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1

Short stature in children with an apparently normal male phenotype can be caused by 45,X\\/46,XY mosaicism and is susceptible to growth hormone treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Girls with unexplained short stature are routinely screened for the presence of Ullrich-Turner syndrome by clinical examination, laboratory tests, and karyotyping. In this study, we performed chromosomal analysis in boys to explore the role of 45,X\\/46,XY mosaicism for short stature in males. Short-term effects of growth hormone treatment in male 45,X\\/46,XY individuals were compared retrospectively to those in female patients.

Annette Richter-Unruh; Sabine Knauer-Fischer; Stefan Kaspers; Beate Albrecht; Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach; Berthold P. Hauffa

2004-01-01

2

Nullisomy for the distal portion of Xp in a male child with a X\\/Y translocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unbalanced X\\/Y translocation was found in a male child with malformed external genitalia and in his mother, who are respectively nullisomic and monosomic for the distal portion of Xp and have the translocated distal segment of Yq in excess. The loss of the distal portion of Xp is supposed to be the cause of the phenotypic abnormalities present in

L. Tiepolo; O. Zuffardi; A. Rodewald

1977-01-01

3

Bilateral seminomas in a 45X/46XY mosaic with Turner's phenotype: an unusual case of mixed gonadal dysgenesis.  

PubMed

A wide spectrum of phenotypic manifestations are seen in cases with 45X/46XY mosaicism. We present a case with 45X/46XY having female phenotype with Turner's stigmata. Prophylactic laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed and the patient was found to have mixed gonadal dysgenesis with bilateral gonadoblastomas. Microinvasive seminomas were also detected in both gonadoblastomas. The presence of Y cell line in karyotype prompted early and prophylactic gonadectomy, a procedure which is life-saving for these individuals. PMID:12755523

Kriplani, Alka; Agarwal, Nutan; Parul; Sharma, Meharchand C; Manchanda, Ranjit

2003-04-01

4

Double mosaic aneuploidy: 45,X/47,XY,+8 in a male infant.  

PubMed

We report on a 13-month-old boy with abnormalities consistent with mosaic trisomy 8 syndrome and male genitalia with partial penoscrotal transposition without hypospadias, a retractile left testis in inguinal canal, and an absent right testis. A voiding cystourethrogram showed an outpouching close to the lower right side of the bladder (utriculum) and bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to vesicoureteral reflux. Peripheral blood karyotype was 45,X/47,XY,+8. The karyotype of cultured skin fibroblasts was 47,XY,+8 with no 45,X cells detected among 20 cells counted. Tissues removed during surgery documented a 45,X/47,XY,+8 complement in the left testicle and utriculum, but only a 45,X line among 20 cells counted from vas deferens tissue. A possible mechanism for the origin of this previously unreported mosaicism might be an abnormal zygote with a 47,XY,+8 complement with subsequent simultaneous loss of chromosome Y and 8 in a cell at a very early embryonic stage. PMID:1519655

Schofield, B; Babu, A; Punales-Morejon, D; Popescu, S; Leiter, E; Franklin, B; Penchaszadeh, V B

1992-09-01

5

Agenesis of the corpus callosum with mosaicism 46,XY/47,XY, extra ring chromosome.  

PubMed Central

A case of agenesis of the corpus callosum with a chromosomal abnormality is reported. The patient was a male infant, born to phenotypically normal, non-consanguineous parents. He had an abnormal phenotype, mental retardation, and chromosome mosaicism 46,XY/47,XY,+r. Chromosomal analysis of both parents showed a normal karotype. The origin of the small ring chromosome could not be determined and it is difficult to relate the phenotype of the infant to the cytogenetic findings. Images PMID:7365765

Zamboni, G; Bernardi, F; Danesino, C; del Majno, U M; Beghini, G; Dalla Bernardina, B

1980-01-01

6

Mapping the testis determinants by an analysis of Y-specific sequences in males with apparent XX and XO karyotypes and females with XY karyotypes.  

PubMed Central

A number of patients with paradoxical sex chromosome complements (so-called XY females, XX and XO males) have been investigated with a series of 19 Yp and 4 Yq DNA probes to establish which region of the Y is essential for male sexual differentiation. Of the 23 XX males, 18 possessed one or more Yp probe sequences with only 5 lacking such sequences. Of 9 XY females examined, only one showed evidence of a deletion in Yp occurring either as a result of X-Y interchange or interstitial deletion. This suggests that the majority of XY females are not commonly deleted for those Y sequences which are found to be transferred to the X in XX males. The DNA of two XO males both contained different portions of the Y. From a comparison of the patterns of Yp sequences in these patients, it has been possible to elaborate a model of Yp in terms of the order of probe sequences and to suggest a location for the testis determining region in distal Yp. Images PMID:3658694

Affara, N A; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Magenis, R E; Tolmie, J L; Boyd, E; Cooke, A; Jamieson, D; Kwok, K; Mitchell, M; Snadden, L

1987-01-01

7

Development of male gender identity\\/role and a sexual orientation towards women in a 46,XY subject with an incomplete form of the androgen insensitivity syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transsexualism and homosexuality have been theorized to originate in the male from insufficient androgenization of the brain. For verification of this hypothesis clinical science must rely on subjects with an abnormal prenatal\\/perinatal endocrine history. A case of a 33-year-old 46,XY subject with an incomplete form of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is presented. In adulthood the only genital sign of masculinization

Louis Gooren; Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis

1991-01-01

8

The Three-Dimensional Organization of Polytene Nuclei in Male Drosophila Melanogaster with Compound Xy or Ring X Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

The three-dimensional organization of polytene chromosomes within nuclei containing rearranged X chromosomes was examined in male Drosophila melanogaster. Salivary glands of third instar larvae containing either an inverted X chromosome (Y(S)X·Y(L), In(1)EN/O) or a ring X chromosome (R(1) 2/B(S)Yy(+)) were fixed, embedded, and serially sectioned. The nuclei in contiguous groups of cells were modeled and analyzed. We find that for both genotypes the three-dimensional behavior at each euchromatic locus is independent of the orientation of the chromosome on which it resides, independent of the behavior of loci not closely linked to it, and not similar in neighboring cells. The preference for right-handed chromosome coiling noted in previous studies is shown to be independent of homologous pairing. However, a relation between the extent of chromosome curvature and the handedness of chromosome coiling is present only in homologously paired chromosomes. The attached-XY chromosome has two previously undescribed behaviors: a nearly invariant association of the euchromatic side of the proximal heterochromatin/euchromatin junction with the nucleolus and a frequent failure of this site to attach to the chromocenter. The relative chromosome arm positions are often similar in several neighboring cells. The size of these patches of cells, assuming that they represent clones, indicates that such arrangements are at best quasi-stable: they may be maintained over at least one, but less than four, cell divisions. The observed nuclear organization in salivary glands is inconsistent with the idea that position in the polytene nucleus plays a major role in the normal genetic regulation of euchromatic loci. PMID:2499510

Mathog, D.; Sedat, J. W.

1989-01-01

9

Male-specific DNA markers provide genetic evidence of an XY chromosome system, a recombination arrest and allow the tracing of paternal lineages in date palm.  

PubMed

Whether sex chromosomes are differentiated is an important aspect of our knowledge of dioecious plants, such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). In this crop plant, the female individuals produce dates, and are thus the more valuable sex. However, there is no way to identify the sex of date palm plants before reproductive age, and the sex-determining mechanism is still unclear. To identify sex-linked microsatellite markers, we surveyed a set of 52 male and 55 female genotypes representing the geographical diversity of the species. We found three genetically linked loci that are heterozygous only in males. Male-specific alleles allowed us to identify the gender in 100% of individuals. These results confirm the existence of an XY chromosomal system with a nonrecombining XY-like region in the date palm genome. The distribution of Y haplotypes in western and eastern haplogroups allowed us to trace two male ancestral paternal lineages that account for all known Y diversity in date palm. The very low diversity associated with Y haplotypes is consistent with clonal paternal transmission of a nonrecombining male-determining region. Our results establish the date palm as a biological model with one of the most ancient sex chromosomes in flowering plants. PMID:23231423

Cherif, Emira; Zehdi, Salwa; Castillo, Karina; Chabrillange, Nathalie; Abdoulkader, Sabira; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Santoni, Sylvain; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Glémin, Sylvain; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique

2013-01-01

10

The effect of hormone therapy on biochemical and ultrasound parameters associated with atherosclerosis in 46,XY DSD individuals with female phenotype.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormone therapy (HT) in the endothelial function of 46,XY disorders of sexual development (DSD) patients with female phenotype. Biochemical and ultrasound measurements were performed in 20 patients at initiation of oral 2?mg 17?-estradiol/1?mg norethisterone acetate, and after 6 months of therapy. Lipid profile, including total cholesterol (TC), LDL, HDL, triglycerides (TG) and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), as well as levels of VE-Cadherin, E-Selectin, Thrombomodulin and vWf were determined. Ultrasonographic examinations included evaluation of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and measurement of Carotid and Femoral Intima Media Thickness (IMT). HT raised HDL (35.4?mg/dl versus 40.1?mg/dl, p?=?0.019) while lowering TG (166?mg/dl versus 109?mg/dl, p?=?0.026) and AIP (0.24 versus 0.04, p?=?0.007). No changes were noted in TC and LDL (215.7?mg/dl versus 192.25?mg/dl and 87.46?mg/dl versus 76.35?mg/dl, respectively). There was significant reduction of VE-Cadherin (4.05?ng/ml versus 2.20?ng/ml, p?=?0.002) and E-selectin (73.98?ng/ml versus 56.73?ng/ml, p?=?0.004). No change was observed in Thrombomodulin and vWf (11.76?ng/ml versus 13.90?ng/ml and 80.75% versus 79.55%, respectively). FMD improved significantly (5.4% versus 8.15%, p?=?0.003), while only carotid bulb IMT decreased significantly (0.65?mm versus 0.60?mm, p?=?0.018). Overall, HT was found to improve biochemical and ultrasound markers of endothelial function in 46,XY DSD patients with female phenotype. PMID:24911331

Tsimaris, Pantelis; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Athanasopoulos, Nikolaos; Economou, Emmanuel; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon; Rizos, Demetrios; Papamichael, Christos; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Mastorakos, George; Creatsas, George

2014-10-01

11

A case of SRY-positive 38,XY true hermaphroditism (XY sex reversal) in a cat.  

PubMed

Investigation of abnormal sexual development in companion animals can allow for the elimination of inherited disorders from breeding populations while contributing to the understanding of the complex process of mammalian sexual development and differentiation. A 1-year-old mixed-breed cat, presented for neutering, was tentatively diagnosed as a male with bilateral cryptorchidism. During surgery, the surgeon identified gonads in an ovarian position and a complete bicornuate uterus. Both testicular and ovarian architecture in the gonads and Mullerian and Wolffian duct derivatives were identified histologically. The karyotype was that of a normal male (38,XY), and no causative mutation was identified in the feline SRY coding sequence amplified from genomic DNA. All features of the case were compatible with a diagnosis of SRY-positive 38,XY sex reversal, true hermaphrodite phenotype. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of this disorder in a domestic cat. PMID:20861501

Schlafer, D H; Valentine, B; Fahnestock, G; Froenicke, L; Grahn, R A; Lyons, L A; Meyers-Wallen, V N

2011-07-01

12

A Case of SRY-Positive 38,XY True Hermaphroditism (XY Sex Reversal) in a Cat  

PubMed Central

Investigation of abnormal sexual development in companion animals can allow for the elimination of inherited disorders from breeding populations while contributing to the understanding of the complex process of mammalian sexual development and differentiation. A 1-year-old mixed-breed cat, presented for neutering, was tentatively diagnosed as a male with bilateral cryptorchidism. During surgery, the surgeon identified gonads in an ovarian position and a complete bicornuate uterus. Both testicular and ovarian architecture in the gonads and Mullerian and Wolffian duct derivatives were identified histologically. The karyotype was that of a normal male (38,XY), and no causative mutation was identified in the feline SRY coding sequence amplified from genomic DNA. All features of the case were compatible with a diagnosis of SRY-positive 38,XY sex reversal, true hermaphrodite phenotype. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of this disorder in a domestic cat. PMID:20861501

Schlafer, D. H.; Valentine, B.; Fahnestock, G.; Froenicke, L.; Grahn, R. A.; Lyons, L. A.; Meyers-Wallen, V. N.

2012-01-01

13

ORIGINAL PAPER Phenotypic correlates and survival consequences of male  

E-print Network

). In lek- mating greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus pugnax), females choose males based on their display and ultimate consequences of factors mediating male mating success in lek-mating grouse. Keywords Galliformes

Sandercock, Brett K.

14

Report of Fertility in a Woman with a Predominantly 46,XY Karyotype in a Family with Multiple Disorders of Sexual Development  

PubMed Central

Context: We report herein a remarkable family in which the mother of a woman with 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis was found to have a 46,XY karyotype in peripheral lymphocytes, mosaicism in cultured skin fibroblasts (80% 46,XY and 20% 45,X) and a predominantly 46,XY karyotype in the ovary (93% 46,XY and 6% 45,X). Patients: A 46,XY mother who developed as a normal woman underwent spontaneous puberty, reached menarche, menstruated regularly, experienced two unassisted pregnancies, and gave birth to a 46,XY daughter with complete gonadal dysgenesis. Results: Evaluation of the Y chromosome in the daughter and both parents revealed that the daughter inherited her Y chromosome from her father. Molecular analysis of the genes SOX9, SF1, DMRT1, DMRT3, TSPYL, BPESC1, DHH, WNT4, SRY, and DAX1 revealed normal male coding sequences in both the mother and daughter. An extensive family pedigree across four generations revealed multiple other family members with ambiguous genitalia and infertility in both phenotypic males and females, and the mode of inheritance of the phenotype was strongly suggestive of X-linkage. Conclusions: The range of phenotypes observed in this unique family suggests that there may be transmission of a mutation in a novel sex-determining gene or in a gene that predisposes to chromosomal mosaicism. PMID:18000096

Dumic, Miroslav; Lin-Su, Karen; Leibel, Natasha I.; Ciglar, Srecko; Vinci, Giovanna; Lasan, Ruzica; Nimkarn, Saroj; Wilson, Jean D.; McElreavey, Ken; New, Maria I.

2008-01-01

15

The effects of inbreeding, genetic dissimilarity and phenotype on male reproductive success in a dioecious plant  

PubMed Central

Pollen fate can strongly affect the genetic structure of populations with restricted gene flow and significant inbreeding risk. We established an experimental population of inbred and outbred Silene latifolia plants to evaluate the effects of (i) inbreeding depression, (ii) phenotypic variation and (iii) relatedness between mates on male fitness under natural pollination. Paternity analysis revealed that outbred males sired significantly more offspring than inbred males. Independently of the effects of inbreeding, male fitness depended on several male traits, including a sexually dimorphic (flower number) and a gametophytic trait (in vitro pollen germination rate). In addition, full-sib matings were less frequent than randomly expected. Thus, inbreeding, phenotype and genetic dissimilarity simultaneously affect male fitness in this animal-pollinated plant. While inbreeding depression might threaten population persistence, the deficiency of effective matings between sibs and the higher fitness of outbred males will reduce its occurrence and counter genetic erosion. PMID:21561968

Austerlitz, Frederic; Gleiser, Gabriela; Teixeira, Sara; Bernasconi, Giorgina

2012-01-01

16

Distinct Molecular Phenotypes in Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients  

PubMed Central

Background In schizophrenia, sex specific dimorphisms related to age of onset, course of illness and response to antipsychotic treatment may be mirrored by sex-related differences in the underlying molecular pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have carried out multiplex immunoassay profiling of sera from 4 independent cohorts of first episode antipsychotic naive schizophrenia patients (n?=?133) and controls (n?=?133) to identify such sex-specific illness processes in the periphery. The concentrations of 16 molecules associated with hormonal, inflammation and growth factor pathways showed significant sex differences in schizophrenia patients compared with controls. In female patients, the inflammation-related analytes alpha-1-antitrypsin, B lymphocyte chemoattractant BLC and interleukin-15 showed negative associations with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores. In male patients, the hormones prolactin and testosterone were negatively associated with PANSS ratings. In addition, we investigated molecular changes in a subset of 33 patients before and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics and found that treatment induced sex-specific changes in the levels of testosterone, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, follicle stimulating hormone, interleukin-13 and macrophage-derived chemokine. Finally, we evaluated overlapping and distinct biomarkers in the sex-specific molecular signatures in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Conclusions/Significance We propose that future studies should investigate the common and sex-specific aetiologies of schizophrenia, as the current findings suggest that different therapeutic strategies may be required for male and female patients. PMID:24244349

Ramsey, Jordan M.; Schwarz, Emanuel; Guest, Paul C.; van Beveren, Nico J. M.; Leweke, F. Markus; Rothermundt, Matthias; Bogerts, Bernhard; Steiner, Johann; Bahn, Sabine

2013-01-01

17

Male bias in distributions of additive genetic, residual, and phenotypic variances of shared traits.  

PubMed

Despite a shared genetic architecture between males and females, sexual differences are widespread. The extent of this shared genetic architecture, reflected in the intersexual genetic correlation, has previously been correlated with the extent of phenotypic sexual dimorphism in shared traits. However, the magnitude of the difference in sex-specific additive genetic variances may also fuel sexual dimorphism. To explore the correlation between additive genetic variance dimorphism and phenotypic dimorphism, we conducted a literature search. We targeted traits expressed in both sexes and excluded sex-limited traits. The mean difference between the sexes in additive genetic variance was not significantly different from 0. However, the distribution of the sexual difference in additive genetic variance had a significant male-biased skew. This pattern persists even after removing traits explicitly related to reproduction. Furthermore, male traits had more residual and phenotypic variance than homologous female traits (as measured by both the mean and the skew), and this difference was not necessarily due to the difference between sexual traits and nonsexual traits. We found no evidence that sex chromosome system could explain sex differences in additive genetic, nonadditive genetic, or phenotypic variances. Finally, we found a significant correlation between the extent of sexual dimorphism in additive genetic variances and the extent of phenotypic sexual dimorphism. Understanding why traits have sex-specific patterns of variation awaits further investigation. PMID:25141142

Wyman, Minyoung J; Rowe, Locke

2014-09-01

18

Hemiclonal analysis of interacting phenotypes in male and female Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying the sources of variation in mating interactions between males and females is important because this variation influences the strength and/or the direction of sexual selection that populations experience. While the origins and effects of variation in male attractiveness and ornamentation have received much scrutiny, the causes and consequences of intraspecific variation in females have been relatively overlooked. We used cytogenetic cloning techniques developed for Drosophila melanogaster to create “hemiclonal” males and females with whom we directly observed sexual interaction between individuals of different known genetic backgrounds and measured subsequent reproductive outcomes. Using this approach, we were able to quantify the genetic contribution of each mate to the observed phenotypic variation in biologically important traits including mating speed, copulation duration, and subsequent offspring production, as well as measure the magnitude and direction of intersexual genetic correlation between female choosiness and male attractiveness. Results We found significant additive genetic variation contributing to mating speed that can be attributed to male genetic identity, female genetic identity, but not their interaction. Furthermore we found that phenotypic variation in copulation duration had a significant male-associated genetic component. Female genetic identity and the interaction between male and female genetic identity accounted for a substantial amount of the observed phenotypic variation in egg size. Although previous research predicts a trade-off between egg size and fecundity, this was not evident in our results. We found a strong negative genetic correlation between female choosiness and male attractiveness, a result that suggests a potentially important role for sexually antagonistic alleles in sexual selection processes in our population. Conclusion These results further our understanding of sexual selection because they identify that genetic identity plays a significant role in phenotypic variation in female behaviour and fecundity. This variation may be potentially due to ongoing sexual conflict found between the sexes for interacting phenotypes. Our unexpected observation of a negative correlation between female choosiness and male attractiveness highlights the need for more explicit theoretical models of genetic covariance to investigate the coevolution of female choosiness and male attractiveness. PMID:24884361

2014-01-01

19

Phenotypic correlates of male reproductive success in western gorillas Thomas Breuer a,b,*, Andrew M. Robbins a  

E-print Network

Phenotypic correlates of male reproductive success in western gorillas Thomas Breuer a,b,*, Andrew gorillas. Among 19 adult male gorillas monitored for up to 12.5 years, we found that all three phenotypic selection in gorillas and other species. � 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction Sexual

20

Reproductive performance of alternative male phenotypes of growth hormone transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

Growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the first transgenic animals being considered for commercial farming, yet ecological and genetic concerns remain should they enter the wild and interact reproductively with wild fish. Here, we provide the first empirical data reporting on the breeding performance of GH transgenic Atlantic salmon males, including that of an alternative male reproductive phenotype (i.e. small, precocially mature parr), in pair-wise competitive trials within a naturalised stream mesocosm. Wild anadromous (i.e. large, migratory) males outperformed captively reared transgenic counterparts in terms of nest fidelity, quivering frequency and spawn participation. Similarly, despite displaying less aggression, captively reared nontransgenic mature parr were superior competitors to their transgenic counterparts in terms of nest fidelity and spawn participation. Moreover, nontransgenic parr had higher overall fertilisation success than transgenic parr, and their offspring were represented in more spawning trials. Although transgenic males displayed reduced breeding performance relative to nontransgenics, both male reproductive phenotypes demonstrated the ability to participate in natural spawning events and thus have the potential to contribute genes to subsequent generations.

Moreau, Darek T R; Conway, Corinne; Fleming, Ian A

2011-01-01

21

Explaining phenotypic selection on plant attractive characters: male function, gender balance or ecological context?  

PubMed Central

It is widely agreed that the flowers of hermaphrodite plants evolve in response to selection acting simultaneously through male and female sexual functions, but we know very little about the pattern of gender-specific selection. We review three current hypotheses for gender-specific selection by viewing them within a single phenotypic selection framework. We compile data from phenotypic selection and manipulative studies and evaluate the fit between empirical data and the hypotheses. In this preliminary analysis, we find that neither the male-function hypothesis nor the gender-balance hypothesis is well supported. However, the context-dependence hypothesis is supported by the documented diversity of gender-specific selection and by evidence that selection through female fertility is significantly correlated with pollen limitation of seed production. Future studies contributing to our understanding of selection through male and female function in plants need to quantify and manipulate the ecological context for reproduction, as well as describe male and female fitness responses to fine-scale trait manipulation. PMID:15156911

Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Morgan, Martin T.

2004-01-01

22

Explaining phenotypic selection on plant attractive characters: male function, gender balance or ecological context?  

PubMed

It is widely agreed that the flowers of hermaphrodite plants evolve in response to selection acting simultaneously through male and female sexual functions, but we know very little about the pattern of gender-specific selection. We review three current hypotheses for gender-specific selection by viewing them within a single phenotypic selection framework. We compile data from phenotypic selection and manipulative studies and evaluate the fit between empirical data and the hypotheses. In this preliminary analysis, we find that neither the male-function hypothesis nor the gender-balance hypothesis is well supported. However, the context-dependence hypothesis is supported by the documented diversity of gender-specific selection and by evidence that selection through female fertility is significantly correlated with pollen limitation of seed production. Future studies contributing to our understanding of selection through male and female function in plants need to quantify and manipulate the ecological context for reproduction, as well as describe male and female fitness responses to fine-scale trait manipulation. PMID:15156911

Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Morgan, Martin T

2004-03-22

23

Variation in Phenotype, Parasite Load and Male Competitive Ability across a Cryptic Hybrid Zone  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular genetic studies are revealing an increasing number of cryptic lineages or species, which are highly genetically divergent but apparently cannot be distinguished morphologically. This observation gives rise to three important questions: 1) have these cryptic lineages diverged in phenotypic traits that may not be obvious to humans; 2) when cryptic lineages come into secondary contact, what are the evolutionary consequences: stable co-existence, replacement, admixture or differentiation and 3) what processes influence the evolutionary dynamics of these secondary contact zones? Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions, we first tested whether males of the Iberian lizard Lacerta schreiberi from two highly genetically divergent, yet morphologically cryptic lineages on either side of an east-west secondary contact could be differentiated based on detailed analysis of morphology, coloration and parasite load. Next, we tested whether these differences could be driven by pre-copulatory intra-sexual selection (male-male competition). Compared to eastern males, western males had fewer parasites, were in better body condition and were more intensely coloured. Although subtle environmental variation across the hybrid zone could explain the differences in parasite load and body condition, these were uncorrelated with colour expression, suggesting that the differences in coloration reflect heritable divergence. The lineages did not differ in their aggressive behaviour or competitive ability. However, body size, which predicted male aggressiveness, was positively correlated with the colour traits that differed between genetic backgrounds. Conclusions/Significance Our study confirms that these cryptic lineages differ in several aspects that are likely to influence fitness. Although there were no clear differences in male competitive ability, our results suggest a potential indirect role for intra-sexual selection. Specifically, if lizards use the colour traits that differ between genetic backgrounds to assess the size of potential rivals or mates, the resulting fitness differential favouring western males could result in net male-mediated gene flow from west to east across the current hybrid zone. PMID:19479073

Stuart-Fox, Devi; Godinho, Raquel; Gouy de Bellocq, Joelle; Irwin, Nancy R.; Brito, Jose Carlos; Moussalli, Adnan; Siroky, Pavel; Hugall, Andrew F.; Baird, Stuart J. E.

2009-01-01

24

DISTINCT BEHAVIORAL PHENOTYPES IN MALE MICE LACKING THE THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR ?1 OR ? ISOFORMS  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones influence both neuronal development and anxiety via the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). The TRs are encoded by two different genes, TR? and TR?. The loss of TR?1 is implicated in increased anxiety in males, possibly via a hippocampal increase in GABAergic activity. We compared both social behaviors and two underlying and related non-social behaviors, state anxiety and responses to acoustic and tactile startle in the gonadally intact TR?1 knockout (?1KO) and TR? (?KO) male mice to their wild-type counterparts. For the first time, we show an opposing effect of the two TR isoforms, TR?1 and TR?, in the regulation of state anxiety, with ?1 knockout animals (?1KO) showing higher levels of anxiety and ?KO males showing less anxiety compared to respective wild-type mice. At odds with the increased anxiety in non-social environments, ?1KO males also show lower levels of responsiveness to acoustic and tactile startle stimuli. Consistent with the data that T4 is inhibitory to lordosis in female mice, we show subtly increased sex behavior in ?1KO male mice. These behaviors support the idea that TR?1 could be inhibitory to ER? driven transcription that ultimately impacts ER? driven behaviors such as lordosis. The behavioral phenotypes point to novel roles for the TRs, particularly in non-social behaviors such as state anxiety and startle. PMID:23567476

Vasudevan, Nandini; Morgan, Maria; Pfaff, Donald; Ogawa, Sonoko

2013-01-01

25

A hormone-like action of H-Y antigen and gonadal development of XY\\/XX mosaic males and hermaphrodites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Y-linked histocompatibility antigen (H-Y antigen) was discovered during the course of reciprocal skin grafts among individual mice of a highly inbred strain. As expected, grafts between males, between females as well as from females to males were permanently accepted, whereas male skins grafted to females were

Susumu Ohno

1976-01-01

26

Decreased melatonin secretion in a phenotypically male 46,XX patient with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency.  

PubMed

The possible role of gonadal steroids and gonadotropins in regulating melatonin secretion has been suggested in clinical syndromes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. We describe the results of melatonin secretion in a 37-year old male patient who presented with azoospermia. The patient was an XX male, had classic simple virilizing form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which led to a masculine phenotype. He was ovariectomized at the age of three years and reared as a male. Melatonin production (aMT6s) was determined at baseline and during 12 months of replacement therapy. Results were compared with those obtained in age-matched male controls. Pretreatment aMT6s values were decreased (14.3 microg/24 h vs. 29.0+/-5.5 in controls). Dexamethasone replacement was associated with an increase in aMT6s values (19.3-20.9 microg/24 h). The addition of testosterone to dexamethasone replacement resulted in normalization of aMT6s (27.6-33.1 microg/24 h) and serum 17OH progesterone, testosterone and estradiol levels. The present data indicate that androgen excess due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency is associated with decreased melatonin secretion. These results support the hypothesis that sex steroids modulate melatonin secretion. PMID:10926323

Luboshitzky, R; Qupti, G; Shen-Orr, Z; Hardoff, R

2000-01-01

27

The University of Chicago Male Bias in Distributions of Additive Genetic, Residual, and Phenotypic Variances of Shared  

E-print Network

The University of Chicago Male Bias in Distributions of Additive Genetic, Residual, and Phenotypic and Conditions #12;vol. 184, no. 3 the american naturalist september 2014 Male Bias in Distributions of Additive-specific additive genetic variances may also fuel sexual dimorphism. To explore the correlation between additive

Sokolowski, Marla

28

XY chromosome behaviour in the germ-line of the human male: A FISH analysis of spatial orientation, chromatin condensation and pairing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used multicolour fluorescencein situ hybridization to study the behaviour of the X and Y chromosomes in relation to a representative autosome, chromosome 1, on air-dried testicular preparations from normal fertile human males. In a proportion of Sertoli cells at interphase as well as spermatogonial metaphases there is an apparent selective undercondensation of the heterochromatic block of the long

Susan J. Armstrong; Amanda J. Kirkham; Maj A. Hultén

1994-01-01

29

Association of ALOX15 gene polymorphisms with obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese nuclear families with male offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:Genetic variation in ALOX12, which encoded human 12-lipoxygenase, was found to be associated with fat mass in young Chinese men. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the ALOX15 gene and obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese nuclear families with male offspring.Methods:We recruited 1,296 subjects from 427 nuclear families with male

Yao-hua Ke; Wen-jin Xiao; Jin-wei He; Hao Zhang; Jin-bo Yu; Wei-wei Hu; Jie-mei Gu; Gao Gao; Hua Yue; Chun Wang; Yun-qiu Hu; Miao Li; Yu-juan Liu; Wen-zhen Fu; Zhen-lin Zhang

2012-01-01

30

STP XY Model Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP XY Model program implements a Monte Carlo simulation of the planar ferromagnet or XY Model of spins on a lattice. The simulation returns the configuration of spins with the option of showing the vortices. The default system is a lattice of linear dimension L = 20 at temperature T = 0.89. STP XYModel is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp_XYModel.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2009-03-08

31

Is corticosterone-mediated phenotype development adaptive? Maternal corticosterone treatment enhances survival in male lizards.  

PubMed

Hormones are an important interface between genome and environment, because of their ability to modify the phenotype. More particularly, glucocorticoids are known to affect both morphological, physiological and behavioral traits. Many studies suggest that prenatal stress (associated with an elevation of corticosterone) has deleterious effects on offspring, an altered physiology resulting in retardation of fetal growth and higher percentage of dead neonates. In this study, we investigate the consequences of an artificial increase of corticosterone in pregnant female Lacerta vivipara on two important fitness components: growth and survival. Do stressed females decrease or enhance offspring survival? In 2000 and 2001, we collected pregnant females from four populations of the Cevennes and kept them in the laboratory until parturition. We applied a corticosterone solution daily onto the backs of some females. A similar solution, but without corticosterone, was applied to the remaining females as a control. Immediately after birth, we measured juveniles' morphological characteristics and released them on the field. In September of the year of release and in May of the following year, we recaptured offspring to estimate growth and survival. The elevation of the corticosterone level in pregnant females L. vivipara had a profound impact on juvenile traits. The size, the body condition and the growth of juveniles were decreased by the corticosterone treatment. In contrast, in male juveniles, survival was higher for juveniles from corticosterone-treated females than from placebo females. Thus, corticosterone does not seem to have detrimental effects on offspring survival, suggesting that it may have an adaptive function. PMID:15919384

Meylan, Sandrine; Clobert, Jean

2005-06-01

32

Phenotyping male infertility in the mouse: how to get the most out of a 'non-performer'  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Functional male gametes are produced through complex processes that take place within the testis, epididymis and female reproductive tract. A breakdown at any of these phases can result in male infertility. The production of mutant mouse models often yields an unexpected male infertility phenotype. It is with this in mind that the current review has been written. The review aims to act as a guide to the ‘non-reproductive biologist’ to facilitate a systematic analysis of sterile or subfertile mice and to assist in extracting the maximum amount of information from each model. METHODS This is a review of the original literature on defects in the processes that take a mouse spermatogonial stem cell through to a fully functional spermatozoon, which result in male infertility. Based on literature searches and personal experience, we have outlined a step-by-step strategy for the analysis of an infertile male mouse line. RESULTS A wide range of methods can be used to define the phenotype of an infertile male mouse. These methods range from histological methods such as electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, to hormone analyses and methods to assess sperm maturation status and functional competence. CONCLUSION With the increased rate of genetically modified mouse production, the generation of mouse models with unexpected male infertility is increasing. This manuscript will help to ensure that the maximum amount of information is obtained from each mouse model and, by extension, will facilitate the knowledge of both normal fertility processes and the causes of human infertility. PMID:19758979

Borg, Claire L.; Wolski, Katja M.; Gibbs, Gerard M.; O'Bryan, Moira K.

2010-01-01

33

A case of true hermaphroditism with 45X\\/46XY mosaicism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a case of true hermaphroditism of mainly female phenotype, ambiguous external genitalia, and ovotestis. The cytogenetic studies revealed 45X\\/46XY mosaicism and an absence of Barr bodies.

M. Gerli; M. Biagioni; G. Migliorini Bruschelli; R. Ferrarese; G. Rosi

1976-01-01

34

Differential effects of inbreeding and selection on male reproductive phenotype associated with the colonization and laboratory maintenance of Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Background Effective mating between laboratory-reared males and wild females is paramount to the success of vector control strategies aiming to decrease disease transmission via the release of sterile or genetically modified male mosquitoes. However mosquito colonization and laboratory maintenance have the potential to negatively affect male genotypic and phenotypic quality through inbreeding and selection, which in turn can decrease male mating competitiveness in the field. To date, very little is known about the impact of those evolutionary forces on the reproductive biology of mosquito colonies and how they ultimately affect male reproductive fitness. Methods Here several male reproductive physiological traits likely to be affected by inbreeding and selection following colonization and laboratory rearing were examined. Sperm length, and accessory gland and testes size were compared in male progeny from field-collected females and laboratory strains of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto colonized from one to over 25 years ago. These traits were also compared in the parental and sequentially derived, genetically modified strains produced using a two-phase genetic transformation system. Finally, genetic crosses were performed between strains in order to distinguish the effects of inbreeding and selection on reproductive traits. Results Sperm length was found to steadily decrease with the age of mosquito colonies but was recovered in refreshed strains and crosses between inbred strains therefore incriminating inbreeding costs. In contrast, testes size progressively increased with colony age, whilst accessory gland size quickly decreased in males from colonies of all ages. The lack of heterosis in response to crossing and strain refreshing in the latter two reproductive traits suggests selection for insectary conditions. Conclusions These results show that inbreeding and selection differentially affect reproductive traits in laboratory strains overtime and that heterotic ‘supermales’ could be used to rescue some male reproductive characteristics. Further experiments are needed to establish the exact relationship between sperm length, accessory gland and testes size, and male reproductive success in the laboratory and field settings. PMID:24418094

2014-01-01

35

2. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF XY RETRIEVER. THE XY RETRIEVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF X-Y RETRIEVER. THE X-Y RETRIEVER WAS HOUSED IN MODULE K AND WAS USED TO SORT AND RETRIEVE PLUTONIUM METAL FROM A STORAGE VAULT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO OTHER PROCESSES IN BUILDING 707. (11/29/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

36

Screening of Y chromosome microdeletions in 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis and in patients with a 45,X/46,XY karyotype or its variants  

PubMed Central

Background Partial and mixed gonadal dysgenesis (PGD and MGD) are characterized by genital ambiguity and the finding of either a streak gonad and a dysgenetic testis or two dysgenetic testes. The karyotype in PGD is 46,XY, whereas a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism or its variants (more than two lineages and/or structural abnormalities of the Y chromosome) is generally found in MGD. Such mosaics are also compatible with female phenotype and Turner syndrome, ovotesticular disorder of sex development, and infertility in men with normal external genitalia. During the last few years, evidences of a linkage between Y microdeletions and 45,X mosaicism have been reported. There are also indications that the instability caused by such deletions might be more significant in germ cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of Y chromosome microdeletions in individuals with PGD and in those with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism or its variants and variable phenotypes. Methods Our sample comprised 13 individuals with PGD and 15 with mosaicism, most of them with a MGD phenotype (n?=?11). Thirty-six sequence tagged sites (STS) spanning the male specific region (MSY) on the Y chromosome (Yp, centromere and Yq) were analyzed by multiplex PCR and some individual reactions. Results All STS showed positive amplifications in the PGD group. Conversely, in the group with mosaicism, six individuals with MGD had been identified with Yq microdeletions, two of them without structural abnormalities of the Y chromosome by routine cytogenetic analysis. The deleted STSs were located within AZFb and AZFc (Azoospermia Factor) regions, which harbor several genes responsible for spermatogenesis. Conclusions Absence of deletions in individuals with PGD does not confirm the hypothesis that instability of the Y chromosome in the gonads could be one of the causes of such condition. However, deletions identified in the second group indicate that mosaicism may be associated with Y chromosome abnormalities detectable only at the molecular level. If patients with mosaicism and Y microdeletions reared as males decide to undergo in vitro fertilization, Y chromosomes which tend to be unstable during cell division may be transmitted to offspring. PMID:24192396

2013-01-01

37

Sexual selection in lekking sage grouse: phenotypic correlates of male mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate choice cues in sage grouse were reinvestigated by analyzing relationships between male mating success and a range of suggested cues. Display cues were implicated by significant relationships between mating status (whether or not a male mated) and lek attendance, display rate (corrected for effects of female proximity and time of day) and an acoustic component related to temporal and

R. M. Gibson; J. W. Bradbury

1985-01-01

38

Is corticosterone-mediated phenotype development adaptive? Maternal corticosterone treatment enhances survival in male lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormones are an important interface between genome and environment, because of their ability to modify the phenotype. More particularly, glucocorticoids are known to affect both morphological, physiological and behavioral traits. Many studies suggest that prenatal stress (associated with an elevation of corticosterone) has deleterious effects on offspring, an altered physiology resulting in retardation of fetal growth and higher percentage of

Sandrine Meylan; Jean Clobert

2005-01-01

39

Male gametophyte development and two different DNA classes of pollen grains in Rumex acetosa L., a plant with an XX\\/XY 1 Y 2 sex chromosome system and a female-biased sex ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female-biased sex ratio is an interesting phenomenon observed in Rumex acetosa, a dioecious plant with an XX\\/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system. Previous authors have suggested that the biased sex ratio in this species is conditioned not only\\u000a postzygotically (sex-differential sporophytic mortality) but also prezygotically, because the sex ratio of seeds is also female-biased,\\u000a although to a lesser extent than the sex

Magdalena B?ocka-Wandas; Elwira Sliwinska; Aleksandra Grabowska-Joachimiak; Krystyna Musial; Andrzej J. Joachimiak

2007-01-01

40

Gadd45g Is Essential for Primary Sex Determination, Male Fertility and Testis Development  

PubMed Central

In humans and most mammals, differentiation of the embryonic gonad into ovaries or testes is controlled by the Y-linked gene SRY. Here we show a role for the Gadd45g protein in this primary sex differentiation. We characterized mice deficient in Gadd45a, Gadd45b and Gadd45g, as well as double-knockout mice for Gadd45ab, Gadd45ag and Gadd45bg, and found a specific role for Gadd45g in male fertility and testis development. Gadd45g-deficient XY mice on a mixed 129/C57BL/6 background showed varying degrees of disorders of sexual development (DSD), ranging from male infertility to an intersex phenotype or complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD). On a pure C57BL/6 (B6) background, all Gadd45g?/? XY mice were born as completely sex-reversed XY-females, whereas lack of Gadd45a and/or Gadd45b did not affect primary sex determination or testis development. Gadd45g expression was similar in female and male embryonic gonads, and peaked around the time of sex differentiation at 11.5 days post-coitum (dpc). The molecular cause of the sex reversal was the failure of Gadd45g?/? XY gonads to achieve the SRY expression threshold necessary for testes differentiation, resulting in ovary and Müllerian duct development. These results identify Gadd45g as a candidate gene for male infertility and 46,XY sex reversal in humans. PMID:23516551

Johnen, Heiko; González-Silva, Laura; Carramolino, Laura; Flores, Juana Maria; Torres, Miguel; Salvador, Jesús M.

2013-01-01

41

The XY Gonadal Agenesis Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A patient with a 46,XY chromosome constitution showed the following main characteristics: eunuchoidal body habitus, lack of secondary sexual development, normal female external genitalia with absence of vagina, no gonadal structures, and complete lack of internal genitalia except for rudimentary ductal structures defined by histological examination. Her condition is clearly different from that of feminizing testis syndrome and Swyer syndrome individuals. We would like to include her and six similar patients from the literature in a newly defined `XY gonadal agenesis' syndrome. Images PMID:4774539

Sarto, Gloria E.; Opitz, John M.

1973-01-01

42

Congenital contractures and distinctive phenotypic features consistent with Stuve-Wiedmann syndrome in a male infant  

PubMed Central

Introduction Expressionless face associated with multiple contractures has been encountered in an infant. There is a wide range of misconception regarding the categorization of children with multiple contractures among different pediatric disciplines. The fundamental element in categorizing children with multiple contractures is "the etiological understanding". In the absence of concomitant neuromuscular disease, however, the search for other reasons is mandatory. Our present paper signifies the necessity of proper interpretations of unusual clinical and radiographic features. Case presentation We describe a 3-months-old-infant presented with the phenotypic and the radiographic features consistent with the diagnosis of Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome. We report what might be the first clinical report of Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome from a consanguineous family in Austria. Conclusion Congenital limitations of the hips in a newborn infant raise the possibility of " Congenital Hip Dislocation". As congenital hip dislocation is a dysplastic process. Here further knowledge by the pediatrician and the orthopaedic surgeon is needed. Our present patient appears to constitute a distinct pathological entity consistent with Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome (SWS). Superti-Furga et al, and Cormier-Daire et al, also suggest that Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome and Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 2 are allelic conditions. We wish to stress that, given the rarity of syndromic malformation complex, our impression is that it is more common than it is reported. PMID:18718019

Al Kaissi, Ali; Rumpler, Monika; Csepan, Robert; Grill, Franz; Klaushofer, Klaus

2008-01-01

43

Male-biased brood sex ratio depresses average phenotypic quality of barn swallow nestlings under experimentally harsh conditions.  

PubMed

Sex allocation strategies are believed to evolve in response to variation in fitness costs and benefits arising from the production of either sex and can be influenced by the differential susceptibility of sons and daughters to environmental conditions. We tested the effects of manipulating brood size and the sex ratio of the nestmates and the effect of sex on the phenotypic quality of individual barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) nestlings. Brood enlargement, which results in harsh rearing conditions, negatively affected the morphology and immunity of the nestlings. However, the negative consequences of brood enlargement were more marked among male than female offspring. In enlarged but not reduced broods, high proportions of male nestmates resulted in lowered individual body mass, body condition and feather growth. Thus, the consequences of a harsh environment on individual nestlings differed between the sexes and depended on the sex ratio among the other nestlings in the brood. The evolution of sex allocation strategies may therefore depend on the sex of individual nestlings but also on an interaction between environment and progeny sex ratio. PMID:18270745

Saino, Nicola; de Ayala, Rosa Mary; Martinelli, Roberta; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe

2008-05-01

44

Phenotypic correlates and survival consequences of male mating success in lek-mating greater prairie-chickens ( Tympanuchus cupido )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female choice and male–male aggression are two modes of sexual selection that can lead to elaboration of male morphological\\u000a and behavioral traits. In lek-mating species, male mating success is often strongly skewed, and it is puzzling why variation\\u000a in male traits is still observed given directional female choice. If male traits correlated with reproductive success are\\u000a honest signals of male

Jacqueline K. Nooker; Brett K. Sandercock

2008-01-01

45

Male-sterile and cleistogamous phenotypes in tall fescue induced by chimeric repressors of SUPERWOMAN1 and OsMADS58.  

PubMed

Since tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an anemophilous (wind-pollinated) grass species, male sterility is strongly desired for transgenic tall fescue to prevent pollen dispersal. To create male-sterile tall fescue, we applied Chimeric REpressor gene-Silencing Technology (CRES-T) based on rice APETALA3 (AP3) and AGAMOUS (AG) orthologues that specify the formation of stamens. We fused the coding regions of rice AP3 orthologue SUPERWOMAN1 (SPW1), and rice AG orthologues, Os12g0207000, Os01g0886200 and OsMADS58, respectively with the artificial sequence encoding the modified EAR-like motif repression domain (SRDX). We first introduced Os12g0207000SRDX, Os01g0886200SRDX and OsMADS58SRDX into rice for evaluation of their abilities to induce male sterility. The transgenic rice expressing OsMADS58SRDX had reiterated formation of lodicule-like organs instead of stamens and carpel, a typical phenotype of ag mutant. Thus, we found that OsMADS58SRDX was most suitable for our purpose. Next, we introduced SPW1SRDX and OsMADS58SRDX into tall fescue. Although the transgenic tall fescue did not have the stamen alterations seen in SPW1SRDX and OsMADS58SRDX rice, they either produced no pollen or produced immature pollen; thus, the anthers were not dehiscent and the plants were male-sterile. In addition to the male sterility, SPW1SRDX tall fescue showed a cleistogamous (closed) phenotype in which anthers were not observed outside the glumes, with thin, abnormally elongated lodicules. Some lines of OsMADS58SRDX tall fescue showed a cleistogamous phenotype in which the lodicules were homeotically transformed into lemma-like organs. In both cases, cleistogamous phenotype was associated with morphological changes to the lodicules. We also obtained a mild phenotype of OsMADS58SRDX tall fescue, which exhibited only the male sterility. In this study, we produced novel male-sterile phenotypes using chimeric repressors and thus suggest CRES-T as a tool for transgenic improvement of forage and turf grasses. PMID:22195592

Sato, Hiroko; Yoshida, Kouki; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Takamizo, Tadashi

2012-02-01

46

Limited plasticity in the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix for male advertisement calls in the black field cricket,  

E-print Network

in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus W. R. PITCHERS*�, R. BROOKS, M. D. JENNIONS, T. TREGENZA�, I; diet; field cricket; matrix comparison; P matrix; phenotypic integration; phenotypic plasticity; sexual cricket, Teleogryllus commo- dus. We measured a subset of calls from wild-caught crickets from each

Dworkin, Ian

47

An infant with mos45,X/46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY: Genetic and clinical findings  

SciTech Connect

We report on an infant with mos45,X/46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY who presented with ambiguous genitalia. The patient was the 2,637 gram product of a 38 week gestation and elective repeat C-section born to a 35 year old G3P2 mother. The pregnancy was complicated by placenta previa. There was no history of maternal health problems or drug or steroid use. At birth bilateral epicanthal folds and overfolded helices were noted without webbing of the neck or lymphedema. There was a phallic structure measuring 1.5 cm with dorsal hood and midline cleft with a normal female introitus, urethra, and vagina. Congenital adrenal hyperplaxia was excluded. Renal ultrasound was normal. Periperal blood chromosomes revealed a mos45,X(38%)/47,XYY(29%)/48,XYYY(33%) karyotype. Echocardiography revealed coarctation of the aorta and a bicuspid aortic valve. An additional cell line, 46,XY, was identified in aortic tissue obtained at the time of surgery. At age 15 months she was 25% in height and weight and had bilateral ptosis. Her development was within normal limits, but no words except {open_quotes}Mama{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Dada{close_quotes} were spoken. A left intraabdominal testis with epididymis and dilated tubules and bilateral Fallopian tubes were removed at laparoscopy/reconstruction. Cell cultures were initiated from gonadal tissue, and karyotypes are pending. Patients with mosaic Y chromosome aneuploidy involving 2 Y chromosomes are rare. Eighteen patients with 45,X/47,XYY have been described; prenatally diagnosed cases appeared to be normal male whereas cases diagnosed postnally presented with ambiguous genitalia and/or other anomalies. The phenotype of Y chromosome aneuploidy with 3 Y chromosomes is even more unpredictable due to the paucity of reported cases. To our knowledge this is the first patient described with this unusual karyotype, thus adding to the limited information of patients with rare mosaic Y chromosome aneuploidy.

