sweet snacks and sugar-sweetened drinks” intake is correlated with a lower SC, and high-carbohydrate food is related to elevated prevalences of abnormal TSM and PRM. PMID:26218796

  14. Current Practice Patterns Among Members of the American Urological Association for Male Genitourinary Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Gaither, Thomas W.; Awad, Mohannad A.; Alwaal, Amjad; Erickson, Bradley A.; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the practice patterns of urologists who treat male genitourinary lichen sclerosus (MGU-LS) via a national web-based survey distributed to American Urological Association members. Methods A 20-question survey was collected from a random sample of American Urological Association members. Respondents answered questions on their practice patterns for MGU-LS diagnosis, treatment of symptomatic urethral stricture disease, surveillance, and follow-up. Results In total, 309 urologists completed the survey. The majority of respondents reported practicing more than 20+ years (37.5%) within an academic (31.7%) or group practice (31.1%) setting. The majority of respondents saw 3-5 men with MGU-LS per year (32.7%). The most common locations of MGU-LS involvement included the glans penis (66.2%), foreskin (26.3%), and/or the urethra (5.8%). Respondent first-line treatment for urethral stricture disease was direct visual internal urethrotomy (26.6%) and second-line treatment was referral to subspecialist (38.4%). After controlling for the number of patients evaluated with MGU-LS per year, those with reconstructive training were more likely to perform a primary urethroplasty for men with symptomatic urethral stricture disease (adjusted odds ratio 13.1, 95% confidence interval 5.1-33.8, P < .001). They were also more likely to counsel men on the associated penile cancer risks (adjusted odds ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval 1.7-12.5, P < .01). Conclusion Reconstructive urologists evaluate the most number of patients with MGU-LS and are more likely to perform primary urethroplasty for urethral stricture disease. Men with MGU-LS should be referred to a reconstructive urologist to understand the full gamut of treatment options. PMID:26948526

  15. Hair care and dyeing.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient. PMID:26370650

  16. Hair follicle anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    At the base of the hair follicle are sensory nerve fibers that wrap around each hair bulb. Bending the hair stimulates the nerve endings allowing a person to feel that the hair has been moved. One of the main functions of hair is to act ...

  17. Altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns in adult males with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Nakamura, Motoaki; Ohno, Taisei; Itahashi, Takashi; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Kanai, Chieko; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Functions of the orbitofrontal cortex include diverse social, cognitive and affective processes, many of which are abnormal in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recently, altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns have been revealed in several psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, indicating a possibility that altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral morphology reflects abnormal neurodevelopment. However, the presence of sulcal alterations in ASD remains unexplored. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging, subtypes of the ‘H-shaped’ sulcus (Type I, II and III, in order of frequency), posterior orbital sulcus (POS) and intermediate orbital sulcus were identified in each hemisphere of adult males with ASD (n = 51) and matched normal controls (n = 55) based on the study by Chiavaras and Petrides. ASD showed a significantly altered distribution of H-shaped sulcal subtypes in both hemispheres, with a significant increase of Type III. A significant alteration in the distribution of sulcal subtypes was also identified in the right hemisphere POS of ASD. Categorical regression analysis revealed that Type I and II expressions predicted a reduced total Autism-Spectrum Quotient score. Furthermore, Type I expression was associated with a reduced ‘attention to detail’ subscale score. The results demonstrate that altered sulcogyral morphology can be a marker for abnormal neurodevelopment leading to the increased risk of developing autism. PMID:23386741

  18. Patterns of male reproductive success in a highly promiscuous whale species: the endangered North Atlantic right whale.

    PubMed

    Frasier, T R; Hamilton, P K; Brown, M W; Conger, L A; Knowlton, A R; Marx, M K; Slay, C K; Kraus, S D; White, B N

    2007-12-01

    Parentage analyses of baleen whales are rare, and although mating systems have been hypothesized for some species, little data on realized male reproductive success are available and the patterns of male reproductive success have remained elusive for most species. Here we combine over 20 years of photo-identification data with high-resolution genetic data for the majority of individual North Atlantic right whales to assess paternity in this endangered species. There was significant skew in male reproductive success compared to what would be expected if mating was random (P < 0.001). The difference was due to an excess of males assigned zero paternities, a deficiency of males assigned one paternity, and an excess of males assigned as fathers for multiple calves. The variance in male reproductive success was high relative to other aquatically mating marine mammals, but was low relative to mammals where the mating system is based on resource- and/or mate-defence polygyny. These results are consistent with previous data suggesting that the right whale mating system represents one of the most intense examples of sperm competition in mammals, but that sperm competition on its own does not allow for the same degree of polygyny as systems where males can control access to resources and/or mates. The age distribution of assigned fathers was significantly biased towards older males (P < 0.05), with males not obtaining their first paternity until approximately 15 years of age, which is almost twice the average age of first fertilization in females (8 years), suggesting that mate competition is preventing younger males from reproducing. The uneven distribution of paternities results in a lower effective population size in this species that already has one of the lowest reported levels of genetic diversity, which may further inhibit reproductive success through mate incompatibility of genetically similar individuals. PMID:17971086

  19. Consumption and the constitution of age: expenditure patterns on clothing, hair and cosmetics among post-war 'baby boomers'.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Julia; Majima, Shinobu

    2014-08-01

    The article addresses debates around the changing nature of old age, using U.K. data on spending on dress and related aspects of appearance by older women to explore the potential role of consumption in the reconstitution of aged identities. Based on pseudo-cohort analysis of Family Expenditures Survey, it compares spending patterns on clothing, cosmetics and hairdressing, 1961-2011. It concludes that there is little evidence for the 'baby boomers' as a strategic or distinctive generation. There is evidence, however, for increased engagement by older women in aspects of appearance: shopping for clothes more frequently; more involved in the purchase of cosmetics; and women over 75 are now the most frequent attenders at hairdressers. The roots of these patterns, however, lie more in period than cohort effects, and in the role of producer-led developments such as mass cheap fashion and the development of anti-ageing products. PMID:24984905