Fox, J.; Blumenthal, D.; Brock, W. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

48

Clinical and gonadal features and early surgical management of 45,X/46,XY and 45,X/47,XYY chromosomal mosaicism presenting with genital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Objective The 45,X/46,XY and 45,X/47,XYY group of patients includes some of those previously diagnosed with ‘mixed gonadal dysgenesis’. Our aim was to establish the clinical and gonadal spectrum, and early surgical management, of patients with chromosomal mosaicism presenting with genital anomalies. Patients and methods We performed a retrospective review of patients with 45,X/46,XY or 45,X/47,XYY mosaicism presenting with genital ambiguity between 1988 and 2009. At least one gonadal biopsy or gonadectomy specimen was available for each patient. Gonadal histology was re-evaluated by a paediatric pathologist. Results Of 31 patients with 45,X/46,XY (n = 28) or 45,X/47,XYY (n = 3) mosaicism and genital anomalies, 19 (61%) were raised male. Histology of 46 gonads was available from patients who had undergone a gonadectomy or gonadal biopsy, at a median age of 9.5 months. 18 gonads were palpable at presentation, including 5 (28%) histologically unremarkable testes, 2 streak gonads, and 1 dysgenetic gonad with distinct areas of testicular and ovarian stroma but no oocytes. All intra-abdominal gonads were found to be dysgenetic testes (of which 2 were noted to have pre-malignant changes) or streaks, apart from 1 histologically unremarkable testis. 15 (48%) patients had other anomalies, most commonly cardiac and renal; 4 (13%) had a Turner phenotype. Conclusion The anatomy and gonadal histology of 45,X/46,XY and 45,X/47,XYY individuals with genital ambiguity do not conform to a set pattern, and hence management of each patient should be individualized according to detailed anatomical and histological assessment. PMID:22281282

Farrugia, M.K.; Sebire, N.J.; Achermann, J.C.; Eisawi, A.; Duffy, P.G.; Mushtaq, I.

2013-01-01

49

True hermaphroditism in a 46, XY individual, caused by a postzygotic somatic point mutation in the male gonadal sex-determining locus (SRY): Molecular genetics and histological findings in a sporadic case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the gene for the determination of maleness has been identified in the sex-determining region on the short arm of the Y chromosome (SRY) between the Y-chromosomal pseudoautosomal boundary (PABY) and the ZFY gene locus. Experiments with transgenic mice confirmed that SRY is a part of the testis-determining factor (TDF). The authors describe a sporadic case of a patient with

A. Braun; S. Kammerer; H. Cleve; U. Loehrs; H. P. Schwarz; U. Kuhnle

1993-01-01

50

Solitons in the classical xy-chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical one-dimensional xy-model is studied using Monte Carlo and spin-dynamic methods. We demonstrate the existence of solitons in both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic chains, and compare their behavior with existing theory.

Gerling, R. W.; Staudinger, M.; Landau, D. P.

1986-02-01

51

Coordinated X-Y stage apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is disclosed based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion.

Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Charles, S.T.; Spalding, J.A.

2000-01-25

52

Breeding resource distribution affects selection gradients on male phenotypic traits: experimental study on lifetime reproductive success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus).  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of breeding resources can have pronounced demographic and evolutionary consequences. We used 20 experimental groups of the bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), an annual fish with a promiscuous, resource-based mating system, and extended breeding season to investigate how the spatial distribution (clumped or regular) of bitterling oviposition sites (live freshwater mussels) affected offspring production, variation in reproductive success, and directional selection on phenotypic traits over their entire reproductive lifetime. We did not detect any effect of resource distribution on offspring production or variation in reproductive success among individual fish, although variation between replicates was higher with a clumped distribution. This finding is discussed with regard to the incidence of alternative mating behaviors (sneaking) within the limitations imposed by our experimental design. Breeding resource distribution had a significant effect on selection on male phenotypic traits. Stronger directional selection on traits associated with intrasexual competition for fertilizations, gonad mass (an indicator of sperm competition), and the extent of red, carotenoid-based pigment in the iris (an index of dominance status), was detected with a clumped resource distribution. With a regular resource distribution, a stronger positive selection on male body size was detected. We discuss the implications of our results for natural populations. PMID:19215290

Reichard, Martin; Ondracková, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, Carl; Bryja, Josef

2009-02-01

53

Permanent and functional male-to-female sex reversal in d-rR strain medaka (Oryzias latipes) following egg microinjection of o,p'-DDT.  

PubMed Central

Complete sex reversal of fish is accomplished routinely in aquaculture practices by exposing fish to exogenous sex steroids during gonadal differentiation. A variety of environmental chemicals are also active at sex steroid receptors and theoretically possess the potential to alter normal sexual differentiation in fish. However, in controlled environmental chemical exposures to date, only partial alterations of fish sexual phenotype have been observed. Here we report complete, permanent, and functional male-to-female sex reversal in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes, d-rR strain) after a onetime embryonic exposure to the xenoestrogen o, p'-DDT. d-rR strain medaka are strict gonochorists that possesses both sex-linked pigmentation, which distinguishes genotypic sex, and sexually dimorphic external secondary sexual characteristics, which distinguish phenotypic sex. We directly microinjected the xenoestrogen o, p'-DDT into the egg yolks of medaka at fertilization to parallel the maternal transfer of lipophilic contaminants to the embryo. At 10 weeks of age, microinjected medaka were examined for mortality and sex reversal. A calculated embryonic dose of 511 +/- 22 ng/egg o, p'-DDT (mean +/- standard error) resulted in 50% mortality. An embryonic exposure of 227 +/- 22 ng/egg o, p'-DDT resulted in 86% (6 of 7) sex reversal of genetic males to a female phenotype (XY females). XY females were distinguished by sex-linked male pigmentation accompanying female secondary sexual characteristics. Histologic examination of the gonads confirmed active ovaries in 100% of the XY females. In 10-day breeding trials in which XY females were paired with normal XY males, 50% of the XY females produced fertilized embryos; this represents a comparable breeding success rate to normal XX females. Fertilized eggs produced from XY females hatched to viable larvae. These results clearly indicate that a weakly estrogenic pesticide, o, p'-DDT, when presented during the critical period of gonadal development, can profoundly alter sexual differentiation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10706527

Edmunds, J S; McCarthy, R A; Ramsdell, J S

2000-01-01

54

[Peripheral precocious puberty: 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis].  

PubMed

Despite standard clinical definitions and availability of diagnostic tests for precocious puberty, an intensive and structured investigation is needed in order to diagnose the aetiology in particular cases. A 4-year-old, phenotypically female child was referred to paediatric endocrinology consultation for premature pubarche and thelarche. There was an acceleration of growth velocity with high levels of estradiol and testosterone, and prepubertal FSH and LH measurements. Investigation showed bilateral gonadoblastoma as the cause of the peripheral precocious puberty. Genetic studies revealed 46 XY karyotype with mutation c.89G> T (p.Arg30Ile) in exon 1 of the SRY gene, confirming the diagnosis of complete gonadal dysgenesis. Disorders of sexual differentiation must be considered in the approach and investigation of peripheral precocious puberty, especially in the presence of ovarian tumours, such as gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma. PMID:24296253

Santalha, M; Amaral, B; Pereira, J; Ribeiro, L; João Oliveira, M; Figueiredo, S; Cardoso, H; Peixoto, C; Borges, T; Cidade-Rodrigues, J A

2014-10-01

55

Familial Robertsonian Translocation 13;21 in a Down Syndrome Patient with XYY\\/XY Mosaicism  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Down syndrome; mosaicism; Robertsonian translocation; XYY males ABSTRACT Double aneuploidy involving XYY and trisomy 21 is rare. XYY\\/XY mosaicism has been described in only a single Down syndrome patient. The Robertsonian translocation t(13;21) is also rare among these individuals. We report for the first time the occurrence of t(13;21) in a mosaic XYY Down male. Analysis of GTG-banded metaphases

Cyril Cyrus; Solomon F. D. Paul

56

Phenotype/karyotype correlations of Y chromosome aneuploidy with emphasis on structural aberrations in postnatally diagnosed cases  

SciTech Connect

Over 600 cases with Y aneuploidy (other than non-mosaic 47,XYY) were reviewed for phenotype/karyotype correlations. Except for 93 prenatally diagnosed cases of mosaicism, all other cases were ascertained postnatally. Special emphasis was placed on structural abnormalities. It is clear that in the absence of a 45,X cell line, the presence of an entire Yp or a region of it including SRY would lead to a male phenotype in an individual with a Y aneuploidy, whereas the lack of Yp invariably leads to a female phenotype with typical or atypical Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS). Once there is a 45,X cell line, regardless of whether there is a Yp, Yq, or both Yp and Yq, or even a free Y chromosome in other cell lines, there is an increased chance for that individual to be a phenotypic female with UTS manifestations or to have ambiguous external genitalia. This review once again shows a major difference in reported phenotypes between postnatally and prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XY, 45,X/47,XYY, and 45,X/46,XY/47,XYY mosaicism. It appears that ascertainment bias can explain the fact that all known patients with postnatal diagnosis are phenotypically abnormal, while over 90% of prenatally diagnosed cases are reported to have a normal male phenotype. Further elucidation of major Y genes and their clinical significance can be expected in the rapidly expanding gene mapping projects. More, consequently better, phenotype/karyotype correlations can be anticipated at both the cytogenetic and the molecular level. 486 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

Hsu, L.Y.F. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

1994-11-01

57

Semen characteristics and production of germ cells in male sheep-goat chimeras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semen from 11 male sheep-goat chimeras and one male sheep-goat hybrid-sheep chimera was evaluated on criteria commonly used as in vitro measures of semen quality. In addition, the species origin of germ cells was determined. Five males that were sex chimeras produced spermatozoa only from their XY cells. Three XY\\/XY sheep-goat males were shown by electrophoretic separation of sperm isozymes

G. B Anderson; D. L Anderson; R. H Bondurant; J. M Cash; L. A MacLaren; A. L Moyer; M. C. T Penedo

1995-01-01

58

Effects of a selectively bred novelty-seeking phenotype on the motivation to take cocaine in male and female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Gender and enhanced novelty reactivity can predispose certain individuals to drug abuse. Previous research in male and female\\u000a rats selectively bred for high or low locomotor reactivity to novelty found that bred High Responders (bHRs) acquire cocaine\\u000a self-administration more rapidly than bred Low Responders (bLRs) and that bHR females in particular self-administered more\\u000a cocaine than the other groups. The experiments

Jennifer A Cummings; Brooke A Gowl; Christel Westenbroek; Sarah M Clinton; Huda Akil; Jill B Becker

2011-01-01

59

The fragile X phenotype in a mosaic male with a deletion showing expression of the FMR1 protein in 28% of the cells  

SciTech Connect

The instability of the CGG repeat region of FMR1 is not restricted to the CGG repeat but expands to flanking sequences as well. A mosaic fragile X male is reported with a deletion of part of the CGG repeat and 30 bp immediately 3{prime} of the repeat, thus confirming the presence of a hotspot for deletions in the CGG region of FMR1. The deletion, detected in 28% of his lymphocytes, did not impair the transcription and translation of FMR1, suggesting that regulatory elements are not present in the deleted region. The patient has the characteristic fragile X phenotype and assuming that the mosaic pattern detected in the lymphocytes reflects the mosaic pattern in brain, 28% expression of FMRP may not be sufficient for normal cognitive functioning. 43 refs., 3 figs.

Graaf, E. de; Vries, B.B.A. de; Willemsen, R. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [and others] [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands); and others

1996-08-09

60

Microglia express distinct M1 and M2 phenotypic markers in the postnatal and adult CNS in male and female mice  

PubMed Central

Although microglial activation is associated with all CNS disorders, many of which are sexually dimorphic or age-dependent, little is known about whether microglial basal gene expression is altered with age in the healthy CNS or if it is sex-dependent. Analysis of microglia from the brains of 3 day (P3) - to 12 month-old male and female C57Bl/6 mice revealed distinct gene expression profiles during postnatal development that differ significantly from adulthood. Microglia at P3 are characterized by relatively high iNOS, TNF? and arginase-1 mRNA levels, whereas P21 microglia have increased expression of CD11b, TLR4 and FcR?I. Adult microglia (2-4 months) are characterized by low pro-inflammatory cytokine expression that increases by 12 months of age. Age-dependent differences in microglial gene expression suggest that microglia likely undergo phenotypic changes during ontogenesis, although in the healthy brain they did not exclusively express either M1 or M2 phenotypic markers at any time. Interestingly, microglia were sexually dimorphic only at P3 when females had higher expression of inflammatory cytokines than males, although there were no sex differences in estrogen receptor expression at this or any other time evaluated here. Compared to microglia in vivo, primary microglia prepared from P3 mice had considerably altered gene expression with higher levels of TNF?, CD11b, arginase-1 and VEGF suggesting that culturing may significantly alter microglial properties. In conclusion, age- and sex-specific variances in basal gene expression may enable differential microglial responses to the same stimulus at different ages, perhaps contributing to altered CNS vulnerabilities and/or disease courses. PMID:23686747

Crain, Jessica M.; Nikodemova, Maria; Watters, Jyoti J.

2013-01-01

61

Masculine Epigenetic Sex Marks of the CYP19A1/Aromatase Promoter in Genetically Male Chicken Embryonic Gonads Are Resistant to Estrogen-Induced Phenotypic Sex Conversion1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Sex of birds is genetically determined through inheritance of the ZW sex chromosomes (ZZ males and ZW females). Although the mechanisms of avian sex determination remains unknown, the genetic sex is experimentally reversible by in ovo exposure to exogenous estrogens (ZZ-male feminization) or aromatase inhibitors (ZW-female masculinization). Expression of various testis- and ovary-specific marker genes during the normal and reversed gonadal sex differentiation in chicken embryos has been extensively studied, but the roles of sex-specific epigenetic marks in sex differentiation are unknown. In this study, we show that a 170-nt region in the promoter of CYP19A1/aromatase, a key gene required for ovarian estrogen biosynthesis and feminization of chicken embryonic gonads, contains highly quantitative, nucleotide base-level epigenetic marks that reflect phenotypic gonadal sex differentiation. We developed a protocol to feminize ZZ-male chicken embryonic gonads in a highly quantitative manner by direct injection of emulsified ethynylestradiol into yolk at various developmental stages. Taking advantage of this experimental sex reversal model, we show that the epigenetic sex marks in the CYP19A1/aromatase promoter involving DNA methylation and histone lysine methylation are feminized significantly but only partially in sex-converted gonads even when morphological and transcriptional marks of sex differentiation show complete feminization, being indistinguishable from gonads of normal ZW females. Our study suggests that the epigenetic sex of chicken embryonic gonads is more stable than the morphologically or transcriptionally characterized sex differentiation, suggesting the importance of the nucleotide base-level epigenetic sex in gonadal sex differentiation. PMID:22539680

Ellis, Haley L.; Shioda, Keiko; Rosenthal, Noel F.; Coser, Kathryn R.; Shioda, Toshi

2012-01-01

62

InXy and SeXy, compact heterologous reporter proteins for mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Mammalian reporter proteins are essential for gene-function analysis, drugscreening initiatives and as model product proteins for biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Bacillus subtilis can maintain its metabolism by secreting Xylanase A (XynA), which converts xylan into shorter xylose oligosaccharides. XynA is a family 11 xylanase monospecific for D-xylose containing substrates. Mammalian cells transgenic for constitutive expression of wild-type xynA showed substantial secretion of this prokaryotic enzyme. Deletion analysis confirmed that a prokaryotic signal sequence encoded within the first 81 nucleotides was compatible with the secretory pathway of mammalian cells. Codon optimization combined with elimination of the prokaryotic signal sequence resulted in an exclusively intracellular mammalian Xylanase A variant (InXy) while replacement by an immunoglobulin-derived secretion signal created an optimal secreted Xylanase A derivative (SeXy). A variety of chromogenic and fluorescence-based assays adapted for use with mammalian cells detected InXy and SeXy with high sensitivity and showed that both reporter proteins resisted repeated freeze/thaw cycles, remained active over wide temperature and pH ranges, were extremely stable in human serum stored at room temperature and could independently be quantified in samples also containing other prominent reporter proteins such as the human placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and the Bacillus stearothermophilus-derived secreted alpha-amylase (SAMY). Glycoprofiling revealed that SeXy produced in mammalian cells was N- glycosylated at four different sites, mutation of which resulted in impaired secretion. SeXy was successfully expressed in a variety of mammalian cell lines and primary cells following transient transfection and transduction with adeno-associated virus particles (AAV) engineered for constitutive SeXy expression. Intramuscular injection of transgenic AAVs into mice showed significant SeXy levels in the bloodstream. InXy and SeXy are highly sensitive, compact and robust reporter proteins, fully compatible with pre-existing marker genes and can be assayed in high-throughput formats using very small sample volumes. PMID:17461419

Fluri, David A; Kelm, Jens M; Lesage, Guillaume; Baba, Marie Daoud-El; Fussenegger, Martin

2007-10-15

63

Clinical Utility of the UPOINT Phenotype System in Chinese Males with Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS): A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent data showed that a six-domain UPOINT is a flexible and responsive new classification system that has the clinical applicability in CP/CPPS. However, the utility of UPOINT algorithm in men in China with CP/CPPS has not been comprehensively studied. For international validation and adoption, we evaluated this clinical phenotype system for a large cohort of Chinese CP/CPPS patients and correlated it with patient symptoms and erectile dysfunction (ED). We also investigated the addition of an ED domain in regard to symptom correlation. Methods A total of 389 Chinese males with CP/CPPS were prospectively collected and classified in each domain of the UPOINT system. Symptom severity was measured using the NIH-CPSI and IPSS. The erectile function was evaluated using the IIEF-5. Clinically relevant associations were calculated. Results The percentage of patients positive for each domain was 54.0%, 42.1%, 41.9%, 20.8%, 26.7%, and 40.4% for the Urinary, Psychosocial, Organ-specific, Infection, Neurological/systemic, and Tenderness, respectively. There were significant correlations between the number of positive UPOINT domains and total NIH-CPSI (r?=?0.706, p<0.001), IPSS (r?=?0.682, p<0.001) and IIEF-5 scores (r?=?0.631, P?=?0.007) in Chinese cohort. Except for patients age, symptom duration was associated with a significantly greater number of positive domains (r?=?0.638, P ?=?0.005). After adding an ED domain to create a modified UPOINT system, the correlation between the number of phenotypic domains and symptom severity was improved (0.706 to 0.844, p<0.001). Conclusions The clinical applicability of using UPOINT phenotyping system has been validated in the Chinese patients with CP/CPPS. In our cohort, the number of positive domains was also correlated with ED symptoms and the significant association between the number of UPOINT domains and NIH-CPSI scores was further refined by adding a domain for ED. Our findings presented here support the utility of using ED as a stand-alone item in the UPOINT domain. PMID:23349680

Zhao, Zhigang; Zhang, Jingwei; He, Jun; Zeng, Guohua

2013-01-01

64

XY chromosome nondisjunction in man is associated with diminished recombination in the pseudoautosomal region.  

PubMed Central

To assess the possible association between aberrant recombination and XY chromosome nondisjunction, we compared pseudoautosomal region recombination rates in male meiosis resulting in 47,XXY offspring with those resulting in 46,XY and 46,XX offspring. Forty-one paternally derived 47,XXYs and their parents were tested at six polymorphic loci spanning the pseudoautosomal region. We were able to detect crossing-over in only six of 39 cases informative for the telomeric DXYS14/DXYS20 locus. Subsequently, we used the data to generate a genetic linkage map of the pseudoautosomal region and found it to be significantly shorter than the normal male map of the region. From these analyses we conclude that most paternally derived 47,XXYs result from meiosis in which the X and Y chromosomes did not recombine. Images Figure 1 PMID:1867189

Hassold, T J; Sherman, S L; Pettay, D; Page, D C; Jacobs, P A

1991-01-01

65

X-Linked Retinoschisis: RS1 Mutation Severity and Age Affect the ERG Phenotype in a Cohort of 68 Affected Male Subjects  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the effect of age and RS1 mutation on the phenotype of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) subjects using the clinical electroretinogram (ERG) in a cross-sectional analysis. Methods. Sixty-eight XLRS males 4.5 to 55 years of age underwent genotyping, and the retinoschisis (RS1) mutations were classified as less severe (27 subjects) or more severe (41 subjects) based on the putative impact on the protein. ERG parameters of retinal function were analyzed by putative mutation severity with age as a continuous variable. Results. The a-wave amplitude remained greater than the lower limit of normal (mean, ?2 SD) for 72% of XLRS males and correlated with neither age nor mutation class. However, b-wave and b/a-ratio amplitudes were significantly lower in the more severe than in the less severe mutation groups and in older than in younger subjects. Subjects up to 10 years of age with more severe RS1 mutations had significantly greater b-wave amplitudes and faster a-wave trough implicit times than older subjects in this group. Conclusions. RS1 mutation putative severity and age both had significant effects on retinal function in XLRS only in the severe mutation group, as judged by ERG analysis of the b-wave amplitude and the b/a-ratio, whereas the a-wave amplitude remained normal in most. A new observation was that increasing age (limited to those aged 55 and younger) caused a significant delay in XLRS b-wave onset (i.e., a-wave implicit time), even for those who retained considerable b-wave amplitudes. The delayed b-wave onset suggested that dysfunction of the photoreceptor synapse or of bipolar cells increases with age of XLRS subjects. PMID:22039241

Bowles, Kristen; Cukras, Catherine; Turriff, Amy; Sergeev, Yuri; Vitale, Susan; Bush, Ronald A.

2011-01-01

66

Gender role behavior in children with XY karyotype and disorders of sex development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children exhibit gender-typical preferences in play, toys, activities and interests, and playmates. Several studies suggest that high concentrations of pre- and postnatal androgens contribute to male-typical behavior development, whereas female-typical behavior develops in the absence of high androgens levels. This study aims to explore the consequences of hypoandrogenization on gender-typical behavior in children who have an XY karyotype and disorder

Martina Jürgensen; Olaf Hiort; Paul-Martin Holterhus; Ute Thyen

2007-01-01

67

Molecular analysis in true hermaphrodites with different karyotypes and similar phenotypes  

SciTech Connect

True hermaphroditism is characterized by the development of ovarian and testicular tissue in the same individual. Muellerian and Wolffian structures are usually present, and external genitalia are often ambiguous. The most frequent karyotype in these patients is 46,XX or various forms of mosaicism, whereas 46,XY is very rarely found. The phenotype in all these subjects is similar. We studied 10 true hermaphrodites. Six of them had a 46,XX chromosomal complement: 3 had been reared as males and 3 as females. The other 4 patients were mosaics: 3 were 46,XX/46,XY and one had a 46,XX/47,XXY karyotype. One of the 46,XX/46,XY mosaics was reared as a female, whereas the other 3 mosaics were reared as males. The sex of assignment in the 10 patients depended only on labio-scrotal differentiation. Molecular studies in 46,XX subjects documented the absence of Y centromeric sequences in all cases, arguing against hidden mosaicism. One patient presented Yp sequences (ZFY+, SRY+), which contrast with South African black 46,XX true hermaphrodites in whom no Y sequences were found. Molecular analysis in the subjects with mosaicism demonstrated the presence of Y centromeric and Yp sequences confirming the presence of a Y chromosome. Gonadal development, endocrine function, and phenotype in the 10 patients did not correlate with the presence of a Y chromosome or Y-derived sequences in the genome, confirming that true hermaphroditism is a heterogeneous condition. Both Mexican and non-South African 46,XX true hermaphrodites may be SRY positive. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Torres, L.; Cervantes, A.; Kofman-Alfaro, S. [H.G.M. Ssa. Facultad de Medicina (Mexico)] [and others] [H.G.M. Ssa. Facultad de Medicina (Mexico); and others

1996-05-17

68

Low rates of X-Y recombination, not turnovers, account for homomorphic sex chromosomes in several diploid species of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup).  

PubMed

Contrasting with birds and mammals, most ectothermic vertebrates present homomorphic sex chromosomes, which might be due either to a high turnover rate or to occasional X-Y recombination. We tested these two hypotheses in a group of Palearctic green toads that diverged some 3.3 million years ago. Using sibship analyses of sex-linked markers, we show that all four species investigated share the same pair of sex chromosomes and a pattern of male heterogamety with drastically reduced X-Y recombination in males. Phylogenetic analyses of sex-linked sequences show that X and Y alleles cluster by species, not by gametolog. We conclude that X-Y homomorphy and fine-scale sequence similarity in these species do not stem from recent sex-chromosome turnovers, but from occasional X-Y recombination. PMID:23316809

Stöck, M; Savary, R; Betto-Colliard, C; Biollay, S; Jourdan-Pineau, H; Perrin, N

2013-03-01

69

Solitons in the antiferromagnetic XY chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important sampling Monte Carlo method is used to study the classical, antiferromagnetic, XY chain in a symmetry breaking uniform magnetic field. From equilibrium configurations we extract values for the bulk properties as well as explicit pictures showing individual spin directions. An analysis of the angles which the spin makes with the field shows clearly the presence of both ``?-like'' and ``2?-like'' solitons. We also see two distinct types of ``?-like'' solitons which differ in their behavior as a function of field. The bulk properties are discussed in terms of both spin waves and soliton excitations.

Staudinger, M.; Gerling, R. W.; Murty, C. S. S.; Landau, D. P.

1985-04-01

70

Excitations in the classical XY chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the time-dependent behavior of the classical XY chain in a symmetry breaking magnetic field using an ultrafast spin-dynamics method in which we integrate the equations of motion using starting configurations determined by Monte Carlo simulations. We calculated the three polarizations of S(q,?) separately for temperatures from 0.1 to 1.0 J/kB and fields up to 1.5 J. The soliton contribution, the single-magnon peaks, and both the sum and difference two-magnon contributions are separated; we discuss them in detail and compare them with theoretical predictions.

Gerling, R. W.; Landau, D. P.; Challa, M. S. S.

1988-11-01

71

Novel regulation of PLC? activity via its XY-linker  

PubMed Central

The XY-linker region of somatic cell PLC (phospholipase)-?, -?, -? and -? isoforms confers potent catalytic inhibition, suggesting a common auto-regulatory role. Surprisingly, the sperm PLC? XY-linker does not mediate auto-inhibition. Unlike for somatic PLCs, the absence of the PLC? XY-linker significantly diminishes both in vitro PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) hydrolysis and in vivo Ca2+-oscillation-inducing activity, revealing evidence for a novel PLC? enzymatic mechanism. PMID:21767260

Nomikos, Michail; Elgmati, Khalil; Theodoridou, Maria; Georgilis, Athena; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. Raul; Nounesis, George; Swann, Karl; Lai, F. Anthony

2011-01-01

72

A radial velocity study of XY Leonis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectra have been obtained over the past three seasons for the short-period (Od.28) contact binary XY Leo. Exposure times were kept short by the use of an image tube. By cross correlating the blended stellar spectra of this system with spectra of velocity standards of similar spectral type, accurate component velocities were measured. Corrections for tidal and eclipse effects were then investigated based upon a model of the system. With these corrections, the following spectroscopic elements were determined: K1 = 108 + or - 2 km/s, K2 = 216 + or - 4 km/s, and Vo = -50 + or - 2 km/s, which lead to q = 0.50 + or - 0.02, M1 = 0.87 + or - 0.04 solar mass, and M2 = 0.44 + or - 0.02 solar mass. Strong Ca II H and K emission was observed at all phases.

Hrivnak, B. J.; Milone, E. F.; Hill, G.; Fisher, W. A.

1984-10-01

73

1. VIEW OF THE CONTROL ROOM FOR THE XY RETRIEVER. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF THE CONTROL ROOM FOR THE X-Y RETRIEVER. USING THE X-Y RETRIEVER, OPERATORS RETRIEVED PLUTONIUM METAL FROM THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULTS (IN MODULE K) AND CONVEYED IT TO THE X-Y SHUTTLE AREA WHERE IT WAS CUT AND WEIGHED. FROM THE SHUTTLE AREA THE PLUTONIUM WAS CONVEYED TO MODULES A, J OR K FOR CASTING, OR MODULE B FOR ROLLING AND FORMING. (5/17/71) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

74

Regions of XY homology in the pig X chromosome and the boundary of the pseudoautosomal region  

PubMed Central

Background Sex chromosomes are subject to evolutionary pressures distinct from the remainder of the genome, shaping their structure and sequence content. We are interested in the sex chromosomes of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa), how their structure and gene content compares and contrasts with other mammalian species, and the role of sex-linked genes in fertility. This requires an understanding of the XY-homologous sequence on these chromosomes. To this end, we performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) with male and female Duroc genomic DNA on a pig X-chromosome BAC tiling-path microarray. Putative XY-homologous BACs from regions of interest were subsequently FISH mapped. Results We show that the porcine PAR is approximately 6.5-6.9 Mb at the beginning of the short arm of the X, with gene content reflective of the artiodactyl common ancestor. Our array-CGH data also shows an XY-homologous region close to the end of the X long arm, spanning three X BACs. These BACs were FISH mapped, and paint the entire long arm of SSCY. Further clones of interest revealed X-autosomal homology or regions containing repetitive content. Conclusions This study has identified regions of XY homology in the pig genome, and defined the boundary of the PAR on the X chromosome. This adds to our understanding of the evolution of the sex chromosomes in different mammalian lineages, and will prove valuable for future comparative genomic work in suids and for the construction and annotation of the genome sequence for the sex chromosomes. Our finding that the SSCYq repetitive content has corresponding sequence on the X chromosome gives further insight into structure of SSCY, and suggests further functionally important sequences remain to be discovered on the X and Y. PMID:23320497

2013-01-01

75

Dissociation as probable origin of mosaic 45,XY,t(15;21)/46,XY,i(21q).  

PubMed Central

A patient is described with some features of Down's syndrome and a 45,XY, t(15;21)(15qter leads to 15p13::21p11 leads to 21qter)/46,XY,i(21)(qter leads to cen leads to qter) karyotype. Two mechanisms are proposed for the origin of the mosaicism, one assuming the dissociation of a translocation (15;21) chromosome already present in the zygote, and the other involving a chromatid translocation in a 46,XY zygote. The possible independent origin of the two cell lines is also considered. Images PMID:152355

Vianna-Morgante, A M; Nunesmaia, H G

1978-01-01

76

Synthesis and analysis of parallel Kinematic XY flexure mechanisms  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a family of XY flexure mechanisms with large ranges of motion, first-order decoupled degrees of freedom, and small parasitic error motions. Synthesis is based on an systematic and symmetric layout of ...

Awtar, Shorya, 1977-

2004-01-01

77

MexXY multidrug efflux system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Anti-pseudomonas aminoglycosides, such as amikacin and tobramycin, are used in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. However, their use is linked to the development of resistance. During the last decade, the MexXY multidrug efflux system has been comprehensively studied, and numerous reports of laboratory and clinical isolates have been published. This system has been increasingly recognized as one of the primary determinants of aminoglycoside resistance in P. aeruginosa. In P. aeruginosa cystic fibrosis isolates, upregulation of the pump is considered the most common mechanism of aminoglycoside resistance. Non-fermentative Gram-negative pathogens possessing very close MexXY orthologs such as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and various Burkholderia species (e.g., Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. cepacia complexes), but not B. gladioli, are intrinsically resistant to aminoglycosides. Here, we summarize the properties (e.g., discovery, mechanism, gene expression, clinical significance) of the P. aeruginosa MexXY pump and other aminoglycoside efflux pumps such as AcrD of Escherichia coli, AmrAB-OprA of B. pseudomallei, and AdeABC of Acinetobacter baumannii. MexXY inducibility of the PA5471 gene product, which is dependent on ribosome inhibition or oxidative stress, is noteworthy. Moreover, the discovery of the cognate outer membrane component (OprA) of MexXY in the multidrug-resistant clinical isolate PA7, serotype O12 deserves special attention. PMID:23233851

Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

2012-01-01

78

[Sex of rearing in 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis (case report)].  

PubMed

XY patients with gonadal dysgenesis present with a wide array of clinical pictures that is characterised by a variable incomplete virilisation of the external genital organs (female phenotype, posterior hypospadias, cryptorchidism) and the persistence of the internal müllerian duct structures. The birth of a child with this type of abnormality is a social phenomenon, which will probably have a physical and psychical impact. The choice of the sex depends on the organic anatomy, diagnosis age, risk of gonadal tumors and the development possibilities (mainly at puberty) of the child. The registration of the civil status can be made only after determining the sex through the aforementioned anatomical and functional study. Once this process is finished, the treatment must be considered. We report our experience, particularly complicated in the choice of the sex of child, with an XY karyotype and partial gonadal dysgenesis. Raised as a girl until her seventh day when her parents noticed the existence of a genital bud and decided to register their child as a boy in the civil status. He was referred to our hospital, at the age of 16 months, in order to explore a bilateral cryptorchidism and posterior hypospadias. Our patient was declared to be a boy based on an unanimous opinion of a multidisciplinary team. PMID:20097326

Iraqi, N; Gaouzi, A; Bouhafs, M A

2010-03-01

79

Behavioural phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural phenotypes are specific psychological characteristics with a known genetic aetiology. Like their somatic counterparts, the identification of behavioural phenotypes is potentially of clinical value. Various genetic mechanisms are associated with characteristic cognitive and behavioural profiles. These include: normal functional variations (polymorphisms); genetic mutations (with associated loss of function); structural anomalies and chromosomal deletions. Most descriptions of behavioural phenotypes concern

Kate Lawrence

2005-01-01

80

Studies on the Sex-Specific Lethals of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. IV. Gynandromorph Analysis of Three Male-Specific Lethals, mle, msl-227 and mle(3)132  

PubMed Central

Mutants at three male-specific lethal loci of Drosophila melanogaster (mle, msl-227 and mle(3)132) were examined by gynandromorph analysis. In all cases only a very few gynandromorphs with small X/O patches appeared. Most of these small X/O patches were in the abdomen, and the structures in these X/O regions were reduced in size. These results indicate that the primary effects of these mutants are not on any particular organs or tissues, but rather on individual cells. mle and msl-2 have been shown by Belote and Lucchesi (1980a) to be defective in dosage compensation in X/Y males. We suggest that this dosage-compensation defect results in the expression of Minute-like phenotypes in X/O cells, and hence results in the death of X/O males and flies with large X/O tissue areas. PMID:6818104

Uenoyama, T.; Uchida, S.; Fukunaga, A.; Oishi, K.

1982-01-01

81

Mosaic 35,X/36,XY karyotype and intersex in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).  

PubMed

A zoo-bred Himalayan red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) was diagnosed as a presumptive intersex on clinical examination at 4-mo-of-age. The phenotype was predominantly female but showed a large anogenital distance and bilateral ischial swellings. Based on cytogenetic evaluation, the karyotype was mos35,X/36,XY, with 50% of each cell type. A grossly normal uterus and oviducts were seen with laparoscopic examination, while the gonads were smooth-surfaced, with a ramifying vascular pattern. On histopathologic examination the bulk of the gonads consisted of clumps of poorly differentiated cells, with just a thin rim of ovarian tissue under the region covered by the fimbriae of the oviduct. PMID:8445784

Reddacliff, G L; Halnan, C R; Martin, I C

1993-01-01

82

Global quantum discord and quantum phase transition in XY model  

E-print Network

We study the relationship between the behavior of global quantum correlations and quantum phase transitions in XY model. We find that the two kinds of phase transitions in the studied model can be characterized by the features of global quantum discord (GQD) and the corresponding quantum correlations. We demonstrate that the maximum of the sum of all the nearest neighbor bipartite GQDs is effective and accurate for signaling the Ising quantum phase transition, in contrast, the sudden change of GQD is very suitable for characterizing another phase transition in the XY model. This may shed lights on the study of properties of quantum correlations in different quantum phases.

Si-Yuan Liu; Yu-Ran Zhang; Wen-Li Yang; Heng Fan

2014-05-20

83

ATM Promotes the Obligate XY Crossover and both Crossover Control and Chromosome Axis Integrity on Autosomes  

PubMed Central

During meiosis in most sexually reproducing organisms, recombination forms crossovers between homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes and thereby promotes proper chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division. The number and distribution of crossovers are tightly controlled, but the factors that contribute to this control are poorly understood in most organisms, including mammals. Here we provide evidence that the ATM kinase or protein is essential for proper crossover formation in mouse spermatocytes. ATM deficiency causes multiple phenotypes in humans and mice, including gonadal atrophy. Mouse Atm?/? spermatocytes undergo apoptosis at mid-prophase of meiosis I, but Atm?/? meiotic phenotypes are partially rescued by Spo11 heterozygosity, such that ATM-deficient spermatocytes progress to meiotic metaphase I. Strikingly, Spo11+/?Atm?/? spermatocytes are defective in forming the obligate crossover on the sex chromosomes, even though the XY pair is usually incorporated in a sex body and is transcriptionally inactivated as in normal spermatocytes. The XY crossover defect correlates with the appearance of lagging chromosomes at metaphase I, which may trigger the extensive metaphase apoptosis that is observed in these cells. In addition, control of the number and distribution of crossovers on autosomes appears to be defective in the absence of ATM because there is an increase in the total number of MLH1 foci, which mark the sites of eventual crossover formation, and because interference between MLH1 foci is perturbed. The axes of autosomes exhibit structural defects that correlate with the positions of ongoing recombination. Together, these findings indicate that ATM plays a role in both crossover control and chromosome axis integrity and further suggests that ATM is important for coordinating these features of meiotic chromosome dynamics. PMID:18497861

Di Giacomo, Monica; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Keeney, Scott; Jasin, Maria

2008-01-01

84

Critical dynamics in the two-dimensional XY-model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first high resolution spin dynamics simulation of critical dynamics in the classical, two-dimensional XY-model. Using square lattices as large as 204 × 204 with periodic boundaries, we integrate coupled equations of motion and determine the scattering function S( q, ?). At the critical temperature we find a rich structure which is not adequately described by existing theory.

Landau, D. P.; Gerling, R. W.

1992-02-01

85

xyZET: A Simulation Program for Physics Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses xyZET, a simulation program that allows 3D-space in numerous experiments in basic mechanics and electricity and was developed to support physics teaching. Tests course material for 11th grade at German high schools under classroom conditions and reports on their stability and effectiveness. (Contains 15 references.) (Author/YDS)

Hartel, Hermann

2000-01-01

86

Children with 45,X\\/46,XY Karyotype from Birth to Adult Height  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Growth pattern of children with 45,X\\/46,XY karyotype (X\\/XY children) has not been characterized. Objective: Our objective is to describe growth pattern and long-term outcome of X\\/XY children and to develop guidelines for management of their short stature. Our hypothesis was that abnormal karyotype and deficiency of gonadal function might play a role in growth deceleration in X\\/XY children. Methods:

Hanan Tosson; Susan R. Rose; Lou Ann Gartner

2010-01-01

87

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of Rumex papillaris, a dioecious plant with an XX/XY(1)Y (2) sex chromosome system.  

PubMed

Rumex papillaris Boiss, & Reut., an Iberian endemic, belongs to the section Acetosa of the genus Rumex whose main representative is R. acetosa L., a species intensively studied in relation to sex-chromosome evolution. Here, we characterize cytogenetically the chromosomal complement of R. papillaris in an effort to enhance future comparative genomic approaches and to better our understanding of sex chromosome structure in plants. Rumex papillaris, as is common in this group, is a dioecious species characterized by the presence of a multiple sex chromosome system (with females 2n = 12 + XX and males 2n = 12 + XY(1)Y(2)). Except for the X chromosome both Y chromosomes are the longest in the karyotype and appear heterochromatic due to the accumulation of at least two satellite DNA families, RAE180 and RAYSI. Each chromosome of pair VI has an additional major heterochromatin block at the distal region of the short arm. These supernumerary heterochromatic blocks are occupied by RAE730 satellite DNA family. The Y-related RAE180 family is also present in an additional minor autosomal locus. Our comparative study of the chromosomal organization of the different satellite-DNA sequences in XX/XY and XX/XY(1)Y(2) Rumex species demonstrates that of active mechanisms of heterochromatin amplification occurred and were accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements giving rise to the multiple XX/XY(1)Y(2) chromosome systems observed in Rumex. Additionally, Y(1) and Y(2) chromosomes have undergone further rearrangements leading to differential patterns of Y-heterochromatin distribution between Rumex species with multiple sex chromosome systems. PMID:18373205

Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Schwarzacher, Trude; Rejón, Manuel Ruiz; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

2009-01-01

88

Quantum coherence and uncertainty in the anisotropic XY chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the local quantum coherence and the local quantum uncertainty, based on Wigner-Yanase skew information, in the ground state of the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY chain in a transverse magnetic field. We show that the skew information, as a figure of merit, supplies the necessary information to reveal the occurrence of the second-order phase transition and the completely factorized ground state in the XY model. Additionally, in the same context, we also discuss the usefulness of a simple experimentally friendly lower bound of local quantum coherence. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the connection between the appearance of nonanalyticities in the local quantum uncertainty of the ground state and the quantum phase transitions does not hold in general, by providing explicit examples of the situation. Lastly, we discuss the ability of the local quantum coherence to accurately estimate the critical point of the phase transition, and we investigate the robustness of the factorization phenomenon at low temperatures.

Karpat, G.; ?akmak, B.; Fanchini, F. F.

2014-09-01

89

Program Aids Creation Of X-Y Plots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VEGAS computer program enables application programmers to create X-Y plots in various modes through high-level subroutine calls. Modes consist of passive, autoupdate, and interactive modes. In passive mode, VEGAS takes input data, produces plot, and returns control to application program. In autoupdate mode, forms plots and automatically updates them as more information received. In interactive mode, displays plot and provides popup menus for user to alter appearance of plot or to modify data. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Jeletic, James F.

1993-01-01

90

Wavelets as a variational basis of the XY model  

E-print Network

We use Daubechies' orthonormal compact wavelets as a variational basis for the $XY$ model in two and three dimensions. Assuming that the fluctuations of the wavelet coefficients are Gaussian and uncorrelated, minimization of the free energy yields the fluctuation strength of wavelet coefficients at different scales, from which observables can be computed. This model is able to describe the low-temperature phase and makes a prediction about the phase transition temperature.

C. Best; A. Schaefer

1993-11-22

91

Spin solitons in the classical xy-chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Monte Carlo and spin dynamics methods we present evidence for the existence of solitons in the classical one dimensional xy-chain. From the simulation results we calculated the specific heat to see the contribution of the solitons. Using special computer programs we were able to see the moving solitons directly and to determine the soliton velocity and the soliton density. Our results are compared with theoretical predictions.

Gerling, R. W.; Landau, D. P.

1984-11-01

92

Optimized x/y scanning head for laser beam positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a fast two-axis deflection unit for laser beam positioning, an X/Y scanning head based on two galvanometric scanners with vertical crossed axes is a central component of different applications in industry, medicine and communications. Some of these are laser markers, stereolithography devices, scanning laser vibrometers, laser trimmers, laser cutting machines, infrared scanners, lead bonders, Q-switches, laser ophthalmoscope, robotic vision systems, range finders, image digitizers, and laser graphic projectors for entertainment. Velocity and accuracy of the X/Y scanning heads are very important for the performance of the devices in which they are used. Therefore the dynamic properties of the X/Y scanning head must be optimized. One important criterion is the mass moment of inertia of the second scanning mirror. It can be reduced by inclining the axis of the first galvanometric scanner. To solve these problems both computer tools for the optical and mechanical optimization, and measuring devices to minimize the wobble and jitter of galvanometric scanners were developed. The development of scanning heads for different apertures (laser beam diameters), scan angles and F-(Theta) -objectives was done for SCANLAB GmbH (Puchheim/Munchen, Germany), one of the three leading manufacturers for galvanometric scanners.

Muth, Michael

1996-08-01

93

Conducting-angle-based percolation in the XY model.  

PubMed

We define a percolation problem on the basis of spin configurations of the two-dimensional XY model. Neighboring spins belong to the same percolation cluster if their orientations differ less than a certain threshold called the conducting angle. The percolation properties of this model are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and a finite-size scaling analysis. Our simulations show the existence of percolation transitions when the conducting angle is varied, and we determine the transition point for several values of the XY coupling. It appears that the critical behavior of this percolation model can be well described by the standard percolation theory. The critical exponents of the percolation transitions, as determined by finite-size scaling, agree with the universality class of the two-dimensional percolation model on a uniform substrate. This holds over the whole temperature range, even in the low-temperature phase where the XY substrate is critical in the sense that it displays algebraic decay of correlations. PMID:20365707

Wang, Yancheng; Guo, Wenan; Nienhuis, Bernard; Blöte, Henk W J

2010-03-01

94

Conducting-angle-based percolation in the XY model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define a percolation problem on the basis of spin configurations of the two-dimensional XY model. Neighboring spins belong to the same percolation cluster if their orientations differ less than a certain threshold called the conducting angle. The percolation properties of this model are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and a finite-size scaling analysis. Our simulations show the existence of percolation transitions when the conducting angle is varied, and we determine the transition point for several values of the XY coupling. It appears that the critical behavior of this percolation model can be well described by the standard percolation theory. The critical exponents of the percolation transitions, as determined by finite-size scaling, agree with the universality class of the two-dimensional percolation model on a uniform substrate. This holds over the whole temperature range, even in the low-temperature phase where the XY substrate is critical in the sense that it displays algebraic decay of correlations.

Wang, Yancheng; Guo, Wenan; Nienhuis, Bernard; Blöte, Henk W. J.