  20. Inter-Sentential Patterns of Code-Switching: A Gender-Based Investigation of Male and Female EFL Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulzar, Malik Ajmal; Farooq, Muhammad Umar; Umer, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    This article has sought to contribute to discussions concerning the value of inter-sentential patterns of code-switching (henceforth ISPCS) particularly in the context of EFL classrooms. Through a detailed analysis of recorded data produced in that context, distinctive features in the discourse were discerned which were associated with males' and…

  1. The effects of perceived mating opportunities on patterns of reproductive investment by male guppies.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Luke T; Evans, Jonathan P; Gasparini, Clelia

    2014-01-01

    Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection) and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection). Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour) or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity) investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size. PMID:24705713

  2. Social behavior and patterns of testosterone and glucocorticoid levels differ between male chacma and Guinea baboons.

    PubMed

    Kalbitzer, Urs; Heistermann, Michael; Cheney, Dorothy; Seyfarth, Robert; Fischer, Julia

    2015-09-01

    In multi-male, multi-female groups of mammals, males usually compete aggressively over access to females. However, species vary in the intensity of male contest competition, which has been linked to differences in testosterone and glucocorticoid profiles. Chacma (Papio ursinus) and Guinea (P. papio) baboons constitute an intriguing model to examine variation in male competition and male endocrine correlates, because of the differences in their social systems. Chacma baboons live in stable female-bonded groups with linear male dominance hierarchies and a high male mating skew, whereas Guinea baboons live in male-bonded, multi-level societies. We recorded male behavior and assayed testosterone (fT) and glucocorticoid metabolite (fGC) levels from fecal samples in one population of each species. Male chacma baboons were more frequently involved in agonistic interactions, and dominance relationships were more consistent than in Guinea baboons, where we could not detect linear hierarchies. Notably, male chacma baboons were also more aggressive towards females, indicating an overall higher aggressiveness in this species. In contrast, male Guinea baboons showed higher levels of affiliative interactions and spatial tolerance. High-ranking and consorting male chacma baboons showed elevated fGC levels and also tended to show elevated fT levels, but there was no effect of consortship in Guinea baboons. Agonism was not related to hormone levels in either species. Thus, predictors of fT and fGC levels in Guinea baboons seem to differ from chacma baboons. Our results support the view that different social systems create differential selection pressures for male aggression, reflected by different hormone profiles. PMID:26344413

  3. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002702.htm Hair bleach poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows hair bleach or ...

  4. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair spray or sprays it down their throat or ... The harmful ingredients in hair spray are: Carboxymethylcellulose ... Polyvinyl alcohol Propylene glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  5. Changing Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Changing Your Hair KidsHealth > For Kids > Changing Your Hair Print A ... straight when it's curly. Treatments That Can Damage Hair Are these treatments OK for kids? That's something ...

  6. Spatial reflection patterns of iridescent wings of male pierid butterflies: curved scales reflect at a wider angle than flat scales.

    PubMed

    Pirih, Primož; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2011-10-01

    The males of many pierid butterflies have iridescent wings, which presumably function in intraspecific communication. The iridescence is due to nanostructured ridges of the cover scales. We have studied the iridescence in the males of a few members of Coliadinae, Gonepteryx aspasia, G. cleopatra, G. rhamni, and Colias croceus, and in two members of the Colotis group, Hebomoia glaucippe and Colotis regina. Imaging scatterometry demonstrated that the pigmentary colouration is diffuse whereas the structural colouration creates a directional, line-shaped far-field radiation pattern. Angle-dependent reflectance measurements demonstrated that the directional iridescence distinctly varies among closely related species. The species-dependent scale curvature determines the spatial properties of the wing iridescence. Narrow beam illumination of flat scales results in a narrow far-field iridescence pattern, but curved scales produce broadened patterns. The restricted spatial visibility of iridescence presumably plays a role in intraspecific signalling. PMID:21744009

  7. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  8. Alternative Mating Tactics in Male Chameleons (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) Are Evident in Both Long-Term Body Color and Short-Term Courtship Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Keren-Rotem, Tammy; Levy, Noga; Wolf, Lior; Bouskila, Amos; Geffen, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Alternative mating tactics in males of various taxa are associated with body color, body size, and social status. Chameleons are known for their ability to change body color following immediate environmental or social stimuli. In this study, we examined whether the differential appearance of male common chameleon during the breeding season is indeed an expression of alternative mating tactics. We documented body color of males and used computer vision techniques to classify images of individuals into discrete color patterns associated with seasons, individual characteristics, and social contexts. Our findings revealed no differences in body color and color patterns among males during the non-breeding season. However, during the breeding season males appeared in several color displays, which reflected body size, social status, and behavioral patterns. Furthermore, smaller and younger males resembled the appearance of small females. Consequently, we suggest that long-term color change in males during the breeding season reflects male alternative mating tactics. Upon encounter with a receptive female, males rapidly alter their appearance to that of a specific brief courtship display, which reflects their social status. The females, however, copulated indiscriminately in respect to male color patterns. Thus, we suggest that the differential color patterns displayed by males during the breeding season are largely aimed at inter-male signaling. PMID:27409771

  9. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the US national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15–20 years) participants reported sexual orientation, past-year desire for toned/defined muscles and concerns with weight and shape, and past-year binge eating, restrictive dieting, purging (vomiting or laxative use) and use of products to increase muscularity (e.g., creatine, steroids). Latent class analyses identified two patterns at ages 15–16 years and three patterns at 17–18 and 19–20 years: Healthy (all ages; low body image concerns and weight-and shape-related behaviors; 54%–74% of observations), Muscle-Concerned (ages 17–18 and 19– 20; relatively high muscularity concern and product use; 18%–21% of observations), and Lean-Concerned (all ages; relatively high weight and shape concern, dieting, and binge eating; 19%– 28% of observations). Latent transition analyses revealed that sexual minority males (i.e., mostly heterosexual, gay, and bisexual) were more likely than completely heterosexual males to be Lean-Concerned at ages 17–18 and 19–20 years and to transition to the Lean-Concerned class from the Healthy class. There were no sexual orientation differences in odds of being Muscle-Concerned. Both heterosexual and sexual minority males are at risk for presenting body image concerns and weight- and shape-related behaviors that may have deleterious health consequences. Results suggest the need for screening for concerns and behaviors related to leanness and muscularity in early adolescence among all males, regardless of sexual orientation. PMID:26098578

  10. Patterns of body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors in heterosexual and sexual minority adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Calzo, Jerel P; Masyn, Katherine E; Corliss, Heather L; Scherer, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual orientation, past-year desire for toned/defined muscles and concerns with weight and shape, and past-year binge eating, restrictive dieting, purging (vomiting or laxative use), and use of products to increase muscularity (e.g., creatine, steroids). Latent class analyses identified 2 patterns at ages 15-16 years and 3 patterns at 17-18 and 19-20 years: healthy (all ages; low body image concerns and weight- and shape-related behaviors; 54-74% of observations), muscle-concerned (ages 17-18 and 19-20; relatively high muscularity concern and product use; 18-21% of observations), and lean-concerned (all ages; relatively high weight and shape concern, dieting, and binge eating; 19-28% of observations). Latent transition analyses revealed that sexual minority males (i.e., mostly heterosexual, gay, and bisexual) were more likely than completely heterosexual males to be lean-concerned at ages 17-18 and 19-20 years and to transition to the lean-concerned class from the healthy class. There were no sexual orientation differences in odds of being muscle-concerned. Both heterosexual and sexual minority males are at risk for presenting body image concerns and weight- and shape-related behaviors that may have deleterious health consequences. Results suggest the need for screening for concerns and behaviors related to leanness and muscularity in early adolescence among all males, regardless of sexual orientation. PMID:26098578

  11. Species identification key of Korean mammal hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunok; Choi, Tae-Young; Woo, Donggul; Min, Mi-Sook; Sugita, Shoei; Lee, Hang

    2014-05-01

    The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology. PMID:24451929

  12. Work Alienation, Patterns of Substance Use and Country of Origin among Male Hospitality Workers in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander; Belhassen, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study examined the relationship between work alienation, country of origin and substance use among male hospitality workers in Israel. Results show work alienation more prevalent among Former Soviet Union origin males and those workers who binge drink and use cannabis (i.e., marijuana and/or hashish). Given the paucity of…

  13. Environmental effects on the shape variation of male ultraviolet patterns in the Brimstone butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni, Pieridae, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Pecháček, Pavel; Stella, David; Keil, Petr; Kleisner, Karel

    2014-12-01

    The males of the Brimstone butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni) have ultraviolet pattern on the dorsal surfaces of their wings. Using geometric morphometrics, we have analysed correlations between environmental variables (climate, productivity) and shape variability of the ultraviolet pattern and the forewing in 110 male specimens of G. rhamni collected in the Palaearctic zone. To start with, we subjected the environmental variables to principal component analysis (PCA). The first PCA axis (precipitation, temperature, latitude) significantly correlated with shape variation of the ultraviolet patterns across the Palaearctic. Additionally, we have performed two-block partial least squares (PLS) analysis to assess co-variation between intraspecific shape variation and the variation of 11 environmental variables. The first PLS axis explained 93% of variability and represented the effect of precipitation, temperature and latitude. Along this axis, we observed a systematic increase in the relative area of ultraviolet colouration with increasing temperature and precipitation and decreasing latitude. We conclude that the shape variation of ultraviolet patterns on the forewings of male Brimstones is correlated with large-scale environmental factors. PMID:25280559

  14. Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair. PMID:17033177

  15. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22-54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ-related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm's fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  16. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  17. Hair-cell counts and afferent innervation patterns in the cristae ampullares of the squirrel monkey with a comparison to the chinchilla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, C.; Lysakowski, A.; Goldberg, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    1. The numbers of type I and type II hair cells were estimated by dissector techniques applied to semithin, stained sections of the horizontal, superior, and posterior cristae in the squirrel monkey and the chinchilla. 2. The crista in each species was divided into concentrically arranged central, intermediate, and peripheral zones of equal areas. The three zones can be distinguished by the sizes of individual hair cells and calyx endings, by the density of hair cells, and by the relative frequency of calyx endings innervating single or multiple type I hair cells. 3. In the monkey crista, type I hair cells outnumber type II hair cells by a ratio of almost 3:1. The ratio decreases from 4-5:1 in the central and intermediate zones to under 2:1 in the peripheral zone. For the chinchilla, the ratio is near 1:1 for the entire crista and decreases only slightly between the central and peripheral zones. 4. Nerve fibers supplying the cristae in the squirrel monkey were labeled by extracellular injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the vestibular nerve. Peripheral terminations of individual fibers were reconstructed and related to the zones of the cristae they innervated and to the sizes of their parent axons. Results were similar for the horizontal, superior, and posterior cristae. 5. Axons seldom bifurcate below the neuroepithelium. Most fibers begin branching shortly after crossing the basement membrane. Their terminal arbors are compact, usually extending no more than 50-100 microns from the parent exon. A small number of long intraepithelial fibers enter the intermediate and peripheral zones of the cristae near its base, then run unbranched for long distances through the neuroepithelium to reach the central zone. 6. There are three classes of afferent fibers innervating the monkey crista. Calyx fibers terminate exclusively on type I hair cells, and bouton fibers end only on type II hair cells. Dimorphic fibers provide a mixed innervation, including calyx

  18. Diffuse Hair Loss Induced by Sertraline Use

    PubMed Central

    Kıvrak, Yüksel; Yağcı, İbrahim; Üstündağ, Mehmet Fatih; Özcan, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a rare side effect of psychotropic drugs. The most related drug class with this side effect is the mood stabilizers. Studies reporting the sertraline-induced alopecia are limited in number. Sertraline is a potent antidepressant which inhibits the serotonin reuptake from the presynaptic terminals selectively. The reason for hair loss could not be elucidated completely. Psychotropic drugs are usually considered to lead to hair loss through influencing the telogen phase of hair follicle. This paper reports a 21-year-old male with diffuse hair loss induced by sertraline use and improved by quitting the drug. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other case reports on sertraline-induced alopecia within 2 weeks. PMID:26457219