2010-03-01

95

Gender Identity Outcome in Female-Raised 46,XY Persons with Penile Agenesis, Cloacal Exstrophy of the Bladder, or Penile Ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses the long-term gender outcome of gender assignment of persons with intersexuality and related conditions. The gender assignment to female of 46,XY newborns with severe genital abnormalities despite a presumably normal-male prenatal sex-hormone milieu is highly controversial because of variations in assumptions about the role of biological factors in gender identity formation. This article presents a literature review

Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg

2005-01-01

96

Iso X(q)Y karyotype in a phenotypically female child  

SciTech Connect

A phenotypically female child of healthy and unrelated Irish/German and Irish/German/Swedish parents was diagnosed with an XY karyotype as an infant. She presented for reevaluation at 10 years of age at which time physical examination revealed severe growth and mental retardation, frequent absence seizures, mildly dysmorphic facial features, and female prepubertal external genitalia. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed no evidence of a uterus or ovaries. Laproscopic examination has not yet been performed. The family history is unremarkable. High resolution chromosome analysis was recommended which revealed a 46, iso X(q)Y karyotype. Chromosome painting of the X and Y chromosomes confirmed their identity. No mosaicism was detected in peripheral blood and no X chromosome short arm material could be detected. The literature has inidicated that Turner syndrome stigmata have been observed in females with an iso X chromosome. However, our patient does not have any Turner syndrome stigmata. It is difficult to explain the phenotypic findings in this patient based on the karyotypic abnormality noted in peripheral blood. Study of other tissues has been recommended. We have been unable to identify any other cases of a 46, iso X(q)Y karyotype in either males or females.

Brenhofer, J.; McCorquodale, M.; Burton, B.K. [Univ. of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-09-01

97

Mutation Analysis of NR5A1 Encoding Steroidogenic Factor 1 in 77 Patients with 46, XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) Including Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor-1 have been reported in association with a wide spectrum of 46,XY DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) phenotypes including severe forms of hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the frequency of NR5A1 gene mutations in a large series of patients presenting with 46,XY DSD and hypospadias. Based on their clinical presentation 77 patients were classified either as complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis (uterus seen at genitography and/or surgery, n?=?11), ambiguous external genitalia without uterus (n?=?33) or hypospadias (n?=?33). We identified heterozygous NR5A1 mutations in 4 cases of ambiguous external genitalia without uterus (12.1%; p.Trp279Arg, pArg39Pro, c.390delG, c140_141insCACG) and a de novo missense mutation in one case with distal hypospadias (3%; p.Arg313Cys). Mutant proteins showed reduced transactivation activity and mutants p.Arg39Pro and p.Arg313Cys did not synergize with the GATA4 cofactor to stimulate reporter gene activity, although they retained their ability to physically interact with the GATA4 protein. Conclusions/Significance Mutations in NR5A1 were observed in 5/77 (6.5%) cases of 46,XY DSD including hypospadias. Excluding the cases of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis the incidence of NR5A1 mutations was 5/66 (7.6%). An individual with isolated distal hypopadias carried a de novo heterozygous missense mutation, thus extending the range of phenotypes associated with NR5A1 mutations and suggesting that this group of patients should be screened for NR5A1 mutations. PMID:22028768

Brauner, Raja; Lourenço, Diana; Boudjenah, Radia; Karageorgou, Vasiliki; Trivin, Christine; Lottmann, Henri; Lortat-Jacob, Stephen; Nihoul-Fékété, Claire; De Dreuzy, Olivier; McElreavey, Ken; Bashamboo, Anu

2011-01-01

98

Thermal transitions in nano-patterned XY-magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated ultra-thin disc shaped islands wherein shape anisotropy confines the moment to the island plane, creating XY-like superspins. At low temperatures, the superspins are blocked, and, as the temperature is increased, they undergo a transition into a superparamagnetic state. The onset of this dynamic superspin state scales with the diameter of the islands, and it persists up to a temperature governed by the intrinsic ordering temperature of the island material defining a range in temperature in which dynamic behavior of the magnetic islands can be obtained.

Arnalds, Unnar B.; Ahlberg, Martina; Brewer, Matthew S.; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th.; Karimipour, Masoud; Korelis, Panagiotis; Stein, Aaron; Ólafsson, Sveinn; Hase, Thomas P. A.; Hjörvarsson, Björgvin

2014-07-01

99

New Anomalous Lieb-Robinson Bounds in Quasiperiodic XY Chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We announce and sketch the rigorous proof of a new kind of anomalous (or sub-ballistic) Lieb-Robinson (LR) bound for an isotropic XY chain in a quasiperiodic transversal magnetic field. Instead of the usual effective light cone |x|?v|t|, we obtain |x|?v|t|? for some 0

Damanik, David; Lemm, Marius; Lukic, Milivoje; Yessen, William

2014-09-01

100

Avalanches and hysteresis in frustrated superconductors and XY spin glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study avalanches along the hysteresis loop of long-range interacting spin glasses with continuous XY symmetry, which serves as a toy model of granular superconductors with long-range and frustrated Josephson couplings. We identify sudden jumps in the T =0 configurations of the XY phases as an external field is increased. They are initiated by the softest mode of the inverse susceptibility matrix becoming unstable, which induces an avalanche of phase updates (or spin alignments). We analyze the statistics of these events and study the correlation between the nonlinear avalanches and the soft mode that initiates them. We find that the avalanches follow the directions of a small fraction of the softest modes of the inverse susceptibility matrix, similarly as was found in avalanches in jammed systems. In contrast to the similar Ising spin glass (Sherrington-Kirkpatrick) studied previously, we find that avalanches are not distributed with a scale-free power law but rather have a typical size which scales with the system size. We also observe that the Hessians of the spin-glass minima are not part of standard random matrix ensembles as the lowest eigenvector has a fractal support.

Sharma, Auditya; Andreanov, Alexei; Müller, Markus

2014-10-01

101

Agnathia-holoprosencephaly associated with a 46,XY,-21,+t(21q;21q) karyotype  

SciTech Connect

We report an unusual case of agnathia-holoprosencephaly associated with Down syndrome due to a 21/21 translocation. The patient presented prenatally at 21 wks gestation. A fetal ultrasound revealed multiple CNS anomalies including hydrocephalus, compressed cerebellum, absent septum pellucidum and possible cranial meningocele or encephalocele. High resolution ultrasound & fetal karyotype were recommended. The patient refused & elected to have a pregnancy termination. Chromosomal analysis performed on products of conception revealed a 46,XY,-21,+t(21q;21q) karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed and confirmed the 21/21 translocation chromosome. An autopsy revealed agnathia and multiple CNS anomalies including absence of the septum pellucidum, absence of the corpus callosum, arhinencephaly, an occiptal meningoencephalocele, dilation of the lateral ventricles, and extensive dysgenesis & heterotopias of the central cerebrum & mid-brain. Additional abnormalities included a persistent left superior vena cava, atrial & ventricular septal defects, irregular length of the fingers with absence of the middle phalanges of the right 2nd and 5th & left 5th digits and bilateral simian creases. Agnathia can be an isolated abnormality but often is associated with holoprosencephaly and/or situs inversus. The majority of familial case of agnathis-holoprosencephaly was caused by an inherited unbalanced translocation resulting in duplication of 6p and monosomy of 18p. Our patient had a translocation form of trisomy 21 but did not have a phenotype consistent with Down syndrome. Trisomy 21 has not been previously reported in other cases of agnathia-holoprosencephaly. Whether the chromosomal abnormality caused the phenotypic abnormalities or if it is a coincidental finding cannot be determined.

Niedermeyer, K.K.; McCorquodale, M.M.; Burton, B.K. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-09-01

102

XX/XY chromosomal chimerism in infertile sheep of the Cambridge breed  

E-print Network

XX/XY chromosomal chimerism in infertile sheep of the Cambridge breed JJB Gill1 DAR Davies2 of Domestic Animals; Toulouse-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) sheep / chimerism / XX/XY / infertility-type external genitalia. Apart from this animal, all the ultimately infertile females showed no sign

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

103

Target Block Alignment Error in XY Stage Metrology Shorya Awtar1  

E-print Network

1 Target Block Alignment Error in XY Stage Metrology Authors Shorya Awtar1 Precision Engineering? The conclusion reached here is that, for parallel kinematic stages this is not possible using any metrology setup or any number of measurements. Keywords: XY Stage, Metrology Errors, Target Block Alignment 1

Awtar, Shorya

104

Kosterlitz-Thouless Transition: The Diluted XY model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of nonmagnetic disorder on Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition in the two-dimensional ferromagnetic XY model on a square lattice, diluted by randomly placed vacancies can be an important source of information on the role played by vortexes in this transition. The transition temperature TBKT is determined as a function of vacancy density ?v by stiffness ? and for different size of the lattice. The anomalous behavior for TBKT when ?v is close to the square lattice percolation limit is a consequence of the effect of finite size of lattice and not due the quantum fluctuations as concluded in literature. We obtain that TBKT falls to zero at ?v ? 0.40 close to the value 0.41 obtained for the classic model.

Costa, B. V.; Lima, L. S.; Coura, P. Z.; Leonel, S. A.; Lima, A. B.

2014-03-01

105

Spin-dynamics study of the classical ferromagnetic XY chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-dependent behavior of the classical, ferromagnetic xy chain in a symmetry-breaking magnetic field was studied using a very fast, vectorized spin-dynamics method. The equations of motion were integrated using starting configurations determined by Monte Carlo simulations. By calculating spin-spin correlation functions and taking space-time Fourier transforms, we determined S(q,?) for a wide range of fields and temperatures. We identify and measure the characteristics of single spin-wave peaks and two spin-wave sum peaks, as well as central peaks due to both soliton and two spin-wave difference processes. These results are discussed in light of existing theory and experiments.

Gerling, R. W.; Landau, D. P.

1990-04-01

106

Spin-dynamics study of the classical anisotropic XY chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the time-dependent behavior of the classical XY chain in a symmetry-breaking anisotropy field using an ultrafast spin-dynamics method in which we integrate the equation of motion with equilibrium spin configurations determined by Monte Carlo simulations. All three polarizations of the scattering function S(q,?) were determined for temperature kBT=0.2J and fields varying from 0.1J to 0.6J. Substantial differences are found as compared with the isotropic ferromagnetic chain in a transverse magnetic field. The soliton contribution, single-spin-wave peaks, and both the sum and difference two-spin-wave contributions are separated. Half-widths and integrated intensities are extracted and compared with theoretical predictions based on mapping onto the sine-Gordon model.

Kim, D. Y.; Gerling, R. W.; Landau, D. P.

1990-07-01

107

Static and dynamic properties of the classical XY chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results for the static and dynamic behavior of a one-dimensional classical XY chain. Equilibrium configurations are produced by an importance-sampling Monte Carlo method. Static properties are evaluated from these data and a spin-dynamics method is then used to evaluate time-displaced correlation functions and to calculate the scattering function S(q,?). The transverse spin-spin correlation functions decay exponentially for large times. The longitudinal spin-spin correlation functions show oscillatory behavior, especially at low temperatures. The longitudinal-scattering function displays spin-wave peaks, and the transverse-scattering function shows central peaks (relaxational behavior) which change to fluctuation-broadened spin-wave peaks for large values of q?. The energy-energy correlation function shows diffusive behavior for high temperatures and non-diffusive behavior for low temperatures.

Gerling, R. W.; Landau, D. P.

1983-02-01

108

Insulin and IGF1 Receptors Are Essential for XX and XY Gonadal Differentiation and Adrenal Development in Mice  

PubMed Central

Mouse sex determination provides an attractive model to study how regulatory genetic networks and signaling pathways control cell specification and cell fate decisions. This study characterizes in detail the essential role played by the insulin receptor (INSR) and the IGF type I receptor (IGF1R) in adrenogenital development and primary sex determination. Constitutive ablation of insulin/IGF signaling pathway led to reduced proliferation rate of somatic progenitor cells in both XX and XY gonads prior to sex determination together with the downregulation of hundreds of genes associated with the adrenal, testicular, and ovarian genetic programs. These findings indicate that prior to sex determination somatic progenitors in Insr;Igf1r mutant gonads are not lineage primed and thus incapable of upregulating/repressing the male and female genetic programs required for cell fate restriction. In consequence, embryos lacking functional insulin/IGF signaling exhibit (i) complete agenesis of the adrenal cortex, (ii) embryonic XY gonadal sex reversal, with a delay of Sry upregulation and the subsequent failure of the testicular genetic program, and (iii) a delay in ovarian differentiation so that Insr;Igf1r mutant gonads, irrespective of genetic sex, remained in an extended undifferentiated state, before the ovarian differentiation program ultimately is initiated at around E16.5. PMID:23300479

Romero, Yannick; Conne, Beatrice; Truong, Vy; Papaioannou, Marilena D.; Schaad, Olivier; Docquier, Mylene; Herrera, Pedro Luis; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Nef, Serge

2013-01-01

109

De novo interstitial deletion 2q14.1q22.1: Is there a recognizable phenotype?  

PubMed

In this report we describe a male patient with a rare de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 2q14.1-q22.1. His karyotype was reported as 46,XY,del(2)(q13q21) but subsequent array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) analysis redefined the deletion breakpoints as 2q14.1 and 2q22.1. Eight patients have been reported with deletions either within or spanning the region 2q13 or 2q14 to 2q22.1. In five patients the diagnosis was made by karyotype analysis alone and in three reported patients and the proband array CGH analysis was also performed. When the proband was compared with the eight previously reported patients it was apparent that they shared many clinical findings suggesting that patients with a de novo interstitial deletion involving 2q13 or 2q14 to 2q21 or 2q22 may have a recognizable phenotype. There are 14 known disease-associated genes in the deleted region of 2q14.1-q22.1 and their possible phenotypic effects on the proband and the eight previously reported patients are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25263257

Greally, Marie T; Robinson, Eve; Allen, Nicholas M; O'Donovan, Donough; Crolla, John A

2014-12-01

110

Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of the Dioecious Cannabis sativa with an XY Chromosome Sex Determination System  

PubMed Central

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) was karyotyped using by DAPI/C-banding staining to provide chromosome measurements, and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for 45 rDNA (pTa71), 5S rDNA (pCT4.2), a subtelomeric repeat (CS-1) and the Arabidopsis telomere probes. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair (XX in female and XY in male plants). The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The Y chromosome is larger than the autosomes, and carries a fully heterochromatic DAPI positive arm and CS-1 repeats only on the less intensely DAPI-stained, euchromatic arm. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CS-1-carrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. sativa sex chromosomes is a starting point for helping to make C. sativa a promising model to study sex chromosome evolution. PMID:24465491

Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Alexandrov, Oleg S.; Razumova, Olga V.; Kirov, Ilya V.; Karlov, Gennady I.

2014-01-01

111

A newborn with ambiguous genitalia and a complex X;Y rearrangement  

PubMed Central

Background: In most mammals, sex is determined at the beginning of gestation by the constitution of the sex chromosomes, XY in males and XX in females. Case: Here we report an interesting case characterized by ambiguous genitalia and ovotestis in a newborn carrying an apparently female karyotype (46 XX). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Array-CGH) revealed an unbalanced rearrangement resulting in the deletion of the distal Xp and the duplication of the proximal Xp contiguous region with presence of the Y chromosome from Ypter to Yq11. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that this portion of the Y was translocated to the tip of the abnormal X and that the duplicated portion of chromosome X was inverted. Altogether, the abnormal chromosome was a dicentric one with the centromere of the Y chromosome apparently inactivated. Conclusion: The presence within the translocated Y chromosome of the SRY gene explains the devolopment of testes although it is not clear the reason for the genitalia ambiguity. PMID:25031580

Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Rossi, Elena; Vetro, Annalisa; Russo, Gianni; Hashemian, Zahra; Zuffardi, Orsetta

2014-01-01

112

Sex Chromosome-Specific Regulation in the Drosophila Male Germline But Little Evidence for Chromosomal  

E-print Network

Sex Chromosome-Specific Regulation in the Drosophila Male Germline But Little Evidence for Chromosomal Dosage Compensation or Meiotic Inactivation Colin D. Meiklejohn*, Emily L. Landeen, Jodi M. Cook, United States of America Abstract The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW

Dean, Matthew D.

113

XY behavior for the heat capacity at nematic-smectic-A1 liquid-crystal transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution ac calorimetric data are reported for three polar liquid-crystal systems: octyloxyphenylcyanobenzoxybenzoate (80PCBOB), a mixture of pentylphenylcyanobenzoyloxybenzoate (DB5CN)+cyanobenzoyloxypentylstilbene (C5 stilbene), and a mixture of DB6CN+C5 stilbene. All three exhibit nematic-smectic-A1 one liquid-crystal transition heat-capacity peaks well described by the XY critical exponent alphaXY=-0.007. The critical amplitude ratio A-\\/A+ (=0.99) agrees fairly well with the XY value and is inconsistent with

C. W. Garland; G. Nounesis; K. J. Stine

1989-01-01

114

Three-dimensional generalized xy models: A Monte Carlo study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lattice spin models considered in the present paper consist of three-component unit vectors, associated with a D-dimensional lattice (say Bbb Zd), parameterized by usual spherical angles (?k,phik), and interacting via a ferromagnetic potential restricted to nearest neighbours, of the form Wjk = - epsilon(sin ?j sin ?k)p cos (phij - phik), p in Bbb N, p >= 1; here epsilon is a positive quantity setting energy and temperature scales. The models were recently introduced, and rigorous comparison inequalities holding for them were investigated, and used to prove the existence of an ordering transition when D = 3 (Romano S. and Zagrebnov V. A., Phys. Lett. A, 301 (2002) 402), investigated by other approximate techniques as well (Mól L. A. S., Pereira A. R. and Moura-Melo W. A., Phys. Lett. A, 319 (2003) 114). We report here an extensive Monte Carlo study of the critical behaviour for D = 3 and p <= 4; our results are consistent with the same universality class as the xy model.

Chamati, H.; Romano, S.; Mól, L. A. S.; Pereira, A. R.

2005-10-01

115

The Classical XY-Chain with an In-Plane Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal properties of the one-dimensional classical XY-model in a symmetry-breaking field are studied by using the transfer-kernel method. The results complete earlier data from Monte-Carlo simulations.

Delica, Thomas; Gerling, Rainer W.; Leschke, Hajo

1987-01-01

116

Designing a low cost XY stage for abrasive water jet cutting  

E-print Network

This thesis guides the reader through the design of an inexpensive XY stage for abrasive water jet cutting machine starting with a set of functional requirements and ending with a product. Abrasive water jet cutting allows ...

Abu Ibrahim, Fadi, 1980-

2004-01-01

117

Sperm ultrastructure and 18, X, Y aneuploidies in a man with a 46 XY, 47 XY?+?18 mosaic karyotype: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To describe sperm morphology and meiotic segregation in the case of a man with a 46 XY\\/ 47 XY?+?18 mosaic karyotype.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A 25-year-old man came to our Centre for semen analysis. Morphological sperm evaluation was performed by light and electron\\u000a microscopy; meiotic segregation was examined by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique using probes for chromosomes\\u000a 18, X

G. Collodel; I. Cosci; A. N. Pascarelli; E. Moretti

2007-01-01

118

Three dimensional reconstruction of the X-Y pair during pachytene in the rat ( Rattus norvegicus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of the X-Y pair from rat spermatocytes has been reconstructed sterically by the study of serial sections. The X-Y pair of the rat at early pachytene contains two dense cores, a long and a short one, which form a synaptonemal complex 1.7 µ long at their common end. The long core (10.6 µ) and the short core (4.5

F. Ureña; A. J. SOLAlZI

1970-01-01

119

Implementation of a Non-Contact X-Y Mover With High Temperature Superconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the unique characteristics of high temperature superconductors (HTS) is its flux trapping capability associated with the so-called type II superconductors, which enables a stable levitation\\/suspension over a permanent magnet (PM). In this paper, a non-contact X-Y mover that utilizes single-grained Y-Ba-Cu-O bulks and their flux trapping character is proposed and implemented. This X-Y table consists of a mover

In-Gann Chen; Chun-Chih Wang; Yuan-Shan Hsio; Wen-Chien Lai; Hang-Sheng Chen; Mi-Ching Tsai; Ming-Hsun Tsai; Ming-Yang Cheng

2007-01-01

120

Phenotypic plasticity: molecular mechanisms and adaptive significance.  

PubMed

Phenotypic plasticity can be broadly defined as the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments, as the modification of developmental events by the environment, or as the ability of an individual organism to alter its phenotype in response to changes in environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, the study of phenotypic plasticity is innately interdisciplinary and encompasses aspects of behavior, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, genomics, and multiple physiological systems at various levels of biological organization. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, phenotypic plasticity may be a powerful means of adaptation and dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity include predator avoidance, insect wing polymorphisms, the timing of metamorphosis in amphibians, osmoregulation in fishes, and alternative reproductive tactics in male vertebrates. From a human health perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology. Regardless of the discipline, phenotypic plasticity has increasingly become the target of a plethora of investigations with the methodological approaches utilized ranging from the molecular to whole organsimal. In this article, we provide a brief historical outlook on phenotypic plasticity; examine its potential adaptive significance; emphasize recent molecular approaches that provide novel insight into underlying mechanisms, and highlight examples in fishes and insects. Finally, we highlight examples of phenotypic plasticity from a human health perspective and underscore the use of mouse models as a powerful tool in understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity. PMID:23798305

Kelly, Scott A; Panhuis, Tami M; Stoehr, Andrew M

2012-04-01

121

Human male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.  

PubMed

In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained. Disturbance of MSCI in mice leads to harmful X,Y gene expression, eventuating in spermatocyte death and sperm heterogeneity. Sperm heterogeneity is a characteristic of the human male. For this reason we were interested in the efficiency of MSCI in human primary spermatocytes. We investigated MSCI in pachytene spermatocytes of seven probands: four infertile men and three fertile controls, using direct and indirect in situ methods. A considerable degree of variation in the degree of MSCI was detected, both between and within probands. Moreover, in post-meiotic stages this variation was observed as well, indicating survival of spermatocytes with incompletely inactivated sex chromosomes. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of H3K9me3 posttranslational modifications on the X and Y chromatin. Contrary to constitutive centromeric heterochromatin, this heterochromatin marker did not specifically accumulate on the XY body, with the exception of the heterochromatic part of the Y chromosome. This may reflect the lower degree of MSCI in man compared to mouse. These results point at relaxation of MSCI, which can be explained by genetic changes in sex chromosome composition during evolution and candidates as a mechanism behind human sperm heterogeneity. PMID:22355370

de Vries, Marieke; Vosters, Sanne; Merkx, Gerard; D'Hauwers, Kathleen; Wansink, Derick G; Ramos, Liliana; de Boer, Peter

2012-01-01

122

Sex-reversed mice: XX and XO males  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autosomally inherited condition is described in the mouse which causes genetic females to develop as phenotypic males. XX males are phenotypically normal with the exception of small testes, which, in the adult, are devoid of germ cells. During late fetal and early postnatal development, male-type germ cells are present but progressively become lost, so that none is present by

B. M. Cattanach; C. E. Pollard; S. G. Hawkes

1971-01-01

123

Normal sex differences in prenatal growth and abnormal prenatal growth retardation associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development are absent in newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common presentation of a disorder of sex development\\u000a (DSD) in genetic females. A report of prenatal growth retardation in cases of 46,XY DSD, coupled with observations of below-optimal\\u000a final height in both males and females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, prompted us to\\u000a investigate prenatal growth in

Laura J Chalmers; Paul Doherty; Claude J Migeon; Kenneth C Copeland; Brianna C Bright; Amy B Wisniewski

2011-01-01

124

The protocadherin 11X/Y (PCDH11X/Y) gene pair as determinant of cerebral asymmetry in modern Homo sapiens  

PubMed Central

Annett's right-shift theory proposes that human cerebral dominance (the functional and anatomical asymmetry or torque along the antero-posterior axis) and handedness are determined by a single “right-shift” gene. Familial transmission of handedness and specific deviations of cerebral dominance in sex chromosome aneuploidies implicate a locus within an X–Y homologous region of the sex chromosomes. The Xq21.3/Yp11.2 human-specific region of homology includes the protocadherin 11X/Y (PCDH11X/Y) gene pair, which encode cell adhesion molecules subject to accelerated evolution following the separation of the human and chimpanzee lineages six million years ago. PCDH11X and PCDH11Y, differentially regulated by retinoic acid, are highly expressed in the ventricular zone, subplate, and cortical plate of the developing cerebral cortex. Both proteins interact with ?-catenin, a protein that plays a role in determining axis formation and regulating cortical size. In this way, the PCDH11X/Y gene pair determines cerebral asymmetry by initiating the right shift in Homo sapiens. PMID:23600975

Priddle, Thomas H; Crow, Timothy J

2013-01-01

125

Dissecting post-mating prezygotic speciation phenotypes.  

PubMed

Darwin's "mystery of mysteries," the origin of species, is caused by the evolution of speciation phenotypes, i.e. phenotypic differences that depress gene flow between daughter species during speciation. Postmating, prezygotic (PMPZ) differentiation characterizes many closely related species causing conspecific sperm precedence (CSP), wherein a female preferentially utilizes conspecific over heterospecific sperm in fertilization. Until recently, the components of CSP have been difficult to observe and study in internally fertilizing organisms. Research into the mechanisms of CSP is now progressing rapidly with the help of new innovative research tools. With the recent development of a sperm labeling system enabling distinct labels for different males, direct observations of competing male sperm within the female reproductive tract are possible, revealing multiple PMPZ phenotypes that combine to cause CSP. The discovery of mechanisms underlying CSP predicts an exciting future for studies of PMPZ speciation phenotypes and possible general principles underlying the origin of species. PMID:25171419

Shaw, Kerry L; Lambert, Jonathan M

2014-11-01

126

An ENU-induced mutation in the mouse Rnf212 gene is associated with male meiotic failure and infertility  

PubMed Central

The ENU-induced repro57 mutation was identified in an unbiased screen for the discovery of novel genes for fertility. Male repro57 homozygous mice are infertile, and exhibit significantly reduced testis weight compared to wild type. Histological examination of mutant testes revealed that spermatocytes degenerated during late prophase, and no mature spermatozoa were found in the seminiferous epithelium, suggesting that infertility is caused by arrest of spermatogenesis at late meiotic prophase. Consistent with this hypothesis, the number of foci with MLH1, a protein essential for crossing over, is greatly reduced in repro57 mutant spermatocytes, which also lack chiasmata between homologs and exhibit premature dissociation of XY chromosomes. In repro57 mutant mice, we identified a mutation in the Rnf212 gene, encoding Ring Finger Protein 212. The overall phenotype of repro57 mouse is consistent with the recently reported phenotype of the Rnf212 knockout mouse; slight differences may be due to genetic background effects. Thus, the repro57 nonsense mutation provides a new allele of the mouse Rnf212 gene. PMID:25342176

Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Akiyama, Kouyou; Srivastava, Anuj; Chikushi, Mizuho; Handel, Mary Ann; Kunieda, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

127

Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the development and occurrence of male reproductive disorders  

SciTech Connect

Patients with 45,X0/46XY karyotype often present with intersex phenotype and testicular dysgenesis. These patients may also have undescended testes (cryptorchidism), hypospadias and their spermatogenesis is severely disrupted. They have a high risk for testicular cancer. These patients have the most severe form of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). We have hypothesized that testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and poor spermatogenesis are all signs of a developmental disturbance that was named as testicular dysgenesis syndrome. The hypothesis is based on clinical and epidemiological findings and on biological and experimental evidence. Signs of TDS share several risk factors, such as small birth weight (particularly being small for gestational age), and they are risk factors for each other. All of them have background in fetal development. They show strong epidemiological links so that countries with high incidence of testicular cancer, such as Denmark, tend to also have high prevalence rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias and poor semen quality. Vice versa, in countries with good male reproductive health, e.g., in Finland, all these aspects are better than in Denmark. Although genetic abnormalities can cause these disorders, in the majority of cases, the reasons remain unclear. Adverse trends in the incidence of male reproductive disorders suggest that environmental and life style factors contribute to the problem. Endocrine disrupters are considered as prime candidates for environmental influence. Fetal exposure to high doses of dibutyl phthalate was shown to cause a TDS-like phenotype in the rats. Studies are underway to assess whether there is any exposure-outcome relation with selected chemicals (persistent organic pollutants, pesticides, phthalates) and cryptorchidism00.

Virtanen, H.E. [Departments of Pediatrics and Physiology, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, 20520 Turku (Finland); Rajpert-De Meyts, E. [University Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Main, K.M. [University Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Skakkebaek, N.E. [University Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Toppari, J. [Departments of Pediatrics and Physiology, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, 20520 Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: jorma.toppari@utu.fi

2005-09-01

128

Development of a high-speed 3-axis machine tool using a novel parallel-kinematics X-Y table  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the development and performance evaluation of a high-speed, 3-axis milling machine using a novel parallel kinematics x-y table. The x-y table is based on a an inversion of the Oldham coupling. The advantages of this kinematic configuration include low inertia, uniform kinematic conditioning, and dynamically matched axes. The design of the x-y table makes this

J Dong; C Yuan; J. A Stori; P. M Ferreira

2004-01-01

129

Relative importance of male and territory quality in pairing success of male rock ptarmigan ( Lagopus mutus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied pairing success in male rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) in northern Alaska to learn whether males obtaining more females possessed phenotypic traits that influenced female choice\\u000a directly, whether these traits permitted males to obtain territories favored by females, or whether both processes occurred.\\u000a The number of females per male varied from zero to three. Several male and territory traits

Jonathan Bart; Susan L. Earnst

1999-01-01

130

An Extra X or Y Chromosome: Contrasting the Cognitive and Motor Phenotypes in Childhood in Boys with 47,XYY Syndrome or 47,XXY Klinefelter Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The goal of this study was to contrast the cognitive phenotypes in boys with 47,XYY (XYY) karyotype and boys with 47,XXY karyotype [Klinefelter syndrome, (KS)], who share an extra copy of the X-Y pseudoautosomal region but differ in their dosage of strictly sex-linked genes. Methods: Neuropsychological evaluation of general cognitive…

Ross, Judith L.; Zeger, Martha P. D.; Kushner, Harvey; Zinn, Andrew R.; Roeltgen, David P.

2009-01-01

131

High-precision control of LSRM based X-Y table for industrial applications.  

PubMed

The design of an X-Y table applying direct-drive linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) principle is proposed in this paper. The proposed X-Y table has the characteristics of low cost, simple and stable mechanical structure. After the design procedure is introduced, an adaptive position control method based on online parameter identification and pole-placement regulation scheme is developed for the X-Y table. Experimental results prove the feasibility and its priority over a traditional PID controller with better dynamic response, static performance and robustness to disturbances. It is expected that the novel two-dimensional direct-drive system find its applications in high-precision manufacture area. PMID:22981303

Pan, J F; Cheung, Norbert C; Zou, Yu

2013-01-01

132

A New Picture for the Formation and Decay of the Exotic $XY \\! Z$ Mesons  

E-print Network

We present a new dynamical picture that identifies the formation of the exotic $\\bar c c$-containing states $XY \\! Z$ with the confinement-induced hadronization of a rapidly separating pair of a compact diquark and antidiquark. This picture combines the advantages of diquark-based models, which can accommodate much of the known $XY \\! Z$ spectrum, with the experimental fact that such states are both relatively narrow and are produced promptly. It also naturally explains the preference of some of the exotic states to decay to $\\psi(2S)$, rather than $J/\\psi$, in terms of a simple wave-function overlap effect.

Stanley J. Brodsky; Dae Sung Hwang; Richard F. Lebed

2014-06-27

133

A sex-determining region on the Y chromosome controls the sex-reversal ratio in interspecific hybrids between Oryzias curvinotus females and Oryzias latipes males.  

PubMed

Oryzias latipes and Oryzias curvinotus are closely related medaka species that have the common sex-determining gene, DMY, on their homologous Y chromosomes. We previously reported that sex-reversed XY females were produced in hybrids between O. curvinotus females and O. latipes males (Hd-rR inbred strain). In this study we used HNI inbred strain males of O. latipes for mating with O. curvinotus females, and found that all the XY hybrids developed as males. To map the factor responsible for this strain-specific XY sex reversal, O. curvinotus females were mated with two Y-congenic strains (HNI.Y(Hd-rR) and Hd-rR.Y(HNI)) and a recombinant congenic strain (Hd-rR.Y(HNI)rr). HNI.Y(Hd-rR) produced sex-reversed females in the XY hybrids, whereas no sex-reversed females were obtained in the XY hybrids from Hd-rR.Y(HNI) and Hd-rR.Y(HNI)rr, demonstrating that a small region on the Y chromosome, which includes DMY, is responsible for the XY sex reversal. Sex-reversed hybrids were only produced in the presence of the Y-chromosomal region derived from the Hd-rR strain, suggesting that missense or regulatory mutations specific to the Hd-rR Y-chromosomal region induce the sex reversal. PMID:19756038

Kato, M; Takehana, Y; Sakaizumi, M; Hamaguchi, S

2010-02-01

134

Origin of chi46, XX\\/46,XY Chimerism in a Human True Hermaphrodite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using chromosome heteromorphisms and blood cell types as genetic markers, we demonstrated chimerism in a chi46,XX\\/46,XY true hermaphrodite. The pattern of inheritance of the chromosome heteromorphisms indicates that this individual was probably conceived by the fertilization, by two different spermatozoa, of an ovum and the second meiotic division polar body derived from the ovum and subsequent fusion of the two

Gordon Dewald; Morey W. Haymond; Jack L. Spurbeck; S. Breanndan Moore

1980-01-01

135

Shock aurora: FAST and DMSP observations X.-Y. Zhou,1  

E-print Network

Shock aurora: FAST and DMSP observations X.-Y. Zhou,1 R. J. Strangeway,2 P. C. Anderson,3 D. G of the aurora caused by interplanetary shocks/pressure pulses have been studied in recent years using ultraviolet imager data from polar orbiting spacecraft. The signatures include the occurrence of the aurora

California at Berkeley, University of

136

Shock aurora: Ground-based imager observations X.-Y. Zhou,1  

E-print Network

Shock aurora: Ground-based imager observations X.-Y. Zhou,1 K. Fukui,2 H. C. Carlson,3 J. I. Moen,4; published 23 December 2009. [1] This paper studies dayside shock aurora forms and their variations observed. The intensified green emissions were mainly diffuse aurora on closed field lines. They were latitudinally below

California at Berkeley, University of

137

52-Xy6T-23 1 Evaluation of a Neural Network-Based  

E-print Network

52-Xy6T-23 1 Evaluation of a Neural Network-Based Approach for Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval is applied on a remote sensing problem of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) estimation. AOD is one of the most important properties of the atmosphere that indicates the amount of depletion that a beam of radiation

Obradovic, Zoran

138

Phenomenological study of vortices in a two-dimensional XY model in a magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the two-dimensional XY model in a magnetic field from a phenomenological point of view by means of Monte Carlo simulations and a simple analytic approach. We consider the system as consisting of an ideal gas of vortex-antivortex pairs. Within this model we can calculate the density of vortex pairs, the average size of the pairs, the specific heat,

Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen; Hans Weber

1992-01-01

139

Structure Improvement of an XY Flexure Micromanipulator for Micro/Nano Scale  

E-print Network

Structure Improvement of an XY Flexure Micromanipulator for Micro/Nano Scale Manipulation Qingsong, University of Macau, Macao SAR, P. R. China, (e-mail: ya47401@umac.mo). Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macao SAR, P. R. China, (e-mail: ymli@umac.mo

Li, Yangmin

140

XY Encounter: A Mathematical Adventure. A Teacher's Guide to Student Discovery through Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This print guide to the "XY Encounter" video offers an exciting four-part adventure about two teenage sleuths who discover the presence of an alien below New York City, and expands upon themes presented in the video. As the students try to make contact with the alien, they are confronted with a series of mathematical challenges that test their…

2000

141

Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis  

E-print Network

Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis Instructors: Pat Collins.Pinder@Dal.Ca Bill; 5076B; 494-1853; Bill.Pohajdak@Dal.Ca This class is required of, and restricted to, all Biology And Marine Biology Honours programmes in which Biology or Marine Biology is the major area of study. Students

Adl, Sina

142

Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis  

E-print Network

Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis Instructors: 3 members of the honours committee each year. This class is required of, and restricted to, all Biology and Marine Biology Honours programmes in which Biology or Marine Biology is the major area of study. Students conduct

Adl, Sina

143

Gender Identity and Coping in Female 46, XY Adults with Androgen Biosynthesis Deficiency (Intersexuality/DSD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals living with an intersex condition have not received much attention in counseling psychology, although a high need for psychosocial care is obvious. Using a mixed-methods multiple case study with qualitative and quantitative data, the authors explore coping and gender experiences in seven 46, XY intersexual persons with deficiencies of…

Schweizer, Katinka; Brunner, Franziska; Schutzmann, Karsten; Schonbucher, Verena; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

2009-01-01

144

All possible coupling schemes in XY spin chains for perfect state transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate quantum state transfer in XY spin chains and propose a recursive procedure to construct the nonuniform couplings within these chains of arbitrary length in order to achieve perfect state transfer. We show that this method is capable of finding all possible coupling schemes for perfect state transfer. These schemes, without external control fields, involve analytically identified engineered couplings

Yaoxiong Wang; Feng Shuang; Herschel Rabitz

2011-01-01

145

Emergence of a non trivial fluctuating phase in the XY-rotors model on regular networks  

E-print Network

field rotator model (HMF), which corresponds to a mean field XY model with an added kinetic term [13,17] and an oscillating metastable state was observed [18], enriching the already various scenario of the HMF model- troduced, giving birth to the so called - HMF model [19­22]. The parameter allowed to explore the tran

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

146

True hermaphroditism in a horned goat with 60XX/60XY chimerism.  

PubMed Central

Anatomical, behavioral, histological, endocrinological, and cytogenetic characteristics were determined in a horned intersex goat. Histology of the gonads confirmed that the goat was a true hermaphrodite. Cytogenetic analysis showed that it was a chimera (60XX/60XY). Use of laparoscopy allowed determination of characteristics of the internal gonads. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10907580

Batista, M; Gonzalez, F; Cabrera, F; Palomino, E; Castellano, E; Calero, P; Gracia, A

2000-01-01

147

condmat/9707050 3D Spin Glass and 2D Ferromagnetic XY Model: a  

E-print Network

cond­mat/9707050 4 Jul 1997 3D Spin Glass and 2D Ferromagnetic XY Model: a Comparison David I distributions and Binder cumulants of the overlap in the 3D Ising spin glass with those of the magnetization transition in the spin glass model is obtained thanks to the crossing of the Binder cumulant. We show

Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

148

Gender modulates cardiac phenotype development in genetically modified mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research using genetically modified mice has revealed significant sex differences in cardiac phenotypes. In the majority of strains, females display a lower mortality, less severe hypertrophy, better preserved function and mitigated cardiac pathology compared with male counterparts. Thus, gender is an independent determinant for the development of cardiac phenotype in murine models. While there is strong evidence for estrogen

Xiao-Jun Du

2004-01-01

149

A sex-linked SCAR marker in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae), a dioecious species with XY sex-determination and homomorphic sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

Genetic crosses between the dioecious Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae) and the monoecious B. alba in 1903 provided the first clear evidence for Mendelian inheritance of dioecy and made B. dioica the first organism for which XY sex-determination was experimentally proven. Applying molecular tools to this system, we developed a sex-linked sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for B. dioica and sequenced it for individuals representing the full geographic range of the species from Scotland to North Africa. For comparison, we also sequenced this marker for representatives of the dioecious B. cretica, B. multiflora and B. syriaca, and monoecious B. alba. In no case did any individual, male or female, yield more than two haplotypes. In northern Europe, we found strong linkage between our marker and sex, with all Y-sequences being identical to each other. In southern Europe, however, the linkage between our marker and sex was weak, with recombination detected within both the X- and the Y-homologues. Population genetic analyses suggest that the SCAR marker experienced different evolutionary pressures in northern and southern Europe. These findings fit with phylogenetic evidence that the XY system in Bryonia is labile and suggest that the genus may be a good system in which to study the early steps of sex chromosome evolution. PMID:19120821

Oyama, R K; Volz, S M; Renner, S S

2009-01-01

150

Significant Expression Levels of Transgenic PPP1CC2 in Testis and Sperm Are Required to Overcome the Male  

E-print Network

the Male Infertility Phenotype of Ppp1cc Null Mice Nilam Sinha1 *¤ , Stephen Pilder2 , Srinivasan including testis, the only phenotype resulting from deletion of Ppp1cc gene is male infertility and Sperm Are Required to Overcome the Male Infertility Phenotype of Ppp1cc Null Mice. PLoS ONE 7(10): e

151

Ultraviolet reflectance affects male-male interactions in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus ultramarinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several animal species have been shown to use phenotypic traits to assess the competitive ability of opponents and adjust their aggressiveness depending on the likelihood to win the contest. In birds, these phenotypic traits usually involve patches of colored feathers. The benefit to harbor honest signals of male quality is the avoidance of wasteful aggressive interactions. Recent work has shown

Carlos Alonso-Alvarez; Claire Doutrelant; Gabriele Sorcia

2004-01-01

152

Occurrence of two forms of Y chromosome in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) males from Rutki strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes are found in only few salmonid species. Some populations of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, exhibit chromosomal polymorphism related to sex. We found sex-related chromosomal polymorphism in fish from the synthetic Rutki strain, Poland, in approximately 85% (n=22) of examined males (XY-like) whereas the remaining males (n=4) possessed chromosomes similar to these observed in females (XX-like). To

Konrad Ocalewicz; Igor Babiak; Barbara Kasprzycka; Stefan Dobosz; Henryk Kuzminski; Krzysztof Goryczko

2007-01-01

153

xy xy xz xy OSCAR Fortran  

E-print Network

Consecutive-part Consecutive part M Tsub std Adjacent partsucc M Tsub std M Tsucc Adjacent partsucc T LGcurrent ( 1(b) MT6 Diverge ) M Tsub std M Tsucc M Tsub std M Tsucc Adjacent partsucc Consecutive part M Tsub std Adjacent partpred M Tsub std M Tpred Adjacent partpred T LGcurrent ( 1(b) MT1 Merge ) M Tsub

Kasahara, Hironori

154

Creating cluster states in flux qubits with XY-type exchange interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a theoretical scheme to generate flux-qubit clusters using XY interactions. In our scheme, two neighboring qubits are coupled via a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). All flux qubits are always biased at their optimal points. The XY interaction can be controlled by the bias current applied to the SQUID for the two coupled qubits with the same resonance frequencies or by the frequency of a microwave pulse applied to the SQUID for the two coupled qubits with unequal resonance frequencies. The generation of a d-dimensional cluster state needs only 2d steps. Existing technology allows us to rapidly modulate the bias current and easily control the frequency of the pulse, and thus our scheme is experimentally feasible.

Zhang, Zu-Rong; Li, Chun-Yan; Wu, Chun-Wang; Dai, Hong-Yi; Li, Cheng-Zu

2013-10-01

155

On Anomalous Lieb-Robinson Bounds for the Fibonacci XY Chain  

E-print Network

We rigorously prove a new kind of anomalous (or sub-ballistic) Lieb-Robinson bound for the isotropic XY chain with Fibonacci external magnetic field at arbitrary coupling. It is anomalous in that the usual exponential decay in $x-vt$ is replaced by exponential decay in $x-vt^\\alpha$ with $0Fibonacci Hamiltonian. Following the approach of \\cite{HSS11}, we relate Lieb-Robinson bounds to dynamical bounds for the one-body Hamiltonian corresponding to the XY chain via the Jordan-Wigner transformation; in our case the one-body Hamiltonian with Fibonacci potential. We can bound its dynamics by adapting techniques developed in \\cite{DT07, DT08, D05, DGY} to our purposes. We also discuss the extension to the more general class of Sturmian potentials and we explain why our method does not extend to yield anomalous Lieb-Robinson bounds of power-law type for the random dimer model.

David Damanik; Marius Lemm; Milivoje Lukic; William Yessen

2014-07-18

156

Characterizing correlations with full counting statistics: classical Ising and quantum XY spin chains.  

PubMed

We propose to describe correlations in classical and quantum systems in terms of full counting statistics of a suitably chosen discrete observable. The method is illustrated with two exactly solvable examples: the classical one-dimensional Ising model and the quantum spin-1/2 XY chain. For the one-dimensional Ising model, our method results in a phase diagram with two phases distinguishable by the long-distance behavior of the Jordan-Wigner strings. For the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY chain in a transverse magnetic field, we compute the full counting statistics of the magnetization and use it to classify quantum phases of the chain. The method, in this case, reproduces the previously known phase diagram. We also discuss the relation between our approach and the Lee-Yang theory of zeros of the partition function. PMID:23496467

Ivanov, Dmitri A; Abanov, Alexander G

2013-02-01

157

Investigation of genetic markers in a true Hermaphrodite with chi 46,XX\\/46,XY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We documented a new case of chi 46,XX\\/46,XY true hermaphroditism substantiated by the evaluation of chromosomal heteromorphism in banded preparations. The patient, a 12-year-old Japanese boy with ambiguous external genitalia, was seen because of abnormal breast development. Surgical exploration showed the right gonad to be an ovotestis and the left gonad to be an ovary. Cytogenetic studies revealed cell admixtures

Shigeru Minowada; Makoto Hara; Mitsuru Shinohara; Hagime Ishida; Keiko Fukutani; Koichiro Isurugi; Tadao Niijima; Yoshiko Hayashida; Toshiyuki Miki; Kunikazu Kishi

1982-01-01

158

ilvVJl!U)jXy Ris-R-503 Metallurgy Department  

E-print Network

CO GO ilvVJl!U)jXy Risø-R-503 Metallurgy Department Progress Report for the Period 1 January - 31 December 1983 Risø National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark June 1984 #12;1 Risø-R-503 METALLURGY of the Metallurgy Department at Risø during 1983 are described. The work is presented in three chap- ters: General

159

Linear and non-linear excitations in the antiferromagnetic xy chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a sophisticated vectorised spin-dynamics simulation algorithm, we have studied magnetic excitations in the one-dimensional xy-model with antiferromagnetic nearest neighbor exchange J and a magnetic field h in the x-direction. We have followed the time development out to time t=100 J-1 for temperatures as low as kBT=0.1 J and fields as large as h=2.5 J.

Gerling, R. W.; Landau, D. P.

1992-02-01

160

Male circumcision.  

PubMed

Male circumcision consists of the surgical removal of some, or all, of the foreskin (or prepuce) from the penis. It is one of the most common procedures in the world. In the United States, the procedure is commonly performed during the newborn period. In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of AAP members and other stakeholders to evaluate the evidence regarding male circumcision and update the AAP's 1999 recommendations in this area. The Task Force included AAP representatives from specialty areas as well as members of the AAP Board of Directors and liaisons representing the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Task Force members identified selected topics relevant to male circumcision and conducted a critical review of peer-reviewed literature by using the American Heart Association's template for evidence evaluation. Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks; furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some sexually transmitted infections, and penile cancer. Male circumcision does not appear to adversely affect penile sexual function/sensitivity or sexual satisfaction. It is imperative that those providing circumcision are adequately trained and that both sterile techniques and effective pain management are used. Significant acute complications are rare. In general, untrained providers who perform circumcisions have more complications than well-trained providers who perform the procedure, regardless of whether the former are physicians, nurses, or traditional religious providers. Parents are entitled to factually correct, nonbiased information about circumcision and should receive this information from clinicians before conception or early in pregnancy, which is when parents typically make circumcision decisions. Parents should determine what is in the best interest of their child. Physicians who counsel families about this decision should provide assistance by explaining the potential benefits and risks and ensuring that parents understand that circumcision is an elective procedure. The Task Force strongly recommends the creation, revision, and enhancement of educational materials to assist parents of male infants with the care of circumcised and uncircumcised penises. The Task Force also strongly recommends the development of educational materials for providers to enhance practitioners' competency in discussing circumcision's benefits and risks with parents. The Task Force made the following recommendations:Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks, and the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for those families who choose it. Parents are entitled to factually correct, nonbiased information about circumcision that should be provided before conception and early in pregnancy, when parents are most likely to be weighing the option of circumcision of a male child. Physicians counseling families about elective male circumcision should assist parents by explaining, in a nonbiased manner, the potential benefits and risks and by ensuring that they understand the elective nature of the procedure. Parents should weigh the health benefits and risks in light of their own religious, cultural, and personal preferences, as the medical benefits alone may not outweigh these other considerations for individual families. Parents of newborn boys should be instructed in the care of the penis, regardless of whether the newborn has been circumcised or not. Elective circumcision should be performed only if the infant's condition is stable and healthy. Male circumcision should be performed by tra

2012-09-01

161

Adaptive optimization of a lead compensator based upon input command frequency during operations of X-Y positioning table  

E-print Network

based on the specifications from the DSF. As a demonstration, a supervisory controller is developed for an X-Y positioning table which tracks a frequency varying sinusoid. The results show that this control scheme allows costs normally only considered...

Jordan, Eric Alan

2012-06-07

162

MECP2 mutations in males.  

PubMed

Rett syndrome (RS; MIM 312750) is a severe neurological disorder affecting exclusively females. Its prevalence is about 1 in 10,000 female births, and it is a prominent cause of profound mental handicap in women. RS is caused by mutations in the X-linked methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. These mutations were initially thought to be lethal in males. However, MECP2 mutations are now frequently identified in mentally retarded male patients. The frequency of disease-causing MECP2 mutations in this population is between 1.3% and 1.7%. Surprisingly, MECP2 mutations in males are responsible for a wide spectrum of neurological disorders, ranging from mild mental retardation to severe neonatal encephalopathy. The aim of this review is to describe the nature of the MECP2 mutations identified in male patients to date and their associated phenotypes. PMID:17351020

Villard, Laurent

2007-07-01

163

Phenotypic switching in bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial genetic networks that would implement a more general theoretical model of phenotypic switching. We will use a new cloning strategy in order to systematically assemble a large number of genetic features, such as site-specific recombination components from the R64 plasmid, which invert several coexisting DNA segments. The inversion of these segments would lead to discrete phenotypic transitions inside a living cell. These artificial phenotypic switches can be controlled precisely in experiments and may serve as a benchmark for their natural counterparts.

Merrin, Jack

164

Equivalence between the two-dimensional Ising model and the quantum XY chain with randomness and with open boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equivalence between the two-dimensional Ising model and the one-dimensional quantum XY model is generalized to the cases with alternating/random interactions and with periodic/free boundary conditions. It is proved that the eigenstate for the maximum eigenvalue of the transfer matrix of the two-dimensional Ising model corresponds to the ground state of the Hamiltonian of the one-dimensional XY model, which certifies direct relations between the physical quantities of the two models.

Minami, Kazuhiko

2014-11-01

165

Clinical Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Overproducing MexAB-OprM and MexXY Efflux Pumps Simultaneously  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous overexpression of the MexAB-OprM and MexXY efflux systems was demonstrated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblotting experiments for 12 multiresistant clinical isolates of Pseudo- monas aeruginosa. DNA sequencing analysis showed that nine of these strains (named agrZ mutants) harbored mutations in mexZ, the product of which downregulates the expression of the mexXY operon. In addition, 8 of the 12

Catherine Llanes; Didier Hocquet; Christelle Vogne; Dounia Benali-Baitich; Catherine Neuwirth; Patrick Plesiat

2004-01-01

166

Molecular Studies in Horses with SRY-Positive XY Sex Reversal  

E-print Network

determination genes lead to various abnormal sexual phenotypes, including sex reversal syndrome in which the genetic and phenotypic sex do not match. Sex reversal syndrome has been reported in humans, mouse, and several domestic species. In horses, SRY...

Fang, Erica

2012-02-14

167

CATSPER2, a human autosomal nonsyndromic male infertility gene  

E-print Network

ARTICLE CATSPER2, a human autosomal nonsyndromic male infertility gene Nili Avidan1 , Hannah Tamary in spermatozoa) may explain the observed deafness and male infertility phenotypes. To the best of our knowledge associated with nonsyndromic male infertility. European Journal of Human Genetics (2003) 11, 497­502. doi:10

Lancet, Doron

168

Mixed phenotype murine leukemias.  

PubMed

Cell lines were derived from eight individual leukemias induced by X-rays in NFS mice. First typed as null cells (surface immunoglobulin negative, Thy-1 negative), they turned out to have a mixed phenotype with myeloid cytochemical markers, pre-B surface antigens and molecular markers of pro-B lymphocytes. They represent murine models for mixed phenotype (pro-pre-B-myeloid) leukemias. PMID:8350626

Defresne, M P; Borremans, B; Verhofstede, C; Peled, A; Thiry, A; Greimers, R; Robberecht, P; Nabarra, B; Verschaeve, L; Hooghe, R

1993-08-01

169

The integrated phenotype.  

PubMed

Proper functioning of complex phenotypes requires that multiple traits work together. Examination of relationships among traits within and between complex characters and how they interact to function as a whole organism is critical to advancing our understanding of evolutionary developmental plasticity. Phenotypic integration refers to the relationships among multiple characters of a complex phenotype, and their relationships with other functional units (modules) in an organism. In this review, I summarize a brief history of the concept of phenotypic integration in plant and animal biology. Following an introduction of concepts, including modularity, I use an empirical case-study approach to highlight recent advance in clarifying the developmental and genomic basis of integration. I end by highlighting some novel approaches to genomic and epigenetic perturbations that offer promise in further addressing the role of phenotypic integration in evolutionary diversification. In the age of the phenotype, studies that examine the genomic and developmental changes in relationships of traits across environments will shape the next chapter in our quest for understanding the evolution of complex characters. PMID:22593559

Murren, Courtney J

2012-07-01

170

Macrophage phenotypes in atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Initiation and progression of atherosclerosis depend on local inflammation and accumulation of lipids in the vascular wall. Although many cells are involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, macrophages are fundamental contributors. For nearly a decade, the phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of macrophages has been studied. In atherosclerotic lesions, macrophages are submitted to a large variety of micro-environmental signals, such as oxidized lipids and cytokines, which influence the phenotypic polarization and activation of macrophages resulting in a dynamic plasticity. The macrophage phenotype spectrum is characterized, at the extremes, by the classical M1 macrophages induced by T-helper 1 (Th-1) cytokines and by the alternative M2 macrophages induced by Th-2 cytokines. M2 macrophages can be further classified into M2a, M2b, M2c, and M2d subtypes. More recently, additional plaque-specific macrophage phenotypes have been identified, termed as Mox, Mhem, and M4. Understanding the mechanisms and functional consequences of the phenotypic heterogeneity of macrophages will contribute to determine their potential role in lesion development and plaque stability. Furthermore, research on macrophage plasticity could lead to novel therapeutic approaches to counteract cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The present review summarizes our current knowledge on macrophage subsets in atherosclerotic plaques and mechanism behind the modulation of the macrophage phenotype. PMID:25319333

Colin, Sophie; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Staels, Bart

2014-11-01

171

Male osteoporosis.  

PubMed

As a result of population ageing worldwide, osteoporotic fractures are becoming a serious problem in the western world. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with a significant burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic costs. Although less frequent than in women, male osteoporosis is also a relatively common problem. Since bone loss and fragility fractures in men have been recognized as a serious medical condition, over the last two decades several studies have investigated a number of aspects related to the pathogenesis, diagnosis and assessment, prevention and treatment of male osteoporosis. A better understanding of factors underlying increased bone fragility in men has led to the definition of appropriate screening and diagnostic strategies, and the development of treatments that have shown to improve bone mineral density and, in some cases, reduce fracture risk in men as well as in women. This review will summarize recent findings on male osteoporosis with a particular focus on risk factors and causes of bone loss, and available therapeutic options. PMID:25069495

Giusti, A; Bianchi, G

2014-01-01

172

Unbiased ascertainment of a patient with a 47,XY, +pseudic (15)t(15;15)(q13;q13) karyotype by amniocentesis  

SciTech Connect

A 47,XY,+mar male karyotype was found in all metaphases on an amniocentesis from a 36-year-old woman (G1,P0). The marker was G group size. Chromosome studies on the parents were normal. C-banding, NOR staining and FISH demonstrated that the marker was dicentric, bisatellited, derived from No. 15 and contained 2 copies of the chromosomal region flanked by the Prader-Willi/Angelman A and B probes. The final karyotype was: 47,XY,+pseudic(15)t(15;15)(q13;q13), making the fetus tetrasomic for the genes in the duplicated region. DNA marker studies for No. 15 (performed in the laboratory of Dr. David Ledbetter) revealed that the fetus had inherited on No. 15 from each parent and that the marker was derived from both maternal No. 15 chromosomes. The parents chose to continue the pregnancy. The baby was born at 38 weeks gestation, was mildly edematous and had Apgar scores of 4, 7, and 8 at 1, 5, and 10 min, respectively. The marker was confirmed to be present in placenta and the baby`s blood. Examination at 6 weeks showed appropriate growth and development. Data from published cases predict that this baby will be mentally retarded and may have seizures because he is tetrasomic for 15pter-q13, but will not have Prader-Willi or Angelman syndromes since he has biparental inheritance of his normal No. 15s. However, the published cases may represent a biased sample as most were identified in mentally retarded individuals, not by prenatal diagnosis. This infant`s development will continue to be followed closely.

Spector, E.; Prochazka, G.; Hamilton, S. [Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

173

Sex chromosome polymorphism and heterogametic males revealed by two cloned DNA probes in the ZW\\/ZZ fish Leporinus elongatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the divergence of teleost sex chromosomes, subtractive cloning was carried out between genomic DNA of males and females of the rainbow trout (XX\\/XY) and of Leporinus elongatus (ZW\\/ZZ). Inserts cloned in a plasmid vector were individually tested on Southern blots of DNA of males and females for sex specificity. No sex-specific insert was obtained from trout,

Ichiro Nakayama; Fausto Foresti; Rita Tewari; Manfred Schartl; Daniel Chourrout

1994-01-01

174

Change of the heterogametic sex from male to female in the frog.  

PubMed

Two different types of sex chromosomes, XX/XY and ZZ/ZW, exist in the Japanese frog Rana rugosa. They are separated in two local forms that share a common origin in hybridization between the other two forms (West Japan and Kanto) with male heterogametic sex determination and homomorphic sex chromosomes. In this study, to find out how the different types of sex chromosomes differentiated, particularly the evolutionary reason for the heterogametic sex change from male to female, we performed artificial crossings between the West Japan and Kanto forms and mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The crossing results showed male bias using mother frogs with West Japan cytoplasm and female bias using those with Kanto cytoplasm. The mitochondrial genes of ZZ/ZW and XX/XY forms, respectively, were similar in sequence to those of the West Japan and Kanto forms. These results suggest that in the primary ZZ/ZW form, the West Japan strain was maternal and thus male bias was caused by the introgression of the Kanto strain while in the primary XX/XY form and vice versa. We therefore hypothesize that sex ratio bias according to the maternal origin of the hybrid population was a trigger for the sex chromosome differentiation and the change of heterogametic sex. PMID:12807781

Ogata, M; Ohtani, H; Igarashi, T; Hasegawa, Y; Ichikawa, Y; Miura, I

2003-06-01

175

Quantum Chernoff bound metric for the XY model at finite temperature  

SciTech Connect

We explore the finite-temperature phase diagram of the anisotropic XY spin chain using the quantum Chernoff bound metric on thermal states. The analysis of the metric elements allows one to easily identify, in terms of different scaling with temperature, quasiclassical and quantum-critical regions. These results extend recent ones obtained using the Bures metric and show that different information-theoretic notions of distance can carry the same sophisticated information about the phase diagram of an interacting many-body system featuring quantum-critical points.

Abasto, Damian F.; Jacobson, N. Tobias [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Zanardi, Paolo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Institute for Scientific Interchange, Viale Settimio Severo 65, I-10133 Torino (Italy)

2008-02-15

176

Potential Energy Landscapes for the 2D XY Model: Minima, Transition States and Pathways  

E-print Network

We describe a numerical study of the potential energy landscape for the two-dimensional XY model (with no disorder), considering up to 100 spins and CPU and GPU implementations of local optimization, focusing on minima and saddles of index one (transition states). We examine both periodic and anti-periodic boundary conditions, and show that the number of stationary points located increases exponentially with increasing lattice size. The corresponding disconnectivity graphs exhibit funneled landscapes; the global minima are readily located because they exhibit relatively large basins of attraction compared to the higher energy minima as the lattice size increases.

Dhagash Mehta; Ciaran Hughes; Mario Schröck; David J. Wales

2013-11-22

177

Four-dimensional XY quantum critical behavior of 4He in nanoporous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superfluid transition in liquid He4 filled in Gelsil glass observed in recent experiments is discussed in the framework of quantum critical phenomena. We show that quantum fluctuations of phase are indeed important in the experimentally studied temperature range owing to the small pore size of Gelsil, in contrast to He4 filled in previously studied porous media such as Vycor glass. As a consequence of an effective particle-hole symmetry, the quantum critical phenomena of the system are described by the four-dimensional XY universality class, except in the immediate vicinity of the quantum critical point, and the resulting simple scaling agrees with the experimental data remarkably well.

Eggel, Thomas; Oshikawa, Masaki; Shirahama, Keiya

2011-07-01

178

Order from structural disorder in the XY pyrochlore antiferromagnet Er2Ti2O7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of structural disorder is investigated for an XY pyrochlore antiferromagnet with continuous degeneracy of classical ground states. Two types of disorder—vacancies and weakly fluctuating exchange bonds—lift degeneracy, selecting the same subset of classical ground states. Analytic and numerical results demonstrate that such an "order by structural disorder" mechanism competes with the effect of thermal and quantum fluctuations. Our theory predicts that a small amount of nonmagnetic impurities in Er2Ti2O7 will stabilize the coplanar ?3 (mx2-y2) magnetic structure as opposed to the ?2 (m3z2-r2) state found in pure material.

Maryasin, V. S.; Zhitomirsky, M. E.

2014-09-01

179

Pulse control of sudden transition for two qubits in XY spin baths and quantum phase transition  

SciTech Connect

We study the dynamics of two initially correlated qubits coupled to their own separate spin baths modeled by an XY spin chain and find the explicit expression of the quantum discord for the system. A sudden transition is found to exist between classical and quantum decoherence by choosing certain initial states. We show that the sudden transition happens near the critical point, which provides an alternative way to characterize the quantum phase transition. Furthermore, we propose a scheme to prolong the transition time of the quantum discord by applying the bang-bang pulses.

Luo, Da-Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin, Hai-Qing [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Yao, Dao-Xin [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

2011-12-15

180

Neutron beam imaging with an XY-micromegas detector at n_TOF at CERN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A micromegas detector with a segmented anode in two orthogonal directions, equipped with a neutron/charged particle converter, was developed by a joint effort at CEA and CERN. This 'XY-micromegas' allows the determination of a neutron beam image on an area of 6×6?cm2 with a spatial resolution of 0.5?mm as a function of neutron time of flight (n_TOF). The experimental results collected in three years of operation at the n_TOF facility are summarized together with a comparison with simulations performed by means of the FLUKA code.

Belloni, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Giomataris, Y.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Kadi, Y.; Iguaz, F. J.; Kebbiri, M.; Lebbos, E.; Losito, R.; Pancin, J.; Papaevangelou, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Weiss, C.; n TOF Collaboration (www. cern. ch/ntof

2012-10-01

181

Breakdown of Scaling in the Nonequilibrium Critical Dynamics of the Two-Dimensional XY Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The approach to equilibrium, from a nonequilibrium initial state, in a system at its critical point is usually described by a scaling theory with a single growing length scale, ?\\(t\\)~t1/z, where z is the dynamic exponent that governs the equilibrium dynamics. We show that, for the 2D XY model, the rate of approach to equilibrium depends on the initial condition. In particular, ?\\(t\\)~t1/2 if no free vortices are present in the initial state, while ?\\(t\\)~\\(t/lnt\\)1/2 if free vortices are present.

Bray, A. J.; Briant, A. J.; Jervis, D. K.

2000-02-01

182

Spin-dynamics study of the classical ferromagnetic XY chain in a random field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical one-dimensional XY model in a symmetry-breaking Gaussian-distributed random magnetic field was studied using an ultrafast, vectorized spin-dynamics program on a Cray Y-MP. We calculated the time- and space-displaced spin-spin correlation functions, which was then Fourier-transformed to get the neutron-scattering law S(q,?). We see a clear change of the different contributions when the random field is switched on. At low temperatures the random field induces significant increases in the soliton density.

Gerling, R. W.; Landau, D. P.

1993-02-01

183

Static and dynamic properties of the classical XY chain in a transverse magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present extensive computer-simulation results for the static and dynamic properties of the one-dimensional classical XY model in a symmetry-breaking magnetic field. In-plane solitons are directly observed and their density is determined as a function of field and temperature. The bulk properties and the scattering function S(q,?) are also determined, but while they show spin-wave contributions they do not provide any clear evidence of soliton behavior. Our simulation results are compared with theoretical predictions.

Gerling, R. W.; Landau, D. P.

1988-04-01

184

Computer simulation study of the classical xy-chain in a magnetic field *  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented for the static and dynamic behavior of a classical XY-chain in a magnetic field. Equilibrium configurations were produced by an importance sampling Monte Carlo method. Static properties are evaluated from these data and a spin-dynamics method is then used to evaluate time displaced correlation functions. The energy-energy correlation function shows a t-1 behavior for times t?J-1. The correlation function

Gerling, R. W.; Landau, D. P.

1982-11-01

185

Constraint effective potential of the magnetization in the quantum XY model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using an improved estimator in the loop-cluster algorithm, we investigate the constraint effective potential of the magnetization in the spin \\frac {1}{2} quantum XY model. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the corresponding low-energy effective field theory. After its low-energy parameters have been determined with better than per mille precision, the effective theory makes accurate predictions for the constraint effective potential which are in excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo data. This shows that the effective theory indeed describes the physics in the low-energy regime quantitatively correctly.

Gerber, U.; Hofmann, C. P.; Jiang, F.-J.; Palma, G.; Stebler, P.; Wiese, U.-J.

2011-06-01

186

Vector Chiral Phases in the Frustrated 2D XY Model and Quantum Spin Chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase diagram of the frustrated 2D classical and 1D quantum XY models is calculated analytically. Four transitions are found: the vortex unbinding transitions triggered by strong fluctuations occur above and below the chiral transition temperature. Vortex interaction is short range on small and logarithmic on large scales. The chiral transition, though belonging to the Ising universality class by symmetry, has different critical exponents due to nonlocal interaction. In a narrow region close to the Lifshitz point a reentrant phase transition between paramagnetic and quasiferromagnetic phase appears. Applications to antiferromagnetic quantum spin chains and multiferroics are discussed.

Schenck, H.; Pokrovsky, V. L.; Nattermann, T.

2014-04-01

187

[Male contraception].  

PubMed

Except for condoms, male contraception is very slightly utilized in France. Several male experimental methods are under study. A synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog has been used successfully in women and offers promise in men of blocking LHRH and thus blocking spermatogenesis. Several nonsteroid substances such an hypertensives and adrenaline would suppress follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone release, but are too toxic for use. The combination of 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 20 mg of methyltestosterone inhibits gonadotropin release and produces azoospermia in men, but at the risk of loss of libido, constant gynecomastia, and testicular atrophy. Several combinations of androgens and progestins have been evaluated. Percutaneous testosterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate appears to be the most effective, with good metabolic tolerance and maintenance of libido and sexual performance. Injections of inhibine, a testicular factor that controls secretion of follicle stimulating hormone by feedback, offer promise of suppressing spermatogenesis without affecting other systems. Numerous substances are known to inhibit spermatogenesis but are to toxic for use or entail an unacceptable loss of libido. Gossypol has been employed as a contraceptive by the Chinese for its action in inhibiting protein synthesis, but it is known to have serious secondary effects. Among male methods currently in use, the condom had a Pearl index of .4-1.6 in the most recent British studies. Coitus interruptus can seriously interfere with sexual pleasure and has a failure rate of 25-30%. Vasectomy is safe, effective, and easy to perform, but is not a reversible method. The combination of 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate in 2 daily doses and 100 mg of testosterone applied in an abdominal spray has given very promising results in 2 small studies in France and merits further development and diffusion. PMID:3648976

Demery, A

1987-05-01

188

Sexy males and choosy females on exploded leks: correlates of male attractiveness in the Little Bustard.  

PubMed

In their choice of mates, females may use alternative tactics, including a comparative assessment of males in a population, using one or several relative preference criteria. Traits involved in female choice should presumably be variable between, but not within males, thus potentially providing reliable cues of male identity and quality for prospecting females. In lekking species, sexual selection is usually intense, and females can freely choose mates. Studying the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax, a bird with an exploded lek mating system, we first identified male phenotypic traits that showed higher among, than within variation (plumage pattern, display rates and call structure). Among those and other traits (ornaments and their symmetry, body condition, lek spatial organization and territory quality), we identified phenotypic traits that correlated with male attractiveness toward females. At least four phenotypic male traits were correlated with female attraction, i.e. body condition, lek attendance, ornamental symmetry and display rates. Traits related to the initial female attraction on male territory seem to differ from traits related to the decision of females to stay in the territory of attractive males. PMID:24440985

Jiguet, Frédéric; Bretagnolle, Vincent

2014-03-01

189

2d affine XY-spin model/4d gauge theory duality and deconfinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2)/ {{Z}_2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle {{R}^{{^{{{1},{2}}}}}} × {{S}^{{^{{1}}}}} , and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on {{R}^{{^{{2}}}}} × {{T}^{{^{{2}}}}} . Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of "affine" XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU( N c ) gauge theories with n f ?1 adjoint Weyl fermions.

Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; Ünsal, Mithat

2012-04-01

190

2d affine XY-spin model/ 4d gauge theory duality and deconfinement  

E-print Network

We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2)and SU(2)/Z_2 gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R^(1,2) x S^1, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R^2 x T^2. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of "affine" XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N) gauge theories with n_f >=1 adjoint Weyl fermions.

Mohamed M. Anber; Erich Poppitz; Mithat Unsal

2011-12-29

191

2d affine XY-spin model/ 4d gauge theory duality and deconfinement  

E-print Network

We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2)and SU(2)/Z_2 gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R^(1,2) x S^1, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R^2 x T^2. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of "affine" XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of ...

Anber, Mohamed M; Unsal, Mithat

2011-01-01

192

Magnetic properties of Fe(x)Pt(y)Au(100-x-y) nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Fe(x)Pt(y)Au(100-x-y) nanoparticles of size 3.5 nm were prepared by polyol reduction of platinum acetylacetonate and gold acetate and the thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl. The as-synthesized nanoparticles with disordered fcc structure were then heat treated to transform to the L1(0) structure with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy. By tuning the stoichiometry of the Fe(x)Pt(y)Au(100-x-y) nanoparticles, the phase transition temperature was reduced by more than 200 degrees C. After the annealing 500 degrees C, for instance, the highest coercivity of 18 kOe was obtained from the Fe51Pt36Au13 nanoparticles which is substantially higher compared to 2 kOe for Fe51Pt49 nanoparticles annealed at the same temperature. In addition to the high coercivity, the saturation magnetization value obtained from Fe51Pt36Au13 nanoparticles was 47 emu/g which is similar to that for the Fe51Pt49 nanoparticles, indicating that there is no trade-off between the coercivity and the saturation magnetization upon Au doping. PMID:20358888

Nandwana, Vikas; Chaubey, Girija S; Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, J Ping

2010-05-01

193

Down Syndrome: Cognitive Phenotype  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Down syndrome is the most prevalent cause of intellectual impairment associated with a genetic anomaly, in this case, trisomy of chromosome 21. It affects both physical and cognitive development and produces a characteristic phenotype, although affected individuals vary considerably with respect to severity of specific impairments. Studies…

Silverman, Wayne

2007-01-01

194

Finding a Phenotype  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can examine all manner of plant phenotypes during their investigation, from leaf size and shape to flower number and color to UV light sensitivity to "time to bolt," meaning the amount of time after planting until the plants develop stems or bolts.

Dr. Erin L Dolan (Virginia Tech Biochemistry)

2009-08-24

195

Growth of Li 6Gd 1- xY x(BO 3) 3:Eu 3+ crystals for thermoluminescent dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility in the binary system Li 6Gd(BO 3) 3-Li 6Y(BO 3) 3 has been determined. Pure and europium activated Li 6Gd 1- xY x(BO 3) 3 single crystals up to 15 mm in diameter and up to 20 mm in length have been grown using Czochralski method in air atmosphere. The main thermoluminescent properties of Li 6Gd 1- xY x(BO 3) 3:Eu 3+ solid solutions have been studied.

Yavetskiy, R.; Tolmachev, A.; Dubovik, M.; Korshikova, T.; Parkhomenko, S.

2007-09-01

196

An experimental approach to altering mating tactics in male horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative reproductive tactics are often correlated with phenotype, density, environment, or social context. Male horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) have two mating tactics that are associated with phenotype. Males in good condition arrive at the nesting beach and spawn while attached to females, whereas those in poorer condition come ashore unattached and crowd around the nesting couples as satellites, fertilizing eggs

H. Jane Brockmann

2002-01-01

197

What Does f[subscript xx]f[subscript yy] - f[superscript 2][subscript xy] Greater than 0 "Really" Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This note presents geometric and physical interpretations of the sufficient condition for a critical point to be a strict relative extremum: f[subscript xx]f[subscript yy] - f[superscript 2][subscript xy] greater than 0. The role of the double derivative f[subscript xy] in this inequality will be highlighted in these interpretations. (Contains 14…

McCartin, Brian J.

2008-01-01

198

A Case of Agonadism, Skeletal Malformations, Bicuspid Aortic Valve, and Delayed Development with a 16p13.3 Duplication Including GNG13 and SOX8 Upstream Enhancers: Are Either, Both or Neither Involved in the Phenotype?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a female patient with delayed growth and development, skeletal and cardiac defects, and a male XY sex chromosome complement with early failure of gonad development. SRY sequencing was normal. Array comparative genome hybridization (CGH) analysis revealed a gain in copy number in the subtelomeric region of the short arm of chromosome 16, encompassing a region of approximately 560

R. P. Erickson; S. A. Yatsenko; K. Larson; S. W. Cheung

2010-01-01

199

Potential energy landscape of the two-dimensional XY model: Higher-index stationary points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of numerical techniques to the study of energy landscapes of large systems relies on sufficient sampling of the stationary points. Since the number of stationary points is believed to grow exponentially with system size, we can only sample a small fraction. We investigate the interplay between this restricted sample size and the physical features of the potential energy landscape for the two-dimensional XY model in the absence of disorder with up to N = 100 spins. Using an eigenvector-following technique, we numerically compute stationary points with a given Hessian index I for all possible values of I. We investigate the number of stationary points, their energy and index distributions, and other related quantities, with particular focus on the scaling with N. The results are used to test a number of conjectures and approximate analytic results for the general properties of energy landscapes.

Mehta, D.; Hughes, C.; Kastner, M.; Wales, D. J.

2014-06-01

200

Sudden death, birth and stable entanglement in a two-qubit Heisenberg XY spin chain  

E-print Network

Taking the decoherence effect due to population relaxation into account, we investigate the entanglement properties for two qubits in the Heisenberg XY interaction and subject to an external magnetic field. It is found that the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death (ESD) as well as sudden birth(ESB) appear during the evolution process for particular initial states. The influence of the external magnetic field and the spin environment on ESD and ESB are addressed in detail. It is shown that the concurrence, a measure of entanglement, can be controlled by tuning the parameters of the spin chain, such as the anisotropic parameter, external magnetic field, and the coupling strength with their environment. In particular, we find that a critical anisotropy constant exists, above which ESB vanishes while ESD appears. It is also notable that stable entanglement, which is independent of different initial states of the qubits, occurs even in the presence of decoherence.

Chuan-Jia Shan; Wei-Wen Cheng; Tang-Kun Liu; Ji-Bing Liu; Hua Wei

2008-07-21

201

Nonclassicality Indicators of Quantum Phase Transition in the XY Model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, performance of the important quantum correlation measures shared by the next-to-neighbor qubits of the XY model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction has been investigated, employing quantum renormalization group method. Through analyzing the effect of DM interaction and anisotropy parameters on the quantum discord (QD) and measurement-induced disturbance (MID), we find that MID fails to symbolize the characteristics of quantum correlation for the system. While performance of the improved version of MID, i.e. ameliorated MID (AMID), delivers more dependable consequences. On the other hand, take QD as an example we have illustrated that it can efficiently observe the quantum critical points associated with quantum phase transitions after several iterations of the renormalization. To serve as the further insight, the nonanalytic and scaling behaviors of the QD are also taken into consideration.

Song, Xueke; Wu, Tao; Xu, Shuai; Shi, Jiadong; Ye, Liu

2014-09-01

202

The role of vortices in the three-dimensional random-field xy model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study vortex states in a 3d random-field xy model of up to one billion lattice spins at T = 0. Starting with random spin orientations, the sample freezes into the vortex-glass state with a stretched-exponential decay of spin correlations, having short correlation length and a low susceptibility, compared to vortex-free states. In a field opposite to the initial magnetization, peculiar topological objects —walls of spins still opposite to the field— emerge along the hysteresis curve. On increasing the field strength, the walls develop cracks bounded by vortex loops. The loops then grow in size and eat the walls away. Applications to magnets and superconductors are discussed.

Garanin, D. A.; Chudnovsky, E. M.; Proctor, T.

2013-09-01

203

Quantum entanglement and quantum phase transition in the XY model with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction  

SciTech Connect

We study the quantum entanglement and quantum phase transition (QPT) of the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY model with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction by means of the quantum renormalization group method. The scaling of coupling constants and the critical points of the system are obtained. It is found that when the number of renormalization group iterations tends to infinity, the system exhibit a QPT between the spin-fluid and Neel phases which correspond with two saturated values of the concurrence for a given value of the strength of DM interaction. The DM interaction can enhance the entanglement and influence the QPT of the system. To gain further insight, the first derivative of the entanglement exhibit a nonanalytic behavior at the critical point and it directly associates with the divergence of the correlation length. This shows that the correlation length exponent is closely related to the critical exponent, i.e., the scaling behaviors of the system.

Ma Fuwu; Liu Shengxin; Kong Xiangmu [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China)

2011-10-15

204

Quantum and classical thermal correlations in the XY spin-(1/2) chain  

SciTech Connect

We investigate pairwise quantum correlation as measured by the quantum discord as well as its classical counterpart in the thermodynamic limit of anisotropic XY spin-1/2 chains in a transverse magnetic field for both zero and finite temperatures. Analytical expressions for both classical and quantum correlations are obtained for spin pairs at any distance. In the case of zero temperature, it is shown that the quantum discord for spin pairs farther than second neighbors is able to characterize a quantum phase transition, even though pairwise entanglement is absent for such distances. For finite temperatures, we show that quantum correlations can be increased with temperature in the presence of a magnetic field. Moreover, in the XX limit, thermal quantum discord is found to be dominant over classical correlation while the opposite scenario takes place for the transverse field Ising model limit.

Maziero, J.; Guzman, H. C.; Celeri, L. C.; Serra, R. M. [Centro de Cie circumflex ncias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, R. Santa Adelia 166, 09210-170, Santo Andre, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sarandy, M. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2010-07-15

205

Familial Aggregation of Dyslexia Phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence for genetic contributions to reading disability, but the phenotypic heterogeneity associated with the clinical diagnosis may make identification of the underlying genetic basis difficult. In order to elucidate distinct phenotypic features that may be contributing to the genotypic heterogeneity, we assessed the familial aggregation patterns of Verbal IQ and 24 phenotypic measures associated with dyslexia in 102

Wendy H. Raskind; Li Hsu; Virginia W. Berninger; Jennifer B. Thomson; Ellen M. Wijsman

2000-01-01

206

A thermal-driven silicon micro xy-stage integrated with piezoresistive sensors for nano-positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel micro xy-stage, driven by double-hot arm horizontal thermal micro-actuators integrated with a piezoresistive sensor (PS) for low-voltage operation and precise control. This micro xy-stage structure is linked with chevron beams and optimized to amplify the displacement generated by the micro-actuators that provide a pull force to the movable platform. The PS employed for in situ displacement detection and feedback control is fabricated at the base of a cold arm, which minimizes the influence of temperature change induced by electro-thermal heating. The micro xy-stage structure is defined through the use of a simple micromachining process, released by backside wet etching with a special tool. For an input power of approximately 44 mW, each chevron actuator provides about 16 µm and the total displacement of the platform is close to 32 µm. The sensitivity of the PS is better than 1 mV µm-1, obtained from the amplified voltage output of the Wheatstone bridge circuit. The potential applications of the proposed micro xy-stage lie in micro- or nano-manipulation, as well as the positioning of ultra-small objects in nanotechnology.

Choi, Young-Soo; Zhang, Yan; Lee, Dong-Weon

2012-05-01

207

Mechanisms of Human Gallbladder Pain W.G. Li, X.Y. Luo, N. A. Hill, R.W. Ogden  

E-print Network

Mechanisms of Human Gallbladder Pain W.G. Li, X.Y. Luo, N. A. Hill, R.W. Ogden Department of Mathematics, University of Glasgow Project Outline Gallstone and other diseases of the biliary tract affect more than 10% of the adult population of the UK. Up to 60,000 operations to remove the gallbladder

Luo, Xiaoyu

208

An XX/XY sex microchromosome system in a freshwater turtle, Chelodina longicollis (Testudines: Chelidae) with genetic sex determination  

E-print Network

An XX/XY sex microchromosome system in a freshwater turtle, Chelodina longicollis (Testudines: Chelidae) with genetic sex determination Tariq Ezaz1*, Nicole Valenzuela2 , Frank Gru¨tzner1 , Ikuo Miura3, microchromosomes, sex chromosomes Abstract Heteromorphic sex chromosomes are rare in turtles, having been described

Canberra, University of

209

Induced Growth of Asymmetric Nanocantilever Arrays on Polar Surfaces Z. L. Wang,1,* X.Y. Kong,1  

E-print Network

Induced Growth of Asymmetric Nanocantilever Arrays on Polar Surfaces Z. L. Wang,1,* X.Y. Kong,1 show that the surface polarity can induce asymmetric growth on the two opposite surfaces. Zinc oxide-terminated ZnO (0001) polar surface is chemically active and the oxygen- terminated 0001 polar surface is inert

Wang, Zhong L.

210

MoXy fiber with active cooling cap for bovine prostate vaporization with high power 200W 532 nm laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel MoXyTM fiber delivery device with Active Cooling Cap (ACCTM) is designed to transmit up to 180W of 532 nm laser light to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Under such high power tissue ablation, effective cooling is key to maintaining fiber power transmission and ensuring the reliability of the fiber delivery device To handle high power and reduce fiber

Steven Y. Peng; Hyun Wook Kang; Homa Pirzadeh; Douglas Stinson

2011-01-01

211

Anisotropy and Magnetic Field Effects on the Genuine Multipartite Entanglement of Multi-Qubit Heisenberg {\\it XY} Chains  

E-print Network

It has been shown that, for the two-qubit Heisenberg XY model, anisotropy and magnetic field may together be used to produce entanglement for any finite temperature by adjusting the external magnetic field beyond some finite critical strength. This interesting result arises from an analysis employing the Wootters concurrence, a computable measure of entanglement for two-qubit states. Recently, Mintert {\\em et al.} proposed generalizations of Wootters concurrence for multipartite states. These MKB concurrences possess a mathematical property that enables one to understand the origin of this characteristic behavior. Here, we first study the effect of anisotropy and magnetic field on the multipartite thermal entanglement of a four-qubit Heisenberg XY chain using the MKB concurrences. We show that this model exhibits characteristic behavior similar to that of the two-qubit model. In addition, we show that this can again be understood using the same mathematical property. Next, we show that the six-qubit Heisenberg XY chain possesses properties necessary for it to have the characteristic behavior too. Most importantly, it is possible to directly measure the multipartite MKB concurrences of pure states. This may provide an experimental verification of our conjecture that for a Heisenberg XY chain of any even number of qubits, it is always possible to obtain non-zero genuine multipartite entanglement at any finite temperature by applying a sufficiently large magnetic field.

Chang Chi Kwong; Ye Yeo

2007-04-11

212

MoXy fiber with active cooling cap for bovine prostate vaporization with high power 200W 532 nm laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel MoXyTM fiber delivery device with Active Cooling Cap (ACCTM) is designed to transmit up to 180W of 532 nm laser light to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Under such high power tissue ablation, effective cooling is key to maintaining fiber power transmission and ensuring the reliability of the fiber delivery device To handle high power and reduce fiber degradation, the MoXy fiber features a larger core size (750 micrometer) and an internal fluid channel to ensure better cooling of the fiber tip to prevent the cap from burning, detaching, or shattering during the BPH treatment. The internal cooling channel was created with a metal cap and tubing that surrounds the optical fiber. In this study MoXy fibers were used to investigate the effect of power levels of 120 and 200 W on in-vitro bovine prostate ablation using a 532 nm XPSTM laser system. For procedures requiring more than 100 kJ, the MoXy fiber at 200W removed tissue at twice the rate of the current HPS fiber at 120W. The fiber maintained a constant tissue vaporization rate during the entire tissue ablation process. The coagulation at 200W was about 20% thicker than at 120W. In conclusion, the new fibers at 200W doubled the tissue removal rate, maintained vaporization efficiency throughout delivery of 400kJ energy, and induced similar coagulation to the existing HPS fiber at 120W.

Peng, Steven Y.; Kang, Hyun Wook; Pirzadeh, Homa; Stinson, Douglas

2011-03-01

213

EFFICIENT CONVERSION OF X.Y SURROUND SOUND CONTENT TO BINAURAL HEAD-TRACKED FORM FOR HRTF-ENABLED PLAYBACK  

E-print Network

EFFICIENT CONVERSION OF X.Y SURROUND SOUND CONTENT TO BINAURAL HEAD-TRACKED FORM FOR HRTF Laboratory UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park {dz,ramani,gumerov}@umiacs.umd.edu ABSTRACT Binaural and store it as a multipole expansion. Dur- ing head-tracked playback, the binaural signal is obtained

Zotkin, Dmitry N.

214

Benefits of early arrival at breeding grounds vary between males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. It is often assumed that, in migratory birds, males of highest phenotypic quality are the first to arrive at breeding grounds, as only males in good body condition can afford the costs of early arrival. Here it is argued that variation in how much an individual can gain from being early may sometimes override these patterns of condition

Wolfgang Forstmeier

2002-01-01

215

Psychiatric and Cognitive Phenotype of Childhood Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To investigate the psychiatric and cognitive phenotype in young individuals with the childhood form of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Method: Twenty-eight individuals (15 females, 13 males) with childhood DM1 (mean age 17y, SD 4.6, range 7-24y) were assessed using standardized instruments and cognitive testing of general intelligence,…

Douniol, Marie; Jacquette, Aurelia; Cohen, David; Bodeau, Nicolas; Rachidi, Linda; Angeard, Nathalie; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Vallee, Louis; Eymard, Bruno; Plaza, Monique; Heron, Delphine; Guile, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

216

Preliminary evidence for a cognitive phenotype in Barth syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare, X-linked, recessive disorder that affects almost ex- clusively males. It is characterized by short stature, cardioskeletal myopathy, cyclic neutropenia, increased excretion of 3- methylglutaconic acid in the urine, and moderate hypocholesterolemia. The objec- tive of the present study was to assess whether BTHS presents with a cognitive phenotype. Preliminary data were collected from five

Richard I. Kelley

2001-01-01

217

Generation and Reproductive Phenotypes of Mice Lacking Estrogen Receptor beta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogens influence the differentiation and maintenance of reproductive tissues and affect lipid metabolism and bone remodeling. Two estrogen receptors (ERs) have been identified to date, ERalpha and ERbeta . We previously generated and studied knockout mice lacking estrogen receptor alpha and reported severe reproductive and behavioral phenotypes including complete infertility of both male and female mice and absence of breast

John H. Krege; Jeffrey B. Hodgin; John F. Couse; Eva Enmark; Margaret Warner; Joel F. Mahler; Madhabananda Sar; Kenneth S. Korach; Jan-Ake Gustafsson; Oliver Smithies

1998-01-01

218

Hybridization in Sunfish Influences the Muscle Metabolic Phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization has the potential to exert pleiotropic effects on metabolism. Effects on mitochondrial enzymes may arise through incompatibilities in nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded subunits of the enzyme complexes of oxidative phosphorylation. We explored the metabolic phenotype of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), and their unidirectional F1 hybrids (male bluegill × female pumpkinseed). In hybrids, glycolytic enzyme activities were indistinguishable from

R. Davies; K. E. Mathers; A. D. Hume; K. Bremer; Y. Wang; C. D. Moyes

2012-01-01

219

Phenotypic Bias and Ethnic Identity in Filipino Americans*  

PubMed Central

Objective Links between phenotypes (skin tone, physical features) and a range of outcomes (income, physical health, psychological distress) were examined. Ethnic identity was examined as a protective moderator of phenotypic bias. Method Data were from a community sample of 2,092 Filipino adults in San Francisco and Honolulu. Results After controlling for age, nativity, marital status, and education, darker skin was associated with lower income and lower physical health for females and males. For females, more ethnic features were associated with lower income. For males, darker skin was related to lower psychological distress. One interaction was found such that females with more ethnic features exhibited lower distress; however, ethnic identity moderated distress levels of those with less ethnic features. Conclusions Phenotypic bias appears prevalent in Filipino Americans though specific effects vary by gender and skin color versus physical features. Discussion centers on the social importance of appearance and potential strengths gained from ethnic identification. PMID:20107617

Kiang, Lisa; Takeuchi, David T.

2009-01-01

220

Multiple mutations lead to MexXY-OprM-dependent aminoglycoside resistance in clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Constitutive overproduction of the pump MexXY-OprM is recognized as a major cause of resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and zwitterionic cephalosporins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, 57 clonally unrelated strains recovered from non-cystic fibrosis patients were analyzed to characterize the mutations resulting in upregulation of the mexXY operon. Forty-four (77.2%) of the strains, classified as agrZ mutants were found to harbor mutations inactivating the local repressor gene (mexZ) of the mexXY operon (n = 33; 57.9%) or introducing amino acid substitutions in its product, MexZ (n = 11; 19.3%). These sequence variations, which mapped in the dimerization domain, the DNA binding domain, or the rest of the MexZ structure, mostly affected amino acid positions conserved in TetR-like regulators. The 13 remaining MexXY-OprM strains (22.8%) contained intact mexZ genes encoding wild-type MexZ proteins. Eight (14.0%) of these isolates, classified as agrW1 mutants, overexpressed the gene PA5471, which codes for the MexZ antirepressor ArmZ [corrected], with 5 strains exhibiting growth defects at 37°C and 44°C, consistent with mutations impairing ribosome activity. Interestingly, one agrW1 mutant appeared to harbor a 7-bp deletion in the coding sequence of the leader peptide, PA5471.1, involved in ribosome-dependent, translational attenuation of PA5471 expression. Finally, DNA sequencing and complementation experiments revealed that 5 (8.8%) strains, classified as agrW2 mutants, harbored single amino acid variations in the sensor histidine kinase of ParRS, a two-component system known to positively control mexXY expression. Collectively, these results demonstrate that clinical strains of P. aeruginosa exploit different regulatory circuitries to mutationally overproduce the MexXY-OprM pump and become multidrug resistant, which accounts for the high prevalence of MexXY-OprM mutants in the clinical setting. PMID:24145539

Guénard, Sophie; Muller, Cédric; Monlezun, Laura; Benas, Philippe; Broutin, Isabelle; Jeannot, Katy; Plésiat, Patrick

2014-01-01

221

Multiple Mutations Lead to MexXY-OprM-Dependent Aminoglycoside Resistance in Clinical Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Constitutive overproduction of the pump MexXY-OprM is recognized as a major cause of resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and zwitterionic cephalosporins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, 57 clonally unrelated strains recovered from non-cystic fibrosis patients were analyzed to characterize the mutations resulting in upregulation of the mexXY operon. Forty-four (77.2%) of the strains, classified as agrZ mutants were found to harbor mutations inactivating the local repressor gene (mexZ) of the mexXY operon (n = 33; 57.9%) or introducing amino acid substitutions in its product, MexZ (n = 11; 19.3%). These sequence variations, which mapped in the dimerization domain, the DNA binding domain, or the rest of the MexZ structure, mostly affected amino acid positions conserved in TetR-like regulators. The 13 remaining MexXY-OprM strains (22.8%) contained intact mexZ genes encoding wild-type MexZ proteins. Eight (14.0%) of these isolates, classified as agrW1 mutants, overexpressed the gene PA5471, which codes for the MexZ antirepressor AmrZ, with 5 strains exhibiting growth defects at 37°C and 44°C, consistent with mutations impairing ribosome activity. Interestingly, one agrW1 mutant appeared to harbor a 7-bp deletion in the coding sequence of the leader peptide, PA5471.1, involved in ribosome-dependent, translational attenuation of PA5471 expression. Finally, DNA sequencing and complementation experiments revealed that 5 (8.8%) strains, classified as agrW2 mutants, harbored single amino acid variations in the sensor histidine kinase of ParRS, a two-component system known to positively control mexXY expression. Collectively, these results demonstrate that clinical strains of P. aeruginosa exploit different regulatory circuitries to mutationally overproduce the MexXY-OprM pump and become multidrug resistant, which accounts for the high prevalence of MexXY-OprM mutants in the clinical setting. PMID:24145539

Guenard, Sophie; Muller, Cedric; Monlezun, Laura; Benas, Philippe; Broutin, Isabelle; Jeannot, Katy

2014-01-01

222

Relative importance of male and territory quality in pairing success of male rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied pairing success in male rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) in northern Alaska to learn whether males obtaining more females possessed phenotypic traits that influenced female choice directly, whether these traits permitted males to obtain territories favored by females, or whether both processes occurred. The number of females per male varied from zero to three. Several male and territory traits were significantly correlated with number of females per male. We used multiple regression to obtain a single measure of male quality and a single measure of territory quality. These measures of male and territory quality correlated with each other and with male pairing success. We used path analysis to separate direct effects of male quality on pairing success from indirect effects due to high-quality males obtaining high-quality territories. Both direct and indirect pathways had significant effects on pairing success, and direct and indirect effects of male traits on pairing success were about equal. This study illustrates an analytical approach for estimating the relative importance of direct and indirect causal relationships in natural systems.