  19. LPS alters pattern of sickness behavior but does not affect glutathione level in aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Wrotek, Sylwia; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Nowakowska, Anna; Kozak, Wiesław

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral symptoms of sickness, such as fever and motor activity are a coordinated set of changes that develop during infection. The aim of study was to compare the sickness behaviour (SB) in healthy old and young rats treated with pyrogenic dose of endotoxin and to check their glutathione level. Before experimentation male Wistar rats were selected according to standard body mass, motor activity, and white blood cells count. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli was used to provoke SB. The level of liver glutathione, interleukin (IL) -6, deep body temperature (Tb) and motor activity were measured. Glutathione level in old and young rats did not differ significantly. In both young and old rats LPS administration provoked fever (the mean value of Tb was 38.06 ± 0.01 °C in old rats, and 38.19 ± 0.06 °C in young rats). LPS injection affected night-time activity in both groups (12 h averages were 1.56 ± 0.40 counts in old LPS-treated rats vs 2.74 ± 0.53 counts in not-treated old rats and 3.44 ± 0.60 counts for young LPS-treated vs 4.28 ± 0.57 counts for young not-treated rats). The injection of LPS provoked an elevation of plasma IL-6 concentration (from values below the lowest detectable standard in not-treated groups of animals to 6322.82 ± 537.00 pg/mL in old LPS-treated rats and 7415.62 ± 451.88 pg/mL in young LPS-treated rats). Based on these data, we conclude that good health of aged rats prevents decrease in the glutathione level. Old rats are still able to develop SB in response to pyrogenic dose of LPS, although its components have changed pattern compared to young animals. PMID:26829940

  20. Screening for male osteoporosis at an academic medical center: retrospective analysis of DXA usage patterns over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Ivory, Dedri Markita; Siva, Chokkalingam; Velázquez, Celso; Abdinoor, Abdillahi Abdi

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that men have higher mortality rates than women after a hip fracture. Although the risk of osteoporotic fractures in men is increasing, male osteoporosis still remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In general, male osteoporosis is given low priority by policy makers in public health initiatives. The purpose of this study is to examine the patterns of use and gender distribution of DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scan usage at a university medical center in the United States. The total number of DXA scans increased during the study period while the percentage of men studied actually declined. The results of this study may lead to heightened awareness among providers who are caring for male patients at risk for osteoporosis. PMID:21956247

  1. Patterns of finasteride use in the male populations of four Nordic countries: A cross-national drug utilization study.

    PubMed

    Kjærulff, T M; Ersbøll, A K; Green, A; Emneus, M; Pukkala, E; Bolin, K; Stavem, K; Iversen, P; Brasso, K; Hallas, J; Thygesen, L C

    2016-06-01

    Objective Finasteride 5 mg is a drug used to treat prostate hyperplasia. Little is known about its pattern of usage. This cross-national analysis of individual-level data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was undertaken to appraise its usage and describe cross-national differences. Materials and methods Individual-level data from nationwide prescription registers in Denmark (1995-2009), Finland (1997-2010), Norway (2004-2009) and Sweden (July 2005-2011) were used to examine cross-national finasteride utilization patterns in the adult male population (≥15 years). The study presents period prevalences, incidence rates, waiting time distributions and Lorenz curves. Results During the study period, 295,620 men had at least one prescription redemption of finasteride 5 mg, and there were approximately 3 million dispensing events of finasteride prescriptions in the four Nordic countries. Different patterns of finasteride use were observed among the four Nordic countries. The period prevalence was markedly higher in Finland and Sweden than in Denmark and Norway. In 2009, period prevalences were 18.2/1000 males in Finland and 12.0/1000 males in Sweden compared to 6.7/1000 males in Norway and 4.9/1000 males in Denmark. Incidence rates of finasteride use for Finland, Norway and Sweden were about three times that for Denmark in 2008-2009. Long-term use of finasteride was found in all four Nordic countries with a high ratio between prevalent and incident users. Conclusion Despite resemblances regarding political systems and healthcare services in the Nordic countries, differences in finasteride utilization were found across Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. PMID:26901820

  2. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  3. Hair cosmetics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  4. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  5. Comparing movement patterns of satellite-tagged male and female polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Garner, G.W.

    2001-01-01

    Satellite radiotelemetry has provided great insights into the movements and behaviors of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The diameter of the neck of adult male polar bears exceeds that of their head, however, and radio collars slip off. This has limited collection of movement information to that from radio-collared females. To overcome this difficulty and gather information about their movements, we surgically implanted satellite radio transmitters into 7 male polar bears during 1996 and 1997. We compared movements of implanted males with those of 104 adult females radio-collared between 1985 and 1995. Transmitters were implanted under the skin on the midline of the top of the neck and were equipped with percutaneous antennae. Implanted transmitters operated for up to 161 days providing 3217 satellite relocations. While transmitting, radios implanted in males provided a larger proportion of the highest quality category of position fixes than was obtained from radio-collared females. However, all implanted radios ceased transmitting before reaching their projected life-span. The abrupt termination of transmission from implanted radios suggested mechanical rather than electronic failure. Mean rates of short-term movement for males (1.18 km/h) were lower than for solitary females, females with cubs, and females with yearlings (1.70, 1.84, and 1.95 km/h, respectively). Net geographic movements from the beginning to the end of each month were comparable for males (mean = 135 km) and females (mean = 114, 152, and 168 km). Mean azimuths of these net movements also appeared to be similar. Monthly activity-area sizes for males (mean = 8541 km2) were comparable to those for females (mean = 3698, 9397, and 10 585 km2) during the time period of comparison. In contrast to the other movement measures, males traveled longer mean distances (387 km) each month than did females (217, 289, and 302 km). Movements of males, it appears, were more directed than those of females, but males

  6. Male-like behavioral patterns and physiological alterations induced by androgenic gland implantation in female crayfish.

    PubMed

    Barki, Assaf; Karplus, Ilan; Khalaila, Isam; Manor, Rivka; Sagi, Amir

    2003-06-01

    The androgenic gland (AG) has been shown to regulate male sexual differentiation and secondary male characteristics in Crustacea. This study presents for the first time in crustaceans evidence for masculinization effects of the AG on reproductive behavior, in addition to morpho-anatomical and physiological effects. AG implantation into immature female red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus inhibited secondary vitellogenesis and development of the ovaries, as well as morphological traits that facilitate maternal egg brooding; it also caused the appearance of secondary male characteristics. However, primary male characteristics and a masculine reproductive system were not developed. In pair encounters, aggression was substantially lower in interactions between AG-implanted and intact females than in interactions within AG-implanted or intact pairs. Moreover, elements of mating behavior, i.e. male courtship displays and false copulations, were exhibited by AG-implanted females in several encounters with intact females. In addition to known morpho-anatomical and physiological effects of the AG in crustaceans, the present study suggests that the AG has novel effects on the neural network that generates social behavior. PMID:12728000

  7. Male rats that differ in novelty exploration demonstrate distinct patterns of sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jennifer A.; Clinton, Sarah M.; Perry, Adam N.; Akil, Huda; Becker, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    High versus low novelty exploration predicts a variety of behavioral differences. For example, rats selectively-bred for high novelty exploration (bred High Responders, bHR) exhibit exaggerated aggression, impulsivity, and proclivity to addictive behaviors compared to low novelty-reactive rats (bred Low Responders, bLRs), which are characterized by a high anxiety/depressive-like phenotype. Since bHR/bLR rats exhibit differences in dopaminergic circuitry and differential response to rewarding stimuli (i.e., psychostimulants, food), the present study examined whether they also differ in another key hedonic behavior – sex. Thus, adult bHR/bLR males were given five 30-min opportunities to engage in sexual activity with a receptive female. Sexual behavior and motivation were examined and compared between the groups. The bHR/bLR phenotype affected both sexual motivation and behavior, with bLR males demonstrating reduced motivation for sex compared with bHR males (i.e., fewer animals copulated, longer latency to engage in sex). The bHR males required more intromissions at a faster pace per ejaculation than did bLR males. Thus, neurobiological differences that affect motivation for drugs of abuse, aggression, and impulsivity in rats also affect sexual motivation and performance. PMID:23398441

  8. Aging of hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation. PMID:17166201

  9. Differences in Movement Pattern and Detectability between Males and Females Influence How Common Sampling Methods Estimate Sex Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, João Fabrício Mota; Coelho, Marco Túlio Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    Sampling the biodiversity is an essential step for conservation, and understanding the efficiency of sampling methods allows us to estimate the quality of our biodiversity data. Sex ratio is an important population characteristic, but until now, no study has evaluated how efficient are the sampling methods commonly used in biodiversity surveys in estimating the sex ratio of populations. We used a virtual ecologist approach to investigate whether active and passive capture methods are able to accurately sample a population’s sex ratio and whether differences in movement pattern and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex-ratios when using these methods. Our simulation allowed the recognition of individuals, similar to mark-recapture studies. We found that differences in both movement patterns and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex ratios. However, increasing the sampling effort or the number of sampling days improves the ability of passive or active capture methods to properly sample sex ratio. Thus, prior knowledge regarding movement patterns and detectability for species is important information to guide field studies aiming to understand sex ratio related patterns. PMID:27441554

  10. Male–female relatedness and patterns of male reproductive investment in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Luisa J.; Gasparini, Clelia; Fitzpatrick, John L.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding can cause reductions in fitness, driving the evolution of pre- and postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. There is now considerable evidence for such processes in females, but few studies have focused on males, particularly in the context of postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance. Here, we address this topic by exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to either full-sibling or unrelated females and determining whether they adjust investment in courtship and ejaculates. Our results revealed that males reduce their courtship but concomitantly exhibit short-term increases in ejaculate quality when paired with siblings. In conjunction with prior work reporting cryptic female preferences for unrelated sperm, our present findings reveal possible sexually antagonistic counter-adaptations that may offset postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance by females. PMID:24806425

  11. Analysis of human hair to assess exposure to organophosphate flame retardants: Influence of hair segments and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Lin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Zheng, Jing; Lei, Wei-Xiang; Li, Hong-Fang; Wang, Mei-Huan; He, Chun-Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-07-01

    Hair is a promising, non-invasive, human biomonitoring matrix that can provide insight into retrospective and integral exposure to organic pollutants. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in hair and serum samples from university students in Guangzhou, China, and compared the PFR concentrations in the female hair segments using paired distal (5~10cm from the root) and proximal (0~5cm from the root) samples. PFRs were not detected in the serum samples. All PFRs except tricresyl phosphate (TMPP) and tri-n-propyl phosphate (TPP) were detected in more than half of all hair samples. The concentrations of total PFRs varied from 10.1 to 604ng/g, with a median of 148ng/g. Tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tri(2-ethylexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were the predominant PFRs in hair. The concentrations of most PFRs in the distal segments were 1.5~8.6 times higher than those in the proximal segments of the hair (t-test, p<0.05), which may be due to the longer exposure time of the distal segments to external sources. The values of log (PFR concentrations-distal/PFR concentrations-proximal) were positively and significantly correlated with log KOA of PFRs (p<0.05, r=0.68), indicating that PFRs with a higher log KOA tend to accumulate in hair at a higher rate than PFRs with a lower log KOA. Using combined segments of female hair, significantly higher PFR concentrations were observed in female hair than in male hair. In contrast, female hair exhibited significantly lower PFR concentrations than male hair when using the same hair position for both genders (0-5cm from the scalp). The controversial results regarding gender differences in PFRs in hair highlight the importance of segmental analysis when using hair as an indicator of human exposure to PFRs. PMID:27078091

  12. Low level laser therapy and hair regrowth: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Schachner, Lawrence A; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2016-02-01