Bart, Jonathan; Earnst, Susan L.

1999-01-01

223

Phospholipase C? binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 requires the XY-linker region  

PubMed Central

Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC?) is a strong candidate for the mammalian sperm-derived factor that triggers the Ca2+ oscillations required for egg activation at fertilization. PLC? lacks a PH domain, which targets PLC?1 to the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) substrate in the plasma membrane. Previous studies failed to detect PLC? in the plasma membrane, hence the means of PLC? binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 is unclear. We find that the PLC? XY linker, but not the C2 domain, exhibits robust binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 or to liposomes containing near-physiological levels of PtdIns(4,5)P2. The role of positively charged residues within the XY linker was addressed by sequentially substituting alanines for three lysine residues, K374, K375 and K377. Microinjection of these mutants into mouse eggs enabled their Ca2+ oscillation-inducing activities to be compared with wild-type PLC?. The XY-linker mutant proteins were purified and the in vitro PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis and binding properties were monitored. Successive reduction of net positive charge within the PLC? XY linker significantly affects both in vivo Ca2+-oscillation-inducing activity and in vitro PtdIns(4,5)P2 interaction of mouse PLC?. Our data suggest that positively charged residues within the XY linker play an important role in the PLC? interaction with PtdIns(4,5)P2, a crucial step in generating the Ca2+ activation signal that is essential for fertilization in mammals. PMID:21730019

Nomikos, Michail; Elgmati, Khalil; Theodoridou, Maria; Calver, Brian L.; Nounesis, George; Swann, Karl; Lai, F. Anthony

2011-01-01

224

MUTATIONS CAUSING TRANSFORMATION OF SEXUAL PHENOTYPE IN THE NEMATODE CAENORHABDZTZS ELEGANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten mutations are described that transform genotypic hermaphrodites of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans into phenotypic males. These fall into three autosomal complementation groups. termed tra-1, tra-2, and tra-3. TWO alleles of tra-1 produce almost complete transformation, to a fertile male phenotype; such transformed animals are useful for analyzing sex-linked genes. All alleles of tra-1 and tra-2 are recessive; the one

JONATHAN A. HODGKIN; SYDNEY BRENNER

1977-01-01

225

Epidemiologic features of male genital malformations and subtypes in Texas.  

PubMed

Although distinct categories of male genital malformations share some common risk factors, few studies have systematically compared epidemiologic features across phenotypes. We evaluated the relationship between several maternal and infant characteristics and five categories of male genital malformations: second- or third-degree hypospadias, hypospadias (regardless of degree), small penis, cryptorchidism, and any male genital malformation. Data for 16,813 cases with isolated male genital malformations and 1,945,841 male live births delivered from 1999 to 2008 were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry. For each phenotype category, 13 maternal and infant variables were assessed, and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated based on the same multivariable Poisson regression model. A significant negative association was observed between previous live births versus no previous live births and four phenotypes (e.g., adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] for any male genital malformation: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75-0.81). The prevalence of 4 of the phenotypes was significantly higher among multiple versus singleton pregnancies (e.g., aPR for any male genital malformation: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.25-1.47). We also observed significant associations between multiple phenotypes and residential region at delivery, delivery year, month of conception, and maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, and birthplace, including significant associations for trends (maternal age, maternal education, and birth year modeled ordinally). Our results allow for comparison of characteristics across phenotypes and suggest that there may be some common risk factors for multiple male genital malformations (e.g., characteristics related to maternal estrogen levels), while other risk factors may be unique to specific defects. PMID:24458943

Agopian, A J; Langlois, Peter H; Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Canfield, Mark A

2014-04-01

226

The Phenotype of Loneliness  

PubMed Central

Goossens’ (in press) review nicely maps the progression of scientific research from its early focus on loneliness as a dysphoric state that results from the discrepancy between a person's ideal and actual social relationships to its current emphasis on the centrality of loneliness to our very nature as a social species, and he argues that developmental science throughout Europe has a great deal to contribute to our understanding of this construct. He concludes that psychologists should care about research on loneliness for five reasons: (i) it is a well-defined phenotype, (ii) it shows both high stability and individual differences in rates of change across years, (iii) it has adaptive value and evolutionary significance, (iv) it has a genetic substrate that is moderated by social environments, and (v) it has self-maintaining features that can lead to adverse mental health outcomes. Goossen's (2012) review is rife with information and ideas. We focus here on two additional important reasons and on the phenotype of loneliness. PMID:23024688

Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie

2012-01-01

227

SOCIAL PLAY BEHAVIOR IS ALTERED IN THE MALE RAT DUE TO PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE ANTIANDROGEN VINCLOZOLIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: During mammalian sexual differentiation, androgens, and specifically, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, social play behavior is organized by androgens during the neonatal period. Males play more ...

228

Epigenetic Inheritance of a Cocaine Resistance Phenotype  

PubMed Central

A heritable phenotype resulting from the self-administration of cocaine in rats was delineated. We observed delayed acquisition and reduced maintenance of cocaine self-administration in male, but not female, offspring of sires that self-administered cocaine. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein were increased in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and there was an increased association of acetylated histone H3 with BDNF promoters only in the male offspring of cocaine-experienced sires. Administration of a BDNF receptor antagonist (the TrkB receptor antagonist ANA-12) reversed the diminished cocaine self-administration in male cocaine-sired rats. In addition, the association of acetylated histone H3 with BDNF promoters was increased in the sperm of sires that self-administered cocaine. Collectively, these findings indicate that voluntary paternal ingestion of cocaine results in epigenetic reprograming of the germline resulting in profound effects on mPFC gene expression and resistance to cocaine reinforcement in male offspring. PMID:23242310

Vassoler, Fair M.; White, Samantha L.; Schmidt, Heath D.; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh; Pierce, R. Christopher

2012-01-01

229

Possible fetal determinants of male infertility.  

PubMed

Although common reproductive problems, such as male infertility and testicular cancer, present in adult life, strong evidence exists that these reproductive disorders might have a fetal origin. The evidence is derived not only from large epidemiological studies that show birth-cohort effects with regard to testicular cancer, levels of testosterone and semen quality, but also from histopathological observations. Many infertile men have histological signs of testicular dysgenesis, including Sertoli-cell-only tubules, immature undifferentiated Sertoli cells, microliths and Leydig cell nodules. The most severe gonadal symptoms occur in patients with disorders of sexual development (DSDs) who have genetic mutations, in whom even sex reversal of individuals with a 46,XY DSD can occur. However, patients with severe DSDs might represent only a small proportion of DSD cases, with milder forms of testicular dysgenesis potentially induced by exposure to environmental and lifestyle factors. Interestingly, maternal smoking during pregnancy has a stronger effect on spermatogenesis than a man's own smoking. Other lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption and obesity might also have a role. However, increasing indirect evidence exists that exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals, present at measurable concentrations in individuals, might affect development of human fetal testis. If confirmed, health policies to prevent male reproductive problems should not only target adult men, but also pregnant women and their children. PMID:24935122

Juul, Anders; Almstrup, Kristian; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina K; Jørgensen, Niels; Main, Katharina M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Toppari, Jorma; Skakkebæk, Niels E

2014-09-01

230

Differentiating Plasmodium falciparum alleles by transforming Cartesian X,Y data to polar coordinates  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnosis of infectious diseases now benefits from advancing technology to perform multiplex analysis of a growing number of variables. These advances enable simultaneous surveillance of markers characterizing species and strain complexity, mutations associated with drug susceptibility, and antigen-based polymorphisms in relation to evaluation of vaccine effectiveness. We have recently developed assays detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P. falciparum genome that take advantage of post-PCR ligation detection reaction and fluorescent microsphere labeling strategies. Data from these assays produce a spectrum of outcomes showing that infections result from single to multiple strains. Traditional methods for distinguishing true positive signal from background can cause false positive diagnoses leading to incorrect interpretation of outcomes associated with disease treatment. Results Following analysis of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase SNPs associated with resistance to a commonly used antimalarial drug, Fansidar (Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine), and presumably neutral SNPs for parasite strain differentiation, we first evaluated our data after setting a background signal based on the mean plus three standard deviations for known negative control samples. Our analysis of single allelic controls suggested that background for the absent allele increased as the concentration of the target allele increased. To address this problem, we introduced a simple change of variables from customary (X,Y) (Cartesian) coordinates to planar polar coordinates (X = rcos(?), Y = rsin(?)). Classification of multidimensional fluorescence signals based on histograms of angular and radial data distributions proved more effective than classification based on Cartesian thresholds. Comparison with known diallelic dilution controls suggests that histogram-based classification is effective for major:minor allele concentration ratios as high as 10:1. Conclusion We have observed that the diallelic SNP data resulting from analysis of P. falciparum mutations is more accurately diagnosed when a simple polar transform of the (X,Y) data into (r,?) is used. The development of high through-put methods for genotyping P. falciparum SNPs and the refinement of analytical approaches for evaluating these molecular diagnostic results significantly advance the evaluation of parasite population diversity and antimalarial drug resistance. PMID:20587031

2010-01-01

231

Genotypic-Phenotypic Correlative Studies  

Cancer.gov

The CBRG is a co-sponsor of the Cooperative Family Registry for Colon Cancer, established to support genotypic-phenotpic-correlative studies. The necessity for elucidating the relationship between genotype and phenotype is becoming particularly important when detection methods uncover changes in the genomic DNA without knowing if the changes are causing changes in the phenotype or if the phenotype has an association with clinical outcome.

232

Down syndrome: cognitive phenotype.  

PubMed

Down syndrome is the most prevalent cause of intellectual impairment associated with a genetic anomaly, in this case, trisomy of chromosome 21. It affects both physical and cognitive development and produces a characteristic phenotype, although affected individuals vary considerably with respect to severity of specific impairments. Studies focusing on the cognitive characteristics of Down syndrome were reviewed, and while performance in most areas could be predicted based upon overall intellectual disability, relative weaknesses were consistently found to be associated with expressive language, syntactic/morphosyntactic processing, and verbal working memory. This profile of uneven deficits could result from a failure to develop typically automatic processing for speech perception and production, and this possibility is discussed along with its implications for intervention. PMID:17910084

Silverman, Wayne

2007-01-01

233

Transverse spin correlation function of the one-dimensional spin- {1}/{2} XY model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transverse spin pair correlation function pxn=< SxmSxm+ n>=< SxmSxm+ n> is calculated exactly in the thermodynamic limit of the system described by the one-dimensional, isotropic, spin- {1}/{2}, XY Hamiltonian H=-2J limit?l=1N(S xlS xl+1+S ylS yl+1) . It is found that at absolute zero temperature ( T = 0), the correlation function ? xn for n ? 0 is given by ? x2p= {1}/{4}{2}/{?}2plimit?j=1p-1{4j 2}/{4j 2-1 }2p-2jif n=2p , ? x2p+1=± {1}/{4}{2}/{?}2p+1limit?j=1p{4j 2}/{4j 2-1 }2p+2jif n=2p+1 , where the plus sign applies when J is positive and the minus sign applies when J is negative. From these the asymptotic behavior as n ? ? of |? xn| at T = 0 is derived to be |? xn| ˜ {a}/{n} with a = 0.147088⋯. For finite temperatures, ? xn is calculated numerically. By using the results for ? xn, the transverse inverse correlation length and the wavenumber dependent transverse spin pair correlation function are also calculated exactly.

Tonegawa, Takashi

1981-12-01

234

Stiffness jump in the generalized XY model on the square lattice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the thermal phase transitions in the generalized classical XY model on the two-dimensional square lattice using single-cluster Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we examine the (spin-wave) stiffness (helicity modulus) jump at the transition between the low-temperature algebraic phases and the disordered high-temperature regime. Employing a finite-size scaling ansatz from conformal field theory to estimate the termination of the algebraic phases that does not require knowledge of the critical properties, we provide an unbiased estimate of the stiffness jump. Our results are in full accord with the Berzinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless scenario, i.e., the jump in the helicity modulus does not depend explicitly on the strength of the nematic coupling, but relates directly to the vorticity of the vortex excitations that drive the phase transition. We comment on previous work on related models, where Berzinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperatures were based on scaling assumptions contradicted by our findings.

Hübscher, David M.; Wessel, Stefan

2013-06-01

235

Ordered phases and phase transitions in the fully frustrated XY model on a honeycomb lattice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase diagram of the fully frustrated XY model on a honeycomb lattice is shown to incorporate three different ordered phases. In the most unusual of them, a long-range order is related not to the dominance of a particular periodic vortex pattern but to the orientation of the zero-energy domain walls separating domains with different orientations of vortex stripes. The phase transition leading to the destruction of this phase can be associated with the appearance of free fractional vortices and is of the first order. The stabilization of the two other ordered phases (existing at lower temperatures) relies on a positive contribution to the domain-wall free energy induced by the presence of spin waves. This effect has a substantial numerical smallness, in accordance with which these two phases can be observed only in the systems of really macroscopic sizes. In physical systems (like magnetically frustrated Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks), the presence of additional interactions must lead to a better stabilization of a phase with a long-range order in terms of vortex pattern and improve the possibilities of its observation.

Korshunov, S. E.

2012-04-01

236

Entanglement and quantum phase transition in the one-dimensional anisotropic XY model  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the entanglement and quantum phase transition of the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY model are studied by using the quantum renormalization-group method. By solving the renormalization equations, we get the trivial and nontrivial fixed points, which correspond to the phase of the system and the critical point, respectively. The concurrence between two blocks are calculated and it is found that when the number of iterations of the renormalization tends to infinity, the concurrence develops two saturated values that are associated with two different phases, i.e., Ising-like and spin-fluid phases. We also investigate the first derivative of the concurrence and find that there exists nonanalytic behaviors at the quantum critical point, which are directly associated with the divergence of the correlation length. To gain further insight, the scaling behaviors of the system are analyzed and it is shown that the maximum value of the first derivative of the concurrence reaches infinity and the critical point is approached as the size of the system increases.

Ma Fuwu; Liu Shengxin; Kong Xiangmu [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China)

2011-06-15

237

Evidence for three-dimensional XY critical properties in underdoped YBa2Cu3O7-?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a detailed analysis of the reversible magnetization data of Salem-Sugui and Babíc of underdoped and optimally doped YBa2Cu3O7-? single crystals. Near the zero field transition temperature we observe extended consistency with the properties of the three-dimensional XY universality class, even though the attained critical regime is limited by an inhomogeneity induced finite size effect. Nevertheless, as Tc falls from 93.5to41.5K , the critical amplitude of the in-plane correlation length ?ab0 , the anisotropy ?=?ab0/?c0 and the critical amplitude of the in-plane penetration depth ?ab0 increase substantially, while the critical amplitude of the c -axis correlation length ?c0 does not change much. As a consequence, the correlation volume Vcorr- increases and the critical amplitude of the specific heat singularity A- decreases dramatically, while the rise of ?ab0 reflects the behavior of the zero temperature counterpart. Conversely, although ?ab0 and ?ab0 increase with reduced Tc , the ratio ?ab0/?ab0- , corresponding to the Ginzburg-Landau parameter ?ab , decreases substantially and YBa2Cu3O7-? crosses over from an extreme to a weak type-II superconductor.

Schneider, T.

2007-05-01

238

Zero-temperature spin dynamics of a random two-dimensional [ital XY] model  

SciTech Connect

We study the zero-temperature spin dynamics of a random-exchange two-dimensional [ital XY] model using both exact numerical methods and an approach based upon the coherent potential approximation (CPA). The model, which presents a mixed-phase to spin-glass phase transition, consists of a ferromagnetic host with nearest-neighbor bonds [ital J] to which one substitutes impurity bonds of strength [minus][lambda][ital J] at concentration [ital x]. In both phases, the long-wavelength magnetic excitations of this system are spin waves with a linear spectrum. The [ital x] and [lambda] dependence of the spin-wave velocity is determined numerically by calculating the stiffness constant of the system with a new transfer-matrix algorithm. The stiffness constant and the spin-wave velocity decrease rapidly with increasing [ital x]. The two quantities are smooth across the phase boundary, and they saturate in the spin-glass phase. At shorter wavelengths, the [ital q] dependence of the energies and lifetimes of the spin waves in the ferromagnetic and spin-glass states differs qualitatively, reflecting the morphological differences that exist between the spin configurations characteristic of the two phases. Line shapes and linewidths depend strongly on the polarization of the excitations. Whereas out-of-plane modes stay propagative at all concentrations, in-plane ones are inhomogeneously broadened and are overdamped at long wavelengths. There is good overall agreement between the exact numerical results and those obtained using the CPA.

Gawiec, P.; Grempel, D.R. (Laboratoire de Magnetisme et Diffraction Neutronique, DRFMC/SPSMS, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 85X, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex (France))

1993-09-01

239

Benford's law gives better scaling exponents in phase transitions of quantum XY models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benford's law is an empirical law predicting the distribution of the first significant digits of numbers obtained from natural phenomena and mathematical tables. It has been found to be applicable for numbers coming from a plethora of sources, varying from seismographic, biological, financial, to astronomical. We apply this law to analyze the data obtained from physical many-body systems described by the one-dimensional anisotropic quantum XY models in a transverse magnetic field. We detect the zero-temperature quantum phase transition and find that our method gives better finite-size scaling exponents for the critical point than many other known scaling exponents using measurable quantities like magnetization, entanglement, and quantum discord. We extend our analysis to the same system but at finite temperature and find that it also detects the finite-temperature phase transition in the model. Moreover, we compare the Benford distribution analysis with the same obtained from the uniform and Poisson distributions. The analysis is furthermore important in that the high-precision detection of the cooperative physical phenomena is possible even from low-precision experimental data.

Rane, Ameya Deepak; Mishra, Utkarsh; Biswas, Anindya; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

2014-08-01

240

PD-Type Iterative Learning Control for the Trajectory Tracking of a Pneumatic X-Y Table with Disturbances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a proportional-valve controlled pneumatic X-Y table system is built to perform position tracking control experiments. The pneumatic system is subjected to external loads and parameter changes during the control. ILC (Iterative Learning Control) controllers are implemented in the experiments to show their ability to reject disturbances. The P and PD-typed updating laws with delay parameters are used respectively for the repetitive trajectory tracking control of X-Y table. Pre-saved control signals for different types of disturbances are also used to compare control performances. Experimental results show that under the disturbances, the PD-typed ILC controller is superior to the P-typed one and can effectively control the system to track the given circular trajectory.

Chen, Chih-Keng; Hwang, James

241

Spin=1\\/2 XY magnetic ordering of Nd3+ ions in NdGaO3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat capacity of the perovskite NdGaO3 has been measured in the range of 0.15 KXY magnetic ordering in a rare earth system, free from any other contribution, and the first such example

F. Bartolome; M. D. Kuz'min; R. I. Merino; J. Bartolome

1994-01-01

242

XY sex chromosome complement, compared with XX, in the CNS confers greater neurodegeneration during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis  

PubMed Central

Women are more susceptible to multiple sclerosis (MS) and have more robust immune responses than men. However, men with MS tend to demonstrate a more progressive disease course than women, suggesting a disconnect between the severity of an immune attack and the CNS response to a given immune attack. We have previously shown in an MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, that autoantigen-sensitized XX lymph node cells, compared with XY, are more encephalitogenic. These studies demonstrated an effect of sex chromosomes in the induction of immune responses, but did not address a potential role of sex chromosomes in the CNS response to immune-mediated injury. Here, we examined this possibility using XX versus XY bone marrow chimeras reconstituted with a common immune system of one sex chromosomal type. We found that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice with an XY sex chromosome complement in the CNS, compared with XX, demonstrated greater clinical disease severity with more neuropathology in the spinal cord, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex. A candidate gene on the X chromosome, toll-like receptor 7, was then examined. Toll-like receptor 7 expression in cortical neurons was higher in mice with XY compared with mice with XX CNS, consistent with the known neurodegenerative role for toll-like receptor 7 in neurons. These results suggest that sex chromosome effects on neurodegeneration in the CNS run counter to effects on immune responses, and may bear relevance to the clinical enigma of greater MS susceptibility in women but faster disability progression in men. This is a demonstration of a direct effect of sex chromosome complement on neurodegeneration in a neurological disease. PMID:24550311

Du, Sienmi; Itoh, Noriko; Askarinam, Sahar; Hill, Haley; Arnold, Arthur P.; Voskuhl, Rhonda R.

2014-01-01

243

Recent scenario of obesity and male fertility.  

PubMed

The aim of this review was to provide current scenario linking obesity and male fertility. Obesity has been linked to male fertility because of lifestyle changes, internal hormonal environment alterations, and sperm genetic factors. A few studies assessing the impact of obesity on sperm genetic factor have been published, but they did not lead to a strong consensus. Our objective was to explore further the relationship between sperm genetic factor and obesity. There are emerging facts that obesity negatively affects male reproductive potential not only by reducing sperm quality, but in particular it alters the physical and molecular structure of germ cells in the testes and ultimately affects the maturity and function of sperm cells. Inhibition of microRNA in the male pronucleus of fertilized zygotes produces offspring of phenotypes of variable severity depending on miRNAs ratios. Hence, these RNAs have a role in the oocyte development during fertilization and in embryo development, fetal survival, and offspring phenotype. It has been reported that the miRNA profile is altered in spermatozoa of obese males, however, the impact of these changes in fertilization and embryo health remains as yet not known. PMID:25269421

Shukla, K K; Chambial, S; Dwivedi, S; Misra, S; Sharma, P

2014-11-01

244

Crossover from three-dimensional XY to tricritical behavior for the nematic-smectic-A1 phase transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution ac calorimetric technique has been employed to study the nematic-smectic-A1 (N-Sm-A1) phase transition in liquid-crystal binary mixtures of octyloxyphenyl-nitrobenzoyloxy benzoate (DB8ONO2) and decyloxyphenyl-nitrobenzoyloxy benzoate (DB10ONO2). The existence of a tricritical point on the N-Sm-A1 transition line has been reconfirmed in this study. This tricritical point occurs at mole percent X~=51 of the decyl homolog in the mixture. Heat-capacity measurements characterizing the N-Sm-A1 transition have been carried out for three samples in the vicinity of the tricritical point (X=47.0, 48.7, and 50.0) and for one sample with X=31.5. The results reveal a complete crossover behavior for the critical exponent ?, which changes from the three-dimensional XY value (?XY=-0.007) for X=31.5 to a value ?=0.422 close to tricritical (?t=0.50) for x=50.0. The amplitude ratio A-/A+ for the X=31.5 sample conforms to that expected from the noninverted XY model. In addition, heat-capacity measurements on one sample with X=53.7 indicate that near the termination point of the Sm-Ad-Sm-A1 transition line the phase sequence Sm-Ad-Nd-N1-Sm-A1 occurs, in accordance with theoretical predictions.

Nounesis, George; Garland, C. W.; Shashidhar, R.

1991-02-01

245

Phenotypic variation in the mating preferences of female field crickets, Gryllus integer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic variation in the mating preferences of female field crickets was examined. Males of this species produce a trilled calling song which varies in the number of pulses per trill, the inter-trill interval and the proportion of missing pulses within a trill. As a population, females preferred male calling songs with more pulses per trill and shorter inter-trill intervals in

ANNE-MARIE MURRAY; WILLIAM H. CADE

1995-01-01

246

A novel test of the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis reveals independent components of fertility.  

PubMed Central

The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis predicts that male sexual ornaments signal fertilizing efficiency and that the coevolution of male ornaments and female preference for such ornaments is driven by female pursuit of fertility benefits. In addition, directional testicular asymmetry frequently observed in birds has been suggested to reflect fertilizing efficiency and to covary with ornament expression. However, the idea of a phenotypic relationship between male ornaments and fertilizing efficiency is often tested in populations where environmental effects mask the underlying genetic associations between ornaments and fertilizing efficiency implied by this idea. Here, we adopt a novel design, which increases genetic diversity through the crossing of two divergent populations while controlling for environmental effects, to test: (i) the phenotypic relationship between male ornaments and both, gonadal (testicular mass) and gametic (sperm quality) components of fertilizing efficiency; and (ii) the extent to which these components are phenotypically integrated in the fowl, Gallus gallus. We show that consistent with theory, the testosterone-dependent expression of a male ornament, the comb, predicted testicular mass. However, despite their functional inter-dependence, testicular mass and sperm quality were not phenotypically integrated. Consistent with this result, males of one parental population invested more in testicular and comb mass, whereas males of the other parental population had higher sperm quality. We found no evidence that directional testicular asymmetry covaried with ornament expression. These results shed new light on the evolutionary relationship between male fertilizing efficiency and ornaments. Although testosterone-dependent ornaments may covary with testicular mass and thus reflect sperm production rate, the lack of phenotypic integration between gonadal and gametic traits reveals that the expression of an ornament is unlikely to reflect the overall fertilizing efficiency of a male. PMID:15002771

Pizzari, Tommaso; Jensen, Per; Cornwallis, Charles K.

2004-01-01

247

Plumage brightness and age predict extrapair fertilization success of male tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In socially monogamous passerines, extrapair paternity can increase the variance in male reproductive suc- cess. If gaining extrapair fertilizations is linked to specific secondary sexual ornaments, the opportunity for sexual selection is enhanced. Therefore, to understand the evolution of male phenotypic characteristics, it is important to identify traits that predict male extrapair mating success. Tree swallows show among the highest

Pierre-Paul Bitton; Erin L. O'Brien; Russell D. Dawson

2007-01-01

248

Premature death and age-related cardiac dysfunction in male eNOS-knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of our study were to determine mortality, and age- and genotype-related cardiac phenotype in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) knockout (–\\/–) and wild-type (+\\/+) mice. Male and female (–\\/–) and male and female (+\\/+) conscious mice were studied at different ages by echocardiography and tail-cuff blood pressure (BP) measurement. Only 50% male (–\\/–) mice lived longer than 21 months

Wei Li; Seema Mital; Caroline Ojaimi; Anna Csiszar; Gabor Kaley; Thomas H. Hintze

2004-01-01

249

The Stemness Phenotype Model  

PubMed Central

The identification of a fraction of cancer stem cells (CSCs) associated with resistance to chemotherapy in most solid tumors leads to the dogma that eliminating this fraction will cure cancer. Experimental data has challenged this simplistic and optimistic model. Opposite to the classical cancer stem cell model, we introduced the stemness phenotype model (SPM), which proposed that all glioma cells possess stem cell properties and that the stemness is modulated by the microenvironment. A key prediction of the SPM is that to cure gliomas all gliomas cells (CSCs and non-CSCs) should be eliminated at once. Other theories closely resembling the SPM and its predictions have recently been proposed, suggesting that the SPM may be a useful model for other type of tumors. Here, we review data from other tumors that strongly support the concepts of the SPM applied to gliomas. We include data related to: (1) the presence of a rare but constant fraction of CSCs in established cancer cell lines, (2) the clonal origin of cancer, (3) the symmetrical division, (4) the ability of “non-CSCs” to generate “CSCs,” and (5) the effect of the microenvironment on cancer stemness. The aforenamed issues that decisively supported the SPM proposed for gliomas can also be applied to breast, lung, prostate cancer, and melanoma and perhaps other tumors in general. If the glioma SPM is correct and can be extrapolated to other types of cancer, it will have profound implications in the development of novel modalities for cancer treatment. PMID:22928120

Cruz, M. H.; Siden, A.; Calaf, G. M.; Delwar, Z. M.; Yakisich, J. S.

2012-01-01

250

Design, analysis and testing of a parallel-kinematic high-bandwidth XY nanopositioning stage  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the design, analysis, and testing of a parallel-kinematic high-bandwidth XY nanopositioning stage driven by piezoelectric stack actuators. The stage is designed with two kinematic chains. In each kinematic chain, the end-effector of the stage is connected to the base by two symmetrically distributed flexure modules, respectively. Each flexure module comprises a fixed-fixed beam and a parallelogram flexure serving as two orthogonal prismatic joints. With the purpose to achieve high resonance frequencies of the stage, a novel center-thickened beam which has large stiffness is proposed to act as the fixed-fixed beam. The center-thickened beam also contributes to reducing cross-coupling and restricting parasitic motion. To decouple the motion in two axes totally, a symmetric configuration is adopted for the parallelogram flexures. Based on the analytical models established in static and dynamic analysis, the dimensions of the stage are optimized in order to maximize the first resonance frequency. Then finite element analysis is utilized to validate the design and a prototype of the stage is fabricated for performance tests. According to the results of static and dynamic tests, the resonance frequencies of the developed stage are over 13.6 kHz and the workspace is 11.2??m × 11.6??m with the cross-coupling between two axes less than 0.52%. It is clearly demonstrated that the developed stage has high resonance frequencies, a relatively large travel range, and nearly decoupled performance between two axes. For high-speed tracking performance tests, an inversion-based feedforward controller is implemented for the stage to compensate for the positioning errors caused by mechanical vibration. The experimental results show that good tracking performance at high speed is achieved, which validates the effectiveness of the developed stage.

Li, Chun-Xia; Gu, Guo-Ying; Yang, Mei-Ju; Zhu, Li-Min, E-mail: zhulm@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2013-12-15

251

XY sperm separation and use in artificial insemination and other ARTs.  

PubMed

Many tens of thousands of calves resulting from artificial insemination (AI) have been born worldwide after XY sperm separation and commercial production is underway in several countries. Accuracy of sex selection is some 90% and can be achieved both in research facilities and at AI studs in rural locations. Most facilities sort X- sperm which have also be utilised for superovulation and embryo transfer projects and for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) as well as AI. Sort rates of some 15 x 10(6) sperm/h are currently achievable and are used for low dose insemination, generally at 2 x 10(6) frozen sperm per dose, at a minimum of 35% post thaw motility. Pregnancy rates are some 70% to 80% of normal "high" dose unsexed inseminates. Good herd management is essential for high pregnancy rates with sexed sperm. In addition to cattle, offspring of predetermined sex have been born in the human, sheep, pig, horse, rabbit, elk, buffalo, cat and dolphin. Each species has its own challenge with regard to sperm handling and insemination procedure. In pigs, horses and sheep, the available dose of sexed sperm is very considerably lower than that which is used for conventional AI and special approaches have been devised for each species. In the pig a flexible catheter has been used to deliver a small dose of semen as close to the site of ovulation as possible. In the horse, hysteroscopic insemination at the utero tubal junction has resulted in fertilisation and, in the sheep, laparoscopic insemination into the uterus is the standard procedure for both sexed and unsexed sperm. Further advances in the efficiency of sorting together with improvements in sperm handling should result in acceptable pregnancy rates in these species. PMID:17644986

Cran, David G

2007-01-01

252

Entanglement in a time-dependent coupled XY spin chain in an external magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

We consider an infinite one-dimensional anisotropic XY spin chain with a nearest-neighbor time-dependent Heisenberg coupling J(t) between the spins in presence of a time-dependent magnetic field h(t). We discuss a general solution for the system and present an exact solution for particular choice of J and h of practical interest. We investigate the dynamics of entanglement for different degrees of anisotropy of the system and at both zero and finite temperatures. We find that the time evolution of entanglement in the system shows nonergodic and critical behavior at zero and finite temperatures and different degrees of anisotropy. The asymptotic behavior of entanglement at the infinite time limit at zero temperature and constant J and h depends only the parameter {lambda}=J/h rather than the individual values of J and h for all degrees of anisotropy but changes for nonzero temperature. Furthermore, the asymptotic behavior is very sensitive to the initial values of J and h and for particular choices we may create finite asymptotic entanglement regardless of the final values of J and h. The persistence of quantum effects in the system as it evolves and as the temperature is raised is studied by monitoring the entanglement. We find that the quantum effects dominate within certain regions of the kT-{lambda} space that vary significantly depending on the degree of the anisotropy of the system. Particularly, the quantum effects in the Ising model case persist in the vicinity of both its critical phase transition point and zero temperature as it evolves in time. Moreover, the interplay between the different system parameters to tune and control the entanglement evolution is explored.

Sadiek, Gehad [Department of Physics, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Alkurtass, Bedoor; Aldossary, Omar [Department of Physics, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

2010-11-15

253

Entanglement in a Time-Dependent Coupled XY Spin Chain in an External Magnetic Field  

E-print Network

We consider an infinite one dimensional anisotropic XY spin chain with a nearest neighbor time-dependent Heisenberg coupling J(t) between the spins in presence of a time-dependent magnetic field h(t). We discuss a general solution for the system and present an exact solution for particular choice of J and h of practical interest. We investigate the dynamics of entanglement for different degrees of anisotropy of the system and at both zero and finite temperatures. We find that the time evolution of entanglement in the system show non-ergodic and critical behavior at zero and finite temperatures and different degrees of anisotropy. The asymptotic behavior of entanglement at the infinite time limit at zero temperature and constant J and h depends only the parameter lambda=J/h rather than the individual values of J and h for all degrees of anisotropy but changes for nonzero temperature. Furthermore, the asymptotic behavior is very sensitive to the initial values of J and h and for particular choices we may create finite asymptotic entanglement regardless of the final values of J and h. The persistence of quantum effects in the system as it evolves and as the temperature is raised is studied by monitoring the entanglement. We find that the quantum effects dominates within certain regions of the kT-lambda space that vary significantly depending on the degree of the anisotropy of the system. Particularly, the quantum effects in the Ising model case persists in the vicinity of both its critical phase transition point and zero temperature as it evolves in time. Moreover, the interplay between the different system parameters to tune and control the entanglement evolution is explored.

Gehad Sadiek; Bedoor Alkurtass; Omar Aldossary

2010-09-01

254

Design, analysis and testing of a parallel-kinematic high-bandwidth XY nanopositioning stage.  

PubMed

This paper presents the design, analysis, and testing of a parallel-kinematic high-bandwidth XY nanopositioning stage driven by piezoelectric stack actuators. The stage is designed with two kinematic chains. In each kinematic chain, the end-effector of the stage is connected to the base by two symmetrically distributed flexure modules, respectively. Each flexure module comprises a fixed-fixed beam and a parallelogram flexure serving as two orthogonal prismatic joints. With the purpose to achieve high resonance frequencies of the stage, a novel center-thickened beam which has large stiffness is proposed to act as the fixed-fixed beam. The center-thickened beam also contributes to reducing cross-coupling and restricting parasitic motion. To decouple the motion in two axes totally, a symmetric configuration is adopted for the parallelogram flexures. Based on the analytical models established in static and dynamic analysis, the dimensions of the stage are optimized in order to maximize the first resonance frequency. Then finite element analysis is utilized to validate the design and a prototype of the stage is fabricated for performance tests. According to the results of static and dynamic tests, the resonance frequencies of the developed stage are over 13.6 kHz and the workspace is 11.2 ?m × 11.6 ?m with the cross-coupling between two axes less than 0.52%. It is clearly demonstrated that the developed stage has high resonance frequencies, a relatively large travel range, and nearly decoupled performance between two axes. For high-speed tracking performance tests, an inversion-based feedforward controller is implemented for the stage to compensate for the positioning errors caused by mechanical vibration. The experimental results show that good tracking performance at high speed is achieved, which validates the effectiveness of the developed stage. PMID:24387472

Li, Chun-Xia; Gu, Guo-Ying; Yang, Mei-Ju; Zhu, Li-Min

2013-12-01

255

Senescent sperm performance in old male birds.  

PubMed

Senescence is the deterioration of the phenotype with age caused by negative effects of mutations acting late in life or the physiological deterioration of vital processes. Birds have traditionally been assumed to senescence slowly despite their high metabolic rates, high blood sugar levels and high body temperature. Here we investigate the patterns of age-related performance of sperm of a long distance migrant, the barn swallow Hirundo rustica, varying in age from 1 to 6 years, analysed by the computer-assisted sperm analysis equipment. Sperm showed deteriorating performance in terms of linear movement, track velocity, straight line velocity and reduced proportions of rapidly moving, progressive and motile sperm with age. In a second series of experiments, we assessed performance of sperm from the same males in neutral medium and in medium derived from the reproductive tract of females in an attempt to test if sperm of old males performed relatively better in female medium, as expected from extra-pair paternity being negatively related to male age, but not to female age. Older males showed consistently better performance in female medium than in neutral medium in terms of track velocity, straight line velocity and reduced proportions of rapidly moving, progressive and motile sperm, whereas young males showed better performance in neutral medium. These results provide evidence of declining sperm performance for important reproductive variables not only with age, but also with the sperm of old males performing differentially better in female medium than young males. PMID:19032491

Møller, A P; Mousseau, T A; Rudolfsen, G; Balbontín, J; Marzal, A; Hermosell, I; De Lope, F

2009-02-01

256

Sex reassignment: Male to female to male  

Microsoft Academic Search

A male patient planned and achieved sex-reassignment surgery which subsequently proved to have been performed prematurely. Postoperatively, the patient experienced a sudden change of conviction and was confronted with the realization that he could not live as a woman. Threatened by suicide, he finally found a resolution to his dilemma by reverting to the male role. Similar mistakes in the

John Money; George Wolff

1973-01-01

257

The expression of Y-linked Zfy2 in XY mouse oocytes leads to frequent meiosis 2 defects, a high incidence of subsequent early cleavage stage arrest and infertility.  

PubMed

Outbred XY(Sry-) female mice that lack Sry due to the 11 kb deletion Sry(dl1Rlb) have very limited fertility. However, five lines of outbred XY(d) females with Y chromosome deletions Y(Del(Y)1Ct)-Y(Del(Y)5Ct) that deplete the Rbmy gene cluster and repress Sry transcription were found to be of good fertility. Here we tested our expectation that the difference in fertility between XO, XY(d-1) and XY(Sry-) females would be reflected in different degrees of oocyte depletion, but this was not the case. Transgenic addition of Yp genes to XO females implicated Zfy2 as being responsible for the deleterious Y chromosomal effect on fertility. Zfy2 transcript levels were reduced in ovaries of XY(d-1) compared with XY(Sry-) females in keeping with their differing fertility. In seeking the biological basis of the impaired fertility we found that XY(Sry-), XY(d-1) and XO,Zfy2 females produce equivalent numbers of 2-cell embryos. However, in XY(Sry-) and XO,Zfy2 females the majority of embryos arrested with 2-4 cells and almost no blastocysts were produced; by contrast, XY(d-1) females produced substantially more blastocysts but fewer than XO controls. As previously documented for C57BL/6 inbred XY females, outbred XY(Sry-) and XO,Zfy2 females showed frequent failure of the second meiotic division, although this did not prevent the first cleavage. Oocyte transcriptome analysis revealed major transcriptional changes resulting from the Zfy2 transgene addition. We conclude that Zfy2-induced transcriptional changes in oocytes are sufficient to explain the more severe fertility impairment of XY as compared with XO females. PMID:24496622

Vernet, Nadège; Szot, Maria; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Ellis, Peter J I; Decarpentrie, Fanny; Ojarikre, Obah A; Rattigan, Áine; Taketo, Teruko; Burgoyne, Paul S

2014-02-01

258

Mapping Pathological Phenotypes in Reelin Mutant Mice  

PubMed Central

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with multifactorial origin characterized by social communication deficits and the presence of repetitive behaviors/interests. Several studies showed an association between the reelin gene mutation and increased risk of ASD and a reduced reelin expression in some brain regions of ASD subjects, suggesting a role for reelin deficiency in ASD etiology. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein playing important roles during development of the central nervous system. To deeply investigate the role of reelin dysfunction as vulnerability factor in ASD, we assessed the behavioral, neurochemical, and brain morphological features of reeler male mice. We recently reported a genotype-dependent deviation in the ultrasonic vocal repertoire and a general delay in motor development of reeler pups. We now report that adult male heterozygous (Het) reeler mice did not show social behavior and communication deficits during male–female social interactions. Wildtype and Het mice showed a typical light/dark locomotor activity profile, with a peak during the central interval of the dark phase. However, when faced with a mild stressful stimulus (a saline injection) only Het mice showed an over response to stress. In addition to the behavioral studies, we conducted high performance liquid chromatography and magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy to investigate whether reelin mutation influences brain monoamine and metabolites levels in regions involved in ASD. Low levels of dopamine in cortex and high levels of glutamate and taurine in hippocampus were detected in Het mice, in line with clinical data collected on ASD children. Altogether, our data detected subtle but relevant neurochemical abnormalities in reeler mice supporting this mutant line, particularly male subjects, as a valid experimental model to estimate the contribution played by reelin deficiency in the global ASD neurobehavioral phenotype.

Michetti, Caterina; Romano, Emilia; Altabella, Luisa; Caruso, Angela; Castelluccio, Paolo; Bedse, Gaurav; Gaetani, Silvana; Canese, Rossella; Laviola, Giovanni; Scattoni, Maria Luisa

2014-01-01

259

[Oro-facial-digital syndrome type I: phenotypic variable expression].  

PubMed

Oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1; OMIM #311200) is a developmental disorder transmitted as an X-linked dominant condition with embryonic male lethality. It is associated with malformation of the oral cavity, face, and digits. Furthermore, it is characterized by the presence of milia, hypotrichosis and polycystic kidney disease. We present two cases with clinical diagnosis oforal-facial-digital syndrome type I with some phenotypic variability between them. PMID:25362921

Boldrini, María Pía; Giovo, María Elsa; Bogado, Claudia

2014-12-01

260

Distribution of Human Adult Lactase Phenotypes in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose absorption was studied in 570 healthy adolescent and adult males in Egypt. Employing a field version of the noninvasive hydrogen breath test, 156 (27.4%) lactose absorbers and 414 (72.6%) lactose malabsorbers were identified. The age-specific prevalence of the lactase phenotypes indicated that lactase repression is complete at the age of 14 years in Egyptians. The regional distribution showed significant

Laila Hussein; Sibylle D. Flatz; W. Kühnau; G. Flatz

1982-01-01

261

Contrasting patterns of transposable element and satellite distribution on sex chromosomes (XY1Y2) in the dioecious plant Rumex acetosa.  

PubMed

Rumex acetosa is a dioecious plant with the XY1Y2 sex chromosome system. Both Y chromosomes are heterochromatic and are thought to be degenerated. We performed low-pass 454 sequencing and similarity-based clustering of male and female genomic 454 reads to identify and characterize major groups of R. acetosa repetitive DNA. We found that Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons dominated, followed by DNA transposons and nonlong terminal repeat retrotransposons. CRM and Tat/Ogre retrotransposons dominated the Gypsy superfamily, whereas Maximus/Sireviruses were most abundant among Copia retrotransposons. Only one Gypsy subfamily had accumulated on Y1 and Y2 chromosomes, whereas many retrotransposons were ubiquitous on autosomes and the X chromosome, but absent on Y1 and Y2 chromosomes, and others were depleted from the X chromosome. One group of CRM Gypsy was specifically localized to centromeres. We also found that majority of previously described satellites (RAYSI, RAYSII, RAYSIII, and RAE180) are accumulated on the Y chromosomes where we identified Y chromosome-specific variant of RAE180. We discovered two novel satellites-RA160 satellite dominating on the X chromosome and RA690 localized mostly on the Y1 chromosome. The expression pattern obtained from Illumina RNA sequencing showed that the expression of transposable elements is similar in leaves of both sexes and that satellites are also expressed. Contrasting patterns of transposable elements (TEs) and satellite localization on sex chromosomes in R. acetosa, where not only accumulation but also depletion of repetitive DNA was observed, suggest that a plethora of evolutionary processes can shape sex chromosomes. PMID:23542206

Steflova, Pavlina; Tokan, Viktor; Vogel, Ivan; Lexa, Matej; Macas, Jiri; Novak, Petr; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovsky, Eduard

2013-01-01

262

Steroid responsiveness and wheezing phenotypes.  

PubMed

Oral corticosteroids are the cornerstone of management of acute moderate or severe asthma whilst preventive inhaled corticosteroids are the mainstay of the preventive management of children with asthma. Yet, variation in the magnitude of response to corticosteroids has been observed. There is increasing evidence that preschool-aged children with viral-induced asthma may display a certain degree of corticosteroid resistance, requiring higher doses of corticosteroids to overcome it. The identification of determinants of responsiveness is complicated by design issues, including heterogeneous populations of children with asthma and bronchiolitis or of children with viral-induced and multi-trigger asthma phenotypes in published trials. Potential key determinants of responsiveness may include age, trigger, phenotype, tobacco smoke exposure and genotype. The mechanistic pathway for corticoresistance may originate from a gene-environment interaction, leading to non-eosinophilic airway inflammation. The clinician should carefully confirm the diagnosis of asthma and ascertain the phenotype to select appropriate phenotype-specific therapy. PMID:21722845

Ducharme, Francine M; Krajinovic, Maja

2011-09-01

263

47,XYY Syndrome: Clinical Phenotype and Timing of Ascertainment  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe auxologic, physical, and behavioral features in a large cohort of males with 47,XYY (XYY), ages newborn to young adult. Study design This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of male subjects with XYY who were evaluated at 1 of 2 specialized academic sites. Subjects underwent a history, physical examination, laboratory testing, and cognitive/behavioral evaluation. Results In 90 males with XYY (mean age 9.6 ± 5.3 years [range 0.5-36.5]), mean height SD was above average (1.0 ± 1.2 SD). Macrocephaly (head circumference >2 SD) was noted in 28/84 (33%), hypotonia in 57/90 (63%), clinodactyly in 47/90 (52%), and hypertelorism in 53/90 (59%). There was testicular enlargement for age (>2 SD) in 41/82 (50%), but no increase in genital anomalies. No physical phenotypic differences were seen in boys diagnosed prenatally vs postnatally. Testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone levels were in the normal range in most boys. There was an increased incidence of asthma, seizures, tremor, and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with the general population rates. Prenatally diagnosed boys scored significantly better on cognitive testing and were less likely to be diagnosed with ASD (P < .01). Conclusions The XYY phenotype commonly includes tall stature, macrocephaly, macroorchidism, hypotonia, hypertelorism, and tremor. Physical phenotypic features were similar in boys diagnosed prenatally vs postnatally. Prenatal diagnosis was associated with higher cognitive function and less likelihood of an ASD diagnosis. PMID:23810129

Bardsley, Martha Zeger; Kowal, Karen; Levy, Carly; Gosek, Ania; Ayari, Natalie; Tartaglia, Nicole; Lahlou, Najiba; Winder, Breanna; Grimes, Shannon; Ross, Judith L.

2014-01-01

264

SRY alone can induce normal male sexual differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Most individuals with the rare 46,XX male {open_quotes}syndrome{close_quotes} arise due to an unequal interchange between Xp and Yp termini during paternal meiosis. The pattern of Y-sequences in these patients varies considerably, but very few cases have been reported showing only SRY. The phenotype in these patients is also variable ranging from severe impairment of the external genitalia through hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism to occasional normal male phenotype. We report a Mexican 46,XX male patient without genital ambiguities in whom DNA analysis showed the presence of SRY and the absence of ZFY. We conclude that in this case SRY alone was enough for complete male sexual differentiation. 25 refs., 1 fig.

Lopez, M.; Torres, L.; Cervantes, A. [HGM SSa. Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, MX (United States)] [and others

1995-01-30

265

Phenotypic variation of transitional forager-farmers in the Sonoran Desert.  

PubMed

This study examines phenotypic variation and biological distances estimated using morphological traits from three Early Agricultural period (EAP) (2100 BC-AD 50) site-complexes in the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona and northern Sonora. The hypothesis tested is that EAP forager-farmers were phenotypically homogenous as suggested by patterns in material culture and works to refine inferences regarding gene flow and biological affinity during subsistence transitions. Seven measurements from 62 EAP male and female crania were collected and used to calculate phenotypic variances, biological distances, and FST values with RMET 5.0 software. Analyses were applied to both pooled site-complex samples and to males and females separately. Results show differential variation between site-complex population samples, multiple significant biological distances, and significant FST values for the EAP regional sample that indicate widespread phenotypic heterogeneity rather than homogeneity. Significantly lower than expected variance in the Cienega Creek male sample is inferred to suggest a small closely related population present during the Cienega phase. Greater than expected male variation is attributed to higher frequencies of gene flow in the La Playa and Santa Cruz River site-complex samples. These EAP males are inferred to be more mobile across the Sonoran Desert landscape and representative of multiple biological affinities compared with females. This study provides evidence supporting the canalization of phenotypic variation when associated with human populations becoming increasingly sedentary due to transitioning subsistence practices. Am J Phys Anthropol 155:579-590, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25229162

Byrd, Rachael M

2014-12-01

266

Male Infertility: Management  

MedlinePLUS

... Imaging (MRI) Male Infertility Male Infertility: Management Meatal Stenosis Megaureter N Neonatal Testicular Torsion Neurogenic Bladder Normal ... multiple sclerosis: A serious progressive disease of the central nervous system. needle aspiration: Removing fluid or contents ...

267

Territorial or wandering: how males of Protodiscelis palpalis (Colletidae, Paracolletinae) behave in searching  

E-print Network

of their energy to find receptive females and mate, while females do on parental care. Females usually represent the limiting sex and exert a selective pressure on the male's phenotypic traits, which should increase

268

Male dimorphism, territoriality and mating success in the tropical damselfly, Paraphlebia zoe Selys (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical damselfly Paraphlebia zoe has two male morphs: a black-winged (BW) male which is associated with territorial defense of oviposition sites; and a hyaline-winged\\u000a (HW) male similar in appearance to females, and, compared to the black morph, less frequently found defending territories.\\u000a In a wild population of this species, we first assessed the relationship between phenotypic traits [male morph,

Allari Romo-Beltrán; Rogelio Macías-Ordóñez; Alex Córdoba-Aguilar

2009-01-01

269

Vibratory communication in the jumping spider Phidippus clarus: polyandry, male courtship signals, and mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jumping spider Phidippus clarus uses signals that combine visual and substrate-borne vibrations, which predict the outcome of male--male competition and are important to copulation success. We investigated the function of males' substrate-borne vibrations by examining phenotypic correlates of vibratory signal traits and assessing whether these affect female mating and remating decisions. Virgin females were first paired with males, and

Senthurran Sivalinghem; Michael M. Kasumovic; Andrew C. Mason; Maydianne C. B. Andrade; Damian O. Elias

2010-01-01

270

The ground state energy of the anisotropic XY chain in transverse magnetic field: explicite expression and smoothness properties  

E-print Network

An explicite expression for ground state energy of the anisotropic XY chain in transverse magnetic field has been derived. The ground state energy has been expressed in terms of elliptic integrals of the first, second and third kind. The smoothness properties of resulting expression have been examined. We have confirmed known 2d-Ising type behaviour on certain lines of phase diagram and calculated few first subleading exponents; they can be computed up to arbitrary order from our expressions. We have also explicitely demonstrated that the ground-state energy is infinitely differentiable on the boundary between ferromagnetic and oscillatory phases.

Tomasz Maci??ek; Jacek Wojtkiewicz

2014-09-20

271

Spin = 1/2 XY magnetic ordering of Nd(3+) ions in NdGaO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat capacity of the perovskite NdGaO3 has been measured in the range of 0.15 K less than T less than 3 K showing an anomaly that is interpreted as antiferromagnetic ordering of the Nd(3+) ions at T(sub c) = 0.97 +/- 0.01 K. This is, to our knowledge, the best example of a 3D XY magnetic ordering in a rare earth system, free from any other contribution, and the first such example of a Nd compound.

Bartolome, F.; Kuz'min, M. D.; Merino, R. I.; Bartolome, J.

1994-03-01

272

Anion-related variations in the phonon behavior of cubic Ga 1- xAl xY semiconductors and (GaY) m/(Ga 1- xAl xY, Y = As, N) n superlattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have reported a comprehensive theoretical study of anion-related variations in the phonon behavior of cubic Ga 1- xAl xY semiconductors and (GaY) m/(Ga 1- xAl xY,Y=As, N) n superlattices (SLs) using a microscopic rigid-ion model (RIM). The short range forces for the bulk GaAs and AIAs in the RIM are optimized by incorporating values of elastic constants, and phonons at critical points from the inelastic neutron scattering and/or Raman data. The force constants for cubic GaN, AlN are obtained from the transformed Raman scattering data of phonons for the wurtzite materials and the existing elastic constants. The long-range Coulomb forces are evaluated exactly via Ewald summation. To treat the alloying of barrier layers and disorder at the interfaces in (GaY) m/(Ga 1- xAl xY) n SLs, we considered a generalized random-element iso-displacement model. For short period SLs, the dependence of phonons on wavevectors both parallel and perpendicular to the growth direction [0 0 1] is investigated. An interesting variation in the phonon behavior found in the two systems is explained in terms of the differences in the anion masses and effective ionic-charges.

Talwar, D. N.; Zaranek, S.

1999-03-01

273

Role of the Multidrug Efflux System MexXY in the Emergence of Moderate Resistance to Aminoglycosides among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the role of active efflux system MexXY in the emergence of aminoglycoside (AG) resistance among cystic fibrosis (CF) isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three genotypically related susceptible and resistant (S/R) bacterial pairs and three other AG-resistant CF strains were compared to four non-CF strains moderately resistant to AGs. As demonstrated by immunoblot experiments, pump MexY was strongly overproduced in all of the resistant bacteria. This MexXY upregulation was associated with a 2- to 16-fold increase in the MICs of AGs in the S/R pairs and lower intracellular accumulation of dihydrostreptomycin. Alterations in mexZ, the repressor gene of operon mexXY, were found in all of the AG-resistant CF isolates and in one non-CF strain. Complementation of these bacteria with a plasmid-borne mexZ gene dramatically reduced the MICs of AGs, thus highlighting the role played by MexXY in the development of moderate resistance in CF patients. In contrast, complementation of the three non-CF strains showing wild-type mexZ genes left residual levels of resistance to AGs. These data indicate that a locus different from mexZ may be involved in overproduction of MexXY and that other nonenzymatic mechanisms contribute to AG resistance in P. aeruginosa. PMID:15105120

Vogne, Christelle; Aires, Julio Ramos; Bailly, Christiane; Hocquet, Didier; Plesiat, Patrick

2004-01-01

274

Longitudinal hormonal evaluation in a patient with disorder of sexual development, 46,XY karyotype and one NR5A1 mutation.  

PubMed

Steroidogenic factor 1 (encoded by the NR5A1 gene) is a critical regulator of reproduction, controlling transcription of key genes involved in sexual dimorphism. To date, NR5A1 variants have been found in individuals with a 46,XY karyotype and gonadal dysgenesis, as well as with a wide spectrum of genital anomalies and, in some patients, with adrenal insufficiency. We describe evolution of gonadal function, from the neonatal period to puberty, in a patient with a 46,XY karyotype, a disorder of sexual development, and a mutation (c.691_699dupCTGCAGCTG) in the NR5A1 gene. The patient, ascertained at birth due to ambiguous genitalia, showed normal values of plasma testosterone in the late neonatal period. Evaluation of the hormonal profile over time indicated severe tubular testicular hypofunction suggestive for a 46,XY disorder of gonadal development. A comprehensive review of published reports of 46,XY and disordered sexual development related to the NR5A1 gene confirmed the clinical and hormonal variability in patients with NR5A1 mutations. Analysis of multiple data allowed us to define the most common features associated with NR5A1 mutations. We further confirmed the indication to perform NR5A1 screening in patients with 46,XY karyotype and disordered sexual development even when Müllerian structures appear to be absent and plasma testosterone levels are within the normal range for age. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25160005

Pedace, Lucia; Laino, Luigi; Preziosi, Nicoletta; Valentini, Maria Stella; Scommegna, Salvatore; Rapone, Anna Maria; Guarino, Nino; Boscherini, Brunetto; De Bernardo, Carmelilia; Marrocco, Giacinto; Majore, Silvia; Grammatico, Paola

2014-11-01

275

Phenotypic Differences between Pediatric and Adult Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of asthma phenotyping is to understand disease mecha- nisms or optimize management. Phenotypes show age-related variation. The phenotypes of wheezing in the first year of life are little studied; many remit in the second year of life, and the children who remit do not have later-onset wheeze, as far as is known. Preschool wheeze is optimally phenotyped by

Andrew Bush; Andrew Menzies-Gow

2009-01-01

276

The X-autosome translocation in the common shrew ( Sorex araneus L.): late replication in female somatic cells and pairing in male meiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common shrews have an XX\\/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system, with the “X” chromosome being a translocation (tandem fusion) between the “original” X and an autosome; in males this autosome is represented by the Y2 chromosome. From G-banded chromosomes, the Y2 is homologous to the long arm and centromeric part of the short arm of the X. The region of the X

Svetlana D. Pack; Pavel M. Borodin; Oleg L. Serov; Jeremy B. Searle

1993-01-01

277

Roles of rDNA spacer and transcription unit-sequences in X - Y meiotic chromosome pairing in Drosophila melanogaster males  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Meiotic pairing of the X and Y chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster males is mediated by the rDNA repeats, which are present in two tandem clusters, one in the centric X heterochromatin and the other near the base of the short arm of the Y chromosome. Deletion of the X chromosomal rDNA cluster disrupts X?Y pairing and causes high frequences

Xiao-jia Ren; Lynn Eisenhour; Chia-sin Hong; Yunsang Lee; Bruce D. McKee

1997-01-01

278

In Vitro and Molecular Modeling Analysis of Two Mutant Desert Hedgehog Proteins Associated with 46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis  

PubMed Central

Mutations of Desert hedgehog (DHH) have been associated to 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (PGD) and to mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD); however, there have been no functional studies of mutations described in DHH. To determine if mutations p.L162P and ?1086delG yield functional impairment, we performed in vitro and in silico analysis of both DHH mutants. In complementary DNA of DHH, we performed site-directed mutagenesis, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Protein extracts were obtained from HEK293cells transfected with different constructs and analyzed by Western blot; besides, densitometric analysis of chemiluminescent signals was performed. In addition, the structure of the wt-DHH and its two mutant proteins was inferred using in silico protein molecular modeling. In the Western blot analysis, we observed the absence of signal for p.L162P in DHH-N and a diminished signal for ?1086delG in DHH-C, when compared to wt-DHH. Protein modeling showed notable conformational changes for the side chains of p.L162P, while the secondary structure was drastically modified in ?1086delG, when compared to wt-DHH. To our knowledge, this is the first study focused to determine by in vitro studies, the effect of two specific mutations in DHH associated with 46,XY PGD and MGD. Our results suggest that both mutations have a deleterious effect on the expression of the DHH mutant proteins. PMID:23786321

Castro, Josue Joram; Mendez, Juan Pablo; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon Mauricio; Soriano-Ursua, Marvin Antonio; Damian-Matsumura, Pablo; Benitez-Granados, Jesus; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee

2013-01-01

279

Optofluidic detection for cellular phenotyping.  

PubMed

Quantitative analysis of the output of processes and molecular interactions within a single cell is highly critical to the advancement of accurate disease screening and personalized medicine. Optical detection is one of the most broadly adapted measurement methods in biological and clinical assays and serves cellular phenotyping. Recently, microfluidics has obtained increasing attention due to several advantages, such as small sample and reagent volumes, very high throughput, and accurate flow control in the spatial and temporal domains. Optofluidics, which is the attempt to integrate optics with microfluidics, shows great promise to enable on-chip phenotypic measurements with high precision, sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity. This paper reviews the most recent developments of optofluidic technologies for cellular phenotyping optical detection. PMID:22854915

Tung, Yi-Chung; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Oh, Bo-Ram; Patra, Bishnubrata; Pan, Chi-Chun; Qiu, Teng; Chu, Paul K; Zhang, Wenjun; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

2012-10-01

280

Optofluidic Detection for Cellular Phenotyping  

PubMed Central

Quantitative analysis of the output of processes and molecular interactions within a single cell is highly critical to the advancement of accurate disease screening and personalized medicine. Optical detection is one of the most broadly adapted measurement methods in biological and clinical assays and serves cellular phenotyping. Recently, microfluidics has obtained increasing attention due to several advantages, such as small sample and reagent volumes, very high throughput, and accurate flow control in the spatial and temporal domains. Optofluidics, which is the attempt to integrate optics with microfluidic, shows great promise to enable on-chip phenotypic measurements with high precision, sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity. This paper reviews the most recent developments of optofluidic technologies for cellular phenotyping optical detection. PMID:22854915

Tung, Yi-Chung; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Oh, Bo-Ram; Patra, Bishnubrata; Pan, Chi-Chun; Qiu, Teng; Paul, K. Chu; Zhang, Wenjun; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

2012-01-01

281

Genetic biases for showy males: Are some genetic systems especially conducive to sexual selection?  

PubMed Central

Male secondary sexual characters (conspicuous ornaments, signals, colors) are among nature's most striking features. Yet, it is unclear why certain groups of organisms are more likely than others to evolve these traits. One explanation for such taxonomic biases is that some genetic systems may be especially conducive to sexual selection. Here, we present theory and simulation results demonstrating that rare alleles encoding either male ornaments or female preferences for those ornaments are better protected against random loss in species with ZZ/ZW or ZZ/ZO sex chromosome systems (male homogamety) than in species with XX/XY or XX/XO systems (male heterogamety). Moreover, this protection is much stronger in diploid than haplodiploid species. We also present empirical data showing that male secondary sexual characters are better developed in diploid than haplodiploid species and in diploid species with male homogamety than in those with male heterogamety. Thus, taxonomic biases for showy males may stem from differences in sex chromosome systems. PMID:12540829

Reeve, Hudson Kern; Pfennig, David W.

2003-01-01

282

Variation in male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions. PMID:23405271

Edward, Dominic A; Chapman, Tracey

2013-01-01

283

Variation in Male Mate Choice in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions. PMID:23405271

Edward, Dominic A.; Chapman, Tracey

2013-01-01

284

2/18/09 8:30 PMGalley Proofs: More insect phenotypic funkiness Page 1 of 4http://galleyproofs.blogspot.com/2009/02/more-insect-phenotypic-funkiness.html  

E-print Network

) dog (1) evolution (7) faulty reasoning (6) first post (1) genetics (1) origin of life (1) politics (4, 2009 More insect phenotypic funkiness Like the male members of many species, male beetles fight over of fighting over the ladies, they pull an Achilles and "dress" like them. Rowland and Emlen conducted

Emlen, Douglas J.

285

Male-specific expression of the fruitless protein is not common to all Drosophila species.  

PubMed

Sex-specific behavioral patterns must be a result of sexual differences in the structure and/or function of the central nervous system (CNS). Male Drosophila melanogaster mutants for the fruitless (fru) locus exhibit enhanced male-to-male courtship. The fru mutant males are accompanied by malformation of the male-specific muscle of Lawrence (MOL), which, in wild-type males, is induced by male motoneurons innervating it. These two phenotypes are the consequences of impaired sex determination of CNS neurons. In D. melanogaster, although the fru mRNAs are transcribed in the CNS of both the male and female, the Fru protein is only translated in the male CNS. This male-specific translation of Fru was also observed in D. simulans, D. yakuba, D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis; however, in D. suzukii, the Fru protein expression was detected even in the female CNS. PMID:15088665

Yamamoto, Daisuke; Usui-Aoki, Kazue; Shima, Seigo

2004-03-01

286

Interpreting phenotypic variation in plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article by Coleman, McConnaughay, and Ackerly discusses how phenotypic variation (variation in observable traits) in plants is influenced by environment, genetics, and developmental stage. The authors stress that understanding the interplay of these factors is important for investigations that involve plant comparisons.

287

Identifying neurocognitive phenotypes in autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is a complex disorder that is heterogeneous both in its phenotypic expression and its etiology. The search for genes associated with autism and the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie its behavioural symptoms has been hampered by this heterogeneity. Recent studies indicate that within autism, there may be distinct subgroups that can be defined based on differences in neurocognitive profiles. This

Helen Tager-Flusberg; Robert M. Joseph

2003-01-01

288

Autism: The Phenotype in Relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is broad agreement that genetic influences are central in the development of idiopathic autism. Whether relatives manifest genetically related milder phenotypes, and if so how these relate to autism proper, has proved a more contentious issue. A review of the relevant studies indicates that relatives are sometimes affected by difficulties that appear conceptually related to autistic behaviors. These range

A. Bailey; S. Palferman; L. Heavey; A. Le Couteur

1998-01-01

289

Variation in male effects on female fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

In many species, males have the capacity to directly influence (either positively or negatively) the fitness of their mates and offspring, not only via parental care contributions and/or precopulatory resource provisioning, but also via the post-copulatory activity of those substances passed on to their mates in their ejaculates. Here, we examine how an individual male's identity may be related to phenotypic variation in short-term female fecundity in the model species, Drosophila melanogaster. The effect of male identity on short-term fecundity stimulation of females was repeatable across time and accounted for over a fifth of the total observed phenotypic variation in fecundity in two independent populations. The functional explanations for these results and the implications for our understanding of the factors that contribute to the adaptive significance of mating preferences and/or sexual conflict are discussed. PMID:24372989

Tennant, H M; Sonser, E E; Long, T A F

2014-02-01

290

Indirect inguinal hernia with uterine tissue in a male: A case of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome and literature review  

PubMed Central

A 32-year-old male presenting with a direct inguinal hernia was found to have uterine tissue extending through the inguinal canal, warranting a diagnosis of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS). PMDS is an extremely rare form of internal male pseudo-hermaphroditism in which female internal sex organs, including the uterus, cervix and proximal vagina, persist in a 46XY male with normal external genitalia. The condition results from a congenital insensitivity to anti-Mullerian hormone, or lack of anti-Mullerian hormone, leading to persistence of the female internal sex organs in a male. Clinically, this condition is associated with cryptochoridism. Controversy persists regarding the appropriate treatment of PMDS, since resection of the remnant structures is associated with potential morbidity, but retention risks development of occasional malignancies. We review the literature and discuss various aspects of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of PMDS. PMID:23671501

Ahdoot, Michael; Qadan, Motaz; Santa-Maria, Monica; Kennedy, William A.; Ilano, Aaron

2013-01-01

291

Black Male Rising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual…

Feintuch, Howard

2010-01-01

292

Educating Gay Male Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, in the case of Little Sisters Book and Art Emporium, the Canadian Supreme Court was asked to determine whether gay male pornography violated the sex equality protections guaranteed by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Throughout this case, gay male activists and academics emphasised the risk posed by antipornography legal strategies to the dissemination of materials intended

Christopher N. Kendall

2004-01-01

293

Effects of social structure on reproductive activity in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of alternative reproductive phenotypes is often thought to be the result of physiological state, with small individuals forced energetically to postpone the allocation of resources to reproduction. However, for male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), we show that seasonal reproductive activity is modulated by social status. In enclosure and pond experiments, small males advanced their reproductive condition, held nesting

Andy J. Danylchuk; William M. Tonn

2001-01-01

294

Masculinization of gene expression is associated with exaggeration of male sexual dimorphism.  

PubMed

Gene expression differences between the sexes account for the majority of sexually dimorphic phenotypes, and the study of sex-biased gene expression is important for understanding the genetic basis of complex sexual dimorphisms. However, it has been difficult to test the nature of this relationship due to the fact that sexual dimorphism has traditionally been conceptualized as a dichotomy between males and females, rather than an axis with individuals distributed at intermediate points. The wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) exhibits just this sort of continuum, with dominant and subordinate males forming a gradient in male secondary sexual characteristics. This makes it possible for the first time to test the correlation between sex-biased gene expression and sexually dimorphic phenotypes, a relationship crucial to molecular studies of sexual selection and sexual conflict. Here, we show that subordinate male transcriptomes show striking multiple concordances with their relative phenotypic sexual dimorphism. Subordinate males were clearly male rather than intersex, and when compared to dominant males, their transcriptomes were simultaneously demasculinized for male-biased genes and feminized for female-biased genes across the majority of the transcriptome. These results provide the first evidence linking sexually dimorphic transcription and sexually dimorphic phenotypes. More importantly, they indicate that evolutionary changes in sexual dimorphism can be achieved by varying the magnitude of sex-bias in expression across a large proportion of the coding content of a genome. PMID:23966876

Pointer, Marie A; Harrison, Peter W; Wright, Alison E; Mank, Judith E

2013-01-01

295

Local atomic arrangement in mechanosynthesized Co x Fe1-x-y Ni y alloys studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanosynthesized Co x Fe1-x-y Ni y alloys were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. In order to explain the shape of hyperfine magnetic field (HMF) distributions for the alloys, a local environment model based on a multinomial distribution was proposed. The model was in agreement with the XRD data and confirmed that the studied alloys were disordered solid solutions. It was successfully applied to describe the samples with bcc and fcc crystalline lattice type within the relatively broad range of components concentration. The results showed that the change of the crystalline lattice type does not cause an abrupt change of the HMF value. Moreover, a mean number of unpaired spins for the first coordination sphere may be used as a parameter to describe the HMF value experienced by 57Fe nucleus. Finally, a set of the most probable atomic configurations and their corresponding contributions to the HMF distribution were obtained.

Pikula, Tomasz

2014-07-01

296

Spatially multiplexed X-Y lateral shear interferometer with varying shears using holographic lens and spatial Fourier transform.  

PubMed

Current methods in shear interferometry provide shear only along one direction at a time. We propose a method in which interferograms with shear along the x, y, and xy directions can be obtained simultaneously from a single exposure recording via the concept of spatial multiplexing. The method utilizes holographic lenses, which have been recorded on a single plate with their optical centers translated along the x and y directions. The phase information is extracted through the Fourier transform method. In addition, this technique also provides a method to obtain interferograms with shear in multiples of the original shear along the x and y axis in one single frame capture due to the nonlinearity inherent in the phase holographic lens. PMID:23913080

Joenathan, Charles; Bernal, Ashley; Sirohi, Rajpal S

2013-08-01

297

Synthesis of a new Ca xY 2V xSn 2O 7 yellow pigment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this communication a new ceramic pigment based on codoping pyrochlore Y 2Sn 2O 7 with V 5+ and Ca 2+ has been obtained. The limit of solid solution of Ca xY 2-xV xSn 2-xO 7 is around x=0.16. Pigment becomes stable in double firing glazes (CIEL?a?b?=78/5/35 5% w. enamelled) but unstable in single firing glazes such as based on CaO-ZnO-SiO 2 chemical system. Using unconventional methods of synthesis the reactivity of the system and final pigmenting power of the powder is enhanced in the case of ammonia coprecipitation of a mixture of nitrates and tin chloride.

Gargori, C.; Galindo, R.; Cerro, S.; García, A.; Llusar, M.; Monrós, G.

298

A sex-linked SCAR marker in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae), a dioecious species with XY sex-determination and homomorphic sex chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic crosses between the dioecious Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae) and the monoecious B. alba in 1903 provided the first clear evidence for Mendelian inheritance of dioecy and made B. dioica the first organism for which XY sex- determination was experimentally proven. Applying molecular tools to this system, we developed a sex-linked sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for B. dioica and sequenced

R. K. OYAMA; S. M. VOLZ; S. S. RENNER

2008-01-01

299

An XX/XY heteromorphic sex chromosome system in the Australian chelid turtle Emydura macquarii: A new piece in the puzzle of sex chromosome  

E-print Network

An XX/XY heteromorphic sex chromosome system in the Australian chelid turtle Emydura macquarii: A new piece in the puzzle of sex chromosome evolution in turtles Pedro Alonzo Martinez1 *, Tariq Ezaz2, Emydura, evolution, G-banding, sex chromosomes, sex determination, speciation, turtles Abstract

Canberra, University of

300

Time-resolved Spectroscopy of RS Canum Venaticorum Short-Period Systems. II. RT Andromedae, WY Cancri, and XY Ursae Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the second part of the results of our spectroscopic study of orbital phase resolution of short-period active binaries. In this paper we present the observations of the binaries RT And, WY Cnc, and XY UMa, for which we obtained simultaneous low-resolution spectra in the H?, H?, and Ca II infrared triplet (IRT; 8498 and 8542 Å) lines, and higher resolution spectra in H? for WY Cnc and XY UMa. H? and H? emission excess was found in all the observed orbital phases of WY Cnc and XY UMa, while RT And showed H? emission only during some orbital phases. We measure a clear Ca II (IRT) excess in all the spectra of the three binaries. The ratio of the flux excesses derived for these binaries, E_H?/E_H?~= 1-3 and E_8542/E_8498~= 1-3, give low values typical of solar plage structures. In the higher resolution H? spectra, we found emissions that can be associated with both stellar components of XY UMa and WY Cnc, indicating that the faint secondary stars in both binaries are active late-type dwarfs. Some H? emission components, which could originate in extended structures between the stars, were detected in both systems.

Arévalo, M. J.; Lázaro, C.

1999-08-01

301

Phenotypic deconstruction of gene circuitry  

PubMed Central

It remains a challenge to obtain a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire of complex nonlinear gene circuits. In this paper, we describe a method for deconstructing complex systems into nonlinear sub-systems, based on mathematically defined phenotypes, which are then represented within a system design space that allows the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes of the complex system to be identified, enumerated, and analyzed. This method efficiently characterizes large regions of system design space and quickly generates alternative hypotheses for experimental testing. We describe the motivation and strategy in general terms, illustrate its use with a detailed example involving a two-gene circuit with a rich repertoire of dynamic behavior, and discuss experimental means of navigating the system design space. PMID:23822506

Lomnitz, Jason G.; Savageau, Michael A.

2013-01-01

302

AIMAR survey on COPD phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background COPD is characterized by considerable diversity in terms of clinical signs and symptoms, physiopathological mechanisms, response to treatment and disease progression. For this reason, the identification of different patient subgroups (or possible phenotypes) is important both for prognosis and for therapeutic objectives. Based on the foregoing, AIMAR has decided to conduct a survey on the perception of the prevalence of the different clinical COPD phenotypes/subtypes in the clinical practice of physicians who treat patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and on their therapeutic objectives. Methods The survey consisted of 19 multiple-choice questions, compiled through a form published online. All the data and answers entered into the system were checked for consistency and completeness directly online at the time they were entered, and each respondent could only complete the questionnaire once. Results The survey took place from May through October 2012. A total of 1,434 questionnaires (60% of the sample approached) were eligible for analysis, broken down as follows: 537 pulmonologists, 666 general practitioners (GPs), 72 internal medicine specialists, 36 allergists, 30 geriatricians, 93 other specialists. The results show that a significant proportion of GPs (33%) identified more than 50 patients in their practices with a diagnosis of COPD. Although most patients are or have been in treatment with a long-acting bronchodilator, the most common reasons for seeing a GP or a specialist were exacerbations and worsening of the symptoms, suggesting the importance of an appropriate background therapy in order to reduce the risk of disease instability. The frequent exacerbator phenotype was the most commonly found phenotype in clinical practice (by 75% of specialists and 66% of GPs); patients with a prevalent phenotype of chronic bronchitis were reported more often by GPs, while specialists reported a higher number of patients with a prevalent phenotype of emphysema. A medical history of exacerbations and the extent of deterioration of the spirometry parameters were considered to be the major indicators for COPD severity and clinical risk. In managing the frequent exacerbator phenotype, the therapeutic objectives – both for GPs and for specialists – included reducing airway inflammation, improving bronchial dilation, and reducing pulmonary hyperinflation. For this type of patients at high clinical risk, specialists selected a first-line therapeutic option based on a predetermined combination of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting ?2-agonist bronchodilator (LABA) and a second-line three-drug therapy (combination of ICS and two long-acting bronchodilators), while GPs’ choices are more diversified, without a clear-cut prevalence of one type of treatment. In patients with COPD and concomitant cardiovascular diseases, frequently observed in clinical practice by all physicians, the combination of ICS and LABA was considered the first-choice option by the highest proportion of GPs (43%) and specialists (37%), while a smaller number of specialists (35%) opted for the long acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA). Both GPs and specialists believe that therapeutic continuity is of primary importance for the achievement of clinical outcomes with all classes of drugs. Conclusions A good knowledge of COPD has been observed in a high percentage of GPs, indicating an increased awareness of this disease in Primary Health Care. The frequent exacerbator phenotype is viewed by all physicians as the most prevalent in clinical practice, bearing a high risk of hospitalization. For specialists, therapeutic measures aimed at reducing the number and severity of exacerbations are primarily based on the combination of inhaled corticosteroid and bronchodilator, presumably because of the complementary pharmacological action of its components, whereas while GPs’ choices tend to be more diversified. Adherence to medication regimens is of the essence for the achievement of clinical outcomes. P

2014-01-01

303

Predictors of male microchimerism.  

PubMed

The association between microchimerism acquired primarily through pregnancy and later disease is of increasing scientific interest. Because this line of research is new and little is known about the nature of microchimerism, studies of microchimerism are potentially vulnerable to error from confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily confounded by the variables examined in the present investigation. More research focused on acquisition, retention and clearing of male cells in the maternal circulation is needed. PMID:22926759

Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K; Tjønneland, Anne

2012-01-01

304

Statistical models for trisomic phenotypes.  

PubMed Central

Certain genetic disorders are rare in the general population but more common in individuals with specific trisomies, which suggests that the genes involved in the etiology of these disorders may be located on the trisomic chromosome. As with all aneuploid syndromes, however, a considerable degree of variation exists within each phenotype so that any given trait is present only among a subset of the trisomic population. We have previously presented a simple gene-dosage model to explain this phenotypic variation and developed a strategy to map genes for such traits. The mapping strategy does not depend on the simple model but works in theory under any model that predicts that affected individuals have an increased likelihood of disomic homozygosity at the trait locus. This paper explores the robustness of our mapping method by investigating what kinds of models give an expected increase in disomic homozygosity. We describe a number of basic statistical models for trisomic phenotypes. Some of these are logical extensions of standard models for disomic phenotypes, and some are more specific to trisomy. Where possible, we discuss genetic mechanisms applicable to each model. We investigate which models and which parameter values give an expected increase in disomic homozygosity in individuals with the trait. Finally, we determine the sample sizes required to identify the increased disomic homozygosity under each model. Most of the models we explore yield detectable increases in disomic homozygosity for some reasonable range of parameter values, usually corresponding to smaller trait frequencies. It therefore appears that our mapping method should be effective for a wide variety of moderately infrequent traits, even though the exact mode of inheritance is unlikely to be known. PMID:8554057

Lamb, N. E.; Feingold, E.; Sherman, S. L.

1996-01-01

305

Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance – with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used – an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli. PMID:22888174

Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

2011-01-01

306

Exceptional Cognitive Ability: The Phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterizing the outcomes related to the phenotype of exceptional cognitive abilities has been feasible in recent years\\u000a due to the availability of large samples of intellectually precocious adolescents identified by modern talent searches that\\u000a have been followed-up longitudinally over multiple decades. The level and pattern of cognitive abilities, even among participants\\u000a within the top 1% of general intellectual ability, are

David Lubinski

2009-01-01

307

Towards improving phenotype representation in OWL  

E-print Network

and enable their comparison with human phenotypes and diseases, a syntax for phenotype decompositions has been developed [8-10]. In this syntax, phenotypes are represented by a combination of a quality and one or more entities. The entities represent... possibly involve larger reinterpretation of existing resources, should be studied and compared. On that basis EQ syntax extensions and possibly changes to phenotype ontologies can be devised. List of abbreviations CHEBI: Chemical Entities of Biological...

Loebe, Frank; Stumpf, Frank; Hoehndorf, Robert; Herre, Heinrich

2012-09-21

308

A cancer-causing gene is positively correlated with male aggression in Xiphophorus cortezi  

PubMed Central

The persistence of seemingly maladaptive genes in organisms challenges evolutionary biological thought. In Xiphophorus fishes, certain melanin patterns form malignant melanomas due to a cancer-causing gene (Xiphophorus melanoma receptor kinase; Xmrk), which arose several millions years ago from unequal meiotic recombination. Xiphophorus melanomas are male biased and induced by androgens however male behavior and Xmrk genotype has not been investigated. This study found that male X. cortezi with the spotted caudal (Sc) pattern, from which melanomas originate, displayed increased aggression in mirror image trials. Furthermore, Xmrk males (regardless of Sc phenotype) bit and performed more agonistic displays than Xmrk deficient males. Male aggressive response decreased when males viewed their Sc image as compared to their non-Sc image. Collectively, these results indicate that Xmrk males experience a competitive advantage over wild-type males and that intrasexual selection could be an important component in the evolutionary maintenance of this oncogene within Xiphophorus. PMID:20021547

Fernandez, Andre A.

2010-01-01

309

Adaptive evolution of molecular phenotypes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular phenotypes link genomic information with organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Quantitative traits are complex phenotypes that depend on multiple genomic loci. In this paper, we study the adaptive evolution of a quantitative trait under time-dependent selection, which arises from environmental changes or through fitness interactions with other co-evolving phenotypes. We analyze a model of trait evolution under mutations and genetic drift in a single-peak fitness seascape. The fitness peak performs a constrained random walk in the trait amplitude, which determines the time-dependent trait optimum in a given population. We derive analytical expressions for the distribution of the time-dependent trait divergence between populations and of the trait diversity within populations. Based on this solution, we develop a method to infer adaptive evolution of quantitative traits. Specifically, we show that the ratio of the average trait divergence and the diversity is a universal function of evolutionary time, which predicts the stabilizing strength and the driving rate of the fitness seascape. From an information-theoretic point of view, this function measures the macro-evolutionary entropy in a population ensemble, which determines the predictability of the evolutionary process. Our solution also quantifies two key characteristics of adapting populations: the cumulative fitness flux, which measures the total amount of adaptation, and the adaptive load, which is the fitness cost due to a population's lag behind the fitness peak.

Held, Torsten; Nourmohammad, Armita; Lässig, Michael

2014-09-01

310

Male accessory gland infection.  

PubMed

Male accessory gland infection (MAGI) is a consequence of canalicular spreading of agents via urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, deferent duct, epididymis and testis. Haematogenous infections are rare. The main infectious agents are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, and also enterobacteriae at a lesser frequency. Characteristic symptoms of MAGI are leukocytospermia, enhanced concentration of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. As complications, obstruction of the ductus epididymidis and/or another duct section, impairment of spermatogenesis in orchitis, impairment of sperm function, and dysfunctions of the male accessory glands may occur. Reduction of male fertility is a rare consequence. The treatment has to consider specific antibiotics. PMID:18336461

Krause, W

2008-04-01

311

Sequential search and the influence of male quality on female mating decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The patterns of phenotypic association between mated males and females depend on the decision rules that individuals employ\\u000a during search for a mate. We generalize the sequential search rule and examine how the shape of the function that relates\\u000a a male character to the benefit of a mating decision influences the threshold value of the male trait that induces females

Daniel D. Wiegmann

1999-01-01

312

Male Sex Interspecies Divergence and Down Regulation of Expression of Spermatogenesis Genes in Drosophila Sterile Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sex genes have shown a pattern of rapid interspecies divergence at both the coding and gene expression level. A common\\u000a outcome from crosses between closely-related species is hybrid male sterility. Phenotypic and genetic studies in Drosophila sterile hybrid males have shown that spermatogenesis arrest is postmeiotic with few exceptions, and that most misregulated\\u000a genes are involved in late stages

Vignesh Sundararajan; Alberto Civetta

2011-01-01

313

Mitochondrial DNA Haplotype Diversity in Apparent XY Female Fall-Run and Spring-Run Chinook Salmon in  

E-print Network

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in California's Central Valley were compared to ascertain whether or not a subset in the interior Columbia River basin. Reports of phenotypic female Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

May, Bernie

314

Familial aggregation of dyslexia phenotypes.  

PubMed

There is evidence for genetic contributions to reading disability, but the phenotypic heterogeneity associated with the clinical diagnosis may make identification of the underlying genetic basis difficult. In order to elucidate distinct phenotypic features that may be contributing to the genotypic heterogeneity, we assessed the familial aggregation patterns of Verbal IQ and 24 phenotypic measures associated with dyslexia in 102 nuclear families ascertained through probands in grades 1 through 6 who met the criteria for this disorder. Correlations between relatives were computed for all diagnostic phenotypes, using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach. GEE is a recently developed semiparametric method for handling correlated data. The method is robust to model misspecification and flexible in adjusting for the subjects' characteristics and pedigree sizes as well as for the ascertainment process, while estimating the correlations between related subjects. The Nonword Memory (NWM) subtest of a prepublication version of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) and Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) subtest of a prepublication version of the Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) showed correlation patterns in relatives that are strongly supportive of a genetic basis. The Wechsler Scale Digit Span, the Word Attack subtest of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test--Revised, and the Spelling subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test--Third Edition had slightly weaker evidence of a genetic basis. Five additional phenotypes (the Spelling subtest of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, the Accuracy, Rate, and Comprehension subtests of the Gray Oral Reading Test--Third Edition, and Rapid Automatized Naming of Letters and Numbers) gave suggestive evidence of such a pattern. The results cross-validate in that evidence for a pattern consistent with a genetic basis was obtained for two measures of phonological short-term memory (CTOPP Nonword Memory and WISCIII or WAIS-R Digit Span), for two measures of phonological decoding (WRMT-R Word Attack and TOWRE Phonemic Decoding Efficiency), and for two measures of spelling from dictation (WRAT-3 Spelling and, to a lesser extent, WIAT Spelling). These measures are thus good candidates for more sophisticated segregation analyses that can formulate models for incorporation into linkage analyses. PMID:11235984

Raskind, W H; Hsu, L; Berninger, V W; Thomson, J B; Wijsman, E M

2000-09-01

315

Distribution of the adult lactase phenotypes in Turkey.  

PubMed

The adult lactase phenotype, lactose absorber or malabsorber, was determined using the lactose tolerance test with breath hydrogen assay in a group of young, healthy, male Turks. Out of a total of 470 subjects, 135 (28.7%) were lactose absorbers and 335 (71.3%) lactose malabsorbers. The frequency of the 'lactase suppression gene' in this population sample was 0.844 (S.D. 0.012). The frequency of lactase suppression in Turkey is intermediate between that in southeast Europe and that in agricultural Arab populations and thus compatible with a genetic cline extending from Europe to southwest Asia. PMID:3092418

Flatz, G; Henze, H J; Palabiyikoglu, E; Dagalp, K; Türkkan, T

1986-09-01

316

Identification, RNAi Knockdown, and Functional Analysis of an Ejaculate Protein that Mediates a Postmating, Prezygotic Phenotype in a Cricket  

PubMed Central

Postmating, prezygotic phenotypes, especially those that underlie reproductive isolation between closely related species, have been a central focus of evolutionary biologists over the past two decades. Such phenotypes are thought to evolve rapidly and be nearly ubiquitous among sexually reproducing eukaryotes where females mate with multiple partners. Because these phenotypes represent interplay between the male ejaculate and female reproductive tract, they are fertile ground for reproductive senescence – as ejaculate composition and female physiology typically change over an individual's life span. Although these phenotypes and their resulting dynamics are important, we have little understanding of the proteins that mediate these phenotypes, particularly for species groups where postmating, prezygotic traits are the primary mechanism of reproductive isolation. Here, we utilize proteomics, RNAi, mating experiments, and the Allonemobius socius complex of crickets, whose members are primarily isolated from one another by postmating, prezygotic phenotypes (including the ability of a male to induce a female to lay eggs), to demonstrate that one of the most abundant ejaculate proteins (a male accessory gland-biased protein similar to a trypsin-like serine protease) decreases in abundance over a male's reproductive lifetime and mediates the induction of egg-laying in females. These findings represent one of the first studies to identify a protein that plays a role in mediating both a postmating, prezygotic isolation pathway and reproductive senescence. PMID:19851502

Marshall, Jeremy L.; Huestis, Diana L.; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Wheeler, Shanda; Oppert, Cris; Marshall, Susan A.; Tomich, John M.; Oppert, Brenda

2009-01-01

317

Male pattern baldness  

MedlinePLUS

... baldness. Medications that treat male pattern baldness include: Minoxidil (Rogaine), a solution that is applied directly to ... slows hair loss. It works slightly better than minoxidil. Hair loss returns when you stop using this ...

318

Male Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

The male reproductive system, like that of the female, consists of those organs whose function is to produce a new individual, i.e., to accomplish reproduction. This system consists of a pair of testes ...

319

Males and Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

320

CARDIAC-LIKE OSCILLATION IN LIVER STEM CELLS INDUCE THEIR ACQUISITION OF CARDIAC PHENOTYPE  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined in a cardiac microenvironment the plasticity of a liver stem cell line (WB F344) generated from a cloned, single, non-parenchymal epithelial cell from a normal adult male rat. Our previous studies suggested that WB F344 cells acquire a cardiac phenotype in the absenc...

321

Selective loss of polymorphic mating types is associated with rapid phenotypic evolution  

E-print Network

Selective loss of polymorphic mating types is associated with rapid phenotypic evolution during cases. Polymorphism loss was associated with accelerated evolution of male size, female size, and sexual that polymorphisms, such as alter- native mating strategies, are common within species (7­9). Here we investigate

Davis, Alison R.

322

Divergent selection and phenotypic plasticity during incipient speciation in Lake Victoria cichlid fish  

E-print Network

Divergent selection and phenotypic plasticity during incipient speciation in Lake Victoria cichlid., in press). Utilizing this theoretical framework, we studied a pair of sister species of Lake Victoria islands in Lake Victoria (Seehausen & van Alphen, 1999). The species differ primarily in male breeding

323

Phenotypic plasticity in sex allocation for a simultaneously hermaphroditic coral reef fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic plasticity can facilitate reproductive strategies that maximize mating success in variable environments and lead to differences in sex allocation among populations. For simultaneous hermaphrodites with sperm competition, including Serranus tortugarum a small coral reef fish, proportional male allocation (testis in total gonad) is often greater where local density or mating group size is higher. We tested whether S. tortugarum

M. K. Hart; A. Svoboda; D. Mancilla Cortez

2011-01-01

324

Copulatory courtship signals male genetic quality in cucumber beetles.  

PubMed

In the spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), males court females during copulation by stroking them with their antennae. Stroking occurs exclusively during the first stages of copulation, after a male has penetrated a female's vaginal duct but before he is allowed access to her bursa copulatrix. Females accept the spermatophore of fast-stroking males and reject those of slow-stroking males by relaxing or constricting muscles distorting the vaginal duct. Here, we measure the repeatability of stroking behaviour within males, examine the effect of losing one antenna on male attractiveness and test whether such female control results in direct phenotypic benefits for the discriminating female or indirect genetic benefits that appear in her offspring. We also use a half-sibling design to quantify the variance and heritability of stroking speed and endurance. Female beetles were paired with a male that was known to stroke either quickly or slowly. No difference was found in the resulting fecundity or egg-hatching rate of the females, or in the survivorship, development rate, size, age at first reproduction or fecundity of their offspring indicating that no direct benefits are gained by discriminating among males on the basis of stroking speed. There were, however, good-genes benefits for the mates of fast-stroking males. Offspring of fast-stroking fathers were also fast strokers and were more likely to be accepted as mates than offspring of slow-stroking fathers. There was substantial variance among sires in stroking speed and endurance and the heritability of each trait was high. The antennal stroking rate was highly repeatable in successive mating attempts and males with only one antenna were not accepted as mates. The repeatability within males, variability between males and heritability between generations of copulatory stroking combine to provide females with a reliable and honest signal of the genetic quality of courting males. PMID:12590774

Tallamy, Douglas W; Darlington, Mark Burton; Pesek, John D; Powell, Bradford E

2003-01-01

325

Cultivating male allies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females make large investments in their children and compete among themselves to establish and maintain privileged relationships\\u000a with male allies who demonstrate both an ability and a willingness to provide fitness-enhancing advantages. Various “strategies”\\u000a and their more numerous, associated “tactics” are utilized in the competition. Alleged strategies include using sexuality,\\u000a producing offspring, assisting the male in his own intrasexual contests,

Bonnie Lori Hooks; Penny Anthon Green

1993-01-01

326

Male Gametophyte Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The highly reduced haploid gametophyte generation in seed plants occupies a short but vital phase in the plant life cycle.\\u000a The male gametophytes of flowering plants are highly specialized two- or three-celled pollen grains that nurture and deliver\\u000a twin male gametes or sperm cells to the female gametes at fertilisation. This functional specialization is highly developed\\u000a and a key innovation

D. Twell

327

Variable male potential rate of reproduction: high male mating capacity as an adaptation to parasite-induced excess of females?  

PubMed Central

Numerous animals are known to harbour intracytoplasmic symbionts that gain transmission to a new host generation via female eggs and not male sperm. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are a typical example. They infect a large range of arthropod species and manipulate host reproduction in several ways. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia are responsible for converting males into females (feminization (F)) in some species, or for infertility in certain host crosses in other species (cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)). Wolbachia with the F phenotype impose a strong excess of females on their host populations, while Wolbachia expressing CI do not. Here, we test the possibility that male mating capacity (MC) is correlated with Wolbachia-induced phenotype. We show that males of isopod hosts harbouring F Wolbachia possess a strong MC (i.e. are able to mate with several females in a short time), while those of species harbouring CI Wolbachia possess a weaker MC. This pattern may be explained either by the selection of high MC following the increase in female-biased sex ratios, or because the F phenotype would lead to population extinction in species where MC is not sufficiently high. This last hypotheses is nevertheless more constrained by population structure. PMID:12965021

Moreau, Jerome; Rigaud, Thierry

2003-01-01

328

Variable male potential rate of reproduction: high male mating capacity as an adaptation to parasite-induced excess of females?  