    Despite the current treatment options for different types of alopecia, there is a need for more effective management options. Recently, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was evaluated for stimulating hair growth. Here, we reviewed the current evidence on the LLLT effects with an evidence-based approach, focusing more on randomized controlled studies by critically evaluating them. In order to investigate whether in individuals presenting with hair loss (male pattern hair loss (MPHL), female pattern hair loss (FPHL), alopecia areata (AA), and chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA)) LLLT is effective for hair regrowth, several databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Database were searched using the following keywords: Alopecia, Hair loss, Hair growth, Low level laser therapy, Low level light therapy, Low energy laser irradiation, and Photobiomodulation. From the searches, 21 relevant studies were summarized in this review including 2 in vitro, 7 animal, and 12 clinical studies. Among clinical studies, only five were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which evaluated LLLT effect on male and female pattern hair loss. The RCTs were critically appraised using the created checklist according to the Critical Appraisal for Therapy Articles Worksheet created by the Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford. The results demonstrated that all the performed RCTs have moderate to high quality of evidence. However, only one out of five studies performed intention-to-treat analysis, and only another study reported the method of randomization and subsequent concealment of allocation clearly; all other studies did not include this very important information in their reports. None of these studies reported the treatment effect of factors such as number needed to treat. Based on this review on all the available evidence about effect of LLLT in alopecia, we found that the FDA-cleared LLLT devices are both safe and effective in patients with MPHL and FPHL

  13. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Song, Shuangqi

    2015-12-22

    A hair treatment process for providing dispersed colors by light diffraction including (a) coating the hair with a material comprising a polymer, (b) pressing the hair with a pressing device including one or more surfaces, and (c) forming a secondary nanostructured surface pattern on the hair that is complementary to the primary nanostructured surface pattern on the one or more surfaces of the pressing device. The secondary nanostructured surface pattern diffracts light into dispersed colors that are visible on the hair. The section of the hair is pressed with the pressing device for from about 1 to 55 seconds. The polymer has a glass transition temperature from about 55.degree. C. to about 90.degree. C. The one or more surfaces include a primary nanostructured surface pattern.

  14. Sexual selection mediated by the thermoregulatory effects of male colour pattern in the ambush bug Phymata americana

    PubMed Central

    Punzalan, David; Rodd, F. Helen; Rowe, Locke

    2007-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in coloration is a taxonomically widespread phenomenon often attributed to sexual selection on visual signals. However, the ambush bug Phymata americana exhibits sexual dimorphism in coloration that has no apparent signalling function. Here we provide evidence that colour pattern in this species influences male mating success indirectly through its effect on thermoregulation. We demonstrate, using experimental manipulation, that individuals with dark colour pattern achieve higher thoracic temperatures under illumination. We also show that dark colour pattern predicted mate-searching success but only under thermally challenging conditions (i.e. cool ambient temperature). As far as we are aware, this is the first study to provide evidence that sexual dimorphism can be accounted for by sexual selection on thermoregulatory performance. PMID:18089533

  15. Changes in Drinking Patterns across the Transition to College among First-Year College Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph; Lamb, Toby; Pedersen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Few studies examine changes in drinking behavior during the transition from high school to college. Using a sample of 239 first-year males, we hypothesized that participants would increase drinking from pre-college to the first month of college. Results reveal a general trend toward increased drinking upon entering college. Caucasians increased…

  16. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  17. Different but Similar: Computer Use Patterns between Young Korean Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Keol; Meier, Ellen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to identify and describe new trends and gender differences in the use of computers and the Internet in South Korea. In this mixed-method study, both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used. Results indicated that both males and females used computers generally for four purposes: social networking, personal…

  18. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

  19. A Retrospective Study of the Pattern of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Males: Viral Infections in Emerging Trend

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Vijayabhaskar; Prabhakar, Prathyusha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to be a major public health problem with significant burden on the society even after so many health care programmes being organized by the governmental and non-governmental organizations and awareness created among general public about STIs. Male patients are common visitors to STI clinic than females who are generally traced as a contact in our society. Aim The aim of this study was to give an overview of the pattern of STIs among males at a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 5 years. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart review of the data collected from the clinical records of all male patients, who had attended the STI clinic of Chengalpattu Medical College Hospital, Chengalpattu, Tamil Nadu, for various complaints during the 5 year period from 2010 to 2014 was carried out. All male patients with confirmed STIs were included in the study and those patients without any evidence of STIs either clinically or serologically were excluded from the study. Results Out of the 4454 male cases who had attended the STI clinic, 175 (3.93%) patients had STIs. Genital wart accounted for the maximum number among the STIs with 61 cases (34.86%), followed by genital herpes 56 (32%), urethral discharge 19(10.86%), non-herpetic genital ulcerative diseases 17(9.71%) and serological test for syphilis (RPR) was reactive in 22 (12.57%) patients. HIV was positive in 68 (1.53%) among the total 4454 male patients attended the clinic. Conclusion Viral STIs occur significantly more than the bacterial STIs because of its incurable and recurrent nature. Health programmes should be still more focused on creating awareness about the minor STIs and to remove the stigma so that the patients attend the proper health care facilities in the early stage itself for treatment thereby, complications and further transmission of the STIs can be avoided. PMID:26894160

  20. Desmoglein 3 anchors telogen hair in the follicle.

    PubMed

    Koch, P J; Mahoney, M G; Cotsarelis, G; Rothenberger, K; Lavker, R M; Stanley, J R

    1998-09-01

    Little is known about the function of desmosomes in the normal structure and function of hair. Therefore, it was surprising that mice without desmoglein 3 (the autoantigen in pemphigus vulgaris) not only developed mucous membrane and skin lesions like pemphigus patients, but also developed hair loss. Analysis of this phenotype indicated that hair was normal through the first growth phase ('follicular neogenesis'). Around day 20, however, when the hair follicles entered the resting phase of the hair growth cycle (telogen), mice with a targeted disruption of the desmoglein 3 gene (DSG3-/-) lost hair in a wave-like pattern from the head to the tail. Hair then regrew and was lost again in the same pattern with the next synchronous hair cycle. In adults, hair was lost in patches. Gentle hair pulls with adhesive tape showed that anagen (growing) hairs were firmly anchored in DSG3-/- mice, but telogen hairs came out in clumps compared to that of DSG3+/- and +/+ littermates in which telogen hairs were firmly anchored. Histology of bald skin areas in DSG3-/- mice showed cystic telogen hair follicles without hair shafts. Histology of hair follicles in early telogen, just before clinical hair loss occurred, showed loss of cell adhesion (acantholysis) between the cells surrounding the telogen club and the basal layer of the outer root sheath epithelium. Electron microscopy revealed 'half-desmosomes' at the plasma membranes of acantholytic cells. Similar acantholytic histology and ultrastructural findings have been previously reported in skin and mucous membrane lesions of DSG3-/- mice and pemphigus vulgaris patients. Immunoperoxidase staining with an antibody raised against mouse desmoglein 3 showed intense staining on the cell surface of keratinocytes surrounding the telogen hair club in normal mice. Similar staining was seen in human telogen hair with an anti-human desmoglein 3 antibody. Finally, a scalp biopsy from a pemphigus vulgaris patient showed empty telogen hair