PubMed

Numerous animals are known to harbour intracytoplasmic symbionts that gain transmission to a new host generation via female eggs and not male sperm. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are a typical example. They infect a large range of arthropod species and manipulate host reproduction in several ways. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia are responsible for converting males into females (feminization (F)) in some species, or for infertility in certain host crosses in other species (cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)). Wolbachia with the F phenotype impose a strong excess of females on their host populations, while Wolbachia expressing CI do not. Here, we test the possibility that male mating capacity (MC) is correlated with Wolbachia-induced phenotype. We show that males of isopod hosts harbouring F Wolbachia possess a strong MC (i.e. are able to mate with several females in a short time), while those of species harbouring CI Wolbachia possess a weaker MC. This pattern may be explained either by the selection of high MC following the increase in female-biased sex ratios, or because the F phenotype would lead to population extinction in species where MC is not sufficiently high. This last hypotheses is nevertheless more constrained by population structure. PMID:12965021

Moreau, Jérôme; Rigaud, Thierry

2003-07-22

329

Sex differentiation in bilaterally allophenic animals produced by cloning of two bipartite male\\/female chimaeras of Lineus sanguineus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Two bipartite chimaeras were constructed in Lineus sanguineus by grafting the lateral halves from a phenotypically dark-brown male onto the anatomically complementary halves from a phenotypically light-brown female. Regeneration of a large number of pieces tran- sected from these two bilaterally allogeneic chimaeras produced two clones of bilaterally allophenic nemertines (c?\\/$ and ?\\/

S. SIVARADJAM

330

NIH Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers: the power of centralized phenotyping  

PubMed Central

The Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers (MMPCs) were founded in 2001 by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to advance biomedical research by providing the scientific community with standardized, high-quality phenotyping services for mouse models of diabetes, obesity, and their complications. The intent is to allow researchers to take optimum advantage of the many new mouse models produced in labs and in high-throughput public efforts. The six MMPCs are located at universities around the country and perform complex metabolic tests in intact mice and hormone and analyte assays in tissues on a fee-for-service basis. Testing is subsidized by the NIH in order to reduce the barriers for mouse researchers. Although data derived from these tests belong to the researcher submitting mice or tissues, these data are archived after publication in a public database run by the MMPC Coordinating and Bioinformatics Unit. It is hoped that data from experiments performed in many mouse models of metabolic diseases, using standard protocols, will be useful in understanding the nature of these complex disorders. The current areas of expertise include energy balance and body composition, insulin action and secretion, whole-body and tissue carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cardiovascular and renal function, and metabolic pathway kinetics. In addition to providing services, the MMPC staff provides expertise and advice to researchers, and works to develop and refine test protocols to best meet the community’s needs in light of current scientific developments. Test technology is disseminated by publications and through annual courses. PMID:22940748

Kent Lloyd, K. C.; Cline, Gary W.; Wasserman, David H.

2013-01-01

331

Global Phenotypic Screening for Antimalarials  

PubMed Central

Malaria, a devastating infectious disease caused by Plasmodium spp., leads to roughly 655,000 deaths per year, mostly of African children. To compound the problem, drug resistance has emerged to all classical antimalarials and may be emerging for artemisinin-based combination therapies. To address the need for new antimalarials with novel mechanisms, several groups carried out phenotypic screening campaigns to identify compounds inhibiting growth of the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum. In this review, we describe the characterization of these compounds, explore currently ongoing strategies to develop lead molecules, and endorse the concept of a “malaria box” of publicly accessible active compounds. PMID:22284359

Guiguemde, W. Armand; Shelat, Anang A.; Garcia-Bustos, Jose F.; Diagana, Thierry; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Guy, R. Kiplin

2012-01-01

332

Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

333

Techniques of Male Circumcision  

PubMed Central

Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery. PMID:24470842

Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A.

2013-01-01

334

Techniques of male circumcision.  

PubMed

Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery. PMID:24470842

Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A

2013-01-01

335

Sex Reversal in C57BL/6J XY Mice Caused by Increased Expression of Ovarian Genes and Insufficient Activation of the Testis Determining Pathway  

PubMed Central

Sex reversal can occur in XY humans with only a single functional WT1 or SF1 allele or a duplication of the chromosome region containing WNT4. In contrast, XY mice with only a single functional Wt1, Sf1, or Wnt4 allele, or mice that over-express Wnt4 from a transgene, reportedly are not sex-reversed. Because genetic background plays a critical role in testis differentiation, particularly in C57BL/6J (B6) mice, we tested the hypothesis that Wt1, Sf1, and Wnt4 are dosage sensitive in B6 XY mice. We found that reduced Wt1 or Sf1 dosage in B6 XYB6 mice impaired testis differentiation, but no ovarian tissue developed. If, however, a YAKR chromosome replaced the YB6 chromosome, these otherwise genetically identical B6 XY mice developed ovarian tissue. In contrast, reduced Wnt4 dosage increased the amount of testicular tissue present in Sf1+/? B6 XYAKR, Wt1+/? B6 XYAKR, B6 XYPOS, and B6 XYAKR fetuses. We propose that Wt1B6 and Sf1B6 are hypomorphic alleles of testis-determining pathway genes and that Wnt4B6 is a hypermorphic allele of an ovary-determining pathway gene. The latter hypothesis is supported by the finding that expression of Wnt4 and four other genes in the ovary-determining pathway are elevated in normal B6 XX E12.5 ovaries. We propose that B6 mice are sensitive to XY sex reversal, at least in part, because they carry Wt1B6 and/or Sf1B6 alleles that compromise testis differentiation and a Wnt4B6 allele that promotes ovary differentiation and thereby antagonizes testis differentiation. Addition of a “weak” Sry allele, such as the one on the YPOS chromosome, to the sensitized B6 background results in inappropriate development of ovarian tissue. We conclude that Wt1, Sf1, and Wnt4 are dosage-sensitive in mice, this dosage-sensitivity is genetic background-dependant, and the mouse strains described here are good models for the investigation of human dosage-sensitive XY sex reversal. PMID:22496664

Correa, Stephanie M.; Washburn, Linda L.; Kahlon, Ravi S.; Musson, Michelle C.; Bouma, Gerrit J.; Eicher, Eva M.; Albrecht, Kenneth H.

2012-01-01

336

The SU(3)/Z3 QCD(adj) deconfinement transition via the gauge theory/"affine" XY-model duality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier, two of us and M. Ünsal [1] showed that a class of 4d gauge theories, when compactified on a small spatial circle of size L and considered at temperatures ?-1 near the deconfinement transition, are dual to 2d "affine" XY-spin models. We exploit this duality to study the deconfinement phase transition in SU(3)/{{{Z}}_3} gauge theories with n f > 1 massless adjoint Weyl fermions, QCD(adj) on {{{R}}^2}× {S}_{?}^1× {S}_L^1 . The dual "affine" XY-model describes two "spins" — compact scalars taking values in the SU(3) root lattice. The spins couple via nearest-neighbor interactions and are subject to an "external field" perturbation preserving the topological {Z}_3^t and a discrete {Z}_3^{{{d_{\\upchi}}}} subgroup of the anomaly-free chiral symmetry of the 4d gauge theory. The equivalent Coulomb gas representation of the theory exhibits electric-magnetic duality, which is also a high-/low-temperature duality. A renormalization group analysis suggests — but is not convincing, due to the onset of strong coupling — that the self-dual point is a fixed point, implying a continuous deconfinement transition. Here, we study the nature of the transition via Monte Carlo simulations. The {Z}_3^t× {Z}_3^{{{d_{\\upchi}}}} order parameter, its susceptibility, the vortex density, the energy per spin, and the specific heat are measured over a range of volumes, temperatures, and "external field" strengths (in the gauge theory, these correspond to magnetic bion fugacities). The finite-size scaling of the susceptibility and specific heat we find is characteristic of a first-order transition. Furthermore, for sufficiently large but still smaller than unity bion fugacity (as can be achieved upon an increase of the {S}_L^1 size), at the critical temperature we find two distinct peaks of the energy probability distribution, indicative of a first-order transition, as has been seen in earlier simulations of the full 4d QCD(adj) theory. We end with discussions of the global phase diagram in the ?- L plane for different numbers of flavors.

Anber, Mohamed M.; Collier, Scott; Poppitz, Erich

2013-01-01

337

Journal of Theoretical Biology 249 (2007) 153161 Introduction of Trojan sex chromosomes to boost population growth  

E-print Network

to avoid the negative effects of demographic stochasticity and genetic problems like inbreeding depression more females. We analyse the possible consequences for the introduction of XX-males (XX individuals that have been changed to phenotypic males in a XY/XX sex determination system) and ZW males, WW males

Cotton, Sam

338

High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

1983-06-01

339

Exceptional cognitive ability: the phenotype.  

PubMed

Characterizing the outcomes related to the phenotype of exceptional cognitive abilities has been feasible in recent years due to the availability of large samples of intellectually precocious adolescents identified by modern talent searches that have been followed-up longitudinally over multiple decades. The level and pattern of cognitive abilities, even among participants within the top 1% of general intellectual ability, are related to differential developmental trajectories and important life accomplishments: The likelihood of earning a doctorate, earning exceptional compensation, publishing novels, securing patents, and earning tenure at a top university (and the academic disciplines within which tenure is most likely to occur) all vary as a function of individual differences in cognitive abilities assessed decades earlier. Individual differences that distinguish the able (top 1 in 100) from the exceptionally able (top 1 in 10,000) during early adolescence matter in life, and, given the heritability of general intelligence, they suggest that understanding the genetic and environmental origins of exceptional abilities should be a high priority for behavior genetic research, especially because the results for extreme groups could differ from the rest of the population. In addition to enhancing our understanding of the etiology of general intelligence at the extreme, such inquiry may also reveal fundamental determinants of specific abilities, like mathematical versus verbal reasoning, and the distinctive phenotypes that contrasting ability patterns are most likely to eventuate in at extraordinary levels. PMID:19424784

Lubinski, David

2009-07-01

340

Cholestatic phenotypes of autoimmune hepatitis.  

PubMed

Autoimmune hepatitis can have cholestatic features that are outside the codified diagnostic criteria. These features have uncertain effects on the clinical presentation and progression of disease. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis can have antimitochondrial antibodies and coincidental bile duct injury or loss (2%-13% of patients), focal biliary strictures and dilations based on cholangiography (2%-11%), or histologic changes of bile duct injury or loss in the absence of other features (5%-11%). These findings probably represent atypical manifestations of autoimmune hepatitis or variants of primary biliary cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis, depending on the predominant findings. Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and ?-glutamyl transferase, histologic features of bile duct injury, and findings from cholangiography are associated with responsiveness to corticosteroid therapy and individualized alternative treatments. Corticosteroid therapy, in combination with low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid, has been promulgated by international societies, but these recommendations are not based on strong evidence. The frequency, variable outcomes, and uncertainties in diagnosis and management of the cholestatic phenotypes must be addressed by a collaborative investigational network. This network should define the genetic and pathologic features of these disorders, standardize their nomenclature, and establish a treatment algorithm. In this review, the different cholestatic phenotypes of autoimmune hepatitis, mechanisms of pathogenesis, current management strategies and outcomes, and opportunities for improving understanding and therapy are presented. PMID:24013108

Czaja, Albert J

2014-09-01

341

Proinflammatory phenotype of perivascular adipocytes.  

PubMed

Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) directly abuts the lamina adventitia of conduit arteries and actively communicates with the vessel wall to regulate vascular function and inflammation. Mounting evidence suggests that the biological activities of PVAT are governed by perivascular adipocytes, a unique class of adipocyte with distinct molecular and phenotypic characteristics. Perivascular adipocytes surrounding human coronary arteries (pericoronary perivascular adipocytes) exhibit a reduced state of adipogenic differentiation and a heightened proinflammatory state, secreting ?50-fold higher levels of the proinflammatory cytokine monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 compared with adipocytes from other regional depots. Thus, perivascular adipocytes may contribute to upregulated inflammation of PVAT observed in atherosclerotic human blood vessels. However, perivascular adipocytes also secrete anti-inflammatory molecules such as adiponectin, and elimination of PVAT in rodent models has been shown to augment vascular disease, suggesting that some amount of PVAT is required to maintain vascular homeostasis. Evidence in animal models and humans suggests that inflammation of PVAT may be modulated by environmental factors, such as high-fat diet and tobacco smoke, which are relevant to atherosclerosis. These findings suggest that the inflammatory phenotype of PVAT is diverse depending on species, anatomic location, and environmental factors and that these differences are fundamentally important in determining a pathogenic versus protective role of PVAT in vascular disease. Additional research into the mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory balance of perivascular adipocytes may yield new insight into, and treatment strategies for, cardiovascular disease. PMID:24925977

Omar, Abdullah; Chatterjee, Tapan K; Tang, Yaoliang; Hui, David Y; Weintraub, Neal L

2014-08-01

342

Phenotypic expression in mucopolysaccharidosis VII.  

PubMed Central

beta-glucuronidase deficiency is an extremely rare disorder which is known to have a considerable phenotypic variation. A survey of the clinical findings in 19 previously reported patients with mucopolysaccharidosis VII is presented together with the results of clinical and biochemical studies in two further patients. Because a similar clinical picture is present in a heterozygotic sister it is doubted whether all signs and symptoms can be attributed to the beta-glucuronidase deficiency. The probability of a concomitant disorder is discussed. Diagnosis was made both by demonstration of the deficiency in plasma and leucocytes, and by means of hair root analysis. The phenotypic variation and the fact that increased levels of glycosaminoglycans were not found in the urine of the two patients lead to the suggestion that in certain cases a correct diagnosis may be missed if the beta-glucuronidase activity in plasma and leucocytes is not determined and only routine urine investigation is performed as a screening for a mucopolysaccharidosis. Hair root analysis may be a useful method to measure the beta-glucuronidase activity. Images PMID:3112309

Bernsen, P L; Wevers, R A; Gabreels, F J; Lamers, K J; Sonnen, A E; Stekhoven, J H

1987-01-01

343

Phenotypic plasticity in bacterial plasmids.  

PubMed

Plasmid pB15 was previously shown to evolve increased horizontal (infectious) transfer at the expense of reduced vertical (intergenerational) transfer and vice versa, a key trade-off assumed in theories of parasite virulence. Whereas the models predict that susceptible host abundance should determine which mode of transfer is selectively favored, host density failed to mediate the trade-off in pB15. One possibility is that the plasmid's transfer deviates from the assumption that horizontal spread (conjugation) occurs in direct proportion to cell density. I tested this hypothesis using Escherichia coli/pB15 associations in laboratory serial culture. Contrary to most models of plasmid transfer kinetics, my data show that pB15 invades static (nonshaking) bacterial cultures only at intermediate densities. The results can be explained by phenotypic plasticity in traits governing plasmid transfer. As cells become more numerous, the plasmid's conjugative transfer unexpectedly declines, while the trade-off between transmission routes causes vertical transfer to increase. Thus, at intermediate densities the plasmid's horizontal transfer can offset selection against plasmid-bearing cells, but at high densities pB15 conjugates so poorly that it cannot invade. I discuss adaptive vs. nonadaptive causes for the phenotypic plasticity, as well as potential mechanisms that may lead to complex transfer dynamics of plasmids in liquid environments. PMID:15166133

Turner, Paul E

2004-05-01

344

Postnatal Testosterone Concentrations and Male Social Development  

PubMed Central

Converging evidence from over 40?years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on non-human primates indicated that suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3–4?months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates. PMID:24600437

Alexander, Gerianne M.

2014-01-01

345

Order by disorder spin wave gap in the XY pyrochlore magnet Er2Ti2O7.  

PubMed

The recent determination of a robust spin Hamiltonian for the antiferromagnetic XY pyrochlore Er2Ti2O7 reveals a most convincing case of the "Order-by-Quantum-Disorder" mechanism for ground state selection. This mechanism relies on quantum fluctuations to remove an accidental symmetry of the magnetic ground state, and selects a particular ordered spin structure below TN=1.2?K. The removal of the continuous degeneracy results in an energy gap in the spectrum of spin wave excitations, long wavelength pseudo-Goldstone modes. We have measured the Order-by-Quantum-Disorder spin wave gap at a zone center in Er2Ti2O7, using low incident energy neutrons and the time-of-flight inelastic scattering method. We report a gap of ?=0.053±0.006??meV, which is consistent with upper bounds placed on it from heat capacity measurements and roughly consistent with the theoretical estimate of ?0.02??meV, further validating the spin Hamiltonian that led to that prediction. The gap is observed to vary with the square of the order parameter, and goes to zero for T?TN. PMID:24580625

Ross, K A; Qiu, Y; Copley, J R D; Dabkowska, H A; Gaulin, B D

2014-02-01

346

Nonequilibrium quantum phase transitions in the XY model: comparison of unitary time evolution and reduced density operator approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study nonequilibrium quantum phase transitions in the XY spin 1/2 chain using the {{C}^{*}} algebra. We show that the well-known quantum phase transition at a magnetic field of h = 1 also persists in the nonequilibrium setting as long as one of the reservoirs is set to absolute zero temperature. In addition, we find nonequilibrium phase transitions associated with an imaginary part of the correlation matrix for any two different reservoir temperatures at h = 1 and h={{h}_{\\text{c}}}\\left| 1-{{\\gamma }^{2}} \\right|, where ? is the anisotropy and h the magnetic field strength. In particular, two nonequilibrium quantum phase transitions coexist at h = 1. In addition, we study the quantum mutual information in all regimes and find a logarithmic correction of the area law in the nonequilibrium steady state independent of the system parameters. We use these nonequilibrium phase transitions to test the utility of two models of a reduced density operator, namely the Lindblad mesoreservoir and the modified Redfield equation. We show that the nonequilibrium quantum phase transition at h = 1, related to the divergence of magnetic susceptibility, is recovered in the mesoreservoir approach, whereas it is not recovered using the Redfield master equation formalism. However, none of the reduced density operator approaches could recover all the transitions observed by the {{C}^{*}} algebra. We also study the thermalization properties of the mesoreservoir approach.

Ajisaka, Shigeru; Barra, Felipe; Žunkovi?, Bojan

2014-03-01

347

Backstepping sliding mode tracking control of a vane-type air motor X-Y table motion system.  

PubMed

Air motors are increasingly being used in pneumatic related industries because of their advantages of low operating cost and low maintenance. The DSP controller and the backstepping sliding mode control method were utilized in this study to control an X-Y pneumatic table for tracking trajectory. Due to the effects of the compressibility of air, friction between the motor and ball screw table and the dead-zone effect caused by the proportional valve, the system will yield different responses even with the same inlet pressure and will chatter at low speed. Hence under certain conditions, this method of backstepping sliding mode control can be applied to achieve better results than with the PID controller, such as for tracking circle error and tracking error of the two axes. According to the results, a steady-state error of 0.5 ?m can be achieved. The proposed method of backstepping sliding mode control can accomplish accurate tracking circle trajectory performance, offering an improvement in the tracking error of more than 50% over that of the PID controller. PMID:21272879

Lu, Chia-Hua; Hwang, Yean-Ren; Shen, Yu-Ta

2011-04-01

348

Magnetic field influence on the spin-Peierls instability in the quasi-one-dimensional magnetostrictive XY model: Thermodynamical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study in detail, within the adiabatic approximation for the structural degrees of freedom and on exact grounds for the magnetic ones, the d=1 magnetostrictive spin- 1/2 XY model in the presence of an external magnetic field along the z axis. We calculate the specific heat, magnetization, isothermal susceptibility, and the structural order parameter and spectrum (including the sound velocity). The system presents, in temperature-field space, three structurally different phases: the uniform (U), the dimerized (D), and the modulated (M) phases (the latter can be either commensurate or incommensurate with the other two). The critical frontiers U-D and U-M are of the second-order type while the D-M one is of the first-order type; all three join at a Lifshitz point. The U-M frontier presents a new type of multicritical point on which the frozen structural wave vector vanishes. The phase diagram is quite anomalous for high values of the elastic constant. Several other effects are predicted. The present theory is expected to be applicable to substances like TTF-BDT [tetrathiafulvalinium bis-cis-(1,2-perfluoromethylethylene-1,2-diselenolato)-metal], MEM(TCNQ)2 (N-methyl-N-ethyl-morpholinium ditetracyanoquinodimethanide), and eventually the alkali-metal tetracyanoquinodimethanides (TCNQ).

de Lima, Raimundo Alexandre; Tsallis, Constantino

1983-06-01

349

Universality of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless type of phase transition in the dipolar XY-model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the nature of the phase transition occurring in a planar XY-model spin system with dipole-dipole interactions. It is demonstrated that a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) type of phase transition always takes place at a finite temperature separating the ordered (ferro) and the disordered (para) phases. The low-temperature phase corresponds to an ordered state with thermal fluctuations, composed of a ‘gas’ of bound vortex-antivortex pairs, which would, when considered isolated, be characterized by a constant vortex-antivortex attraction force which is due to the dipolar interaction term in the Hamiltonian. Using a topological charge model, we show that small bound pairs are easily polarized, and screen the vortex-antivortex interaction in sufficiently large pairs. Screening changes the linear attraction potential of vortices to a logarithmic one, and leads to the familiar pair dissociation mechanism of the BKT type phase transition. The topological charge model is confirmed by numerical simulations, in which we demonstrate that the transition temperature slightly increases when compared with the BKT result for short-range interactions.

Vasiliev, A. Yu; Tarkhov, A. E.; Menshikov, L. I.; Fedichev, P. O.; Fischer, Uwe R.

2014-05-01

350

Quasi-phase matching in LiNbO3 using nonlinear coefficients in the XY plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), where both fundamental and second-harmonic waves are ordinary waves. It provides a lower-limit value for d22 of 1.1 pm/V. The measured temperature and wavelength bandwidth of the second-harmonic signal are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. Since the d22=dYYY nonlinear coefficient of LiNbO3 changes its sign as a result of electric field periodic poling along the Z direction, we deduce that all tensor components of the second-order susceptibility ?(2) of trigonal 3m crystals are reversed, thereby expanding the quasi-phase-matching possibilities in these crystals. Furthermore, it enables the realization of all-optical processes based on the nonlinear coefficients in the XY plane, such as all-optical polarization rotation in PPLN, as well as multipartite entanglement experiments based on simultaneous phase matching using different elements of ?(2) in a single LiNbO3 crystal.

Ganany, A.; Arie, A.; Saltiel, S. M.

2006-10-01

351

Microscopic description of the phase separation process in Alx Gay In1-x-y N quaternary alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ab initio total energy electronic structure calculations are combined with Monte Carlo simulations to study the thermodynamic properties of Alx Gay In1-x-y N quaternary alloys. We provide a microscopic description of the phase separation process by analyzing the thermodynamic behavior of the different atoms with respect to the temperature and cation contents. We obtained, at growth temperatures, the range of compositions for the stable and unstable phases. The presence of Al in InGaN is proven to “catalyze” the phase separation process for the formation of the In-rich phase. Based on our results, we propose that the ultraviolet emission currently seen in samples containing AlInGaN quaternaries arises from the matrix of a random alloy, in which composition fluctuations toward InGaN- and AlGaN-like alloys formation may be present, and that a coexisting emission in the green-blue region results from the In-rich segregated clusters.

Marques, M.; Teles, L. K.; Scolfaro, L. M.; Ferreira, L. G.; Leite, J. R.

2004-08-01

352

CUDA programs for GPU computing of Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm: 2D and 3D Ising, Potts, and XY models  

E-print Network

We present sample CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm. We deal with the classical spin models; the Ising model, the $q$-state Potts model, and the classical XY model. As for the lattice, both the 2D (square) lattice and the 3D (simple cubic) lattice are treated. We already reported the idea of the GPU implementation for 2D models [Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1155-1161]. We here explain the details of sample programs, and discuss the performance of the present GPU implementation for the 3D Ising and XY models. We also show the calculated results of the moment ratio for these models, and discuss phase transitions.

Komura, Yukihiro

2014-01-01

353

Treatment of male infertility.  

PubMed

Male factor infertility is a general term that describes a situation in which the inability to conceive is associated with an alteration identified in the male partner. This dysfunction may be associated with low sperm concentration (oligozoospermia), poor sperm motility (asthenozoospermia) or abnormal sperm morphology (teratozoospermia); however, generally, a disturbance of all these variables, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, is mostly frequent in male subfertility. For many andrological disorders, it is not possible to find a reasonable cause and various uncontrolled treatments have been applied to infertile men, often just on an empirical basis. More recently, after the explosive development of modern assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs), feasible with a single spermatozoon [intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)], the treatment of male infertility has received new meaning and andrologists are no longer expected to achieve a quantitative increase in sperm number but are instead asked to improve the fertility potential of the single sperm cell in order to achieve better results in both in vitro fertilization and ICSI. Additional prospective studies are needed to better understand the possible role of therapy in ART candidate patients. PMID:16181978

Isidori, Aldo; Latini, Maurizio; Romanelli, Francesco

2005-10-01

354

More males run fast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in competitiveness are well established, but it is unknown if they originate from sociocultural conditions or evolved predispositions. Testing these hypotheses requires a quantifiable sex difference in competitiveness and the application of a powerful sociocultural manipulation to eliminate it. Study 1 reviews previous work showing that more male distance runners are motivated by competition and maintain large training

Robert O. Deaner

2006-01-01

355

Lycopene and male infertility.  

PubMed

Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

2014-01-01

356

Recruiting Male Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers practical recruitment and retention strategies for administrators, teacher educators, career counselors, middle and high school educators, and teachers of young children to recruit and retain men in early childhood and elementary education. Includes questions to help educators review their own beliefs and assumptions about male teachers.…

Cunningham, Bruce; Watson, Lemuel W.

2002-01-01

357

Increasing Male Academic Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States, the failing of male students was manifested on

Barbara Talbert Jackson

358

Male hormonal contraceptives.  

PubMed

As the world human population continues to explode, the need for effective, safe and convenient contraceptive methods escalates. Historically, women have borne the brunt of responsibility for contraception and family planning. Except for the condom, there are no easily reversible, male-based contraceptive options. Recent surveys have confirmed that the majority of men and women would consider using a hormonal male contraceptive if a safe, effective and convenient formulation were available. Investigators have sought to develop a male hormonal contraceptive based on the observation that spermatogenesis depends on stimulation by gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH). Testosterone (T) and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis and have been studied as potential male contraceptives. Results from two large, multi-centre trials demonstrated that high-dosage T conferred an overall contraceptive efficacy comparable to female oral contraceptives. This regimen was also fully reversible after discontinuation. However, this regimen was not universally effective and involved weekly im. injections that could be painful and inconvenient. In addition, the high dosage of T suppressed serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, an effect that might increase atherogenesis. Investigators have attempted to develop a hormonal regimen that did not cause androgenic suppression of HDL cholesterol and that was uniformly effective by suppressing spermatogenesis to zero in all men. Studies of combination regimens of lower-dosage T and a progestin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue have demonstrated greater suppression of spermatogenesis than the WHO trials of high-dosage T but most of these regimens cause modest weight gain and suppression of serum HDL cholesterol levels. Overall, the data suggest that we are close to developing effective male hormonal contraceptives. The focus is now on developing effective oral regimens that could be safely taken daily or long-acting depot formulations of a male hormonal contraception that could be conveniently injected every 3 - 6 months. In this article, we shall review the exciting new developments in male hormonal contraception. PMID:11585019

Anawalt, B D; Amory, J K

2001-09-01

359

Integrating phenotype ontologies across multiple species  

PubMed Central

Phenotype ontologies are typically constructed to serve the needs of a particular community, such as annotation of genotype-phenotype associations in mouse or human. Here we demonstrate how these ontologies can be improved through assignment of logical definitions using a core ontology of phenotypic qualities and multiple additional ontologies from the Open Biological Ontologies library. We also show how these logical definitions can be used for data integration when combined with a unified multi-species anatomy ontology. PMID:20064205

2010-01-01

360

Structure and composition of the courtship phenotype in the bird of paradise Parotia lawesii (Aves: Paradisaeidae).  

PubMed

Ethology is rooted in the idea that behavior is composed of discrete units and sub-units that can be compared among taxa in a phylogenetic framework. This means that behavior, like morphology and genes, is inherently modular. Yet, the concept of modularity is not well integrated into how we envision the behavioral components of phenotype. Understanding ethological modularity, and its implications for animal phenotype organization and evolution, requires that we construct interpretive schemes that permit us to examine it. In this study, I describe the structure and composition of a complex part of the behavioral phenotype of Parotia lawesii Ramsay, 1885--a bird of paradise (Aves: Paradisaeidae) from the forests of eastern New Guinea. I use archived voucher video clips, photographic ethograms, and phenotype ontology diagrams to describe the modular units comprising courtship at various levels of integration. Results show P. lawesii to have 15 courtship and mating behaviors (11 males, 4 females) hierarchically arranged within a complex seven-level structure. At the finest level examined, male displays are comprised of 49 modular sub-units (elements) differentially employed to form more complex modular units (phases and versions) at higher-levels of integration. With its emphasis on hierarchical modularity, this study provides an important conceptual framework for understanding courtship-related phenotypic complexity and provides a solid basis for comparative study of the genus Parotia. PMID:18359213

Scholes, Edwin

2008-01-01

361

Individual phenotype, kinship, and the occurrence of inbreeding in song sparrows.  

PubMed

Inbreeding load, a key parameter in evolutionary ecology, is frequently estimated by regressing fitness (or related traits) on inbreeding coefficient across population members. This approach assumes that inbreeding occurs randomly with respect to an individual's intrinsic ability to produce fit offspring; estimated loads might otherwise be biased by covariation between inbreeding and individual quality. This assumption, however, is rarely validated. We tested whether, in free-living song sparrows Melospiza melodia, an individual's observed kinship with its social mate (and hence the degree of inbreeding in which an individual participated) was correlated with specific phenotypic traits that are likely to indicate individual quality. Males (and to some extent females) that hatched earlier within their cohort, had shorter tarsi, bred earlier during their first year, or survived fewer years paired with more closely related mates and therefore produced relatively inbred offspring. These correlations arose because males with specific phenotypes were more closely related to the female population (and therefore more likely to pair with closer relatives under random pairing), and because males with specific phenotypes paired with closer relatives than expected. Such correlations could bias estimated inbreeding loads, and should be considered in quantitative genetic analyses of phenotypic variance in populations in which inbreeding occurs. PMID:18248635

Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F

2008-04-01

362

Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression in Escherichia coli of the New Gene Encoding ?-1,3-Xylanase from a Marine Bacterium, Vibrio sp. Strain XY-214  

PubMed Central

The Vibrio sp. strain XY-214 ?-1,3-xylanase gene cloned in Escherichia coli DH5? consisted of an open reading frame of 1,383 nucleotides encoding a protein of 460 amino acids with a molecular mass of 51,323 Da and had a signal peptide of 22 amino acids. The transformant enzyme hydrolyzed ?-1,3-xylan to produce several xylooligosaccharides. PMID:10742274

Araki, Toshiyoshi; Hashikawa, Shinnosuke; Morishita, Tatsuo

2000-01-01

363

Robust and precision motion control system of linear-motor direct drive for high-speed X-Y table positioning mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, design and implementation of an H?-based precision motion control system is presented for a high-speed linear-motor direct-drive X-Y table positioning mechanism in semiconductor wire-bonding applications. The system works with a cascaded robust feedback control, which has an inner loop velocity controller and an outer loop position controller, and an autotuning feedforward compensator. The design aim is to

Zuo Zong Liu; Fang Lin Luo; M. Azizur Rahman

2005-01-01

364

Zellweger syndrome and associated phenotypes.  

PubMed Central

Until recently, the peroxisome was considered a "reactor chamber" for H2O2 producing oxidases, and it is now recognised as a versatile organelle performing complex catabolic and biosynthetic roles in the cell. Zellweger syndrome (ZS), the paradigm of human peroxisomal disorders, is characterised by neonatal hypotonia, severe neuro-developmental delay, hepatomegaly, renal cysts, senorineural deafness, retinal dysfunction, and facial dysmorphism. It is now clear that ZS is at the severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of Zellweger-like syndromes which may present for diagnosis later in childhood and even in adult life. It is important that clinical geneticists are aware of these milder clinical variants as the availability of sensitive and specific biochemical assays of peroxisomal function (for example, serum VLCFA ratios, platelet DHAP-AT activity) makes their diagnosis relatively straightforward. Images PMID:8933342

FitzPatrick, D R

1996-01-01

365

MB4 Phenotyping in MAB  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phenotyping in MABAspects related to Marker-Assisted BreedingTheresa FultonCornell University, Dept of Plant BreedingMartin MatuteMontana State University, Dept of Plant Science and Plant PathologyDeana Namuth-CovertUniversity of Nebraska-Lincoln, Dept of Agronomy and Horticulture2014This eLesson was supported in part by the National Research Initiative Competitive Grants CAP project 2011-68002-30029 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, administered by the University of California-Davis. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the USDA -NIFA.

366

Latent phenotypes pervade gene regulatory circuits  

PubMed Central

Background Latent phenotypes are non-adaptive byproducts of adaptive phenotypes. They exist in biological systems as different as promiscuous enzymes and genome-scale metabolic reaction networks, and can give rise to evolutionary adaptations and innovations. We know little about their prevalence in the gene expression phenotypes of regulatory circuits, important sources of evolutionary innovations. Results Here, we study a space of more than sixteen million three-gene model regulatory circuits, where each circuit is represented by a genotype, and has one or more functions embodied in one or more gene expression phenotypes. We find that the majority of circuits with single functions have latent expression phenotypes. Moreover, the set of circuits with a given spectrum of functions has a repertoire of latent phenotypes that is much larger than that of any one circuit. Most of this latent repertoire can be easily accessed through a series of small genetic changes that preserve a circuit’s main functions. Both circuits and gene expression phenotypes that are robust to genetic change are associated with a greater number of latent phenotypes. Conclusions Our observations suggest that latent phenotypes are pervasive in regulatory circuits, and may thus be an important source of evolutionary adaptations and innovations involving gene regulation. PMID:24884746

2014-01-01

367

Power matters in closing the phenotyping gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of our understanding of physiology and metabolism is derived from investigating mouse mutants and transgenic mice, and open-access platforms for standardized mouse phenotyping such as the German Mouse Clinic (GMC) are currently viewed as one powerful tool for identifying novel gene-function relationships. Phenotyping or phenotypic screening involves the comparison of wild-type control mice with their mutant or transgenic littermates. In our study, we explored the extent to which standardized phenotyping will succeed in detecting biologically relevant phenotypic differences in mice generated and provided by different collaborators. We analyzed quantitative metabolic data (body mass, energy intake, and energy metabolized) collected at the GMC under the current workflow, and used them for statistical power considerations. Our results demonstrate that there is substantial variability in these parameters among lines of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice from different sources. Given this variable background noise in mice that serve as controls, subtle phenotypes in mutant or transgenic littermates may be overlooked. Furthermore, a phenotype observed in one cohort of a mutant line may not be reproducible (to the same extent) in mice coming from a different environment or supplier. In the light of these constraints, we encourage researchers to incorporate information on intrastrain variability into future study planning, or to perform advanced hierarchical analyses. Both will ultimately improve the detectability of novel phenotypes by phenotypic screening.

Meyer, Carola W.; Elvert, Ralf; Scherag, André; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; Schäfer, Helmut; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Klingenspor, Martin

2007-05-01

368

Phenotypic transitions and fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy.  

PubMed

The cause of renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy is widely believed to be phenotypic switching of fibroblasts to an activated state. However, emerging evidence suggests that diabetes also alters the phenotype of normal, non-fibroblast kidney cells, such as mesangial cells, tubular epithelial cells, and bone marrow-derived progenitors. Experiments have shown that cytokines, high glucose, and advanced glycation end products induce profibrotic changes in kidney cell phenotype by the processes of myofibroblast transdifferentiation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. As a result, differentiated kidney cells become reprogrammed to secrete and accumulate extracellular matrix. This revised view implies that inhibiting phenotypic transitions in nonfibroblasts might limit fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:17342177

Simonson, M S

2007-05-01

369

Evolution of molecular phenotypes under stabilizing selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular phenotypes are important links between genomic information and organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Complex phenotypes, which are also called quantitative traits, often depend on multiple genomic loci. Their evolution builds on genome evolution in a complicated way, which involves selection, genetic drift, mutations and recombination. Here we develop a coarse-grained evolutionary statistics for phenotypes, which decouples from details of the underlying genotypes. We derive approximate evolution equations for the distribution of phenotype values within and across populations. This dynamics covers evolutionary processes at high and low recombination rates, that is, it applies to sexual and asexual populations. In a fitness landscape with a single optimal phenotype value, the phenotypic diversity within populations and the divergence between populations reach evolutionary equilibria, which describe stabilizing selection. We compute the equilibrium distributions of both quantities analytically and we show that the ratio of mean divergence and diversity depends on the strength of selection in a universal way: it is largely independent of the phenotype’s genomic encoding and of the recombination rate. This establishes a new method for the inference of selection on molecular phenotypes beyond the genome level. We discuss the implications of our findings for the predictability of evolutionary processes.

Nourmohammad, Armita; Schiffels, Stephan; Lässig, Michael

2013-01-01

370

Perspectives of gene combinations in phenotype presentation  

PubMed Central

Cells exhibit a variety of phenotypes in different stages and diseases. Although several markers for cellular phenotypes have been identified, gene combinations denoting cellular phenotypes have not been completely elucidated. Recent advances in gene analysis have revealed that various gene expression patterns are observed in each cell species and status. In this review, the perspectives of gene combinations in cellular phenotype presentation are discussed. Gene expression profiles change during cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell death. In addition, epigenetic regulation increases the complexity of the gene expression profile. The role of gene combinations and panels of gene combinations in each cellular condition are also discussed. PMID:23951387

Tanabe, Shihori

2013-01-01

371

Quartic canonical force field in curvilinear internal coordinates for XY3 (D3h) molecules. The case of the BH3 molecule.  

PubMed

Using the canonical force field theory, expressions of quadratic, cubic, and quartic canonical force constants are obtained for XY3 (D3h) molecules in curvilinear redundant coordinates, i.e., simple valence internal coordinates (VICs), in terms of force constants in normal coordinates and in independent symmetry coordinates. To carry out this task, it was previously necessary to obtain for the first time the non-linear redundancy relation and the corresponding orthogonal projection onto the pure vibrational manifold for XY3 (D3h) molecules corresponding to a set of seven VICs. As an application, the quartic canonical force field in curvilinear redundant internal coordinates of BH3 is determined from ab initio force fields in normal coordinates calculated at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles level with perturbative treatment of the triples in conjunction with a triple- and quadruple-? size basis set. This anharmonic force field so obtained for the borane molecule, and in general for XY3 (D3h) molecules, is uniquely defined (therefore in an unambiguous form) and depending on the same number of parameters, i.e., force constants, when independent coordinates (natural or symmetry) are used in its description. PMID:24842323

Ródenas, Consuelo Rosales; Quesada, Juana Vázquez; Torres, Emilio Martínez; González, Juan Jesús López

2014-06-01

372

Critical behavior of spin and chiral degrees of freedom in three-dimensional disordered XY models studied by the nonequilibrium aging method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical behavior of the gauge-glass and the XY spin-glass models in three dimensions is studied by analyzing their nonequilibrium aging dynamics. A new numerical method, which relies on the calculation of the two-time correlation and integrated response functions, is used to determine both the critical temperature and the nonequilibrium scaling exponents, both for spin and chiral degrees of freedom. First, the ferromagnetic XY model is studied to validate this nonequilibirum aging method (NAM) since for this nondisordered system we can compare with known results obtained with standard equilibrium and nonequilibrium techniques. When applied to the case of the gauge-glass model, we show that the NAM allows us to obtain precise and reliable values of its critical quantities, improving previous estimates. The XY spin-glass model with both Gaussian and bimodal bond distributions is analyzed in more detail. The spin and the chiral two-time correlation and integrated response functions are calculated in our simulations. The results obtained mainly for Gaussian and, to a lesser extent, for bimodal interactions support the existence of a spin-chiral decoupling scenario, where the chiral order occurs at a finite temperature while the spin degrees of freedom order at very low or zero temperature.

Romá, F.; Domínguez, D.

2014-01-01

373

High-throughput phenotyping of multicellular organisms: finding the link between genotype and phenotype  

PubMed Central

High-throughput phenotyping approaches (phenomics) are being combined with genome-wide genetic screens to identify alterations in phenotype that result from gene inactivation. Here we highlight promising technologies for 'phenome-scale' analyses in multicellular organisms. PMID:21457493

2011-01-01

374

Phenotypic effects of cattle mitochondrial DNA in American bison.  

PubMed

Hybridization between endangered species and more common species is a significant problem in conservation biology because it may result in extinction or loss of adaptation. The historical reduction in abundance and geographic distribution of the American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and their recovery over the last 125 years is well documented. However, introgression from domestic cattle (Bos taurus) into the few remaining bison populations that existed in the late 1800s has now been identified in many modern bison herds. We examined the phenotypic effect of this ancestry by comparing weight and height of bison with cattle or bison mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Santa Catalina Island, California (U.S.A.), a nutritionally stressful environment for bison, and of a group of age-matched feedlot bison males in Montana, a nutritionally rich environment. The environmental and nutritional differences between these 2 bison populations were very different and demonstrated the phenotypic effect of domestic cattle mtDNA in bison over a broad range of conditions. For example, the average weight of feedlot males that were 2 years of age was 2.54 times greater than that of males from Santa Catalina Island. In both environments, bison with cattle mtDNA had lower weight compared with bison with bison mtDNA, and on Santa Catalina Island, the height of bison with cattle mtDNA was lower than the height of bison with bison mtDNA. These data support the hypothesis that body size is smaller and height is lower in bison with domestic cattle mtDNA and that genomic integrity is important for the conservation of the American plains bison. PMID:22862781

Derr, James N; Hedrick, Philip W; Halbert, Natalie D; Plough, Louis; Dobson, Lauren K; King, Julie; Duncan, Calvin; Hunter, David L; Cohen, Noah D; Hedgecock, Dennis

2012-12-01

375

Three New SF1 (NR5A1) Gene Mutations in Two Unrelated Families with Multiple Affected Members: Within-Family Variability in 46,XY Subjects and Low Ovarian Reserve in Fertile 46,XX Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Three novel heterozygous SF-1 gene mutations affecting multiple members of two unrelated families with a history of 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) and 46,XX ovarian insufficiency are described. Methods: Clinical and mutational analysis of the SF-1 gene in 9 subjects of two families. Results: Family 1 had 2 affected 46,XY DSD subjects. One, born with severe perineal hypospadias,

Diana Monica Warman; Mariana Costanzo; Roxana Marino; Esperanza Berensztein; Jesica Galeano; Pablo C. Ramirez; Nora Saraco; Maria Sonia Baquedano; Marta Ciaccio; Gabriela Guercio; Eduardo Chaler; Mercedes Maceiras; Juan Manuel Lazzatti; Marcela Bailez; Marco A. Rivarola; Alicia Belgorosky

2011-01-01

376

Dynamic paternity allocation as a function of male plumage color in barn swallows.  

PubMed

Paternity in male animals can be influenced by their phenotypic signals of quality. Accordingly, the behavior underlying patterns of paternity should be flexible as signals of quality change. To evaluate the dynamics of paternity allocation, we analyzed paternity before and after manipulating plumage coloration, a known signal of quality, in male barn swallows Hirundo rustica. We found that, in successive breeding bouts, only males whose plumage color was experimentally enhanced received greater paternity from their social mates, demonstrating evidence for flexible and dynamic paternity allocation and the importance for males of maintaining signals of quality well after pair bond formation. PMID:16195460

Safran, R J; Neuman, C R; McGraw, K J; Lovette, I J

2005-09-30

377

Sexual Phenotype Differences in zic2 mRNA Abundance in the Preoptic Area of a Protogynous Teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum  

PubMed Central

The highly conserved members of the zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors are primarily known for their roles in embryonic signaling pathways and regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This study describes sexual phenotype differences in abundances of zic2 mRNA in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region strongly implicated in sexual behavior and function, in an adult teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum. The bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) is a valuable model for studying neuroendocrine processes because it displays two discrete male phenotypes, initial phase (IP) males and territorial, terminal phase (TP) males, and undergoes socially-controlled protogynous sex change. Previously generated microarray-based comparisons suggested that zic2 was upregulated in the brains of terminal phase males relative to initial phase males. To further explore this difference, we cloned a 727 bp sequence for neural zic2 from field-collected animals. Riboprobe-based in situ hybridization was employed to localize zic2 signal in adult bluehead brains and assess the relative abundance of brain zic2 mRNA across sexual phenotypes. We found zic2 mRNA expression was extremely abundant in the granular cells of the cerebellum and widespread in other brain regions including in the thalamus, hypothalamus, habenula, torus semicircularis, torus longitudinalis, medial longitudinal fascicle and telencephalic areas. Quantitative autoradiography and phosphorimaging showed zic2 mRNA hybridization signal in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was significantly higher in terminal phase males relative to both initial phase males and females, and silver grain analysis confirmed this relationship between phenotypes. No significant difference in abundance was found in zic2 signal across phenotypes in the habenula, a brain region not implicated in the control of sexual behavior, or cerebellum. PMID:21826240

McCaffrey, Katherine; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Godwin, John

2011-01-01

378

Developmental stress increases reproductive success in male zebra finches.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that exposure to stress during development can have sustained effects on animal phenotype and performance across life-history stages. For example, developmental stress has been shown to decrease the quality of sexually selected traits (e.g. bird song), and therefore is thought to decrease reproductive success. However, animals exposed to developmental stress may compensate for poor quality sexually selected traits by pursuing alternative reproductive tactics. Here, we examine the effects of developmental stress on adult male reproductive investment and success in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We tested the hypothesis that males exposed to developmental stress sire fewer offspring through extra-pair copulations (EPCs), but invest more in parental care. To test this hypothesis, we fed nestlings corticosterone (CORT; the dominant avian stress hormone) during the nestling period and measured their adult reproductive success using common garden breeding experiments. We found that nestlings reared by CORT-fed fathers received more parental care compared with nestlings reared by control fathers. Consequently, males fed CORT during development reared nestlings in better condition compared with control males. Contrary to the prediction that developmental stress decreases male reproductive success, we found that CORT-fed males also sired more offspring and were less likely to rear non-genetic offspring compared with control males, and thus had greater overall reproductive success. These data are the first to demonstrate that developmental stress can have a positive effect on fitness via changes in reproductive success and provide support for an adaptive role of developmental stress in shaping animal phenotype. PMID:25297860

Crino, Ondi L; Prather, Colin T; Driscoll, Stephanie C; Good, Jeffrey M; Breuner, Creagh W

2014-11-22

379

47,XYY Syndrome and Male Infertility  

PubMed Central

Men with 47,XYY syndrome present with varying physical attributes and degrees of infertility. A retrospective chart review was performed on a male infertility and genetic anomaly database. Three patients with 47,XYY were found. Each presented with > 2 years of infertility. All were tall with elevated body mass indices. Scrotal findings ranged from normal to atrophic testicles. Semen analyses demonstrated oligospermia and varying endocrine profiles. Because of the diverse phenotype and potential lack of symptoms, identification and diagnosis of men with 47,XYY syndrome may be difficult. We recommend careful screening of 47,XYY patients and referral to primary physicians for long-term follow-up for increased incidence of health-related comorbidities. PMID:24659916

Kim, Ina W; Khadilkar, Arjun C; Ko, Edmund Y; Sabanegh, Edmund S

2013-01-01

380

47,XYY Syndrome and Male Infertility.  

PubMed

Men with 47,XYY syndrome present with varying physical attributes and degrees of infertility. A retrospective chart review was performed on a male infertility and genetic anomaly database. Three patients with 47,XYY were found. Each presented with > 2 years of infertility. All were tall with elevated body mass indices. Scrotal findings ranged from normal to atrophic testicles. Semen analyses demonstrated oligospermia and varying endocrine profiles. Because of the diverse phenotype and potential lack of symptoms, identification and diagnosis of men with 47,XYY syndrome may be difficult. We recommend careful screening of 47,XYY patients and referral to primary physicians for long-term follow-up for increased incidence of health-related comorbidities. PMID:24659916

Kim, Ina W; Khadilkar, Arjun C; Ko, Edmund Y; Sabanegh, Edmund S

2013-01-01

381

Genotype and phenotype frequencies of paraoxonase 1 in fertile and infertile men.  