  1. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn. PMID:27138337

  2. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in paired human hair and serum from e-waste recycling workers: source apportionment of hair PBDEs and relationship between hair and serum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ke-Hui; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yan, Xiao; He, Chun-Tao; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Peng, Xiao-Wu; Ren, Ming-Zhong; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Human hair has been widely used as a bioindicator for human persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exposure, but studies on the sources of hair POPs and the relationship between hair and body burden are limited. This study analyzed the possible source apportionment of hair PBDEs and examined the relationship between PBDE concentrations in paired hair and serum from e-waste recycling workers. Using the ratio of BDE 99/47 and BDE 209/207 as indices, we calculated that only 15% of the highly brominated congeners (nona- and deca-BDE congeners) comes from exogenous (external) exposure for both female and male hair, but an average of 64% and 55% of the lower-brominated congeners (tetra- to penta-BDE congeners) come from exogenous exposure for female and male hair, respectively. The higher contribution of exogenous exposure for less-brominated congeners could be related to their relatively lower log KOW and higher volatility than higher-brominated congeners, which make them more readily to evaporate from dust and then to be adsorbed on hair. Higher hair PBDE levels and higher exogenous exposure of less-brominated congeners in females than in males can be attributed to a longer exogenous exposure time for females than males. Significant positive relationships were found in tri- to hepta-BDE congeners (BDE 28, 47, 66, 85, 100, 153, 154, and 183) (R = 0.36-0.55, p < 0.05) between hair and serum, but this relationship was not found for octa- to deca-BDE. Difference in the half-lives between highly brominated congeners and less-brominated congeners could be a reason. This result also implied that we should treat the results of correlation analyses between hair and other organs cautiously. PMID:24320081

  3. Patterns of Victimization Among Male and Female Inmates: Evidence of an Enduring Legacy

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Siegel, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    People inside prison have above-average rates of childhood and adult victimization. Little is known, however, about the relationship between types of victimization inside prison and that experienced in childhood. This article estimates rates of victimization for male and female inmates by type of perpetrator and form of victimization (sexual, physical, either, or both) and their association with types of childhood victimization (sexual or physical). Data for these estimates are based on a random sample of approximately 7,500 inmates housed in 12 adult male prisons and one adult female prison in a single state. The significance of the findings for practice are discussed along with recommendations to improve the health and welfare of people inside prison. PMID:19694352

  4. Sex difference and postnatal change of maternal behavioral patterns in juvenile male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Shima, Satoshi; Urano, Aya; Korányi, Lajos; Yamanouchi, Korehito

    2005-06-01

    Juvenile rats are known to show certain elements of maternal behavior. In this experiment, to investigate sex difference and postnatal change of retrieving and pup-cleaning (licking) behaviors in juvenile rats, these behaviors were recorded using new observation method at 20, 30 and 45 days of age in female and male Wistar rats. At 20 days of age, maternal behavior was observed in a common plastic observation cage (test A) and then test B was performed. In the test B, observation was carried out using a cage with a wooden box that was open on one side, helping the juveniles to establish a nest. As the results of day 20, most rats in all groups showed licking behavior in both the test A and B. The incidence of retrieving behavior increased from the test A to the test B with the box in both sexes, especially in males (p<0.01). The box is thought to play a facilitative role in induction of retrieving. Moreover, the incidence in males was higher than that in females in the test B (p<0.001). At 30 and 45 days of age, only a test B with box was performed. The incidences of licking and retrieving behaviors at 30 days of age were decreased significantly compared to those at 20 days of age in both sexes(p<0.001). Further decrease from 30 days to 45 days was observed. These results suggest that in juvenile rat, incidence of retrieving behavior in males is higher than that in females but there is no sex difference in incidence of licking behavior. Potency to show these behaviors decreases acutely before puberty in rats. PMID:15988166

  5. Patterns of coping preferences for male and female caregivers of frail older adults.

    PubMed

    DeVries, H M; Hamilton, D W; Lovett, S; Gallagher-Thompson, D

    1997-06-01

    The similarities and differences in male and female caregivers' preferred strategies for coping and the perceived helpfulness of these strategies in managing caregiving stressors were examined in this study. Respondents were 170 caregivers (139 women and 31 men) who were primary caregivers for an elderly adult relative who was either cognitively impaired or physically frail. Results provide preliminary evidence that gender is related to frequency of use but not to the perceived helpfulness of specific coping strategies. PMID:9189986