PubMed

Abstract Paraoxonase1 (PON1) is a glycoprotein associated with high density lipoprotein and has antioxidant activity. The impact of PON1 in various stages of spermatogenesis has also been suggested. This study was aimed to investigate frequencies of phenotypes and Q192R genotypes of PON1 in fertile and infertile males. Q192R variants of PON1 were determined in 150 fertile and 150 infertile men using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Plasma arylesterase and paraoxonase activities were detected by spectrophotometry and malondialdehyde (MDA) level was measured using thiobarbituric acid. Our results showed no significant difference in the distribution of PON1 genotypes and alleles between fertile and infertile groups. However morphology and motility of sperm were associated with various genotypes of PON1. The number of fertile males with the BB phenotype (high activity) was significantly higher than that of infertile males, whereas the number of individuals with the AB phenotype (moderate activity) was statistically higher in infertile men compared with the fertile group. Additionally, MDA and arylesterase activity levels were significantly higher in infertile subjects compared with fertile men. We speculate that the low activity of PON1 can be a risk factor for male infertility probably due to a decrease in antioxidant activity of PON1 and increase in lipid peroxidation. PMID:25264968

Tavilani, Heidar; Fattahi, Amir; Esfahani, Maryam; Khodadadi, Iraj; Karimi, Jamshid; Bahrayni, Elham; Vatannejad, Akram; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Ghorbani, Marzyeh; Latifi, Zeinab

2014-12-01

382

Advances in Male Contraception  

PubMed Central

Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

2008-01-01

383

Adolescent male health  

PubMed Central

Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

2008-01-01

384

The electronic and optical properties of quaternary GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy lattice-matched to GaAs: a first-principles study  

PubMed Central

First-principles calculations based on density functional theory have been performed for the quaternary GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy lattice-matched to GaAs. Using the state-of-the-art computational method with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional, electronic, and optical properties were obtained, including band structures, density of states (DOSs), dielectric function, absorption coefficient, refractive index, energy loss function, and reflectivity. It is found that the lattice constant of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy with y/x =1.718 can match to GaAs. With the incorporation of N and Bi into GaAs, the band gap of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y becomes small and remains direct. The calculated optical properties indicate that GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y has higher optical efficiency as it has less energy loss than GaAs. In addition, it is also found that the electronic and optical properties of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy can be further controlled by tuning the N and Bi compositions in this alloy. These results suggest promising applications of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y quaternary alloys in optoelectronic devices. PMID:25337061

2014-01-01

385

Transgenerational phenotypic plasticity under future atmospheric conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisms often exhibit transgenerational phenotypic changes in response to an increased risk of parasitism or predation. Shifts in global atmospheric composition could modify these phenotypic effects through changes in either nutrient quantity\\/quality or altered interactions with higher trophic levels. Here we show that future atmospheric conditions alter a natural enemy-induced wing polyphenism in aphids. Winged offspring production by Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum

Edward B. Mondor; Michelle N. Tremblay; Richard L. Lindroth

2004-01-01

386

Environmental Change, Phenotypic Plasticity, and Genetic Compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a species encounters novel environmental con- ditions, some phenotypic characters may develop differently than in the ancestral environment. Most environmental perturbations of de- velopment are likely to reduce fitness, and thus selection would usu- ally be expected to favor genetic changes that restore the ancestral phenotype. I propose the term \\

2005-01-01

387

Cognitive phenotype of velocardiofacial syndrome: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioural phenotype of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), one of the most common human multiple anomaly syndromes, includes developmental disabilities, frequently including intellectual disability (ID) and high risk of diagnosis of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. VCFS may offer a model of the relationship between ID and risk of major mental health difficulties. This paper reviews literature on the cognitive phenotype and

Frederick Furniss; Asit B. Biswas; Rohit Gumber; Niraj Singh

2011-01-01

388

ORIGINAL PAPER The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire  

E-print Network

+Business Media, LLC 2006 Abstract The broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of personality and language (1977) used twin data to suggest that the vulnerability for autism may be inherited as milder traitsORIGINAL PAPER The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire Robert S. E. Hurley Ã? Molly Losh Ã? Morgan

van Lambalgen, Michiel

389

Daddy issues: paternal effects on phenotype  

PubMed Central

The once-popular, then heretical, idea that ancestral environment can affect the phenotype of future generations is coming back into vogue, due to advances in the field of epigenetic inheritance. How paternal environmental conditions influence the phenotype of progeny is now a tractable question, and researchers are exploring potential mechanisms underlying such effects. PMID:23141533

Rando, Oliver J.

2012-01-01

390

The Neuroanatomy of the Autistic Phenotype  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The autism phenotype is associated with an excess of brain volume due in part to decreased pruning during development. Here we aimed at assessing brain volume early in development to further elucidate previous findings in autism and determine whether this pattern is restricted to idiopathic autism or shared within the autistic phenotype (fragile X…

Fahim, Cherine; Meguid, Nagwa A.; Nashaat, Neveen H.; Yoon, Uicheul; Mancini-Marie, Adham; Evans, Alan C.

2012-01-01

391

Chromosome analysis in Pseudopaludicola (Anura, Leiuperidae), with description of sex chromosomes XX/XY in P. saltica.  

PubMed

Taxonomic changes have frequently occurred in the anuran genus Pseudopaludicola as a consequence of high morphological similarity among its species. The present work reports karyotypic analysis of three Pseudopaludicola species sampled in their type locality and four Pseudopaludicola populations from distinct localities, aiming at contributing to the systematics of this genus. Chromosomes were stained with Giemsa or submitted to the silver staining (Ag-NOR) and C-banding techniques. The karyotype was 2n=22 in P. mineira, Pseudopaludicola sp. and two populations of P. saltica. The chromosome pair 8 was heteromorphic in P. saltica, characterizing a XX/XY sex-determination system with telocentric X and submetacentric Y. Highly similar karyotypes with 2n=18 chromosomes were observed in P. canga, P. aff. canga from Barreirinhas, State of Maranhão, Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais and Icém, State São Paulo. The high similarity among the karyotypes 2n=18 suggested that the populations of P. aff. canga belong to the group 'pusilla', the same group of P. canga. The data demonstrated also that P. aff. canga from Barreirinhas (northeast region) is cytogenetically identical to P. canga with regarding the NOR site position in pair 3 and the presence of a heterochromatic block in the pair 2, whereas P. aff. canga from Uberlândia and Icém (southeast) had the NOR in the pair 9. Moreover, the cytogenetic data discriminated P. mineira and Pseudopaludicola sp. from the previously analyzed species with 22 chromosomes, and suggested that Pseudopaludicola sp. is an undescribed species. Sexual heteromorphic chromosomes are firstly reported in Pseudopaludicola and the data indicated the need of an extensive taxonomic review in this genus. PMID:20536541

Duarte, Thiago C; Veiga-Menoncello, Ana Cristina P; Lima, Janaína F R; Strüssmann, Christine; Del-Grande, Maria L; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A; Pereira, Emiliane G; Rossa-Feres, Denise C; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M

2010-04-01

392

Deconfinement in super Yang-Mills theory on via dual-Coulomb gas and "affine" XY-model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study finite-temperature SU(2) super Yang-Mills theory, compactified on a spatial circle of size L with supersymmetric boundary conditions. In the semi-classical small- L regime, a deconfinement transition occurs at T c ? 1 /L. The transition is due to a competition between non-perturbative topological "molecules" — magnetic and neutral bion-instantons — and electrically charged W -bosons and superpartners. Compared to deconfinement in non-supersymmetric QCD(adj) [1], the novelty is the relevance of the light modulus scalar field. It mediates interactions between neutral bions (and W -bosons), serves as an order parameter for the center symmetry associated with the non-thermal circle, and explicitly breaks the electric-magnetic (Kramers-Wannier) duality enjoyed by non-supersymmetric QCD(adj) near T c . We show that deconfinement can be studied using an effective two-dimensional gas of electric and magnetic charges with (dual) Coulomb and Aharonov-Bohm interactions, or, equivalently, via an XY-spin model with a symmetry-breaking perturbation, where each system couples to the scalar field. To study the realization of the discrete R-symmetry and the thermal and non-thermal center symmetries, we perform Monte Carlo simulations of both systems. The dual-Coulomb gas simulations are a novel way to analyze deconfinement and provide a new venue to study the phase structure of a class of two-dimensional condensed matter models that can be mapped into dual-Coulomb gases. Our results indicate a continuous deconfinement transition, with remaining unbroken at the transition. Thus, the SYM transition appears similar to the one in SU(2) QCD(adj) [1] and is also likely to be characterized by continuously varying critical exponents.

Anber, Mohamed M.; Collier, Scott; Poppitz, Erich; Strimas-Mackey, Seth; Teeple, Brett

2013-11-01

393

Method for measuring integrated sensitivity of solar cells and multielement photoconverters using an X-Y scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a method for automated measurement of the integrated sensitivity of solar cells (SCs) and multielement photoconverters (MPCs) using an experimental apparatus including a Pentium III personal computer (PC), an HP-34401A digital multimeter (DM), a stabilized radiation source (SRS), a controllable focusing system, an X-Y positioning device based on CD-RW optical disk storage devices. The method provides high accuracy in measuring the size of photosensitive areas of the solar cells and multielement photoconverters and inhomogeneities in their active regions, which makes it possible to correct the production process in the development stage and during fabrication of test prototypes for the solar cells and multielement photoconverters. The radiation power from the stabilized radiation source was ?1 W; the ranges of the scanning steps along the X, Y coordinates were 10 100 µm, the range of the transverse cross sectional diameters of the focused radiation beam was 10 100 µm, the measurable photocurrents were 10-9 A to 2 A; scanning rate along the X, Y coordinates, ?100 mm/sec; relative mean-square error (RMSE) for measurement of the integrated sensitivity of the solar cells, 0.2 ? ?S int ? 0.9% in the ranges of measurable photocurrents 1 mA ? Iph ? 750 mA and areas 0.1 ? A ? 25 cm2 for number of measurements equal to ? 2· 105; instability of the radiation power (luminosity) ? 0.08% for 1 h or ? 0.4% for 8 h continuous operation; stabilized power range for the stabilized radiation source, 10-2 102 W. The software was written in Delphi 7.0.

Naumov, V. V.; Grebenshchikov, O. A.; Zalesskii, V. B.

2006-09-01

394

Role of the pseudoautosomal region in sex-chromosome pairing during male meiosis: Meiotic studies in a man with a deletion of distal Xp  

SciTech Connect

Meiotic studies were undertaken in a 24-year-old male patient with short stature, chondrodysplasia punctata, ichthyosis, steroid sulfatase deficiency, and mild mental retardation with an inherited cytologically visible deletion of distal Xp. Molecular investigations showed that the pseudoautosomal region as well as the steroid sulfatase gene were deleted, but telomeric sequences were present at the pter on the deleted X chromosome. A complete failure of sex-chromosome pairing was observed in the primary spermatocytes of the patient. Telomeric approaches between the sex chromosomes were made at zygotene in some cells, but XY synaptonemal complex was formed. The sex chromosomes were present as univalents at metaphase I, and germ-cell development was arrested between metaphase I and metaphase II in the vast majority of cells, consistent with the azoospermia observed in the patient. The failure of XY pairing in this individual indicates that the pseudoautosomal sequences play an important role in initiating XY pairing and formation of synaptonemal complex at meiosis. 36 refs., 6 figs.

Mohandas, T.K.; Passage, M.B.; Yen, P.H.; Speed, R.M.; Chandley, A.C.; Shapiro, L.J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1992-09-01

395

The autonomic phenotype of rumination.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that ruminative thoughts may be mediators of the prolonged physiological effects of stress. We hypothesized that autonomic dysregulation plays a role in the relation between rumination and health. Rumination was induced by an anger-recall task in 45 healthy subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI) change scores were evaluated to obtain the autonomic phenotype of rumination. Personality traits and endothelial activation were examined for their relation to autonomic responses during rumination. Degree of endothelial activation was assessed by circulating soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Vagal withdrawal during rumination was greater for women than men. Larger decreases in the high frequency component of HRV were associated with higher levels of anger-in, depression, and sICAM-1 levels. BRS reactivity was negatively related to trait anxiety. BEI reactivity was positively related to anger-in, hostility, anxiety, and depression. Lower BEI and BRS recovery were associated with lower social desirability and higher anger-out, anxiety, and depression. Findings suggest that the autonomic dysregulation that characterizes rumination plays a role in the relationships between personality and cardiovascular health. PMID:19272312

Ottaviani, Cristina; Shapiro, David; Davydov, Dmitry M; Goldstein, Iris B; Mills, Paul J

2009-06-01

396

Canalization of body size matters for lifetime reproductive success of male predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)  

PubMed Central

The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that highly fitness-relevant traits are canalized via past selection, resulting in low phenotypic plasticity and high robustness to environmental stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the level of phenotypic plasticity of male body size of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity) reflects the effects of body size variation on fitness, especially male lifetime reproductive success (LRS). We first generated small and standard-sized males of P. persimilis and N. californicus by rearing them to adulthood under limited and ample prey supply, respectively. Then, adult small and standard-sized males were provided with surplus virgin females throughout life to assess their mating and reproductive traits. Small male body size did not affect male longevity or the number of fertilized females but reduced male LRS of P. persimilis but not N. californicus. Proximately, the lower LRS of small than standard-sized P. persimilis males correlated with shorter mating durations, probably decreasing the amount of transferred sperm. Ultimately, we suggest that male body size is more strongly canalized in P. persimilis than N. californicus because deviation from standard body size has larger detrimental fitness effects in P. persimilis than N. californicus. PMID:25132689

WALZER, ANDREAS; SCHAUSBERGER, PETER

2014-01-01

397

Phenotype MicroArrays for High-Throughput Phenotypic Testing and Assay of Gene Function  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Escherichia coli is used as a model cellular system to test and validate a new technology called Phenotype MicroArrays (PMs). PM technology is a high-throughput technology for simultaneous testing of a large number of cellular phenotypes. It consists of preconfigured well arrays in which each well tests a different cellular phenotype and an automated instrument that continuously monitors and records the response of the cells in all wells of the arrays. For example, nearly 700 phenotypes of E. coli can be assayed by merely pipetting a cell suspension into seven microplate arrays. PMs can be used to directly assay the effects of genetic changes on cells, especially gene knock-outs. Here, we provide data on phenotypic analysis of six strains and show that we can detect expected phenotypes as well as, in some cases, unexpected phenotypes. PMID:11435407

Bochner, Barry R.; Gadzinski, Peter; Panomitros, Eugenia

2001-01-01

398

Alternative mating tactics in male white-faced dragonflies ( Leucorrhinia intacta ): plasticity of tactical options and consequences for reproductive success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Alternative tactics used by males to obtain mates usually are associated with genetic and\\/or phenotypic differences between the behavioral morphs. This system of white-faced dragonfly (Leucorrhinia intacta) alternatives is characterized by plasticity of tactical options for individual males. Males may act either as territorials, and defend small perch-centered territories on the study pond, or they act as transients, spending

Edward C. Waltz; Larry L. Wolf

1988-01-01

399

Primary male infertility in Kuwait: a cytogenetic and molecular study of 289 infertile Kuwaiti patients.  

PubMed

Infertility is one of the major public health problems, affecting 15% of couples who attempt pregnancy; in 50% of these, the male partner is responsible. Chromosomal abnormalities and Y microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region are known to be associated with spermatogenetic failure. In the present study, 289 patients with primary male infertility because of spermatogenetic failure were studied in order to highlight the molecular background of male infertility in Kuwait, and to avoid the possibility of transmission of any microdeletions/chromosomal aberrations to offspring via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Of the 289 infertile men, 23 patients (8%) had chromosomal aberration in the form of Klinefelter syndrome/variant (16/23; 69.6%), XYY syndrome (3/23; 13%), XX male syndrome (2/23; 8.7%), 45,X/46X, i(Yp)(1/23; 4.4%) and 45,XY, t(9;22) (1/23;4.4%). Y-chromosome microdeletion in the AZFb and AZFc regions were detected in 7/266 cases (2.6%). Testicular biopsy was carried out in 31 azoospermic patients, of whom five men had Sertoli-cell only syndrome, while 26 patients had spermatogenic arrest. In conclusion, this study showed that the frequency of both chromosomal anomalies and Y microdeletions were found in 10.4% of the infertile men. The potential risk of transmitting these genetic disorders to offspring provides a rationale for screening infertile men prior to ICSI. PMID:17683468

Mohammed, F; Al-Yatama, F; Al-Bader, M; Tayel, S M; Gouda, S; Naguib, K K

2007-06-01

400

Genotype to phenotype: identification of diagnostic vibrio phenotypes using whole genome sequences.  

PubMed

Vibrios are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and can be found in association with animal or plant hosts. The range of ecological relationships includes pathogenic and mutualistic associations. To gain a better understanding of the ecology of these microbes, it is important to determine their phenotypic features. However, the traditional phenotypic characterization of vibrios has been expensive, time-consuming and restricted in scope to a limited number of features. In addition, most of the commercial systems applied for phenotypic characterization cannot characterize the broad spectrum of environmental strains. A reliable and possible alternative is to obtain phenotypic information directly from whole genome sequences. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of whole genome sequences as a source of phenotypic information. We performed a comparison of the vibrio phenotypes obtained from the literature with the phenotypes obtained from whole genome sequences. We observed a significant correlation between the previously published phenotypic data and the phenotypic data retrieved from whole genome sequences of vibrios. Analysis of 26 vibrio genomes revealed that all genes coding for the specific proteins involved in the metabolic pathways responsible for positive phenotypes of the 14 diagnostic features (Voges-Proskauer reaction, indole production, arginine dihydrolase, ornithine decarboxylase, utilization of myo-inositol, sucrose and L-leucine, and fermentation of D-mannitol, D-sorbitol, L-arabinose, trehalose, cellobiose, D-mannose and D-galactose) were found in the majority of the vibrios genomes. Vibrio species that were negative for a given phenotype revealed the absence of all or several genes involved in the respective biochemical pathways, indicating the utility of this approach to characterize the phenotypes of vibrios. The absence of the global regulation and regulatory proteins in the Vibrio parahaemolyticus genome indicated a non-vibrio phenotype. Whole genome sequences represent an important source for the phenotypic identification of vibrios. PMID:24505074

Amaral, Gilda Rose S; Dias, Graciela M; Wellington-Oguri, Michiyo; Chimetto, Luciane; Campeão, Mariana E; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane C

2014-02-01

401

Evolution of increased phenotypic diversity enhances population performance by reducing sexual harassment in damselflies.  

PubMed

The effect of evolutionary changes in traits and phenotypic/genetic diversity on ecological dynamics has received much theoretical attention; however, the mechanisms and ecological consequences are usually unknown. Female-limited colour polymorphism in damselflies is a counter-adaptation to male mating harassment, and thus, is expected to alter population dynamics through relaxing sexual conflict. Here we show the side effect of the evolution of female morph diversity on population performance (for example, population productivity and sustainability) in damselflies. Our theoretical model incorporating key features of the sexual interaction predicts that the evolution of increased phenotypic diversity will reduce overall fitness costs to females from sexual conflict, which in turn will increase productivity, density and stability of a population. Field data and mesocosm experiments support these model predictions. Our study suggests that increased phenotypic diversity can enhance population performance that can potentially reduce extinction rates and thereby influence macroevolutionary processes. PMID:25034518

Takahashi, Yuma; Kagawa, Kotaro; Svensson, Erik I; Kawata, Masakado

2014-01-01

402

Identification of DNA markers linked to the male sex in dioecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 400-bp RAPD marker generated by a primer of random decamer sequence has been found associated with the male sex phenotype\\u000a in 14 dioecious cultivars and accessions of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). The primer OPA8 generates a set of bands, most of which polymorphic among all the individual plants tested, and 1 of\\u000a which, named OPA8400, present in all male

G. Mandolino; A. Carboni; S. Forapani; V. Faeti; P. Ranalli

1999-01-01

403

Lisping and male homosexuality.  

PubMed

The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified. PMID:24578106

Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

2014-08-01

404

Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops  

PubMed Central

Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted. PMID:24987289

Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R.

2014-01-01

405

Chemicalmimicry Male ants disguised by  

E-print Network

, they tolerate and even attempt to mate with their winged rivals. Here we show that the winged males avoid are important for communication in social insects5­8 . In a discriminant analysis of hydrocarbon pro- files conditions. These males pay for avoiding competition with `high-quality' males by suffering low mating

Zachos, James

406

Male pipefish prefer ornamented females  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle females compete for access to males and males are choosy. Females display a temporary ornament, a striped pattern. We show here for the first time in a sex role-reversed species that ornament display predicts how much time a female will devote to competitive behaviours, that males prefer ornamented females over nonornamented ones, and

Anders Berglund; Gunilla Rosenqvist

2001-01-01

407

Alternative phenotypes and sexual selection: can dichotomous handicaps honestly signal quality?  

PubMed

Considerable theoretical and empirical effort has been focused on the potential of continuously variable sexual traits to honestly indicate male quality, but relatively little effort has been devoted to a similar evolutionary role for dimorphic traits. Male dimorphisms, associated with conditionally expressed alternative reproductive tactics, represent extreme phenotypic plasticity. Evidence suggests that considerable heritable variation exists in the 'liability' underlying many threshold traits; if this liability is correlated with the genetic quality of males, dimorphic traits have the potential to be reliable indicators. We investigated the genetic architecture of phenotypically plastic morph expression in the context of condition-dependent signalling theory. Male morph in the mite Sancassania berlesei is condition dependent: 'fighters' armed with thickened and sharp third pairs of legs emerge from heavier nymphs than unarmoured 'scramblers'. We selected on male morph in three replicate 'fighter' and 'scrambler' lines and recorded a significant response to selection over seven generations; this was due to a shift in the threshold reaction norm but the lines showed no correlated response in condition. This is inconsistent with models predicting a substantial genetic correlation between condition and sexual trait expression. We discuss why dimorphic sexual traits may show more condition-independent genetic variance than continuous sexual traits. PMID:15306339

Unrug, Juliusz; Tomkins, Joseph L; Radwan, Jacek

2004-07-01

408

Interaction between temperature and male pheromone in sexual isolation in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

In Drosophila, female hydrocarbons are known to be involved in premating isolation between different species and pheromonal races. The role of male-specific hydrocarbon polymorphism is not as well documented. The dominant cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) in male D. melanogaster is usually 7-tricosene (7-T), with the exception of African populations, in which 7-pentacosene (7-P) is dominant. Here, we took advantage of a population from the Comoro Islands (Com), in which males fell on a continuum of low to high levels of 7-T, to perform temperature selection and selection on CHCs’ profiles. We conducted several experiments on the selected Com males to study the plasticity of their CHCs in response to temperature shift, their role in resistance to desiccation and in sexual selection. We then compared the results obtained for selected lines to those from three common laboratory strains with different and homogenous hydrocarbon profiles: CS, Cot and Tai. Temperature selection modified the CHC profiles of the Com males in few generations of selection. We showed that the 7-P/7-T ratio depends on temperature with generally more 7-P at higher temperatures and observed a relationship between chain length and resistance to desiccation in both temperature- and phenotypically selected Com lines. There was partial sexual isolation between the flies with clear-cut phenotypes within the phenotypically selected lines and the laboratory strains. These results indicate that the dominant male pheromones are under environmental selection and may have played a role in reproductive isolation. PMID:23944628

Bontonou, G; Denis, B; Wicker-Thomas, C

2013-01-01

409

Interaction between temperature and male pheromone in sexual isolation in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

In Drosophila, female hydrocarbons are known to be involved in premating isolation between different species and pheromonal races. The role of male-specific hydrocarbon polymorphism is not as well documented. The dominant cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) in male D. melanogaster is usually 7-tricosene (7-T), with the exception of African populations, in which 7-pentacosene (7-P) is dominant. Here, we took advantage of a population from the Comoro Islands (Com), in which males fell on a continuum of low to high levels of 7-T, to perform temperature selection and selection on CHCs' profiles. We conducted several experiments on the selected Com males to study the plasticity of their CHCs in response to temperature shift, their role in resistance to desiccation and in sexual selection. We then compared the results obtained for selected lines to those from three common laboratory strains with different and homogenous hydrocarbon profiles: CS, Cot and Tai. Temperature selection modified the CHC profiles of the Com males in few generations of selection. We showed that the 7-P/7-T ratio depends on temperature with generally more 7-P at higher temperatures and observed a relationship between chain length and resistance to desiccation in both temperature- and phenotypically selected Com lines. There was partial sexual isolation between the flies with clear-cut phenotypes within the phenotypically selected lines and the laboratory strains. These results indicate that the dominant male pheromones are under environmental selection and may have played a role in reproductive isolation. PMID:23944628

Bontonou, G; Denis, B; Wicker-Thomas, C

2013-09-01

410

Genetic and nutritional effects on male traits and reproductive performance in Tribolium flour beetles.  

PubMed

In Tribolium flour beetles and other organisms, individuals migrate between heterogeneous environments where they often encounter markedly different nutritional conditions. Under these circumstances, theory suggests that genotype-by-environment interactions (GEI) may be important in facilitating adaptation to new environments and maintaining genetic variation for male traits subject to directional selection. Here, we used a nested half-sib breeding design with Tribolium castaneum to partition the separate and joint effects of male genotype and nutritional environment on phenotypic variation in a comprehensive suite of life-history traits, reproductive performance measures across three sequential sexual selection episodes, and fitness. When male genotypes were tested across three nutritional environments, considerable phenotypic plasticity was found for male mating and insemination success, longevity and traits related to larval development. Our results also revealed significant additive genetic variation for male mating rate, sperm offence ability (P(2)), longevity and total fitness and for several traits reflecting both larval and adult resource use. In addition, we found evidence supporting GEI for sperm defence ability (P(1)), adult longevity and larval development; thus, no single male genotype outperforms others in every nutritional environment. These results provide insight into the potential roles of phenotypic plasticity and GEI in facilitating Tribolium adaptation to new environments in ecological and evolutionary time. PMID:22239387

Lewis, S M; Tigreros, N; Fedina, T; Ming, Q L

2012-03-01

411

X-linked Alport Syndrome: Natural History in 195 Families and Genotype Phenotype Correlations in Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alport syndrome (AS) is a type IV collagen heredi- tary disease characterized by the association of progressive hematuric nephritis, hearing loss, and, frequently, ocular changes. Mutations in the COL4A5 collagen gene are respon- sible for the more common X-linked dominant form of the disease. Considerable allelic heterogeneity has been observed. A \\

JEAN PHILIPPE JAIS; BERTRAND KNEBELMANN; IANNIS GIATRAS; MARIO DE MARCHI; GIANFRANCO RIZZONI; ALESSANDRA RENIERI; MANFRED WEBER; OLIVER GROSS; KAI-OLAF NETZER; FRANCES FLINTER; YVES PIRSON; CHRISTINE VERELLEN; ORGEN WIESLANDER; ULF PERSSON; KARL TRYGGVASON; PAULA MARTIN; JENS MICHAEL HERTZ; CORNELIS SCHR; MAREK SANAK; MARIA FERNANDA CARVALHO; JUAN SAUS; CORINNE ANTIGNAC; HUBERT SMEETS; MARIE CLAIRE GUBLER; Informatique Medicale

2000-01-01

412

Male field crickets infested by parasitoid flies express phenotypes that may benefit the parasitoids  

E-print Network

the parasitoids Oliver M. Beckers*, William E. Wagner, Jr School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska behaviour (Libersat et al. 2009), host paralysis (Piek et al. 1971), induced suicide (Hohorst & Graefe 1961

Wagner Jr., William E.

413

Short stature in a phenotypic male caused by mixed gonadal dysgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background An 8.5-year-old boy was referred to a pediatric endocrinology clinic for evaluation of short stature. At birth, a chordee without hypospadius, 90-degree penile torsion and an undescended testis on the right had been observed. The boy had undergone surgical repair at 1 year of age and at that time an undescended 'nonfunctional' streak gonad and a horseshoe kidney had

Christina M Jacobsen; Laurie E Cohen

2008-01-01

414

Cerebellar and parkinsonian phenotypes in multiple system atrophy: Similarities, differences and survival  

PubMed Central

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease with two motor phenotypes: parkinsonian (MSA-P) and cerebellar (MSA-C). To elucidate whether in addition to the motor abnormalities there are other significant differences between these phenotypes we performed a retrospective review of 100 patients (61 males, 39 females) with a diagnosis of possible (12%), or probable (88%). Four patients eventually had postmortem confirmation (i.e., definite MSA). Sixty percent were classified as having MSAP and 40% as MSA-C. MSA-C and MSA-P patients had similar male prevalence (60%), age of onset (56±9 years), and frequency of OH (69%). Brain MRI abnormalities were more frequent in MSA-C patients (p<0.001). Mean survival was 8±3 years for MSA-C and 9±4 years for MSA-P patients (p=0.22). Disease onset before 55 years predicted longer survival in both phenotypes. Initial autonomic involvement did not influence survival. We conclude that patients with both motor phenotypes have mostly similar survivals and demographic distributions. The differences here identified could help counseling of patients with MSA. PMID:24337696

Roncevic, Dusan; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Martinez, Jose; Goulding, Niamh; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Kaufmann, Horacio

2014-01-01

415

Phenotypic plasticity in sex allocation for a simultaneously hermaphroditic coral reef fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic plasticity can facilitate reproductive strategies that maximize mating success in variable environments and lead\\u000a to differences in sex allocation among populations. For simultaneous hermaphrodites with sperm competition, including Serranus tortugarum a small coral reef fish, proportional male allocation (testis in total gonad) is often greater where local density or mating\\u000a group size is higher. We tested whether S. tortugarum

M. K. HartA; A. M. Svoboda; D. Mancilla Cortez

2011-01-01

416

The CD45RA+ (Quiescent) Cellular Phenotype Is Overabundant Relative to the CD45RA\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation was to determine whether an imbalance between naive- and memory-phenotype cells occurs within CD4 ' and\\/or CD8 splenic T cell subsets in models of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) which produce wasting disease (loss of ~ 1.6% of body weight per day for 14 d) and profound depression in thymus-dependent immunity. Male and female weanling mice of

BILL D. WOODWARD; KEVIN D. BEZANSON; LYN M. HILLYER; WEN-HÅ' LEE

417

Distinct antennal lobe phenotypes in the leaf-cutting ant (Atta vollenweideri).  

PubMed

Leaf-cutting ants (Atta vollenweideri) express a remarkable size polymorphism across the two sexual castes (queens and males) but in particular within the worker caste. Worker size is related to behavior (alloethism), separating workers into behavioral subcastes. The neuronal mechanisms underlying differences in behavior within the worker caste are still unknown. In this study, we first compared selected neuropils, in particular, the antennal lobes (AL) in males, queens, and workers. The males' ALs contain three extremely large, sex-specific glomeruli (macroglomeruli; MGs) and in total comprise fewer glomeruli (242) than the ALs of queens (about 346 glomeruli). In contrast to males, the queen ALs contain only one large glomerulus at a lateral position. The largest number of glomeruli was found in workers (396-442). In a previous paper, we described an MG in the workers' AL, and, in the second part of this study, we show that within workers two distinct, size-related AL phenotypes exist: the MG phenotype (containing a macroglomerulus) and the RG phenotype, with all glomeruli of regular size. This neuroanatomical polyphenism is established during pupal development and separates the worker caste into two neuroanatomical subcastes. Third, we investigate the functional significance of the MG in workers. By using calcium imaging to monitor activity of AL projection neurons, we show that the releaser component of the trail pheromone is represented in the same region as the MG. We propose that phenotypic trait variation in the organization of the ALs leads to differences in odor information processing that finally result in size-related differences in trail-following behavior. PMID:19950119

Kuebler, L S; Kelber, C; Kleineidam, C J

2010-02-01

418

New Insights Into Numerical Solutions of the Even - Transport Equation in Two-Dimensional X-Y Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the solution of the even-parity (EP) neutron transport equation in two-dimensional x-y geometry, we applied the discrete-ordinates (S_{ rm N}) method for angle and the finite element and its fully lumped method for space. The result is that the EP solution is computationally inefficient due to its complicated 9-point differencing and directionally coupled reflective boundary conditions. To avoid these difficulties we developed the simplified even-parity (SEP) equation as an approximation to the EP transport equation. With its eliminated cross-derivative terms, the SEP equation is more efficient to solve than the EP equation due to the reduction in angular domain by another half, the simple 5-point diffusion operator, and directionally uncoupled reflective boundary conditions. Both the EP and SEP equations satisfy the diffusion limits in an optically thick regime. Furthermore, the angularly discretized SEP equations have almost no ray effect and converge faster than EP when using a diffusion synthetic acceleration method. Most importantly, unlike the case of EP, the differenced SEP solutions are strictly positive thus requiring no negative-flux-fixups. By our computer running time experiments, the SEP_{rm N} is considerably faster than EP_{rm N}, but it is still slower than the conventional first-order diamond-difference (DD) S_{rm N} method. Considering that the second-order S_{rm N} methods such as EP_{rm N} and SEP_{rm N} require a matrix solution in each discrete direction, these methods could be made much more efficient by using a more advanced matrix solver. Even though the computational evidence indicates that the SEP_{rm N} method (which includes SP_{rm N}) has less computational efficiency than the first-order S_{rm N} method, the robustness of the SEP_ {rm N} such as guaranteed positivity, almost no ray effect can often times provide faster, more correct solutions. Robustness is specially important for reactor safety calculations where the neutronics results are coupled to a hydrodynamic computational module. In conclusion, the EP_{rm N} method improves the robustness with the expense of more running time when compared with the first-order method while the new scheme SEP_{rm N} provides more accuracy than diffusion theory at a small penalty in running time with accompanying excellent robustness.

Noh, Taewan

419

Association between brain structure and phenotypic characteristics in pedophilia.  

PubMed

Studies applying structural neuroimaging to pedophiles are scarce and have shown conflicting results. Although first findings suggested reduced volume of the amygdala, pronounced gray matter decreases in frontal regions were observed in another group of pedophilic offenders. When compared to non-sexual offenders instead of community controls, pedophiles revealed deficiencies in white matter only. The present study sought to test the hypotheses of structurally compromised prefrontal and limbic networks and whether structural brain abnormalities are related to phenotypic characteristics in pedophiles. We compared gray matter volume of male pedophilic offenders and non-sexual offenders from high-security forensic hospitals using voxel-based morphometry in cross-sectional and correlational whole-brain analyses. The significance threshold was set to p < .05, corrected for multiple comparisons. Compared to controls, pedophiles exhibited a volume reduction of the right amygdala (small volume corrected). Within the pedophilic group, pedosexual interest and sexual recidivism were correlated with gray matter decrease in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r = -.64) and insular cortex (r = -.45). Lower age of victims was strongly associated with gray matter reductions in the orbitofrontal cortex (r = .98) and angular gyri bilaterally (r = .70 and r = .93). Our findings of specifically impaired neural networks being related to certain phenotypic characteristics might account for the heterogeneous results in previous neuroimaging studies of pedophilia. The neuroanatomical abnormalities in pedophilia seem to be of a dimensional rather than a categorical nature, supporting the notion of a multifaceted disorder. PMID:23399486

Poeppl, Timm B; Nitschke, Joachim; Santtila, Pekka; Schecklmann, Martin; Langguth, Berthold; Greenlee, Mark W; Osterheider, Michael; Mokros, Andreas

2013-05-01

420

Influence of asymmetrical mating patterns and male reproductive success on the maintenance of sexual polymorphism in Acer pictum subsp. mono (Aceraceae).  

PubMed

Populations of Acer species often contain more than three sex phenotypes with complex sexual polymorphism including duodichogamy, protandry and protogyny. We identified the mechanisms that maintain sexual polymorphism in Acer pictum subsp. mono, a temperate tree from northern China, by investigating maternal mating patterns and male reproductive success. We used paternity analyses to estimate rates of outcrossing and disassortative mating, as well as male outcrossed siring success, in a population of A. pictum subsp. mono with uneven sex phenotype ratios (duodichogamous 69.1%, protandrous 19.6%, protogynous 11.3%). We used a pollen-transfer model to investigate whether the unequal ratios of sex phenotypes could be explained by the observed patterns of mating. Most progeny resulted from outcrossing, particularly disassortative among the sex phenotypes. Although the duodichogamous phenotype showed a significant amount of intraphenotypic mating, the frequency did not exceed that of disassortative mating. We detected no significant differences in male outcrossed siring success among the sex phenotypes. The pollen-transfer model demonstrated that sex phenotype ratios could be maintained by the observed mating pattern in the population. Our results indicate that disassortative mating among the sex phenotypes can maintain sexual polymorphism in A. pictum subsp. mono and that ratios biased towards duodichogamy can result from frequent intraphenotypic mating in this phenotype. PMID:22680336

Shang, Hui; Luo, Yi-Bo; Bai, Wei-Ning

2012-08-01

421

Evolution of male mating behavior: male spadefoot toads preferentially associate with conspecific males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of male breeding aggregations is difficult to explain because males may reduce their reproductive success by\\u000a associating with their closest competitors. We examined aggregative behavior by male New Mexico spadefoot toads, Spea multiplicata, which form breeding choruses in rain-filled pools. We specifically asked whether males are attracted to conspecific calls\\u000a and, if so, whether they preferentially associate with

Karin S. Pfennig; Katrina Rapa; Regan McNatt

2000-01-01

422

Large phenotype jumps in biomolecular evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By defining the phenotype of a biopolymer by its active three-dimensional shape, and its genotype by its primary sequence, we propose a model that predicts and characterizes the statistical distribution of a population of biopolymers with a specific phenotype that originated from a given genotypic sequence by a single mutational event. Depending on the ratio g0 that characterizes the spread of potential energies of the mutated population with respect to temperature, three different statistical regimes have been identified. We suggest that biopolymers found in nature are in a critical regime with g0?1 6, corresponding to a broad, but not too broad, phenotypic distribution resembling a truncated Lévy flight. Thus the biopolymer phenotype can be considerably modified in just a few mutations. The proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental distribution of activities determined for a population of single mutants of a group-I ribozyme.

Bardou, F.; Jaeger, L.

2004-03-01

423

Alpha 1 antitrypsin phenotypes and alcoholic pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

Altered frequencies of alpha 1 antitrypsin phenotypes have been reported in patients with chronic pancreatitis, suggesting a possible genetic basis for individual susceptibility to this disease. Alpha 1 antitrypsin phenotypes, with particular regard to alcoholic pancreatitis, were studied. Patients with alcoholic pancreatitis were compared with alcoholic control subjects with no history of pancreatic disease. Serum alpha 1 antitrypsin concentrations were raised in pancreatitis patients sampled within one month of an acute attack of pancreatitis, but otherwise values were similar to those of control subjects. There were no significant differences in alpha 1 antitrypsin phenotypes between alcoholics with pancreatitis and alcoholic control subjects. This study of alpha 1 antitrypsin phenotypes provides no evidence of an inherited susceptibility to alcoholic pancreatitis. PMID:1885078

Haber, P S; Wilson, J S; McGarity, B H; Hall, W; Thomas, M C; Pirola, R C

1991-01-01

424

Approaches to protozoan drug discovery: phenotypic screening.  

PubMed

Determining the activity of a compound and the potential impact on a diseased state is frequently undertaken using phenotypic or target-based approaches. Phenotypic screens have the advantage of the whole organism being exposed to the compound and thus all the targets and biological pathways associated with it. Cell penetration and access to targets in their "natural" environment are taken into account. Unless utilizing a genetically modified organism with an additional target associated indicator, elucidation of specific target(s) of active compounds is necessary. Target discovery is desirable to allow development of chemical entities based upon knowledge of the target structure. Phenotypic drug discovery has successfully identified new molecular entities for neglected protozoan disease research. In this perspective, the phenotypic approaches used to identify chemical entities for drug discovery and for use as tools against the parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi will be outlined. PMID:23927763

Sykes, Melissa L; Avery, Vicky M

2013-10-24

425

Automated phenotyping of mouse social behavior  

E-print Network

Inspired by the connections between social behavior and intelligence, I have developed a trainable system to phenotype mouse social behavior. This system is of immediate interest to researchers studying mouse models of ...

Edelman, Nicholas (Nicholas A.)

2011-01-01

426

Influence of the White locus on the courtship behavior of Drosophila males.  

PubMed

Since its discovery by Morgan, the Drosophila white gene has become one of the most intensely studied genes and has been widely used as a genetic marker. Earlier reports that over- and misexpression of White protein in Drosophila males leads to male-male courtship implicated white in courtship control. While previous studies suggested that it is the mislocalization of White protein within cells that causes the courtship phenotype, we demonstrate here that also the lack of extra-retinal White can cause very similar behavioral changes. Moreover, we provide evidence that the lack of White function increases the sexual arousal of males in general, of which the enhanced male-male courtship might be an indirect effect. We further show that white mutant flies are not only optomotor blind but also dazzled by the over-flow of light in daylight. Implications of these findings for the proper interpretation of behavioral studies with white mutant flies are discussed. PMID:24205022

Krstic, Dimitrije; Boll, Werner; Noll, Markus

2013-01-01

427

Influence of the White Locus on the Courtship Behavior of Drosophila Males  

PubMed Central

Since its discovery by Morgan, the Drosophila white gene has become one of the most intensely studied genes and has been widely used as a genetic marker. Earlier reports that over- and misexpression of White protein in Drosophila males leads to male-male courtship implicated white in courtship control. While previous studies suggested that it is the mislocalization of White protein within cells that causes the courtship phenotype, we demonstrate here that also the lack of extra-retinal White can cause very similar behavioral changes. Moreover, we provide evidence that the lack of White function increases the sexual arousal of males in general, of which the enhanced male-male courtship might be an indirect effect. We further show that white mutant flies are not only optomotor blind but also dazzled by the over-flow of light in daylight. Implications of these findings for the proper interpretation of behavioral studies with white mutant flies are discussed. PMID:24205022

Krstic, Dimitrije; Boll, Werner; Noll, Markus

2013-01-01

428

Critical behavior at nematic-smectic-A1 phase transtions. II. Preasymptotic three-dimensional XY analysis of x-ray and Cp data  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray data are reported for the nematic phase near the nematic (N)-smectic-A1(Sm-A1) transition in a binary mixture of pentylphenylcyanobenzoyloxy benzoate (DB5CN)+cyanobenzoyloxypentylstilbene (C5 stilbene). These data and x-ray data from four other N-Sm-A1 systems, plus the corresponding high-resolution Cp data, are analyzed using the exact solutions of preasymptotic three-dimensional (3D) XY theory. The correlation volume xi||xi2?, smectic susceptibility sigma, and heat

C. W. Garland; G. Nounesis; M. J. Young; R. J. Birgeneau

1993-01-01

429

Disruptive sexual selection on male nuptial coloration in an experimental hybrid population of cichlid fish.  

PubMed

Theory suggests that genetic polymorphisms in female mating preferences may cause disruptive selection on male traits, facilitating phenotypic differentiation despite gene flow, as in reinforcement or other models of speciation with gene flow. Very little experimental data have been published to test the assumptions regarding the genetics of mate choice that such theory relies on. We generated a population segregating for female mating preferences and male colour dissociated from other species differences by breeding hybrids between species of the cichlid fish genus Pundamilia. We measured male mating success as a function of male colour. First, we demonstrate that non-hybrid females of both species use male nuptial coloration for choosing mates, but with inversed preferences. Second, we show that variation in female mating preferences in an F2 hybrid population generates a quadratic fitness function for male coloration suggestive of disruptive selection: intermediate males obtained fewer matings than males at either extreme of the colour range. If the genetics of female mate choice in Pundamilia are representative for those in other species of Lake Victoria cichlid fish, it may help explain the origin and maintenance of phenotypic diversity despite some gene flow. PMID:18522918

Stelkens, Rike B; Pierotti, Michele E R; Joyce, Domino A; Smith, Alan M; van der Sluijs, Inke; Seehausen, Ole

2008-09-12

430

Phenotypic variation of lionfish supraocular tentacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous observation suggested that a novel phenotype of lionfish supraocular tentacle is evolving rapidly in the Red Sea\\u000a and Indian Ocean. We confirm the existence of this phenotype in high prevalence in invasive populations of lionfish in the\\u000a Western North Atlantic. Observations of individual lionfish from the Atlantic populations indicate that supraocular tentacles\\u000a are more prevalent on juvenile and

James A. Morris Jr; D. Wilson Freshwater

2008-01-01

431

Phenotype standardization for statin-induced myotoxicity.  

PubMed

Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs that are effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. Although they are generally well tolerated, they can cause muscle toxicity, which can lead to severe rhabdomyolysis. Research in this area has been hampered to some extent by the lack of standardized nomenclature and phenotypic definitions. We have used numerical and descriptive classifications and developed an algorithm to define statin-related myotoxicity phenotypes, including myalgia, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. PMID:24897241

Alfirevic, A; Neely, D; Armitage, J; Chinoy, H; Cooper, R G; Laaksonen, R; Carr, D F; Bloch, K M; Fahy, J; Hanson, A; Yue, Q-Y; Wadelius, M; Maitland-van Der Zee, A H; Voora, D; Psaty, B M; Palmer, C N A; Pirmohamed, M

2014-10-01

432

Phenotype Standardization for Statin-Induced Myotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs that are effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. Although they are generally well tolerated, they can cause muscle toxicity, which can lead to severe rhabdomyolysis. Research in this area has been hampered to some extent by the lack of standardized nomenclature and phenotypic definitions. We have used numerical and descriptive classifications and developed an algorithm to define statin-related myotoxicity phenotypes, including myalgia, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. PMID:24897241

Alfirevic, A; Neely, D; Armitage, J; Chinoy, H; Cooper, R G; Laaksonen, R; Carr, D F; Bloch, K M; Fahy, J; Hanson, A; Yue, Q-Y; Wadelius, M; Maitland-van Der Zee, A H; Voora, D; Psaty, B M; Palmer, C N A; Pirmohamed, M

2014-01-01

433

A database of C. elegans behavioral phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Using low-cost automated tracking microscopes, we have generated a behavioral database for 305 C. elegans strains, including 76 mutants with no previously described phenotype. The database consists of 9,203 short videos segmented to extract behavior and morphology features that are available online for further analysis. The database also includes summary statistics for 702 measures with statistical comparisons to wild-type controls so that phenotypes can be identified and understood by users. PMID:23852451

Yemini, Eviatar; Jucikas, Tadas; Grundy, Laura J.; Brown, Andre E.X.; Schafer, William R.

2014-01-01

434

Sex chromosome pre-reduction in male meiosis of Lethocerus patruelis (St?l, 1854) (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae) with some notes on the distribution of the species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The karyotype and meiosis in males of giant water bug Lethocerus patruelis (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae: Lethocerinae) were studied using standard and fluorochrome (CMA3 and DAPI) staining of chromosomes. The species was shown to have 2n = 2