  6. Investigating Male Tobacco Use and Expenditure Patterns across Socio-Economic Groups in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uguru, Nkoli P.; Mbachu, Chinyere; Ibe, Ogochukwu P.; Uguru, Chibuzo C.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of variation in economic costs of tobacco consumption among socio-economic status (SES) groups in Nigeria is unclear. Understanding the factors that influence tobacco use and expenditure among different socio-economic groups would inform decisions on interventions for tobacco control in Nigeria. Secondary data was obtained from the 2008 National demographic and health survey. Information on tobacco use and expenditure in households and individual males were extracted from the database. A total of 34,070 households and 15,846 individual males were sampled. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analysis. Information on wealth index obtained were categorized into socio-economic quintile groups (Q1 to Q5), representing poorest to richest socio-economic groups. To estimate expenditure on cigarettes, the average cost of a stick of cigarette was obtained and multiplied with the number of sticks smoked per day. The proportion of households that use tobacco in Nigeria is 5.25% with a greater percentage (89.6%) residing in the rural areas. Prevalence of cigarette smoking in individual males is 8.59%, and the poorer SES group smoked more cigarettes (20.9%) and spent more (0.60–1.19USD) than the richest SES group. Low education level, traditional beliefs, literacy levels, SES and employment status all influence cigarette smoking in adult males. Although poor people smoked more and spent more of their income on cigarettes, other factors like educational level and traditional beliefs were found to influence practice of cigarette smoking in men. This implies that tobacco control legislation through increased taxes alone may not effectively reduce the use of tobacco and its products in Nigeria. A consolidated approach that includes behavioral change procedures, enforcing bans on tobacco advertisement and the use of strong graphic anti-tobacco messages targeted at both the poor and rich as well as the educated and uneducated

  7. Scald Burns From Hair Braiding.

    PubMed

    Meizoso, Jonathan P; Ramaley, Stephen R; Ray, Juliet J; Allen, Casey J; Guarch, Gerardo A; Varas, Robin; Teisch, Laura F; Pizano, Louis R; Schulman, Carl I; Namias, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Only one previous case report has described scald burns secondary to hair braiding in pediatric patients. The present case study is the largest to date of scald burns as a result of hair braiding in children and adults. Charts of all 1609 female patients seen at a single burn center from 2008 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with scald burns attributed to hair braiding. Demographics, injury severity, injury patterns, and complications were analyzed. Twenty-six patients (1.6%) had scald burns secondary to hair braiding with median TBSA 3%. Eighty-five percent of patients were pediatric with median age 8 years. Injury patterns were as follows: back (62%), shoulder (31%), chest (15%), buttocks (15%), abdomen (12%), arms (12%), neck (12%), and legs (4%). No patients required operative intervention. Three patients were admitted to the hospital. Two patients required time off from school for 6 and 10 days post burn for recovery. Complications included functional limitations (n = 2), hypertrophic scarring (n = 1), cellulitis requiring antibiotics (n = 1), and anxiety requiring medical/psychological therapy (n = 2). This peculiar mechanism of injury not only carries inherent morbidity that includes the risks of functional limitations, infection, and psychological repercussions but also increases usage of resources through hospital admissions and multiple clinic visits. Further work in the form of targeted outreach programs is necessary to educate the community regarding this preventable mechanism of injury. PMID:26594857

  8. Employment patterns in males before and after myocardial revascularization surgery. A study of 2229 consecutive male patients followed for as long as 10 years.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W D; Kayser, K L; Pedraza, P M; Shore, R T

    1982-06-01

    Loss of productivity is a major concern among patients with heart disease. To assess the effect of surgery on this factor, we surveyed every living male patient of the surgeon authors operated on from January 1968 through March 1978 (96% follow-up) and compared their pre- and postoperative work status with the U.S. population as reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (USBLS). Comparisons were made on an age-for-age basis and adjustments were made for changes in national employment patterns from 1968-1978. Preoperatively, our younger patients had a 10% lower employment rate than the U.S. male population at large according to the USBLS. Postoperatively, many returned to work, but an equal number who worked preoperatively did not postoperatively. The ability to work full time with little or no limitation increased 20% after operation. The main reason for not working was physical disability, with doctor's advice a distance second. Older patients showed a trend of accelerated retirement after surgery. A few returned to work, but many more retired. The ability to work full-time without limitation increased 4%. Thirty percent of all older subjects cited a desire to relax as their main reason for not working. Compared with the early years of surgery, patients in later years were older and did not show as much preoperative disability. There was some evidence of a deterioration of the effects of surgery. Patients with severely impaired left ventricular function fared worse both pre- and postoperatively, but the improvement was the same as for patients with normal or moderately impaired left ventricular function. PMID:6978773

  9. Gene Expression by Mouse Inner Ear Hair Cells during Development

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Déborah I.; Shen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells of the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance. As a consequence, pathogenic variants in genes specifically expressed in hair cells often cause hereditary deafness. Hair cells are few in number and not easily isolated from the adjacent supporting cells, so the biochemistry and molecular biology of hair cells can be difficult to study. To study gene expression in hair cells, we developed a protocol for hair cell isolation by FACS. With nearly pure hair cells and surrounding cells, from cochlea and utricle and from E16 to P7, we performed a comprehensive cell type-specific RNA-Seq study of gene expression during mouse inner ear development. Expression profiling revealed new hair cell genes with distinct expression patterns: some are specific for vestibular hair cells, others for cochlear hair cells, and some are expressed just before or after maturation of mechanosensitivity. We found that many of the known hereditary deafness genes are much more highly expressed in hair cells than surrounding cells, suggesting that genes preferentially expressed in hair cells are good candidates for unknown deafness genes. PMID:25904789

  10. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE Class I Genes Promote Root Hair Development in the Grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Min; Dolan, Liam

    2016-08-01

    Genes encoding ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE (RSL) class I basic helix loop helix proteins are expressed in future root hair cells of the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem where they positively regulate root hair cell development. Here we show that there are three RSL class I protein coding genes in the Brachypodium distachyon genome, BdRSL1, BdRSL2 and BdRSL3, and each is expressed in developing root hair cells after the asymmetric cell division that forms root hair cells and hairless epidermal cells. Expression of BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair cell development: ectopic overexpression of any of the three RSL class I genes induces the development of root hairs in every cell of the root epidermis. Expression of BdRSL class I genes in root hairless Arabidopsis thaliana root hair defective 6 (Atrhd6) Atrsl1 double mutants, devoid of RSL class I function, restores root hair development indicating that the function of these proteins has been conserved. However, neither AtRSL nor BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair development in A. thaliana. These data demonstrate that the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity can account for the pattern of root hair cell differentiation in B. distachyon. However, the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity cannot account for the spatial pattern of root hair cells in A. thaliana. Taken together these data indicate that that the functions of RSL class I proteins have been conserved among most angiosperms-monocots and eudicots-despite the dramatically different patterns of root hair cell development. PMID:27494519